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Sample records for breath condensate biomarkers

  1. Exhaled Breath Condensate for Proteomic Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean W. Harshman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled breath condensate (EBC has been established as a potential source of respiratory biomarkers. Compared to the numerous small molecules identified, the protein content of EBC has remained relatively unstudied due to the methodological and technical difficulties surrounding EBC analysis. In this review, we discuss the proteins identified in EBC, by mass spectrometry, focusing on the significance of those proteins identified. We will also review the limitations surrounding mass spectral EBC protein analysis emphasizing recommendations to enhance EBC protein identifications by mass spectrometry. Finally, we will provide insight into the future directions of the EBC proteomics field.

  2. Exhaled Breath Condensate: A Promising Source for Biomarkers of Lung Disease

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    Yan Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled breath condensate (EBC has been increasingly studied as a noninvasive research method for sampling the alveolar and airway space and is recognized as a promising source of biomarkers of lung diseases. Substances measured in EBC include oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as arachidonic acid derivatives, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, reduced and oxidized glutathione, and inflammatory cytokines. Although EBC has great potential as a source of biomarkers in many lung diseases, the low concentrations of compounds within the EBC present challenges in sample collection and analysis. Although EBC is viewed as a noninvasive method for sampling airway lining fluid (ALF, validation is necessary to confirm that EBC truly represents the ALF. Likewise, a dilution factor for the EBC is needed in order to compare across subjects and determine changes in the ALF. The aims of this paper are to address the characteristics of EBC; strategies to standardize EBC sample collection and review available analytical techniques for EBC analysis.

  3. Biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate indicate presence and severity of cystic fibrosis in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robroeks, C.M.; Rosias, P.P.; Vliet, D van; Jobsis, Q.; Yntema, J.L.; Brackel, H.J.; Damoiseaux, J.G.; Hartog, GM den; Wodzig, W.K.; Dompeling, E.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic airway inflammation is present in cystic fibrosis (CF). Non-invasive inflammometry may be useful in disease management. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate: (i) the ability of fractional exhaled nitric oxide and inflammatory markers (IM) [exhaled breath condensate

  4. Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath Condensate and Serum of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Ying Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer are leading causes of deaths worldwide which are associated with chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Lung cancer, in particular, has a very high mortality rate due to the characteristically late diagnosis. As such, identification of novel biomarkers which allow for early diagnosis of these diseases could improve outcome and survival rate. Markers of oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate (EBC are examples of potential diagnostic markers for both COPD and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. They may even be useful in monitoring treatment response. In the serum, S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12 of the S100 proteins are proinflammatory markers. They have been indicated in several inflammatory diseases and cancers including secondary metastasis into the lung. It is highly likely that they not only have the potential to be diagnostic biomarkers for NSCLC but also prognostic indicators and therapeutic targets.

  5. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  6. Exhaled breath condensate pH as a biomarker of COPD severity in ex-smokers

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    Alchanatis Manos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endogenous airway acidification, as assessed by exhaled breath condensate (EBC pH, is present in patients with stable COPD. The aim of this study was to measure EBC pH levels in a large cohort of COPD patients and to evaluate associations with functional parameters according to their smoking status. EBC was collected from 161 patients with stable COPD and 112 controls (current and ex-smokers. EBC pH was measured after Argon deaeration and all subjects underwent pulmonary function testing. EBC pH was lower in COPD patients compared to controls [7.21 (7.02, 7.44 vs. 7.50 (7.40, 7.66; p Endogenous airway acidification is related to disease severity and to parameters expressing hyperinflation and air trapping in ex-smokers with COPD. The possible role of EBC pH in COPD needs to be further evaluated in longitudinal studies.

  7. Influence of condensation temperature on selected exhaled breath parameters

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    Manini Paola

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of changes in cooling temperature on biomarker levels in exhaled breath condensate have been little investigated. The aim of the study was to test the effect of condensation temperature on the parameters of exhaled breath condensate and the levels of selected biomarkers. Methods Exhaled breath condensate was collected from 24 healthy subjects at temperatures of -10, -5, 0 and +5 C degrees. Selected parameters (condensed volume and conductivity and biomarkers (hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde were measured. Results There was a progressive increase in hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde concentrations, and condensate conductivity as the cooling temperature increased; total condensate volume increased as the cooling temperature decreased. Conclusion The cooling temperature of exhaled breath condensate collection influenced selected biomarkers and potential normalizing factors (particularly conductivity in different ways ex vivo. The temperature of exhaled breath condensate collection should be controlled and reported.

  8. The analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate in children - clinical tools or scientific toys?

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    van Mastrigt, E; de Jongste, J C; Pijnenburg, M W

    2015-07-01

    Current monitoring strategies for respiratory diseases are mainly based on clinical features, lung function and imaging. As airway inflammation is the hallmark of many respiratory diseases in childhood, noninvasive methods to assess the presence and severity of airway inflammation might be helpful in both diagnosing and monitoring paediatric respiratory diseases. At present, the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide is the only noninvasive method available to assess eosinophilic airway inflammation in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate whether the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath (EB) and biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is helpful in diagnosing and monitoring respiratory diseases in children. An extensive literature search was conducted in Medline, Embase and PubMed on the analysis and applications of VOCs in EB and EBC in children. We retrieved 1165 papers, of which nine contained original data on VOCs in EB and 84 on biomarkers in EBC. These were included in this review. We give an overview of the clinical applications in childhood and summarize the methodological issues. Several VOCs in EB and biomarkers in EBC have the potential to distinguish patients from healthy controls and to monitor treatment responses. Lack of standardization of collection methods and analysis techniques hampers the introduction in clinical practice. The measurement of metabolomic profiles may have important advantages over detecting single markers. There is a lack of longitudinal studies and external validation to reveal whether EB and EBC analysis have added value in the diagnostic process and follow-up of children with respiratory diseases. In conclusion, the use of VOCs in EB and biomarkers in EBC as markers of inflammatory airway diseases in children is still a research tool and not validated for clinical use.

  9. Concentration of exhaled breath condensate biomarkers after fractionated collection based on exhaled CO2 signal.

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    Goldoni, Matteo; Corradi, Massimo; Mozzoni, Paola; Folesani, Giuseppina; Alinovi, Rossella; Pinelli, Silvana; Andreoli, Roberta; Pigini, Daniela; Tillo, Raffaella; Filetti, Angela; Garavelli, Claudia; Mutti, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    A standard procedure for exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection is still lacking. The aim of this study was to compare the concentration of several biomarkers in whole (W-EBC) and fractionated EBC (A-EBC), the latter collected starting from CO2 ≥ 50% increase during exhalation. Forty-five healthy non-smokers or asymptomatic light smokers were enrolled. Total protein concentrations in W-EBC and A-EBC were overlapping (median: 0.7 mg l(-1) in both cases), whereas mitochondrial DNA was higher in A-EBC (0.021 versus 0.011 ng ml(-1)), indicating a concentration rather than a dilution of lining fluid droplets in the last portion of exhaled air. H2O2 (0.13 versus 0.08 µM), 8-isoprostane (4.9 versus 4.4 pg ml(-1)), malondialdehyde (MDA) (4.2 versus 3.2 nM) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonhenal (HNE) (0.78 versus 0.66 nM) were all higher in W-EBC, suggesting a contribution from the upper airways to oxidative stress biomarkers in apparently healthy subjects. NH4(+) was also higher in W-EBC (median: 590 versus 370 µM), with an estimated increase over alveolar and bronchial air by a factor 1.5. pH was marginally, but significantly higher in W-EBC (8.05 versus 8.01). In conclusion, the fractionation of exhaled air may be promising in clinical and occupational medicine.

  10. pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers

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    Thamires Marques de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring stations (8-h work intervals per day, during the 5 consecutive days prior to the study. RESULTS: Exhaled carbon monoxide was two-fold greater in traffic-controllers than in office-workers. The mean pH values were 8.12 in exhaled breath condensate and 7.99 in nasal lavage fluid in office-workers; these values were lower in traffic-controllers (7.80 and 7.30, respectively. Both groups presented similar cytokines concentrations in both substrates, however, IL-1β and IL-8 were elevated in nasal lavage fluid compared with exhaled breath condensate. The particulate matter concentration was greater at the workplace of traffic-controllers compared with that of office-workers. CONCLUSION: The pH values of nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate are important, robust, easy to measure and reproducible biomarkers that can be used to monitor occupational exposure to air pollution. Additionally, traffic-controllers are at an increased risk of airway and lung inflammation during their occupational activities compared with office-workers.

  11. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects

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    Efstathia M. Konstantinidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. Methods. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC, biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD, smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, and drugs. Results. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. Conclusions. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice.

  12. Noninvasive Recognition and Biomarkers of Early Allergic Asthma in Cats Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis of NMR Spectra of Exhaled Breath Condensate

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    Fulcher, Yan G.; Fotso, Martial; Chang, Chee-Hoon; Rindt, Hans; Reinero, Carol R.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is prevalent in children and cats, and needs means of noninvasive diagnosis. We sought to distinguish noninvasively the differences in 53 cats before and soon after induction of allergic asthma, using NMR spectra of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Statistical pattern recognition was improved considerably by preprocessing the spectra with probabilistic quotient normalization and glog transformation. Classification of the 106 preprocessed spectra by principal component analysis and partial least squares with discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) appears to be impaired by variances unrelated to eosinophilic asthma. By filtering out confounding variances, orthogonal signal correction (OSC) PLS-DA greatly improved the separation of the healthy and early asthmatic states, attaining 94% specificity and 94% sensitivity in predictions. OSC enhancement of multi-level PLS-DA boosted the specificity of the prediction to 100%. OSC-PLS-DA of the normalized spectra suggest the most promising biomarkers of allergic asthma in cats to include increased acetone, metabolite(s) with overlapped NMR peaks near 5.8 ppm, and a hydroxyphenyl-containing metabolite, as well as decreased phthalate. Acetone is elevated in the EBC of 74% of the cats with early asthma. The noninvasive detection of early experimental asthma, biomarkers in EBC, and metabolic perturbation invite further investigation of the diagnostic potential in humans. PMID:27764146

  13. Variability of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) volume and pH using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a valuable biological medium for non-invasively measuring biomarkers with the potential to reflect organ systems responses to environmental and dietary exposures and disease processes. Collection of EBC has typically been with spontaneous breat...

  14. Exhaled breath condensate biomarkers analysis in respiratory diseases%呼出气冷凝液检测在呼吸系统疾病中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静; 徐永健; 刘先胜

    2010-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensatc (EBC),a novel measuring method in respiratory disease,may be used to evaluate the airway inflammation and oxidative stress via measuring the biomarker components.It is considered to be a promising method because of its advantages such as noninvasiveness,convenience and easy repeat.There have been many investigations about the role of EBC in the diagnosis,monitor and treatment evaluation of some diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,bronchial asthma,lung tumor,interstitial lung disease and so on.This review will focus on the relevant advance in recent years.%呼出气冷凝液(exhaled breath condensate,EBC)分析是一种新兴的呼吸系统疾病检测手段,通过检测冷凝水中的生化标记物以评价气道炎症或氧化应激水平,由于其具有无创、方便、可重复等特点,被认为具有良好的发展前景.目前EBC检测在慢性阻塞性肺疾病、支气管哮喘、肺癌,间质性肺疾病等多种呼吸系统疾病的诊断、监测及疗效评价中均有相关的研究报道,本文拟对近年来的研究进展作一简要综述.

  15. 呼出气冷凝液生物标志物检测在肺癌中的研究进展%Research progress on detection of exhaled breath condensate biomarkers in lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤寅骏; 周贤梅

    2011-01-01

    呼出气冷凝液检测是一种非侵人性的诊断技术.检测呼出气冷凝液中癌胚抗原、微卫星改变、DNA甲基化、p53基因等肿瘤生物标志物,对肺癌筛查、早期诊断、病情监测、疗效评估、跟踪随访等起重要作用.%Detection of exhaled breath condensate is a noninvasive diagnostic technique. The detection of carcinoembryonic antigen, microsatellite alterations, DNA methylation, p53 gene and other tumor biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate plays an important role in screening, early diagnosis,monitoring, efficacy assessment, following up of lung cancer.

  16. Clinical significance on detection of exhaled breath condensate biomarkers in lung cancer%呼出气冷凝液中肺癌生物标志物检测的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芬芬; 陈建荣; 陶一江

    2012-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate(EBC) analysis,as a new technology of studying the respiratory biochemical components in recent years,has the advantages of non-invasiveness,simple collection and good repeatability,etc.The detection of exhaled breath condensate biomarkers plays an important role in screening,early diagnosis,disease monitoring,efficacy and prognosis assessment,following up of lung cancer.%呼出气冷凝液(EBC)检测是近年来新出现的一种检测呼吸道生化成分的新技术,具有无创、简便易行、重复性好等优点.检测肺癌患者EBC中生物标志物,对肺癌筛查、早期诊断、病情监测、疗效及预后评估、随访等起重要作用.

