WorldWideScience

Sample records for breath condensate biomarkers

  1. Exhaled breath condensate: a promising source for biomarkers of lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Yeligar, Samantha M; Brown, Lou Ann S

    2012-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has been increasingly studied as a noninvasive research method for sampling the alveolar and airway space and is recognized as a promising source of biomarkers of lung diseases. Substances measured in EBC include oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as arachidonic acid derivatives, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, reduced and oxidized glutathione, and inflammatory cytokines. Although EBC has great potential as a source of biomarkers in many lung diseases, the low concentrations of compounds within the EBC present challenges in sample collection and analysis. Although EBC is viewed as a noninvasive method for sampling airway lining fluid (ALF), validation is necessary to confirm that EBC truly represents the ALF. Likewise, a dilution factor for the EBC is needed in order to compare across subjects and determine changes in the ALF. The aims of this paper are to address the characteristics of EBC; strategies to standardize EBC sample collection and review available analytical techniques for EBC analysis. PMID:23365513

  2. Exhaled Breath Condensate: A Promising Source for Biomarkers of Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled breath condensate (EBC has been increasingly studied as a noninvasive research method for sampling the alveolar and airway space and is recognized as a promising source of biomarkers of lung diseases. Substances measured in EBC include oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as arachidonic acid derivatives, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, reduced and oxidized glutathione, and inflammatory cytokines. Although EBC has great potential as a source of biomarkers in many lung diseases, the low concentrations of compounds within the EBC present challenges in sample collection and analysis. Although EBC is viewed as a noninvasive method for sampling airway lining fluid (ALF, validation is necessary to confirm that EBC truly represents the ALF. Likewise, a dilution factor for the EBC is needed in order to compare across subjects and determine changes in the ALF. The aims of this paper are to address the characteristics of EBC; strategies to standardize EBC sample collection and review available analytical techniques for EBC analysis.

  3. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  4. Exhaled breath condensate pH as a biomarker of COPD severity in ex-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alchanatis Manos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endogenous airway acidification, as assessed by exhaled breath condensate (EBC pH, is present in patients with stable COPD. The aim of this study was to measure EBC pH levels in a large cohort of COPD patients and to evaluate associations with functional parameters according to their smoking status. EBC was collected from 161 patients with stable COPD and 112 controls (current and ex-smokers. EBC pH was measured after Argon deaeration and all subjects underwent pulmonary function testing. EBC pH was lower in COPD patients compared to controls [7.21 (7.02, 7.44 vs. 7.50 (7.40, 7.66; p Endogenous airway acidification is related to disease severity and to parameters expressing hyperinflation and air trapping in ex-smokers with COPD. The possible role of EBC pH in COPD needs to be further evaluated in longitudinal studies.

  5. pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers

    OpenAIRE

    Thamires Marques de Lima; Cristiane Mayumi Kazama; Andreas Rembert Koczulla; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Mariangela Macchione; Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes; Ubiratan de Paula Santos; Maria Lucia Bueno-Garcia; Dirce Maria Zanetta; Carmen Diva Saldiva de Andre; Paulo Hilario Nascimento Saldiva; Naomi Kondo Nakagawa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring ...

  6. pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers

    OpenAIRE

    de Lima, Thamires Marques; Kazama, Cristiane Mayumi; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Macchione, Mariangela; Fernandes, Ana Luisa Godoy; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Bueno-Garcia, Maria Lucia; Zanetta, Dirce Maria; de André, Carmen Diva Saldiva; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring st...

  7. pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Marques de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring stations (8-h work intervals per day, during the 5 consecutive days prior to the study. RESULTS: Exhaled carbon monoxide was two-fold greater in traffic-controllers than in office-workers. The mean pH values were 8.12 in exhaled breath condensate and 7.99 in nasal lavage fluid in office-workers; these values were lower in traffic-controllers (7.80 and 7.30, respectively. Both groups presented similar cytokines concentrations in both substrates, however, IL-1β and IL-8 were elevated in nasal lavage fluid compared with exhaled breath condensate. The particulate matter concentration was greater at the workplace of traffic-controllers compared with that of office-workers. CONCLUSION: The pH values of nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate are important, robust, easy to measure and reproducible biomarkers that can be used to monitor occupational exposure to air pollution. Additionally, traffic-controllers are at an increased risk of airway and lung inflammation during their occupational activities compared with office-workers.

  8. Relation between biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate and internal exposure to metals from gas metal arc welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeyer, Frank; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Weiss, Tobias; Lehnert, Martin; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Kendzia, Benjamin; Harth, Volker; Henry, Jana; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Concerning possible harmful components of welding fumes, besides gases and quantitative aspects of the respirable welding fumes, particle-inherent metal toxicity has to be considered.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect markers leukotriene B4 (LTB4),prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 8-isoprostane (8-Iso PGF2α) as well as the acid–base balance(pH) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of 43 full-time gas metal arc welders (20 smokers) in relation to welding fume exposure. We observed different patterns of iron, chromium and nickel in respirable welding fumes and EBC. Welders with undetectable chromium in EBC(group A, n = 24) presented high iron and nickel concentrations. In this group, higher 8-isoPGF2α and LTB4 concentrations could be revealed compared to welders with detectable chromium and low levels of both iron and nickel in EBC (group B): 8-iso PGF2α443.3 pg mL−1 versus 247.2 pg mL−1; p = 0.001 and LTB4 30.5 pg mL−1 versus 17.3 pgmL−1; p = 0.016. EBC-pH was more acid in samples of group B (6.52 versus 6.82; p = 0.011).Overall, effect markers in welders were associated with iron concentrations in EBC according to smoking habits--non-smokers/smokers: LTB4 (rs = 0.48; p = 0.02/rs = 0.21; p = 0.37),PGE2 (rs = 0.15; p = 0.59/rs = 0.47; p = 0.07), 8-iso PGF2α (rs = 0.18; p = 0.54/rs = 0.59;p = 0.06). Sampling of EBC in occupational research provides a matrix for the simultaneous monitoring of metal exposure and effects on target level. Our results suggest irritative effects in the airways of healthy welders. Further studies are necessary to assess whether these individual results might be used to identify welders at elevated risk for developing a respiratory disease. PMID:22622358

  9. Variability of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) volume and pH using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a valuable biological medium for non-invasively measuring biomarkers with the potential to reflect organ systems responses to environmental and dietary exposures and disease processes. Collection of EBC has typically been with spontaneous breat...

  10. Breath-based biomarkers for tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Arend H. J.; van Berkel, Joep J. B. N.; Claassens, Mareli M.; Walters, Elisabeth; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Dallinga, Jan W.; van Schooten, Fredrik-Jan

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the potential of breath analysis by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to discriminate between samples collected prospectively from patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB). Samples were obtained in a TB endemic setting in South Africa where 28% of the culture proven TB patients had a Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) negative sputum smear. A training set of breath samples from 50 sputum culture proven TB patients and 50 culture negative non-TB patients was analyzed by GC-MS. A classification model with 7 compounds resulted in a training set with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 79% compared with culture. The classification model was validated with an independent set of breath samples from 21 TB and 50 non-TB patients. A sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 84% and accuracy of 77% was found. We conclude that the 7 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that discriminate breath samples from TB and non-TB patients in our study population are probably host-response related VOCs and are not derived from the VOCs secreted by M. tuberculosis. It is concluded that at present GC-MS breath analysis is able to differentiate between TB and non-TB breath samples even among patients with a negative ZN sputum smear but a positive culture for M. tuberculosis. Further research is required to improve the sensitivity and specificity before this method can be used in routine laboratories.

  11. Online trapping and enrichment ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for sensitive measurement of 'arginine-asymmetric dimethylarginine cycle' biomarkers in human exhaled breath condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Gangi, Iole Maria, E-mail: giordano@pediatria.unipd.it [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Pirillo, Paola [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Carraro, Silvia [Unit of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Gucciardi, Antonina; Naturale, Mauro [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Baraldi, Eugenio [Unit of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Giordano, Giuseppe [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy)

    2012-11-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous quantification of 'arginine-ADMA cycle' metabolites developed in EBC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBC is a non-invasive matrix highly useful in patients with respiratory diseases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Method, fast, precise and accurate, is suitable in the pediatric clinical studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity is increased using on-line trapping and enrichment-UPLC-MS/MS method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBC measurements in asthmatic adolescents confirm that ADMA is increased in asthma. - Abstract: Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a biofluid collected non invasively that, enabling the measurement of several biomarkers, has proven useful in the study of airway inflammatory diseases, including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report of any analytical method to detect ADMA in EBC. Objectives: Aim of this work was to develop an online sample trapping and enrichment system, coupled with an UPLC-MS/MS method, for simultaneous quantification of seven metabolites related to 'Arginine-ADMA cycle', using the isotopic dilution. Methods: Butylated EBC samples were trapped in an online cartridge, washed before and after each injection with cleanup solution to remove matrix components and switched inline into the high pressure analytical column. Multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode was used for analyte quantification by tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Validation studies were performed in EBC to examine accuracy, precision and robustness of the method. For each compound, the calibration curves showed a coefficient of correlation (r{sup 2}) greater than 0.992. Accuracy (%Bias) was <3% except for NMMA and H-Arg (<20%), intra- and inter-assay precision (expressed as CV%) were within {+-}20% and recovery ranged from 97.1 to 102.8% for all analytes. Inter-day variability analysis on 20 EBC of adult subjects did

  12. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Sahay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS, integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS, cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS. Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  13. Comparative analysis of selected exhaled breath biomarkers obtained with two different temperature-controlled devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brüning Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC is a suitable and non-invasive method for evaluation of airway inflammation. Several studies indicate that the composition of the condensate and the recovery of biomarkers are affected by physical characteristics of the condensing device and collecting circumstances. Additionally, there is an apparent influence of the condensing temperature, and often the level of detection of the assay is a limiting factor. The ECoScreen2 device is a new, partly single-use disposable system designed for studying different lung compartments. Methods EBC samples were collected from 16 healthy non-smokers by using the two commercially available devices ECoScreen2 and ECoScreen at a controlled temperature of -20°C. EBC volume, pH, NOx, LTB4, PGE2, 8-isoprostane and cys-LTs were determined. Results EBC collected with ECoScreen2 was less acidic compared to ECoScreen. ECoScreen2 was superior concerning condensate volume and detection of biomarkers, as more samples were above the detection limit (LTB4 and PGE2 or showed higher concentrations (8-isoprostane. However, NOx was detected only in EBC sampled by ECoScreen. Conclusion ECoScreen2 in combination with mediator specific enzyme immunoassays may be suitable for measurement of different biomarkers. Using this equipment, patterns of markers can be assessed that are likely to reflect the complex pathophysiological processes in inflammatory respiratory disease.

  14. ASTHMA SEVERITY IN CHILDHOOD AND METABOLOMIC PROFILING OF BREATH CONDENSATE

    OpenAIRE

    Carraro, Silvia; Giordano, Giuseppe; RENIERO Fabiano; CARPI DONATELLA; Stocchero, Matteo; Sterk, Peter; Baraldi, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    Background. Asthma is a heterogeneous disease and its different phenotypes need to be better characterized from a biochemical-inflammatory standpoint. The present study aimed to apply the metabolomic approach to exhaled breath condensate (breathomics) to discriminate different asthma phenotypes, with a particular focus on severe asthma in children. Methods. In this cross sectional study we recruited 42 asthmatic children (age 8-17 years): 31 with non-severe asthma (treated with inhaled ste...

  15. Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Nagaraja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the ongoing inflammatory process of lung in healthy individuals with risk factors and comparing with that of a known diseased condition. To study the inflammatory response to treatment. Background: Morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases are raising in trend due to increased smokers, urbanization and air pollution, the diagnosis of these conditions during early stage and management can improve patient′s lifestyle and morbidity. Materials and Methods: One hundred subjects were studied from July 2010 to September 2010; the level of hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath condensate was measured using Ecocheck. Results: Of the 100 subjects studied, 23 were healthy individuals with risk factors (smoking, exposure to air pollution, and urbanization; the values of hydrogen peroxide in smokers were 200-2220 nmol/l and in non-smokers 340-760 nmol/l. In people residing in rural areas values were 20-140 nmol/l in non-smokers and 180 nmol/l in smokers. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cases, during acute exacerbations values were 540-3040 nmol/l and 240-480 nmol/l following treatment. In acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma, values were 400-1140 nmol/l and 100-320 nmol/l following treatment. In cases of bronchiectasis, values were 300-340 nmol/l and 200-280 nmol/l following treatment. In diagnosed pneumonia cases values were 1060-11800 nmol/l and 540-700 nmol/l following treatment. In interstitial lung diseases, values ranged from 220-720 nmol/l and 210-510 nmol/l following treatment. Conclusion: Exhaled breath condensate provides a non-invasive means of sampling the lower respiratory tract. Collection of exhaled breath condensate might be useful to detect the oxidative destruction of the lung as well as early inflammation of the airways in a healthy individual with risk factors and comparing the inflammatory response to treatment.

  16. Volatile Biomarkers in Breath Associated With Liver Cirrhosis — Comparisons of Pre- and Post-liver Transplant Breath Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández del Río, R.; M.E. O'Hara; Holt, A.; Pemberton, P; Shah, T; T. Whitehouse; Mayhew, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The burden of liver disease in the UK has risen dramatically and there is a need for improved diagnostics. Aims: To determine which breath volatiles are associated with the cirrhotic liver and hence diagnostically useful. Methods: A two-stage biomarker discovery procedure was used. Alveolar breath samples of 31 patients with cirrhosis and 30 healthy controls were mass spectrometrically analysed and compared (stage 1). 12 of these patients had their breath analysed after live...

  17. Chemiresistive Electronic Nose toward Detection of Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hi Gyu; Jung, Youngmo; Han, Soo Deok; Shim, Young-Seok; Shin, Beomju; Lee, Taikjin; Kim, Jin-Sang; Lee, Seok; Jun, Seong Chan; Park, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Chulki; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2016-08-17

    Detection of gas-phase chemicals finds a wide variety of applications, including food and beverages, fragrances, environmental monitoring, chemical and biochemical processing, medical diagnostics, and transportation. One approach for these tasks is to use arrays of highly sensitive and selective sensors as an electronic nose. Here, we present a high performance chemiresistive electronic nose (CEN) based on an array of metal oxide thin films, metal-catalyzed thin films, and nanostructured thin films. The gas sensing properties of the CEN show enhanced sensitive detection of H2S, NH3, and NO in an 80% relative humidity (RH) atmosphere similar to the composition of exhaled breath. The detection limits of the sensor elements we fabricated are in the following ranges: 534 ppt to 2.87 ppb for H2S, 4.45 to 42.29 ppb for NH3, and 206 ppt to 2.06 ppb for NO. The enhanced sensitivity is attributed to the spillover effect by Au nanoparticles and the high porosity of villi-like nanostructures, providing a large surface-to-volume ratio. The remarkable selectivity based on the collection of sensor responses manifests itself in the principal component analysis (PCA). The excellent sensing performance indicates that the CEN can detect the biomarkers of H2S, NH3, and NO in exhaled breath and even distinguish them clearly in the PCA. Our results show high potential of the CEN as an inexpensive and noninvasive diagnostic tool for halitosis, kidney disorder, and asthma. PMID:27456161

  18. A simple breathing rate-sensing method exploiting a temporarily condensed water layer formed on an oxidized surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min-Ho; Yang, Hyun-Ho; Choi, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Jae-Shin; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2015-02-01

    We describe a very simple breathing rate-sensing method that detects a significant electric current change between two metal electrodes on an oxidized surface. The current change is caused by the formation of a water layer from exhaled breath. We discovered that breathing onto the oxidized surface causes instant water condensation, and it generates 20 times increased current than that measured in the inhalation period. The condensed water quickly evaporates, enabling us to detect dynamic human breathing in real time. We also investigated the breathing rate sensor by varying the relative humidity, temperature, and breathing frequency and confirmed its potential for practical applications.

  19. Rapid point-of-care breath test for biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Phillips

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported volatile organic compounds (VOCs in breath as biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms, apparently resulting from increased oxidative stress and cytochrome p450 induction. We evaluated a six-minute point-of-care breath test for VOC biomarkers in women screened for breast cancer at centers in the USA and the Netherlands. METHODS: 244 women had a screening mammogram (93/37 normal/abnormal or a breast biopsy (cancer/no cancer 35/79. A mobile point-of-care system collected and concentrated breath and air VOCs for analysis with gas chromatography and surface acoustic wave detection. Chromatograms were segmented into a time series of alveolar gradients (breath minus room air. Segmental alveolar gradients were ranked as candidate biomarkers by C-statistic value (area under curve [AUC] of receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve. Multivariate predictive algorithms were constructed employing significant biomarkers identified with multiple Monte Carlo simulations and cross validated with a leave-one-out (LOO procedure. RESULTS: Performance of breath biomarker algorithms was determined in three groups: breast cancer on biopsy versus normal screening mammograms (81.8% sensitivity, 70.0% specificity, accuracy 79% (73% on LOO [C-statistic value], negative predictive value 99.9%; normal versus abnormal screening mammograms (86.5% sensitivity, 66.7% specificity, accuracy 83%, 62% on LOO; and cancer versus no cancer on breast biopsy (75.8% sensitivity, 74.0% specificity, accuracy 78%, 67% on LOO. CONCLUSIONS: A pilot study of a six-minute point-of-care breath test for volatile biomarkers accurately identified women with breast cancer and with abnormal mammograms. Breath testing could potentially reduce the number of needless mammograms without loss of diagnostic sensitivity.

  20. Blinded Validation of Breath Biomarkers of Lung Cancer, a Potential Ancillary to Chest CT Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michael; Bauer, Thomas L.; Cataneo, Renee N.; Lebauer, Cassie; Mundada, Mayur; Pass, Harvey I.; Ramakrishna, Naren; Rom, William N.; Vallières, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background Breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been reported as biomarkers of lung cancer, but it is not known if biomarkers identified in one group can identify disease in a separate independent cohort. Also, it is not known if combining breath biomarkers with chest CT has the potential to improve the sensitivity and specificity of lung cancer screening. Methods Model-building phase (unblinded): Breath VOCs were analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry in 82 asymptomatic smokers having screening chest CT, 84 symptomatic high-risk subjects with a tissue diagnosis, 100 without a tissue diagnosis, and 35 healthy subjects. Multiple Monte Carlo simulations identified breath VOC mass ions with greater than random diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer, and these were combined in a multivariate predictive algorithm. Model-testing phase (blinded validation): We analyzed breath VOCs in an independent cohort of similar subjects (n = 70, 51, 75 and 19 respectively). The algorithm predicted discriminant function (DF) values in blinded replicate breath VOC samples analyzed independently at two laboratories (A and B). Outcome modeling: We modeled the expected effects of combining breath biomarkers with chest CT on the sensitivity and specificity of lung cancer screening. Results Unblinded model-building phase. The algorithm identified lung cancer with sensitivity 74.0%, specificity 70.7% and C-statistic 0.78. Blinded model-testing phase: The algorithm identified lung cancer at Laboratory A with sensitivity 68.0%, specificity 68.4%, C-statistic 0.71; and at Laboratory B with sensitivity 70.1%, specificity 68.0%, C-statistic 0.70, with linear correlation between replicates (r = 0.88). In a projected outcome model, breath biomarkers increased the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of chest CT for lung cancer when the tests were combined in series or parallel. Conclusions Breath VOC mass ion biomarkers identified lung cancer in a

  1. Relationships between adult asthma and oxidative stress markers and pH in exhaled breath condensate: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldakheel, F M; Thomas, P S; Bourke, J E; Matheson, M C; Dharmage, S C; Lowe, A J

    2016-06-01

    Oxidative stress has a recognized role in the pathophysiology of asthma. Recently, interest has increased in the assessment of pH and airway oxidative stress markers. Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and quantification of biomarkers in breath samples can potentially indicate lung disease activity and help in the study of airway inflammation, and asthma severity. Levels of oxidative stress markers in the EBC have been systematically evaluated in children with asthma; however, there is no such systematic review conducted for adult asthma. A systematic review of oxidative stress markers measured in EBC of adult asthma was conducted, and studies were identified by searching MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases. Sixteen papers met the inclusion criteria. Concentrations of exhaled hydrogen ions, nitric oxide products, hydrogen peroxide and 8-isoprostanes were generally elevated and related to lower lung function tests in adults with asthma compared to healthy subjects. Assessment of EBC markers may be a noninvasive approach to evaluate airway inflammation, exacerbations, and disease severity of asthma, and to monitor the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory treatment regimens. Longitudinal studies, using standardized analytical techniques for EBC collection, are required to establish reference values for the interpretation of EBC markers in the context of asthma. PMID:26896172

  2. Endothelin-1 in exhaled breath condensate of allergic asthma patients with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasiak Maria M; Skiepko Roman; Zietkowski Ziemowit; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk Anna

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a highly prevalent condition, whose pathophysiology is not well understood. Endothelins are proinflammatory, profibrotic, broncho- and vasoconstrictive peptides which play an important role in the development of airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in endothelin-1 levels in exhaled breath condensate following intensive exercise in asthmatic patients. Methods The study wa...

  3. Aspergillus spp. colonization in exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients from Puglia Region of Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Carpagnano, Giovanna E; Lacedonia, Donato; Palladino, Grazia Pia; Logrieco, Giuseppe; Crisetti, Elisabetta; Susca, Antonia; Logrieco, Antonio; Foschino-Barbaro, Maria P

    2014-01-01

    Background Airways of lung cancer patients are often colonized by fungi. Some of these colonizing fungi, under particular conditions, produce cancerogenic mycotoxins. Given the recent interest in the infective origin of lung cancer, with this preliminary study we aim to give our small contribution to this field of research by analysing the fungal microbiome of the exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients from Puglia, a region of Italy. Methods We enrolled 43 lung cancer patients and ...

  4. Lactobacillus reuteri modulates cytokines production in exhaled breath condensate of children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniello, Vito Leonardo; Brunetti, Luigia; Tesse, Riccardina; Natile, Miria; Armenio, Lucio; Francavilla, Ruggiero

    2010-05-01

    We measured the concentration of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 in the exhaled breath condensate of children with atopic and nonallergic dermatitis receiving a probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730) or placebo for 8 weeks. We demonstrated that the levels of these cytokines increased and decreased respectively only in atopic subjects receiving active treatment. Our data suggest that the oral administration of a specific probiotic strain in patients with atopic dermatitis can modulate in vivo the cytokine pattern at a different site from intestine. PMID:20639717

  5. Exhaled breath condensate pH and hydrogen peroxide as non-invasive markers for asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to estimate the predictive value of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and pH as non-invasive markers in asthma. Fifty patients with unstable, steroid naive atopic asthma were included in this study, 25 with persistent asthma. Asthma diagnosis was according to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured by computerized spirometry. The EBC H2O2 assay was carried out using the colorimetric assay. The study was conducted from January to December 2005 in the Asthma and Allergy Center, Tikrit, Iraq. The EBC H2O2 concentration was higher in the asthmatic group (0.91mol) as compared with the control (0.23 mol). There was inverse correlation between EBC H2O2 concentration and FEV1 predicted percent for asthmatic patients. The mean EBC pH was lower in the asthmatic than the control group. There was a positive correlation between EBC pH and FEV 1 predicted percent for asthmatic patients. There was an inverse correlation between EBC H2O2 concentration and pH for all asthmatic patients, intermittent, and persistent asthmatic group. Exhaled breath condensate hydrogen peroxide concentration and pH was a good non-invasive marker for asthma, whether it was with a persistent or intermittent course. (author)

  6. Quantification of volatile organic compounds in exhaled human breath. Acetonitrile as biomarker for passive smoking. Model for isoprene in human breath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of this thesis is the quantification of volatile organic compounds in human breath under various circumstances. The composition of exhaled breath reflects metabolic processes in the human body. Breath analysis is a non invasive technique which makes it most interesting especially for medical or toxicological applications. Measurements were done with Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS). This technique combines the advantage of small fragmentation of chemical ionization with highly time resolved mass spectrometry. A big part of this work is about investigations of exposition due to tobacco smoke. After smoking cigarettes the initial increase and time dependence of some compounds in the human breath are monitored . The calculated decrease resulting only from breathing out the compounds is presented and compared to the measured decline in the breath. This allows the distinction whether breathing is the dominant loss of a compound or a different metabolic process remover it more efficiently. Acetonitrile measured in human breath is presented as a biomarker for exposition to tobacco smoke. Especially its use for quantification of passive smoking, the exposition to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is shown. The reached accuracy and the fast way of measuring of acetonitrile in human breath using PTR-MS offer a good alternative to common used biomarkers. Numerous publications have described measurements of breath isoprene in humans, and there has been a hope that breath isoprene analyses could be a non-invasive diagnostic tool to assess serum cholesterol levels or cholesterol synthesis rate. However, significant analytical problems in breath isoprene analysis and variability in isoprene levels with age, exercise, diet, etc. have limited the usefulness of these measurements. Here, we have applied proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to this problem, allowing on-line detection of breath isoprene. We show that breath isoprene

  7. Endothelin-1 in exhaled breath condensate of allergic asthma patients with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasiak Maria M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB is a highly prevalent condition, whose pathophysiology is not well understood. Endothelins are proinflammatory, profibrotic, broncho- and vasoconstrictive peptides which play an important role in the development of airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in endothelin-1 levels in exhaled breath condensate following intensive exercise in asthmatic patients. Methods The study was conducted in a group of 19 asthmatic patients (11 with EIB, 8 without EIB and 7 healthy volunteers. Changes induced by intensive exercise in the concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1 in exhaled breath condensate (EBC during 24 hours after an exercise challenge test were determined. Moreover, the possible correlations of these measurements with the results of other tests commonly associated with asthma and with the changes of airway inflammation after exercise were observed. Results In asthmatic patients with EIB a statistically significant increase in the concentration of ET-1 in EBC collected between 10 minutes and 6 hours after an exercise test was observed. The concentration of ET-1 had returned to its initial level 24 hours after exercise. No effects of the exercise test on changes in the concentrations of ET-1 in EBC in either asthmatic patients without EIB or healthy volunteers were observed. A statistically significant correlation between the maximum increase in ET-1 concentrations in EBC after exercise and either baseline FENO and the increase in FENO or BHR to histamine 24 hours after exercise in the groups of asthmatics with EIB was revealed. Conclusion The release of ET-1 from bronchial epithelium through the influence of many inflammatory cells essential in asthma and interactions with other cytokines, may play an important role in increase of airway inflammation which was observed after postexercise bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients.

  8. Exhaled breath condensate sampling is not a new method for detection of respiratory viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maes Piet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled breath condensate (EBC sampling has been considered an inventive and novel method for the isolation of respiratory viruses. Methods In our study, 102 volunteers experiencing upper airway infection were recruited over the winter and early spring of 2008/2009 and the first half of the winter of 2009/2010. Ninety-nine EBCs were successfully obtained and screened for 14 commonly circulating respiratory viruses. To investigate the efficiency of virus isolation from EBC, a nasal swab was taken in parallel from a subset of volunteers. The combined use of the ECoVent device with the RTube™ allowed the registration of the exhaled volume and breathing frequency during collection. In this way, the number of exhaled viral particles per liter air or per minute can theoretically be estimated. Results Viral screening resulted in the detection of 4 different viruses in EBC and/or nasal swabs: Rhinovirus, Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus B, Influenza A and Influenza B. Rhinovirus was detected in 6 EBCs and 1 EBC was Influenza B positive. We report a viral detection rate of 7% for the EBCs, which is much lower than the detection rate of 46.8% observed using nasal swabs. Conclusion Although very promising, EBC collection using the RTube™ is not reliable for diagnosis of respiratory infections.

  9. Oxidative Stress Markers Are Elevated in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Workers Exposed to Nanoparticles during Iron Oxide Pigment Production.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Kačer, P.; Fenclová, Z.; Vlčková, Š.; Syslová, K.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Zíková, Naděžda; Barošová, H.; Turci, F.; Komarc, M.; Pelcl, T.; Běláček, J.; Kukutschová, J.; Zakharov, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2016), s. 016004. ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : nanoparticles * exhaled breath condensate * oxidative stress * urine * occupational exposure * Fe2O3 * Fe3O4 Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 4.631, year: 2014

  10. Determination of cysteinyl leukotrienes in exhaled breath condensate: Method combining immunoseparation with LC-ESI-MS/MS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syslová, K.; Kačer, P.; Vilhanová, B.; Kuzma, Marek; Lipovová, P.; Fenclová, Z.; Lebedová, J.; Pelclová, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 879, č. 23 (2011), s. 2220-2228. ISSN 1570-0232 R&D Projects: GA MZd NS10298 Keywords : Cysteinyl leukotriene * Exhaled breath condensate * Immunoseparation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.888, year: 2011

  11. Expired breath condensate hydrogen peroxide concentration and pH for screening cough variant asthma among chronic cough

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Al Obaidi Amina

    2007-01-01

    The reported studies suggest a role for eosinophils in the pathogenesis of cough variant asthma. In the present study, the expired breath condensate level of hydrogen peroxide and pH were determined in patients with cough variant asthma and compared to subjects with classical asthma, with chronic cough nonasthmatic and healthy control. Twenty-seven patients with cough variant asthma, 43 patients with classical asthma, 32 patients with chronic cough and 27 healthy subjects were studied in a cr...

  12. No effect of omeprazole on pH of exhaled breath condensate in cough associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux

    OpenAIRE

    Torrego, Alfonso; Cimbollek, Stefan; Hew, Mark; Chung, Kian Fan

    2005-01-01

    Background Endogenous airway acidification evaluated as pH in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has been described in patients with chronic cough. Proton pump inhibitors improve gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR)-associated cough. Methods We examined pH levels in EBC and capsaicin cough response in 13 patients with chronic cough (mean age 41 years, SD 9) associated with GOR before and after omeprazole treatment (40 mg/day for 14 days) and its relationship with clinical response. Results Omeprazole...

  13. Leukotrienes B4, C4, D4 and E4 in the Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC), Blood and Urine in Patients with Pneumoconiosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Vlčková, Š.; Lebedová, J.; Syslová, K.; Pecha, O.; Běláček, J.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Kuzma, Marek; Kačer, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2012), s. 299-306. ISSN 0019-8366 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : leukotrienes * Lung fibrosis * exhaled breath condensate Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.870, year: 2012

  14. Arterial Pressure Variation as a Biomarker of Preload Dependency in Spontaneously Breathing Subjects – A Proof of Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzwaer, Anne-Sophie G. T.; Ouweneel, Dagmar M.; Stok, Wim J.; Westerhof, Berend E.; van Lieshout, Johannes J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pulse (PPV) and systolic pressure variation (SPV) quantify variations in arterial pressure related to heart-lung interactions and have been introduced as biomarkers of preload dependency to guide fluid treatment in mechanically ventilated patients. However, respiratory intra-thoracic pressure changes during spontaneous breathing are considered too small to affect preload and stroke volume sufficiently for the detection by PPV and/or SPV. This study addressed the effects of paced breathing and/or an external respiratory resistance on PPV and SPV in detecting preload dependency in spontaneously breathing subjects. Methods In 10 healthy subjects, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were evaluated during progressive central hypovolemia (head-up tilt). Breathing conditions were varied by manipulating breathing frequency and respiratory resistance. Subjects responding with a reduction in stroke volume index ≥15% were classified as having developed preload dependency. The ability for PPV and SPV to predict preload dependency was expressed by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Results A breathing frequency at 6/min increased the PPV (16±5% vs. 10±3%, pSPV (9±3% vs. 5±2%, pSPV: 10±2%, p = 0.047). These respiratory modifications, compared to free breathing, enhanced the predictive value of PPV with higher accuracy (AUC: 0.92 vs. 0.46). Conclusion Under conditions of progressive central hypovolemia, the application of an external respiratory resistance at a breathing frequency of 6/min enhanced PPV and SPV and is worth further study for detection of preload dependency from arterial pressure variations in non-ventilated subjects. PMID:26335939

  15. Arterial Pressure Variation as a Biomarker of Preload Dependency in Spontaneously Breathing Subjects - A Proof of Principle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie G T Bronzwaer

    Full Text Available Pulse (PPV and systolic pressure variation (SPV quantify variations in arterial pressure related to heart-lung interactions and have been introduced as biomarkers of preload dependency to guide fluid treatment in mechanically ventilated patients. However, respiratory intra-thoracic pressure changes during spontaneous breathing are considered too small to affect preload and stroke volume sufficiently for the detection by PPV and/or SPV. This study addressed the effects of paced breathing and/or an external respiratory resistance on PPV and SPV in detecting preload dependency in spontaneously breathing subjects.In 10 healthy subjects, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were evaluated during progressive central hypovolemia (head-up tilt. Breathing conditions were varied by manipulating breathing frequency and respiratory resistance. Subjects responding with a reduction in stroke volume index ≥15% were classified as having developed preload dependency. The ability for PPV and SPV to predict preload dependency was expressed by the area under the ROC curve (AUC.A breathing frequency at 6/min increased the PPV (16±5% vs. 10±3%, p<0.001 and SPV (9±3% vs. 5±2%, p<0.001 which was further enhanced by an expiratory resistance (PPV: 19±3%, p = 0.025 and SPV: 10±2%, p = 0.047. These respiratory modifications, compared to free breathing, enhanced the predictive value of PPV with higher accuracy (AUC: 0.92 vs. 0.46.Under conditions of progressive central hypovolemia, the application of an external respiratory resistance at a breathing frequency of 6/min enhanced PPV and SPV and is worth further study for detection of preload dependency from arterial pressure variations in non-ventilated subjects.

  16. Arterial Pressure Variation as a Biomarker of Preload Dependency in Spontaneously Breathing Subjects – A Proof of Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Bronzwaer, Anne-Sophie G. T.; Ouweneel, Dagmar M.; Stok, Wim J.; Westerhof, Berend E.; Johannes J. van Lieshout

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pulse (PPV) and systolic pressure variation (SPV) quantify variations in arterial pressure related to heart-lung interactions and have been introduced as biomarkers of preload dependency to guide fluid treatment in mechanically ventilated patients. However, respiratory intra-thoracic pressure changes during spontaneous breathing are considered too small to affect preload and stroke volume sufficiently for the detection by PPV and/or SPV. This study addressed the effects of paced bre...

  17. Methodological implications in pH standardization of exhaled breath condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeyer, F; Berresheim, H; Beine, A; Sucker, K; Brüning, T; Bünger, J

    2015-09-01

    The variable amount of dissolved carbon dioxide is one of the main confounding factors of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH measurements. There have been many attempts at identifying the optimal approach to displace CO2 as a way to gain reproducible and valid pH values in EBC samples. The aim of the present study was to assess the correlation of pH and pCO2 in untreated, neat EBC samples and, after deaeration, to reevaluate the standardization of CO2 as a means to obtain valid pH values. A further aim was to evaluate the impact of deaeration on the acid-base balance in EBC samples. EBC was collected from seven female and 31 male subjects. The pH and pCO2 values immediately determined in untreated, neat EBC samples were strongly correlated (rp = -0.723, p argon (rs = 0.264, p = 0.109). Based on a regression function for the pH/pCO2 relationship, the calculated pH at a pCO2 of 5.33 kPa was 6.07 (IQR 5.99, 6.20). No significant difference was observed between the pH measured in neat EBC samples and those calculated after deaeration with regression function and measured neat pCO2. Our data suggest that pCO2 is the most important confounder of pH measurement in EBC samples and, when adjusting for pCO2, the acid-base balance of EBC samples is not significantly influenced by the process of deaeration. Furthermore, measurement with a blood-gas analyzer and standardization of pH for pCO2 allows sensitive assaying of EBC samples. Therefore, this method provides a basis for detection of even small changes in airway pH due to inhalative exposure or respiratory disease. PMID:25972098

  18. Possible Impact of Salivary Influence on Cytokine Analysis in Exhaled Breath Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ichikawa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC is thought to contain substances of the lower airway epithelial lining fluid (ELF aerosolized by turbulent flow. However, contamination by saliva may affect the EBC when collected orally.Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the cytokine expression levels in EBC with those in saliva, and to clarify the influence of saliva on cytokine measurements of EBC.Methods: EBC and saliva samples were obtained from 10 adult subjects with stable asthma. To estimate differences in the contents of substances between EBC and saliva, the total protein concentration of each sample was measured. Further, we also measured the total protein concentration of ELF obtained from another patient group with suspected lung cancer using a micro sampling probe during bronchoscopic examination and roughly estimated the dilution of EBC by comparing the total protein concentration of EBC and ELF from those two patient groups. The cytokine expression levels of EBC and saliva from asthmatic group were assessed by a cytokine protein array.Results: The mean total protein concentrations in EBC, saliva and ELF were 4.6 μg/ml, 2,398 μg/ml and 14,111 μg/ml, respectively. The dilution of EBC could be estimated as 1:3000. Forty cytokines were analyzed by a cytokine protein array and each cytokine expression level of EBC was found to be different from that of saliva. Corrected by the total protein concentration, all cytokine expression levels of EBC were significantly higher than those of saliva.Conclusion: These results suggest that the salivary influence on the cytokine assessment in EBC may be negligible.

  19. Determination of hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate and environmental air among chrome plating workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromium speciation has attracted attention because of the different toxicity of Cr(III), which is considered relatively non-toxic, and Cr(VI), which can cross cell membranes mainly as a chromate anion and has been classified as a class I human carcinogen. The aims of the present study were to measure soluble Cr(VI) levels in environmental samples, to develop a simple method of quantifying Cr(VI) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and to follow the kinetics of EBC Cr(VI) in chrome plating workers. Personal air samples were collected from 10 chrome platers; EBC was collected from the same workers immediately after the work shift on Tuesday and before the work shift on the following Wednesday. Environmental and EBC Cr(VI) levels were determined by means of colorimetry and electrothermal absorption atomic spectrometry, respectively. The method of detecting Cr(VI) in environmental air was based on the extraction of the Cr(VI)-diphenylcarbazide (Cr(VI)-DPC) complex in 1-butanol, whereas EBC Cr(VI) was determined using a solvent extraction of Cr(VI) as an ion pair with tetrabutylammonium ion, and subsequent direct determination of the complex (Cr(VI)-DPC) in EBC. Kinetic data showed that airborne Cr(VI) was reduced by 50% in airway lining fluid sampled at the end of exposure and that there was a further 50% reduction after about 15 h. The persistence of Cr(VI) in EBC supports the use of EBC in assessing target tissue levels of Cr(VI)

  20. 13[C]-urea breath test as a novel point-of-care biomarker for tuberculosis treatment and diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep S Jassal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathogen-specific metabolic pathways may be detected by breath tests based on introduction of stable isotopically-labeled substrates and detection of labeled products in exhaled breath using portable infrared spectrometers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested whether mycobacterial urease activity could be utilized in such a breath test format as the basis of a novel biomarker and diagnostic for pulmonary TB. Sensitized New-Zealand White Rabbits underwent bronchoscopic infection with either Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rabbits were treated with 25 mg/kg of isoniazid (INH approximately 2 months after infection when significant cavitary lung pathology was present. [(13C] urea was instilled directly into the lungs of intubated rabbits at selected time points, exhaled air samples analyzed, and the kinetics of delta(13CO(2 formation were determined. Samples obtained prior to inoculation served as control samples for background (13CO(2 conversion in the rabbit model. (13CO(2, from metabolic conversion of [(13C]-urea by mycobacterial urease activity, was readily detectable in the exhaled breath of infected rabbits within 15 minutes of administration. Analyses showed a rapid increase in the rate of (13CO(2 formation both early in disease and prior to treatment with INH. Following INH treatment, all evaluable rabbits showed a decrease in the rate of (13CO(2 formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Urea breath testing may provide a useful diagnostic and biomarker assay for tuberculosis and for treatment response. Future work will test specificity for M. tuberculosis using lung-targeted dry powder inhalation formulations, combined with co-administering oral urease inhibitors together with a saturating oral dose of unlabeled urea, which would prevent the delta(13CO(2 signal from urease-positive gastrointestinal organisms.

  1. Dynamics of trapped interacting vortices in Bose–Einstein condensates: a role of breathing degree of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsuhiro; Babajanov, Doniyor; Matrasulov, Davron; Kobayashi, Michikazu; Muruganandam, Paulsamy

    2016-08-01

    With use of a variational principle, we investigate a role of breathing width degree of freedom in the effective theory of interacting vortices in a trapped single-component Bose–Einstein condensates in two dimensions, under strong repulsive cubic nonlinearity. For the trial function, we choose a product of two vortex functions, assuming a pair interaction, and employ the amplitude form of each vortex function in the Padé approximation, which accommodates a hallmark of the vortex core. We obtain the Lagrange equation for the interacting vortex-core coordinates coupled with the time-derivative of width and also its Hamilton formalism by having recourse to a non-standard Poisson bracket. By solving the Hamilton equation, we find rapid radial breathing oscillations superposed on the slower rotational motion of vortex cores, consistent with numerical solutions of the Gross–Pitaevskii equation. In higher-energy states of two vortex systems, the breathing width degree of freedom plays the role of a kicking in the kicked rotator, and generates chaos with a structure of sea-urchin needles. The by-products of the present variational approach include: (1) the charge-dependent logarithmic inter-vortex interaction multiplied with a pre-factor, which depends on the scalar product of a pair of core-position vectors; (2) the charge-independent short-range repulsive inter-vortex interaction and spring force.