  17. Advancement of biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%慢性阻塞性肺疾病呼出气冷凝液中生物标记物的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小莉; 黄平

    2011-01-01

    呼出气冷凝液(exhaled breath condensate,EBC)检测作为一种新的研究肺部疾病的方法,具有无创、简便易行、实时监测、重复性好、患者易耐受等优点.对慢性阻塞性肺疾病(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,COPD)患者EBC中反映气道炎症、氧化应激状态的生物标记物进行研究有助于COPD的诊断及对药物治疗反应的评估和患者预后的预测.EBC中异常炎症介质的研究可能为COPD发病机制开启新思路并发现新的治疗靶点.%Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis, as a new way of studying pulmonary diseases,has the advantages of being noninvasive, easily carrying out, real-time monitoring, repeatability and better patients acceptance. Analyzing biomarkers in EBC which reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress could assist in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ,evaluating response to therapies and defining the prognosis of individual patients. Identification of novel inflammatory mediators in EBC may cast new light on the pathogenesis of COPD and identify new therapeutic targets.

  18. Biomarkers and their significance in exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer%肺癌患者呼出气冷凝液中的生物标志物及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝帅源; 黄平

    2016-01-01

    目前肿瘤的早期诊断,特别是非侵入性的早期诊断方法,逐渐受到重视。呼出气冷凝液作为一种新型检测肺癌的方法,因其收集简单、非侵入性等优点越来越成为研究的焦点。对肺癌患者呼出气冷凝液中生物标志物进行研究有助于辅助肺癌早期诊断,且在病情评估、疗效评价、预后估计等方面也起到重要作用。%At present,the early diagnosis of tumor,especially the non-invasive diagnosis method,is gradually valued.As a new way of detecting lung cancer,exhaled breath condensate is now becoming the focus of research because it is easy to collection and non-invasive.Analyzing biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients could be helpful for the early diagnosis of lung cancer and evaluation of therapeutic response and prognosis.

  19. Lung cancer biomarkers in exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Corradi, Massimo; Mazzone, Peter; Mutti, Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Methods for early detection of lung cancer, such as computerized tomography scanning technology, often discover a large number of small lung nodules, posing a new problem to radiologists and chest physicians. The vast majority of these nodules will be benign, but there is currently no easy way to determine which nodules represent very early lung cancer. Adjuvant testing with PET imaging and nonsurgical biopsies has a low yield for these small indeterminate nodules, carries potential morbidity and is costly. Indeed, purely morphological criteria seem to be insufficient for distinguishing lung cancer from benign nodules at early stages with sufficient confidence, therefore false positives undergoing surgical resection frequently occur. A molecular approach to the diagnosis of lung cancer through the analysis of exhaled breath could greatly improve the specificity of imaging procedures. A biomarker-driven approach to signs or symptoms possibly due to lung cancer would represent a complementary tool aimed at ruling out (with known error probability) rather than diagnosing lung cancer. Volatile and nonvolatile components of the breath are being studied as biomarkers of lung cancer. Breath testing is noninvasive and potentially inexpensive. There is promise that an accurate lung cancer breath biomarker, capable of being applied clinically, will be developed in the near future. In this article, we summarize some of the rationale for breath biomarker development, review the published literature in this field and provide thoughts regarding future directions.

  20. Exhaled breath condensate pH assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael D; Hunt, John

    2012-08-01

    Airway pH is central to the physiologic function and cellular biology of the airway. The causes of airway acidification include (1) hypopharyngeal gastric acid reflux with or without aspiration through the vocal cords, (2) inhalation of acid fog or gas (such as chlorine), and (3) intrinsic airway acidification caused by altered airway pH homeostasis in infectious and inflammatory disease processes. The recognition that relevant airway pH deviations occur in lung diseases is opening doors to new simple and inexpensive therapies. This recognition has resulted partly from the ability to use exhaled breath condensate as a window on airway acid-base balance.

  1. Exhaled breath condensate: methodological recommendations and unresolved questions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvath, I.; Hunt, J.; Barnes, P.J.; Alving, K.; Antczak, A.; Baraldi, E.; Becher, G.; Beurden, W.J.C van; Corradi, M.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Dweik, R.A.; Dwyer, T.; Effros, R.; Erzurum, S.; Gaston, B.; Gessner, C.; Greening, A.; Ho, L.P.; Hohlfeld, J.; Jobsis, Q.; Laskowski, D.; Loukides, S.; Marlin, D.; Montuschi, P.; Olin, A.C.; Redington, A.E.; Reinhold, P.; Rensen, E.L. van; Rubinstein, I.; Silkoff, P.; Toren, K.; Vass, G.; Vogelberg, C.; Wirtz, H.

    2005-01-01

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive method for obtaining samples from the lungs. EBC contains large number of mediators including adenosine, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, isoprostanes, leukotrienes, nitrogen oxides, peptides and cytokines. Concentrations of these mediators a

  2. Biomarkers and significance in exhaled breath condensate of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%慢性阻塞性肺疾病呼出气冷凝液中的生物标记物及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂莉; 黄平

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of exhaled breath condensate(EBC)is a noninvasive method for studying the composition of airway lining fluid and has the potential for assessing lung inflammation.It is well known that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)is characteristic of chronic inflammation of the airway,lung parenchyma and pulmonary blood vessels.Through the collecting and testing EBC of COPD patients,realtime,non-invasive,simple and repetitive monitoring can be realized on airway inflammation.%呼出气冷凝液(exhaled breath condensate,EBC)是一种无创研究气道内衬液成分的方法,也为评估肺部炎症提供可能.目前普遍认为,慢性阻塞性肺疾病(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,COPD)是以气道、肺实质和肺血管的慢性炎症为特征的疾病.通过对COPD患者EBC的收集和检测,可实现对气道炎症的实时、无创、简单、重复的监测.

  3. Online trapping and enrichment ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for sensitive measurement of 'arginine-asymmetric dimethylarginine cycle' biomarkers in human exhaled breath condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Gangi, Iole Maria, E-mail: giordano@pediatria.unipd.it [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Pirillo, Paola [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Carraro, Silvia [Unit of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Gucciardi, Antonina; Naturale, Mauro [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Baraldi, Eugenio [Unit of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Giordano, Giuseppe [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy)

    2012-11-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous quantification of 'arginine-ADMA cycle' metabolites developed in EBC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBC is a non-invasive matrix highly useful in patients with respiratory diseases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Method, fast, precise and accurate, is suitable in the pediatric clinical studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity is increased using on-line trapping and enrichment-UPLC-MS/MS method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBC measurements in asthmatic adolescents confirm that ADMA is increased in asthma. - Abstract: Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a biofluid collected non invasively that, enabling the measurement of several biomarkers, has proven useful in the study of airway inflammatory diseases, including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report of any analytical method to detect ADMA in EBC. Objectives: Aim of this work was to develop an online sample trapping and enrichment system, coupled with an UPLC-MS/MS method, for simultaneous quantification of seven metabolites related to 'Arginine-ADMA cycle', using the isotopic dilution. Methods: Butylated EBC samples were trapped in an online cartridge, washed before and after each injection with cleanup solution to remove matrix components and switched inline into the high pressure analytical column. Multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode was used for analyte quantification by tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Validation studies were performed in EBC to examine accuracy, precision and robustness of the method. For each compound, the calibration curves showed a coefficient of correlation (r{sup 2}) greater than 0.992. Accuracy (%Bias) was <3% except for NMMA and H-Arg (<20%), intra- and inter-assay precision (expressed as CV%) were within {+-}20% and recovery ranged from 97.1 to 102.8% for all analytes. Inter-day variability analysis on 20 EBC of adult subjects did

  4. Comparison of two devices and two breathing patterns for exhaled breath condensate sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Hüttmann

    Full Text Available Analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC is a noninvasive method to access the epithelial lining fluid of the lungs. Due to standardization problems the method has not entered clinical practice. The aim of the study was to assess the comparability for two commercially available devices in healthy controls. In addition, we assessed different breathing patterns in healthy controls with protein markers to analyze the source of the EBC.EBC was collected from ten subjects using the RTube and ECoScreen Turbo in a randomized crossover design, twice with every device--once in tidal breathing and once in hyperventilation. EBC conductivity, pH, surfactant protein A, Clara cell secretory protein and total protein were assessed. Bland-Altman plots were constructed to display the influence of different devices or breathing patterns and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was calculated. The volatile organic compound profile was measured using the electronic nose Cyranose 320. For the analysis of these data, the linear discriminant analysis, the Mahalanobis distances and the cross-validation values (CVV were calculated.Neither the device nor the breathing pattern significantly altered EBC pH or conductivity. ICCs ranged from 0.61 to 0.92 demonstrating moderate to very good agreement. Protein measurements were greatly influenced by breathing pattern, the device used, and the way in which the results were reported. The electronic nose could distinguish between different breathing patterns and devices, resulting in Mahalanobis distances greater than 2 and CVVs ranging from 64% to 87%.EBC pH and (to a lesser extent EBC conductivity are stable parameters that are not influenced by either the device or the breathing patterns. Protein measurements remain uncertain due to problems of standardization. We conclude that the influence of the breathing maneuver translates into the necessity to keep the volume of ventilated air constant in further studies.

  5. Metallic elements in exhaled breath condensate and serum of patients with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Acampa, Olga; Goldoni, Matteo; Andreoli, Roberta; Milton, Donald; Sama, Susan R; Rosiello, Richard; de Palma, Giuseppe; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers in exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be useful in aiding diagnosis, defining specific phenotypes of disease, monitoring the disease and evaluating the effects of drugs. The aim of this study was the characterization of metallic elements in exhaled breath condensate and serum as novel biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility in exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using reference analytical techniques. C-Reactive protein and procalcitonin were assessed as previously validated diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers which have been associated with disease exacerbation, thus useful as a basis of comparison with metal levels. Exhaled breath condensate and serum were obtained in 28 patients at the beginning of an episode of disease exacerbation and when they recovered. Trace elements and toxic metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Serum biomarkers were measured by immunoassay. Exhaled manganese and magnesium levels were influenced by exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, an increase in their concentrations--respectively by 20 and 50%--being observed at exacerbation in comparison with values obtained at recovery; serum elemental composition was not modified by exacerbation; serum levels of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin at exacerbation were higher than values at recovery. In outpatients who experienced a mild-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation, manganese and magnesium levels in exhaled breath condensate are elevated at admission in comparison with values at recovery, whereas no other changes were observed in metallic elements at both the pulmonary and systemic level.

  6. Comparative analysis of selected exhaled breath biomarkers obtained with two different temperature-controlled devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brüning Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC is a suitable and non-invasive method for evaluation of airway inflammation. Several studies indicate that the composition of the condensate and the recovery of biomarkers are affected by physical characteristics of the condensing device and collecting circumstances. Additionally, there is an apparent influence of the condensing temperature, and often the level of detection of the assay is a limiting factor. The ECoScreen2 device is a new, partly single-use disposable system designed for studying different lung compartments. Methods EBC samples were collected from 16 healthy non-smokers by using the two commercially available devices ECoScreen2 and ECoScreen at a controlled temperature of -20°C. EBC volume, pH, NOx, LTB4, PGE2, 8-isoprostane and cys-LTs were determined. Results EBC collected with ECoScreen2 was less acidic compared to ECoScreen. ECoScreen2 was superior concerning condensate volume and detection of biomarkers, as more samples were above the detection limit (LTB4 and PGE2 or showed higher concentrations (8-isoprostane. However, NOx was detected only in EBC sampled by ECoScreen. Conclusion ECoScreen2 in combination with mediator specific enzyme immunoassays may be suitable for measurement of different biomarkers. Using this equipment, patterns of markers can be assessed that are likely to reflect the complex pathophysiological processes in inflammatory respiratory disease.

  7. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Sahay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS, integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS, cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS. Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  8. Exploring Airway Diseases by NMR-Based Metabonomics: A Review of Application to Exhaled Breath Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that biomarkers of exhaled gases or exhaled breath condensate (EBC may help in detecting abnormalities in respiratory diseases mirroring increased, oxidative stress, airways inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Beside the traditional techniques to investigate biomarker profiles, “omics” sciences have raised interest in the clinical field as potentially improving disease phenotyping. In particular, metabonomics appears to be an important tool to gain qualitative and quantitative information on low-molecular weight metabolites present in cells, tissues, and fluids. Here, we review the potential use of EBC as a suitable matrix for metabonomic studies using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. By using this approach in airway diseases, it is now possible to separate specific EBC profiles, with implication in disease phenotyping and personalized therapy.

  9. Collecting Protein Biomarkers in Breath Using Electret Filters: A Preliminary Method on New Technical Model and Human Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    Full Text Available Biomarkers in exhaled breath are useful for respiratory disease diagnosis in human volunteers. Conventional methods that collect non-volatile biomarkers, however, necessitate an extensive dilution and sanitation processes that lowers collection efficiencies and convenience of use. Electret filter emerged in recent decade to collect virus biomarkers in exhaled breath given its simplicity and effectiveness. To investigate the capability of electret filters to collect protein biomarkers, a model that consists of an atomizer that produces protein aerosol and an electret filter that collects albumin and carcinoembryonic antigen-a typical biomarker in lung cancer development- from the atomizer is developed. A device using electret filter as the collecting medium is designed to collect human albumin from exhaled breath of 6 volunteers. Comparison of the collecting ability between the electret filter method and other 2 reported methods is finally performed based on the amounts of albumin collected from human exhaled breath. In conclusion, a decreasing collection efficiency ranging from 17.6% to 2.3% for atomized albumin aerosol and 42% to 12.5% for atomized carcinoembryonic antigen particles is found; moreover, an optimum volume of sampling human exhaled breath ranging from 100 L to 200 L is also observed; finally, the self-designed collecting device shows a significantly better performance in collecting albumin from human exhaled breath than the exhaled breath condensate method (p0.05. In summary, electret filters are potential in collecting non-volatile biomarkers in human exhaled breath not only because it was simpler, cheaper and easier to use than traditional methods but also for its better collecting performance.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate: A clinical study

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    C Nagaraja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the ongoing inflammatory process of lung in healthy individuals with risk factors and comparing with that of a known diseased condition. To study the inflammatory response to treatment. Background: Morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases are raising in trend due to increased smokers, urbanization and air pollution, the diagnosis of these conditions during early stage and management can improve patient′s lifestyle and morbidity. Materials and Methods: One hundred subjects were studied from July 2010 to September 2010; the level of hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath condensate was measured using Ecocheck. Results: Of the 100 subjects studied, 23 were healthy individuals with risk factors (smoking, exposure to air pollution, and urbanization; the values of hydrogen peroxide in smokers were 200-2220 nmol/l and in non-smokers 340-760 nmol/l. In people residing in rural areas values were 20-140 nmol/l in non-smokers and 180 nmol/l in smokers. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cases, during acute exacerbations values were 540-3040 nmol/l and 240-480 nmol/l following treatment. In acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma, values were 400-1140 nmol/l and 100-320 nmol/l following treatment. In cases of bronchiectasis, values were 300-340 nmol/l and 200-280 nmol/l following treatment. In diagnosed pneumonia cases values were 1060-11800 nmol/l and 540-700 nmol/l following treatment. In interstitial lung diseases, values ranged from 220-720 nmol/l and 210-510 nmol/l following treatment. Conclusion: Exhaled breath condensate provides a non-invasive means of sampling the lower respiratory tract. Collection of exhaled breath condensate might be useful to detect the oxidative destruction of the lung as well as early inflammation of the airways in a healthy individual with risk factors and comparing the inflammatory response to treatment.

  11. An efficient and reproducible method for measuring hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, W.J.C van; Harff, G.A.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Bosch, M.J. van den; Creemers, J.P.H.M.; Smeenk, F.J.M.W.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the sensitivity and reproducibility of a test procedure for measuring hydrogen peroxide (H202) in exhaled breath condensate and the effect of storage of the condensate on the H2O2 concentration, and compared the results to previous studies.Twenty stable COPD patients breathed into ou

  12. Breathing Bright Solitons in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崇桂书; 海文华; 谢琼涛

    2003-01-01

    A Bose-Einstein condensate with time varying scattering length in time-dependent harmonic trap is analytically investigated and soliton-like solutions of the Gross-Pitaeviskii equation are obtained to describe single soliton,bisoliton and N-soliton properties of the matter wave. The influences of the geometrical property and modulate frequency of trapping potential on soliton behaviour are discussed. When the trap potential has a very small trap aspect ratio or oscillates with a high frequency, the matter wave preserves its shape nearly like a soliton train in propagation, while the breathing behaviour, which displays the periodic collapse and revival of the matter wave,is found for a relatively large aspect ratio or slow varying potential. Meanwhile mass centre of the matter wave translates and/or oscillates for different trap aspect ratio and trap frequencies.

  13. Breath biomarkers and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solga, S F; Alkhuraishe, A; Cope, K; Tabesh, A; Clark, J M; Torbenson, M; Schwartz, P; Magnuson, T; Diehl, A M; Risby, T H

    2006-01-01

    Breath biomarkers have the potential to offer information that is similar to conventional clinical tests or they are entirely unique. Preliminary data support the use of breath biomarkers in the study of liver disease, in particular non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It was evaluated whether breath ethanol, ethane, sulfur compounds and acetone would be associated with hepatic histopathology amongst morbidly obese patients presenting for bariatric surgery. Breath samples were collected during a preoperative visit and compared with liver biopsies obtained during the surgery. A Student's two-tailed t-test was used to compare differences between the two groups. Linear regression was used to analyse associations between the concentrations of breath molecules and independent predictor variables. It was found that breath ethanol, ethane and acetone can be useful biomarkers in patients with NAFLD. In particular, breath ethanol can be associated with hepatic steatosis, and breath acetone can be associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  14. Particulate matter in exhaled breath condensate: A promising indicator of environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Teresa, E-mail: murmur@itn.pt [ITN, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); CFN-UL, Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Alexandra Barreiros, M. [LNEG, Estrada Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, Luis C. [ITN, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); CFN-UL, Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Felix, Pedro M.; Franco, Cristiana; Sousa, Joana; Almeida, S.M. [ITN, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    Assessing the retention of aerosol particles in the human lung, one of the most important pathways of absorption, is a demanding issue. At present, there is no direct biomarker of exposure for the respiratory system. The collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) constitutes a new non-invasive method for sampling from the lung. However, the heterogeneity of the sample due to particulate matter suspended in the condensed phase may influence the quality of analytical results in occupational assessments. The main objective of the study was to confirm the presence of particulate matter in the condensate, to investigate how large the particles in suspension could be and to determine their elemental contents relative to those of EBC matrix. This paper reports on preliminary nuclear microprobe data of particulate matter in EBC. The sizes and the elemental contents of particles suspended in EBC of workers of a lead processing industry and in EBC of non-exposed individuals were inspected. Results demonstrated that EBC of workers contain large aerosol particles, isolated and in agglomerates, contrasting with non-exposed individuals. The particles contained high concentrations of Cl, Ca, Zn and Pb that are elements associated to the production process. These elements were also present in the EBC matrix although in much lower levels, suggesting that a fraction of the inhaled particulate matter was solubilised or their size-ranges were below the nuclear microprobe resolution. Therefore, the morphological characterization of individual particles achieved with nuclear microprobe techniques helped describing EBC constituents in detail, to comprehend their origin and enabled to delineate methodological procedures that can be recommended in occupational assessments. These aspects are critical to the validation of EBC as a biomarker of exposure to metals for the respiratory system.

  15. Cysteinyl leukotrienes and 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate of children with asthma exacerbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, E; Carraro, S; Alinovi, R; Pesci, A; Ghiro, L; Bodini, A; Piacentini, G; Zacchello, F; Zanconato, S

    2003-01-01

    Background: Cysteinyl leukotrienes (Cys-LTs) and isoprostanes are inflammatory metabolites derived from arachidonic acid whose levels are increased in the airways of asthmatic patients. Isoprostanes are relatively stable and specific for lipid peroxidation, which makes them potentially reliable biomarkers for oxidative stress. A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of a course of oral steroids on Cys-LT and 8-isoprostane levels in exhaled breath condensate of children with an asthma exacerbation. Methods: Exhaled breath condensate was collected and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and spirometric parameters were measured before and after a 5 day course of oral prednisone (1 mg/kg/day) in 15 asthmatic children with an asthma exacerbation. Cys-LT and 8-isoprostane concentrations were measured using an enzyme immunoassay. FENO was measured using a chemiluminescence analyser. Exhaled breath condensate was also collected from 10 healthy children. Results: Before prednisone treatment both Cys-LT and 8-isoprostane concentrations were higher in asthmatic subjects (Cys-LTs, 12.7 pg/ml (IQR 5.4–15.6); 8-isoprostane, 12.0 pg/ml (9.4–29.5)) than in healthy children (Cys-LTs, 4.3 pg/ml (2.0–5.7), p=0.002; 8-isoprostane, 2.6 pg/ml (2.1–3.0), p<0.001). After prednisone treatment there was a significant decrease in both Cys-LT (5.2 pg/ml (3.9–8.8), p=0.005) and 8-isoprostane (8.4 pg/ml (5.4–11.6), p=0.04) concentrations, but 8-isoprostane levels remained higher than in controls (p<0.001). FENO levels, which fell significantly after prednisone treatment (p<0.001), did not correlate significantly with either Cys-LT or 8-isoprostane concentrations. Conclusion: After a 5 day course of oral prednisone there is a reduction in Cys-LT and 8-isoprostane levels in EBC of children with an asthma exacerbation, although 8-isoprostane levels remain higher than in controls. This finding suggests that corticosteroids may not be fully effective in reducing oxidative stress

  16. Feasibility of a new method to collect exhaled breath condensate in pre-school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosias, Philippe P. R.; Robroeks, Charlotte M.; van de Kant, Kim D.; Rijkers, Ger T.; Zimmermann, Luc J.; van Schayck, Constant P.; Heynens, Jan W.; Jobsis, Quirijn; Dompeling, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a promising non-invasive method to assess respiratory inflammation in adults and children with lung disease. Especially in pre-school children, condensate collection is hampered by long sampling times because of open-ended collection systems. We aimed to assess the

  17. Conductivity in Exhaled Breath Condensate from Subjects with Emphysema and Type ZZ alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Jan; Fumagalli, Marco; Viglio, Simona; Iadarola, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    The assessment of biomarkers in biological samples from the lung has long been employed. Upon cooling water vapor present in exhaled breath, variable amounts of droplets of condensate (EBC) containing volatile and non-volatile compounds may be easily and non-invasively obtained from patients of any age.Objective of the present study was to compare the level of EBC conductivity determined for cohorts of individuals with different inflammatory lung disorders with that of healthy never-smoking individuals.The conductivity in EBC of PiZZ-Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency patients with a diagnosis of emphysema (PiZZ-AATD) was 3 fold lower than in spouse controls (54.5 ± 11.6 vs 165.3 ± 10.7 μS/cm). Non-PiZZ emphysema patients had conductivity in EBC of 59.6 ± 5.8 μS/cm and patients with sarcoidosis without airflow obstruction had EBC conductivity of 178,8 ± 6,2 μS/cm, 
not significantly different (p = 0.5) from healthy controls. Conductivity in serial EBC samples from patients with PiZZ-AATD emphysema and healthy controls was stable in 6 different samples collected over a period of 14 months. We conclude that conductivity values in EBC can be used as a correction factor for dilution of non-volatile components in EBC.

  18. Hydrogen peroxide in breath condensate during a common cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijn Q. Jöbsis

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in exhaled air condensate is elevated in inflammatory disorders of the lower respiratory tract. It is unknown whether viral colds contribute to exhaled H2O2.

  19. Development of an Exhaled Breath Monitoring System with Semiconductive Gas Sensors, a Gas Condenser Unit, and Gas Chromatograph Columns

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    Toshio Itoh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Various volatile organic compounds (VOCs in breath exhaled by patients with lung cancer, healthy controls, and patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery for resection of cancer were analyzed by gas condenser-equipped gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS for development of an exhaled breath monitoring prototype system involving metal oxide gas sensors, a gas condenser, and gas chromatography columns. The gas condenser-GC/MS analysis identified concentrations of 56 VOCs in the breath exhaled by the test population of 136 volunteers (107 patients with lung cancer and 29 controls, and selected four target VOCs, nonanal, acetoin, acetic acid, and propanoic acid, for use with the condenser, GC, and sensor-type prototype system. The prototype system analyzed exhaled breath samples from 101 volunteers (74 patients with lung cancer and 27 controls. The prototype system exhibited a level of performance similar to that of the gas condenser-GC/MS system for breath analysis.

  20. Development of an Exhaled Breath Monitoring System with Semiconductive Gas Sensors, a Gas Condenser Unit, and Gas Chromatograph Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Toshio; Miwa, Toshio; Tsuruta, Akihiro; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Izu, Noriya; Shin, Woosuck; Park, Jangchul; Hida, Toyoaki; Eda, Takeshi; Setoguchi, Yasuhiro

    2016-11-10

    Various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath exhaled by patients with lung cancer, healthy controls, and patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery for resection of cancer were analyzed by gas condenser-equipped gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for development of an exhaled breath monitoring prototype system involving metal oxide gas sensors, a gas condenser, and gas chromatography columns. The gas condenser-GC/MS analysis identified concentrations of 56 VOCs in the breath exhaled by the test population of 136 volunteers (107 patients with lung cancer and 29 controls), and selected four target VOCs, nonanal, acetoin, acetic acid, and propanoic acid, for use with the condenser, GC, and sensor-type prototype system. The prototype system analyzed exhaled breath samples from 101 volunteers (74 patients with lung cancer and 27 controls). The prototype system exhibited a level of performance similar to that of the gas condenser-GC/MS system for breath analysis.

  1. Quantitative analysis of 8-isoprostane and hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoydonck, P.G.A.; Wuyts, W.A.; Vanaudenaerde, B.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Dupont, I.J.; Temme, E.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) provides a noninvasive means of sampling the lower respiratory tract. Collection of EBC might be useful in the assessment of airway oxidative stress in smokers. The aim of this study was to determine 8-isoprostane and hydrogen peroxide levels in EBC, and, in addition,

  2. Hydrogen peroxide in breath condensate during a common cold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.Q. Jöbsis (Rijn); S.L. Schellekens; A. Fakkel-Kroesbergen (Anoeska); R.H. Raatgeep (Rolien); J.C. de Jongste (Johan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in exhaled air condensate is elevated in inflammatory disorders of the lower respiratory tract. It is unknown whether viral colds contribute to exhaled H2O2. Aim: To assess exhaled H2O2during and after a common cold. Methods: We examined H2O2in the br

  3. Effects of occupational exposure to poorly soluble forms of beryllium on biomarkers of pulmonary response in exhaled breath of workers in machining industries

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Objective: To analyze the effects of occupational exposure to poorly soluble forms of beryllium (Be) on biomarkers of pulmonary inflammation using exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in workers employed in machining industries.Methods: Twenty machining operators were compared to 16 controls. The individual exposure to Be was assessed from the work history with several indices of exposure calculated on the basis of task-exposures matrices developed for each plant using hist...