  2. Studying the Proteomic Composition of Expired Air Condensate in Newborns on Breathing Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononikhin, A S; Ryndin, A Yu; Starodubtseva, N L; Chagovets, V V; Burov, A A; Bugrova, A E; Kostyukevich, Yu I; Popov, I A; Frankevich, V E; Ionov, O V; Zubkov, V V; Nikolaev, E N

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to collect and perform a proteomic analysis of expired air condensate in newborns receiving respiratory support at the Department of Resuscitation and Intensive Care. The proteomic composition of expired air condensate was evaluated in newborns at various stages of development and with different abnormalities. PMID:27165072

  3. Occupational asthma follow-up - which markers are elevated in exhaled breath condensate and plasma?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Vlčková, Š.; Klusáčková, P.; Lebedová, J.; Syslová, K.; Běláček, J.; Kuzma, Marek; Navrátil, Tomáš; Zakharov, S.; Kačer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2014), s. 206-215. ISSN 1232-1087 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : occupational asthma * exhalted breath condesate * leukotrienes Subject RIV: EC - Immunology; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 0.695, year: 2014

  4. Breath Hydrogen as a Biomarker for Glucose Malabsorption after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Iman Andalib; Hiral Shah; Bal, Bikram S.; Shope, Timothy R.; Finelli, Frederick C.; Koch, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Abdominal symptoms are common after bariatric surgery, and these individuals commonly have upper gut bacterial overgrowth, a known cause of malabsorption. Breath hydrogen determination after oral glucose is a safe and inexpensive test for malabsorption. This study is designed to investigate breath hydrogen levels after oral glucose in symptomatic individuals who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Methods. This is a retrospective study of individuals (n = 63; 60 females...

  5. Breath Ketone Testing: A New Biomarker for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring of Diabetic Ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Qiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acetone, β-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid are three types of ketone body that may be found in the breath, blood, and urine. Detecting altered concentrations of ketones in the breath, blood, and urine is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of different detection methods for ketones, and to establish whether detection of the concentration of ketones in the breath is an effective and practical technique. Methods. We measured the concentrations of acetone in the breath using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and β-hydroxybutyrate in fingertip blood collected from 99 patients with diabetes assigned to groups 1 (−, 2 (±, 3 (+, 4 (++, or 5 (+++ according to urinary ketone concentrations. Results. There were strong relationships between fasting blood glucose, age, and diabetic ketosis. Exhaled acetone concentration significantly correlated with concentrations of fasting blood glucose, ketones in the blood and urine, LDL-C, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. Conclusions. Breath testing for ketones has a high sensitivity and specificity and appears to be a noninvasive, convenient, and repeatable method for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of diabetic ketosis.

  6. On breathing in temperature in flows of a vapor due to evaporation from its spherical condensed phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Yoshimoto; Fuji, Takahiro

    2008-06-01

    One of the features in evaporation flows from a condensed phase of finite size placed in an infinite expanse of its vapor in three-dimensional space would be the existence of the so-called breathing phenomenon of temperature in its course to approach the state at infinity. The pressure of the gas, as one might expect, approaches uniformly the state specified at infinity, whereas the temperature does not but seems to take some rest for a while on its way and then starts again to approach slowly and monotonically the specified state at infinity. This is what we call breathing in temperature. This phenomenon was pointed out by Takeuchi and Onishi [Rarefied Gas Dynamics, edited by C. Shen (Pekin University Press, Beijing, 1996), pp. 887-882] in their weakly nonlinear asymptotic analysis based on the kinetic equation on steady evaporation flows from a spherical condensed phase placed in a mixture of its vapor and a noncondensable gas. The detailed discussion on this phenomenon, however, is not yet given; particularly, the reason why the temperature seems to take some rest and what originates this are not known. The present study aims to clarify the phenomenon, paying particular attention to its origin and pursuing what it is. In so doing, we have made a certain conjecture on the origin and, to show this to be true, we have taken up a simple initial and boundary-value problem of evaporation from a spherical condensed phase immersed in an infinite expanse of its vapor. Starting from a simple initial state, we followed in a numerical simulation how the flow field developed in time, getting finally a conclusion that the contact region produced initially by the evaporation process which occurs at the interface of the condensed phase is the cause; the contact region remains left undiffused at a finite distance from the interface in the flow field even at the steady state due to the counterbalance between the convection ability of the flow in the radial direction and the

  7. Monitoring the ionic content of exhaled breath condensate in various respiratory diseases by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greguš, Michal; Foret, František; Kindlová, Dagmar; Pokojová, Eva; Plutinský, Marek; Doubková, Martina; Merta, Zdeněk; Binková, Ilona; Skřičková, Jana; Kubáň, Petr

    2015-06-01

    The analysis of an ionic profile of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection and double opposite end injection, is demonstrated. A miniature sampler made from a 2 ml syringe and an aluminium cooling cylinder was used for the fast collection of EBC (under one minute). Analysis of the collected EBC was performed in a 60 mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid, 60 mM L-histidine background electrolyte with 30 µM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and 2 mM 18-crown-6 at pH 6, and excellent repeatability of migration times (RSD  acetate, lactate). The developed collection system and method provides a highly reproducible and fast way of collecting and analyzing EBC, with future applicability in point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:25944821

  8. Investigation of the climatic extremes influence on the humane adaptive capacity by mass spectrometric analysis of exhaled breath condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabokon, Anna; Larina, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey; Starodubtceva, Nataliia; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene; Varfolomeev, Sergey

    Global climate change, which causes abnormal fluctuations in temperature and rainfall, has adverse effects on human health. Particularly people suffer with cardiovascular and respiratory system disease. Our research was concentrated on the changes in the regulation and adaptation systems of human organism related to hyperthermia and polluted air influence. Healthy individuals with the age from 22 to 45 years were isolated during 30 days in the ground based experimental facility located at Institute of medico-biological problems RAS (Moscow, Russia). In the ground based facility artificially climatic conditions of August, 2010 in Moscow were created. Exhaled breath condensate was collected before and after isolation by R-Tube collector, freeze dried, treated by trypsin and analyzed by nanoflow LC-MS/MS with a 7-Tesla LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, Bremen, Germany). Database search was performed using Mascot Server 2.2 software (Matrix Science, London, UK). Investigation of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collected from participants of the 30 days isolation with hyper thermic and polluted air climate conditions was performed. After isolation reduction of the protein number was observed. Loss endothelial C receptor precursor - the main physiological anticoagulant - correlate with the clinical data of physicians to increase the propensity to thrombosis. Also COP9 signalosome protein, positive regulator of ubiquitin was identified in all EBC samples before isolation and was not detected for more than a half of donors after isolation. This phenomena may be due to violation of ubiquitin protection system of the cells from harmful proteins. During isolation the air was cleared from microdisperse particles.

  9. Impact of different welding techniques on biological effect markers in exhaled breath condensate of 58 mild steel welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeyer, Frank; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Lehnert, Martin; Kendzia, Benjamin; Bernard, Sabine; Berresheim, Hans; Düser, Maria; Henry, Jana; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger M; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Total mass and composition of welding fumes are predominantly dependent on the welding technique and welding wire applied. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of welding techniques on biological effect markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of 58 healthy welders. The welding techniques applied were gas metal arc welding with solid wire (GMAW) (n=29) or flux cored wire (FCAW) (n=29). Welding fume particles were collected with personal samplers in the breathing zone inside the helmets. Levels of leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF(2α)) were measured with immunoassay kits and the EBC pH was measured after deaeration. Significantly higher 8-iso-PGF(2α) concentrations and a less acid pH were detected in EBC of welders using the FCAW than in EBC of welders using the GMAW technique. The lowest LTB(4) concentrations were measured in nonsmoking welders applying a solid wire. No significant influences were found in EBC concentrations of PGE(2) based upon smoking status or type of welding technique. This study suggests an enhanced irritative effect in the lower airways of mild steel welders due to the application of FCAW compared to GMAW, most likely associated with a higher emission of welding fumes. PMID:22686312

  10. Determination of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α in exhaled breath condensate using combination of immunoseparation and LC–ESI-MS/MS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syslová, K.; Kačer, P.; Kuzma, Marek; Klusáčková, P.; Fenclová, Z.; Lebedová, J.; Pelclová, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 867, č. 1 (2008), s. 8-14. ISSN 1570-0232 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR8107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : exhaled breath condensate * immunoseparation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2008

  11. Modelling acute renal failure using blood and breath biomarkers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Katherine T; Hill, Jonathan V; Chase, J Geoffrey; Hann, Christopher E; Scotter, Jennifer M; Storer, Malina K; Endre, Zoltan H

    2011-02-01

    This paper compares three methods for estimating renal function, as tested in rats. Acute renal failure (ARF) was induced via a 60-min bilateral renal artery clamp in 8 Sprague-Dawley rats and renal function was monitored for 1 week post-surgery. A two-compartment model was developed for estimating glomerular filtration via a bolus injection of a radio-labelled inulin tracer, and was compared with an estimated creatinine clearance method, modified using the Cockcroft-Gault equation for rats. These two methods were compared with selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) monitoring of breath analytes. Determination of renal function via SIFT-MS is desirable since results are available non-invasively and in real time. Relative decreases in renal function show very good correlation between all 3 methods (R²=0.84, 0.91 and 0.72 for breath-inulin, inulin-creatinine, and breath-creatinine correlations, respectively), and indicate good promise for fast, non-invasive determination of renal function via breath testing. PMID:20728235

  12. Expression of surfactant protein-A in exhaled breath condensate of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Lei; Shi, Shu-Yuan; Fan, Yi-Chu; Wu, Zhen-Lin; Zhang, Xun; Sun, Da-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) has been associated with host defense in the lung, and contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The present study aimed to determine a non‑invasive method of measurement of SP‑A, and further examine the expression levels of SP‑A in patients with COPD. SP‑A was detected in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) obtained from patients with COPD and from non‑COPD subjects. The individuals recruited for the present study comprised 60 subjects with and without COPD, who underwent lobectomy for a solitary peripheral lung nodule. EBC was collected using a condenser, and an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the levels of SP‑A. Tissue samples were obtained during lobectomy through resection of the adjacent lung tissues, located >5 cm from the nodule. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to measure SP‑A and SP‑A‑positive type II pneumocytes. The results demonstrated that SP‑A was detectable in the EBC of all subjects. The results of the ELISA and western blotting demonstrated that the expression levels of SP‑A were significantly decreased in patients with COPD, compared with the non‑COPD subjects. The reduction of SP‑A‑positive type II pneumocytes was associated with the expression levels of SP‑A. Decreased expression levels of SP‑A in EBC were associated with a higher degree of airway limitation. These results suggested that the measurement of SP‑A levels in the EBC may serve as a method for monitoring airway obstruction in patients with COPD. Further investigations are required in order to examine these observations further and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26707652

  13. Effect of exercise duration on pro-oxidants and pH in exhaled breath condensate in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuesta, M; Alvear, M; Carbonell, T; García, C; Guzmán-Venegas, R; Araneda, O F

    2016-06-01

    Exercise promotes pulmonary oxidative imbalance. In this regard, some evidence has been obtained from the study of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) during urban races, in which the factors involved in the occurrence of this process are still not characterized. In this paper, under laboratory conditions, both the role of time of exercise on the generation of pro-oxidants (H2O2, NO2 (-)) and pH have been assessed in EBC of 16 under-trained subjects who completed three tests of cycloergometric exercise at low intensity (30 % of VO2 max) with a duration of 10, 30, and 90 min. Samples were obtained as follows: immediately before and at 80 min post exertion in each test. In the 90-min test, an increase in H2O2, NO2 (-) concentration in EBC at 80 min post exertion with no changes in the pH was observed. Total O2 consumption and total ventilation weakly correlated with the changes in H2O2 and NO2 (-). In conclusion, the concentration of pro-oxidants in the EBC depends on the duration of the exercise when it is performed at low intensity under laboratory conditions. PMID:27097598

  14. Leukotrienes in exhaled breath condensate and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in workers exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelclova, Daniela; Zdimal, Vladimir; Kacer, Petr; Fenclova, Zdenka; Vlckova, Stepanka; Komarc, Martin; Navratil, Tomas; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Zikova, Nadezda; Makes, Otakar; Syslova, Kamila; Belacek, Jaroslav; Zakharov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Human health data regarding exposure to nanoparticles are extremely scarce and biomonitoring of exposure is lacking in spite of rodent pathological experimental data. Potential markers of the health-effects of engineered nanoparticles were examined in 30 workers exposed to TiO2 aerosol, 22 office employees of the same plant, and 45 unexposed controls. Leukotrienes (LT) B4, C4, E4, and D4 were analysed in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and urine via liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and spirometry was also measured. The median particle number concentration of the aerosol in the production ranged from 1.98  ×  10(4) to 2.32  ×  10(4) particles cm(-3); about 80% of the particles were  spirometry significant impairment in the workers was seen only for %VCIN and %PEF (both p  Spirometry was not sensitive enough. PMID:27356965

  15. SO(2)-induced breathing patterns in multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampidis, E. G.; Wang, Wenlong; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Cuevas-Maraver, J.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we employ the SO (2 ) rotations of a two-component, one-, two-, and three-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger system at and near the Manakov limit to construct vector solitons and vortex structures. In this way, stable stationary dark-bright solitons and their higher-dimensional siblings are transformed into robust oscillatory dark-dark solitons (and generalizations thereof) with and without a harmonic confinement. By analogy to the one-dimensional case, vector higher-dimensional structures take the form of vortex-vortex states in two dimensions and, e.g., vortex-ring-vortex-ring ones in three dimensions. We consider the effects of unequal (self- and cross-) interaction strengths, where the SO (2 ) symmetry is only approximately satisfied, showing the dark-dark soliton oscillation is generally robust. Similar features are found in higher dimensions too, although our examples suggest that phenomena such as phase separation may contribute to the associated dynamics. These results, in connection with the experimental realization of one-dimensional variants of such states in optics and Bose-Einstein condensates, suggest the potential observability of the higher-dimensional bound states proposed herein.

  16. The intake of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berry extract normalizes H2O2 and IL-6 concentrations in exhaled breath condensate from healthy smokers - an explorative study

    OpenAIRE

    VERGARA, DANIELA; Ávila, Daniela; Escobar, Elizabeth; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Sánchez, Andrés; Gotteland, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory diseases are associated with pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammatory processes. Though studies in animal models suggest that dietary polyphenols improve lung injury, no intervention studies were carried out in humans. The aim of this study was to determine whether the intake of an anthocyanin-rich maqui extract improved H2O2 and IL-6 concentrations in exhaled breath condensates (EBCs) from asymptomatic smokers. Findings 15 asymptomatic smokers with mild cigarette sm...

  17. Prolonged Treatment with Inhaled Corticosteroids does not Normalize High Activity of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Exhaled Breath Condensates of Children with Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Grzela, Katarzyna; Zagorska, Wioletta; Krejner, Alicja; Litwiniuk, Malgorzata; Zawadzka-Krajewska, Anna; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Kulus, Marek; Grzela, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The airway remodeling in asthma is associated with increased amount of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. High levels of MMP-9 were found in mucosal biopsies, sputum and in exhaled breath condensates (EBC) of asthma patients. However, there are no data concerning real in vivo activity. Inhaled corticosteroids are effective in asthma control, but it is unclear, whether they only attenuate inflammation, or also protect against progressive remodeling of respiratory tract. Therefore, the aim of th...

  18. Diseño y evaluación de un equipo para obtener aire espirado condensado Design and evaluation of a device for collecting exhaled breath condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Florencio Araneda Valenzuela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de muestras de aire espirado condensado ha cobrado gran relevancia en los últimos años como método no invasivo de estudio de la fisiología y las enfermedades de origen pulmonar. En el presente trabajo se describe un equipo para tomar muestras de aire espirado condensado de bajo costo, fácil de fabricar, de transportar al terreno y que permite tomar muestras en forma simultánea. La concentración de metabolitos relativos a procesos inflamatorios y al daño oxidativo (pH, peróxido de hidrógeno y nitrito de muestras de aire espirado condensado obtenido con este equipo son comparables a los reportados con otros previamente.In recent years, the analysis of exhaled breath condensate samples has been given great weight as a noninvasive methodology of studying physiology and lung diseases. The present study describes a device for measuring exhaled breath condensate that is affordable, easily constructed, portable and suitable for use in the field, as well as allowing the collection of simultaneous samples. The results obtained with this device in terms of the concentrations of pH, peroxide oxide and nitrite, metabolites related to inflammatory and oxidative damage, in exhaled breath condensate samples are comparable to those obtained with other devices previously described.

  19. Comparison of exhaled breath condensate pH using two commercially available devices in healthy controls, asthma and COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogelmeier Claus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC is a non-invasive method for studying the acidity (pH of airway secretions in patients with inflammatory lung diseases. Aim To assess the reproducibility of EBC pH for two commercially available devices (portable RTube and non-portable ECoScreen in healthy controls, patients with asthma or COPD, and subjects suffering from an acute cold with lower-airway symptoms. In addition, we assessed the repeatability in healthy controls. Methods EBC was collected from 40 subjects (n = 10 in each of the above groups using RTube and ECoScreen. EBC was collected from controls on two separate occasions within 5 days. pH in EBC was assessed after degasification with argon for 20 min. Results In controls, pH-measurements in EBC collected by RTube or ECoScreen showed no significant difference between devices (p = 0.754 or between days (repeatability coefficient RTube: 0.47; ECoScreen: 0.42 of collection. A comparison between EBC pH collected by the two devices in asthma, COPD and cold patients also showed good reproducibility. No differences in pH values were observed between controls (mean pH 8.27; RTube and patients with COPD (pH 7.97 or asthma (pH 8.20, but lower values were found using both devices in patients with a cold (pH 7.56; RTube, p Conclusion We conclude that pH measurements in EBC collected by RTube and ECoScreen are repeatable and reproducible in healthy controls, and are reproducible and comparable in healthy controls, COPD and asthma patients, and subjects with a common cold.

  20. Effect of Inhaled Budesonide on Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-6 in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Asthmatic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hua Chi; Ji-Ping Liao; Yan-Ni Zhao; Xue-Ying Li; Guang-Fa Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Studies ofinterleukin (IL)-4 and IL-6 in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of asthmatic patients are limited.This study was to determine the effect of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment on IL-4 and IL-6 in the EBC of asthmatic patients.Methods:In a prospective,open-label study,budesonide 200 μg twice daily by dry powder inhaler was administered to 23 adult patients with uncontrolled asthma (mean age 42.7 years) for 12 weeks.Changes in asthma scores,lung function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1],peak expiratory flow [PEF],forced expiratory flow at 50% of forced vital capacity [FEF50],forced expiratory flow at 75% of forced vital capacity,maximum mid-expiratory flow rate) and the concentrations of IL-4 and IL-6 in EBC were measured.Results:Both asthma scores and lung function parameters were significantly improved by ICS treatment.The mean IL-4 concentration in the EBC was decreased gradually,from 1.92 ± 0.56 pmol/L before treatment to 1.60 ± 0.36 pmol/L after 8 weeks of treatment (P < 0.05) and 1.54 ± 0.81 pmol/L after 12 weeks of treatment (P < 0.01).However,the IL-6 concentration was not significantly decreased.The change in the IL-4 concentration was correlated with improvements in mean FEV1,PEF and FEF50 values (correlation coefficients-0.468,-0.478,and-0.426,respectively).Conclusions:The concentration of IL-4 in the EBC of asthmatic patients decreased gradually with ICS treatment.Measurement of IL-4 in EBC could be useful to monitor airway inflammation in asthmatics.

  1. Study of mitochondrial DNA alteration in the exhaled breath condensate of patients affected by obstructive lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpagnano, G E; Lacedonia, D; Carone, M; Soccio, P; Cotugno, G; Palmiotti, G A; Scioscia, G; Foschino Barbaro, M P

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) has been studied as an expression of oxidative stress in asthma, COPD, lung cancer and obstructive sleep apnea, but it has been mainly investigated systemically, although the pathogenetic mechanisms begin in the airways and only later progress to systemic circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the MtDNA alterations in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of patients with asthma, COPD and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). In order to analyze better what happens to mitochondria, both locally and systemically, we compared MtDNA/nDNA in blood and EBC of paired patients. Thirteen (13) COPD patients, 14 asthmatics, 23 ACOS (10 according to Spanish guidelines, 13 in line with GINA guidelines) and 12 healthy subjects were enrolled. Patients underwent clinical and functional diagnostic tests as foreseen by the guidelines. They underwent blood and EBC collection. Content of MtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA) was measured in the blood cells and EBC of patients by Real Time PCR. The ratio between MtDNA/nDNA was calculated. For the first time we were able to detect MtDNA/nDNA in the EBC. We found higher exhaled MtDNA/nDNA in COPD, asthmatic and ACOS patients respectively compared to healthy subjects (21.9  ±  4.9 versus 6.51  ±  0.21, p  <  0.05; 7.9  ±  2.5 versus 6.51  ±  0.21, p  =  0.06; 18.3  ±  3.4 versus 6.51  ±  0.21, p  <  0.05). The level of exhaled MtDNA/nDNA was positively correlated with the plasmatic one. The levels of MtDNA/nDNA in the EBC, as expression of oxidative stress, are increased in COPD, asthmatic and ACOS patients compared to healthy subjects. These are preliminary results in a small number of well characterized patients that requires confirmation on a larger population. We support new studies directed toward the analysis of exhaled MtDNA/nDNA as a new exhaled non-invasive marker in other inflammatory/oxidative airways diseases. PMID

  2. Fractionated breath condensate sampling: H2O2 concentrations of the alveolar fraction may be related to asthma control in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trischler Jordis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways but recent studies have shown that alveoli are also subject to pathophysiological changes. This study was undertaken to compare hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentrations in different parts of the lung using a new technique of fractioned breath condensate sampling. Methods In 52 children (9-17 years, 32 asthmatic patients, 20 controls measurements of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO, lung function, H2O2 in exhaled breath condensate (EBC and the asthma control test (ACT were performed. Exhaled breath condensate was collected in two different fractions, representing mainly either the airways or the alveoli. H2O2 was analysed in the airway and alveolar fractions and compared to clinical parameters. Results The exhaled H2O2 concentration was significantly higher in the airway fraction than in the alveolar fraction comparing each single pair (p = 0.003, 0.032 and 0.040 for the whole study group, the asthmatic group and the control group, respectively. Asthma control, measured by the asthma control test (ACT, correlated significantly with the H2O2 concentrations in the alveolar fraction (r = 0.606, p = 0.004 but not with those in the airway fraction in the group of children above 12 years. FENO values and lung function parameters did not correlate to the H2O2 concentrations of each fraction. Conclusion The new technique of fractionated H2O2 measurement may differentiate H2O2 concentrations in different parts of the lung in asthmatic and control children. H2O2 concentrations of the alveolar fraction may be related to the asthma control test in children.

  3. Development of a novel graphene/polyaniline electrodeposited coating for on-line in-tube solid phase microextraction of aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Xu, Hui

    2015-05-22

    In this work, we introduced a novel graphene/polyaniline (G/PANI) electrodeposited coating for on-line in-tube solid phase microextraction (IT-SPME) for the first time. The G/PANI coating was prepared on the internal surface of stainless steel tube by a facile in-situ electrodeposition method. The morphology and formation of the composite coating were confirmed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Some important experimental parameters that could affect the extraction and separation such as the coating thickness, internal diameter of tube, sampling flow rate as well as sample volume were optimized. The extraction performance of the IT-SPME coating was evaluated systematically. The coating exhibited enhanced mechanical stability, long lifespan, large specific surface area and good biocompatibility compared with polyaniline coating. The on-line IT-SPME method showed higher enrichment efficiency, faster analysis speed and higher automation level than off-line manual mode. Six aldehydes were determined simultaneously with low limits of detection of 0.02-0.04nmolL(-1) and good linearity (R(2)≥0.9920). The method has been applied successfully for the determination of aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensates with good recovery (70-120%) and satisfied reproducibility (relative standard deviation: 1.1-11.9%). This on-line IT-SPME method provides a promising approach for the determination of trace aldehydes with approving sensitivity in human exhaled breath condensates. PMID:25863926

  4. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Exhaled Breath for the Identification of Volatile Organic Compound Biomarkers in Esophageal and Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumar, S.; Huang, J.; Abbassi-Ghadi, N.; Mackanzie, H. A.; Veselkov, K. A.; Hoare, J. M.; Lovat, L. B.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.; Hanna, G. B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 262, č. 6 (2015), s. 981-990. ISSN 0003-4932 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : breath analysis * esophageal cancer * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 8.327, year: 2014

  5. Mechanical ventilation with heated humidifiers: measurements of condensed water mass within the breathing circuit according to ventilatory settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heated wire humidifiers (HWHs) are widely used to heat and humidify gases during mechanical ventilation. The control strategy implemented on commercial HWHs, based on maintaining constant gas temperature at the chamber outlet, shows weaknesses: humidifying performances depend on environmental temperature and ventilatory settings, and often condensation occurs. Herein, we analyzed in vitro HWH performances focusing on the condensation amount according to ventilatory settings. We used a physical model to define the parameters which mainly influence the HWH performances. In order to investigate the influence of minute volume (MV) and frequency rate (fr) on condensation, the other influencing parameters were kept constant during experiments, and we introduced a novel approach to estimate the condensation. The method, based on measuring the condensed vapor mass (Δm), provided more objective information than the visual-based scale used in previous studies. Thanks to both the control of other influencing factors and the accurate Δm measures, the investigation showed the Δm increase with MV and fr. Substantial condensation after 7 h of ventilation and the influence of MV and fr on Δm (i.e., Δm = 3 g at MV = 1.5 L min−1 and fr = 8 bpm and Δm = 9.4 g at MV = 8 L min−1 and fr = 20 bpm) confirm the weaknesses of 'single-point temperature' control strategies. (paper)

  6. Pitfalls in the analysis of volatile breath biomarkers: suggested solutions and SIFT-MS quantification of single metabolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2015), 022001. ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : SIFT-MS * volatile biomarkers * quantifications Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.631, year: 2014

  7. Levels of Exhaled Breath Condensate pH and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Retired Coal Miners

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong Seong; Shin, Jae Hoon; Lee, Joung Oh; LEE, Kyung Myung; Kim, Ji Hong; Choi, Byung-Soon

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled inorganic dusts, such as coal, can cause inflammation and fibrosis in the lungs, known as pneumoconiosis. Diagnosis of pneumoconiosis depends on morphological changes by radiological findings and functional change by pulmonary function test (PFT) . Unfortunately, current diagnostic findings are limited only to lung fibrosis, which is usually irreversibly progressive. Therefore, it is important that research on potential and prospective biomarkers for pneumoconiosis should be conducted...

  8. Application of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy to the Detection of Nitric Oxide, Carbonyl Sulphide, and Ethane—Breath Biomarkers of Serious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wojtas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents one of the laser absorption spectroscopy techniques as an effective tool for sensitive analysis of trace gas species in human breath. Characterization of nitric oxide, carbonyl sulphide and ethane, and the selection of their absorption lines are described. Experiments with some biomarkers showed that detection of pathogenic changes at the molecular level is possible using this technique. Thanks to cavity enhanced spectroscopy application, detection limits at the ppb-level and short measurements time (<3 s were achieved. Absorption lines of reference samples of the selected volatile biomarkers were probed using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser and a tunable laser system consisting of an optical parametric oscillator and difference frequency generator. Setup using the first source provided a detection limit of 30 ppb for nitric oxide and 250 ppb for carbonyl sulphide. During experiments employing a second laser, detection limits of 0.9 ppb and 0.3 ppb were obtained for carbonyl sulphide and ethane, respectively. The conducted experiments show that this type of diagnosis would significantly increase chances for effective therapy of some diseases. Additionally, it offers non-invasive and real time measurements, high sensitivity and selectivity as well as minimizing discomfort for patients. For that reason, such sensors can be used in screening for early detection of serious diseases.

  9. VEGF, TNF-alpha and 8-isoprostane levels in exhaled breath condensate and serum of patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalaveris, Eleftherios; Kerenidi, Theodora; Katsabeki-Katsafli, Alexandra; Kiropoulos, Theodoros; Tanou, Kalliopi; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Kostikas, Konstantinos

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of VEGF, 8-isoprostane and TNF-alpha in EBC and serum of patients with primary lung cancer prior to the initiation of any treatment, in order to evaluate their possible diagnostic role. Furthermore, associations between VEGF, 8-isoprostane and TNF-alpha levels in EBC and serum with clinicopathologic factors were investigated. We enrolled 30 patients with lung cancer (mean age 65.2+/-10.5 years) and 15 age and gender-matched healthy smokers as controls. Serum and EBC were collected before any treatment. TNF-alpha, VEGF and 8-isoprostane levels in EBC and serum were analyzed by an immunoenzymatic method (ELISA). A statistically significant difference was observed between lung cancer patients and the control group regarding the values of TNF-alpha, both in EBC (52.9+/-5.0 pg/ml vs. 19.4+/-3.9 pg/ml, p<0.0001) and serum (44.5+/-6.3 pg/ml vs. 22.2+/-4.3 pg/ml, p=0.035). Moreover, EBC VEGF levels were higher in patients with T3-T4 tumor stage compared to T1-T2 (9.3+/-2.8 pg/ml vs. 2.3+/-0.7pg/ml, p=0.047). A statistically significant correlation was also observed between serum and EBC values of VEGF (r=0.52, p=0.019). In addition, serum levels of VEGF were higher in lung cancer patients than in controls (369.3+/-55.1 pg/ml vs. 180.5+/-14.7 pg/ml, p=0.046). VEGF serum levels were also found higher in patients with advanced stage of disease (IIIB-IV) and distant nodal metastasis (N2-N3). No differences were observed in 8-isoprostane in EBC between lung cancer patients and controls. In contrast, serum 8-isoprostane levels were higher in lung cancer patients compared to controls (24.9+/-3.6 pg/ml vs. 12.9+/-1.6 pg/ml, p=0.027) and were higher in patients with advanced disease. All three biomarkers presented acceptable reproducibility in the EBC on two consecutive days. In conclusion, we have shown that TNF-alpha, VEGF and 8-isoprostane are elevated in the serum of lung cancer patients and increased serum VEGF and 8

  10. Exhaled breath condensate collection for nitrite dosage: a safe and low cost adaptation Coleta do condensado do ar exalado pulmonar para a dosagem de nitrito: Uma adaptação segura e barata

    OpenAIRE

    Graziela Saraiva Reis; Viviane dos Santos Augusto; Maria Eliza Jordani de Souza; Caroline Floreoto Baldo; Alfredo José Rodrigues; Paulo Roberto Barbosa Evora

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Standardization of a simple and low cost technique of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection to measure nitrite. METHODS: Two devices were mounted in polystyrene boxes filled either with crushed ice/salt crystals or dry ice/crushed ice. Blood samples were stored at -70º C for posterior nitrite dosages by chemiluminescence and the Griess reaction. RESULTS: a) The use of crushed ice/dry ice or salt revealed sufficient EBC room air collection, but was not efficient for patients unde...

  11. The interaction between sleep-disordered breathing and ApoE genotype on cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease in cognitively normal elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Ricardo S.; Ayappa, Indu; Mantua, Janna; Gumb, Tyler; Varga, Andrew; Mooney, Anne M.; Burschtin, Omar E.; Taxin, Zachary; During, Emmanuel; Spector, Nicole; Biagioni, Milton; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Lau, Hiuyan; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Lu, Shou-En; Mosconi, Lisa; Glodzik, Lidia; Rapoport, David M.; de Leon, Mony J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested a link between Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) and dementia risk. In the present study, we analyzed the relationship between SDB severity, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers, and the ApoE alleles. Methods 95 cognitively normal elderly participants were analyzed for SDB severity, CSF measures of phosphorylated-tau (P-Tau), total-tau (T-Tau), and amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42), as well as ApoE allele status. Findings In ApoE3+ subjects, significant differences were found between sleep groups for P-Tau (F[df2]=4.3, p=0.017), and T-Tau (F[df2]=3.3, p=0.043). Additionally, among ApoE3+ subjects, the apnea/hypopnea with 4% O2-desaturation index (AHI4%) was positively correlated with P-Tau (r=0.30, p=0.023), T-Tau (r=0.31, p=0.021), and Aβ42 (r=0.31, p=0.021). In ApoE2+ subjects, AHI4% was correlated with lower levels of CSF Aβ42 (r=−0.71, p=0.004), similarly to ApoE4+ subjects where there was also a trend towards lower CSF Aβ42 levels Interpretation Our observations suggest that there is an association between SDB and CSF AD- biomarkers in cognitively normal elderly. Existing therapies for SDB such as CPAP could delay the onset to mild cognitive impairment or dementia in normal elderly. PMID:24439479

  12. Interaction between sleep-disordered breathing and apolipoprotein E genotype on cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease in cognitively normal elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Ricardo S; Ayappa, Indu; Mantua, Janna; Gumb, Tyler; Varga, Andrew; Mooney, Anne M; Burschtin, Omar E; Taxin, Zachary; During, Emmanuel; Spector, Nicole; Biagioni, Milton; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Lau, Hiuyan; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Lu, Shou-En; Mosconi, Lisa; Glodzik, Lidia; Rapoport, David M; de Leon, Mony J

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested a link between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and dementia risk. In the present study, we analyzed the relationship between SDB severity, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease-biomarkers, and the ApoE alleles. A total of 95 cognitively normal elderly participants were analyzed for SDB severity, CSF measures of phosphorylated-tau (p-tau), total-tau (t-tau), and amyloid beta 42 (Aβ-42), as well as ApoE allele status. In ApoE3+ subjects, significant differences were found between sleep groups for p-tau (F[df2] = 4.3, p = 0.017), and t-tau (F[df2] = 3.3, p = 0.043). Additionally, among ApoE3+ subjects, the apnea and/or hypopnea with 4% O2-desaturation index was positively correlated with p-tau (r = 0.30, p = 0.023), t-tau (r = 0.31, p = 0.021), and Aβ-42 (r = 0.31, p = 0.021). In ApoE2+ subjects, the apnea and/or hypopnea with 4% O2-desaturation index was correlated with lower levels of CSF Aβ-42 (r = -0.71, p = 0.004), similarly to ApoE4+ subjects where there was also a trend toward lower CSF Aβ-42 levels. Our observations suggest that there is an association between SDB and CSF Alzheimer's disease-biomarkers in cognitively normal elderly individuals. Existing therapies for SDB such as continuous positive airway pressure could delay the onset to mild cognitive impairment or dementia in normal elderly individuals. PMID:24439479

  13. Application of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy to the Detection of Nitric Oxide, Carbonyl Sulphide, and Ethane--Breath Biomarkers of Serious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtas, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents one of the laser absorption spectroscopy techniques as an effective tool for sensitive analysis of trace gas species in human breath. Characterization of nitric oxide, carbonyl sulphide and ethane, and the selection of their absorption lines are described. Experiments with some biomarkers showed that detection of pathogenic changes at the molecular level is possible using this technique. Thanks to cavity enhanced spectroscopy application, detection limits at the ppb-level and short measurements time (quantum cascade laser and a tunable laser system consisting of an optical parametric oscillator and difference frequency generator. Setup using the first source provided a detection limit of 30 ppb for nitric oxide and 250 ppb for carbonyl sulphide. During experiments employing a second laser, detection limits of 0.9 ppb and 0.3 ppb were obtained for carbonyl sulphide and ethane, respectively. The conducted experiments show that this type of diagnosis would significantly increase chances for effective therapy of some diseases. Additionally, it offers non-invasive and real time measurements, high sensitivity and selectivity as well as minimizing discomfort for patients. For that reason, such sensors can be used in screening for early detection of serious diseases. PMID:26091398

  14. Application of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy to the Detection of Nitric Oxide, Carbonyl Sulphide, and Ethane—Breath Biomarkers of Serious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtas, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents one of the laser absorption spectroscopy techniques as an effective tool for sensitive analysis of trace gas species in human breath. Characterization of nitric oxide, carbonyl sulphide and ethane, and the selection of their absorption lines are described. Experiments with some biomarkers showed that detection of pathogenic changes at the molecular level is possible using this technique. Thanks to cavity enhanced spectroscopy application, detection limits at the ppb-level and short measurements time (quantum cascade laser and a tunable laser system consisting of an optical parametric oscillator and difference frequency generator. Setup using the first source provided a detection limit of 30 ppb for nitric oxide and 250 ppb for carbonyl sulphide. During experiments employing a second laser, detection limits of 0.9 ppb and 0.3 ppb were obtained for carbonyl sulphide and ethane, respectively. The conducted experiments show that this type of diagnosis would significantly increase chances for effective therapy of some diseases. Additionally, it offers non-invasive and real time measurements, high sensitivity and selectivity as well as minimizing discomfort for patients. For that reason, such sensors can be used in screening for early detection of serious diseases. PMID:26091398

  15. Inhaled corticosteroids do not reduce initial high activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in exhaled breath condensates of children with asthma exacerbation: a proof of concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzela, Katarzyna; Zagórska, Wioletta; Krejner, Alicja; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Litwiniuk, Małgorzata; Kulus, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the key component of asthma treatment. However, it is unclear whether they could control the activity and level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which is an important factor in asthma-associated inflammation and airway remodeling. Therefore, the aim of this proof of concept study was to analyze the influence of increased doses of ICS on MMP-9 in exhaled breath condensates (EBC) of patients with allergic asthma exacerbation. Apart from MMP-9, the assessment concerned selected inflammation markers – exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and cytokines (IL-8 and TNF). The study involved a small group (n = 4) of individuals with asthma exacerbation. The intervention concerned increased doses of ICS with β-mimetics for 4 weeks. In addition to clinical evaluation, eNO measurements and EBC collections were done before and after 4 weeks of intense ICS treatment. The biochemical assessment of EBC concerned MMP-9, IL-8 and TNF. The data were compared to results of healthy controls (n = 6). The initial levels of eNO, MMP-9 and TNF in EBC were higher in the asthma group than in controls. In all subjects IL-8 levels were below the detection limit. After 4 weeks of ICS treatment in all patients we observed improvement of clinical and laboratory parameters. Interestingly, despite reduction of eNO and TNF, the activity of MMP-9/EBC remained on the initial level. Practical relevance of our results is limited by a small group. Nevertheless, our data suggest that ICS, although sufficient to control symptoms and inflammatory markers, may be ineffective to reduce MMP-9/EBC activity in asthma exacerbation and, possibly, airway remodeling. PMID:27536209

  16. Novel biomarkers for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Anjum; Ruffenach, Gregoire; Mahajan, Aman; Eghbali, Mansoureh; Umar, Soban

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a deadly disease characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressures leading to right ventricular hypertrophy and failure. The confirmatory gold standard test is the invasive right heart catheterization. The disease course is monitored by pulmonary artery systolic pressure measurement via transthoracic echocardiography. A simple non-invasive test to frequently monitor the patients is much needed. Search for a novel biomarker that can be detected by a simple test is ongoing and many different options are being studied. Here we review some of the new and unique pre-clinical options for potential pulmonary hypertension biomarkers. These biomarkers can be broadly categorized based on their association with endothelial cell dysfunction, inflammation, epigenetics, cardiac function, oxidative stress, metabolism,extracellular matrix, and volatile compounds in exhaled breath condensate. A biomarker that can be detected in blood, urine or breath condensate and correlates with disease severity, progression and response to therapy may result in significant cost reduction and improved patient outcomes. PMID:27439993

  17. Breathing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Discuss with your respiratory therapist the benefits of breathing techniques to increase ventilation and decrease your work of breathing Discuss with your physician appropriate use of respiratory ...

  18. Hydrogen peroxide release and acid-base status in exhaled breath condensate at rest and after maximal exercise in young, healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Exhaled breath condensate (EBC contains among a large number of mediators hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as a marker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress. Similarly EBC pH also changes in respiratory diseases. It was the aim of our investigation to prove if hydrogen peroxide release and changes in pH of EBC changes with exercise. Methods EBC was collected from 100 litres exhaled air along with samples of arterialized blood of 16 healthy subjects (9 males, 7 females, age 23 ± 1 years. EBC hydrogen peroxide was analyzed with EcoCheck amperometer (FILT, Berlin. The rate of H2O2 release was calculated from the concentration and collection time. pH and PCO2 in blood and in EBC were measured with the Radiometer blood gas analyzer, EBC was equilibrated with a gas mixture (5% CO2 in O2. The bicarbonate concentration was calculated according to the law of mass action for CO2 and HCO3- (pK = 6.1. Results H2O2 concentration in EBC was 190 ± 109 nmol/l, and H2O2 release at rest was 31.0 ± 18.3 pmol/min. At maximal exercise, the H2O = concentration in EBC increased to 250 ± 120 nmol/l, and H2O2 release significantly increased at maximal exercise to 84.4 ± 39.9 pmol/min (P 2 equilibrated EBC was at 6.08 ± 0.23 and the [HCO3 -] was 1.03 ± 0.40 mmol/l. At maximum exercise, pH 6.18 ± 0.17 and [HCO3-] 1.23 ± 0.30 mmol/l remained almost unaltered. Conclusions The rate of H2O2 release in EBC increased during exhausting exercise (external load: 300 Watt by a factor of 2, whereas the pH and the bicarbonate concentration of the EBC, equilibrated with 5% CO2 at 37°C were not significantly altered. It has to be proven by further experiments whether there is a linear relationship between the rates of H2O2 release in EBC in graded submaximal exercise.