  4. Enzyme-catalysis breathes new life into polyester condensation polymerizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Richard A; Ganesh, Manoj; Lu, Wenhua

    2010-08-01

    Traditional chemical catalysts for polyester synthesis have enabled the generation of important commercial products. Undesirable characteristics of chemically catalyzed condensation polymerizations include the need to conduct reactions at high temperatures (150-280 degrees C) with metal catalysts that are toxic and lack selectivity. The latter is limiting when aspiring towards synthesis of increasingly complex and well-defined polyesters. This review describes an exciting technology that makes use of immobilized enzyme-catalysts for condensation polyester synthesis. Unlike chemical catalysts, enzymes function under mild conditions (< or =100 degrees C), which enables structure retention when polymerizing unstable monomers, circumvents the introduction of metals, and also provides selectivity that avoids protection-deprotection steps and presents unique options for structural control. Examples are provided that describe the progress made in enzyme-catalyzed polymerizations, as well as current limitations and future prospects for developing more efficient enzyme-catalysts for industrial processes.

  5. Analysis of volatile compounds in exhaled breath condensate in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J K Mansoor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An important challenge to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH diagnosis and treatment is early detection of occult pulmonary vascular pathology. Symptoms are frequently confused with other disease entities that lead to inappropriate interventions and allow for progression to advanced states of disease. There is a significant need to develop new markers for early disease detection and management of PAH. METHODOLGY AND FINDINGS: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC samples were compared from 30 age-matched normal healthy individuals and 27 New York Heart Association functional class III and IV idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertenion (IPAH patients, a subgroup of PAH. Volatile organic compounds (VOC in EBC samples were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Individual peaks in GC profiles were identified in both groups and correlated with pulmonary hemodynamic and clinical endpoints in the IPAH group. Additionally, GC/MS data were analyzed using autoregression followed by partial least squares regression (AR/PLSR analysis to discriminate between the IPAH and control groups. After correcting for medicaitons, there were 62 unique compounds in the control group, 32 unique compounds in the IPAH group, and 14 in-common compounds between groups. Peak-by-peak analysis of GC profiles of IPAH group EBC samples identified 6 compounds significantly correlated with pulmonary hemodynamic variables important in IPAH diagnosis. AR/PLSR analysis of GC/MS data resulted in a distinct and identifiable metabolic signature for IPAH patients. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate the utility of EBC VOC analysis to discriminate between severe IPAH and a healthy population; additionally, we identified potential novel biomarkers that correlated with IPAH pulmonary hemodynamic variables that may be important in screening for less severe forms IPAH.

  6. Blinded Validation of Breath Biomarkers of Lung Cancer, a Potential Ancillary to Chest CT Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Phillips

    Full Text Available Breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs have been reported as biomarkers of lung cancer, but it is not known if biomarkers identified in one group can identify disease in a separate independent cohort. Also, it is not known if combining breath biomarkers with chest CT has the potential to improve the sensitivity and specificity of lung cancer screening.Model-building phase (unblinded: Breath VOCs were analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry in 82 asymptomatic smokers having screening chest CT, 84 symptomatic high-risk subjects with a tissue diagnosis, 100 without a tissue diagnosis, and 35 healthy subjects. Multiple Monte Carlo simulations identified breath VOC mass ions with greater than random diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer, and these were combined in a multivariate predictive algorithm. Model-testing phase (blinded validation: We analyzed breath VOCs in an independent cohort of similar subjects (n = 70, 51, 75 and 19 respectively. The algorithm predicted discriminant function (DF values in blinded replicate breath VOC samples analyzed independently at two laboratories (A and B. Outcome modeling: We modeled the expected effects of combining breath biomarkers with chest CT on the sensitivity and specificity of lung cancer screening.Unblinded model-building phase. The algorithm identified lung cancer with sensitivity 74.0%, specificity 70.7% and C-statistic 0.78. Blinded model-testing phase: The algorithm identified lung cancer at Laboratory A with sensitivity 68.0%, specificity 68.4%, C-statistic 0.71; and at Laboratory B with sensitivity 70.1%, specificity 68.0%, C-statistic 0.70, with linear correlation between replicates (r = 0.88. In a projected outcome model, breath biomarkers increased the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of chest CT for lung cancer when the tests were combined in series or parallel.Breath VOC mass ion biomarkers identified lung cancer in a separate independent cohort

  7. Relationships between adult asthma and oxidative stress markers and pH in exhaled breath condensate: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldakheel, F M; Thomas, P S; Bourke, J E; Matheson, M C; Dharmage, S C; Lowe, A J

    2016-06-01

    Oxidative stress has a recognized role in the pathophysiology of asthma. Recently, interest has increased in the assessment of pH and airway oxidative stress markers. Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and quantification of biomarkers in breath samples can potentially indicate lung disease activity and help in the study of airway inflammation, and asthma severity. Levels of oxidative stress markers in the EBC have been systematically evaluated in children with asthma; however, there is no such systematic review conducted for adult asthma. A systematic review of oxidative stress markers measured in EBC of adult asthma was conducted, and studies were identified by searching MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases. Sixteen papers met the inclusion criteria. Concentrations of exhaled hydrogen ions, nitric oxide products, hydrogen peroxide and 8-isoprostanes were generally elevated and related to lower lung function tests in adults with asthma compared to healthy subjects. Assessment of EBC markers may be a noninvasive approach to evaluate airway inflammation, exacerbations, and disease severity of asthma, and to monitor the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory treatment regimens. Longitudinal studies, using standardized analytical techniques for EBC collection, are required to establish reference values for the interpretation of EBC markers in the context of asthma.

  8. Dropwise condensation rate of water breath figures on polymer surfaces having similar surface free energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Ikrime O.; Erbil, H. Yildirim

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of surface roughness, wettability, water contact angle hysteresis (CAH) and wetting hysteresis (WH) of polymeric substrates to the water drop condensation rate. We used five polyolefin coatings whose surface free energies were in a close range of 30-37 mJ/m2 but having different surface roughness and CAH. The formation of water breath figures was monitored at a temperature just below the dew point. The initial number of the condensed droplets per unit area (N0) and droplet surface coverage were determined during the early stage of drop condensation where the droplet coalescence was negligible. It was found that the mean drop diameter of condensed droplets on these polymer surfaces grow according to a power law with exponent 1/3 of time, similar to the previous reports given in the literature. It was determined that surface roughness and corresponding CAH and WH properties of polymers have important effects on the number of nucleation sites and growth rate of the condensed water droplets. N0 values and the surface coverage increased with the increase in surface roughness, CAH and WH of the polymer surfaces. The total condensed water drop volume also increased with the increase in surface roughness in accordance with the increase of the number of nucleated droplets.

  9. Analysis of Breath Specimens for Biomarkers of Plasmodium falciparum Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Amalia Z; McCarthy, James S; Wang, Rosalind X; Saliba, Kevin J; Bravo, Florence G; Cassells, Julie; Padovan, Benjamin; Trowell, Stephen C

    2015-10-01

    Currently, the majority of diagnoses of malaria rely on a combination of the patient's clinical presentation and the visualization of parasites on a stained blood film. Breath offers an attractive alternative to blood as the basis for simple, noninvasive diagnosis of infectious diseases. In this study, breath samples were collected from individuals during controlled malaria to determine whether specific malaria-associated volatiles could be detected in breath. We identified 9 compounds whose concentrations varied significantly over the course of malaria: carbon dioxide, isoprene, acetone, benzene, cyclohexanone, and 4 thioethers. The latter group, consisting of allyl methyl sulfide, 1-methylthio-propane, (Z)-1-methylthio-1-propene, and (E)-1-methylthio-1-propene, had not previously been associated with any disease or condition. Before the availability of antimalarial drug treatment, there was evidence of concurrent 48-hour cyclical changes in the levels of both thioethers and parasitemia. When thioether concentrations were subjected to a phase shift of 24 hours, a direct correlation between the parasitemia and volatile levels was revealed. Volatile levels declined monotonically approximately 6.5 hours after initial drug treatment, correlating with clearance of parasitemia. No thioethers were detected in in vitro cultures of Plasmodium falciparum. The metabolic origin of the thioethers is not known, but results suggest that interplay between host and parasite metabolic pathways is involved in the production of these thioethers.

  10. Specific Metabolome Profile of Exhaled Breath Condensate in Patients with Shock and Respiratory Failure: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Fermier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shock includes different pathophysiological mechanisms not fully understood and remains a challenge to manage. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC may contain relevant biomarkers that could help us make an early diagnosis or better understand the metabolic perturbations resulting from this pathological situation. Objective: we aimed to establish the metabolomics signature of EBC from patients in shock with acute respiratory failure in a pilot study. Material and methods: We explored the metabolic signature of EBC in 12 patients with shock compared to 14 controls using LC-HRMS. We used a non-targeted approach, and we performed a multivariate analysis based on Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA to differentiate between the two groups of patients. Results: We optimized the procedure of EBC collection and LC-HRMS detected more than 1000 ions in this fluid. The optimization of multivariate models led to an excellent model of differentiation for both groups (Q2 > 0.4 after inclusion of only 6 ions. Discussion and conclusion: We validated the procedure of EBC collection and we showed that the metabolome profile of EBC may be relevant in characterizing patients with shock. We performed well in distinguishing these patients from controls, and the identification of relevant compounds may be promising for ICC patients.

  11. Specific Metabolome Profile of Exhaled Breath Condensate in Patients with Shock and Respiratory Failure: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermier, Brice; Blasco, Hélène; Godat, Emmanuel; Bocca, Cinzia; Moënne-Loccoz, Joseph; Emond, Patrick; Andres, Christian R.; Laffon, Marc; Ferrandière, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Shock includes different pathophysiological mechanisms not fully understood and remains a challenge to manage. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) may contain relevant biomarkers that could help us make an early diagnosis or better understand the metabolic perturbations resulting from this pathological situation. Objective: we aimed to establish the metabolomics signature of EBC from patients in shock with acute respiratory failure in a pilot study. Material and methods: We explored the metabolic signature of EBC in 12 patients with shock compared to 14 controls using LC-HRMS. We used a non-targeted approach, and we performed a multivariate analysis based on Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) to differentiate between the two groups of patients. Results: We optimized the procedure of EBC collection and LC-HRMS detected more than 1000 ions in this fluid. The optimization of multivariate models led to an excellent model of differentiation for both groups (Q2 > 0.4) after inclusion of only 6 ions. Discussion and conclusion: We validated the procedure of EBC collection and we showed that the metabolome profile of EBC may be relevant in characterizing patients with shock. We performed well in distinguishing these patients from controls, and the identification of relevant compounds may be promising for ICC patients. PMID:27598216

  12. Exhaled breath condensate sampling is not a new method for detection of respiratory viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maes Piet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled breath condensate (EBC sampling has been considered an inventive and novel method for the isolation of respiratory viruses. Methods In our study, 102 volunteers experiencing upper airway infection were recruited over the winter and early spring of 2008/2009 and the first half of the winter of 2009/2010. Ninety-nine EBCs were successfully obtained and screened for 14 commonly circulating respiratory viruses. To investigate the efficiency of virus isolation from EBC, a nasal swab was taken in parallel from a subset of volunteers. The combined use of the ECoVent device with the RTube™ allowed the registration of the exhaled volume and breathing frequency during collection. In this way, the number of exhaled viral particles per liter air or per minute can theoretically be estimated. Results Viral screening resulted in the detection of 4 different viruses in EBC and/or nasal swabs: Rhinovirus, Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus B, Influenza A and Influenza B. Rhinovirus was detected in 6 EBCs and 1 EBC was Influenza B positive. We report a viral detection rate of 7% for the EBCs, which is much lower than the detection rate of 46.8% observed using nasal swabs. Conclusion Although very promising, EBC collection using the RTube™ is not reliable for diagnosis of respiratory infections.

  13. Comparison of exhaled breath condensate pH using two commercially available devices in healthy controls, asthma and COPD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koczulla, R.; Dragonieri, S.; Schot, R.; Bals, R.; Gauw, S.A.; Vogelmeier, C.; Rabe, K.F.; Sterk, P.J.; Hiemstra, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a non-invasive method for studying the acidity (pH) of airway secretions in patients with inflammatory lung diseases. Aim: To assess the reproducibility of EBC pH for two commercially available devices (portable RTube and non-porta

  14. Protein profile of exhaled breath condensate determined by high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccilli, Vera; Saletti, Rosaria; Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Ho, Jenny; Gili, Elisa; Conte, Enrico; Sichili, Stefania; Vancheri, Carlo; Foti, Salvatore

    2015-02-01

    A method based on liquid chromatography/high resolution tandem mass spectrometry coupled with electrophoretic separation, for determination and relative quantification of the protein composition of exhaled breath condensate (EBC), was developed. Application of the procedure to a sample of EBC, pooled from nine healthy subjects, resulted in the identification of 167 unique gene products, 113 of which not previously reported in EBC samples. The abundance of the protein identified was estimated by means of the exponentially modified protein abundance index protocol (emPAI). Cytokeratins were by far the most abundant proteins in EBC samples. Many of the identified proteins were associated with multiple cellular location with cytoplasm constituting the largest group. Cytosol, nucleus, membrane, cytoskeleton and extracellular were other abundantly represented locations. No amylase was detected, suggesting the absence of saliva protein contamination. The profile obtained represents the most comprehensive protein characterization of EBC so far reported and demonstrates that this approach provides a powerful tool for investigating the protein profile of EBC samples. Compared with analogous investigations, this study also shows that the protein profile of EBC is strongly affected by the sampling method adopted.

  15. Antiinflammatory effect of telmisartan on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 8-isoprostane concentration in exhaled breath condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdülkadir Geylani Şahan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease. Oxidative stress and airway inflammation are its main pathophysiologic components. In this study, our aim was to investigate the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB telmisartan which also exerts antiinflammatory effects on inflammation and oxidative stress in COPD. Method. The study group consisted of 50 stable COPD patients including 25 telmisartan users. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC samples of the cases were collected using an EBC collecting device (Ecoscreen, Jaeger, Germany. EBC samples were analyzed and 8-isoprostane levels were measured using an enzyme immunoassay method (Cayman Chemical Co. Michigan, USA. Results. Any intergroup difference as for mean age, distribution of gender and smoking were not found. In telmisartan users, and nonusers mean 8-isoprostane levels were 33.98 and 35.91 pg/mL, respectively with a statistically significant intergroup difference (p<0.001 Conclusion. We think that ARBs decrease oxidative stress and inflammation, and thus exert favourable effects on the pathophysiology and progression of COPD.

  16. Pitfalls in the analysis of volatile breath biomarkers: suggested solutions and SIFT-MS quantification of single metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Spanel, Patrik

    2015-04-01

    The experimental challenges presented by the analysis of trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath with the objective of identifying reliable biomarkers are brought into focus. It is stressed that positive identification and accurate quantification of the VOCs are imperative if they are to be considered as discreet biomarkers. Breath sampling procedures are discussed and it is suggested that for accurate quantification on-line real time sampling and analysis is desirable. Whilst recognizing such real time analysis is not always possible and sample collection is often required, objective recognition of the pitfalls involved in this is essential. It is also emphasized that mouth-exhaled breath is always contaminated to some degree by orally generated compounds and so, when possible, analysis of nose-exhaled breath should be performed. Some difficulties in breath analysis are mitigated by the choice of analytical instrumentation used, but no single instrument can provide solutions to all the analytical challenges. Analysis and interpretation of breath analysis data, however acquired, needs to be treated circumspectly. In particular, the excessive use of statistics to treat imperfect mass spectrometry/mobility spectra should be avoided, since it can result in unjustifiable conclusions. It is should be understood that recognition of combinations of VOCs in breath that, for example, apparently describe particular cancer states, will not be taken seriously until they are replicated in other laboratories and clinics. Finally, the inhibiting notion that single biomarkers of infection and disease will not be identified and utilized clinically should be dispelled by the exemplary and widely used single biomarkers NO and H2 and now, as indicated by recent selected ion flow tube mass spectroscopy (SIFT-MS) results, triatomic hydrogen cyanide and perhaps pentane and acetic acid. Hopefully, these discoveries will provide encouragement to research workers to be

  17. Detection of vascular endothelial growth factor in exhaled breath condensate and its research progress in lung diseases%呼出气冷凝液中VEGF的检测在肺部疾病中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄磊; 陈建荣; 陈金亮

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate analysis is a novel technology of analysing the biomarkers of lung diseases.There are many advantages,such as noninvasiveness,simple collection and good repeatability,etc.Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the markers,which can evaluate of airway inflammation and oxidative stress in lung diseases.The article reviews collection of exhaled breath condensate,related biological property of VEGF and recent clinic advances of VEGF in exhaled breath condensate.%呼出气冷凝液(EBC)检测是一种用来检测呼吸道生物标记物的新技术,具有无创、操作简单、可重复进行等特点.血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)是反映肺部疾病炎症反应及氧化应激变化的标志物之一.现就EBC的收集、VEGF相关生物学特性及在肺部疾病中检测EBC中VEGF水平的临床研究进展进行综述.

  18. Determination of hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate and environmental air among chrome plating workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldoni, Matteo [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention, Research Centre at University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Caglieri, Andrea [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Poli, Diana [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention, Research Centre at University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Vettori, Maria Vittoria [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention, Research Centre at University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Corradi, Massimo [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention, Research Centre at University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Apostoli, Pietro [Laboratory of Industrial Hygiene, Department of Experimental and Applied Medicine, University of Brescia (Italy); Mutti, Antonio [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.mutti@unipr.it

    2006-03-15

    Chromium speciation has attracted attention because of the different toxicity of Cr(III), which is considered relatively non-toxic, and Cr(VI), which can cross cell membranes mainly as a chromate anion and has been classified as a class I human carcinogen. The aims of the present study were to measure soluble Cr(VI) levels in environmental samples, to develop a simple method of quantifying Cr(VI) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and to follow the kinetics of EBC Cr(VI) in chrome plating workers. Personal air samples were collected from 10 chrome platers; EBC was collected from the same workers immediately after the work shift on Tuesday and before the work shift on the following Wednesday. Environmental and EBC Cr(VI) levels were determined by means of colorimetry and electrothermal absorption atomic spectrometry, respectively. The method of detecting Cr(VI) in environmental air was based on the extraction of the Cr(VI)-diphenylcarbazide (Cr(VI)-DPC) complex in 1-butanol, whereas EBC Cr(VI) was determined using a solvent extraction of Cr(VI) as an ion pair with tetrabutylammonium ion, and subsequent direct determination of the complex (Cr(VI)-DPC) in EBC. Kinetic data showed that airborne Cr(VI) was reduced by 50% in airway lining fluid sampled at the end of exposure and that there was a further 50% reduction after about 15 h. The persistence of Cr(VI) in EBC supports the use of EBC in assessing target tissue levels of Cr(VI)

  19. Metallic elements in exhaled breath condensate of patients with interstitial lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Acampa, Olga; Goldoni, Matteo; Adami, Elena; Apostoli, Pietro; de Palma, Giuseppe; Pesci, Alberto; Mutti, Antonio

    2009-12-01

    Epidemiological data support the hypothesis that environmental and occupational agents play an important role in the development of interstitial lung diseases such as idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIPs) and sarcoidosis. The aim of this study was to assess the elemental composition of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) of unknown etiology and healthy subjects as an indirect evaluation of tissue burden, which could improve our understanding of the role of metals in the pathogenesis of ILDs. EBC was obtained from 33 healthy subjects, 22 patients with sarcoidosis, 15 patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) and 19 with IIPs. Trace elements and toxic metals in the samples were measured by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. There are only small overall differences in the EBC levels of a number of metallic elements among patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), NSIP or sarcoidosis, and no pattern is capable of distinguishing them with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. However, a pattern of pneumotoxic (Si, Ni) and essential elements (Zn, Se and Cu) with the addition of Co distinguished the patients with ILDs from healthy non-smokers with relatively high degrees of sensitivity (96.4%) and specificity (90.9%). Assessing the elemental composition of EBC in patients with different ILDs seems to provide useful information. The non-invasiveness of the EBC method makes it suitable for patients with pulmonary diseases, although further studies are required to confirm the usefulness of this approach and to better understand the underlying pathophysiological processes.

  20. Possible Impact of Salivary Influence on Cytokine Analysis in Exhaled Breath Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ichikawa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC is thought to contain substances of the lower airway epithelial lining fluid (ELF aerosolized by turbulent flow. However, contamination by saliva may affect the EBC when collected orally.Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the cytokine expression levels in EBC with those in saliva, and to clarify the influence of saliva on cytokine measurements of EBC.Methods: EBC and saliva samples were obtained from 10 adult subjects with stable asthma. To estimate differences in the contents of substances between EBC and saliva, the total protein concentration of each sample was measured. Further, we also measured the total protein concentration of ELF obtained from another patient group with suspected lung cancer using a micro sampling probe during bronchoscopic examination and roughly estimated the dilution of EBC by comparing the total protein concentration of EBC and ELF from those two patient groups. The cytokine expression levels of EBC and saliva from asthmatic group were assessed by a cytokine protein array.Results: The mean total protein concentrations in EBC, saliva and ELF were 4.6 μg/ml, 2,398 μg/ml and 14,111 μg/ml, respectively. The dilution of EBC could be estimated as 1:3000. Forty cytokines were analyzed by a cytokine protein array and each cytokine expression level of EBC was found to be different from that of saliva. Corrected by the total protein concentration, all cytokine expression levels of EBC were significantly higher than those of saliva.Conclusion: These results suggest that the salivary influence on the cytokine assessment in EBC may be negligible.

  1. Eicosanoids in Exhaled Breath Condensate and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients with Primary Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Ciebiada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although eicosanoids are involved in lung carcinogenesis they were poorly investigated in exhaled breath condensate (EBC and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf in patients with primary lung cancer. In this study 17 patients with diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer, 10 healthy smokers and 12 healthy nonsmokers were included. The levels of cys-LTs, 8-isoprostane, LTB4 and PGE2 were measured before any treatment in the EBC of all patients and in BALf of patients with lung cancer by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. 8-isoprostane, LTB4, cys-LTs and PGE2 were detectable in the EBC and BALf. There were no significant differences between healthy smokers and nonsmokers in concentrations of all measured mediators. Compared with both healthy controls, patients with diagnosed lung cancer displayed higher concentrations of cys-LTs (p < 0.05 and LTB4 (p < 0.05 in EBC. In patients with lung cancer, the mean concentrations of all measured mediators were significantly higher in BALf compared with EBC and there was a significant, positive correlation between concentration of cys-LTs, LTB4 and 8-isoprostane in BALf and their concentrations in the EBC (r = 0.64, p < 0.05, r = 0.59, p < 0.05, r = 0.53, p < 0.05 respectively. Since cys-LT, LTB4 and 8-isoprostane concentrations in EBC from patients with lung cancer reflect their concentrations in BALf, they may serve as a possible non-invasive method to monitor the disease and to assess the effectiveness of therapy.

  2. Occupational asthma follow-up — Which markers are elevated in exhaled breath condensate and plasma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pelclová

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To search for optimal markers in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC, plasma and urine that would reflect the activity/ severity of occupational asthma (OA after the withdrawal from the exposure to the allergen. Material and Methods: Markers of oxidative stress: 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane, 8-ISO, malondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenale (HNE, cysteinyl leukotrienes (LT and LTB4 were determined using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry in 43 subjects with immunological OA (49.3±11.8 years, removed from the exposure to the sensitizing agent 10.5±6.5 years ago; and in 20 healthy subjects (49.0±14.9 years. EBC was harvested both before and after the methacholine challenge test. In parallel, identical markers were collected in plasma and urine. The results were analyzed together with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, blood eosinophils, immunoglobulin E (IgE and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP and statistically evaluated (Spearman rank correlation rS, two- or one-sample t tests and alternatively Kruskal Wallis or pair Wilcoxon tests. Results: Several parameters of lung functions were lower in the patients (FEV1% predicted, MEF25% and MEF50%, Rtot%, p < 0.001. Shorter time interval since the removal from the allergen exposure correlated with higher ECP (rS = 0.375 and lower FEV1%, MEF25% and MEF50% after methacholine challenge (rS = -0.404, -0.425 and -0.532, respectively. In the patients, IgE (p < 0.001 and ECP (p = 0.009 was increased compared to controls. In EBC, 8-ISO and cysteinyl LTs were elevated in the asthmatics initially and after the challenge. Initial 8-ISO in plasma correlated negatively with FEV1 (rS = -0.409 and with methacholine PD20 (rS = -0.474. 8-ISO in plasma after the challenge correlated with IgE (rS = 0.396. Conclusions: The improvement in OA is very slow and objective impairments persist years after removal from the exposure. Cysteinyl LTs and 8-ISO in EBC and 8-ISO in

  3. Quantification of trace levels of the potential cancer biomarkers formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and propanol in breath by SIFT-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaněl, Patrik; Smith, David

    2008-12-01

    The sensitivity of selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, has been increased such that it is now possible to detect metabolites present at a part-per-billion, ppb, level in single breath exhalations. However, to utilize this improved sensitivity, the overlaps (coincidences) of those ions resulting from interfering reactions of impurity precursor ions with some breath metabolites present at higher concentrations with the analytical product ions characteristic of particular metabolites must be accounted for. In this paper, the full reaction schemes are presented for SIFT-MS analyses of three volatile potential cancer biomarkers in exhaled breath, namely formaldehyde, HCHO, acetaldehyde, CH(3)CHO and 2-propanol, CH(3)CH(OH)CH(3), which identify both the characteristic SIFT-MS product ions for these compounds and the interfering ions at the same mass-to-charge, m/z, values. An absolute quantification equation accounting for these interferences is formulated and appropriate entries into the SIFT-MS kinetics library are indicated. It is shown that when using H(3)O(+) to quantify formaldehyde and acetaldehyde the reactions of impurity O(2)(+) ions with methanol and ethanol (always present in breath) must be accounted for and that the quantification of acetaldehyde must avoid the interference of the CO(2) present in exhaled breath. Finally, it is indicated that the analysis of 2-propanol can be achieved using both H(3)O(+) and NO(+) precursor ions.