  19. Biomarkers in sarcoidosis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadzai H

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hasib Ahmadzai,1,2 Wei Sheng Joshua Loke,1 Shuying Huang,1 Cristan Herbert,1 Denis Wakefield,3 Paul S Thomas2 1Inflammation and Infection Research Centre (IIRC, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Immunology of the Eye Clinic, St Vincent's Clinic, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of undetermined etiology invariably affecting the lungs and thoracic lymph nodes. It has been termed an “immune paradox”, as there is peripheral anergy despite exaggerated inflammation at disease sites. The disease is usually self-limiting, although some individuals experience unremitting inflammation that may progress into pulmonary fibrosis and death. The inflammatory process is largely a T helper-1-driven immune response. Given its heterogeneous clinical manifestations, diagnosis is usually a clinical conundrum. Clinical and radiological findings alone are often inadequate to confirm the diagnosis. At present, sarcoidosis is usually a diagnosis of exclusion, confirmed by histological evidence of noncaseating granulomas in the absence of known granulomagenic agents. This has compelled researchers to look for disease-specific biomarkers that can help diagnose sarcoidosis and delineate its disease course, severity, and prognosis. In this review we highlight various investigations used to diagnose sarcoidosis, outline proposed biomarkers, and discuss novel methods of sampling biomarkers. Keywords: sarcoidosis, biomarkers, inflammatory markers, exhaled breath condensate, proteomics, granuloma

  20. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that get stuck between your teeth. Lots of people have bad breath at some point. Don’t worry! There are steps you can take to keep your mouth fresh and healthy. Tips for preventing bad breath: Brush your teeth ( ...

  1. Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard ... conditions such as asthma, emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or ...

  2. Breath odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... distinct breath odors. Bad breath related to poor oral hygiene is most common and caused by release of ... supplements? Do you smoke? What home care and oral hygiene measures have you tried? How effective are they? ...

  3. Breath gas monitoring during a glucose challenge by a combined PTR-QMS/GC×GC-TOFMS approach for the verification of potential volatile biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Beate; Keller, Stefan; Groeger, Thomas; Matuschek, Georg; Szymczak, Wilfried; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Breath gas profiles, which reflect metabolic disorders like diabetes, are the subject of scientific focus. Nevertheless, profiling is still a challenging task that requires complex and standardized methods. This study was carried out to verify breath gas patterns that were obtained in previous proton-transfer reaction-quadrupole mass spectrometry (PTR-QMS) studies and that can be linked to glucose metabolism. An experimental setup using simultaneous PTR-QMS and complementary highly time-resolved needle trap micro extraction (NTME) combined with comprehensive 2D gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) was established for the analysis of highly polar volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The method was applied to the breath gas analysis of three volunteers during a glucose challenge, whereby subjects ingested a glucose solution orally. Challenge responsive PTR-QMS target VOCs could be linked to small n-carbonic (C2-C4) alcohols and short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Specific isomers could be identified by simultaneously applied NTME-GC×GC-TOFMS and further verified by their characteristic time profiles and concentrations. The identified VOCs potentially originate from bacteria that are found in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. In this study breath gas monitoring enabled the identification of potential VOC metabolites that can be linked to glucose metabolism. PMID:27341456

  4. Exhaled breath condensate collection for nitrite dosage: a safe and low cost adaptation Coleta do condensado do ar exalado pulmonar para a dosagem de nitrito: Uma adaptação segura e barata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Saraiva Reis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Standardization of a simple and low cost technique of exhaled breath condensate (EBC collection to measure nitrite. METHODS: Two devices were mounted in polystyrene boxes filled either with crushed ice/salt crystals or dry ice/crushed ice. Blood samples were stored at -70º C for posterior nitrite dosages by chemiluminescence and the Griess reaction. RESULTS: a The use of crushed ice/dry ice or salt revealed sufficient EBC room air collection, but was not efficient for patients under ventilation support; b the method using crushed ice/salt collected greater EBC volumes, but the nitrite concentrations were not proportional to the volume collected; c The EBC nitrite values were higher in the surgical group using both methods; d In the surgical group the nasal clip use diminished the EBC nitrite concentrations in both methods. CONCLUSIONS: The exhaled breath condensate (EBC methodology collection was efficient on room air breathing. Either cooling methods provided successful EBC collections showing that it is possible to diminish costs, and, amongst the two used methods, the one using crushed ice/salt crystals revealed better efficiency compared to the dry ice method.OBJETIVO: Padronizar técnica simples e barata de coleta do condensado do ar exalado pulmonar (CEP para medir nitrito. MÉTODOS: Dois dispositivos foram montados em caixas de isopor e preenchidos com gelo picado/sal grosso ou gelo picado/gelo seco. Amostras de sangue foram armazenadas a -70º C para dosagem de nitrito por quimiluminescência e pela reação de Griess. RESULTADOS: a a utilização de gelo picado/gelo seco ou sal foi eficiente para a coleta em respiração espontânea, mas ineficiente durante ventilação mecânica; b o método gelo picado/sal coletou volumes maiores, sem aumento proporcional do nitrito; c os valores do nitrito foram mais elevados no grupo cirúrgico utilizando os dois métodos; d no grupo cirúrgico com clipe nasal ocorreu diminuição do

  5. Breath sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lung sounds are best heard with a stethoscope. This is called auscultation. Normal lung sounds occur ... the bottom of the rib cage. Using a stethoscope, the doctor may hear normal breathing sounds, decreased ...

  6. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene (say: HI-jeen), meaning not brushing and flossing regularly smoking and other tobacco use Poor oral hygiene leads to bad breath because when food particles ...

  7. Breath sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causes of abnormal breath sounds may include: Acute bronchitis Asthma Bronchiectasis Chronic bronchitis Congestive heart failure Emphysema Interstitial lung disease Foreign body obstruction of the airway Pneumonia Pulmonary edema Tracheobronchitis

  8. Breathing difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting enough air Considerations There is no standard definition for difficulty breathing. Some people feel breathless with ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  9. Technologies for Clinical Diagnosis Using Expired Human Breath Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Thalakkotur Lazar Mathew; Prabhahari Pownraj; Sukhananazerin Abdulla; Biji Pullithadathil

    2015-01-01

    This review elucidates the technologies in the field of exhaled breath analysis. Exhaled breath gas analysis offers an inexpensive, noninvasive and rapid method for detecting a large number of compounds under various conditions for health and disease states. There are various techniques to analyze some exhaled breath gases, including spectrometry, gas chromatography and spectroscopy. This review places emphasis on some of the critical biomarkers present in exhaled human breath, and its relate...

  10. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursed lip breathing; COPD - pursed lip breathing; Emphysema - pursed lip breathing; Chronic bronchitis - pursed lip breathing; Pulmonary fibrosis - pursed lip breathing; Interstitial lung disease - pursed lip breathing; Hypoxia - pursed lip breathing; ...

  11. Biomarkers associated with obstructive sleep apnea: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Graziela De Luca; Pachêco-Pereira, Camila; Aydinoz, Secil; Major, Paul W; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Gozal, David

    2015-10-01

    The overall validity of biomarkers in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remains unclear. We conducted a scoping review to provide assessments of biomarkers characteristics in the context of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and to identify gaps in the literature. A scoping review of studies in humans without age restriction that evaluated the potential diagnostic value of biological markers (blood, exhaled breath condensate, salivary, and urinary) in the OSA diagnosis was undertaken. Retained articles were those focused on the identification of biomarkers in subjects with OSA, the latter being confirmed with a full overnight or home-based polysomnography (PSG). Search strategies for six different databases were developed. The methodology of selected studies was classified using an adaptation of the evidence quality criteria from the American Academy of Pediatrics. Additionally the biomarkers were classified according to their potential clinical application. We identified 572 relevant studies, of which 117 met the inclusion criteria. Eighty-two studies were conducted in adults, 34 studies involved children, and one study had a sample composed of both adults and children. Most of the studies evaluated blood biomarkers. Potential diagnostic biomarkers were found in nine pediatric studies and in 58 adults studies. Only nine studies reported sensitivity and specificity, which varied substantially from 43% to 100%, and from 45% to 100%, respectively. Studies in adults have focused on the investigation of IL-6, TNF-α and hsCRP. There was no specific biomarker that was tested by a majority of authors in pediatric studies, and combinatorial urine biomarker approaches have shown preliminary promising results. In adults IL-6 and IL-10 seem to have a favorable potential to become a good biomarker to identify OSA. PMID:25645128

  12. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related breathing difficulties. Learn some ways to control breathing and some techniques to help you reach a greater level of relaxation during your day: Diaphragmatic Breathing Minimizing Shortness of Breath Instant Relaxation Drill Meditation ...

  13. Traveling with breathing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have breathing problems and you: Are short of breath most of the time Get short of breath when you walk 150 ... or less Have been in the hospital for breathing problems recently Use oxygen at home, even if ...

  14. Temperatura do ar exalado, um novo biomarcador no controle da asma: um estudo piloto Exhaled breath temperature, a new biomarker in asthma control: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Emrich Melo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a temperatura do ar exalado (TAE, medida por um método não invasivo, é efetiva no monitoramento de pacientes com asma não controlada. MÉTODOS: Estudo piloto com nove pacientes (sete mulheres e dois homens; média de idade: 39 anos com diagnóstico de asma por pelo menos um ano e sem uso de tratamento de manutenção por pelo menos três meses antes do início do estudo. Na primeira visita, os pacientes foram submetidos à espirometria e à medida da TAE. Todos os pacientes foram orientados a iniciar tratamento com budesonida/formoterol (200/6 µg inalatório a cada 12 h por seis semanas. Além disso, os pacientes com asma grave (VEF1 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the exhaled breath temperature (EBT, measured by a noninvasive method, is an effective means of monitoring patients with uncontrolled asthma. METHODS: A pilot study comprising nine patients (seven women and two men; mean age: 39 years diagnosed with asthma at least one year prior to the beginning of the study and not having been under maintenance therapy for the last three months. In the first visit, the patients underwent spirometry and measurement of EBT. The patients were then instructed to use inhaled budesonide/formoterol (200/6 µg every 12 h for six weeks. In addition, the patients with severe asthma (FEV1 < 60% of predicted were instructed to use oral prednisolone (40 mg/day for five days. After six weeks, the patients underwent the same tests. RESULTS: All of the patients reported an improvement in the symptoms of asthma, as confirmed by a statistically significant increase in FEV1 from the first to the second visit (mean, 56.1% vs. 88.7% of predicted; p < 0.05. Five patients used oral prednisolone for the first five days of the treatment period. Six patients used additional doses of inhaled budesonide/formoterol (mean duration, 2.5 weeks. The EBT decreased significantly from the first to the second visit (mean EBT: 35.1ºC vs. 34.1ºC; p < 0

  15. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  16. Deep breathing after surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated and healthy while ... uncomfortable. But if you do not practice deep breathing after surgery, you may develop lung problems, like ...

  17. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  18. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  19. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... short of breath; Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... Heart failure Obesity (does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often worsens other conditions ...

  20. What Controls Your Breathing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To a limited degree, you can change your breathing rate, such as by breathing faster or holding your ... oxygen levels in your blood and change your breathing rate as needed. Sensors in the airways detect lung ...

  1. Continuous Exhaled Breath Analysis on the Icu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2011-09-01

    During admittance to the ICU, critically ill patients frequently develop secondary infections and/or multiple organ failure. Continuous monitoring of biological markers is very much needed. This study describes a new method to continuously monitor biomarkers in exhaled breath with an electronic nose.

  2. CONTINUOUS EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS ON THE ICU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During admittance to the ICU, critically ill patients frequently develop secondary infections and/or multiple organ failure. Continuous monitoring of biological markers is very much needed. This study describes a new method to continuously monitor biomarkers in exhaled breath with an electronic nose.

  3. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-05-23

    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath

  4. Nitrite exhaled breath condensate study in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass cardiac surgery Estudo do nitrito do condensado do exalado pulmonar em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca com CEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane dos Santos Augusto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a relative lack of studies on postoperative changes in nitrite (NO2 - concentrations, a marker of injury, following cardiac surgery. In this context, investigations on how exhaled NO concentrations vary in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery will certainly contribute to new clinical findings. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the EBC NO levels in both the pre and postoperative (24 hours periods of cardiac surgery. METHODS: Twenty - eight individuals were divided into three groups: 1 control, 2 coronary artery bypass grafting, and 3 valve surgery. The nitrite (NO2 - levels were measured by chemiluminescence in blood samples and exhaled breath condensate (EBC. Data were analyzed by the Mann - Whitney and Wilcoxon tests. RESULTS: 1 Preoperatively, the EBC NO2 - levels from groups 2 and 3 patients were higher than control individuals; 2 The postoperative (24 hours NO2 - levels in the EBC from group 3 patients were lower compared with preoperative values; 3 The NO2 - levels in the plasma from group 2 patients were lower in the preoperative compared with the postoperative (24h values and; 4 Preoperatively, there was no difference between groups 2 and 3 in terms of plasma NO2 - concentrations. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that NO measurement in EBC is feasible in cardiac surgery patients.INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos mostrando alterações das concentrações de nitrito (NO2 - exalado, com biomarcador de lesão, são raros em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. Nesse contexto, o seu estudo no pré e pós - operatório de cirurgias cardíacas poderá contribuir para novos dados clínicos. OBJETIVO: O objetivo foi comparar os níveis de nitrito (NO2 - do condensado do exalado pulmonar (CEP no pré e pós - operatório de cirurgia cardíaca com circulação extracorpórea. MÉTODOS: Vinte e oito indivíduos foram alocados em três grupos: 1 controle, 2 revascularização do miocárdio e 3 corre

  5. Biomarkers of environmental benzene exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Weisel, C; Yu, R; Roy, A; Georgopoulos, P.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental exposures to benzene result in increases in body burden that are reflected in various biomarkers of exposure, including benzene in exhaled breath, benzene in blood and urinary trans-trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic acid. A review of the literature indicates that these biomarkers can be used to distinguish populations with different levels of exposure (such as smokers from nonsmokers and occupationally exposed from environmentally exposed populations) and to determine d...

  6. Clinical update on the use of biomarkers of airway inflammation in the management of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorscheid DR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SJ Wadsworth1,2, DD Sin1,2, DR Dorscheid1,21UBC James Hogg Research Centre, Providence Heart and Lung Institute, St Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada; 2Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Biological markers are already used in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Biomarkers have great potential use in the clinic as a noninvasive means to make more accurate diagnoses, monitor disease progression, and create personalized treatment regimes. Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with several different phenotypes, generally triggered by multiple gene-environment interactions. Pulmonary function tests are most often used objectively to confirm the diagnosis. However, airflow obstruction can be variable and thus missed using spirometry. Furthermore, lung function measurements may not reflect the precise underlying pathological processes responsible for different phenotypes. Inhaled corticosteroids and ß2-agonists have been the mainstay of asthma therapy for over 30 years, but the heterogeneity of the disease means not all asthmatics respond to the same treatment. High costs and undesired side effects of drugs also drive the need for better targeted treatment of asthma. Biomarkers have the potential to indicate an individual's disease phenotype and thereby guide clinicians in their decisions regarding treatment. This review focuses on biomarkers of airway inflammation which may help us to identify, monitor, and guide treatment of asthmatics. We discuss biomarkers obtained from multiple physiological sources, including sputum, exhaled gases, exhaled breath condensate, serum, and urine. We discuss the inherent limitations and benefits of using biomarkers in a heterogeneous disease such as asthma. We also discuss how we may modify our study designs to improve the identification and potential use of potential biomarkers in asthma.Keywords: asthma, inflammation, airway

  7. Modular Sampling and Analysis Techniques for the Real-Time Analysis of Human Breath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M; Farquar, G; Adams, K; Bogan, M; Martin, A; Benner, H; Spadaccini, C; Steele, P; Davis, C; Loyola, B; Morgan, J; Sankaran, S

    2007-07-09

    At LLNL and UC Davis, we are developing several techniques for the real-time sampling and analysis of trace gases, aerosols and exhaled breath that could be useful for a modular, integrated system for breath analysis. Those techniques include single-particle bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) for the analysis of exhaled aerosol particles or droplets as well as breath samplers integrated with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or MEMS-based differential mobility spectrometry (DMS). We describe these techniques and present recent data obtained from human breath or breath condensate, in particular, addressing the question of how environmental exposure influences the composition of breath.

  8. Breath figures of two immiscible substances on a repellent surface

    OpenAIRE

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; González-Viñas, W.

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of the competition between different substances while condensing on a cold surface is of high interest in situations in which it is desirable to control their condensation rates and the formed morphologies. We do the experiments for mixtures of water and hexamethyldisiloxane vapors at several concentrations. The dropwise condensation of the vapors forms breath figures on a substrate that is repellant to both substances. We report the average radius of the drops for each spec...

  9. [Hydrogen Breath Tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussler, Ulrich; Götz, Martin

    2016-02-01

    In the field of gastroenterology hydrogen breath test are used for the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption and small intestine bacterial overgrowth. This paper provides information on performing a hydrogen breath test and shows potential sources of error. PMID:26886040

  10. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, especially ...

  11. Water Condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund;

    2014-01-01

    The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics......, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address...

  12. Ethylene and ammonia traces measurements from the patients' breath with renal failure via LPAS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C.; Dutu, D. C. A.; Cernat, R.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Banita, S.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2011-11-01

    The application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) for fast and precise measurements of breath biomarkers has opened up new promises for monitoring and diagnostics in recent years, especially because breath test is a non-invasive method, safe, rapid and acceptable to patients. Our study involved assessment of breath ethylene and breath ammonia levels in patients with renal failure receiving haemodialysis (HD) treatment. Breath samples from healthy subjects and from patients with renal failure were collected using chemically inert aluminized bags and were subsequently analyzed using the LPAS technique. We have found out that the composition of exhaled breath in patients with renal failure contains not only ethylene, but also ammonia and gives valuable information for determining efficacy and endpoint of HD. Analysis of ethylene and ammonia traces from the human breath may provide insight into severity of oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and may ensure optimal therapy and prevention of pathology at patients on continuous HD.

  13. The isotope breathe test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foundations of the breath diagnostic test, based on application of the carbon compounds, labeled with the stable (13C) or radioactive isotope are presented. The methodology for conducting the breath isotope test and the apparatuses, making it possible to determine under clinical conditions the isotope composition of the carbon, contained in the expired air, depending on the introduced tracer type, is briefly described. The safety of the method and prospects of its application are discussed. The examples of the breath isotope test practical application are presented

  14. Charged Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Gabadadze, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    We consider Bose-Einstein condensation of massive electrically charged scalars in a uniform background of charged fermions. We focus on the case when the scalar condensate screens the background charge, while the net charge of the system resides on its boundary surface. A distinctive signature of this substance is that the photon acquires a Lorentz-violating mass in the bulk of the condensate. Due to this mass, the transverse and longitudinal gauge modes propagate with different group velocities. We give qualitative arguments that at high enough densities and low temperatures a charged system of electrons and helium-4 nuclei, if held together by laboratory devices or by force of gravity, can form such a substance. We briefly discuss possible manifestations of the charged condensate in compact astrophysical objects.

  15. Shortness-of-Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience of shortness ... are used to treat patients with anxiety or panic attacks. Other commonly used drugs include bronchodilators to widen ...

  16. Take a Deep Breath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Everyone involved in Beijing’s Olympic Games held their breath last week, not because of the city’s famously polluted air , but in anticipation of the results of an experiment that could help to clean it up.

  17. Condensate - undervalued

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent study of resource exploitation in the Middle East, Asia, Australia and New Zealand is reported, which shows that the economics of many gas fields could be enhanced by exploiting their gas condensate resources. Condensates, a range of gas-derived liquids heavier than Liquefied Petroleum Gas, are, as yet, under-exploited. The author argues that these valuable resources should be exploited to the benefit of the industry and the consumer, though some technological difficulties still need to be overcome. (UK)

  18. Biomarkers in kidney and heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maisel, Alan S.; Katz, Nevin; Hillege, Hans L.; Shaw, Andrew; Zanco, Pierluigi; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Anand, Inder; Anker, Stefan D.; Aspromonte, Nadia; Bagshaw, Sean M.; Berl, Tomas; Bobek, Ilona; Cruz, Dinna N.; Daliento, Luciano; Davenport, Andrew; Haapio, Mikko; House, Andrew A.; Mankad, Sunil; McCullough, Peter; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Palazzuoli, Alberto; Ponikowski, Piotr; Ronco, Federico; Sheinfeld, Geoff; Soni, Sachin; Vescovo, Giorgio; Zamperetti, Nereo; Ronco, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    There is much symptomatic similarity between acute kidney disease and acute heart disease. Both may present with shortness of breath and chest discomfort, and thus it is not surprising that biomarkers of acute myocardial and renal disease often coexist in many physicians' diagnostic work-up schedule

  19. Ammonia and ethylene biomarkers in the respiration of the people with schizophrenia using photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Cristina; Petrus, Mioara; Bratu, Ana Maria

    2015-05-01

    Oxidative stress has become an exciting area of schizophrenia (SCZ) research, and provides ample opportunities and hope for a better understanding of its pathophysiology, which may lead to new treatment strategies. The first objective of the present study was to analyze the oxidative stress markers in breath samples of patients with SCZ before and after the treatment with Levomepromazine. The second objective was to analyze the deficiency of amino acids marker in breath samples of patients with SCZ before and after the treatment. Exhaled breath was collected from 15 SCZ patients and 19 healthy controls; subsequently, CO2 laser photoacoustic spectroscopy was used to assess the exhaled breath compounds of the study subjects. One of the main breath biomarkers of the oxidative stress is ethylene, while one of the main breath biomarkers of the amino acids deficiency is ammonia. The breath biomarkers in the exhalation of SCZ patients exhibited significant differences from the breath biomarkers in the exhalation of healthy controls. Analysis of breath ethylene and breath ammonia provides a related model of SCZ exhalation that could represent an effective and convenient screening method for this intellectual disability.

  20. Human Biomonitoring of Engineered Nanoparticles: An Appraisal of Critical Issues and Potential Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bergamaschi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the applicability of biological monitoring to the assessment of exposure and possible effects deriving from exposure to engineered nanomaterials (NM. After establishing a conceptual framework in which human biomonitoring should be placed, the paper reviews the critical issues related to the unusual properties of NM affecting the implementation of biomonitoring activities for this new class of chemicals. Relying on the recent advances in the toxicogenomic, it is possible to assess whether specific biological pathways are activated or perturbed by specific NM. However, to evaluate if quantitative changes in these biomarkers can be used as indicators or predictors for toxicity in humans, validation on well characterised groups of exposed people is needed. At present, it appears more pragmatic to evolve NM-associated biomarker identification considering relevant biological responses found in environmental and occupational studies and assessing the early events associated with exposure to these NM. The battery of biochemical markers includes soluble molecules, antioxidant capacity, peroxidated lipids and carbonyl groups in serum proteins as a biomarkers of systemic inflammation and vascular adhesion molecules to assess endothelial activation/damage. Abnormalities in exhaled breath condensate chemistry reflecting intrinsic changes in the airway lining fluid and lung inflammation seem promising tools suitable for BM studies and are broadly discussed.

  1. Ultrasensitive laser spectroscopy for breath analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtas, J.; Bielecki, Z.; Stacewicz, T.; Mikołajczyk, J.; Nowakowski, M.

    2012-03-01

    At present there are many reasons for seeking new methods and technologies that aim to develop new and more perfect sensors for different chemical compounds. However, the main reasons are safety ensuring and health care. In the paper, recent advances in the human breath analysis by the use of different techniques are presented. We have selected non-invasive ones ensuring detection of pathogenic changes at a molecular level. The presence of certain molecules in the human breath is used as an indicator of a specific disease. Thus, the analysis of the human breath is very useful for health monitoring. We have shown some examples of diseases' biomarkers and various methods capable of detecting them. Described methods have been divided into non-optical and optical methods. The former ones are the following: gas chromatography, flame ionization detection, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. In recent twenty years, the optical methods have become more popular, especially the laser techniques. They have a great potential for detection and monitoring of the components in the gas phase. These methods are characterized by high sensitivity and good selectivity. The spectroscopic sensors provide the opportunity to detect specific gases and to measure their concentration either in a sampling place or a remote one. Multipass spectroscopy, cavity ring-down spectroscopy, and photo-acoustic spectroscopy were characterised in the paper as well.

  2. Breath by breath analysis of breathing pattern in health and disease: a potential outcome measure for breathing retraining?

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Wai

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of breathing pattern can quantify parameters of breathing such as rate, volume, timing and regularity/rhythmicity. This information can be useful to compare breathing patterns in those healthy and with disease, under different experiment conditions (such as rest versus activity) and to monitor changes over time. In this research, respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) was used to record breathing patterns in a group of healthy subjects and a group of severe asthma patients. ...

  3. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  4. Firefighter's Breathing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

  5. Breathing Like a Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  6. Oronasal breathing during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibene, F; Mognoni, P; Lafortuna, C L; Mostardi, R

    1978-12-15

    The shift from nasal to oronasal breathing (ONBS) has been observed on 73 subjects with two independent methods. A first group of 63 subjects exercising on a bicycle ergometer at increasing work load (98--196 W) has been observed. On 35 subjects the highest value of ventilation attained with nasal breathing was 40.2 +/- 9.41 . min-1 S.D. Ten subjects breathed through the mouth at all loads, while 5 never opened the mouth. On 13 subjects it was not possible to make reliable measurements. On a second group of 10 subjects utilizing a different techniques which did not need a face mask, the ventilation at which one changes the pattern of breathing was found to be 44.2 +/- 13.51 . min-1 S.D. On the same subjects nasal resistance did not show any correlation with ONBS. It is concluded that ONBS is not solely determined by nasal resistance, though an indirect effect due to hypoventilation and hence to changes in alveolar air composition cannot be ruled out. It is likely that ONBS is also influenced by psychological factors. PMID:569826

  7. Observation of Faraday Waves in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Peter; Atherton, Collin; Hoefer, Mark

    2007-06-01

    Faraday waves in a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate are created. It is shown that periodically modulating the transverse confinement, and thus the nonlinear interactions in the BEC, excites small amplitude longitudinal oscillations through a parametric resonance. It is also demonstrated that even without the presence of a continuous drive, an initial transverse breathing mode excitation of the condensate leads to spontaneous pattern formation in the longitudinal direction. Finally, the effects of strongly driving the transverse breathing mode with large amplitude are investigated. In this case, impact-oscillator behavior and intriguing nonlinear dynamics, including the gradual emergence of multiple longitudinal modes, are observed.

  8. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health (NCCDPHP, DACH).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  9. Clinical significance of PCT in exhaled breath condensate and serum of patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome%ALI/ARDS患者呼出气冷凝液和血清中PCT检测及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金亮; 陈建荣; 薛垒喜; 陶一江; 陶国华

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究ALI/ARDS患者呼出气冷凝液( EBC)和血清中降钙素原( PCT)的变化规律,探讨PCT在ALI/ARDS诊断、病情评估、预后判断中的临床意义。方法选择行机械通气的ALI/ARDS患者33例;同时选择20例健康体检者为健康对照组。观察ALI/ARDS患者与健康对照组之间血清和EBC中PCT的差异,分析临床指标和各种指标之间的相关性。结果①ALI/ARDS组EBC和血清中PCT高于健康对照组。②ARDS组患者第七天EBC和血清中PCT中PCT高于ALI组。③存活组患者治疗后EBC和血清中PCT水平下降,病死组患者EBC和血清中PCT持续升高。④EBC和血清中PCT与PaO2/FiO2、APACHEⅡ有相关性。结论 ALI/ARDS患者EBC和血清中PCT的检测,有助于ALI/ARDS的诊断、病情评估和判断预后。%Objective To detect the change of procalcitonin ( PCT) in exhaled breath condensate ( EBC) and serum of ALI/ARDS patients and to explore its clinical significance in diagnosis, illness evaluation and progno-sis. Methods The study selected 33 mechanical ventilation patients with ALI/ARDS as the observation group and 20 healthy people as the control group. The difference of PCT in EBC and serum was compared between the two groups, and the correlation among the clinical indicators was analyzed. Results ①The level of PCT in EBC and se-rum was higher in the observation group than in the control group. ②The level of PCT was higher in the ARDS group than in the ALI group on the seventh day. ③The level of PCT decreased in the survival group after treatment, but it increased in the death group. ④ The level of PCT in EBC and serum was associated with PaO2/FiO2 and APACHE Ⅱ. Conclusion The test of PCT in EBC and serum of ALI/ARDS patients can contribute to their diagnosis, condi-tion evaluation and prognosis.

  10. Observation of Faraday Waves in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    OpenAIRE

    Engels, P.; Atherton, C.; Hoefer, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Faraday waves in a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate are created. It is shown that periodically modulating the transverse confinement, and thus the nonlinear interactions in the BEC, excites small amplitude longitudinal oscillations through a parametric resonance. It is also demonstrated that even without the presence of a continuous drive, an initial transverse breathing mode excitation of the condensate leads to spontaneous pattern formation in the longitudinal direction. Finally, the e...

  11. Imaging Biomarkers or Biomarker Imaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Mitterhauser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since biomarker imaging is traditionally understood as imaging of molecular probes, we highly recommend to avoid any confusion with the previously defined term “imaging biomarkers” and, therefore, only use “molecular probe imaging (MPI” in that context. Molecular probes (MPs comprise all kinds of molecules administered to an organism which inherently carry a signalling moiety. This review highlights the basic concepts and differences of molecular probe imaging using specific biomarkers. In particular, PET radiopharmaceuticals are discussed in more detail. Specific radiochemical and radiopharmacological aspects as well as some legal issues are presented.

  12. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200 nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations

  13. Combined sensing platform for advanced diagnostics in exhaled mouse breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Paula R.; Wilk, Andreas; Seichter, Felicia; Cajlakovic, Merima; Koestler, Stefan; Ribitsch, Volker; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Carter, Chance; Raimundo, Ivo M.; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Breath analysis is an attractive non-invasive strategy for early disease recognition or diagnosis, and for therapeutic progression monitoring, as quantitative compositional analysis of breath can be related to biomarker panels provided by a specific physiological condition invoked by e.g., pulmonary diseases, lung cancer, breast cancer, and others. As exhaled breath contains comprehensive information on e.g., the metabolic state, and since in particular volatile organic constituents (VOCs) in exhaled breath may be indicative of certain disease states, analytical techniques for advanced breath diagnostics should be capable of sufficient molecular discrimination and quantification of constituents at ppm-ppb - or even lower - concentration levels. While individual analytical techniques such as e.g., mid-infrared spectroscopy may provide access to a range of relevant molecules, some IR-inactive constituents require the combination of IR sensing schemes with orthogonal analytical tools for extended molecular coverage. Combining mid-infrared hollow waveguides (HWGs) with luminescence sensors (LS) appears particularly attractive, as these complementary analytical techniques allow to simultaneously analyze total CO2 (via luminescence), the 12CO2/13CO2 tracer-to-tracee (TTR) ratio (via IR), selected VOCs (via IR) and O2 (via luminescence) in exhaled breath, yet, establishing a single diagnostic platform as both sensors simultaneously interact with the same breath sample volume. In the present study, we take advantage of a particularly compact (shoebox-size) FTIR spectrometer combined with novel substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) recently developed by our research team, and miniaturized fiberoptic luminescence sensors for establishing a multi-constituent breath analysis tool that is ideally compatible with mouse intensive care stations (MICU). Given the low tidal volume and flow of exhaled mouse breath, the TTR is usually determined after sample collection via gas

  14. Breath-by-breath measurement of particle deposition in the lung of spontaneously breathing rats

    OpenAIRE

    S. Karrasch; Eder, G.; Bolle, I.; Tsuda, A.; Schulz, H

    2009-01-01

    A number of deposition models for humans, as well as experimental animals, have been described. However, no breath-by-breath deposition measurement in rats has been reported to date. The objective of this study is to determine lung deposition of micrometer-sized particles as a function of breathing parameters in the adult rat lung. A new aerosol photometry system was designed to measure deposition of nonhygroscopic, 2-μm sebacate particles in anesthetized, intubated, and spontaneously breathi...

  15. Clinical applications of breath testing

    OpenAIRE

    Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam; Dweik, Raed A.

    2010-01-01

    Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years.

  16. Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Human Breath Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtas, J.; Tittel, F. K.; Stacewicz, T.; Bielecki, Z.; Lewicki, R.; Mikolajczyk, J.; Nowakowski, M.; Szabra, D.; Stefanski, P.; Tarka, J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes two different optoelectronic detection techniques: cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy. These techniques are designed to perform a sensitive analysis of trace gas species in exhaled human breath for medical applications. With such systems, the detection of pathogenic changes at the molecular level can be achieved. The presence of certain gases (biomarkers), at increased concentration levels, indicates numerous human diseases. Diagnosis of a disease in its early stage would significantly increase chances for effective therapy. Non-invasive, real-time measurements, and high sensitivity and selectivity, capable of minimum discomfort for patients, are the main advantages of human breath analysis. At present, monitoring of volatile biomarkers in breath is commonly useful for diagnostic screening, treatment for specific conditions, therapy monitoring, control of exogenous gases (such as bacterial and poisonous emissions), as well as for analysis of metabolic gases.

  17. Rapid shallow breathing index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  18. Use of breath hydrogen and methane as markers of colonic fermentation in epidemiologic studies: circadian patterns of excretion.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Marchand, L.; Wilkens, L. R.; Harwood, P.; Cooney, R V

    1992-01-01

    Fermentation in the large bowel has been postulated to play a protective role against colon cancer. Hydrogen and methane are end products of this fermentation process and are absorbed into the bloodstream and excreted via expired air in the breath. Breath levels of hydrogen and, to a lesser extent, methane correlate strongly with colonic fermentation and may serve as useful biomarkers for this process. In a preliminary study to assess the usefulness of these two markers in epidemiologic studi...

  19. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  20. The Physics of Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ka Yee C.

    2001-04-01

    The primary function of lung surfactant is to form monolayers at the alveolar interface capable of lowering the normal surface tension to near zero. To accomplish this process, the surfactant must maintain a coherent, tightly packed monolayer that avoids collapse during expiration. Previous researchers have shown that the positively charged amino-terminal peptide sequence SP-B1-25 of lung surfactant-specific protein SP-B increases the collapse pressure of palmitic acid (PA), an important anionic component of lung surfactant, and prevents it from being "squeezed out" from the primarily dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lung surfactant monolayer. However, the mechanisms involved in the alteration of the PA isotherms, and the interactions of lung surfactant specific proteins with PA and other surfactant lipids with low collapse pressures are still not well understood. Utilizing different microscopy techniques, we have shown that SP-B1-25 inhibits the formation of condensed phases in PA monolayers, resulting in a new fluid PA-protein phase. This fluid phase forms a network that separates condensed phase domains at coexistence. The network persists to high surface pressures, altering the nucleation, growth and morphology of monolayer collapse structures, leading to lower surface tension on compression and more reversible respreading on expansion, factors essential to the in vivo performance of lung surfactant. The network is stabilized by the low line tension between the fluid phase and the condensed phase as confirmed by the formation of extended linear domains or stripe phases. Similar stripes are found in monolayers of fluorescein-labeled SP-B1-25, suggesting the reduction in line tension be due to the protein. We have also observed that SP-B1-25 in simple phospholipid and model lung surfactant monolayers promote the protrusion of folds into the subphase at low surface tensions. The folds remain attached to the monolayer, appear to be identical in composition to

  1. Direct condensation by jet condensers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project work reported encompasses experiments for investigation of the direct condensation of steam/gas mixtures in jet condensers under emergency conditions. A task of main interest was to establish the database for the dimensioning of an industrial-scale system and the description of processes such as the flow of the steam/gas mixture in the blow-down pipe, the independent suction of cooling water by the jet condenser, and the overall condensation efficiency of these components. Experiments also covered unfavorable conditions of condensation, as e.g. a high amount of non-condensable gases in the mixture, or a low-entrainment temperature difference. In an engineering development system, preliminary tests were made with various commercial jet condensers, such as steam jet liquid pumps or steam jet superheaters in order to evaluate their condensation efficiency. Steam jet liquid pumps are of restricted applicability in safety-conscious systems, as the independent suction of cooling water is strongly limited or even inhibited already at low amounts of inert gas in the mixture, preventing sufficient flow of cooling water. The cooling water flow likewise is reduced by inert gas in the steam jet superheaters, but this reduction stops at a level still allowing almost complete condensation. (orig.)

  2. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... sensing as other systems rely on either measuring the airflow at the mouth and nose through a mask or with a stretchable wire around the chest. In this paper a wireless system that is able to measure the breath rate of a human from a distance is presented. The system is based on a commercially available...

  3. A Study of the Effects of Breath Management Instruction on the Breathing Mode, Knowledge of Breathing, and Performance Skills of College-Level Brass Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kenneth H.; Sehmann, Karin Harfst

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of breathing instruction on the breath management, performance, and knowledge of breathing among college-level brass musicians. Finds that breathing instruction significantly improved the breath management and knowledge of the breathing for the experimental groups and the musical range of the trombone players in the…

  4. Excitations of Bose-Einstein condensates at finite temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Rusch, M

    2000-01-01

    in their frequency spectra. Where possible we derive energy shifts and lifetimes of excitations. For one particular mode, the breathing mode, the effects of the discreteness of the system are sufficiently pronounced that the simple picture of an energy shift and width fails. Experiments in spherical traps have recently become feasible and should be able to test our detailed quantitative predictions. Recent experimental observations of collective excitations of Bose condensed atomic vapours have stimulated interest in the microscopic description of the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an external potential. We present a finite temperature field theory for collective excitations of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates and use a finite-temperature linear response formalism, which goes beyond the simple mean-field approximation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The effect of the non-condensed thermal atoms we include using perturbation theory in a quasiparticle basis. This presents a simple scheme ...

  5. Condensation in insulated homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, R A

    1978-05-28

    A research proposal on condensation in insulated homes is presented. Information is provided on: justification for condensation control; previous work and present outlook (good vapor barrier, condensation and retrofit insulation, vapor barrier decreases condensation, brick-veneer walls, condensation in stress-skin panels, air-conditioned buildings, retrofitting for conservation, study on mobile homes, high indoor relative humidity, report on various homes); and procedure (after funding has been secured). Measures are briefly described on opening walls, testing measures, and retrofitting procedures. An extensive bibliography and additional informative citations are included. (MCW)

  6. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders N; Nøttrup, Trine Jakobi;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer implies a risk of late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity. This is the first study to evaluate cardiopulmonary dose sparing of breathing adapted radiotherapy (BART) using free breathing gating, and to...... compare this respiratory technique with voluntary breath-hold. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 17 patients were CT-scanned during non-coached breathing manoeuvre including free breathing (FB), end-inspiration gating (IG), end-expiration gating (EG), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and end-expiration breath......-hold (EBH). The Varian Real-time Position Management system (RPM) was used to monitor respiratory movement and to gate the scanner. For each breathing phase, a population based internal margin (IM) was estimated based on average chest wall excursion, and incorporated into an individually optimised three...

  7. Modelling of condensation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condensation occurs when vapor is cooled sufficiently below the saturation temperature to induce the nucleation of droplets. Such nucleation may occur homogeneously within the vapor or heterogeneously on entrained particular matter. Heterogeneous nucleation may occur on the walls of the system, where the temperature is below the saturation temperature. There are two forms of heterogeneous condensation, drop-wise and film-wise. Another form of condensation occurs when vapor directly contacts to subcooled liquid. In nuclear power plant systems, all forms of condensation may occur during normal operation or accident conditions. In this work the modelling of condensation is surveyed, including the Nusselts' laminar film condensation theory in 1916, Rohsenow's turbulent film condensation model in 1950s, and Chen's models in 1987. Major attention is paid on the film condensation models among various research results because of its importance in engineering applications. It is found that theory, experiment, and empirical correlations for film condensation are well established, but research for drop-wise and direct-contact condensation are not sufficient yet. Condensation models in the best-estimate system codes such as RELAP5/MOD3 and CATHARE2 are also investigated. 3 tabs., 11 figs., 36 refs. (Author)

  8. Taking a deep breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    2012-12-01

    be paid to language revision and reference citation. Together with its authors and readers, IJHDR contributes to the development of a kind of knowledge close to the borders of science. Therefore, to establish a valid scientific background, the articles must be clearly written, and based on sound assumptions. High-visibility for articles is a fundamental aspect desired by all authors. As an open and free access journal, IJHDR meets that condition, and we are planning to make our influence and visibility even wider. Inclusion in the major databases has paramount importance in the academic milieu, however, it should be considered as a consequence, rather than a goal. In 2013, IJHDR will chair a collaborative project with several research institutions aiming to deliver information everywhere, increasing the visibility of the published articles. Thus, now it is the time to take a deep breath, relax, and prepare you for the forthcoming work! See you in 2013!

  9. Secondary electrospray ionization coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry reveals tryptophan pathway metabolites in exhaled human breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Diego; Gaisl, Thomas; Bregy, Lukas; Martínez-Lozano Sinues, Pablo; Kohler, Malcolm; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-06-30

    Many studies and personalized medicine in general require frequent measurements and/or rapid results of biomarker levels. Here we show that 20 low volatility metabolites of the tryptophan pathway can be detected in exhaled human breath. This real-time and non-invasive method offers an attractive alternative to blood analysis. PMID:27273568

  10. Practice makes perfect, even for breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Jack L.; Kam, Kaiwen; Janczewski, Wiktor A.