  4. 13[C]-urea breath test as a novel point-of-care biomarker for tuberculosis treatment and diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep S Jassal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathogen-specific metabolic pathways may be detected by breath tests based on introduction of stable isotopically-labeled substrates and detection of labeled products in exhaled breath using portable infrared spectrometers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested whether mycobacterial urease activity could be utilized in such a breath test format as the basis of a novel biomarker and diagnostic for pulmonary TB. Sensitized New-Zealand White Rabbits underwent bronchoscopic infection with either Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rabbits were treated with 25 mg/kg of isoniazid (INH approximately 2 months after infection when significant cavitary lung pathology was present. [(13C] urea was instilled directly into the lungs of intubated rabbits at selected time points, exhaled air samples analyzed, and the kinetics of delta(13CO(2 formation were determined. Samples obtained prior to inoculation served as control samples for background (13CO(2 conversion in the rabbit model. (13CO(2, from metabolic conversion of [(13C]-urea by mycobacterial urease activity, was readily detectable in the exhaled breath of infected rabbits within 15 minutes of administration. Analyses showed a rapid increase in the rate of (13CO(2 formation both early in disease and prior to treatment with INH. Following INH treatment, all evaluable rabbits showed a decrease in the rate of (13CO(2 formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Urea breath testing may provide a useful diagnostic and biomarker assay for tuberculosis and for treatment response. Future work will test specificity for M. tuberculosis using lung-targeted dry powder inhalation formulations, combined with co-administering oral urease inhibitors together with a saturating oral dose of unlabeled urea, which would prevent the delta(13CO(2 signal from urease-positive gastrointestinal organisms.

  5. Impact of different welding techniques on biological effect markers in exhaled breath condensate of 58 mild steel welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeyer, Frank; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Lehnert, Martin; Kendzia, Benjamin; Bernard, Sabine; Berresheim, Hans; Düser, Maria; Henry, Jana; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger M; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Total mass and composition of welding fumes are predominantly dependent on the welding technique and welding wire applied. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of welding techniques on biological effect markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of 58 healthy welders. The welding techniques applied were gas metal arc welding with solid wire (GMAW) (n=29) or flux cored wire (FCAW) (n=29). Welding fume particles were collected with personal samplers in the breathing zone inside the helmets. Levels of leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF(2α)) were measured with immunoassay kits and the EBC pH was measured after deaeration. Significantly higher 8-iso-PGF(2α) concentrations and a less acid pH were detected in EBC of welders using the FCAW than in EBC of welders using the GMAW technique. The lowest LTB(4) concentrations were measured in nonsmoking welders applying a solid wire. No significant influences were found in EBC concentrations of PGE(2) based upon smoking status or type of welding technique. This study suggests an enhanced irritative effect in the lower airways of mild steel welders due to the application of FCAW compared to GMAW, most likely associated with a higher emission of welding fumes.

  6. 呼出气冷凝液生物标记物在OSAS中的研究进展%Research advances in the exhaled breath condensate detection for OSAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许静; 黄礼年

    2015-01-01

    呼出气冷凝液(exhaled breath condensate,EBC)检测是近年来发展的研究呼吸道疾病的一种无创方法,具有简便易行、实时监测、重复性好、患者易耐受等优点.对阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合征(obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,OSAS)患者EBC中反映气道炎症、氧化应激状态的生物标记物进行研究将有助于OSAS的诊断、严重程度的评估及治疗效果的评价.这些异常分子的研究可能为OSAS发病机制和诊治提供新的思路和治疗方法.%Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) detection,as a new way of non-invasive studying pulmonary diseases,has advantages of being easily carried out,real-time monitoring,repeatability and better patients acceptance.Analying biomarkers in EBC which reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress could assist in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS),the severity of this disease,and the evaluation of treatment.Identification of abnormal markers in EBC may provide new opinion on the pathogenesis of OSAS and new therapeutic.

  7. Exhaled breath condensate analysis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%呼出气冷凝液在慢性阻塞性肺疾病中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施晓娟; 阎锡新

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis,as a new way of studying pulmonary diseases,has the advantages of being noninvasive,easily carrying out,real-time monitoring,repeatability and better patients acceptance.Analyzing biomarkers in EBC which reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress could assist in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD),evaluating response to therapies and defining the prognosis of individual patients.Furthermore,identification of novel inflammatory mediators in EBC may cast new light on the pathogenesis of COPD and identify new therapeutic targets.%呼出气冷凝液(exhaled breath condensate,EBC)检测作为一种新的研究肺部疾病的方法,具有无创、简便易行、实时监测、重复性好、患者易耐受等优点.对COPD患者EBC中反映气道炎症、氧化应激状态的生物标记物进行研究有助于COPD的诊断及对药物治疗反应的评估和患者预后的评价.而且EBC中异常炎症介质的研究可能为COPD发病机制开启新思路并发现新的治疗靶点.

  8. A REVIEW OF THE US EPA'S SINGLE BREATH CANISTER (SBC) METHOD FOR EXHALED VOLATILE ORGANIC BIOMARKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exhaled alveolar breath can provide a great deal of information about an individual?s health and previous exposure to potentially harmful xenobiotic materials. Because breath can be obtained noninvasively and its constituents directly reflect concentrations in the blood, its us...

  9. Multiplex analysis inflammatory cytokines in human blood, breath condensate, and urine matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific evidence suggests that inflammation is associated with human health effects and health endpoints, yet most studies have focused on human populations that are already considered “unhealthy”.  As such, it is pertinent to measure inflammatory biomarkers in human biologica...

  10. UNUSUAL DISTRIBUTION OF TRITERPANE AND STERANE TERRESTRIAL BIOMARKERS IN YACHENG CONDENSATES FROM YING-QIONG BASINS, SOUTH CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周毅; 盛国英; 傅家膜; 耿安松; 陈军红; 张启明; 潘贤庄; 黄保家

    2002-01-01

    The condensates from the Yacheng Gas Field, Ying-Qiong Basins, have unusual chemical characteristics, with distribution dominated by terpanes and steranes derived from higher-plants. Pr/Ph ratios (6-11) are very high. Drimane, cadinanes and homocadinanes exist in high concentration. Anomalously abundant 18α(H)-oleanane and remarkably abundant bicadinanes are present in Yacheng condensates, while 17α(H)-hopanes are in extremely low concentration. Taraxastaneand significantly abundant 17α(H)-diahopanes occur in the condensates. In addition, a number of C29 and C30 unknown pentacyclic triterpanes were monitored in the condensates, some of which are abundant. The unknown compounds may be terrestrial biomarkers or their occurrence may suggest a sub-oxic (dyacrobic) clay-rich depositional environment. C29 homologues are relatively predominant in regularand rearranged steranes. The concentration of diasteranes is markedly higher than that of regular steranes. The characteristics of Yacheng condensates are indicative of terrestrial source input. Based on condensate-condensate and condensate-rock correlations, combined with results of studies on sedimentary facies. Yacheng condensates may be sourced from Yacheng and Lingshui Formations in the Qiongdongnan Basin. The maturity of Yacheng condensate is relatively high, at late oil window stage (corresponding to 0.9%-1.3% R0), based on sterane and terpane maturity parameters.``

  11. Unusual distribution of triterpane and sterane terrestrial biomarkers in yacheng condensates from Ying-Qiong basins, South China sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo; Geng, An-Song; Chen, Jun-Heng; Zhang, Qi-Ming; Pan, Xian-Zhuang; Huang, Bao-Jia

    2002-06-01

    The condensates from the Yacheng Gas Field, Ying-Qiong Basins, have unusual chemical characteristics, with distribution dominated by terpanes and steranes derived from higher-plants. Pr/Ph ratios (6 11) are very high. Drimane, cadinanes and homocadinanes exist in high concentration. Anomalously abundant 18α(H)-oleanane and remarkably abundant bicadinanes are present in Yacheng condensates, while 17α(H)-hopanes are in extremely low concentration. Taraxastane and significantly abundant 17α(H)-diahopanes occur in the condensates. In addition, a number of C29 and C30 unknown pentacyclic triterpanes were monitored in the condensates, some of which are abundant. The unknown compounds may be terrestrial biomarkers or their occurrence may suggest a sub-oxic (dyacrobic) clay-rich depositional environment. C29 homologues are relatively predominant in regular and rearranged steranes. The concentration of diasteranes is markedly higher than that of regular steranes. The characteristics of Yacheng condensates are indicative of terrestrial source input. Based on condensate-condensate and condensate-rock correlations, combined with results of studies on sedimentary facies. Yacheng condensates may be sourced from Yacheng and Lingshui Formations in the Qiongdongnan Basin. The maturity of Yacheng condensate is relatively high, at late oil window stage (corresponding to 0.9% 1.3% R0), based on sterane and terpane maturity parameters.

  12. Breath Hydrogen as a Biomarker for Glucose Malabsorption after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery

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    Iman Andalib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Abdominal symptoms are common after bariatric surgery, and these individuals commonly have upper gut bacterial overgrowth, a known cause of malabsorption. Breath hydrogen determination after oral glucose is a safe and inexpensive test for malabsorption. This study is designed to investigate breath hydrogen levels after oral glucose in symptomatic individuals who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Methods. This is a retrospective study of individuals (n=63; 60 females; 3 males; mean age 49 years who had gastric bypass surgery and then glucose breath testing to evaluate abdominal symptoms. Results. Among 63 postoperative individuals, 51 (81% had a late rise (≥45 minutes in breath hydrogen or methane, supporting glucose malabsorption; 46 (90% of these 51 subjects also had an early rise (≤30 minutes in breath hydrogen or methane supporting upper gut bacterial overgrowth. Glucose malabsorption was more frequent in subjects with upper gut bacterial overgrowth compared to subjects with no evidence for bacterial overgrowth (P<0.001. Conclusion. These data support the presence of intestinal glucose malabsorption associated with upper gut bacterial overgrowth in individuals with abdominal symptoms after gastric bypass surgery. Breath hydrogen testing after oral glucose should be considered to evaluate potential malabsorption in symptomatic, postoperative individuals.

  13. Chromium in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), erythrocytes, plasma and urine in the biomonitoring of chrome-plating workers exposed to soluble Cr(VI).

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    Goldoni, Matteo; Caglieri, Andrea; De Palma, Giuseppe; Acampa, Olga; Gergelova, Petra; Corradi, Massimo; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Chromium (Cr) levels measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC-Cr) and urine (Cr-U) at the beginning and end of working shifts were related to those measured in erythrocytes (Cr-RBC) and plasma in 14 non-smoking male chrome-plating workers exposed to Cr(VI) in soluble aerosol form who did not report any significant current or past respiratory disease. Cr-U mainly correlated with Cr-P (Cr in plasma) at the end of the working shift (r(2) = 0.59, p < 0.01), whereas Cr-RBC correlated with EBC-Cr (r(2) = 0.32, p < 0.05); at the beginning of the shift, the only significant correlation was between Cr-U and Cr-RBC (r(2) = 0.74, p < 0.01). The clearance of Cr(iii) arising from Cr(VI) reduction was rapid, thus making Cr-U and Cr-P ideal biomarkers of the most recent exposure, whereas Cr-RBC may represent the fraction of Cr(VI) that reaches the bloodstream in non-reduced form and therefore depends on the airway inhaled dose represented by EBC-Cr. Cr-RBC clearance is slower and not only involves the free diffusion of Cr(iii) from RBC to plasma, but probably also involves more complicated kinetic phenomena involving other tissues and organs, which may explain the correlation between Cr-RBC and Cr-U and the lack of correlation Cr-RBC and Cr-P at least 36 h after the last exposure. In conclusion, our findings reinforce the idea that measuring Cr in EBC can significantly contribute to traditional biomonitoring by providing specific information at the target organ level and integrating our knowledge of Cr toxicokinetics.

  14. Advances in exhaled breath condensate collection and testing standardization%呼出气冷凝液收集和检测的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏天; 陈建荣

    2015-01-01

    呼吸道内衬液中含有大量挥发性和非挥发性的物质,这些物质的变化可反映氧化损伤和 炎症反应等呼吸道内环境的变化,从而用于检测疾病的变化.呼出气冷凝液(EBC)是一种检测呼吸道生化成分的最新技术,又称为生化肺功能.因其具有安全、无创、收集简单、可多次重复等优点而受到广泛关注.本文对EBC的组成成分和来源、稀释度及标准化、收集及标准化、测量及标准化、EBC中标志物等研究进展进行综述.%Airway lining fluid contains large amounts of volatile and non-volatile substances.The changes of these substances can reflect changes including inflammation and oxidative damage in the environment of the respiratory tract,so as to detect changes in the disease.Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a new technology to detect biochemical components in airway,also known as biochemical lung function.Because of its safe,non-invasive,simple to collect and can be repeated,EBC has draw wide attention.In this paper,EBC's composition and origin,dilution and standardization,collection and standardization,measurement and standardization,biomarkers in EBC were reviewed.

  15. Profiling the Proteome of Exhaled Breath Condensate in Healthy Smokers and COPD Patients by LC-MS/MS

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    Carmine Tinelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three pools of exhaled breath condensate (EBC from non-smokers plus healthy smokers (NS + HS, n = 45; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD without emphysema (COPD, n = 15 and subjects with pulmonary emphysema associated with α1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD, n = 23 were used for an exploratory proteomic study aimed at generating fingerprints of these groups that can be used in future pathophysiological and perhaps even clinical research. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was the platform applied for this hypothesis-free investigation. Analysis of pooled specimens resulted in the production of a “fingerprint” made of 44 proteins for NS/HS; 17 for COPD and 15 for the group of AATD subjects. Several inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2; IL-12, α and β subunits, IL-15, interferon α and γ, tumor necrosis factor α; Type I and II cytokeratins; two SP-A isoforms; Calgranulin A and B and α1-antitrypsin were detected and validated through the use of surface enhanced laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry (SELDI-MS and/or by Western blot (WB analysis. These results are the prelude of quantitative studies aimed at identifying which of these proteins hold promise as identifiers of differences that could distinguish healthy subjects from patients.