    2009-01-01

    Breathing relies on a respiratory rhythm generator. A study characterizes an early emerging oscillatory group of Phox2b-expressing parafacial cells that entrain and couple with the preBötzinger Complex at the onset of fetal breathing.

  11. Regulation of Breathing under Different Pulmonary Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rieger-Fackeldey, Esther

    2004-01-01

    The breathing pattern of preterm infants is immature and is associated with a variety of reflexes. In a patient on the ventilator these reflexes interfere with spontaneous breathing. A better understanding of the immature control of breathing could lead to further improvements in ventilatory techniques. This thesis concerns studies of pulmonary stretch receptor (PSR) and phrenic nerve activity as part of the regulation of breathing in an animal model. During assist/control ventilation with th...

  12. Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

  13. Rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biomarkers in biological fluids using surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Yiping; Zughaier, Susu M.

    2014-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is an opportunistic pathogen that causes major infection not only in Cystic Fibrosis patients but also in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in critically ill patients in intensive care units. Successful antibiotic treatment of the infection relies on accurate and rapid identification of the infectious agents. Conventional microbiological detection methods usually take more than 3 days to obtain accurate results. We have developed a rapid diagnostic technique based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering to directly identify PA from biological fluids. P. aeruginosa strains, PAO1 and PA14, are cultured in lysogeny broth, and the SERS spectra of the broth show the signature Raman peaks from pyocyanin and pyoverdine, two major biomarkers that P. aeruginosa secretes during its growth, as well as lipopolysaccharides. This provides the evidence that the presence of these biomarkers can be used to indicate P. aeruginosa infection. A total of 22 clinical exhaled breath condensates (EBC) samples were obtained from subjects with CF disease and from non-CF healthy donors. SERS spectra of these EBC samples were obtained and further analyzed by both principle component analysis and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). PLS-DA can discriminate the samples with P. aeruginosa infection and the ones without P. aeruginosa infection at 99.3% sensitivity and 99.6% specificity. In addition, this technique can also discriminate samples from subject with CF disease and healthy donor with 97.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity. These results demonstrate the potential of using SERS of EBC samples as a rapid diagnostic tool to detect PA infection.

  14. 21 CFR 868.5620 - Breathing mouthpiece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing mouthpiece. 868.5620 Section 868.5620...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5620 Breathing mouthpiece. (a) Identification. A breathing mouthpiece is a rigid device that is inserted into a patient's mouth and...

  15. Breath hydrogen test and sucrase isomaltase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, R P; Barnes, G L

    1983-01-01

    Sucrose breath hydrogen tests were performed on 7 children with proved sucrase isomaltase deficiency. All children had raised breath hydrogen excretion. The amount of hydrogen produced and symptoms experienced increased with increasing sucrose loads. The sucrose breath hydrogen test appears to be a reliable indicator of sucrose malabsorption in sucrase isomaltase deficiency.

  16. Combination of biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurfjell, Lennart; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Lundqvist, Roger;

    2012-01-01

    The New National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease (AD) incorporate biomarkers in the diagnostic criteria and suggest division of biomarkers into two categories: Aβ accumulation and neuronal degeneration or injury....

  17. Biomarkers in Computational Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomarkers are a means to evaluate chemical exposure and/or the subsequent impacts on toxicity pathways that lead to adverse health outcomes. Computational toxicology can integrate biomarker data with knowledge of exposure, chemistry, biology, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and e...

  18. Condensate cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To decrease the frequency for the backwash and regeneration operations due to the increase in the differential pressure resulted from claddings captured in a mixed floor type desalter, and decrease the amount of radioactive liquid wastes of claddings from the condensate systems by removing claddings with electromagnetic filters. Constitution: In an existent plant, a valves is disposed between a condensate pump and a mixed floor type desalter. A pipeway is branched from a condensate pipe between the condensate pipe and the valve, through which condensates are transferred by a pump to an electromagnetic filter such as of a high gradient type electromagntic filter to remove claddings, then returned to a condensate pipe between the valve and the mixed floor type desalter and, thereafter, are removed with ionic components in the mixed floor type desalter and fed to the reactor. (Yoshino, Y.)

  19. Effect of slow breathing training on heart rate, spontaneous respiratory rate and pattern of breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Ritu Adhana; Moneet Agarwal; Rani Gupta; Jyoti Dvivedi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study was performed to see the effect of slow breathing (6 breaths/minute) training on spontaneous respiratory rate, heart rate and pattern of breathing. Methods: Sixty subjects between the ages 20-50 years were included in the study. After the rest of 10-15 minutes in a comfortable sitting posture their baseline heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and pattern of breathing were recorded on digital polygraph. Then they were guided to do slow breathing maintaining rate of...

  20. Breath air measurement using wide-band frequency tuning IR laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistenev, Yury V.; Borisov, Alexey V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Boyko, Andrey A.; Kostyukova, Nadezhda Y.; Karapuzikov, Alexey A.

    2016-03-01

    The results of measuring of biomarkers in breath air of patients with broncho-pulmonary diseases using wide-band frequency tuning IR laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy and the methods of data mining are presented. We will discuss experimental equipment and various methods of intellectual analysis of the experimental spectra in context of above task. The work was carried out with partial financial support of the FCPIR contract No 14.578.21.0082 (ID RFMEFI57814X0082).

  1. Of Matters Condensed

    CERN Document Server

    Shulman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The American Physical Society (APS) March Meeting of condensed matter physics has grown to nearly 10,000 participants, comprises 23 individual APS groups, and even warrants its own hashtag (#apsmarch). Here we analyze the text and data from March Meeting abstracts of the past nine years and discuss trends in condensed matter physics over this time period. We find that in comparison to atomic, molecular, and optical physics, condensed matter changes rapidly, and that condensed matter appears to be moving increasingly toward subject matter that is traditionally in materials science and engineering.

  2. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  3. Towards the determination of isoprene in human breath using substrate-integrated hollow waveguide mid-infrared sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Guaita, David; Kokoric, Vjekoslav; Wilk, Andreas; Garrigues, Salvador; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2014-06-01

    Selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath may be considered biomarkers if they are indicative of distinct diseases or disease states. Given the inherent molecular selectivity of vibrational spectroscopy, infrared sensing technologies appear ideally suitable for the determination of endogenous VOCs in breath. The aim of this study was to determine that mid-infrared (MIR; 3-20 µm) gas phase sensing is capable of determining isoprene in exhaled breath as an exemplary medically relevant VOC by hyphenating novel substrate-integrated hollow waveguides (iHWG) with a likewise miniaturized preconcentration system. A compact preconcentrator column for sampling isoprene from exhaled breath was coupled to an iHWG serving simultaneously as highly miniaturized gas cell and light conduit in combination with a compact Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. A gas mixing system enabled extensive system calibration using isoprene standards. After system optimization, a calibration function obtaining a limit of quantification of 106 ppb was achieved. According to the literature, the obtained sensitivity is sufficient for quantifying middle to high isoprene concentrations occurring in exhaled breath. Finally, a volunteer breath sample was analysed proving comparable values of isoprene in a real-world scenario. Despite its fundamental utility, the proposed methodology contains some limitations in terms of sensitivity and temporal resolution in comparison with the readily available measurement techniques that should be addressed during future optimization of the system. Nonetheless, this study presents the first determination of endogenous VOCs in breath via advanced hollow waveguide MIR sensor technology, clearly demonstrating its potential for the analysis of volatile biomarkers in exhaled breath. PMID:24848160

  4. Breathing Modes in Dusty Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓钢; 王爽; 潘秋惠; 刘悦; 贺明峰

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic breathing modes of dusty plasmas have been investigated in a cylindricalsystem with an axial symmetry. The linear wave solution and a "dispersion" relation were derived.It was found that in an infinite area, the mode is reduced to a "classical" dust acoustic wave inthe region away from the center. If the dusty plasma is confined in a finite region, however, thebreathing (or heart-beating) behavior would be found as observed in many experiments.

  5. The chemical neuroanatomy of breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Alheid, George F.; McCrimmon, Donald R.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical neuroanatomy of breathing must ultimately encompass all the various neuronal elements physiologically identified in brainstem respiratory circuits and their apparent aggregation into “compartments” within the medulla and pons. These functionally defined respiratory compartments in the brainstem provide the major source of input to cranial motoneurons controlling the airways, and to spinal motoneurons activating inspiratory and expiratory pump muscles. This review provides an over...

  6. Film condensation of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of vapour-to-surface temperature difference and heat flux for film condensation of mercury on a vertical plane square (side 40 mm) nickel plated copper surface are reported. Thermocouples, accurately located and spaced through the copper condensing block served to measure, by extrapolation, the temperature at the copper-nickel interface and from the temperature gradient, the heat flux. Special care was taken to ensure that the results were not vitiated by the presence in the vapour of non-condensing gases. The results have higher relative precision than other recent heat-transfer measurements for condensation of metals since the present observations were made under conditions (metal used, vapour temperature and condensation rate) for which the vapour-to-surface temperature difference was larger than in the earlier work. The observed vapour-to-surface temperature differences are substantially greater than those given by the Nusselt theory of film condensation. By attributing the excess temperature drop to the vapour-liquid interface, the results are compared with theoretical expressions for interphase matter transfer. As in other recent work, values for the correction factor (or apparent 'condensation coefficient') varied from near unity down to about 0.6. The precision of the present results is such as to reveal a dependence of the correction factor on the condensation rate as well as on the vapour pressure. It was found that both could be satisfactorily correlated by a single dimensionless variable. (author)

  7. Systematic text condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies.......To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies....

  8. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This measure guideline on evaporative condensers provides information on properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices.

  9. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  10. Air-Breathing Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  11. Chromosome condensation and segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of chromosome condensation in mammalians -humans especially- were studied by means of cytogenetic techniques of chromosome banding. Two further approaches were adopted: a study of normal condensation as early as prophase, and an analysis of chromosome segmentation induced by physical (temperature and γ-rays) or chemical agents (base analogues, antibiotics, ...) in order to show out the factors liable to affect condensation. Here 'segmentation' means an abnormal chromosome condensation appearing systematically and being reproducible. The study of normal condensation was made possible by the development of a technique based on cell synchronization by thymidine and giving prophasic and prometaphasic cells. Besides, the possibility of inducing R-banding segmentations on these cells by BrdU (5-bromodeoxyuridine) allowed a much finer analysis of karyotypes. Another technique was developed using 5-ACR (5-azacytidine), it allowed to induce a segmentation similar to the one obtained using BrdU and identify heterochromatic areas rich in G-C bases pairs

  12. Molecular fossils in Cretaceous condensate from western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Dutta, Suryendu; Dutta, Ratul

    2014-06-01

    The present study reports the biomarker distribution of condensate belonging to the early Cretaceous time frame using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The early Cretaceous palaeoenvironment was inscribed into these molecular fossils which reflected the source and conditions of deposition of the condensate. The saturate fraction of the condensate is characterized by normal alkanes ranging from n-C9 to n-C29 (CPI-1.13), cycloalkanes and C14 and C15 sesquiterpanes. The aromatic fraction comprises of naphthalene, phenanthrene, their methylated derivatives and cyclohexylbenzenes. Isohexylalkylnaphthalenes, a product of rearrangement process of terpenoids, is detected in the condensate. Several aromatic sesquiterpenoids and diterpenoids have been recorded. Dihydro- ar-curcumene, cadalene and ionene form the assemblage of sesquiterpenoids which are indicative of higher plant input. Aromatic diterpenoid fraction comprises of simonellite and retene. These compounds are also indicative of higher plants, particularly conifer source which had been a predominant flora during the Cretaceous time.

  13. Molecular fossils in Cretaceous condensate from western India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sharmila Bhattacharya; Suryendu Dutta; Ratul Dutta

    2014-07-01

    The present study reports the biomarker distribution of condensate belonging to the early Cretaceous time frame using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The early Cretaceous palaeoenvironment was inscribed into these molecular fossils which reflected the source and conditions of deposition of the condensate. The saturate fraction of the condensate is characterized by normal alkanes ranging from -C9 to -C29} (CPI-1.13), cycloalkanes and C14 and C15 sesquiterpanes. The aromatic fraction comprises of naphthalene, phenanthrene, their methylated derivatives and cyclohexylbenzenes. Isohexylalkylnaphthalenes, a product of rearrangement process of terpenoids, is detected in the condensate. Several aromatic sesquiterpenoids and diterpenoids have been recorded. Dihydro-ar-curcumene, cadalene and ionene form the assemblage of sesquiterpenoids which are indicative of higher plant input. Aromatic diterpenoid fraction comprises of simonellite and retene. These compounds are also indicative of higher plants, particularly conifer source which had been a predominant flora during the Cretaceous time.

  14. Thoracic radiotherapy and breath control: current prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) is adversely affected by setup error and organ motion. In thoracic 3D CRT, breathing accounts for most of intra-fraction movements, thus impairing treatment quality. Breath control clearly exhibits dosimetric improvement compared to free breathing, leading to various techniques for gated treatments. We review benefits of different breath control methods -i.e. breath-holding or beam gating, with spirometric, isometric or X-ray respiration sensor- and argument the choice of expiration versus inspiration, with consideration to dosimetric concerns. All steps of 3D-CRT can be improved with breath control. Contouring of organs at risk (OAR) and target are easier and more accurate on breath controlled CT-scans. Inter- and intra-fraction target immobilisation allows smaller margins with better coverage. Lung outcome predictors (NTCP, Mean Dose, LV20, LV30) are improved with breath-control. In addition, inspiration breath control facilitates beam arrangement since it widens the distance between OAR and target, and leaves less lung normal tissue within the high dose region. Last, lung density, as of CT scan, is more accurate, improving dosimetry. Our institutions choice is to use spirometry driven, patient controlled high-inspiration breath-hold; this technique gives excellent immobilization results, with high reproducibility, yet it is easy to implement and costs little extra treatment time. Breath control, whatever technique is employed, proves superior to free breathing treatment when using 3D-CRT. Breath control should then be used whenever possible, and is probably mandatory for IMRT. (authors)

  15. A systematic review of breath analysis and detection of volatile organic compounds in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Anders; Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Titlestad, Ingrid; Vestbo, Jørgen; Baumbach, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is, according to the WHO, the fifth leading cause of death worldwide, and is expected to increase to rank third in 2030. Few robust biomarkers for COPD exist, and several attempts have been made to find suitable molecular marker candidates. One rising research area is breath analysis, with several published attempts to find exhaled compounds as diagnostic markers. The field is broad and no review of published COPD breath analysis studies exists yet. We have conducted a systematic review examining the state of art and identified 12 suitable papers, which we investigated in detail to extract a list of potential COPD breath marker molecules. First, we observed that no candidate markers were detected in all 12 studies. Only three were reported in more than one paper, thus reliable exhaled markers are still missing. A major challenge is the heterogeneity in breath sampling technologies, the selection of appropriate control groups, and a lack of sophisticated (and standardized) statistical data analysis methods. No cross-hospital/study comparisons have been published yet. We conclude that future efforts should (also) concentrate on making breath data analysis more comparable through standardization of sampling, data processing, and reporting. PMID:27578038

  16. Photoacoustic sensor for VOCs: first step towards a lung cancer breath test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Marcus; Groninga, Hinrich G.; Dressler, Matthias; Harde, Hermann

    2005-08-01

    Development of new optical sensor technologies has a major impact on the progression of diagnostic methods. Specifically, the optical analysis of breath is an extraordinarily promising technique. Spectroscopic sensors for the non-invasive 13C-breath tests (the Urea Breath Test for detection of Helicobacter pylori is most prominent) are meanwhile well established. However, recent research and development go beyond gastroenterological applications. Sensitive and selective detection of certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a patient's breath, could enable the diagnosis of diseases that are very difficult to diagnose with contemporary techniques. For instance, an appropriate VOC biomarker for early-stage bronchial carcinoma (lung cancer) is n-butane (C4H10). We present a new optical detection scheme for VOCs that employs an especially compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). This method makes use of the transformation of absorbed modulated radiation into a sound wave. Employing a wavelength-modulated distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser and taking advantage of acoustical resonances of the sample cell, we performed very sensitive and selective measurements on butane. A detection limit for butane in air in the ppb range was achieved. In subsequent research the sensitivity will be successively improved to match the requirements of the medical application. Upon optimization, our photoacoustic sensor has the potential to enable future breath tests for early-stage lung cancer diagnostics.

  17. Characterization of exhaled breath particles collected by an electret filter technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinglev, Åsa Danielsson; Ullah, Shahid; Ljungkvist, Göran; Viklund, Emilia; Olin, Anna-Carin; Beck, Olof

    2016-06-01

    Aerosol particles that are present in exhaled breath carry nonvolatile components and have gained interest as a specimen for potential biomarkers. Nonvolatile compounds detected in exhaled breath include both endogenous and exogenous compounds. The aim of this study was to study particles collected with a new, simple and convenient filter technique. Samples of breath were collected from healthy volunteers from approximately 30 l of exhaled air. Particles were counted with an optical particle counter and two phosphatidylcholines were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, phosphatidylcholines and methadone was analysed in breath from patients in treatment with methadone and oral fluid was collected with the Quantisal device. The results demonstrated that the majority of particles are  particle contributes most to the total mass. The phosphatidylcholine PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) dominated over PC(16 : 0/18 : 1) and represented a major constituent of the particles. The concentration of the PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) homolog was significantly correlated (p  particles is a promising strategy for measurement of nonvolatiles in breath. PMID:26987381

  18. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange. PMID:27311826

  19. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange.

  20. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney. (paper)

  1. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Mette K.; van Vulpen, Marco; Barendrecht, Maurits M.; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Intven, Martijn; Crijns, Sjoerd P. M.; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Raaymakers, Bas W.

    2013-04-01

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney.

  2. Condensation in steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St' astny, M. [SKODA ENERGO zavod TURBINY, Plzen (Czech Republic); Sejna, M. [PC Progress, Praha (Czech Republic)

    1999-07-01

    A new theoretical model has been developed for the computation of a transonic flow of wet-steam through a turbine cascade with consideration of the condensation, completed by investigation of the solubility of NaCl impurity and its concentration in condensation droplets in the flow field. The system of governing equations consists of the 2D Euler Equations linked with other equations for homogeneous condensation, phase exchanges and transport of the liquid phase. The parallel heterogeneous condensation is evaluated on the assumption that, at the saturation line, are present droplets, that originate by the nucleation in the salt solution zone. The flow field with condensation in a typical turbine cascade is discussed. The heterogeneous condensation effect is also tested. The NaCl solubility falls rapidly to zero near the saturation line. The concentration of the NaCl in the droplets of condensation indicates the origin of the salt solution zone for transonic flow. They are analysed the conditions at the profile surface and in the blade boundary layers and the conclusions for the deposit creation and blade surface corrosion are derived. The conclusions are in agreement with the findings on the blades of actual steam turbines. (orig.)

  3. How to interpret hydrogen breath tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Uday C

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogen breath tests using various substrates like glucose, lactulose, lactose and fructose are being used more and more to diagnose small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and lactose or fructose malabsorption. Though quantitative culture of jejunal aspirate is considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of SIBO, hydrogen breath tests, in spite of their low sensitivity, are popular for their non-invasiveness. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for the diagnosis of SIBO as conventionally accepted double-peak criterion on lactulose hydrogen breath test is very insensitive and recently described early-peak criterion is often false positive. Hydrogen breath test is useful to diagnose various types of sugar malabsorption. Technique and interpretation of different hydrogen breath tests are outlined in this review. PMID:21860825

  4. Physics of condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Prasanta K

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Condensed Matter is designed for a two-semester graduate course on condensed matter physics for students in physics and materials science. While the book offers fundamental ideas and topic areas of condensed matter physics, it also includes many recent topics of interest on which graduate students may choose to do further research. The text can also be used as a one-semester course for advanced undergraduate majors in physics, materials science, solid state chemistry, and electrical engineering, because it offers a breadth of topics applicable to these majors. The book be

  5. Discriminating between Nasal and Mouth Breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Kevin; Yuan, Peng; Coyle, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the b...

  6. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer A Zope; Zope, Rakesh A

    2013-01-01

    Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind–body connection, and the benefit...

  7. Hydrogen Breath Tests in Gastrointestinal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen breath tests are widely used to explore pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and carbohydrate malabsorption are disorders detected by these tests that have been proposed to be of great importance for symptoms of GI diseases. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for diagnosis of SIBO whereas lactose and fructose hydrogen breath tests are used for detection of lactose and fructose maldigestion respectivel...

  8. How to Interpret Hydrogen Breath Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoshal, Uday C

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen breath tests using various substrates like glucose, lactulose, lactose and fructose are being used more and more to diagnose small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and lactose or fructose malabsorption. Though quantitative culture of jejunal aspirate is considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of SIBO, hydrogen breath tests, in spite of their low sensitivity, are popular for their non-invasiveness. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for the diagnosis of SIBO a...

  9. Biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease therapeutic trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Harald; Wilcock, Gordon; Andrieu, Sandrine; Aisen, Paul; Blennow, Kaj; Broich, K; Carrillo, Maria; Fox, Nick C; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Isaac, Maria; Lovestone, Simon; Nordberg, Agneta; Prvulovic, David; Sampaio, Christina; Scheltens, Philip; Weiner, Michael; Winblad, Bengt; Coley, Nicola; Vellas, Bruno

    2011-12-01

    The development of disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease requires innovative trials with large numbers of subjects and long observation periods. The use of blood, cerebrospinal fluid or neuroimaging biomarkers is critical for the demonstration of disease-modifying therapy effects on the brain. Suitable biomarkers are those which reflect the progression of AD related molecular mechanisms and neuropathology, including amyloidogenic processing and aggregation, hyperphosphorylation, accumulation of tau and neurofibrillary tangles, progressive functional, metabolic and structural decline, leading to neurodegeneration, loss of brain tissue and cognitive symptoms. Biomarkers should be used throughout clinical trial phases I-III of AD drug development. They can be used to enhance inclusion and exclusion criteria, or as baseline predictors to increase the statistical power of trials. Validated and qualified biomarkers may be used as outcome measures to detect treatment effects in pivotal clinical trials. Finally, biomarkers can be used to identify adverse effects. Questions regarding which biomarkers should be used in clinical trials, and how, are currently far from resolved. The Oxford Task Force continues and expands the work of our previous international expert task forces on disease-modifying trials and on endpoints for Alzheimer's disease clinical trials. The aim of this initiative was to bring together a selected number of key international opinion leaders and experts from academia, regulatory agencies and industry to condense the current knowledge and state of the art regarding the best use of biological markers in Alzheimer's disease therapy trials and to propose practical recommendations for the planning of future AD trials. PMID:21130138

  10. Environmental contamination and breathing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric contamination is the main component of the environmental contamination and it can be defined as the presence in the atmosphere of an or several substances in enough quantity to produce alterations of the health, it is presented in aerosol form, with its gassy and specific components, altering the quality of the population's life and the degradation of the ecosystems. The main pollutant, as much for the frequency as for the importance of its effects, is the smoke of cigarettes. The paper mentions other types of polluting agents and their effects in the breathing apparatus

  11. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgay Izci Balserak

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the severity of SDB, the epidemiology and the risk factors of SDB in pregnancy, the association of SDB with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and screening and management options specific for this population.

  12. Breathing exercises: influence on breathing patterns and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle S. R. Vieira; Mendes, Liliane P. S.; Nathália S. Elmiro; Marcelo Velloso; Raquel R. Britto; Verônica F. Parreira

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying breathing exercises have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of four on breathing exercises (diaphragmatic breathing, inspiratory sighs, sustained maximal inspiration and intercostal exercise) the on breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects. METHOD: Fifteen subjects of both sexes, aged 23±1.5 years old and with normal pulmonary function tests, participated in the study. The subjects were evaluated using t...

  13. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  14. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing apparatus shall be designed and constructed to prevent: (a)...

  15. THE COLOR GLASS CONDENSATE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCLERRAN,L.

    2001-08-26

    The Color Glass Condensate is a state of high density gluonic matter which controls the high energy limit of hadronic interactions. Its properties are important for the initial conditions for matter produced at RHIC.

  16. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

  17. Boilers, evaporators, and condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book reports on the boilers, evaporators and condensers that are used in power plants including nuclear power plants. Topics included are forced convection for single-phase side heat exchangers, heat exchanger fouling, industrial heat exchanger design, fossil-fuel-fired boilers, once through boilers, thermodynamic designs of fossil fuel-first boilers, evaporators and condensers in refrigeration and air conditioning systems (with respect to reducing CFC's) and nuclear steam generators

  18. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.; Johansen, Jacob; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Steffensen, John F.; Svendsen, Morten Bo S.; Abe, Augusto

    gulping air at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish...

  19. [Stahl, Leibniz, Hoffmann and breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the XVIII th century, Wilhelm Gottfried Leibniz and Friedrich Hoffmann criticize Georg Ernst Stahl's medical theory. They differenciate between unsound and true reasonings. Namely, they validate Stahl's definition of breath but extracting it from its animist basis and placing it in an epistemology obeying to the principle of sufficient reason and to the mechanical model. The stahlian discovery consists in understanding breath as a calorific ventilation against the ancient conception; the iatromechanists recognize its accuracy, but they try then to transpose it to a mechanical model of ventilation. Using it in a different epistemological context implies that they analyze the idea of discovery "true" in its contents, but "wrong" in its hypothesis. It impels to examine the epistemology of medical knowledge, as science and therapeutics, and in its links with the other scientific theories. Thus, if Leibniz as philosopher and Hoffmann as doctor consider Stahl's animism so important, it is because its discoveries question the fundamental principles of medicine. PMID:17153053

  20. Biomarkers to Improve Diagnosis and Monitoring of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Archontogeorgis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway collapse associated with oxygen desaturation and sleep disruption. It is proposed that these periodic changes lead to molecular variations that can be detected by assessing serum biomarkers. Studies have identified inflammatory, oxidative, and metabolic perturbations attributable to sleep-disordered breathing. Given that OSAS is associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity, the ideal biomarker should enable timely recognition with the possibility of intervention. There is accumulating data on the utility of serum biomarkers for the evaluation of disease severity, prognosis, and response to treatment. However, current knowledge is limited by data collection techniques, disease complexity, and potential confounding factors. The current paper reviews the literature on the use of serum biomarkers in OSAS. It is concluded that the ideal serum biomarker still needs to be discovered, while caution is needed in the interpretation of hitherto available results.

  1. Biomarkers to Improve Diagnosis and Monitoring of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archontogeorgis, Konstantinos; Nena, Evangelia; Papanas, Nikolaos; Steiropoulos, Paschalis

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway collapse associated with oxygen desaturation and sleep disruption. It is proposed that these periodic changes lead to molecular variations that can be detected by assessing serum biomarkers. Studies have identified inflammatory, oxidative, and metabolic perturbations attributable to sleep-disordered breathing. Given that OSAS is associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity, the ideal biomarker should enable timely recognition with the possibility of intervention. There is accumulating data on the utility of serum biomarkers for the evaluation of disease severity, prognosis, and response to treatment. However, current knowledge is limited by data collection techniques, disease complexity, and potential confounding factors. The current paper reviews the literature on the use of serum biomarkers in OSAS. It is concluded that the ideal serum biomarker still needs to be discovered, while caution is needed in the interpretation of hitherto available results. PMID:25538852

  2. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  3. COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are treatments that do help people breathe easier." Spirometry: A Simple Breathing Test Everyone at risk for ... tested for COPD with a simple breathing test. Spirometry is one of the best and most common ...

  4. Apolo Ohno: Breathing Easier | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breathing Easier Apolo Ohno: Breathing Easier Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of Contents ... training, I started experiencing decreased exercise endurance, trouble breathing, and coughing. These symptoms affected my ability to ...

  5. Breathing Problems? Learn to Recognize the Symptoms of COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Printable Version (PDF—498 kb) Coping with Grief Breathing Problems? Breathing Problems? Learn to Recognize the Symptoms of COPD ... health care provider and ask for a simple breathing test called spirometry. Together, you can come up ...

  6. Relationships between hippocampal activity and breathing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, R M; Poe, G R; Rector, D M; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard

    1998-01-01

    Single cell discharge, EEG activity, and optical changes accompanying alterations in breathing patterns, as well as the knowledge that respiratory musculature is heavily involved in movement and other behavioral acts, implicate hippocampal regions in some aspects of breathing control. The control...

  7. Exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide as a marker of early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis J. Gilchrist

    Full Text Available Hydrogen cyanide is readily detected in the headspace above Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures and in the breath of cystic fibrosis (CF patients with chronic (P. aeruginosa infection. We investigated if exhaled breath HCN is an early marker of P. aeruginosa infection. 233 children with CF who were free from P. aeruginosa infection were followed for 2 years. Their median (interquartile range age was 8.0 (5.0–12.2 years. At each study visit, an exhaled breath sample was collected for hydrogen cyanide analysis. In total, 2055 breath samples were analysed. At the end of the study, the hydrogen cyanide concentrations were compared to the results of routine microbiology surveillance. P. aeruginosa was isolated from 71 children during the study with an incidence (95% CI of 0.19 (0.15–0.23 cases per patient-year. Using a random-effects logistic model, the estimated odds ratio (95% CI was 3.1 (2.6–3.6, which showed that for a 1- ppbv increase in exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide, we expected a 212% increase in the odds of P. aeruginosa infection. The sensitivity and specificity were estimated at 33% and 99%, respectively. Exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide is a specific biomarker of new P. aeruginosa infection in children with CF. Its low sensitivity means that at present, hydrogen cyanide cannot be used as a screening test for this infection.

  8. Discriminating between Nasal and Mouth Breathing

    CERN Document Server

    Curran, Kevin; Coyle, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing. Our findings show that the breath pattern can be discriminated in certain places of the body both by visual spectrum analysis and with a Back Propagation neural network classifier. The sound file recoded from the sensor placed on the hollow in the neck shows the most promising accuracy which is as high as 90%.

  9. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M; Khaliullin, Timur O; Vasil'yeva, Olga L; Zalyalov, Ramil R; Mustafin, Ilshat G; Kisin, Elena R; Birch, M Eileen; Yanamala, Naveena; Shvedova, Anna A

    2016-05-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. PMID:26902652

  10. Titanium condenser tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion resistance of titanium in sea water is extremely excellent, but titanium tubes are expensive, and the copper alloy tubes resistant in polluted sea water were developed, therefore they were not used practically. In 1970, ammonia attack was found on the copper alloy tubes in the air-cooled portion of condensers, and titanium tubes have been used as the countermeasure. As the result of the use, the galvanic attack an copper alloy tube plates with titanium tubes as cathode and the hydrogen absorption at titanium tube ends owing to excess electrolytic protection were observed, but the corrosion resistance of titanium tubes was perfect. These problems can be controlled by the application of proper electrolytic protection. The condensers with all titanium tubes adopted recently in USA are intended to realize perfectly no-leak condensers as the countermeasure to the corrosion in steam generators of PWR plants. Regarding large condensers of nowadays, three problems are pointed out, namely the vibration of condenser tubes, the method of joining tubes and tube plates, and the tubes of no coolant leak. These three problems in case of titanium tubes were studied, and the problem of the fouling of tubes was also examined. The intervals of supporting plates for titanium tubes should be narrowed. The joining of titanium tubes and titanium tube plates by welding is feasible and promising. The cleaning with sponge balls is effective to control fouling. (Kako, I.)

  11. Breath Testing for Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Should We Bother?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The hydrogen breath test is based on following breath hydrogen levels after the administration of a carbohydrate (most commonly lactulose) to a patient with suspected small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The test is based on the interaction between the administered carbohydrate and the intestinal bacteria. The resulting fermentation produces hydrogen. A positive breath test is based on a breath hydrogen rise prior to the expected arrival time in the highly microbial cecum. Despite renewed enthusiasm for breath testing in recent years due to associations with conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, breath testing poses many challenges. In this argument against breath testing, several pitfalls that complicate breath testing will be described. PMID:26902227

  12. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept of...... time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well...

  13. Breathing synchronization in interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    Louzada, V H P; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

    2013-01-01

    The harmony of an orchestra emerges from the individual effort of musicians towards mutual synchronization of their tempi. When the orchestra is split between two concert halls communicating via Internet, a time delay is imposed which might hinder synchronization. We describe this type of system as two interconnected networks of oscillators with a time delay and analyze its dynamics as a function of the couplings and communication lag. We discover a breathing synchronization regime, namely, for a wide range of parameters, two groups emerge in the orchestra within the same concert hall playing at different tempi. Each group has a mirror in the other hall, one group is in phase and the other in anti-phase with their mirrors. For strong couplings, a phase shift between halls might occur. The implications of our findings on several socio-technical and biological systems are discussed.

  14. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Isihara, A

    2007-01-01

    More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional

  15. 'Breath figure' PLGA films as implant coatings for controlled drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Thiruselvam

    The breath figure method is a versatile and facile approach of generating ordered micro and nanoporous structures in polymeric materials. When a polymer solution (dissolved in a high vapor pressure organic solvent) is evaporated out in the presence of a moist air stream, the evaporative cooling effect causes the condensation and nucleation of water droplets onto the polymer solution surface. This leads to the formation of an imprinted porous structure upon removal of the residual solvent and water. The facile removal of the water droplet template leaving its structural imprint is a specifically appealing aspect of the breath figure film technology. The first part of the dissertation work involves the fabrication of drug loaded breath figure thin films and its utilization as a controlled drug release carrier and biomaterial scaffold. In a single fabrication step, single layer/multilayer porous thin films were designed and developed by combining the breath figure process and a modified spin or dip coating technique. Using biodegradable polymers such as poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG), drug loaded films were fabricated onto FDA approved medical devices (the Glaucoma drainage device and the Surgical hernia mesh). The porosity of the films is in the range of 2-4 microm as characterized by scanning electron microscope. The drug coated medical implants were characterized for their surface and bulk morphology, the degradation rate of the film, drug release rate and cell cytotoxicity. The results suggest that the use of breath figure morphologies in biodegradable polymer films adds an additional level of control to drug release. In comparison to non-porous films, the breath figure films showed an increased degradation and enhanced drug release. Furthermore, the porous nature of the film was investigated as a biomaterial scaffold to construct three dimensional in vitro tissue model systems. The breath figure film with interconnected

  16. Biomarkers in Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiao Chloe; Woodruff, Prescott G

    2016-08-01

    Biomarkers have been critical for studies of disease pathogenesis and the development of new therapies in severe asthma. In particular, biomarkers of type 2 inflammation have proven valuable for endotyping and targeting new biological agents. Because of these successes in understanding and marking type 2 inflammation, lack of knowledge regarding non-type 2 inflammatory mechanisms in asthma will soon be the major obstacle to the development of new treatments and management strategies in severe asthma. Biomarkers can play a role in these investigations as well by providing insight into the underlying biology in human studies of patients with severe asthma. PMID:27401625

  17. Diabetes and the metabolic syndrome: possibilities of a new breath test in a dolphin model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CristinaElizabethDavis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes type-2 and the metabolic syndrome are prevalent in epidemic proportions and result in significant co-morbid disease. Limitations in understanding of dietary effects and cholesterol metabolism exist. Current methods to assess diabetes are essential, though many are invasive; for example, blood glucose and lipid monitoring require regular finger sticks and blood draws. A novel method to study these diseases may be non-invasive breath testing of exhaled compounds. Currently, acetone and lipid peroxidation products have been seen in small scale studies, though other compounds may be significant. As Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus have been proposed as a good model for human diabetes, applications of dietary manipulations and breath testing in this population may shed important light on how to design human clinical studies. In addition, ongoing studies indicate that breath testing in dolphins is feasible, humane, and yields relevant metabolites. By studying the metabolic and cholesterol responses of dolphins to dietary modifications, researchers may gain insight into human diabetes, improve the design of costly human clinical trials, and potentially discover biomarkers for non-invasive breath monitoring.

  18. Biomarkers of cardiovascular stress in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Micha T; Mueller, Christian; Schoch, Otto D; Ammann, Peter; Rickli, Hans

    2016-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep-related breathing disorder associated with "cardiovascular stress", i.e. cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular diseases, and an increased risk of heart failure, stroke, and death. Experimental and clinical studies have characterized potential underlying mechanisms including biventricular dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and arrhythmia. Assessment of these cardiovascular features of OSA requires a spectrum of clinical tools including ECG, echocardiography, exercise testing, and angiography. In contrast to many cardiovascular diseases, the role of blood biomarkers to characterize cardiovascular function and cardiovascular risk in OSA is poorly defined. In the present review we summarize the available data on biomarkers potentially providing information on cardiovascular features in OSA patients without overt cardiovascular disease. The vast majority of studies on biomarkers of cardiovascular stress in OSA evaluated B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)/N-terminal-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and cardiac troponins (cTn). Although some studies found significant associations between these cardiac biomarkers and the presence and severity of OSA, data remain conflicting. Also, the detailed pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the link between OSA and hemodynamic cardiac stress (BNP/NT-proBNP) and cardiomyocyte damage (cTn) are poorly understood. Major research efforts are required to establish the clinical role of cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with OSA. PMID:27380998

  19. Active breathing control (ABC): Determination and reduction of breathing-induced organ motion in the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Extensive radiotherapy volumes for tumors of the chest are partly caused by interfractional organ motion. We evaluated the feasibility of respiratory observation tools using the active breathing control (ABC) system and the effect on breathing cycle regularity and reproducibility. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with unresectable tumors of the chest were selected for evaluation of the ABC system. Computed tomography scans were performed at various respiratory phases starting at the same couch position without patient movement. Threshold levels were set at minimum and maximum volume during normal breathing cycles and at a volume defined as shallow breathing, reflecting the subjective maximal tolerable reduction of breath volume. To evaluate the extent of organ movement, 13 landmarks were considering using commercial software for image coregistration. In 4 patients, second examinations were performed during therapy. Results: Investigating the differences in a normal breathing cycle versus shallow breathing, a statistically significant reduction of respiratory motion in the upper, middle, and lower regions of the chest could be detected, representing potential movement reduction achieved through reduced breath volume. Evaluating interfraction reproducibility, the mean displacement ranged between 0.24 mm (chest wall/tracheal bifurcation) to 3.5 mm (diaphragm) for expiration and shallow breathing and 0.24 mm (chest wall) to 5.25 mm (diaphragm) for normal inspiration. Conclusions: By modifying regularity of the respiratory cycle through reduction of breath volume, a significant and reproducible reduction of chest and diaphragm motion is possible, enabling reduction of treatment planning margins

  20. Electronic Nose and Exhaled Breath NMR-based Metabolomics Applications in Airways Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Giuseppe; Mores, Nadia; Penas, Andreu; Capuano, Rosamaria; Mondino, Chiara; Trové, Andrea; Macagno, Francesco; Zini, Gina; Cattani, Paola; Martinelli, Eugenio; Motta, Andrea; Macis, Giuseppe; Ciabattoni, Giovanni; Montuschi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Breathomics, the multidimensional molecular analysis of exhaled breath, includes analysis of exhaled breath with gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and electronic noses (e-noses), and metabolomics of exhaled breath condensate (EBC), a non-invasive technique which provides information on the composition of airway lining fluid, generally by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or MS methods. Metabolomics is the identification and quantification of small molecular weight metabolites in a biofluid. Specific profiles of volatile compounds in exhaled breath and metabolites in EBC (breathprints) are potentially useful surrogate markers of inflammatory respiratory diseases. Electronic noses (e-noses) are artificial sensor systems, usually consisting of chemical cross-reactive sensor arrays for characterization of patterns of breath volatile compounds, and algorithms for breathprints classification. E-noses are handheld, portable, and provide real-time data. E-nose breathprints can reflect respiratory inflammation. E-noses and NMR-based metabolomics of EBC can distinguish patients with respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, or diseases with a clinically relevant respiratory component including cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia, and healthy individuals. Breathomics has also been reported to identify patients affected by different types of respiratory diseases. Patterns of breath volatile compounds detected by e-nose and EBC metabolic profiles have been associated with asthma phenotypes. In combination with other -omics platforms, breathomics might provide a molecular approach to respiratory disease phenotyping and a molecular basis to tailored pharmacotherapeutic strategies. Breathomics might also contribute to identify new surrogate markers of respiratory inflammation, thus, facilitating drug discovery. Validation in newly recruited, prospective independent cohorts is essential for development of e

  1. Delayed feedback applied to breathing in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, N. B.; Pototsky, A.; Parkes, C.

    2013-10-01

    We studied the response of healthy volunteers to the delayed feedback generated from the breathing signals. Namely, in the freely-breathing volunteers the breathing signal was recorded, delayed by τ seconds and fed back to the same volunteer in real time in the form of a visual and auditory stimulus of low intensity, i.e. the stimulus was crucially non-intrusive. In each case volunteers were instructed to breathe in the way which was most comfortable for them, and no explanation about the kind of applied stimulus was provided to them. Each volunteer experienced 10 different delay times ranging between 10% and 100% of the average breathing period without external stimulus. It was observed that in a significant proportion of subjects (11 out of 24) breathing was slowed down in the presence of delayed feedback with moderate delay. Also, in 6 objects out of 24 the delayed feedback was able to induce transition from nearly periodic to irregular breathing. These observations are consistent with the phenomena observed in numerical simulation of the models of periodic and chaotic self-oscillations with delays, and also in experiments with simpler self-oscillating systems.

  2. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Arlotto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569.