  16. Exhaled breath condensate hydrogen peroxide and pH for the assessment of lower airway inflammation in the horse.

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    Duz, M; Whittaker, A G; Love, S; Parkin, T D H; Hughes, K J

    2009-10-01

    Measurement of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) concentration and pH in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is useful for detection and monitoring of asthma in humans. In contrast, limited information on the use of these parameters for the investigation of lower airway inflammation (LAI) is available for horses. Aims of the current study were to investigate the intra- and inter-day variations of EBC H(2)O(2) concentration and pH in horses and establish any relationship(s) with LAI. Both intra- and inter-day variability of EBC H(2)O(2) concentration were large, while those of pH were small. No significant difference in the intra-day or inter-day H(2)O(2) concentrations or pH measurements were found in control or LAI horses, except for inter-day H(2)O(2) concentration in horses with LAI (p=0.019). There was no significant difference in EBC pH or H(2)O(2) concentration between control and LAI horses, however a trend for a reduced pH in horses with LAI was observed.

  17. Diseño y evaluación de un equipo para obtener aire espirado condensado Design and evaluation of a device for collecting exhaled breath condensate

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    Oscar Florencio Araneda Valenzuela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de muestras de aire espirado condensado ha cobrado gran relevancia en los últimos años como método no invasivo de estudio de la fisiología y las enfermedades de origen pulmonar. En el presente trabajo se describe un equipo para tomar muestras de aire espirado condensado de bajo costo, fácil de fabricar, de transportar al terreno y que permite tomar muestras en forma simultánea. La concentración de metabolitos relativos a procesos inflamatorios y al daño oxidativo (pH, peróxido de hidrógeno y nitrito de muestras de aire espirado condensado obtenido con este equipo son comparables a los reportados con otros previamente.In recent years, the analysis of exhaled breath condensate samples has been given great weight as a noninvasive methodology of studying physiology and lung diseases. The present study describes a device for measuring exhaled breath condensate that is affordable, easily constructed, portable and suitable for use in the field, as well as allowing the collection of simultaneous samples. The results obtained with this device in terms of the concentrations of pH, peroxide oxide and nitrite, metabolites related to inflammatory and oxidative damage, in exhaled breath condensate samples are comparable to those obtained with other devices previously described.

  18. Electrospun polystyrene/graphene nanofiber film as a novel adsorbent of thin film microextraction for extraction of aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensates.

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    Huang, Jing; Deng, Hongtao; Song, Dandan; Xu, Hui

    2015-06-09

    In the current study, we introduced a novel polystyrene/graphene (PS/G) composite nanofiber film for thin film microextraction (TFME) for the first time. The PS/G nanofiber film was fabricated on the surface of filter paper by a facile electrospinning method. The morphology and extraction performance of the resultant composite film were investigated systematically. The PS/G nanofiber film exhibited porous fibrous structure, large surface area and strong hydrophobicity. A new thin film microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography (TFME-HPLC) method was developed for the determination of six aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensates. The method showed high enrichment efficiency and fast analysis speed. Under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges of the analytes were in the range of 0.02-30 μmol L(-1) with correlation coefficients above 0.9938, and the recoveries were between 79.8% and 105.6% with the relative standard deviation values lower than 16.3% (n=5). The limits of quantification of six aldehydes ranged from 13.8 to 64.6 nmol L(-1). The established method was successfully applied for the quantification of aldehyde metabolites in exhaled breath condensates of lung cancer patients and healthy people. Taken together, the TFME-HPLC method provides a simple, rapid, sensitive, cost-effective, non-invasion approach for the analysis of linear aliphatic aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensates.

  19. Comparison of exhaled breath condensate pH using two commercially available devices in healthy controls, asthma and COPD patients

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    Vogelmeier Claus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC is a non-invasive method for studying the acidity (pH of airway secretions in patients with inflammatory lung diseases. Aim To assess the reproducibility of EBC pH for two commercially available devices (portable RTube and non-portable ECoScreen in healthy controls, patients with asthma or COPD, and subjects suffering from an acute cold with lower-airway symptoms. In addition, we assessed the repeatability in healthy controls. Methods EBC was collected from 40 subjects (n = 10 in each of the above groups using RTube and ECoScreen. EBC was collected from controls on two separate occasions within 5 days. pH in EBC was assessed after degasification with argon for 20 min. Results In controls, pH-measurements in EBC collected by RTube or ECoScreen showed no significant difference between devices (p = 0.754 or between days (repeatability coefficient RTube: 0.47; ECoScreen: 0.42 of collection. A comparison between EBC pH collected by the two devices in asthma, COPD and cold patients also showed good reproducibility. No differences in pH values were observed between controls (mean pH 8.27; RTube and patients with COPD (pH 7.97 or asthma (pH 8.20, but lower values were found using both devices in patients with a cold (pH 7.56; RTube, p Conclusion We conclude that pH measurements in EBC collected by RTube and ECoScreen are repeatable and reproducible in healthy controls, and are reproducible and comparable in healthy controls, COPD and asthma patients, and subjects with a common cold.

  20. Effect of Inhaled Budesonide on Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-6 in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Asthmatic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hua Chi; Ji-Ping Liao; Yan-Ni Zhao; Xue-Ying Li; Guang-Fa Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Studies ofinterleukin (IL)-4 and IL-6 in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of asthmatic patients are limited.This study was to determine the effect of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment on IL-4 and IL-6 in the EBC of asthmatic patients.Methods:In a prospective,open-label study,budesonide 200 μg twice daily by dry powder inhaler was administered to 23 adult patients with uncontrolled asthma (mean age 42.7 years) for 12 weeks.Changes in asthma scores,lung function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1],peak expiratory flow [PEF],forced expiratory flow at 50% of forced vital capacity [FEF50],forced expiratory flow at 75% of forced vital capacity,maximum mid-expiratory flow rate) and the concentrations of IL-4 and IL-6 in EBC were measured.Results:Both asthma scores and lung function parameters were significantly improved by ICS treatment.The mean IL-4 concentration in the EBC was decreased gradually,from 1.92 ± 0.56 pmol/L before treatment to 1.60 ± 0.36 pmol/L after 8 weeks of treatment (P < 0.05) and 1.54 ± 0.81 pmol/L after 12 weeks of treatment (P < 0.01).However,the IL-6 concentration was not significantly decreased.The change in the IL-4 concentration was correlated with improvements in mean FEV1,PEF and FEF50 values (correlation coefficients-0.468,-0.478,and-0.426,respectively).Conclusions:The concentration of IL-4 in the EBC of asthmatic patients decreased gradually with ICS treatment.Measurement of IL-4 in EBC could be useful to monitor airway inflammation in asthmatics.

  1. In vitro cultured lung cancer cells are not suitable for animal-based breath biomarker detection.

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    Schallschmidt, Kristin; Becker, Roland; Zwaka, Hanna; Menzel, Randolf; Johnen, Dorothea; Fischer-Tenhagen, Carola; Rolff, Jana; Nehls, Irene

    2015-02-10

    In vitro cultured lung cancer cell lines were investigated regarding the possible identification of volatile organic compounds as potential biomarkers. Gas samples from the headspace of pure culture medium and from the cultures of human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 and Lu7466 were exposed to polypropylene fleece in order to absorb odour components. Sniffer dogs were trained with loaded fleeces of both cell lines, and honey bees were trained with fleeces exposed to A549. Afterwards, their ability to distinguish between cell-free culture medium odour and lung cancer cell odour was tested. Neither bees nor dogs were able to discriminate between odours from the cancer cell cultures and the pure culture medium. Solid phase micro extraction followed by gas chromatography with mass selective detection produced profiles of volatiles from the headspace offered to the animals. The profiles from the cell lines were largely similar; distinct differences were based on the decrease of volatile culture medium components due to the cells' metabolic activity. In summary, cultured lung cancer cell lines do not produce any biomarkers recognizable by animals or gas chromatographic analysis.

  2. Fractionated breath condensate sampling: H2O2 concentrations of the alveolar fraction may be related to asthma control in children

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    Trischler Jordis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways but recent studies have shown that alveoli are also subject to pathophysiological changes. This study was undertaken to compare hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentrations in different parts of the lung using a new technique of fractioned breath condensate sampling. Methods In 52 children (9-17 years, 32 asthmatic patients, 20 controls measurements of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO, lung function, H2O2 in exhaled breath condensate (EBC and the asthma control test (ACT were performed. Exhaled breath condensate was collected in two different fractions, representing mainly either the airways or the alveoli. H2O2 was analysed in the airway and alveolar fractions and compared to clinical parameters. Results The exhaled H2O2 concentration was significantly higher in the airway fraction than in the alveolar fraction comparing each single pair (p = 0.003, 0.032 and 0.040 for the whole study group, the asthmatic group and the control group, respectively. Asthma control, measured by the asthma control test (ACT, correlated significantly with the H2O2 concentrations in the alveolar fraction (r = 0.606, p = 0.004 but not with those in the airway fraction in the group of children above 12 years. FENO values and lung function parameters did not correlate to the H2O2 concentrations of each fraction. Conclusion The new technique of fractionated H2O2 measurement may differentiate H2O2 concentrations in different parts of the lung in asthmatic and control children. H2O2 concentrations of the alveolar fraction may be related to the asthma control test in children.

  3. Assessment of the impact of collection temperature and sampler design on the measurement of exhaled breath condensate pH in healthy horses.

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    Whittaker, Andrew G; Love, Sandy; Parkin, Timothy D H; Duz, Marco; Cathcart, Michael; Hughes, Kristopher J

    2012-02-01

    The pH measurement of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) may provide a non-invasive method of assessing the lower airways of horses but the methodology used may influence findings. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two sampling devices and three methods of condensation surface cooling (ethanol slush, -100°C; dry ice, -75°C; water ice, 0°C) on EBC pH. Each method was tested 30 times using six healthy ponies. Sample pH was determined before and after de-aeration with argon for 10 min. Sampler design was found to significantly affect pH. Samples collected as a liquid had a significantly higher pH than samples frozen during collection (P<0.05). De-aeration resulted in significantly higher pH (P<0.05) with less variation. This study has shown that device design and condensation surface temperature will influence EBC pH, which will prevent a direct comparison of results when different methodologies are used.

  4. Measurement of tumor necrosis factor-α, leukotriene B4, and interleukin 8 in the exhaled breath condensate in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Fanny WS Ko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fanny WS Ko1, Ting-Fan Leung2, Gary WK Wong2, Jenny Ngai1, Kin W To1, Susanna Ng1, David SC Hui11Department of Medicine and Therapeutics; 2Department of Pediatrics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong KongBackground: Assessment of airway inflammation in the clinical course of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD may advance our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment.Objectives: To assess airway inflammation in patients during the course of AECOPD by serial analyses of their exhaled breath condensates (EBC.Methods: Twenty-six patients with AECOPD (22 males, mean[SD] percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 44.8 [14.3], 11 with stable COPD, and 14 age and sex-matched healthy controls were studied. Patients with AECOPD were treated with systemic steroid and antibiotic for 7 days. EBC was collected from each patient with AECOPD on Day 5, 14, 30, and 60 post-hospitalization using EcoScreen (VIASYS Healthcare, USA during tidal breathing over 10 minutes. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, leukotriene B4 (LTB4, and interleukin-8 (IL-8 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: The median (IQR of TNF-α level on Day 5 was 5.08 (3.80–6 .32 pg/ml, which was lower than on Day 14 (5.84 [4.91–9.14] pg/ml, p = 0.017, Day 30 (6.14 [3.82–7.67] pg/ml, p = 0.045, and Day 60 (5.60 [4.53–8.80] pg/ml, p = 0.009. On Day 60, subjects receiving inhaled corticosteroid (ICS had a lower level of TNF-α than those who were not (4.82 [4.06–5.65] vs 7.66 [5.48–10.9] pg/ml, p = 0.02. EBC LTB4 level did not change significantly during recovery from AECOPD whereas IL-8 was mostly undetectable.Conclusions: EBC TNF-α level was low in patients receiving systemic steroid and antibiotic therapy for AECOPD. These findings suggest a potential role for serial EBC TNF-α for noninvasive monitoring of disease activity.Keywords: COPD, exacerbation, exhaled breath

  5. Investigation of acetone, butanol and carbon dioxide as new breath biomarkers for convenient and noninvasive diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

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    Bayrakli, Ismail; Öztürk, Önder; Akman, Hatice

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether analysis of carbon dioxide, acetone and/or butanol present in human breath can be used as a simple and noninvasive diagnosis method for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). For this purpose, overnight changes in the concentrations of these breath molecules were measured before and after sleep in 10 patients who underwent polysomnography and were diagnosed with OSAS, and were compared with the levels of these biomarkers determined after sleep in 10 healthy subjects. The concentrations of exhaled carbon dioxide were measured using external cavity laser-based off-axis cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy, whereas the levels of exhaled acetone and butanol were determined using thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry. We observed no significant changes in the levels of exhaled acetone and carbon dioxide in OSAS patients after sleep compared with pre-sleep values and compared with those in healthy control subjects. However, for the first time, to our knowledge, analyses of expired air showed an increased concentration of butanol after sleep compared with that before sleep and compared with that in healthy subjects. These results suggest that butanol can be established as a potential biomarker to enable the convenient and noninvasive diagnosis of OSAS in the future.

  6. Seasonal Changes in Endotoxin Exposure and Its Relationship to Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Exhaled Breath Condensate pH Levels in Atopic and Healthy Children.