  3. Modular invariant gaugino condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of effective supergravity lagrangians for gaugino condensation is reviewed and recent results are presented that are consistent with modular invariance and yield a positive definite potential of the noscale type. Possible implications for phenomenology are briefly discussed. 29 refs

  4. Bose-Einstein condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notion of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is introduced in the simple case of a perfect gas of bosons. We show the existence of a singularity that was discovered by Einstein and that appears when the density in the phase space is above a critical value. A few years after the discovery of BEC in several gases, it is interesting to look back at some properties of superfluid helium, the author comments shortly on boiling and evaporation, then on the role of rotons and vortices in the existence of a critical velocity in superfluid helium. The author discusses also the existence of a condensate in a liquid with strong interactions and the pressure variation of its superfluid transition temperature. The discovery of BEC in dilute gases of Rb, Na and Li in magnetic traps has stimulated an enormous revival of the interest in macroscopic quantum behavior of dilute gas at low temperature. Experiments with trapped Bose condensed gases have revealed profound condensed matter behavior of these extremely dilute systems. The author describes the key features of this behavior and discusses theoretical approaches that are being used in the field of quantum gases. Methods of production and of detection of a BEC in gaseous phases are presented, the issue of the cooling of fermion gases and of Boson-fermions mixing is discussed. (A.C.)

  5. Condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The condensed matter physics research in the Physics Department of Risoe National Laboratory is predominantly experimental utilising diffraction of neutrons and x-rays. The research topics range from studies of structure, excitations and phase transitions in model systems to studies of ion transport, texture and recrystallization kinetics with a more applied nature. (author)

  6. Validation of New Cancer Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Michael J; Sturgeon, Catherine M; Söletormos, Georg; Barak, Vivian; Molina, Rafael; Hayes, Daniel F; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Bossuyt, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biomarkers are playing increasingly important roles in the detection and management of patients with cancer. Despite an enormous number of publications on cancer biomarkers, few of these biomarkers are in widespread clinical use. CONTENT: In this review, we discuss the key steps in...... advancing a newly discovered cancer candidate biomarker from pilot studies to clinical application. Four main steps are necessary for a biomarker to reach the clinic: analytical validation of the biomarker assay, clinical validation of the biomarker test, demonstration of clinical value from performance of...... the biomarker test, and regulatory approval. In addition to these 4 steps, all biomarker studies should be reported in a detailed and transparent manner, using previously published checklists and guidelines. Finally, all biomarker studies relating to demonstration of clinical value should be...

  7. Biomarkers in Airway Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherent limitations of spirometry and clinical history have prompted clinicians and scientists to search for surrogate markers of airway diseases. Although few biomarkers have been widely accepted into the clinical armamentarium, the authors explore three sources of biomarkers that have shown promise as indicators of disease severity and treatment response. In asthma, exhaled nitric oxide measurements can predict steroid responsiveness and sputum eosinophil counts have been used to titrate anti-inflammatory therapies. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory plasma biomarkers, such as fibrinogen, club cell secretory protein-16 and surfactant protein D, can denote greater severity and predict the risk of exacerbations. While the multitude of disease phenotypes in respiratory medicine make biomarker development especially challenging, these three may soon play key roles in the diagnosis and management of airway diseases.

  8. Biomarkers for immune thrombocytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Lingjia; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhang, Liping; Shi, Yongyu; Ji, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia is an autoimmune disease with abnormal biomarkers. Immune thrombocytopenia pathogenesis is a complicated process in which the patient’s immune system is activated by platelet autoantigens resulting in immune mediated platelet destruction or suppression of platelet production. The autoantibodies produced by autoreactive B cells against self antigens are considered to play a crucial role. In addition, biomarkers such as transforming growth factor-beta1,Toll-like receptor...

  9. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    overlap considerably in their kinematics (turning rates and distance covered), suggesting that air breathing in this species is performed using escapelike C-start motions. This demonstrates that C-starts in fish do not need external stimulation and can be spontaneous behaviours used outside the context...... to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain...... species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplos/emum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of a fast air...

  10. Bose Condensate in He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Condensate Saga, now halfway through its fifth decade, is reviewed. The recent neutron-scattering work which has at last convincingly established that there is indeed a Bose Condensate in He II is described

  11. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm breathing gases before they...

  12. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 25.1439... Protective breathing equipment. (a) Fixed (stationary, or built in) protective breathing equipment must be installed for the use of the flightcrew, and at least one portable protective breathing equipment shall...

  14. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation...-circuit apparatus with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88, and the exhalation resistance...

  15. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  16. 14 CFR 121.337 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 121.337... Protective breathing equipment. (a) The certificate holder shall furnish approved protective breathing equipment (PBE) meeting the equipment, breathing gas, and communication requirements contained in...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit circulator is a turbine device that is attached to a closed breathing...

  18. Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breathing Problems URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breathingproblems.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  19. Breathing exercises for adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Asthma is a common long-term condition that remains poorly controlled in many people despite the availability of pharmacological interventions, evidence-based treatment guidelines and care pathways.(1) There is considerable public interest in the use of non-pharmacological approaches for the treatment of asthma.(2) A survey of people with asthma reported that many have used complementary and alternative medicine, often without the knowledge of their clinical team.(3) Such interventions include breathing techniques, herbal products, homeopathy and acupuncture. The role of breathing exercises within the management of asthma has been controversial, partly because early claims of effectiveness were exaggerated.(4) UK national guidance and international guidelines on the management of asthma have included the option of breathing exercise programmes as an adjuvant to pharmacological treatment.(5,6) Here we discuss the types of breathing exercises used and review the evidence for their effectiveness. PMID:26563876

  20. Generalized Bose-Einstein Condensation

    OpenAIRE

    Mullin, William J.; Sakhel, Asaad R.

    2010-01-01

    Generalized Bose-Einstein condensation (GBEC) involves condensates appearing simultaneously in multiple states. We review examples of the three types in an ideal Bose gas with different geometries. In Type I there is a discrete number of quantum states each having macroscopic occupation; Type II has condensation into a continuous band of states, with each state having macroscopic occupation; in Type III each state is microscopically occupied while the entire condensate band is macroscopically...

  1. The retrotrapezoid nucleus and breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Patrice G; Stornetta, Ruth L; Abbott, Stephen B G; Depuy, Seth D; Kanbar, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is located in the rostral medulla oblongata close to the ventral surface and consists of a bilateral cluster of glutamatergic neurons that are non-aminergic and express homeodomain transcription factor Phox2b throughout life. These neurons respond vigorously to increases in local pCO(2) via cell-autonomous and paracrine (glial) mechanisms and receive additional chemosensory information from the carotid bodies. RTN neurons exclusively innervate the regions of the brainstem that contain the respiratory pattern generator (RPG). Lesion or inhibition of RTN neurons largely attenuates the respiratory chemoreflex of adult rats whereas their activation increases respiratory rate, inspiratory amplitude and active expiration. Phox2b mutations that cause congenital central hypoventilation syndrome in humans prevent the development of RTN neurons in mice. Selective deletion of the RTN Phox2b-VGLUT2 neurons by genetic means in mice eliminates the respiratory chemoreflex in neonates.In short, RTN Phox2b-VGLUT2 neurons are a major nodal point of the CNS network that regulates pCO(2) via breathing and these cells are probable central chemoreceptors. PMID:23080151

  2. Heart rate response to breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Pagh, K; Nielsen, J S;

    1987-01-01

    Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.6...... as a measure of vagal function a number of factors have to be taken into consideration and to simplify the analysis of heart rate responses to breathing we recommend, instead, the use of the transient changes in heart rate induced by stepwise changes in lung volume.......Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.......6 +/- 1.4 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). The slowest heart rate was reached in 4.8 +/- 1.0 s and in 7.6 +/- 1.9 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). Following this biphasic change the heart rate returned to a steady...

  3. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-01-01

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H2 and CH4 gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence...

  4. Oropharyngeal origin of markers in exhaled breath

    OpenAIRE

    Marteus, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Normal NO formation in the human airways occurs primarily in the nasal airways, where it is catalyzed by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and in the oropharyngeal tract, via as yet not fully defined pathways. This NO can be detected in exhaled breath and when inflammation is present in the airways, for example in asthma, the concentration of NO is increased. Although most studies on non-invasive measurements of airway inflammation have focused on NO in exhaled breath, there has...

  5. Hydrogen breath tests in gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen breath tests are widely used to explore pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and carbohydrate malabsorption are disorders detected by these tests that have been proposed to be of great importance for symptoms of GI diseases. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for diagnosis of SIBO whereas lactose and fructose hydrogen breath tests are used for detection of lactose and fructose maldigestion respectively. Lactulose hydrogen breath test is also used widely to measure the orocecal transit time for GI motility. These methods are noninvasive and inexpensive. Many patients with functional gut disorders are unaware of the relationship between diet and GI symptoms they present. In particular, patients with chronic symptoms may regard their condition as normal and may not be aware that their symptoms can be effectively managed following a proper diagnosis. Patients with symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and altered bowel movements (diarrhea and constipation), or with a medical diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome or celiac disease, may have undiagnosed carbohydrate malabsorption or SIBO. Hydrogen breath tests are specific and sensitive diagnostic tests that can be used to either confirm or eliminate the possibility of carbohydrate malabsorption or SIBO in such patients. Breath tests, though valuable tools, are underutilized in evaluating dyspepsia and functional bloating and diarrhea as well as suspected malabsorption. However, because of their simplicity, reproducibility and safety of procedure they are now being substituted to more uncomfortable and expensive techniques that were traditionally used in gastroenterology. PMID:25298621

  6. A free-breathing lung motion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianyu

    Lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer deaths for decades in the United States. Although radiotherapy is one of the most effective treatments, side effects from error in delivery of radiation due to organ motion during breathing remain a significant issue. To compensate the breathing motion during the treatment, a free breathing lung motion model, x= x0+αv+betaf, was developed and discussed, where x is the position of a piece of tissue located at reference position x0. α is a parameter which characterizes the motion due to local air filling (motion as a function of tidal volume) and beta is the parameter that accounts for the motion due to the imbalance of dynamical stress distributions during inspiration and exhalation which cause lung motion hysteresis (motion as a function of airflow). The parameters α and beta together provide a quantitative characterization of breathing motion that inherently includes the complex hysteresis interplay. The theoretical foundation of the model was built by investigating the stress distribution inside of a lung and the biomechanical properties of the lung tissues. Accuracy of the model was investigated by using 49 free-breathing patient data sets. Applications of the model in localizing lung cancer, monitoring radiation damage and suppressing artifacts in free-breathing PET images were also discussed. This work supported in part by NIHR01CA096679 and NIHR01CA116712.

  7. A Multimedia System for Breath Regulation and Relaxation

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Ching Liao; Han-Hong Lin; He-Lin Ruo; Po-Hsiang Hsu

    2015-01-01

    In the hectic life today, detrimental stress has caused numerous illness. To adjust mental states, breath regulation plays a core role in multiple relaxation techniques. In this paper, we introduce a multimedia system supporting breath regulation and relaxation. Features of this system include non-contact respiration detection, bio-signal monitoring, and breath interaction. In addition to illustrating this system, we also propose a novel form of breath interaction. Through this form of breath...

  8. CW laser light condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhurahov, Michael; Bekker, Alexander; Levit, Boris; Weill, Rafi; Fischer, Baruch

    2016-03-21

    We present a first experimental demonstration of classical CW laser light condensation (LC) in the frequency (mode) domain that verifies its prediction (Fischer and Weill, Opt. Express20, 26704 (2012)). LC is based on weighting the modes in a noisy environment in a loss-gain measure compared to an energy (frequency) scale in Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). It is characterized by a sharp transition from multi- to single-mode oscillation, occurring when the spectral-filtering (loss-trap) has near the lowest-loss mode ("ground-state") a power-law dependence with an exponent smaller than 1. An important meaning of the many-mode LC system stems from its relation to lasing and photon-BEC. PMID:27136845

  9. Multilayer graphene condenser microphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović, Dejan; Matković, Aleksandar; Milićević, Marijana; Jovanović, Djordje; Gajić, Radoš; Salom, Iva; Spasenović, Marko

    2015-12-01

    Vibrating membranes are the cornerstone of acoustic technology, forming the backbone of modern loudspeakers and microphones. Acoustic performance of a condenser microphone is derived mainly from the membrane’s size, surface mass and achievable static tension. The widely studied and available nickel has been a dominant membrane material for professional microphones for several decades. In this paper we introduce multilayer graphene as a membrane material for condenser microphones. The graphene device outperforms a high end commercial nickel-based microphone over a significant part of the audio spectrum, with a larger than 10 dB enhancement of sensitivity. Our experimental results are supported with numerical simulations, which also show that a 300 layer thick graphene membrane under maximum tension would offer excellent extension of the frequency range, up to 1 MHz.

  10. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Marder, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    This Second Edition presents an updated review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, granular materials, quantum dots, Berry phases, the quantum Hall effect, and Luttinger liquids.

  11. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  12. Chaos of chiral condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Koji; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2016-01-01

    Assigning a chaos index for vacua of generic quantum field theories is a challenging problem. We find chaotic behavior of chiral condensates of a quantum gauge theory at strong coupling limit, by using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We evaluate the time evolution of homogeneous quark condensates and in an N=2 supersymmetric QCD with the SU(N_c) gauge group at large N_c and at large 't Hooft coupling lambda. At an equivalent classical gravity picture, a Lyapunov exponent is readily defined. We show that the condensates exhibit chaotic behavior for energy density E > (6x10^2) (N_c/lambda^2) (m_q)^4 where m_q is the quark mass. The energy region of the chaotic vacua of the N=2 supersymmetric QCD increases for smaller N_c or larger lambda. The Lyapunov exponent is calculated as a function of the theory (N_c,lambda,E), showing that the N=2 supersymmetric QCD is more chaotic for smaller N_c.

  13. Monopole condensation and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the mechanism of confinement is important in order to explain hadron physics out of QCD. After the abelian projection, QCD can be regarded as an abelian theory with electric charges and monopoles. If the monopoles make Bose condensation, charged quarks and gluons are confined due to the dual Meissner effect. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to test whether the conjecture is true or not at least on lattices. The results in 1995 were reported in three papers. In three topics of monopole dynamics in abelian projected QCD, the detailed analysis of SU(2) monopole action obtained after the block-spin transformation on the dual lattice, the results of SU(3) monopole action and the new gauges showing abelian and monopole dominances are reported. In monopole condensation and Polyakov loop in finite-temperature pure QCD, the relation between the abelian monopole condensation and the deconfinement phase transition of the finite temperature pure QCD is reported, and the boundary conditions and the cases of SU(2) and SU(3) are described. In disorder parameter of confinement, the disorder parameter in SU(2) QCD and the numerical simulation in finite temperature SU(2) QCD are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Chemoresistive Gas Sensors for the Detection of Colorectal Cancer Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Malagù

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous medical studies show that tumor growth is accompanied by protein changes that may lead to the peroxidation of the cell membrane with consequent emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs by breath or intestinal gases that should be seen as biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC. The analysis of VOCs represents a non-invasive and potentially inexpensive preliminary screening technique. An array of chemoresistive gas sensors based on screen-printed metal oxide semiconducting films has been selected to discriminate gases of oncological interest, e.g., 1-iodononane and benzene, widely assumed to be biomarkers of colorectal cancer, from those of interference in the gut, such as methane and nitric oxide.

  15. Mass spectrometry for biomarker development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chaochao; Liu, Tao; Baker, Erin Shammel; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-06-19

    Biomarkers potentially play a crucial role in early disease diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy. In the past decade, mass spectrometry based proteomics has become increasingly important in biomarker development due to large advances in technology and associated methods. This chapter mainly focuses on the application of broad (e.g. shotgun) proteomics in biomarker discovery and the utility of targeted proteomics in biomarker verification and validation. A range of mass spectrometry methodologies are discussed emphasizing their efficacy in the different stages in biomarker development, with a particular emphasis on blood biomarker development.

  16. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: Comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer implies a risk of late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity. This is the first study to evaluate cardiopulmonary dose sparing of breathing adapted radiotherapy (BART) using free breathing gating, and to compare this respiratory technique with voluntary breath-hold. Patients and methods: 17 patients were CT-scanned during non-coached breathing manoeuvre including free breathing (FB), end-inspiration gating (IG), end-expiration gating (EG), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and end-expiration breath-hold (EBH). The Varian Real-time Position Management system (RPMTM) was used to monitor respiratory movement and to gate the scanner. For each breathing phase, a population based internal margin (IM) was estimated based on average chest wall excursion, and incorporated into an individually optimised three-field mono-isocentric wide tangential photon field treatment plan for each scan. The target included the remaining breast, internal mammary nodes and periclavicular nodes. Results: The mean anteroposterior chest wall excursion during FB was 2.5 mm. For IG and EG, the mean excursions within gating windows were 1.1 and 0.7 mm, respectively, whereas for DIBH and EBH the excursions were 4.1 and 2.6 mm, respectively. For patients with left-sided cancer, the median heart volume receiving more than 50% of the prescription dose was reduced from 19.2% for FB to 2.8% for IG and 1.9% for DIBH, and the median left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery volume was reduced from 88.9% to 22.4% for IG and 3.6% for DIBH. Simultaneously, the median ipsilateral relative lung volume irradiated to >50% of the prescribed target dose for both right- and left-sided cancers was reduced from 45.6% for FB to 29.5% for IG and 27.7% for DIBH. For EBH and EG, both the irradiated heart, LAD and lung volumes increased compared to FB. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate the dosimetric benefits

  17. Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in ysiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications

  18. Biomarkers of the Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikio Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in biomarker studies on dementia are summarized here. CSF Aβ40, Aβ42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau are the most sensitive biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD and prediction of onset of AD from mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Based on this progress, new diagnostic criteria for AD, MCI, and preclinical AD were proposed by National Institute of Aging (NIA and Alzheimer's Association in August 2010. In these new criteria, progress in biomarker identification and amyloid imaging studies in the past 10 years have added critical information. Huge contributions of basic and clinical studies have established clinical evidence supporting these markers. Based on this progress, essential therapy for cure of AD is urgently expected.

  19. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.;

    , with those of mechanically-triggered C-start escape responses. Our results show that these two behaviours overlap considerably in their kinematics (turning rates and distance covered), suggesting that air breathing in this species is performed using escapelike C-start motions. This demonstrates that C...... by the fall of a prey item on the water surface, and in tapping motions of goldfish, a behaviour that was interpreted to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air...... at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South...

  20. Ecological sounds affect breath duration more than artificial sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Mauro; Santoro, Ilaria; Tamburini, Giorgia; Prpic, Valter; Sors, Fabrizio; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that auditory rhythms affect both movement and physiological functions. We hypothesized that the ecological sounds of human breathing can affect breathing more than artificial sounds of breathing, varying in tones for inspiration and expiration. To address this question, we monitored the breath duration of participants exposed to three conditions: (a) ecological sounds of breathing, (b) artificial sounds of breathing having equal temporal features as the ecological sounds, (c) no sounds (control). We found that participants' breath duration variability was reduced in the ecological sound condition, more than in the artificial sound condition. We suggest that ecological sounds captured the timing of breathing better than artificial sounds, guiding as a consequence participants' breathing. We interpreted our results according to the Theory of Event Coding, providing further support to its validity, and suggesting its possible extension in the domain of physiological functions which are both consciously and unconsciously controlled. PMID:25637249

  1. Soft Condensed Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author states in the preface of the book that the aim is '...to give a unified overview of the various aspects of the physics of soft condensed matter'. The book succeeds in fulfilling this aim in many respects. The style is fluent and concise and gives the necessary explanations to make its content understandable to people with some knowledge of the basic principles of physics. The content of the book is complete enough to give a panoramic view of the landscape of soft condensed matter. The first two chapters give, respectively, a short introduction and a presentation of forces, energies and timescales, giving a general overview and pointing out the particular importance of different aspects such as timescales, which are much more important in soft condensed matter than in traditional or 'hard' condensed matter. The next chapter, devoted to phase transition, recalls that the equilibrium between two phases is controlled by free energy considerations. Spinodal decomposition is presented as a counterpart of nucleation and growth. Again, characteristic length scales are considered and applied to a phase separation mixture of polymers in a common solvent. The following three chapters are devoted respectively to specific topics: colloidal dispersion, polymers and gelation. The stability and phase behaviour of colloids are related to the interaction between colloidal particles. Properties of colloidal crystals as well as colloidal dispersion are depicted in terms of stabilization of crystalline colloids. The flow properties of colloidal dispersion are presented in terms of free energy minimization and the structure of the dispersion. After a brief introduction to polymer chemistry and architecture, the coil-globule transition is discussed. Viscoelasticity of polymers is described and discussed by introducing the notion of entanglement. This leads to the introduction of the tube model and the theory of reptation. The sol-gel transition is presented phenomenologically

  2. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zope, Sameer A; Zope, Rakesh A

    2013-01-01

    Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders. PMID:23440614

  3. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A Zope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

  4. Biomarkers in Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Brian J; Blount, Patricia L; Rabinovitch, Peter S

    2003-04-01

    This article provides a framework for clinicians who are attempting the difficult task of interpreting the Barrett's biomarker literature with the goal of improving care for their patients. Although many articles. including more that 60 proposed biomarkers, have been published on this subject, only a few describe phase 3 and 4 studies that are of interest to the clinical gastroenterologist (Table 1). For year, dysplasia grade has been the sole means of risk stratification for patients with BE, and it likely will continue to be used in the foreseeable future. The current authors believe that dysplasia classification can be valuable using the team management approach and quality controls described previously. Significant problems, however, have emerged in phase 2 through 4 studies of dysplasia that make it imperative for the Barrett's field to incorporate additional biomarkers as they are validated. These problems include poor reproducibility of dysplasia interpretations, poor predictive value for negative, indefinite, and low-grade dysplasia, and inconsistent results for HGD in different centers, all of which makes it virtually impossible to develop national guidelines for surveillance. Some studies have even suggested that endoscopic biopsy surveillance using dysplasia may not be worthwhile. Currently, flow cytometric tetraploidy and aneuploidy have progressed furthest in biomarker validation (see Table 1). With proper handling, endoscopic biopsy specimens can be shipped to reference laboratories that have the instruments, computer analytic methods, and expertise to reproducibly detect tetraploidy and aneuploidy. The results of phase 4 studies indicate that flow cytometry appears to be useful in detecting a subset of patients who do not have HGD and yet have an increased risk of progression to cancer that cannot be identified by dysplasia grade. For many reasons, the authors anticipate that the number of validated biomarkers will increase substantially in the

  5. The condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the laboratory of the Condensed Matter Physics (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory activities are related to the physics of semiconductors and disordered phases. The electrical and optical properties of the semiconductors, mixed conductor, superionic conductors and ceramics, are studied. Moreover, the interfaces of those systems and the sol-gel inorganic polymerization phenomena, are investigated. The most important results obtained, concern the following investigations: the electrochemical field effect transistor, the cathodoluminescence, the low energy secondary electrons emission, the fluctuations of a two-dimensional diffused junction and the aerogels

  6. Confinement Contains Condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.

    2012-03-12

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.

  7. CONDENSATION OF WATER VAPOR IN A VERTICAL TUBE CONDENSER

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Havlík; Tomáš Dlouhý

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of heat transfer in the process of condensation of water vapor in a vertical shell-and-tube condenser. We analyze the use of the Nusselt model for calculating the condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC) inside a vertical tube and the Kern, Bell-Delaware and Stream-flow analysis methods for calculating the shell-side HTC from tubes to cooling water. These methods are experimentally verified for a specific condenser of waste process vapor containing air. The...

  8. Spinor condensates and light scattering from Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These notes discuss-two aspects of the physics of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates: optical properties and spinor condensates. The first topic includes light scattering experiments which probe the excitations of a condensate in both the free-particle and phonon regime. At higher light intensity, a new form of superradiance and phase-coherent matter wave amplification were observed. We also discuss properties of spinor condensates and describe studies of ground-state spin domain structures and dynamical studies which revealed metastable excited states and quantum tunneling. (authors)

  9. Human breath analysis via cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Thorpe, Michael J; Kirchner, Matthew S; Ye, Jun

    2007-01-01

    To date, researchers have identified over 1000 different compounds contained in human breath. These molecules have both endogenous and exogenous origins and provide information about physiological processes occurring in the body as well as environment-related ingestion or absorption of contaminants1,2. While the presence and concentration of many of these molecules are poorly understood, many 'biomarker' molecules have been correlated to specific diseases and metabolic processes. Such correlations can result in non-invasive methods of health screening for a wide variety of medical conditions. In this article we present human breath analysis using an optical-frequency-comb-based trace detection system with excellent performance in all criteria: detection sensitivity, ability to identify and distinguish a large number of biomarkers, and measurement time. We demonstrate a minimum detectable absorption of 8 x 10-10 cm-1, a spectral resolution of 800 MHz, and 200 nm of spectral coverage from 1.5 to 1.7 micron wher...

  10. Emerging Biomarkers in Glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Mairéad G.; Sahebjam, Solmaz; Mason, Warren P., E-mail: warren.mason@uhn.ca [Pencer Brain Tumor Centre, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2013-08-22

    Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor, has few available therapies providing significant improvement in survival. Molecular signatures associated with tumor aggressiveness as well as with disease progression and their relation to differences in signaling pathways implicated in gliomagenesis have recently been described. A number of biomarkers which have potential in diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy have been identified and along with imaging modalities could contribute to the clinical management of GBM. Molecular biomarkers including O(6)-methlyguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosomes 1p and 19q, loss of heterozygosity 10q, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), epidermal growth factor, latrophilin, and 7 transmembrane domain-containing protein 1 on chromosome 1 (ELTD1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor suppressor protein p53, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), p16INK4a gene, cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), phospholipid metabolites, telomerase messenger expression (hTERT messenger ribonucleic acid [mRNA]), microRNAs (miRNAs), cancer stem cell markers and imaging modalities as potential biomarkers are discussed. Inclusion of emerging biomarkers in prospective clinical trials is warranted in an effort for more effective personalized therapy in the future.

  11. Proteomic Biomarkers of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Diaz-Prieto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers provide a powerful approach to understanding the spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. They have application in screening, diagnostic, prognostication, prediction of recurrences and monitoring of therapy. The “omics” tool are becoming very useful in the development of new biomarkers in cardiovascular diseases. Among them, proteomics is especially fitted to look for new proteins in health and disease and is playing a significant role in the development of new diagnostic tools in cardiovascular diagnosis and prognosis. This review provides an overview of progress in applying proteomics to atherosclerosis. First, we describe novel proteins identified analysing atherosclerotic plaques directly. Careful analysis of proteins within the atherosclerotic vascular tissue can provide a repertoire of proteins involved in vascular remodelling and atherogenesis. Second, we discuss recent data concerning proteins secreted by atherosclerotic plaques. The definition of the atheroma plaque secretome resides in that proteins secreted by arteries can be very good candidates of novel biomarkers. Finally we describe proteins that have been differentially expressed (versus controls by individual cells which constitute atheroma plaques (endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, macrophages and foam cells as well as by circulating cells (monocytes, platelets or novel biomarkers present in plasma.

  12. Proteomic Biomarkers of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanco, F; Padial, L R; Darde, V M; de la Cuesta, F; Alvarez-Llamas, G; Diaz-Prieto, Natacha; Barderas, M G

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY: Biomarkers provide a powerful approach to understanding the spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. They have application in screening, diagnostic, prognostication, prediction of recurrences and monitoring of therapy. The "omics" tool are becoming very useful in the development of new biomarkers in cardiovascular diseases. Among them, proteomics is especially fitted to look for new proteins in health and disease and is playing a significant role in the development of new diagnostic tools in cardiovascular diagnosis and prognosis. This review provides an overview of progress in applying proteomics to atherosclerosis. First, we describe novel proteins identified analysing atherosclerotic plaques directly. Careful analysis of proteins within the atherosclerotic vascular tissue can provide a repertoire of proteins involved in vascular remodelling and atherogenesis. Second, we discuss recent data concerning proteins secreted by atherosclerotic plaques. The definition of the atheroma plaque secretome resides in that proteins secreted by arteries can be very good candidates of novel biomarkers. Finally we describe proteins that have been differentially expressed (versus controls) by individual cells which constitute atheroma plaques (endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, macrophages and foam cells) as well as by circulating cells (monocytes, platelets) or novel biomarkers present in plasma. PMID:19578499

  13. Expression Data Analysis to Identify Biomarkers Associated with Asthma in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wen Xu

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. It is usually caused by a combination of complex and incompletely understood environmental and genetic interactions. We obtained gene expression data with high-throughput screening and identified biomarkers of children's asthma using bioinformatics tools. Next, we explained the pathogenesis of children's asthma from the perspective of gene regulatory networks: DAVID was applied to pe...

  14. Sleep and Breathing at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Himanshu; Anholm, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Sleep at high altitude is characterized by poor subjective quality, increased awakenings, frequent brief arousals, marked nocturnal hypoxemia, and periodic breathing. A change in sleep architecture with an increase in light sleep and decreasing slow-wave and REM sleep have been demonstrated. Periodic breathing with central apnea is almost universally seen amongst sojourners to high altitude, although it is far less common in long-standing high altitude dwellers. Hypobaric hypoxia in concert with periodic breathing appears to be the principal cause of sleep disruption at altitude. Increased sleep fragmentation accounts for the poor sleep quality and may account for some of the worsened daytime performance at high altitude. Hypoxic sleep disruption contributes to the symptoms of acute mountain sickness. Hypoxemia at high altitude is most severe during sleep. Acetazolamide improves sleep, AMS symptoms, and hypoxemia at high altitude. Low doses of a short acting benzodiazepine (temazepam) may also be useful in improving sleep in high altitude. PMID:11898114

  15. Effect of dietary turmeric on breath hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimouchi, Akito; Nose, Kazutoshi; Takaoka, Motoko; Hayashi, Hiroko; Kondo, Takaharu

    2009-08-01

    Turmeric is widely used in Indian cuisine. The main constituents of turmeric are curcumin and its analogues, which are well-known antioxidant compounds. In the present study, we hypothesized that turmeric in curry might increase bowel motility and activate hydrogen-producing bacterial flora in the colon, thereby increasing the concentration of breath hydrogen. Eight healthy subjects fasted for 12 h and ingested curry and rice with or without turmeric (turmeric knockout curry). Breath-hydrogen concentrations were analyzed every 15 min for 6 h by gas chromatography with a semiconductor detector. Curry with turmeric significantly increased the area under the curve of breath hydrogen and shortened small-bowel transit time, compared with curry not containing turmeric. These results suggested that dietary turmeric activated bowel motility and carbohydrate colonic fermentation. PMID:19034660

  16. Condensates in Relativistic Scalar Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Guy D

    2015-01-01

    Scalar field theory with large infrared initial occupancy develops very large deep-infrared occupancy, which locally resembles a Bose-Einstein condensate. We study the structure and spatial coherence of this condensate. The O(N) symmetric theory with N>1 is qualitatively different than N=1. We explain the thermodynamical reason why, for N>1, the condensate locally carries nearly maximal conserved charge density. We also show how this property impedes the condensate's decay, and we show that it prevents the condensate from ever becoming fully spatially homogeneous. For N <= 4 the condensate can carry topological defects, but these do not appear to control the large-k tail in its power spectrum, which is the same for N=8 where there are no topological defects.

  17. Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable

  18. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to minimize breathing motion during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. Reducing the treatment margin for organ motion during breathing reduces the volume of irradiated normal tissues. This may allow a higher dose of radiation to be delivered to the target volume for thoracic and abdominal tumors. However, such margin reduction must not increase the risk of marginal misses which may lead to local failure. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of using Active Breathing Control (ABC) to temporarily immobilize the patient's breathing. Planning CT scans and radiation delivery can then be performed at identical ABC conditions such that a minimal margin for breathing motion can be prescribed safely. Methods and Materials. An active breathing control (ABC) apparatus was constructed consisting of two pairs of flow monitor and scissors valve; one each to control the inhalation and exhalation paths to the patient. The patient breathed through a mouth-piece or face mask connected to the ABC apparatus. A personal computer was used to process the respiratory signal and to display the changing lung volume in real-time. At some time after the patient achieved a stable breathing pattern, the operator activated ABC at a pre-selected point in the breathing cycle. Both valves were then closed to immobilize breathing motion. The period of active breath-hold was that which could be comfortably and repeatedly tolerated by each individual patient, as determined during a training session. The feasibility of the ABC procedure was studied by acquiring volumetric CT scans of a patient during active breath-hold. A helical CT scanner was used. These ABC scans were acquired at one-half to one-third the dose delivered with routine CT scanning. Nine patients with tumors in the thorax and abdomen were studied. Contiguous CT slices were obtained for a region which encompassed the target volume. At least 4 sets of volumetric scans were obtained; one with the patient breathing normally; two ABC scans at the same point near the end of normal inspiration

  19. Serotnin as a possible biomarker in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipford, Melissa C; Ramar, Kannan; Liang, Yao-Jen; Lin, Chii-Wann; Chao, Yun-Ting; An, Jen; Chiu, Chih-Hsien; Tsai, Yi-Ju; Shu, Chih-Hung; Lee, Fei-Peng; Chiang, Rayleigh Ping-Ying

    2016-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disease which carries substantial public health burden. Polysomnography is the standard procedure used to diagnose OSA. However cost, accessibility, technical requirements, and skilled interpretation needs constrain its widespread use and have a role in the under-diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing. There is a clinical need to develop expedient and widely accessible tools to detect this disorder., Several biochemical markers have recently been proposed as diagnostic tools in OSA. Numerous neurochemicals directly influence the activity of upper airway dilator motor neurons, which subsequently influence respiration during sleep. Serotonin (5-HT) is one such neurochemical that has a key role in ventilatory stimulation. Herein, we review the current evidence demonstrating relationships between multiple biomarkers and sleep disordered breathing and focus on relationships between OSA and 5-HT. We discuss the possibility of biomarker-driven detection technology in the future as a means of diagnosing and monitoring OSA. Finally, we explore the specific role 5-HT may have in the future in both the diagnosis and treatment of OSA. PMID:26694311

  20. Controlled breathing protocols probe human autonomic cardiovascular rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, W. H.; Cox, J. F.; Diedrich, A. M.; Taylor, J. A.; Beightol, L. A.; Ames, J. E. 4th; Hoag, J. B.; Seidel, H.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how breathing protocols requiring varying degrees of control affect cardiovascular dynamics. We measured inspiratory volume, end-tidal CO2, R-R interval, and arterial pressure spectral power in 10 volunteers who followed the following 5 breathing protocols: 1) uncontrolled breathing for 5 min; 2) stepwise frequency breathing (at 0.3, 0.25, 0.2, 0.15, 0.1, and 0.05 Hz for 2 min each); 3) stepwise frequency breathing as above, but with prescribed tidal volumes; 4) random-frequency breathing (approximately 0.5-0.05 Hz) for 6 min; and 5) fixed-frequency breathing (0.25 Hz) for 5 min. During stepwise breathing, R-R interval and arterial pressure spectral power increased as breathing frequency decreased. Control of inspired volume reduced R-R interval spectral power during 0.1 Hz breathing (P respiration and R-R intervals and systolic pressure and R-R intervals. Random- and fixed-frequency breathing reduced end-tidal CO2 modestly (P tidal volume control attenuates low-frequency R-R interval oscillations and that fixed- and random-rate breathing may decrease CO2 chemoreceptor stimulation. We conclude that autonomic rhythms measured during different breathing protocols have much in common but that a stepwise protocol without stringent control of inspired volume may allow for the most efficient assessment of short-term respiratory-mediated autonomic oscillations.

  1. Finger dexterity and visual discrimination following two yoga breathing practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Telles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Practicing yoga has been shown to improve motor functions and attention. Though attention is required for fine motor and discrimination tasks, the effect of yoga breathing techniques on fine motor skills and visual discrimination has not been assessed. Aim: To study the effect of yoga breathing techniques on finger dexterity and visual discrimination. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of one hundred and forty subjects who had enrolled for stress management. They were randomly divided into two groups, one group practiced high frequency yoga breathing while the other group practiced breath awareness. High frequency yoga breathing (kapalabhati, breath rate 1.0 Hz and breath awareness are two yoga practices which improve attention. The immediate effect of high frequency yoga breathing and breath awareness (i were assessed on the performance on the O′Connor finger dexterity task and (ii (in a shape and size discrimination task. Results: There was a significant improvement in the finger dexterity task by 19% after kapalabhati and 9% after breath awareness (P<0.001 in both cases, repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc analyses. There was a significant reduction (P<0.001 in error (41% after kapalabhati and 21% after breath awareness as well as time taken to complete the shape and size discrimination test (15% after kapalabhati and 15% after breath awareness; P<0.001 was also observed. Conclusion: Both kapalabahati and breath awareness can improve fine motor skills and visual discrimination, with a greater magnitude of change after kapalabhati.

  2. Analysis of transition state theory for condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By statistically analyzing the condensation process and reconsidering the transition state theory for condensation and evaporation, we first presented a completed theoretical formula of the condensation coefficient. Namely, the unknown parameters contained within the transition state theoretical calculation of the condensation coefficient are determined. The condensation coefficients calculated from this formula agree well with those from molecular dynamics simulations. With this formula, the classical expression of the condensation flux developed from the gas kinetic theory can be used to predict the condensation flux.

  3. In vivo proton MRS of normal pancreas metabolites during breath-holding and free-breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, T.-H. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China); Jin, E.-H., E-mail: erhujin1@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China); Shen, H. [GE China Company Ltd, Healthcare, General Electric Company, Beijing (China); Zhang, Y.; He, W. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-15

    Aim: To characterize normal pancreas metabolites using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) at 3 T under conditions of breath-holding and free-breathing. Materials and methods: The pancreases of 32 healthy volunteers were examined using {sup 1}H MRS during breath-holding and free-breathing acquisitions in a single-voxel point-resolved selective spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) technique using a 3 T MRI system. Resonances were compared between paired spectra of the two breathing modes. Furthermore, correlations between lipid (Lip) content and age, body-mass index (BMI), as well as choline (Cho) peak visibility of the normal pancreas were analysed during breath-holding. Results: Twenty-nine pairs of spectra were successfully obtained showing three major resonances, Lip, Cho, cholesterol and the unsaturated parts of the olefinic region of fatty acids (Chol + Unsat). Breath-hold spectra were generally better, with higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR; Z=-2.646, p = 0.008) and Cho peak visible status (Z=-2.449, p = 0.014). Correlations were significant between spectra acquired by the two breathing modes, especially for Lip height, Lip area, and the area of other peaks at 1.9-4.1 ppm. However, the Lip resonance was significantly different between the spectra of the two breathing modes (p < 0.05). In the breath-holding spectra, there were significant positive correlations between Lip peak height, area, and age (r = 0.491 and 0.521, p = 0.007 and 0.004), but not between Lip peak area and BMI. There was no statistical difference in Cho resonances between males and females. The Lip peak height and area were significantly higher in the Cho peak invisible group than in the Cho peak visible group (t = 2.661 and 2.353, p = 0.030 and 0.043). Conclusion: In vivo{sup 1}H MRS of the normal pancreas at 3 T is technically feasible and can characterize several metabolites. {sup 1}H MRS during breath-holding acquisition is superior to that during free-breathing

  4. Breath analysis to detect recent exposure to carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Cunnington, A; Hormbrey, P

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the normal range for carbon monoxide concentrations in the exhaled breath of subjects in the emergency department and to develop a protocol for the use of a breath analyser to detect abnormal carbon monoxide exposure.

  5. IV-VI semiconductor lasers for gas phase biomarker detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Patrick; Namjou, Khosrow; Roller, Chad; McMillen, Gina; Kamat, Pratyuma

    2007-09-01

    A promising absorption spectroscopy application for mid-IR lasers is exhaled breath analysis where sensitive, selective, and speedy measurement of small gas phase biomarker molecules can be used to diagnose disease and monitor therapies. Many molecules such as nitric oxide, ethane, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, carbonyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide have been connected to diseases or conditions such as asthma, oxidative stress, breast cancer, lung cancer, diabetes, organ transplant rejection, and schizophrenia. Measuring these and other, yet to be discovered, biomarker molecules in exhaled breath with mid-IR lasers offers great potential for improving health care since such tests are non-invasive, real-time, and do not require expensive consumables or chemical reagents. Motivated by these potential benefits, mid-IR laser spectrometers equipped with presently available cryogenically-cooled IV-VI lasers mounted in compact Stirling coolers have been developed for clinical research applications. This paper will begin with a description of the development of mid-IR laser instruments and their use in the largest known exhaled breath clinical study ever performed. It will then shift to a description of recent work on the development of new IV-VI semiconductor quantum well materials and laser fabrication methods that offer the promise of low power consumption (i.e. efficient) continuous wave emission at room temperature. Taken together, the demonstration of compelling clinical applications with large market opportunities and the clear identification of a viable pathway to develop low cost mid-IR laser instrumentation can create a renewed focus for future research and development efforts within the mid-IR materials and devices area.

  6. Black Hole Bose Condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General consensus on the nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy remains elusive despite decades of effort dedicated to the problem. Different approaches to quantum gravity disagree in their description of the microstates and, more significantly, in the statistics used to count them. In some approaches (string theory, AdS/CFT) the elementary degrees of freedom are indistinguishable, whereas they must be treated as distinguishable in other approaches to quantum gravity (eg., LQG) in order to recover the Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy law. However, different statistics will imply different behaviors of the black hole outside the thermodynamic limit. We illustrate this point by quantizing the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, for which we argue that Bose condensation will occur leading to a cold, stable remnant

  7. Black Hole Bose Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Cenalo; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2013-12-01

    General consensus on the nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy remains elusive despite decades of effort dedicated to the problem. Different approaches to quantum gravity disagree in their description of the microstates and, more significantly, in the statistics used to count them. In some approaches (string theory, AdS/CFT) the elementary degrees of freedom are indistinguishable, whereas they must be treated as distinguishable in other approaches to quantum gravity (eg., LQG) in order to recover the Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy law. However, different statistics will imply different behaviors of the black hole outside the thermodynamic limit. We illustrate this point by quantizing the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, for which we argue that Bose condensation will occur leading to a "cold", stable remnant.

  8. Condensate filtering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a condensate filtering device of a nuclear power plant, a water collecting pipe is disposed over the entire length, an end of a hollow thread is in communication with the water collecting pipe and secured. If the length of the water collecting pipe is extended, a filtering device of an optional length can be obtained irrespective of the length of the hollow thread. Therefore, since there is no need to connect units upon constituting a module, flow of cleaning gases is not restricted at connection portions. Accordingly, even if the volume of the device is increased by the extension of the module, the working life of the module is not degraded. (T.M.)

  9. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches 90.degree.. Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

  10. Arachidonic Acid Derivatives in the Exhaled Breath Condensate in Pneumoconioses and their Correlation with Individual Factors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Kačer, J.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Kuzma, Marek; Lebedová, J.; Klusáčková, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 101, s (2007), s144-s146. E-ISSN 1213-7103. [Mezioborová česko-slovenská toxikologická konference /12./. Praha, 11.06.2007-13.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA MZd NR9338 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : silica * asbestos * leukotrienes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  11. Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry of exhaled breath condensate headspace

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čáp, P.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Pehal, F.; Španěl, Patrik

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 18 (2008), s. 2844-2850. ISSN 0951-4198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : EBC * SIFT-MS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.772, year: 2008

  12. 8-Isoprostane and leukotrienes in exhaled breath condensate in czech subjects with silicosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Kačer, P.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Kuzma, Marek; Lebedová, J.; Klusáčková, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 6 (2007), s. 766-774. ISSN 0019-8366 Grant ostatní: GA MZd NR8107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : silica * silicosis * 8-isoprostane * leukotrienes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2007

  13. Leukotrienes and 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate in bronchoprovocation tests with occupational allergens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusáčková, P.; Lebedová, J.; Kačer, P.; Kuzma, Marek; Brabec, Marek; Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, 4-5 (2008), s. 281-292. ISSN 0952-3278 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : occupational allergens * leukotrienes * 8-isoprostane Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.366, year: 2008

  14. Markers in breath condensate in patients with occupational asthma and rhinitis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebedová, J.; Klusáčková, P.; Kačer, P.; Kuzma, M.; Pelclová, D.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Fenclová, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 4 (2005), 346S. ISSN 0012-3692. [CHEST 2005. 29.10.-3.11. 2005, Montréal] R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : asthma * rhinitis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  15. Application of stable isotope to breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needles to say, radioisotopes have good characteristics as a tracer for examining biological functions. In fact, scyntigraphy is widely used over Japan. It is true, however, that there are some difficulties in applying radioisotopes to humans. Thus, greater attention began to be attracted to stable isotopes in the late 1960s, because these substances can be used for infants and pregnant women. They can be stored for a long period of time since they do not suffer damping as in the case of radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a tracer, stable isotopes can provide structural-chemical information including the position of isotope labels, and the mass and atomic composition of fragment ions. Such techniques as NMR spectroscopy is employed for this purpose. The method is currently used to perform examinations of congenital metabolic disorders. The carbon isotopes of 13C and 14C are used for breath test. Compounds labeled with these isotopes are administered and their ratio to the total CO2 in breath is measured to diagnose diseases. In the early 1970s, 13C has come into use for breath test. Similar breath test is applied to diagnosis of the bacterial overgrowth syndrome and ileal dysfunction syndrome. (Nogami, K.)

  16. The NASA firefighter's breathing system program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Carson, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The research is reported in the development of a firefighter's breathing system (FBS) to satisfy the operational requirements of fire departments while remaining within their cost constraints. System definition for the FBS is discussed, and the program status is reported. It is concluded that the most difficult problem in the FBS Program is the achievement of widespread fire department acceptance of the system.

  17. Sleep effects on breathing and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhary Sumer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand normal sleep pattern and physiological changes during sleep, sleep and breathing interaction, nomenclature and scales used in sleep study, discuss the effect of rapid eye movements and non-rapid eye movements while sleep and to review the effects of obstructive and restrictive lung disease on gas exchange during sleep and sleep architecture.

  18. Understanding Lung Problems: Make Each Breath Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people include: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Pneumonia Lung cancer Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD is a disease that makes it hard to breathe. There are two main types of COPD: emphysema and chronic ... Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer ...

  19. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  20. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to reduce margin for breathing motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: For tumors in the thorax and abdomen, reducing the treatment margin for organ motion due to breathing reduces the volume of normal tissues that will be irradiated. A higher dose can be delivered to the target, provided that the risk of marginal misses is not increased. To ensure safe margin reduction, we investigated the feasibility of using active breathing control (ABC) to temporarily immobilize the patient's breathing. Treatment planning and delivery can then be performed at identical ABC conditions with minimal margin for breathing motion. Methods and Materials: An ABC apparatus is constructed consisting of 2 pairs of flow monitor and scissor valve, 1 each to control the inspiration and expiration paths to the patient. The patient breathes through a mouth-piece connected to the ABC apparatus. The respiratory signal is processed continuously, using a personal computer that displays the changing lung volume in real-time. After the patient's breathing pattern becomes stable, the operator activates ABC at a preselected phase in the breathing cycle. Both valves are then closed to immobilize breathing motion. Breathing motion of 12 patients were held with ABC to examine their acceptance of the procedure. The feasibility of applying ABC for treatment was tested in 5 patients by acquiring volumetric scans with a spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner during active breath-hold. Two patients had Hodgkin's disease, 2 had metastatic liver cancer, and 1 had lung cancer. Two intrafraction ABC scans were acquired at the same respiratory phase near the end of normal or deep inspiration. An additional ABC scan near the end of normal expiration was acquired for 2 patients. The ABC scans were also repeated 1 week later for a Hodgkin's patient. In 1 liver patient, ABC scans were acquired at 7 different phases of the breathing cycle to facilitate examination of the liver motion associated with ventilation. Contours of the lungs and livers were outlined when applicable

  1. The best breathing command for abdominal PETCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the best breathing command for combined PETCT scanning on a in-line system (Discovery LS, GEMS). Material and Methods: Eight patients underwent FDG PET and CT for attenuation correction and image co-registration on a combined PETCT scanner. CT was acquired during maximum inspiration (MaxInsp) with a starting point at the level of the head. Patients kept their breath for approximately 20 seconds. Then, a CT scan was acquired during normal expiration (NormExp), which corresponded to the respiratory level reached when the patient first inhaled and then exhaled without forcing expiration. Again, CT started at the head and patients kept their breath for approximately 20 seconds. In a third run, patients performed again the NormExp breathing manoeuvre but the breathing command was given after the start of the CT scan. Using this respiration protocol, the hold on time for the patients was between 10 and 15 seconds. All PET images were corrected for attenuation using the CT-based attenuation maps acquired with these three respiration protocols and then were reconstructed using an iterative algorithm. Results: In all patients, attenuation correction of the PET image using the CT scan acquired during MaxInsp caused mis-correction, which mimicked a decrease of FDG concentration in the base of the lungs. During MaxInsp the upper abdominal organs change their position and air filling of the lower lung zone is increased, thus, causing an underestimation of correction values. Subtraction images of the CT scans acquired during MaxInsp and NormExp illustrate the range of organ movements. Subtraction images of the attenuation corrected PET scans illustrate the deterioration of the final PET image. CT acquisition during NormExp provides better PET and co-registered PET/CT images. Using the shorter breath hold time the visual image quality was good in all patients. Conclusion: CT based attenuation correction can severely deteriorate PET image quality, if the CT scan

  2. Imaging biomarkers in tauopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Melanie; Edison, Paul; Brooks, David J

    2016-01-01

    Abnormally aggregated tau protein is central to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia variants, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. The post-mortem cortical density of hyperphosphorylated tau tangles correlates with pre-morbid cognitive dysfunction and neuron loss. Selective PET ligands including [18F]THK5117, [18F]THK5351, [18F]AV1451 (T807) and [11C]PBB3 now provide in vivo imaging information about the timing and distribution of tau in the early phases of neurodegenerative diseases. They are potential imaging biomarkers for both supporting diagnosis and tracking disease progression. Here, we discuss the challenges posed in developing selective tau ligands as biomarkers, their state of development and the new clinical information that has been revealed. PMID:26299160

  3. Towards Improved Biomarker Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldahl, Karin

    actually identify strong biomarkers when strict validation is applied; the latter phenomenon is to some extentmasked by a publication bias, but has been widely observed among researchers working with omics data. In this thesis, the background of this apparent small effect size of the biomarkers is...... is used both for regression and classification purposes. This method has proven its strong worth in the multivariate data analysis throughout an enormous range of applications; a very classic data type is near infrared (NIR) data, but many similar data types have also be very successful. On that...... application types are different and introduce a larger complexity, weaker signals andmany potential sources of experimental and analytical bias and errors. The risk of the latter is further increased by the complexity of the entire omics experimental setup which often involves various project partners with...

  4. Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikako Ishigamori

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common epithelial malignancy in the world. Since CRC develops slowly from removable precancerous lesions, detection of the lesion at an early stage by regular health examinations can reduce the incidence and mortality of this malignancy. Colonoscopy significantly improves the detection rate of CRC, but the examination is expensive and inconvenient. Therefore, we need novel biomarkers that are non-invasive to enable us to detect CRC quite early. A number of validation studies have been conducted to evaluate genetic, epigenetic or protein markers for identification in the stool and/or serum. Currently, the fecal occult blood test is the most widely used method of screening for CRC. However, advances in genomics and proteomics will lead to the discovery of novel non-invasive biomarkers.

  5. Biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behne, Tara; Copur, M Sitki

    2012-01-01

    The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors and carries a poor survival rate. The management of patients at risk for developing HCC remains challenging. Increased understanding of cancer biology and technological advances have enabled identification of a multitude of pathological, genetic, and molecular events that drive hepatocarcinogenesis leading to discovery of numerous potential biomarkers in this disease. They are currently being aggressively evaluated to establish their value in early diagnosis, optimization of therapy, reducing the emergence of new tumors, and preventing the recurrence after surgical resection or liver transplantation. These markers not only help in prediction of prognosis or recurrence but may also assist in deciding appropriate modality of therapy and may represent novel potential targets for therapeutic interventions. In this paper, a summary of most relevant available data from published papers reporting various tissue and serum biomarkers involved in hepatocellular carcinoma was presented. PMID:22655201

  6. Condensate purification in PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recommendations made by the VGB task group on 'condensate purification for PWR reactors' 1976 are discussed in detail. Techniques and circuiting possibilities of condensate purification for BBR steam generators (forced circulation) and KWU steam generators (U tube with blow-down) are mentioned. (HP)

  7. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to...

  8. A Multimedia System for Breath Regulation and Relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ching Liao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the hectic life today, detrimental stress has caused numerous illness. To adjust mental states, breath regulation plays a core role in multiple relaxation techniques. In this paper, we introduce a multimedia system supporting breath regulation and relaxation. Features of this system include non-contact respiration detection, bio-signal monitoring, and breath interaction. In addition to illustrating this system, we also propose a novel form of breath interaction. Through this form of breath interaction, the system effectively influenced user breath such that their breathing features turned into patterns that appeared when people were relaxed. An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of three forms of regulation, the free breathing mode, the pure guiding mode, and the local-mapping mode. Experiment results show that multimedia-assisted breath interaction successfully deepened and slowed down user breath, compared with free breathing mode. Besides objective breathing feature changes, subjective feedback also showed that participants were satisfied and became relaxed after using this system.

  9. 21 CFR 868.5280 - Breathing tube support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing tube support. 868.5280 Section 868.5280...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5280 Breathing tube support. (a) Identification. A breathing tube support is a device that is intended to support and anchor a patient's...

  10. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The...

  11. 46 CFR 108.703 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.703 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.703 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each unit must be equipped with a self-contained breathing apparatus described in § 108.497(a) to use...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5330 - Breathing gas mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing gas mixer. 868.5330 Section 868.5330...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5330 Breathing gas mixer. (a) Identification. A breathing gas mixer is a device intended for use in conjunction with a respiratory...

  13. 42 CFR 84.195 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.195 Section 84.195 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... Cartridge Respirators § 84.195 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used...

  14. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of a gas mask mounted on a breathing machine both before and...

  15. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. 84.152... Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Type A and Type B supplied-air respirators shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type which extend from...

  16. 42 CFR 84.172 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.172... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.172 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators shall be designed and constructed to prevent:...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.1132 Section 84.1132 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... Gas Masks § 84.1132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. (a) Flexible breathing tubes used...

  18. 46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked...

  19. 42 CFR 84.132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.132 Section 84.132 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... Respirators § 84.132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction...

  20. 46 CFR 108.635 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.635 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.635 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked: “SELF...

  1. 21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing frequency monitor. 868.2375 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2375 Breathing frequency monitor. (a) Identification. A breathing (ventilatory) frequency monitor is a device intended to measure or monitor a...

  2. 46 CFR 197.450 - Breathing gas tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas tests. 197.450 Section 197.450 Shipping....450 Breathing gas tests. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) The output of each air... or modification. (b) Purchased supplies of breathing mixtures supplied to a diver are checked...

  3. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 29.1439... Protective breathing equipment. (a) If one or more cargo or baggage compartments are to be accessible in flight, protective breathing equipment must be available for an appropriate crewmember. (b)...

  5. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.115 Section 84.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

  6. Biomarkers for pancreatic carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hustinx, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease. Most pancreatic cancers (approximately 85%) are diagnosed at a late, incurable stage. The poor prognosis and late presentation of pancreatic cancer patients underscore the importance of early detection, which is the sine qua non for the fight against pancreatic cancer. It is hoped for the future that the understanding of genetic alterations will lead to the rapid discovery of an effective biomarker of pancreatic carcinogenesis. In this thesis we vis...

  7. PPOOLEX experiments on wall condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2009-08-15

    This report summarizes the results of the wall condensation experiments carried out in December 2008 and January 2009 with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through a DN200 blowdown pipe to the condensation pool. Altogether five experiments, each consisting of several blows, were carried out. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study wall condensation phenomenon inside the dry well compartment while steam is discharged through it into the condensation pool and to produce comparison data for CFD calculations at VTT. The PPOOLEX test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. For the wall condensation experiments the test facility was equipped with a system for collecting and measuring the amount of condensate from four different wall segments of the dry well compartment. A thermo graphic camera was used in a couple of experiments for filming the outside surface of the dry well wall. The effect of the initial temperature level of the dry well structures and of the steam flow rate for the accumulation of condensate was studied. The initial temperature level of the dry well structures varied from 23 to 99 deg. C. The steam flow rate varied from 90 to 690 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 115 to 160 deg. C. During the initial phase of steam discharge the accumulation of condensate was strongly controlled by the temperature level of the dry well structures; the lower the initial temperature level was the more condensate was accumulated. As the dry well structural temperatures increased the condensation process slowed down. Most of the condensate usually accumulated during the first 200 seconds of the discharge. However, the condensation process never completely stopped because a small temperature difference remained between the dry well atmosphere and inner wall

  8. Effect of slow deep breathing (6 breaths/min) on pulmonary function in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Shravya Keerthi G, Hari Krishna Bandi, Suresh M, Mallikarjuna Reddy N

    2013-01-01

    We designed this study to test the hypothesis that whether 10 minutes of slow deep breathing have any effect on pulmonary function in healthy volunteers. The main objective was to study the immediate effect of slow deep breathing on Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), Forced expiratory volume percent (FEV1/FVC%), Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), Forced expiratory flow 25-75%(FEF25-75%), Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), Slow vital capacity (SV...

  9. Real time detection of exhaled human breath using quantum cascade laser based sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittel, Frank K.; Lewicki, Rafal; Dong, Lei; Liu, Kun; Risby, Terence H.; Solga, Steven; Schwartz, Tim

    2012-02-01

    The development and performance of a cw, TE-cooled DFB quantum cascade laser based sensor for quantitative measurements of ammonia (NH3) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations present in exhaled breath will be reported. Human breath contains ~ 500 different chemical species, usually at ultra low concentration levels, which can serve as biomarkers for the identification and monitoring of human diseases or wellness states. By monitoring NH3 concentration levels in exhaled breath a fast, non-invasive diagnostic method for treatment of patients with liver and kidney disorders, is feasible. The NH3 concentration measurements were performed with a 2f wavelength modulation quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) technique, which is suitable for real time breath measurements, due to the fast gas exchange inside a compact QEPAS gas cell. A Hamamatsu air-cooled high heat load (HHL) packaged CW DFB-QCL is operated at 17.5°C, targeting the optimum interference free NH3 absorption line at 967.35 cm-1 (λ~10.34 μm), with ~ 20 mW of optical power. The sensor architecture includes a reference cell, filled with a 2000 ppmv NH3 :N2 mixture at 130 Torr, which is used for absorption line-locking. A minimum detection limit (1σ) for the line locked NH3 sensor is ~ 6 ppbv (with a 1σ 1 sec time resolution of the control electronics). This NH3 sensor was installed in late 2010 and is being clinically tested at St. Luke's Hospital in Bethlehem, PA.

  10. Generalized Bose-Einstein Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Mullin, William J

    2010-01-01

    Generalized Bose-Einstein condensation (GBEC) involves condensates appearing simultaneously in multiple states. We analyze examples of the three types in an ideal Bose gas with different geometries. In Type I there is a discrete number of quantum states each having macroscopic occupation; Type II has condensation into a continuous band of states, with each state having macroscopic occupation; in Type III each state is microscopically occupied while the entire condensate band is macroscopically occupied. We begin by discussing Type I or "normal" BEC into a single state for an isotropic harmonic oscillator potential. Other geometries and external potentials are then considered: the "channel" potential (harmonic in one dimension and hard-wall in the other), which displays Type II, the "cigar trap" (anisotropic harmonic potential), and the "Casimir prism" (an elongated box), the latter two having Type III condensations. General box geometries are considered in an appendix. We particularly focus on the cigar trap,...

  11. Off gas condenser performance modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A suite of three programmes has been developed to model the ruthenium decontamination performance of a vitrification plant off-gas condenser. The stages of the model are: condensation of water vapour, NOx absorption in the condensate, RuO4 absorption in the condensate. Juxtaposition of these stages gives a package that may be run on an IBM-compatible desktop PC. Experimental work indicates that the criterion [HNO2] > 10 [RuO4] used to determine RuO4 destruction in solution is probably realistic under condenser conditions. Vapour pressures of RuO4 over aqueous solutions at 70o-90oC are slightly lower than the values given by extrapolating the ln Kp vs. T-1 relation derived from lower temperature data. (author)

  12. Excitonic condensation in bilayer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jung-Jung

    Among the many examples of Bose condensation considered in physics, electron-hole-pair (exciton) condensation has maintained special interest because it has been difficult to realize experimentally, and because of controversy about condensate properties. In this thesis, we studied the various aspects of spontaneous symmetry broken state of exciton in bilayer using mean field theory. We calculated the photoluminescence of excitonic condensation created by laser. We developed a one-dimensional toy model of excitonic supercurrent using mean field theory plus non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) which give qualitatively consistent results with experiments. We proposed graphene bilayer as a novel system for excitonic condensation to occur and estimate it to exist even at temperature as high as room temperature.

  13. Biomarkers of Ovarian Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Roudebush

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of the female ovary is the production of a mature and viable oocyte capable of fertilization and subsequent embryo development and implantation. At birth, the ovary contains a finite number of oocytes available for folliculogenesis. This finite number of available oocytes is termed “the ovarian reserve”. The determination of ovarian reserve is important in the assessment and treatment of infertility. As the ovary ages, the ovarian reserve will decline. Infertility affects approximately 15-20% of reproductive aged couples. The most commonly used biomarker assay to assess ovarian reserve is the measurement of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. However, antimüllerian hormone and inhibin-B are other biomarkers of ovarian reserve that are gaining in popularity since they provide direct determination of ovarian status, whereas day 3 FSH is an indirect measurement. This review examines the physical tools and the hormone biomarkers used to evaluate ovarian reserve.

  14. Clinical utility of asthma biomarkers: from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijverberg SJH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Susanne JH Vijverberg,1,2,* Bart Hilvering,2,* Jan AM Raaijmakers,1 Jan-Willem J Lammers,2 Anke-Hilse Maitland-van der Zee,1,* Leo Koenderman2,* 1Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and recurrent episodes of reversible airway obstruction. The disease is very heterogeneous in onset, course, and response to treatment, and seems to encompass a broad collection of heterogeneous disease subtypes with different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. There is a strong need for easily interpreted clinical biomarkers to assess the nature and severity of the disease. Currently available biomarkers for clinical practice – for example markers in bronchial lavage, bronchial biopsies, sputum, or fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO – are limited due to invasiveness or lack of specificity. The assessment of markers in peripheral blood might be a good alternative to study airway inflammation more specifically, compared to FeNO, and in a less invasive manner, compared to bronchoalveolar lavage, biopsies, or sputum induction. In addition, promising novel biomarkers are discovered in the field of breath metabolomics (eg, volatile organic compounds and (pharmacogenomics. Biomarker research in asthma is increasingly shifting from the assessment of the value of single biomarkers to multidimensional approaches in which the clinical value of a combination of various markers is studied. This could eventually lead to the development of a clinically applicable algorithm composed of various markers and clinical features to phenotype asthma and improve diagnosis and asthma management

  15. Comparative study on cardiac autonomic modulation during deep breathing test and diaphragmatic breathing in type 2 diabetes and healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Subbalakshmi, Narsajjana Krishnadasa; Adhikari, Prabha; Shanmugavel Jeganathan, Punnaimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction Diaphragmatic breathing is known to have a beneficial effect on the cardiopulmonary system, and enhances parasympathetic activation. We evaluated the influence of diaphragmatic breathing on time domain measures of heart rate variability in diabetics and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods A total of 122 type 2 diabetics and 94 healthy subjects (controls) were randomly allocated to a deep breathing test and diaphragmatic breathing (61 diabetics and 47 controls in...

  16. Transient condensation tests on an emergency condensator - single tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents experiments which were aimed at studying steam condensation in horizontal respectively slightly inclined pipes at high driving temperature differences of up to 200 K. Further specifics are the detailed investigation of the transient behaviour of a non-condensable gas using a novel measuring technique as well as the evaluation of the influence of the gas upon the condensation intensity. For this purpose in the experiment a rapid transient process was realized, which was initiated by suddenly connecting a heat exchanger pipe resting in a pool of cooling water with the steam dome of a pressure vessel. In the pipe, different initial conditions were adjusted by varying the initial pressure of the non-condensable gas (air). Experiments were carried out with atmospheric pressure, with increased air pressure, but also with an evacuated pipe. The new instrumentation consists in novel needle-shaped void probes, which allow the local phase detection combined with a fast temperature measurement. This makes it possible to study the redistribution of steam, condensate and non-condensable as a function of time with a high resolution. The obtained data offer the possibility to validate the models for the prediction of the transport and the effect of non-condensable gases in thermal hydraulic system codes under transient conditions. (orig.)

  17. An efficient mathematical model for air-breathing PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The effects of the ambient humidity on the performance of air-breathing PEM fuel cells become more pronounced as the ambient temperature increases. The polarisation curves have been generated using the in-house developed MATLAB® application, Polarisation Curve Generator, which is available in the supplementary data. - Highlights: • An efficient mathematical model has been developed for an air-breathing PEM fuel cell. • The fuel cell performance is significantly over-predicted if the Joule and entropic heats are neglected. • The fuel cell performance is highly sensitive to the state of water at the thermodynamic equilibrium. • The cell potential dictates the favourable ambient conditions for the fuel cell. - Abstract: A simple and efficient mathematical model for air-breathing proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells has been built. One of the major objectives of this study is to investigate the effects of the Joule and entropic heat sources, which are often neglected, on the performance of air-breathing PEM fuel cells. It is found that the fuel cell performance is significantly over-predicted if one or both of these heat sources is not incorporated into the model. Also, it is found that the performance of the fuel cell is highly sensitive to the state of the water at the thermodynamic equilibrium magnitude as both the entropic heat and the Nernst potential considerably increase if water is assumed to be produced in liquid form rather than in vapour form. Further, the heat of condensation is shown to be small and therefore, under single-phase modelling, has a negligible effect on the performance of the fuel cell. Finally, the favourable ambient conditions depend on the operating cell potential. At intermediate cell potentials, a mild ambient temperature and low humidity are favoured to maintain high membrane conductivity and mitigate water flooding. At low cell potentials, low ambient temperature and high humidity are favoured to

  18. Biomarkers in inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Tue; Birkelund, Svend; Stensballe, Allan;

    2014-01-01

    with medications with the concomitant risk of adverse events. In addition, identification of disease and course specific biomarker profiles can be used to identify biological pathways involved in the disease development and treatment. Knowledge of disease mechanisms in general can lead to improved future...... before. In this review, we report the current status of the proteomics IBD biomarkers and discuss various emerging proteomic strategies for identifying and characterizing novel biomarkers, as well as suggesting future targets for analysis....

  19. BREATHING PATTERNS IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka P. Ostwal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Back pain is common clinical condition encountered in a day to day Physiotherapy practice. Very few authors has so far documented changes in breathing patterns in low back pain while performing certain motor control tests. Purpose: The aim of the study was to observe the breathing pattern in individuals with low back pain (LBP both at rest and during motor control tasks. Material and Method: 150 patients with LBP participated in this study and they were subcategorized further in acute, sub-acute and chronic low back pain patients. The breathing pattern was evaluated at rest (standing and supine position during both relaxed breathing and deep breathing and while performing clinical motor control tasks, i.e. bent knee fall out, knee lift abdominal test and active straight leg raise. Breathing patterns in patients with LBP were assessed by therapist both visually and via palpation and observational findings were noted. Costo-diaphragmatic breathing was considered as normal breathing pattern. Result: Observational findings of this study demonstrates altered breathing pattern in patients with LBP during motor control tasks. Conclusion: At rest, no significant differences were observed in breathing patterns of LBP patients, whereas around 71% patients revealed abnormal breathing pattern during motor control tests.

  20. Metabolite content profiling of bottlenose dolphin exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Alexander A; Yeates, Laura; Pasamontes, Alberto; Siebe, Craig; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Simmons, Jason; McCartney, Mitchell M; Deplanque, Jean-Pierre; Wells, Randall S; Davis, Cristina E

    2014-11-01

    Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

  1. Monitoring Breathing via Signal Strength in Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Patwari, Neal; R., Sai Ananthanarayanan P; Kasera, Sneha K; Westenskow, Dwayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows experimentally that standard wireless networks which measure received signal strength (RSS) can be used to reliably detect human breathing and estimate the breathing rate, an application we call "BreathTaking". We show that although an individual link cannot reliably detect breathing, the collective spectral content of a network of devices reliably indicates the presence and rate of breathing. We present a maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) of breathing rate, amplitude, and phase, which uses the RSS data from many links simultaneously. We show experimental results which demonstrate that reliable detection and frequency estimation is possible with 30 seconds of data, within 0.3 breaths per minute (bpm) RMS error. Use of directional antennas is shown to improve robustness to motion near the network.

  2. Efficient, Long-Life Biocidal Condenser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental control systems for manned lunar and planetary bases will require condensing heat exchangers to control humidity in manned modules. Condensing...

  3. Efficient, Long-Life Biocidal Condenser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental control systems for manned lunar and planetary bases will require condensing heat exchangers to control humidity. Condensing surfaces must be...

  4. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Verma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.

  5. Biomarker Identification Using Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database.

  6. Bose condensation in (random traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Zagrebnov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a non-interacting (perfect Bose-gas in random external potentials (traps. It is shown that a generalized Bose-Einstein condensation in the random eigenstates manifests if and only if the same occurs in the one-particle kinetic-energy eigenstates, which corresponds to the generalized condensation of the free Bose-gas. Moreover, we prove that the amounts of both condensate densities are equal. This statement is relevant for justification of the Bogoliubov approximation} in the theory of disordered boson systems.

  7. UNDERWATER STROKE KINEMATICS DURING BREATHING AND BREATH-HOLDING FRONT CRAWL SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickos Vezos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of breathing on the three - dimensional underwater stroke kinematics of front crawl swimming. Ten female competitive freestyle swimmers participated in the study. Each subject swam a number of front crawl trials of 25 m at a constant speed under breathing and breath-holding conditions. The underwater motion of each subject's right arm was filmed using two S-VHS cameras, operating at 60 Hz, which were positioned behind two underwater viewing windows. The spatial coordinates of selected points were calculated using the DLT procedure with 30 control points and after the digital filtering of the raw data with a cut-off frequency of 6 Hz, the hand's linear displacements and velocities were calculated. The results revealed that breathing caused significantly increases in the stroke duration (t9 = 2.764; p < 0.05, the backward hand displacement relative to the water (t9 = 2.471; p<0.05 and the lateral displacement of the hand in the X - axis during the downsweep (t9 = 2.638; p < 0.05. On the contrary, the peak backward hand velocity during the insweep (t9 = 2.368; p < 0.05 and the displacement of the hand during the push phase (t9 = -2.297; p < 0.05 were greatly reduced when breathing was involved. From the above, it was concluded that breathing action in front crawl swimming caused significant modifications in both the basic stroke parameters and the overall motor pattern were, possibly due to body roll during breathing

  8. Chiral Biomarkers in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    The chirality of organic molecules with the asymmetric location of group radicals was discovered in 1848 by Louis Pasteur during his investigations of the rotation of the plane of polarization of light by crystals of sodium ammonium paratartrate. It is well established that the amino acids in proteins are exclusively Levorotary (L-aminos) and the sugars in DNA and RNA are Dextrorotary (D-sugars). This phenomenon of homochirality of biological polymers is a fundamental property of all life known on Earth. Furthermore, abiotic production mechanisms typically yield recemic mixtures (i.e. equal amounts of the two enantiomers). When amino acids were first detected in carbonaceous meteorites, it was concluded that they were racemates. This conclusion was taken as evidence that they were extraterrestrial and produced by abiologically. Subsequent studies by numerous researchers have revealed that many of the amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites exhibit a significant L-excess. The observed chirality is much greater than that produced by any currently known abiotic processes (e.g. Linearly polarized light from neutron stars; Circularly polarized ultraviolet light from faint stars; optically active quartz powders; inclusion polymerization in clay minerals; Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis of parity violations, etc.). This paper compares the measured chirality detected in the amino acids of carbonaceous meteorites with the effect of these diverse abiotic processes. IT is concluded that the levels observed are inconsistent with post-arrival biological contamination or with any of the currently known abiotic production mechanisms. However, they are consistent with ancient biological processes on the meteorite parent body. This paper will consider these chiral biomarkers in view of the detection of possible microfossils found in the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous meteorites. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data obtained on these morphological biomarkers will be

  9. Microstructured optical fiber interferometric breathing sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, Fernando C.; Villatoro, Joel; Pruneri, Valerio

    2012-03-01

    In this paper a simple photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometric breathing sensor is introduced. The interferometer consists of a section of PCF fusion spliced at the distal end of a standard telecommunications optical fiber. Two collapsed regions in the PCF caused by the splicing process allow the excitation and recombination of a core and a cladding PCF mode. As a result, the reflection spectrum of the device exhibits a sinusoidal interference pattern that instantly shifts when water molecules, present in exhaled air, are adsorbed on or desorbed from the PCF surface. The device can be used to monitor a person's breathing whatever the respiration rate. The device here proposed could be particularly important in applications where electronic sensors fail or are not recommended. It may also be useful in the evaluation of a person's health and even in the diagnosis and study of the progression of serious illnesses such as sleep apnea syndrome.

  10. An exercise in preferential unilateral breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In preparation for major thoracic surgery, physiotherapists have traditionally taught unilateral breathing exercises. There are no studies that prove that these exercises are effective This study was undertaken to demonstrate the effects of unilateral thoracic expansion exercises (TEE) using 99Tcm-Technegas Ten physiotherapists were taught unilateral TEE to increase ventilation to the right lower lobe. Each subject underwent two separate Technegas ventilation studies using a single-breath technique, one with normal deep inspiration and the other during a right TEE. Dynamic and static images were acquired in the seated position for each ventilation study. Analysis was undertaken by dividing the lungs into 6 zones of equal height and calculating the relative ventilation of each zone and each lung. Seven subjects (70%) achieved significantly increased ventilation to the right lower zone, while 9 (90%) achieved greater ventilation to the right lung. Total lung ventilation was reduced during right TEE when compared with normal deep inspiration

  11. Retrotrapezoid nucleus, respiratory chemosensitivity and breathing automaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Patrice G.; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Stornetta, Ruth L.; Fortuna, Michal G.; Abbott, Stephen B.; Depuy, Seth D.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Breathing automaticity and CO2 regulation are inseparable neural processes. The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a group of glutamatergic neurons that express the transcription factor Phox2b, may be a crucial nodal point through which breathing automaticity is regulated to maintain CO2 constant. This review updates the analysis presented in prior publications. Additional evidence that RTN neurons have central respiratory chemoreceptor properties is presented but this is only one of many factors that determine their activity. The RTN is also regulated by powerful inputs from the carotid bodies and, at least in the adult, by many other synaptic inputs. We also analyze how RTN neurons may control the activity of the downstream central respiratory pattern generator. Specifically, we review the evidence which suggests that RTN neurons a) innervate the entire ventral respiratory column, and b) control both inspiration and expiration. Finally, we argue that the RTN neurons are the adult form of the parafacial respiratory group in neonate rats. PMID:19712903

  12. Positive pressure breathing during rest and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, E A; Heus, R

    2003-03-01

    The requirements to maintain a positive pressure with respiratory protection during heavy exercise and the effects on ventilation and feelings of discomfort were investigated. Eight male subjects participated, using the respirator system during rest and exercise at about 80% of their individual maximum power. A blower was used at maximum and medium capacity and at two pressure levels (3 and 15 mbar). Additionally, the mouth pressure was used as a feedback for the blower. The blower decreased the fraction of the breathing cycle with negative pressures from 50% (SD 4%) to 15% (SD 10%) during exercise. Negative pressures occurred at all settings of the blower during exercise. Thus, the currently available commercial blower systems do not supply a sufficient airflow to maintain a positive pressure during heavy exercise. Positive pressure breathing did not affect the ventilation and the circulation. But the oxygen consumption was higher with the blower and respirator than without. PMID:12628576

  13. A monitoring of breathing using a hetero-core optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, S.; Seki, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2011-04-01

    A monitoring human breath has been seen as an important source of factor for vital status for emergency medical service. The monitoring of breathing has been tested and evaluated in a possible breath condition of a person to be monitored. A hetero-core optical fiber humidity sensor was developed for in order to monitor relative humidity in a medial mask. Elements for determent breath condition were extracted from the light intensity changing at some human breath condition, which were Breath depth, Breath cycle, Breath time and Check breathing. It is found that the elements had differences relative to normal breathing.

  14. Detection of human breath biomarkers by femtosecond laser based absorption spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Číp, Ondřej; Lešundák, Adam; Buchta, Zdeněk; Šmíd, Radek; Lazar, Josef

    Elsevier. Vol. 9, Suppl. 1 (2012), S36. ISSN 1572-1000. [Photodiagnostics and Photodynamics Therapy. International Congress. 24.08.2012-29.08.2012, Helsinki] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk EE2.4.31.0016 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : photodiagnostics * photodynamics therapy * femtosecond laser * carbon monoxide * carbon dioxide Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  15. Ethane and n-pentane in exhaled breath are biomarkers of exposure not effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorham, Katrine A; Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Meinardi, Simone; Delfino, Ralph J; Staimer, Norbert; Tjoa, Thomas; Rowland, F Sherwood; Blake, Donald R

    2009-01-01

    The relationship of exhaled ethane and n-pentane to exhaled NO, carbonylated proteins, and indoor/outdoor atmospheric pollutants were examined in order to evaluate ethane and n-pentane as potential markers of airway inflammation and/or oxidative stress. Exhaled NO and carbonylated proteins were...... inflammation or oxidative stress....

  16. Novel Findings in Breath-Holding Spells

    OpenAIRE

    Azab, Seham F. A.; Siam, Ahmed G.; Saleh, Safaa H.; Elshafei, Mona M.; Elsaeed, Wafaa F.; Arafa, Mohamed A.; Bendary, Eman A.; Farag, Elsayed M.; Basset, Maha A.A.; Ismail, Sanaa M.; Elazouni, Osama M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The mechanism of breath-holding spells (BHS) is not fully understood and most probably multifactorial; so, this study was designed to clarify the pathophysiology of BHS through assessing some laboratory parameters and electrocardiographic (ECG) changes which might be contributing to the occurrence of the attacks. Another aim of the study was to evaluate the differences in the pathophysiology between pallid and cyanotic types of BHS. This was a prospective study performed in Zagazig U...

  17. Breathing air trailer acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0251, Rev.0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-104. The equipment tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a design and fabrication procurement activity. The ATP was written by the Seller and was performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing portions of the test at the Seller's location

  18. Coordination of Mastication, Swallowing and Breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Koichiro; Palmer, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    The pathways for air and food cross in the pharynx. In breathing, air may flow through either the nose or the mouth, it always flows through the pharynx. During swallowing, the pharynx changes from an airway to a food channel. The pharynx is isolated from the nasal cavity and lower airway by velopharyngeal and laryngeal closure during the pharyngeal swallow. During mastication, the food bolus accumulates in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation. The structures in the oral cavity, pharynx an...

  19. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients. PMID:24976698

  20. The experimental modification of sonorous breathing.

    OpenAIRE

    Josephson, S C; Rosen, R C

    1980-01-01

    Loud snoring is a noxious habit and potential personal health risk. We are reporting the first experimental study of simple behavioral techniques for the modification of chronic snoring. Twenty-four volunteers participated in a repeated measures, randomized group design over 2 weeks of intervention and one-month follow-up. Treatment groups included a contingent-awakening and breathing retraining (self-control) condition. Both treatment groups were compared to a no-treatment control. Despite c...

  1. Breath sampling control for medical application

    OpenAIRE

    Vautz, Wolfgang; Baumbach, Jörg I.; Westhoff, Michael; Züchner, Klaus; Carstens, Eike T. H.; Perl, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Sampling of breath under human control or automated control with sensors was combined with chemical determination of a synthetic sample using multi-capillary column ion mobility spectrometry to measure quantitative variability. Variation was 19% with an automated inlet and 33% with human control. Sensors to operate an automated inlet were also evaluated with human subjects and included carbon dioxide (CO2), flow (direction and velocity), volume (integrated from the flow rate) and humidity, al...

  2. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research

  3. Air-breathing Rocket Engine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie depicts the Rocketdyne static test of an air-breathing rocket. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's advanced Transportation Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  4. Sleep-disordered Breathing in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Yu Li

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB can manifesta continuum from simple snoring and upper airway resistancesyndrome to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA with secondarygrowth impairment, neurocognitive deficits, and lessoften cardiovascular sequelae. Most children who present withSDB are four to eight years old with variable clinical symptomsat different ages. In general, infants often present withnoisy breathing and disturbed nocturnal sleep, toddlers andpreschool-aged children with snoring and mouth breathing,and school-aged children with behavioral and dental problems.The pathogenesis of SDB in children remains incompletelyunderstood. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the leading cause ofOSA. Other risk factors include allergic rhinitis, craniofacialanomalies, cleft palate following pharyngeal flap surgery, neuromusculardiseases, laryngomalacia, and obesity.Polysomnography (PSG is the gold standard diagnostic tool. However, great variationexists in the interpretation of PSG and criteria for the definition of pediatric OSA, eventhough consensus statements have been used to standardize the scoring of summary indicesfor the disorders. Adenotonsillectomy is the cardinal treatment for pediatric SDB. Rapidmaxillary expansion is a useful approach in upper jaw contraction. Distraction osteogenesishas become an acceptable procedure in the treatment of severe maxillomandibular deficiency.Continuous positive airway pressure has been successful in treating intractable or severeOSA in children with other underlying medical disorders and has modified the indicationsfor tracheotomy in pediatric patients with craniofacial anomalies and OSA. Follow-up inchildren treated for OSA reveals that underlying structural or neuromuscular abnormalitiescan decrease the response to treatment and obesity may lead to recurrence of OSA later duringadolescence.

  5. Laser Filament Induced Water Condensation

    OpenAIRE

    Kasparian J.; Webe K.; Vogel A; Petit Y.; Lüder J.; Hao Z.Q.; Rohwetter P.; Petrarca M.; Stelmaszczyk K.; Henin S.; Wöste L.; Wolf J.-P.

    2013-01-01

    At relative humidities above 70%, femtosecond laser filaments generate aerosol particles and water droplets in the atmosphere. The water vapour condensation and droplet stabilization are assured by soluble species produced in the laser plasma.

  6. Zeolite Catalyzed Aldol Condensation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedayo I. Inegbenebor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The review is based on the description of zeolite structure, uses, synthesis, and catalytic aldol reaction in aldol condensation. An internal aldolcondensation reaction has been achieved over ZSM-5 zeolite with high silica-alumina ratio at 350oC. It therefore follows that zeolite canfunction as a catalyst in aldol type condensation reactions and that weak acid sites as well as a small number of active sites favor the aldolcondensation reaction of carbonyl compounds. However, the mixed condensation product was found to be favored at temperatures above 300oCand the self-condensation of ethanal to crotonaldehyde was favored at temperatures below 300oC. It has also been suggested that both Brønstedand Lewis acids are involved in aldol reactions with Lewis acid sites the most probable catalytic sites. The zeolite group of minerals has founduse in many chemical and allied industries.

  7. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Wealth Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, D

    2006-01-01

    We analyze wealth condensation for a wide class of stochastic economy models on the basis of the economic analog of thermodynamic potentials, termed transfer potentials. The economy model is based on three common transfers modes of wealth: random transfer, profit proportional to wealth and motivation of poor agents to work harder. The economies never reach steady state. Wealth condensation is the result of stochastic tunneling through a metastable transfer potential. In accordance with reality, both wealth and income distribution transiently show Pareto tails for high income subjects. For metastable transfer potentials, exponential wealth condensation is a robust feature. For example with 10 % annual profit 1% of the population owns 50 % of the wealth after 50 years. The time to reach such a strong wealth condensation is a hyperbolic function of the annual profit rate.

  8. Hierarchical condensation near phase equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olemskoi, A. I.; Yushchenko, O. V.; Borisyuk, V. N.; Zhilenko, T. I.; Kosminska, Yu. O.; Perekrestov, V. I.

    2012-06-01

    A novel mechanism of new phase formation is studied both experimentally and theoretically in the example of quasi-equilibrium stationary condensation in an ion-plasma sputterer. Copper condensates are obtained to demonstrate that a specific network structure is formed as a result of self-assembly in the course of deposition. The fractal pattern related is inherent in the phenomena of diffusion limited aggregation. Condensate nuclei are shown to form statistical ensemble of hierarchically subordinated objects distributed in ultrametric space. The Langevin equation and the Fokker-Planck equation related are found to describe stationary distribution of thermodynamic potential variations at condensation. Time dependence of the formation probability of branching structures is found to clarify the experimental situation.

  9. Nuclear fusion inside condense matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jing-tang

    2007-01-01

    This article describes in detail the nuclear fusion inside condense matters--the Fleischmann-Pons effect, the reproducibility of cold fusions, self-consistentcy of cold fusions and the possible applications.

  10. Volume, flow, and timing of each breath during positive-pressure breathing in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, B; Hirsch, J; Thursby, M

    1978-10-01

    This study is a breath-by-breath analysis of the effects of 5, 10, and 15 cmH2O positive-pressure breathing (PPB) on man's steady-state breathing pattern. Inspiratory (TI), expiratory (TE), and cycle (TT) durations, tidal volumes (VT), minute ventilation (VE), mean inspiratory flow rate (VT/TI), and mean expiratory flow rate (VT/TE) were determined from pneumotachograph and Wedge spirometer recordings before and during steady states on PPB. End-tidal CO2 was continuously recorded. Seventeen adults, seated in a full body-box, breathed quietly for 8 min through a mouthpiece on a bag-in-box. Pressure in the body-box was lowered to the desired level prior to 4 min of stress. On all pressure levels, end-expiratory volume, VT, VE, VT/TI, and VT/TE increased; end-tidal CO2, TE, and TT decreased with no consistent change in TI. Calculated alveolar ventilations indicated that the increases in VE were true hyperventilations. Each individual increased VE by using a unique combination of VT, TI, and TE. End-expiratory volume increased less and expiratory flow increased more than would occur passively. Hence, it is concluded that active reflexes account for the resistance of the systems to the passive distention, the facilitation of expiratory flow, and the shortening of TE. PMID:361664

  11. Air-breathing membraneless laminar flow-based fuel cells: Do they breathe enough oxygen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Limiting factors of air-breathing laminar-flow based fuel cell (LFFC) is analyzed. ► A numerical model for LFFC is developed. ► Air breathing process is not a limiting factor at the present stage. ► Oxygen starvation is significant when the cell current density exceeds 200 mA cm−2. - Abstract: Laminar flow-based fuel cell (LFFC) is a relatively new type of fuel cell that does not require the use of proton exchange membrane. While the first-generation LFFC uses dissolved oxygen at the cathode, the second-generation LFFC (2G-LFFC) adopts a more advanced air-breathing design for achieving high power density. The architecture and operational mechanisms of a 2G-LFFC are more complex. In order to gain detailed understanding of the 2G-LFFC, an integrated CFD/electrochemical kinetics modeling study has been conducted to analyze the cell limiting factors and sufficiency of the oxidant supply from air. It is found that under most typical operating conditions, the 2G-LFFC free-breathing mode can supply sufficient oxygen to the electrode reactive surface for cathode half-cell reaction, indicating that the air breathing process is not a limiting factor to the cell performance. However, oxygen starvation will become a major performance limiting factor when the anode is enhanced for higher current density. The results presented in this paper provide useful design guidance for future development of LFFC

  12. Zeolite Catalyzed Aldol Condensation Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Adedayo I. Inegbenebor; Raphael C. Mordi; Oluwakayode M. Ogunwole

    2015-01-01

    The review is based on the description of zeolite structure, uses, synthesis, and catalytic aldol reaction in aldol condensation. An internal aldolcondensation reaction has been achieved over ZSM-5 zeolite with high silica-alumina ratio at 350oC. It therefore follows that zeolite canfunction as a catalyst in aldol type condensation reactions and that weak acid sites as well as a small number of active sites favor the aldolcondensation reaction of carbonyl compounds. However, the mixed condens...

  13. DNA condensation in two dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Koltover, Ilya; Wagner, Kathrin; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2000-01-01

    We have found that divalent electrolyte counterions common in biological cells (Ca2+, Mg2+, and Mn2+ ) can condense anionic DNA molecules confined to two-dimensional cationic surfaces. DNA-condensing agents in vivo include cationic histones and polyamines spermidine and spermine with sufficiently high valence (Z) 3 or larger. In vitro studies show that electrostatic forces between DNA chains in bulk aqueous solution containing divalent counterions remain purely ...

  14. Air pollution source apportionment before, during, and after the 2008 Beijing Olympics and association of sources to aldehydes and biomarkers of blood coagulation, pulmonary and systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress in healthy young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent A.

    Based on principal component analysis (PCA) of air pollution data collected during the Summer Olympic Games held in Beijing, China during 2008, the five source types of air pollution identified -- natural soil/road dust, vehicle and industrial combustion, vegetative burning, oil combustion, and secondary formation, were all distinctly lower during the Olympics. This was particularly true for vehicle and industrial combustion and oil combustion, and during the main games period between the opening and closing ceremonies. The reduction in secondary formation was reflective of a reduction in nitrogen oxides, but this also contributed to increased ozone concentrations during the Olympic period. Among three toxic aldehydes measured in Beijing during the same time period, only acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Accordingly, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion, and with several pollutants emitted mainly from primary sources. In contrast, formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the Olympic air pollution control period; accordingly both were significantly correlated with ozone and with the secondary formation source type. These findings indicate primary sources may dominate for acetaldehyde while secondary sources may dominate for formaldehyde and acrolein. Biomarkers for pulmonary inflammation (exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, exhaled nitric oxide, and EBC nitrite) and hemostasis and blood coagulation (vWF and sCD62p) were most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion, oil combustion, and vegetative burning. The systemic inflammation biomarker 8-OHdG was most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion. In contrast, the associations between the biomarkers and the aldehydes were generally not significant or in the hypothesized direction, although

  15. Anyon condensation and tensor categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Liang, E-mail: kong.fan.liang@gmail.com [Institute for Advanced Study (Science Hall), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Instead of studying anyon condensation in various concrete models, we take a bootstrap approach by considering an abstract situation, in which an anyon condensation happens in a 2-d topological phase with anyonic excitations given by a modular tensor category C; and the anyons in the condensed phase are given by another modular tensor category D. By a bootstrap analysis, we derive a relation between anyons in D-phase and anyons in C-phase from natural physical requirements. It turns out that the vacuum (or the tensor unit) A in D-phase is necessary to be a connected commutative separable algebra in C, and the category D is equivalent to the category of local A-modules as modular tensor categories. This condensation also produces a gapped domain wall with wall excitations given by the category of A-modules in C. A more general situation is also studied in this paper. We will also show how to determine such algebra A from the initial and final data. Multi-condensations and 1-d condensations will also be briefly discussed. Examples will be given in the toric code model, Kitaev quantum double models, Levin–Wen types of lattice models and some chiral topological phases.

  16. Anyon condensation and tensor categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Kong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Instead of studying anyon condensation in various concrete models, we take a bootstrap approach by considering an abstract situation, in which an anyon condensation happens in a 2-d topological phase with anyonic excitations given by a modular tensor category C; and the anyons in the condensed phase are given by another modular tensor category D. By a bootstrap analysis, we derive a relation between anyons in D-phase and anyons in C-phase from natural physical requirements. It turns out that the vacuum (or the tensor unit A in D-phase is necessary to be a connected commutative separable algebra in C, and the category D is equivalent to the category of local A-modules as modular tensor categories. This condensation also produces a gapped domain wall with wall excitations given by the category of A-modules in C. A more general situation is also studied in this paper. We will also show how to determine such algebra A from the initial and final data. Multi-condensations and 1-d condensations will also be briefly discussed. Examples will be given in the toric code model, Kitaev quantum double models, Levin–Wen types of lattice models and some chiral topological phases.

  17. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akito; Ota, Ken-Ichiro; Iwamura, Yashuhiro

    Preface -- 1. General. Progress in condensed matter nuclear science / A. Takahashi. Summary of ICCF-12 / X. Z. Li. Overview of light water/hydrogen-based low-energy nuclear reactions / G. H. Miley and P. J. Shrestha -- 2. Excess heat and He detection. Development of "DS-reactor" as the practical reactor of "cold fusion" based on the "DS-cell" with "DS-cathode" / Y. Arata and Y.-C. Zhang. Progress in excess of power experiments with electrochemical loading of deuterium in palladium / V. Violante ... [et al.]. Anomalous energy generation during conventional electrolysis / T. Mizuno and Y. Toriyabe. "Excess heat" induced by deuterium flux in palladium film / B. Liu ... [et al.]. Abnormal excess heat observed during Mizuno-type experiments / J.-F. Fauvarque, P. P. Clauzon and G. J.-M. Lallevé. Seebeck envelope calorimetry with a Pd|D[symbol]O + H[symbol]SO[symbol] electrolytic cell / W.-S. Zhang, J. Dash and Q. Wang. Observation and investigation of nuclear fusion and self-induced electric discharges in liquids / A. I. Koldamasov ... [et al.]. Description of a sensitive seebeck calorimeter used for cold fusion studies / E. Storms. Some recent results at ENEA / M. Apicella ... [et al.]. Heat measurement during plasma electrolysis / K. Iizumi ... [et al.]. Effect of an additive on thermal output during electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium cathode / Q. Wang and J. Dash. Thermal analysis of calorimetric systems / L. D'Aulerio ... [et al.]. Surface plasmons and low-energy nuclear reactions triggering / E. Castagna ... [et al.]. Production method for violent TCB jet plasma from cavity / F. Amini. New results and an ongoing excess heat controversy / L. Kowalski ... [et al.] -- 3. Transmutation. Observation of surface distribution of products by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry during D[symbol] gas permeation through Pd Complexes / Y. Iwamura ... [et al.]. Discharge experiment using Pd/CaO/Pd multi-layered cathode / S. Narita ... [et al.]. Producing transmutation

  18. Condenser Optimization in Steam Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sukru Bekdemir; Recep Ozturk; Zehra Yumurtac

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the effects of the condenser design parameters (such as turbine inlet condition, turbine power and condenser pressure) on heat transfer area, cooling water flow-rate, condenser cost and specific energy generation cost are studied for surface type condenser.The results are given in the text and also shown as diagrams.

  19. Poetry as Breath: Teaching Student Teachers to Breathe-Out Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Lesley Pasquin

    2010-01-01

    Poetry is a form of creative expression that exists to share a truth, an insight, or a feeling that enriches our humanity. “Teaching” poetry requires us to be readers and writers of poetry ourselves. It requires that we are saying, “Poetry matters.” I work with second-year student teachers in my Language Arts Methods class at McGill University to develop a passion for the poetic; to learn what Muriel Rukeyser refers to as breathing-in experience and breathing-out poetry. Using my own writ...

  20. Instant effects of changing body positions on compositions of exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Trefz, Phillip; Kamysek, Svend; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2015-12-01

    cardiac output have to be controlled when concentrations of breath VOCs are to be interpreted in terms of biomarkers. PMID:26582820

  1. Dual approaches for defects condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. Due to the fact that the QCD running coupling constant becomes larger as we go into the low energy (or large distance) limit of the theory, a perturbative treatment of its infrared (IR) region is impossible. In particular, a formal mathematical demonstration of color confinement and a complete physical understanding of the exact mechanism that confines quarks and gluons are two missing points in our current knowledge of the IR-QCD. It was known that due to the Meissner effect of expulsion of magnetic fields in a electric condensate that usual superconductors should confine magnetic monopoles. That point led to the conjecture that the QCD vacuum could be a condensate of chromomagnetic monopoles, a dual superconductor (DSC). Such a chromomagnetic condensate should be responsible for the dual Meissner effect which is expected to lead to the confinement of color charges immersed in this medium. In dual superconductor models of color confinement, magnetic monopoles appear as topological defects in points of the space where the abelian projection becomes singular. Also, condensation of other kinds of defects such as vortices in superfluids and line-like defects in solids are responsible for a great variety of phase transitions, which once more proves the relevance of the subject. In the present work we review two methods that allow us to approach the condensation of defects: the Kleinert Mechanism (KM) and the Julia-Toulouse Mechanism (JTM). We show that in the limit where the vortex gauge field goes to zero, which we identify as the signature of the condensation of defects in the dual picture, these are two equivalent dual prescriptions for obtaining an effective theory for a phase where defects are condensed, starting from the fundamental theory defined in the normal phase where defects are diluted. (author)

  2. Generalized Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, William J.; Sakhel, Asaad R.

    2012-02-01

    Generalized Bose-Einstein condensation (GBEC) involves condensates appearing simultaneously in multiple states. We review examples of the three types in an ideal Bose gas with different geometries. In Type I there is a discrete number of quantum states each having macroscopic occupation; Type II has condensation into a continuous band of states, with each state having macroscopic occupation; in Type III each state is microscopically occupied while the entire condensate band is macroscopically occupied. We begin by discussing Type I or "normal" BEC into a single state for an isotropic harmonic oscillator potential. Other geometries and external potentials are then considered: the "channel" potential (harmonic in one dimension and hard-wall in the other), which displays Type II, the "cigar trap" (anisotropic harmonic potential), and the "Casimir prism" (an elongated box), the latter two having Type III condensations. General box geometries are considered in an appendix. We particularly focus on the cigar trap, which Van Druten and Ketterle first showed had a two-step condensation: a GBEC into a band of states at a temperature T c and another "one-dimensional" transition at a lower temperature T 1 into the ground state. In a thermodynamic limit in which the ratio of the dimensions of the anisotropic harmonic trap is kept fixed, T 1 merges with the upper transition, which then becomes a normal BEC. However, in the thermodynamic limit of Beau and Zagrebnov, in which the ratio of the boundary lengths increases exponentially, T 1 becomes fixed at the temperature of a true Type I phase transition. The effects of interactions on GBEC are discussed and we show that there is evidence that Type III condensation may have been observed in the cigar trap.

  3. Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Rikke Kragh; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Molin, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    Lung infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Due to its ready adaptation to the dehydrated mucosa of CF airways, PA infections tend to become chronic, eventually killing the patient. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) at...... ppb level has been reported to be a PA biomarker. For early PA detection in CF children not yet chronically lung infected a non-invasive Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)-based breath nanosensor is being developed. The triple bond between C and N in cyanide, with its characteristic band at...... ∼2133 cm-1, is an excellent case for the SERS-based detection due to the infrequent occurrence of triple bonds in nature. For demonstration of direct HCN detection in the gas phase, a gold-coated silicon nanopillar substrate was exposed to 5 ppm HCN in N2. Results showed that HCN adsorbed on the SERS...

  4. Signal shape feature for automatic snore and breathing sounds classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snore analysis techniques have recently been developed for sleep studies. Most snore analysis techniques require reliable methods for the automatic classification of snore and breathing sounds in the sound recording. In this study we focus on this problem and propose an automated method to classify snore and breathing sounds based on the novel feature, ‘positive/negative amplitude ratio (PNAR)’, to measure the shape of the sound signal. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using snore and breathing recordings (snore: 22 643 episodes and breathing: 4664 episodes) from 40 subjects. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the proposed method achieved 0.923 sensitivity with 0.918 specificity for snore and breathing sound classification on test data. PNAR has substantial potential as a feature in the front end of a non-contact snore/breathing-based technology for sleep studies. (paper)

  5. Imaging Biomarkers in Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juergens, Rosalyn A.; Zukotynski, Katherine A.; Singnurkar, Amit; Snider, Denis P.; Valliant, John F.; Gulenchyn, Karen Y.

    2016-01-01

    Immune-based therapies have been in use for decades but recent work with immune checkpoint inhibitors has now changed the landscape of cancer treatment as a whole. While these advances are encouraging, clinicians still do not have a consistent biomarker they can rely on that can accurately select patients or monitor response. Molecular imaging technology provides a noninvasive mechanism to evaluate tumors and may be an ideal candidate for these purposes. This review provides an overview of the mechanism of action of varied immunotherapies and the current strategies for monitoring patients with imaging. We then describe some of the key researches in the preclinical and clinical literature on the current uses of molecular imaging of the immune system and cancer. PMID:26949344

  6. Biomarkers for lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangar, Richard C.; Varnum, Susan M.

    2014-09-02

    A biomarker, method, test kit, and diagnostic system for detecting the presence of lymphoma in a person are disclosed. The lymphoma may be Hodgkin's lymphoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The person may be a high-risk subject. In one embodiment, a plasma sample from a person is obtained. The level of at least one protein listed in Table S3 in the plasma sample is measured. The level of at least one protein in the plasma sample is compared with the level in a normal or healthy subject. The lymphoma is diagnosed based upon the level of the at least one protein in the plasma sample in comparison to the normal or healthy level.

  7. New biomarkers for sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-xin XIE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a higher sepsis rate in the intensive care unit (ICU patients, which is one of the most important causes for patient death, but the sepsis lacks specific clinical manifestations. Exploring sensitive and specific molecular markers for infection that accurately reflect infection severity and prognosis is very clinically important. In this article, based on our previous study, we introduce some new biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis and predicting the prognosis and severity of sepsis. Increase of serum soluble(s triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1 suggests a poor prognosis of septic patients, and changes of locus rs2234237 of sTREM-1 may be the one of important mechanisms. Additionally, urine sTREM-1 can provide an early warning of possible secondary acute kidney injury (AKI in sepsis patients. Serum sCD163 level was found to be a more important factor than procalcitonin (PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP in prognosis of sepsis, especially severe sepsis. Moreover, urine sCD163 also shows excellent performance in the diagnosis of sepsis and sepsis-associated AKI. Circulating microRNAs, such as miR-150, miR-297, miR-574-5p, miR -146a , miR-223, miR -15a and miR-16, also play important roles in the evaluation of status of septic patients. In the foreseeable future, newly-emerging technologies, including proteomics, metabonomics and trans-omics, may exert profound effects on the discovery of valuable biomarkers for sepsis.

  8. Breath Testing and the Demand for Drunk Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Frank Chaloupka

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation of the effect of a preliminary breath test law on drunk driving behavior. A preliminary breath test law reduces the procedural problems associated with obtaining evidence of drunk driving and thus increases the probability that a drunk driver will be arrested. In 1985, only 23 states had a preliminary breath test law. According to the theory of deterrence, increasing the probability of arrest for drunk driving will reduce the future occurrence of...

  9. Wearable sensors and feedback system to improve breathing technique

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, Shirley; Mitchell, Edmond; Ward, Tomas; O'Connor, Noel E.; Diamond, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    Breathing is an important factor in our well-being as it oxygenates the body, revitalizes organs, cells and tissues. It is a unique physiological system in that it is both voluntary and involuntary. By breathing in a slow, deep and regular manner, the heartbeat become smooth and regular, blood pressure normalizes, stress hormones drop, and muscles relax. Breathing techniques are important for athletes to improve performance and reduce anxiety during competitions. Patients with respiratory ...

  10. Lung Function Measurement with Multiple-Breath-Helium Washout System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jau-Yi; Suddards, Matt; Owers-Bradley, John; Mellor, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multi-breath-nitrogen (MBNW) washout tests. In this work, instead of using nitrogen, helium is used as the tracer gas and a multiple-helium-breath-washout (MBHW) system has been developed for the lung function study. A commercial quartz tuning fork with a resonan...

  11. The effect of acetazolamide on breath holding at high altitude.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrissey, S. C.; Keohane, K.; Coote, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of altitude and acetazolamide on breath holding was studied in 20 individuals. Breath holding time was reduced progressively during ascent. There was an additional reduction in the acetazolamide group at low but not at high altitude. The initial difference between the two groups may have been related to a lower CSF pH when on acetazolamide. At high altitude the finding of similar breath holding times in the two groups may have been due to acclimatization in the placebo group.

  12. Spectral characteristics of chest wall breath sounds in normal subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Gavriely, N; Nissan, M.; Rubin, A. H.; Cugell, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--This study was carried out to establish a reliable bank of information on the spectral characteristics of chest wall breath sounds from healthy men and women, both non-smokers and smokers. METHODS--Chest wall breath sounds from 272 men and 81 women were measured using contact acoustic sensors, amplifiers, and fast Fourier transform (FFT) based spectral analysis software. Inspiratory and expiratory sounds were picked up at three standard locations on the chest wall during breathing...

  13. Optimization of an adaptive neural network to predict breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Martin J; Pokhrel, Damodar

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the optimal configuration and performance of an adaptive feed forward neural network filter to predict breathing in respiratory motion compensation systems for external beam radiation therapy. Method and Materials: A two-layer feed forward neural network was trained to predict future breathing amplitudes for 27 recorded breathing histories. The prediction intervals ranged from 100 to 500 ms. The optimal sampling frequency, number of input samples, training rate, and numb...

  14. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  15. Air-Breathing Rocket Engine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine that completed an hour or 3,600 seconds of testing at the General Applied Sciences Laboratory in Ronkonkoma, New York. Referred to as ARGO by its design team, the engine is named after the mythological Greek ship that bore Jason and the Argonauts on their epic voyage of discovery. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced SpaceTransportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  16. Acute effect of pure oxygen breathing on diabetic macular edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinten, Carl Martin; La Cour, Morten; Lund-Andersen, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    120 minutes of pure oxygen breathing. Methods. Eleven eyes of 11 patients with DME were examined at baseline and while breathing pure oxygen for 120 minutes followed by 120 minutes of breathing atmospheric air. Macular volume was determined by optical coherence tomography, retinal trunk vessel...... diameters by fundus photography, intraocular pressure by pulse-air tonometry, and arterial blood pressure by sphygmomanometry. Results. After initiation of pure oxygen breathing, reductions of 2.6% in RAD (p=0.04) and 11.5% reduction in RVD (p...

  17. A fibre-optic oxygen sensor for monitoring human breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and construction of a tapered-tip fibre-optic fluorescence based oxygen sensor is described. The sensor is suitable for fast and real-time monitoring of human breathing. The sensitivity and response time of the oxygen sensor were evaluated in vitro with a gas pressure chamber system, where oxygen partial pressure was rapidly changed between 5 and 15 kPa, and then in vivo in five healthy adult participants who synchronized their breathing to a metronome set at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 breaths min–1. A Datex Ultima medical gas analyser was used to monitor breathing rate as a comparator. The sensor's response time in vitro was less than 150 ms, which allows accurate continuous measurement of inspired and expired oxygen pressure. Measurements of breathing rate by means of our oxygen sensor and of the Datex Ultima were in strong agreement. The results demonstrate that the device can reliably resolve breathing rates up to 60 breaths min–1, and that it is a suitable cost-effective alternative for monitoring breathing rates and end-tidal oxygen partial pressure in the clinical setting. The rapid response time of the sensor may allow its use for monitoring rapid breathing rates as occur in children and the newborn. (note)

  18. Electronic response to nuclear breathing mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Hendrik; Ruffini, Remo [ICRANet, P.zza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara, Italy Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Università di Roma P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); ICRANet, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 28 Av. de Valrose, 06103 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Xue, She-Sheng [ICRANet, P.zza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara, Italy Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Università di Roma P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Based on our previous work on stationary oscillation modes of electrons around giant nuclei, we show how to treat a general driving force on the electron gas, such as the one generated by the breathing mode of the nucleus, by means of the spectral method. As an example we demonstrate this method for a system with Z = 10{sup 4} in β-equilibrium with the electrons compressed up to the nuclear radius. In this case the stationary modes can be obtained analytically, which allows for a very speedy numerical calculation of the final result.

  19. Extensive Epidermoid Cyst and Breathing Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Dantas Soares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are common cystic lesions in the skin, ovaries, and testicles, but their occurrence in the oral cavity is uncommon. They consist of cysts delimited by a fibrous capsule without cutaneous annexes and are lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The differential diagnosis includes ranula, dermoid cysts, and lingual thyroid. Despite their benign presentation, these cysts can cause functional limitations, requiring special clinical attention for extensive lesions located in regions that preserve vital structures. This paper aims to report a case of epidermoid cyst in patient with swallowing and breathing difficulty, highlighting the clinical and surgical planning.

  20. Condensational theory of stationary tornadoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Bernoulli integral for air streamline with condensing water vapor a stationary axisymmetric tornado circulation is described. The obtained profiles of vertical, radial and tangential velocities are in agreement with observations for the Mulhall tornado, world's largest on record and longest-lived among the three tornadoes for which 3D velocity data are available. Maximum possible vortex velocities are estimated. -- Highlights: → Water vapor condensation causes a logarithmic drop of air pressure towards tornado center. → The first ever theoretical description of tornado velocities is obtained. → The maximum vortex velocity grows logarithmically with decreasing tornado eye radius. → Air motion with high velocities can only develop in sufficiently large condensation areas.

  1. Condensed hydrogen for thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power, in either pure fusion or fission-fusion hybrid reactors, is a possible solution for future world's energy demands. Formation of uniform layers of a condensed hydrogen fuel in ICF targets has been a long standing materials physics challenge. Here, we review the progress in this field. After a brief discussion of the major ICF target designs and the basic properties of condensed hydrogens, we review both liquid and solid layering methods, physical mechanisms causing layer nonuniformity, growth of hydrogen single crystals, attempts to prepare amorphous and nanostructured hydrogens, and mechanical deformation behavior. Emphasis is given to current challenges defining future research areas in the field of condensed hydrogens for fusion energy applications.

  2. Capillary Condensation in Confined Media

    CERN Document Server

    Charlaix, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    We review here the physics of capillary condensation of liquids in confined media, with a special regard to the application in nanotechnologies. The thermodynamics of capillary condensation and thin film adsorption are first exposed along with all the relevant notions. The focus is then shifted to the modelling of capillary forces, to their measurements techniques (including SFA, AFM and crack tips) and to their influence on AFM imaging techniques as well as on the static and dynamic friction properties of solids (including granular heaps and sliding nanocontacts). A great attention is spent in investigating the delicate role of the surface roughness and all the difficulties involved in the reduction of the probe size to nanometric dimensions. Another major consequence of capillary condensation in nanosystems is the activation of several chemical and corrosive processes that can significantly alter the surface properties, such as dissolution/redeposition of solid materials and stress-corrosion crack propagati...

  3. Principles of condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there are many books on solid state physics and condensed matter, I suspect very few cover the same content as that found in 'Principles of Condensed Matter Physics' by Chaikin and Lubensky. The title is rather misleading as it suggests a survey of the important concepts in condensed matter. In spite of this there is much to commend in this book. It isn't a standard text on condensed matter. Instead we have a book with topics that are of current interest. It is, therefore, a thoroughly forward-looking modern book which focuses on the ever-expanding area in between traditional condensed matter physics and statistical mechanics. For example, ideas about liquid crystals, quasi-crystals and fractal structures are introduced right at the start of the book. The next three chapters deal with some of the basic concepts of thermodynamics, statistical physics and mean field theory and are followed by a quite detailed treatment of critical phenomena and phase transitions. Much of the mystery associated with field theories is removed in this treatment making it accessible to those not well versed in these techniques. Symmetry breaking is the means by which generalized elasticity theory is introduced. This in turn allows a natural progression to a chapter on hydrodynamics. Neither of these areas are normally found in texts on condensed matter physics. I think the chapter on topological defects is particularly well written and is a good introduction for the reader to this increasingly important topic. This is a very well written text which should prove a handy reference for those working in these areas of research. Although it would be difficult to envisage the book being used as a standard text in a graduate course, it would certainly be of great value for graduate students of solid state physics to acquaint themselves with the contents of this book. (author)

  4. Influence of alternate nostril breathing on heart rate variability in non-practitioners of yogic breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Ghiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term alternate nostril breathing (ANB has been shown to enhance autonomic control of the heart by increasing parasympathetic modulation. However, there is no information on the immediate effects of ANB on autonomic control compared to paced breathing (PB at the same rate in individuals who are inexperienced with yogic breathing. Aim: To examine cardiac autonomic modulation following ANB in comparison to that following PB in individuals who were inexperienced in ANB. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy individuals (22.3 ± 2.9 years with no prior experience with ANB engaged in 30 min of both ANB and PB which were preceded and followed by 5 min of normal breathing (PRE, post-ANB, and post-PB, respectively. Mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate variability (HRV were assessed during all conditions. HRV was reported as spectral power in the total (lnTP, low-(lnLF, and high-frequency (lnHF ranges and were natural log (ln transformed. Results: Analysis of covariance revealed lnTP, lnLF and lnHF were greater during both post-ANB and post-PB compared to PRE (P<0.05. MAP and lnLF/lnHF did not significantly differ between conditions. Conclusions: These data suggest that there was an immediate increase in cardiac autonomic modulation following ANB and PB without a shift in autonomic balance in individuals inexperienced with yogic breathing. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation to investigate the autonomic effects of ANB in this population and also to compare the effects of ANB and PB at the same respiratory rate.

  5. Impact of microphysics on the growth of one-dimensional breath figures

    CERN Document Server

    Stricker, L

    2015-01-01

    Droplet patterns condensing on solid substrates (breath figures) tend to evolve into a self-similar regime, characterized by a bimodal droplet size distribution. The distributions comprise a bell-shaped peak of monodisperse large droplets, and a broad range of smaller droplets. The size distribution of the latter follows a scaling law characterized by a non-trivial polydispersity exponent. We present here a numerical model for three-dimensional droplets on a one-dimensional substrate (fiber) that accounts for droplet nucleation, growth and merging. The polydispersity exponent retrieved using this model is not universal. Rather it depends on the thickness of the fiber and on details of the droplet interaction leading to merging. In addition, its values consistently differ from the theoretical prediction by Blackman (Phys. Rev. Lett., 2000). Possible causes of this discrepancy are pointed out.

  6. Network biomarkers, interaction networks and dynamical network biomarkers in respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaodan; Chen, Luonan; Wang, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    Identification and validation of interaction networks and network biomarkers have become more critical and important in the development of disease-specific biomarkers, which are functionally changed during disease development, progression or treatment. The present review headlined the definition, significance, research and potential application for network biomarkers, interaction networks and dynamical network biomarkers (DNB). Disease-specific interaction networks, network biomarkers, or DNB...

  7. Patient-specific simulation of tidal breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, M.; Wells, A. K.; Jones, I. P.; Hamill, I. S.; Veeckmans, B.; Vos, W.; Lefevre, C.; Fetitia, C.

    2016-03-01

    Patient-specific simulation of air flows in lungs is now straightforward using segmented airways trees from CT scans as the basis for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. These models generally use static geometries, which do not account for the motion of the lungs and its influence on important clinical indicators, such as airway resistance. This paper is concerned with the simulation of tidal breathing, including the dynamic motion of the lungs, and the required analysis workflow. Geometries are based on CT scans obtained at the extremes of the breathing cycle, Total Lung Capacity (TLC) and Functional Residual Capacity (FRC). It describes how topologically consistent geometries are obtained at TLC and FRC, using a `skeleton' of the network of airway branches. From this a 3D computational mesh which morphs between TLC and FRC is generated. CFD results for a number of patient-specific cases, healthy and asthmatic, are presented. Finally their potential use in evaluation of the progress of the disease is discussed, focusing on an important clinical indicator, the airway resistance.

  8. Biomarkers of latent TB infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Ravn, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    For the last 100 years, the tuberculin skin test (TST) has been the only diagnostic tool available for latent TB infection (LTBI) and no biomarker per se is available to diagnose the presence of LTBI. With the introduction of M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-gamma release assays (IGRAs), a new area of...... in vitro immunodiagnostic tests for LTBI based on biomarker readout has become a reality. In this review, we discuss existing evidence on the clinical usefulness of IGRAs and the indefinite number of potential new biomarkers that can be used to improve diagnosis of latent TB infection. We also...... present early data suggesting that the monocyte-derived chemokine inducible protein-10 may be useful as a novel biomarker for the immunodiagnosis of latent TB infection....

  9. Urinary Biomarkers of Brain Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manxia An

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are the measurable changes associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood, urine is not subject to homeostatic mechanisms. Therefore, greater fluctuations could occur in urine than in blood, better reflecting the changes in human body. The roadmap of urine biomarker era was proposed. Although urine analysis has been attempted for clinical diagnosis, and urine has been monitored during the progression of many diseases, particularly urinary system diseases, whether urine can reflect brain disease status remains uncertain. As some biomarkers of brain diseases can be detected in the body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and blood, there is a possibility that urine also contain biomarkers of brain diseases. This review summarizes the clues of brain diseases reflected in the urine proteome and metabolome.

  10. Biomarker in archaeological soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; Schneeweiß, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The use of biomarkers in an archaeological context allow deeper insights into the understanding of anthropogenic (dark) earth formation and from an archaeological point of view, a completely new perspective on cultivation practices in the historic past. During an archaeological excavation of a Slavic settlement (10th/11th C. A.D.) in Brünkendorf (Wendland region in Northern Germany), a thick black soil (Nordic Dark Earth) was discovered that resembled the famous terra preta phenomenon. For the humid tropics, terra preta could act as model for sustainable agricultural practices and as example for long-term CO2-sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems. The question was whether this Nordic Dark Earth had similar properties and genesis as the famous Amazonian Dark Earth in order to find a model for sustainable agricultural practices and long term CO2-sequestration in temperate zones. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach was used to characterize the sandy-textured Nordic Dark Earth in comparison to less anthropogenically influenced soils in the adjacent area in respect of ecological conditions (e.g. amino sugar), input materials (faeces) and the presence of stable soil organic matter (black carbon). Amino sugar analyses showed that Nordic Dark Earth contained higher amounts of microbial residues being dominated by soil fungi. Faecal biomarkers such as stanols and bile acids indicated animal manure from omnivores and herbivores but also human excrements. Black carbon content of about 30 Mg ha-1 in the Nordic Dark Earth was about four times higher compared to the adjacent soil and in the same order of magnitude compared to terra preta. Our data strongly suggest parallels to anthropogenic soil formation in Amazonia and in Europe by input of organic wastes, faecal material and charred organic matter. An obvious difference was that in terra preta input of human-derived faecal material dominated while in NDE human-derived faecal material played only a minor role

  11. Biomarkers in Acute Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, Maneesh; Wendt, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Acute Lung Injury (ALI) result in high permeability pulmonary edema causing hypoxic respiratory failure with high morbidity and mortality. As the population ages, the incidence of ALI is expected to rise. Over the last decade, several studies have identified biomarkers in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid providing important insights into the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of ALI. Several biomarkers have been validated in subjec...

  12. Cardiac Biomarkers and Cycling Race

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Le Goff, Jean-François Kaux, Sébastien Goffaux, Etienne Cavalier

    2015-01-01

    In cycling as in other types of strenuous exercise, there exists a risk of sudden death. It is important both to understand its causes and to see if the behavior of certain biomarkers might highlight athletes at risk. Many reports describe changes in biomarkers after strenuous exercise (Nie et al., 2011), but interpreting these changes, and notably distinguishing normal physiological responses from pathological changes, is not easy. Here we have focused on the kinetics of different cardiac bi...

  13. Biomarkers of replicative senescence revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehlin, Jan

    2016-01-01

    of telomere length and associated damage, and the accompanying changes that take place elicit signals that have an impact on a number of molecules and downstream events. Precise measurements of replicative senescence biomarkers in biological samples from individuals could be clinically associated...... with their chronological age and present health status, help define their current rate of aging and contribute to establish personalized therapy plans to reduce, counteract or even avoid the appearance of aging biomarkers....

  14. Analysis of biomarker data a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Looney, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    A "how to" guide for applying statistical methods to biomarker data analysis Presenting a solid foundation for the statistical methods that are used to analyze biomarker data, Analysis of Biomarker Data: A Practical Guide features preferred techniques for biomarker validation. The authors provide descriptions of select elementary statistical methods that are traditionally used to analyze biomarker data with a focus on the proper application of each method, including necessary assumptions, software recommendations, and proper interpretation of computer output. In addition, the book discusses

  15. Evaporative Condensers in Comfortable Air Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Ying-de; ZHU Dong-sheng; DU Gui-mei; LI Yuan-xi; SUN He-jing; LIU Qing-ming

    2009-01-01

    The operating theory of an evaporative condenser was expatiated.The difference between an e-vaporative condensing refrigeration system and a general refrigeration system was analyzed.Compared with the air-cooled and the water-cooled,the virtues of energy-conservation and water-conservation of evaporative con-densers were analyzed.Some questions existing in the application of evaporative condensers were pointed out,the corresponding solving methods were analyzed accordingly,and the development trend of evaporative con-densing technique in mechanical refrigeration system field and the applied foreground of evaporative condensers in comfortable air conditioning were prospected.

  16. Variational dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in deep optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate wavepacket trapped in an optical lattice. In the tight-binding limit, the system maps onto a discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Using a collective coordinate approximation, we investigate different dynamical regimes: diffusive (in which the boson wavepacket spreads out), self-trapped (with a self-induced pinning), breathing (where the centre of mass of the wavepacket moves with an oscillating width), and solitonic (in which the wavepacket shape is exactly preserved during the dynamics). (author)

  17. Neuroimmune biomarkers in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Jakub; Rahmoune, Hassan; Guest, Paul C; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical and biological manifestations. Due to the lack of objective tests, the accurate diagnosis and selection of effective treatments for schizophrenia remains challenging. Numerous technologies have been employed in search of schizophrenia biomarkers. These studies have suggested that neuroinflammatory processes may play a role in schizophrenia pathogenesis, at least in a subgroup of patients. The evidence indicates alterations in both pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules in the central nervous system, which have also been found in peripheral tissues and may correlate with schizophrenia symptoms. In line with these findings, certain immunomodulatory interventions have shown beneficial effects on psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients, in particular those with distinct immune signatures. In this review, we evaluate these findings and their potential for more targeted drug interventions and the development of companion diagnostics. Although currently no validated markers exist for schizophrenia patient stratification or the prediction of treatment efficacy, we propose that utilisation of inflammatory markers for diagnostic and theranostic purposes may lead to novel therapeutic approaches and deliver more effective care for schizophrenia patients. PMID:25124519

  18. 75 FR 61820 - Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs). (57 FR 11772.) Ignition interlocks are... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock... Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs). The Model Specifications are guidelines for...

  19. Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Loris

    2011-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

  20. Condensational theory of stationary tornadoes

    CERN Document Server

    Makarieva, Anastassia M; Nefiodov, Andrei V; 10.1016/j.physleta.2011.04.023

    2012-01-01

    Using the Bernoulli integral for air streamline with condensing water vapor a stationary axisymmetric tornado circulation is described. The obtained profiles of vertical, radial and tangential velocities are in agreement with observations for the Mulhall tornado, world's largest on record and longest-lived among the three tornadoes for which 3D velocity data are available. Maximum possible vortex velocities are estimated.

  1. Hall Effect in spinor condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Taillefumier, Mathieu; Dahl, Eskil K.; Brataas, Arne; Hofstetter, Walter

    2009-01-01

    We consider a neutral spinor condensate moving in a periodic magnetic field. The spatially dependent magnetic field induces an effective spin dependent Lorentz force which in turn gives rise to a spin dependent Hall effect. Simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation quantify the Hall effect. We discuss possible experimental realizations.

  2. Instantons and the 2> condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We argue that the OPE2> condensate found in the Landau gauge on lattices, when an operator product expansion of Green's functions is performed, might be explained by instantons. We use cooling to estimate the instanton contribution and extrapolate back the result to the thermalized configuration. The resulting inst2> is similar to OPE2>

  3. A ''transport'' condensed history method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we describe a new condensed history algorithm that is a transport process. That is, the proposed new method constitutes an exact Monte Carlo simulation of a ''stretched'' Boltzmann equation. This ''stretched'' equation permits a larger mean free path - which is user-specified - and a larger scattering angle than the physical transport equation. (orig.)

  4. Rotary condenser for SC2

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    During 1975 the SC2 performance was improved among other things by redesigning some of the elements of the ROTCO (Annual Report 1975, p. 55). The photo shows an interior wiew of the housing of the rotary condenser and of the sixteen sets of shaped stator blades.

  5. Measurement of Personal Exposure Using a Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    In this paper personal exposure measurements are performed by means of the Breathing Thermal Manikin. Contaminant concentration is measured in a number of locations in the breathing zone and in the inhaled air. Two cases are investigated: exposure to different contaminant sources in a displacement...

  6. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454678

  7. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...); and (4) Be grade A, B, or C. (h) Helium used for breathing mixtures must be grades A, B, or C produced...,000 parts per million of carbon dioxide; (ii) 20 parts per million carbon monoxide; (iii) 5 milligrams.... (f) Oxygen used for breathing mixtures must— (1) Meet the requirements of Federal Specification...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260 Section 868.5260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a device that is intended to...

  9. Influence of Continuous Table Motion on Patient Breathing Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of continuous table motion on patient breathing patterns for compensation of moving targets by a robotic treatment couch. Methods and Materials: Fifteen volunteers were placed on a robotic treatment couch, and the couch was moved on different breathing-correlated and -uncorrelated trajectories. External abdominal breathing motion of the patients was measured using an infrared camera system. The influence of table motion on breathing range and pattern was analyzed. Results: Continuous table motion was tolerated well by all test persons. Volunteers reacted differently to table motion. Four test persons showed no change of breathing range and pattern. Increased irregular breathing was observed in 4 patients; however, irregularity was not correlated with table motion. Only 4 test persons showed an increase in mean breathing amplitude of more than 2mm during motion of the couch. The mean cycle period decreased by more than 1 s for 2 test persons only. No abrupt changes in amplitude or cycle period could be observed. Conclusions: The observed small changes in breathing patterns support the application of motion compensation by a robotic treatment couch.

  10. Health, social and economical consequences of sleep-disordered breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described.......The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described....

  11. Symptoms of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Risk of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Sofie; Clark, Alice; Salo, Paula;

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered hormonal levels, all of which could affect the risk of cancer. The aim of the study is to examine if symptoms of SDB including snoring, breathing cessations, and daytime sleepiness affect the...

  12. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.203 Section 84.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air...

  14. A nomogram for assessment of breathing patterns during treadmill exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo, J.; Centeno, R; Galiano, D; Beaus, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the breathing patterns of trained athletes under different conditions. The hypothesis is that the breathing pattern during a progressive treadmill exercise is independent of the protocol, at least in healthy people, and can be assessed using a nomogram.

  15. ABA-Cloud: support for collaborative breath research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Ludescher, Thomas; King, Julian; Ager, Clemens; Trosin, Michael; Senocak, Uygar; Brezany, Peter; Feilhauer, Thomas; Amann, Anton

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the advanced breath analysis (ABA) platform, an innovative scientific research platform for the entire breath research domain. Within the ABA project, we are investigating novel data management concepts and semantic web technologies to document breath analysis studies for the long run as well as to enable their full automatic reproducibility. We propose several concept taxonomies (a hierarchical order of terms from a glossary of terms), which can be seen as a first step toward the definition of conceptualized terms commonly used by the international community of breath researchers. They build the basis for the development of an ontology (a concept from computer science used for communication between machines and/or humans and representation and reuse of knowledge) dedicated to breath research. PMID:23619467

  16. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  17. Coherence and chaos in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the following topics: nonlinearity in condensed matter; coherence and chaos in spatially extended condensed matter systems; nonlinearity and magnetism; and solitons and conducting polymers. 52 refs., 7 figs

  18. Monopole and quadrupole shape oscillations of a Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use a variational ansatz to derive a closed dynamics involving only the monopole and quadrupole shape degrees of freedom of the condensate, which is a generalization of the work of Perez-Garcia and collaborators. Taking the limit of small oscillations around the equilibrium configuration, we calculate the excitation energies of the low-lying even-parity states of the condensate. In this limit, the diagonal and non-diagonal quadrupole degrees of freedom are decoupled. For the diagonal elements, our results agree exactly with those of Perez-Garcia and collaborators. For the non-diagonal elements we obtain analytical expressions for the excitation energies which are valid for any trap geometry and any particle number and that agree, in the Thomas-Fermi limit and for axially symmetric traps, with Stringari's results. For negative scattering lengths we show that the collapsing state is the breathing mode, independent of the trap geometry. (author)

  19. Landau damping of transverse quadrupole oscillations of an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the interaction between the low-lying transverse collective oscillations and the thermal excitations of an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate by means of perturbation theory. We consider a cylindrical trapped condensate and calculate the transverse elementary excitations at zero temperature by solving the linearized Gross-Pitaevskii equations in two dimensions (2D). We use them to calculate the matrix elements between the thermal excited states and the quasi-2D collective modes. The Landau damping of transverse collective modes is studied as a function of temperature. At low temperatures, the corresponding damping rate is in agreement with the experimental data for the decay of the transverse quadrupole mode, but it is too small to explain the observed slow decay of the transverse breathing mode. The reason for this discrepancy is discussed

  20. Sleep disordered breathing following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Jennum, Poul; Laub, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly complain about difficulty in sleeping. Although various sleep disordered breathing definitions and indices are used that make comparisons between studies difficult, it seems evident that the frequency of sleep disorders is higher in individuals...... with SCI, especially with regard to obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, there is a correlation between the incidence of sleep disturbances and the spinal cord level injured, age, body mass index, neck circumference, abdominal girth, and use of sedating medications. Regulation of respiration is...... dependent on wakefulness and sleep. Thus, it is important to be aware of basic mechanisms in the regulation and control of sleep and awake states. Supine position decreases the vital capacity in tetraplegic individuals, and diminished responsiveness to Pa(CO)(2) may further decrease ventilatory reserve...

  1. Wall Condensation Modelling in Convective Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Lejon, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Modelling condensation of water vapour is important in a number of engineering applications, such as nuclear reactor containment, rocket engine nozzles and heat exchangers. The current study investigates the possibilities of modelling condensation induced by a cold surface in a flow at high velocity and temperature. A number of non-condensable gases are present in the flow. The possibilities of condensation modelling are investigated in ANSYS CFX and ANSYS Fluent, with focus on ANSYS CFX. A c...

  2. Droplet size distribution in condensing flow

    OpenAIRE

    Sidin, Ryan Steeve Rodney

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the problem of predicting the droplet size distribution in condensing ow is in- vestigated numerically and analytically. The work focuses on two types of problems: one where condensation occurs during the transonic expansion of a vapor-mixture, and a second one where condensation takes place in a synthetic turbulent ow, reminiscent of atmospheric clouds. For single-component condensing nozzle ow, three master equations for the prediction of the droplet size distribution are ev...

  3. Bose-Einstein condensation at constant temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, M.; Schmaljohann, H.; Kronjäger, J.; Bongs, K.; Sengstock, K.

    2004-09-01

    We present an experimental approach to Bose-Einstein condensation by increasing the particle number of the system at almost constant temperature. In particular, the emergence of a new condensate is observed in multicomponent F=1 spinor condensates of Rb87 . Furthermore, we develop a simple rate-equation model for multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensate thermodynamics at finite temperature which well reproduces the measured effects.

  4. Entangled light from Bose-Einstein condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, H. T.; Bose, S.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a method to generate entangled light with a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a cavity, a system realized in recent experiments. The atoms of the condensate are trapped in a periodic potential generated by a cavity mode. The condensate is continuously pumped by a laser and spontaneously emits a pair of photons of different frequencies in two distinct cavity modes. In this way, the condensate mediates entanglement between two cavity modes, which leak out and can be separated and e...

  5. Condensate from a two-stage gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jens Dall; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Hindsgaul, Claus

    2000-01-01

    Condensate, produced when gas from downdraft biomass gasifier is cooled, contains organic compounds that inhibit nitrifiers. Treatment with activated carbon removes most of the organics and makes the condensate far less inhibitory. The condensate from an optimised two-stage gasifier is so clean...... compounds and the level of inhibition are so low that condensate from the optimised two-stage gasifier can be led to the public sewer....

  6. Pion condensation and neutron star dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of formation of pion condensate via a phase transition in nuclear matter, especially in the core of neutron stars is reviewed. The possible mechanisms and the theoretical restrictions of pion condensation are summarized. The effects of ultradense equation of state and density jumps on the possible condensation phase transition are investigated. The possibilities of observation of condensation process are described. (D.Gy.)

  7. Condensation coefficient of water in a weak condensation state

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Yamano, Daigo; Yano, Takeru; Fujikawa, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    The condensation coefficient of water at a vapor-liquid interface is determined by combining shock tube experiments and numerical simulations of the Gaussian-BGK Boltzmann equation. The time evolution in thickness of a liquid film, which is formed on the shock tube endwall behind the shock wave reflected at the endwall, is measured with an optical interferometer consisting of the physical beam and the reference one. The reference beam is utilized to eliminate systematic noises ...

  8. Respiratory pattern of diaphragmatic breathing and pilates breathing in COPD subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina M. Cancelliero-Gaiad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic breathing (DB is widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation (PR of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, however it has been little studied in the scientific literature. The Pilates breathing (PB method has also been used in the rehabilitation area and has been little studied in the scientific literature and in COPD. OBJECTIVES: To compare ventilatory parameters during DB and PB in COPD patients and healthy adults. METHOD: Fifteen COPD patients (COPD group and fifteen healthy patients (healthy group performed three types of respiration: natural breathing (NB, DB, and PB, with the respiratory pattern being analyzed by respiratory inductive plethysmography. The parameters of time, volume, and thoracoabdominal coordination were evaluated. After the Shapiro-Wilk normality test, ANOVA was applied followed by Tukey's test (intragroup analysis and Student's t-test (intergroup analysis; p<0.05. RESULTS: DB promoted increase in respiratory volumes, times, and SpO2 as well as decrease in respiratory rate in both groups. PB increased respiratory volumes in healthy group, with no additional benefits of respiratory pattern in the COPD group. With respect to thoracoabdominal coordination, both groups presented higher asynchrony during DB, with a greater increase in the healthy group. CONCLUSIONS: DB showed positive effects such as increase in lung volumes, respiratory motion, and SpO2 and reduction in respiratory rate. Although there were no changes in volume and time measurements during PB in COPD, this breathing pattern increased volumes in the healthy subjects and increased oxygenation in both groups. In this context, the acute benefits of DB are emphasized as a supporting treatment in respiratory rehabilitation programs.

  9. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomoni, Sauro; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen) to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential improvements in voice

  10. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Denotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral breathing is a respiratory dysfunction that affects approximately 10-15% of child population. It is responsable of local effects and systemic effects, both immediate and long-term. They affect the growth of the subject and his physical health in many ways: pediatric, psycho-behavioral and cognitive. The etiology is multifactorial. It’s important the establishment of a vicious circle involving more areas and it is essential to stop it as soon as possible. In order to correct this anomaly, the pediatric dentist must be able to make a correct diagnosis to treat early the disfunction and to avoid the onset of cascade mechanisms. Who plays a central role is the pediatrician who first and frequently come into contact with little patients. He can identify the anomalies, and therefore collaborate with other specialists, including the dentist. The key aspect that guides us in the diagnosis, and allows us to identify the oral respirator, is the “adenoid facies”. The purpose of the study is to highlight the importance and benefits of an early and multidisciplinary intervention (pediatric, orthopedic-orthodontic-functional. A sample of 20 patients was selected with the following inclusion criteria: mouth breathing, transverse discrepancy > 4 mm, early mixed dentition, central and lateral permenent incisors, overjet increased, lip and nasal incompetence, snoring and/or sleep apnea episodes. The protocol of intervention includes the use of the following devices and procedures: a maxillary rapid expander (to correct the transverse discrepancy, to increase the amplitude of the upper respiratory airway and to reduce nasal resistances tract in association with myo-functional devices (nasal stimulator and oral obturator. They allow the reconstruction of a physiological balance between the perioral musculature and tongue, the acquisition of nasal and lips competence and the reduction of overjet. This protocol speeds up and stabilizes the results. The

  11. A phenomenological modeling of critical condensate saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, F.; Firoozabadi, A.; Abbaszadeh, M. [and others

    1996-12-31

    We have developed a phenomenological model for critical condensate saturation. This model reveals that critical condensate saturation is a function of surface tension and contact angle hysteresis. On the other hand, residual oil saturation does not have such a dependency. Consequently, the selection of fluids in laboratory measurements for gas condensate systems should be made with care.

  12. Direct, nondestructive observation of a Bose condensate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Andrews; M.O. Mewes; N.J. van Druten; D.S. Durfee; D.M. Kurn; W. Ketterle

    1996-01-01

    The spatial observation of a Bose condensate is reported. Dispersive light scattering was used to observe the separation between the condensed and normal components of the Bose gas inside a magnetic trap. This technique is nondestructive, and about a hundred images of the same condensate can be take

  13. The thermalization, condensation and flickering of photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Other than in a three-dimensional thermal photon gas as Planck's blackbody radiation, photons can exhibit Bose–Einstein condensation, if the thermalization process is restricted to two motional degrees of freedom. This self-contained tutorial describes the thermalization mechanism, the condensation process and the quantum statistics of the photon condensates in detail. (tutorial)

  14. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  15. Efficacy of a Respiratory Training System on the Regularity of Breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Eun Hyuk; Park, Hee Chul; Han, Young Yih; Ju, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jung Suk; Ahn, Yong Chan [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    In order to enhance the efficiency of respiratory gated 4-dimensional radiation therapy for more regular and stable respiratory period and amplitude, a respiration training system was designed, and its efficacy was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The experiment was designed to measure the difference in respiration regularity following the use of a training system. A total of 11 subjects (9 volunteers and 2 patients) were included in the experiments. Three different breathing signals, including free breathing (free-breathing), guided breathing that followed training software (guided-breathing), and free breathing after the guided-breathing (post guided-breathing), were consecutively recorded in each subject. The peak-to-peak (PTP) period of the breathing signal, standard deviation (SD), peak-amplitude and its SD, area of the one cycle of the breathing wave form, and its root mean square (RMS) were measured and computed. Results: The temporal regularity was significantly improved in guided-breathing since the SD of breathing period reduced (free-breathing 0.568 vs guided-breathing 0.344, p=0.0013). The SD of the breathing period representing the post guided-breathing was also reduced, but the difference was not statistically significant (free-breathing 0.568 vs. guided-breathing 0.512, p=ns). Also the SD of measured amplitude was reduced in guided-breathing (free-breathing 1.317 vs. guided-breathing 1.068, p=0.187), although not significant. This indicated that the tidal volume for each breath was kept more even in guided-breathing compared to free-breathing. There was no change in breathing pattern between free-breathing and guided-breathing. The average area of breathing wave form and its RMS in postguided-breathing, however, was reduced by 7% and 5.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The guided-breathing was more stable and regular than the other forms of breathing data. Therefore, the developed respiratory training system was effective in improving the temporal

  16. Arrays of Hollow Silica Half-Nanospheres Via the Breath Figure Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Yangqin

    2015-04-21

    Breath figures (BFs) are patterns of liquid droplets that usually form upon condensation on a cold surface. Earlier work has shown that BFs can be used to produce continuous films of porous honeycomb-structured patterns on various types of materials, paving the path to a number of important applications such as the manufacturing of highly ordered nano- and micron-sized templates, micro lenses, and superhydrophobic coatings. It is worth noting, however, that few new findings have been reported in this area in recent years, limiting pursuits of novel architectures and key applications. In this report, an alternative method is described by which arrays of hollow silica half-nanospheres can be produced via BF templates. In the present method, a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) protocol performed while the BF is formed on a glass substrate yields a nanostructured pattern of silica half-spheres, which size (100-700 nm) and density across the glass surface vary with substrate modification and with the relative rates of water condensation and hydrolysis from silica precursors (a process carried out at room temperature). This method of forming arrays of hollow half-nanospheres via the BF approach may be applicable to various other oxides and a broad range of substrates including large-area flexible plastics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Collagen fragment biomarkers as serological biomarkers of lean body mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, A.; Dalgas, U.; Primdahl, H.;

    2015-01-01

    Background Loss of muscle mass and function is an important complication to ageing and a range of pathologies, including, but not restricted to, cancer, organ failures, and sepsis. A number of interventions have been proposed ranging from exercise to anabolic pharmacological therapy, with varying...... success. Easily applicable serological biomarkers of lean and/or muscle mass and change therein would benefit monitoring of muscle mass during muscle atrophy as well as during recovery. We set out to validate if novel peptide biomarkers derived from Collagen III and VI were markers of lean body mass (LBM...

  18. Perturbing a quantum gravity condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Gielen, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    In a recent proposal using the group field theory (GFT) approach, a spatially homogeneous (generally anisotropic) universe is described as a quantum gravity condensate of 'atoms of space', which allows the derivation of an effective cosmological Friedmann equation from the microscopic quantum gravity dynamics. Here we take a first step towards the study of cosmological perturbations over the homogeneous background. We consider a state in which a single 'atom' is added to an otherwise homogeneous condensate. Backreaction of the perturbation on the background is negligible and the background dynamics can be solved separately. The dynamics for the perturbation takes the form of a quantum cosmology Hamiltonian for a 'wavefunction', depending on background and perturbations, of the product form usually assumed in a Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The perturbation we consider can then be interpreted as a spatially homogeneous metric perturbation. For this case, our results show how perturbations can be added to con...

  19. Polymer Bose–Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we analyze a non-interacting one-dimensional polymer Bose–Einstein condensate in a harmonic trap within the semiclassical approximation. We use an effective Hamiltonian coming from the polymer quantization that arises in loop quantum gravity. We calculate the number of particles in order to obtain the critical temperature. The Bose–Einstein functions are replaced by series, whose high order terms are related to powers of the polymer length. It is shown that the condensation temperature presents a shift respect to the standard case, for small values of the polymer scale. In typical experimental conditions, it is possible to establish a bound for λ2 up to ≲10−16 m2. To improve this bound we should decrease the frequency of the trap and also decrease the number of particles

  20. Fundamentals of condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Marvin L

    2016-01-01

    Based on an established course and covering the fundamentals, central areas, and contemporary topics of this diverse field, Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics is a much-needed textbook for graduate students. The book begins with an introduction to the modern conceptual models of a solid from the points of view of interacting atoms and elementary excitations. It then provides students with a thorough grounding in electronic structure as a starting point to understand many properties of condensed matter systems - electronic, structural, vibrational, thermal, optical, transport, magnetic and superconductivity - and methods to calculate them. Taking readers through the concepts and techniques, the text gives both theoretically and experimentally inclined students the knowledge needed for research and teaching careers in this field. It features 200 illustrations, 40 worked examples and 150 homework problems for students to test their understanding. Solutions to the problems for instructors are available at w...

  1. Compact heat exchangers modeling: Condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Cascales, J.R.; Vera-Garcia, F. [Technical University of Cartagena, Thermal and Fluid Engineering Department, C/Dr. Fleming, s/n 30202 Cartagena, Murcia (Spain); Gonzalvez-Macia, J.; Corberan-Salvador, J.M. [Technical University of Valencia, Applied Thermodynamic Department, Valencia (Spain); Johnson, M.W.; Kohler, G.T. [Modine Manufacturing Company, Commercial Products Group, Racine, WI (United States)

    2010-01-15

    A model for the analysis of compact heat exchangers working as either evaporators or condensers is presented. This paper will focus exclusively on condensation modeling. The model is based on cell discretization of the heat exchanger in such a way that cells are analyzed following the path imposed by the refrigerant flowing through the tubes. It has been implemented in a robust code developed for assisting with the design of compact heat exchangers and refrigeration systems. These heat exchangers consist of serpentine fins that are brazed to multi-port tubes with internal microchannels. This paper also investigates a number of correlations used for the calculation of the refrigerant side heat transfer coefficient. They are evaluated comparing the predicted data with the experimental data. The working fluids used in the experiments are R134a and R410A, and the secondary fluid is air. The experimental facility is briefly described and some conclusions are finally drawn. (author)

  2. Atomistic modeling of dropwise condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikarwar, B. S.; Singh, P. L.; Muralidhar, K.; Khandekar, S.

    2016-05-01

    The basic aim of the atomistic modeling of condensation of water is to determine the size of the stable cluster and connect phenomena occurring at atomic scale to the macroscale. In this paper, a population balance model is described in terms of the rate equations to obtain the number density distribution of the resulting clusters. The residence time is taken to be large enough so that sufficient time is available for all the adatoms existing in vapor-phase to loose their latent heat and get condensed. The simulation assumes clusters of a given size to be formed from clusters of smaller sizes, but not by the disintegration of the larger clusters. The largest stable cluster size in the number density distribution is taken to be representative of the minimum drop radius formed in a dropwise condensation process. A numerical confirmation of this result against predictions based on a thermodynamic model has been obtained. Results show that the number density distribution is sensitive to the surface diffusion coefficient and the rate of vapor flux impinging on the substrate. The minimum drop radius increases with the diffusion coefficient and the impinging vapor flux; however, the dependence is weak. The minimum drop radius predicted from thermodynamic considerations matches the prediction of the cluster model, though the former does not take into account the effect of the surface properties on the nucleation phenomena. For a chemically passive surface, the diffusion coefficient and the residence time are dependent on the surface texture via the coefficient of friction. Thus, physical texturing provides a means of changing, within limits, the minimum drop radius. The study reveals that surface texturing at the scale of the minimum drop radius does not provide controllability of the macro-scale dropwise condensation at large timescales when a dynamic steady-state is reached.

  3. Advances in condensed matter optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Liangyao; Jiang, Xunya; Jin, Kuijuan; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    This book describes some of the more recent progresses and developmentsin the study of condensed matter optics in both theoretic and experimental fields.It will help readers, especially graduate students and scientists who are studying and working in the nano-photonic field, to understand more deeply the characteristics of light waves propagated in nano-structure-based materials with potential applications in the future.

  4. Radiative corrections to Bose condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A. (Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, La Habana. Inst. de Matematica, Cibernetica y Computacion)

    1985-04-01

    The Bose condensation of the scalar field in a theory behaving in the Coleman-Weinberg mode is considered. The effective potential of the model is computed within the semiclassical approximation in a dimensional regularization scheme. Radiative corrections are shown to introduce certain ..mu..-dependent ultraviolet divergences in the effective potential coming from the Many-Particle theory. The weight of radiative corrections in the dynamics of the system is strongly modified by the charge density.

  5. Spacetime geometry from graviton condensation

    OpenAIRE

    Zielinski, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we introduce a novel approach viewing spacetime geometry as an emergent phenomenon based on the condensation of a large number of quanta on a distinguished flat background. We advertise this idea with regard to investigations of spacetime singularities within a quantum field theoretical framework and semiclassical considerations of black holes. Given that in any physical theory apart from General Relativity the metric background is determined in advance, singu...

  6. Thinking about breathing: Effects on respiratory sinus arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Marghescu, Domnica; Siegrist-Johnstone, Rosemarie

    2016-03-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), the increase and decrease in instantaneous heart rate (HR) with inspiration and expiration, is commonly evaluated as function of breathing frequency f. However, to the extent that RSA plays a role in the efficiency of gas exchange, it may be expected to correlate better with HR/f ('breathing specific heart rate') than with f, because the former is a better reflection of the cardio-respiratory coupling. We measured RSA breath-by-breath in 209 young men and women during spontaneous breathing and during volitional breathing under auditory cues at vastly different f. In either case, and for both genders, RSA correlated better with HR/f than with f. As HR/f increased so did RSA, in a linear manner. When compared on the basis of HR/f, RSA did not differ significantly between spontaneous and volitional breathing. It is proposed that RSA is a central mechanism that ameliorates the matching between the quasi-continuous pulmonary blood flow and the intermittent airflow, irrespective of the type of ventilatory drive (cortical or autonomic). PMID:26724603

  7. Theory of laminar film condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Tetsu

    1991-01-01

    Since the petroleum crisis in the 1970s, a lot of effort to save energy was made in industry, and remarkable achievements have been made. In the research and development concerning thermal energy, however, it was clar­ ified that one of the most important problems was manufacturing con­ densing systems with smaller size and higher performance. To solve this problem we need a method which synthesizes selections_ of the type of con­ denser, cooling tube and its arrangement, assessment of fouling on the cooling surfaces, consideration of transient characteristics of a condenser, etc. The majority of effort, however, has been to devise a surface element which enhances the heat transfer coefficient in condensation of a single or multicomponent vapor. Condensation phenomena are complexly affected by a lot of physical property values, and accordingly the results of theo­ retical research are expressed with several dimensionless parameters. On the other hand, the experimental research is limited to those with som...

  8. Principles of condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an advanced level text and reference book on the physics of condensed matter systems. Assuming a familiarity with the basics of quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics, the book establishes a general framework, based on symmetries and conservation laws, for describing condensed phases of matter. After surveying the structure and properties of materials with different symmetries, it explores the role of spatial dimensionality and microscopic interactions in determining the nature of phase transitions. Particular attention is given to critical phenomena and renormalization group methods. The properties of liquids, liquid crystals, incommensurate crystals, quasicrystals, crystalline solids, magnetically ordered systems and amorphous solids are investigated in terms of their symmetry, generalized rigidity, hydrodynamics and topological defect structure. The book is written in a clear pedagogic style with extensive examples of real-world systems. Over 250 diagrams illustrate key points, and many exercises are included. The volume contains a bibliography, a detailed glossary, and an index. In addition to use as a course text, this book will be an essential reference to students and researchers in physics, applied physics, chemistry, materials science, chemical engineering and electrical engineering who are interested in modern condensed matter physics

  9. Feasibility of Free-breathing CCTA using 256-MDCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuo; Sun, Ye; Zhang, Zhuolu; Chen, Lei; Hong, Nan

    2016-07-01

    Usually, coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is performed during breath-holding to reduce artifact caused by respiration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of free-breathing CCTA compared to breath-holding using CT scanner with wide detector. To evaluate the feasibility of CCTA during free-breathing using a 256-MDCT. In 80 patients who underwent CCTA, 40 were performed during breath-holding (group A), and the remaining 40 during free-breathing (group B). The quality scores for coronary arteries were analyzed and defined as: 3 (excellent), 2 (good), and 1 (poor). The image noise, signal-to-noise ratio and effective radiation dose as well as the heart rate variation were compared. The noise, signal-to-noise ratio, and effective radiation dose were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The mean heart rate variation between planning and scanning for group A was 7 ± 7.6 bpm, and larger than 3 ± 2.6 bpm for group B (P = 0.012). Quality scores of the free-breathing group were better than those of the breath-holding group (group A: 2.55 ± 0.64, group B: 2.85 ± 0.36, P = 0.018). Free-breathing CCTA is feasible on wide detector CT scanner to provide acceptable image quality with reduced heart rate variation and better images for certain patients. PMID:27399104

  10. Quality factors to consider in condensate selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lywood, B. [Crude Quality Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Many factors must be considered when assessing the feasibility of using condensates as a diluent for bitumen or heavy crude production blending. In addition to commercial issues, the effect of condensate quality is a key consideration. In general, condensate quality refers to density and viscosity. However, valuation decisions could be enhanced through the expansion of quality definitions and understanding. This presentation focused on the parameters that are important in choosing a diluent grade product. It also reviewed pipeline and industry specifications and provided additional information regarding general properties for bitumen and condensate compatibility; sampling and quality testing needs; and existing sources of information regarding condensate quality. tabs., figs.

  11. Spatial coherence of a polariton condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hui; Solomon, Glenn S; Hey, Rudolf; Ploog, Klaus H; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2007-09-21

    We perform Young's double-slit experiment to study the spatial coherence properties of a two-dimensional dynamic condensate of semiconductor microcavity polaritons. The coherence length of the system is measured as a function of the pump rate, which confirms a spontaneous buildup of macroscopic coherence in the condensed phase. An independent measurement reveals that the position and momentum uncertainty product of the condensate is close to the Heisenberg limit. An experimental realization of such a minimum uncertainty wave packet of the polariton condensate opens a door to coherent matter-wave phenomena such as Josephson oscillation, superfluidity, and solitons in solid state condensate systems. PMID:17930529

  12. Bose-Einstein Condensation of Atomic Hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Fried, Dale G.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes the observation and study of Bose-Einstein condensation of a trapped, dilute gas of atomic hydrogen. The condensate and normal gas are studied by two-photon spectroscopy of the 1S-2S transition. We condense over 10^9 atoms per second for several seconds, and the peak condensate density is around 5x10^15 cm^-3. Topics covered in the thesis include a theoretical analysis of Bose-condensed hydrogen, a description of the cryogenic trapping cell and the evaporative cooling te...

  13. Condensation of the air-steam mixture in a vertical tube condenser

    OpenAIRE

    Havlík Jan; Dlouhý Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the condensation of water vapour in the presence of non-condensable air. Experimental and theoretical solutions of this problem are presented here. A heat exchanger for the condensation of industrial waste steam containing infiltrated air was designed. The condenser consists of a bundle of vertical tubes in which the steam condenses as it flows downwards with cooling water flowing outside the tubes in the opposite direction. Experiments with pure steam and with mixtures ...

  14. Biomarkers in fibromyalgia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomelli C

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Camillo Giacomelli,* Francesca Sernissi,* Alessandra Rossi, Stefano Bombardieri, Laura BazzichiRheumatology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy *These authors contributed equally to the manuscript Abstract: Fibromyalgia is a common syndrome diagnosed by clinical criteria. The main symptom of fibromyalgia is pain, but patients frequently also complain about other nonspecific symptoms, such as headache, sleep disturbance, mood disorder, and cognitive impairment. In the light of the multifactorial origin of the disease and of the lack of objective diagnostic findings, several attempts have been made to find a reliable biomarker. For this reason, over the years, a number of patients and various biological samples have been studied, using many different approaches and techniques. Despite this, none of these studies has been able to find the proper biomarker. The aim of this review is to provide a critical overview of the current environment characterizing the search for fibromyalgia biomarkers. Keywords: genetics, proteomics, oxidative stress, fibromyalgia

  15. Biomarkers of silicosis: Potential candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica dust is widely prevalent in the atmosphere and more common than the other types of dust, thus making silicosis the most frequently occurring pneumoconiosis. In India also, studies carried out by National Institute of Occupational Health have shown high prevalence of silicosis in small factories and even in nonoccupational exposed subjects. The postero-anterior chest radiographs remain the key tool in diagnosing and assessing the extent and severity of interstitial lung disease. Although Computed Tomography detects finer anatomical structure than radiography it could not get popularity because of its cost. On the basis of histological features of silicosis many potential biomarkers such as Cytokines, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Interleukin 1, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, Serum Copper, Fas ligand (FasL, etc. have been tried. However, further studies are needed to establish these potential biomarkers as true biomarker of silicosis.

  16. 13CO2-breath tests as diagnostic tools in gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic breath test in gastroenterology and hepatology uses specifically 13C-labelled substrate containing a ''target bond'' which, on enzymatic cleavage, results in the release of a functional group destined to produce labelled 13CO2 as a metabolic end product. Advantages and methodology of the 13CO2 breath tests are presented together with the calculation methods for 13C dose ratios. An example is given with the 13C-octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying of solids. 2 figs., 5 refs

  17. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms for Breath Alcohol Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungblad, Jonas; Hök, Bertil; Ekström, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Breath alcohol screening is important for traffic safety, access control and other areas of health promotion. A family of sensor devices useful for these purposes is being developed and evaluated. This paper is focusing on algorithms for the determination of breath alcohol concentration in diluted breath samples using carbon dioxide to compensate for the dilution. The examined algorithms make use of signal averaging, weighting and personalization to reduce estimation errors. Evaluation has been performed by using data from a previously conducted human study. It is concluded that these features in combination will significantly reduce the random error compared to the signal averaging algorithm taken alone. PMID:27043576

  18. Exhaled breath analysis: physical methods, instruments, and medical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the analysis of exhaled breath, a rapidly growing field in noninvasive medical diagnostics that lies at the intersection of physics, chemistry, and medicine. Current data are presented on gas markers in human breath and their relation to human diseases. Various physical methods for breath analysis are described. It is shown how measurement precision and data volume requirements have stimulated technological developments and identified the problems that have to be solved to put this method into clinical practice. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  19. Lactose malabsorption during gastroenteritis, assessed by the hydrogen breath test.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, A. J.; Tarlow, M J; Sutherland, I T; Sammons, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-eight infants and young children with gastroenteritis were investigated for lactose malabsorption. Each of them was given an oral lactose load of either 0.5 g/kg or 2 g/kg after which breath hydrogen excretion was measured, and each was observed to see if he had clinical symptoms of lactose intolerance. Only one patient, given 2 g/kg lactose, had clinical intolerance. His breath hydrogen excretion however was negative. Three of 18 patients given 0.5 g/kg lactose had positive breath hyd...

  20. Sleep disordered breathing at the extremes of age: infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don S. Urquhart

    2016-03-01

    Appreciate disorders of respiratory control; Normal sleep in infancy is a time of change with alterations in sleep architecture, sleep duration, sleep patterns and respiratory control as an infant grows older. Interactions between sleep and respiration are key to the mechanisms by which infants are vulnerable to sleep disordered breathing. This review discusses normal sleep in infancy, as well as normal sleep breathing in infancy. Sleep disordered breathing (obstructive and central as well as disorders of ventilatory control and infant causes of hypoventilation are all reviewed in detail.

  1. Ghost condensate and generalized second law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovsky and Sibiryakov recently proposed a scenario in which particles of different species propagate with different speeds due to their direct couplings to ghost condensate. It was argued that this extended version of ghost condensate allows a gedanken experiment leading to violation of the generalized second law. However, in the original ghost condensate scenario, difference in propagation speeds is suppressed by M2/MPl2, where M is the order parameter of spontaneous Lorentz breaking and MPl is the Planck scale. In this case the energy transfer necessary for the gedanken experiment is so slow that the timescale of decrease of entropy, if any, is always longer than the Jeans timescale of ghost condensate. Hence the generalized second law is not violated by the gedanken experiment in the original ghost condensate scenario. This conclusion trivially extends to gauged ghost condensation by taking into account accretion of gauged ghost condensate into a black hole.

  2. Potential blood biomarkers for stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, Carlos M; Mourino-Alvarez, Laura; Akerstrom, Finn; Padial, Luis R; Vivanco, Fernando; Gil-Dones, Felix; Barderas, Maria G

    2012-08-01

    Stroke is one of the most common causes of death worldwide and a major cause of acquired disability in adults. Despite advances in research during the last decade, prevention and treatment strategies still suffer from significant limitations, and therefore new theoretical and technical approaches are required. Technological advances in the proteomic and metabolomic areas, during recent years, have permitted a more effective search for novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets that may allow for effective risk stratification and early diagnosis with subsequent rapid treatment. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the latest candidate proteins and metabolites proposed as new potential biomarkers in stroke. PMID:22967080

  3. Biomarker Detection using PS2-Thioaptamers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) will develop a system to detect and quantify bone demineralization biomarkers as outlined in SBIR Topic "Technologies to Detect Biomarkers"....

  4. Proteomics in Discovery of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Biomarkers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To discover new proteomic biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: Surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry was used to discover biomarkers for differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic liver disease. A population of 50 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 33 patients with chronic liver disease was studied. Results: Twelve proteomic biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma were detected in this study. Three proteomic biomarkers were highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and nine proteomic biomarkers were highly expressed in chronic liver disease. The most valuable proteomic biomarker with m/z=11498 had no similar diagnostic value as α-fetoprotein. Conclusion:Some of the twelve proteomic biomarkers may become new biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. Personalized medicine using DNA biomarkers: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Andreas; Koch, Armin; Krockenberger, Katja; Großhennig, Anika

    2012-01-01

    Biomarkers are of increasing importance for personalized medicine, with applications including diagnosis, prognosis, and selection of targeted therapies. Their use is extremely diverse, ranging from pharmacodynamics to treatment monitoring. Following a concise review of terminology, we provide examples and current applications of three broad categories of biomarkers—DNA biomarkers, DNA tumor biomarkers, and other general biomarkers. We outline clinical trial phases for identifying and validat...

  6. 42 CFR 84.71 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus; required...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.71 Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components. (a) Each self-contained breathing apparatus described in § 84.70 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  7. 46 CFR 78.47-27 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 78.47-27 Section 78... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-27 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked “SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS.”...

  8. Syllable-Related Breathing in Infants in the Second Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Douglas F.; Buder, Eugene H.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Boliek, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether breathing behaviors of infants within the 2nd year of life differ between tidal breathing and breathing supporting single unarticulated syllables and canonical/articulated syllables. Method: Vocalizations and breathing kinematics of 9 infants between 53 and 90 weeks of age were recorded. A strict selection…

  9. Proteomic Biomarkers for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana;

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...... literature, there are no specific proteomic biomarkers capable of accurately predicting PTB....

  10. Training Studies with Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus – Methodology, Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buks Roberts

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article describes topics ranging from the respiratory physiology and the structure of compressed air breathing apparatus to the performance of practical training exercises in an unbreathable environment (hereinafter referred to as UE.

  11. Bounded Gain of Energy on the Breathing Circle Billiard

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphorst, Sylvie Oliffson; de Carvalho, Sonia Pinto

    1998-01-01

    The Breathing Circle is a 2-dimensional generalization of the Fermi Accelerator. It is shown that the billiard map associated to this model has invariant curves in phase space, implying that any particle will have bounded gain of energy.

  12. Breakdown in Breathing: The Complexities of Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe A Breakdown in Breathing The Complexities of Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited illness that ravages the ... B. Guggino, a researcher with the Johns Hopkins Cystic Fibrosis Center. But in CF, “the mucus gets sticky, ...

  13. Atmospheric Breathing Electric Thruster for Planetary Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study will investigate the development of an atmosphere-breathing electric propulsion solar-powered vehicle to explore planets such as Mars. The vehicle would...

  14. Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disparities Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women Disparities in Lung Health Series More ... the U.S. live with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Millions more ...

  15. COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better ... Trial to Look at Home Oxygen Therapy for COPD The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) ...

  16. Breath hydrogen analysis in patients with ileoanal pouch anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, E; Meyer, J N; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1995-01-01

    The possible influence on functional outcomes of hydrogen production in the ileoanal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy was investigated by means of lactulose H2 breath tests. Eight of 15 patients had significant increases in breath hydrogen after 10 g lactulose. One patient declined to...... participate in further investigations, the remaining seven responders had no evidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth after glucose H2 breath tests. The ability to produce hydrogen by anaerobic fermentation of lactulose in the pouch was unrelated to the age of the patients or of the pouch. Seven of eight...... responders had successive breath tests after ingestion of lactulose 20 g and wheat starch 100 g. Five of seven had significant increases after lactulose but none after wheat starch. The overall function of the pouch continence, spontaneity of defecation, and 24 hour stool frequency was significantly better...

  17. CO2 Washout Capability with Breathing Manikin Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The intent of this particular project was to perform the following:Provide a breathing capability to be integrated into existing EC5 Ventilation Lab Suited...

  18. Bathroom watching using a breath detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Tomofumi; Nakajima, Masato

    2004-10-01

    Recently, domestic accidents have been increasing in Japan. These kinds of accidents occur in private areas such as bedrooms, toilets and bathrooms, and tend to be found too late. Accidents, particularly those occurring in the bathroom, can often result in death. Many systems which have been proposed or which are in use are designed to detect body motion in the bathroom, and determine that a bather has suddenly taken ill when movement ceases. However, the relaxed posture of a person bathing is actually very similar to that of a person who has passed out. It is therefore very difficult to differentiate between the two postures. We have developed a watching system for bathrooms. The new feature of this system lies in its ability to detect a person"s breathing by using an FG vision sensor. From the experiment, it was found that the false alarm rate is expected to reach less than 0.0001% when waiting time is set to 36.8 seconds.

  19. Fetal breathing movements and changes at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, Brian J; Rajaee, Arezoo

    2014-01-01

    The fetus, which develops within a fluid-filled amniotic sac, relies on the placenta for respiratory gas exchange rather than the lungs. While not involved in fetal oxygenation, fetal breathing movements (FBM) nevertheless have an important role in lung growth and in development of respiratory muscles and neural regulation. FBM are regulated differently in many respects than postnatal respiration, which results from the unique intrauterine environment. Prominent distinctions of FBM include its episodic nature and apnea-sensitivity to hypoxia. The latter characteristic is the basis for using FBM in the assessment of fetuses at risk for hypoxic injury. At birth, the transition to continuous postnatal respiration involves a fall in temperature, gaseous distention of the lungs, activation of the Hering-Breuer reflexes, and functional connectivity of afferent O2 chemoreceptor activity with respiratory motoneurons and arousal centers. Importantly, exposure to drugs or adverse conditions in utero not only can change patterns of FBM but also can lead to epigenetic dysregulation in postnatal respiration. Such changes, can blunt respiratory and arousal defenses against hypoxic challenges in sleep. Thus, fetal hypoxia and/or drug exposure may in later life dispose sleeping infants, children, and adults to hypertension, diabetes mellitus, brain injury, and sudden death. PMID:25015803

  20. Bias in Peripheral Depression Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, André F; Köhler, Cristiano A; Brunoni, André R;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To aid in the differentiation of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) from healthy controls, numerous peripheral biomarkers have been proposed. To date, no comprehensive evaluation of the existence of bias favoring the publication of significant results or inflating effect...