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    Gwo-Hwa Wan

    Full Text Available Endotoxin, a component of the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria, is a contaminant in organic dusts (house dust and aerosols. In humans, small amounts of endotoxin may cause a local inflammatory response. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO levels, an inflammation indicator, are associated with the pH values of exhaled breath condensate (EBC. This study evaluated seasonal changes on indoor endotoxin concentrations in homes and the relationships between endotoxin exposure and eNO/EBC pH levels for healthy children and children with allergy-related respiratory diseases. In total, 34 children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and 24 healthy children were enrolled. Indoor air quality measurements and dust sample analysis for endotoxin were conducted once each season inside 58 surveyed homes. The eNO, EBC pH levels, and pulmonary function of the children were also determined. The highest endotoxin concentrations were on kitchen floors of homes of children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and healthy children, and on bedroom floors of homes of asthmatic children and healthy children. Seasonal changes existed in endotoxin concentrations in dust samples from homes of children with allergic rhinitis, with or without asthma, and in EBC pH values among healthy children and those with allergy-related respiratory diseases. Strong relationships existed between endotoxin exposure and EBC pH values in children with allergic rhinitis.

  7. Application of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy to the Detection of Nitric Oxide, Carbonyl Sulphide, and Ethane—Breath Biomarkers of Serious Diseases

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    Jacek Wojtas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents one of the laser absorption spectroscopy techniques as an effective tool for sensitive analysis of trace gas species in human breath. Characterization of nitric oxide, carbonyl sulphide and ethane, and the selection of their absorption lines are described. Experiments with some biomarkers showed that detection of pathogenic changes at the molecular level is possible using this technique. Thanks to cavity enhanced spectroscopy application, detection limits at the ppb-level and short measurements time (<3 s were achieved. Absorption lines of reference samples of the selected volatile biomarkers were probed using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser and a tunable laser system consisting of an optical parametric oscillator and difference frequency generator. Setup using the first source provided a detection limit of 30 ppb for nitric oxide and 250 ppb for carbonyl sulphide. During experiments employing a second laser, detection limits of 0.9 ppb and 0.3 ppb were obtained for carbonyl sulphide and ethane, respectively. The conducted experiments show that this type of diagnosis would significantly increase chances for effective therapy of some diseases. Additionally, it offers non-invasive and real time measurements, high sensitivity and selectivity as well as minimizing discomfort for patients. For that reason, such sensors can be used in screening for early detection of serious diseases.

  8. Interaction between sleep-disordered breathing and apolipoprotein E genotype on cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease in cognitively normal elderly individuals.

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    Osorio, Ricardo S; Ayappa, Indu; Mantua, Janna; Gumb, Tyler; Varga, Andrew; Mooney, Anne M; Burschtin, Omar E; Taxin, Zachary; During, Emmanuel; Spector, Nicole; Biagioni, Milton; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Lau, Hiuyan; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Lu, Shou-En; Mosconi, Lisa; Glodzik, Lidia; Rapoport, David M; de Leon, Mony J

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested a link between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and dementia risk. In the present study, we analyzed the relationship between SDB severity, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease-biomarkers, and the ApoE alleles. A total of 95 cognitively normal elderly participants were analyzed for SDB severity, CSF measures of phosphorylated-tau (p-tau), total-tau (t-tau), and amyloid beta 42 (Aβ-42), as well as ApoE allele status. In ApoE3+ subjects, significant differences were found between sleep groups for p-tau (F[df2] = 4.3, p = 0.017), and t-tau (F[df2] = 3.3, p = 0.043). Additionally, among ApoE3+ subjects, the apnea and/or hypopnea with 4% O2-desaturation index was positively correlated with p-tau (r = 0.30, p = 0.023), t-tau (r = 0.31, p = 0.021), and Aβ-42 (r = 0.31, p = 0.021). In ApoE2+ subjects, the apnea and/or hypopnea with 4% O2-desaturation index was correlated with lower levels of CSF Aβ-42 (r = -0.71, p = 0.004), similarly to ApoE4+ subjects where there was also a trend toward lower CSF Aβ-42 levels. Our observations suggest that there is an association between SDB and CSF Alzheimer's disease-biomarkers in cognitively normal elderly individuals. Existing therapies for SDB such as continuous positive airway pressure could delay the onset to mild cognitive impairment or dementia in normal elderly individuals.

  9. The interaction between sleep-disordered breathing and ApoE genotype on cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease in cognitively normal elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Ricardo S.; Ayappa, Indu; Mantua, Janna; Gumb, Tyler; Varga, Andrew; Mooney, Anne M.; Burschtin, Omar E.; Taxin, Zachary; During, Emmanuel; Spector, Nicole; Biagioni, Milton; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Lau, Hiuyan; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Lu, Shou-En; Mosconi, Lisa; Glodzik, Lidia; Rapoport, David M.; de Leon, Mony J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested a link between Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) and dementia risk. In the present study, we analyzed the relationship between SDB severity, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers, and the ApoE alleles. Methods 95 cognitively normal elderly participants were analyzed for SDB severity, CSF measures of phosphorylated-tau (P-Tau), total-tau (T-Tau), and amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42), as well as ApoE allele status. Findings In ApoE3+ subjects, significant differences were found between sleep groups for P-Tau (F[df2]=4.3, p=0.017), and T-Tau (F[df2]=3.3, p=0.043). Additionally, among ApoE3+ subjects, the apnea/hypopnea with 4% O2-desaturation index (AHI4%) was positively correlated with P-Tau (r=0.30, p=0.023), T-Tau (r=0.31, p=0.021), and Aβ42 (r=0.31, p=0.021). In ApoE2+ subjects, AHI4% was correlated with lower levels of CSF Aβ42 (r=−0.71, p=0.004), similarly to ApoE4+ subjects where there was also a trend towards lower CSF Aβ42 levels Interpretation Our observations suggest that there is an association between SDB and CSF AD- biomarkers in cognitively normal elderly. Existing therapies for SDB such as CPAP could delay the onset to mild cognitive impairment or dementia in normal elderly. PMID:24439479

  10. Hydrogen peroxide release and acid-base status in exhaled breath condensate at rest and after maximal exercise in young, healthy subjects

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    Marek E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Exhaled breath condensate (EBC contains among a large number of mediators hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as a marker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress. Similarly EBC pH also changes in respiratory diseases. It was the aim of our investigation to prove if hydrogen peroxide release and changes in pH of EBC changes with exercise. Methods EBC was collected from 100 litres exhaled air along with samples of arterialized blood of 16 healthy subjects (9 males, 7 females, age 23 ± 1 years. EBC hydrogen peroxide was analyzed with EcoCheck amperometer (FILT, Berlin. The rate of H2O2 release was calculated from the concentration and collection time. pH and PCO2 in blood and in EBC were measured with the Radiometer blood gas analyzer, EBC was equilibrated with a gas mixture (5% CO2 in O2. The bicarbonate concentration was calculated according to the law of mass action for CO2 and HCO3- (pK = 6.1. Results H2O2 concentration in EBC was 190 ± 109 nmol/l, and H2O2 release at rest was 31.0 ± 18.3 pmol/min. At maximal exercise, the H2O = concentration in EBC increased to 250 ± 120 nmol/l, and H2O2 release significantly increased at maximal exercise to 84.4 ± 39.9 pmol/min (P 2 equilibrated EBC was at 6.08 ± 0.23 and the [HCO3 -] was 1.03 ± 0.40 mmol/l. At maximum exercise, pH 6.18 ± 0.17 and [HCO3-] 1.23 ± 0.30 mmol/l remained almost unaltered. Conclusions The rate of H2O2 release in EBC increased during exhausting exercise (external load: 300 Watt by a factor of 2, whereas the pH and the bicarbonate concentration of the EBC, equilibrated with 5% CO2 at 37°C were not significantly altered. It has to be proven by further experiments whether there is a linear relationship between the rates of H2O2 release in EBC in graded submaximal exercise.

  11. High levels of interleukin-6 and 8-iso-prostaglandin in the exhaled breath condensate and serum of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease related pulmonary hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Haiyan; Tao Yijiang; Chen Xiaoxiao; Qiu Haiyan; Zhu Jie; Zhang Jianhui; Ma Hang

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Although alveolar hypoxia is considered as a main cause of PH in COPD,structural and functional changes of pulmonary circulation are apparent at the initial stage of COPD.We hypothesized that an inflammatory response and oxidative stress might contribute to the formation of PH in COPD.Methods We measured the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and 8-iso-prostaglandin (8-iso-PSG) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and serum in 40 patients with COPD only or in 45 patients with COPD combined with PH.Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) was assessed by Doppler echocardiography and defined as PH when the value of systolic pressure was greater than 40 mmHg.Results Compared with the COPD only group,the level of IL-6 in EBC was significantly increased in all 45 patients with COPD combined with PH ((8.27±2.14) ng/L vs.(4.95±1.19) ng/L,P <0.01).The level of IL-6 in serum was also elevated in patients with COPD combined with PH compared with the COPD only group ((72.8±21.6) ng/L vs.(43.58±13.38) ng/L,P <0.01).Similarly,we also observed a significant increase in the level of 8-iso-PSG in both EBC and serum in the COPD with PH group,compared with the COPD only group (EBC:(9.00±2.49) ng/L vs.(5.96±2.31) ng/L,P <0.01 and serum:(41.87±9.75) ng/L vs.(27.79±11.09) ng/L,P <0.01).Additionally,the value of PASP in the PH group was confirmed to be positively correlated with the increase in the levels of IL-6 and 8-iso-PSG in both EBC and serum (r=0.477-0.589,P <0.05).Conclusion The increase in the levels of IL-6 and 8-iso-PSG in EBC and serum correlates with the pathogenesis of PH in COPD.

  12. 呼出气冷凝液检测在肺癌中的研究与应用%Investigation and application of exhaled breath condensate analysis in lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董良良; 应可净

    2012-01-01

    Early detection and early treatment are effective measures to reduce lung cancer incidence and mortality.The use of chest radiography,sputum cytology or low-dose computed tomography scan is beneficial to lung cancer screening while the effect on lung cancer mortality is still uncertain.Exhaled breath condensate collection is a simple,new,and noninvasive technique,which allows sampling of lower respiratory tract fluid.Some studies have shown that exhaled breath condensate enables the study of a variety of biological markers with high sensitivity and specificity.Analysis of exhaled breath condensate in the future might contribute significantly to early diagnosis of lung cancer and also to evaluation of therapeutic response and prognosis.%早期发现、早期治疗是降低肺癌发病率和病死率的有效措施.传统的胸片、痰细胞学检查、低剂量CT等手段在肺癌筛查和诊断中具有一定的应用价值,但是否有助于降低肺癌病死率还有待进一步观察.呼出气冷凝液收集是一种新型、无创、简易、安全的技术,众多研究表明呼出气冷凝液检测可用来筛选灵敏性和特异性比较可靠的生物标记物,在分子水平辅助肺癌早期诊断,且在病情评估、疗效评价、预后估计等方面也起重要作用.

  13. 呼出气冷凝液中pH测定的影响因素及pH检测的临床意义%Influential factors and clinical significance of pH in exhaled breath condensate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余苏云; 刘翱

    2009-01-01

    呼出气冷凝液检测技术为一项新型的呼吸道炎症状态检测方法.近年来国外对其研究进展很快,临床应用得到了很大发展,而其中以pH值检测技术应用最为广泛,目前广泛应用于哮喘、慢性阻塞性肺疾病、睡眠呼吸暂停综合征、肺癌、肺间质纤维化、结核、支气管扩张、囊性纤维化等多种呼吸系统疾病.本文把握国外相关研究的最新进展,重点综述了呼出气冷凝液标本收集、贮存、检测等环节对pH值的影响凶素及其在常见呼吸系统疾病中的临床应用.%The technique of exhaled breath condensate is a new detective means for respiratory tract inflammation.It is more and more extensively applied in clinic because of the quick study abroad recently.However,the detectivc technique of pH is the most extensive one in exhaled breath condensate,and it is widely applied for asthma,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,sleep apnea syndrome,lung cancer,pulmonary interstitial fibrosis,tuberculosis,bronchiectasis,cystic fibrosis and others.This article grasps the latest progress of relative study,reviews the influential factors of pH in exhaled breath condensate,including specimen collection,storage and detection,and the clinical application in the common diseases of respiratory system.

  14. 呼出气体冷凝物的蛋白质组学研究用于肺癌早期诊断的探讨%Proteomics as a method for early detection of lung cancer sampled by exhaled breath condensate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蕙蕙; 应可净

    2011-01-01

    蛋白质组学研究的新方法、新技术的出现使其在肿瘤的研究中展现出广阔的应用前景。呼出气体冷凝物是一种尚处于研究阶段的无创、简易的新型检测肺癌的方法,包含了一系列来源于下呼吸道的生物标志物,如蛋白质。从这一视角分析以呼出气体冷凝物为样本、蛋白质组学技术为研究手段,来检测肺癌肿瘤标志物的潜力及面临的局限,论述其用于肺癌早期诊断的前景。%New methods of proteomics study applied to cancer research appear broad application prospects. Exhaled breath condensate(EBC) is a new, simple, non-invasive technique to detect lung cancer, which enables the study of a lot of biomarkers from lower respiratory tract, such as proteins.This article reviews the researches of the proteomics and EBC in lung cancer diagnosis.

  15. Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting enough air. Sometimes you can have mild breathing problems because of a stuffy nose or intense ... panic attacks Allergies If you often have trouble breathing, it is important to find out the cause.

  16. OSAHS患者呼出气冷凝液中MMP-9的变化%Changes of MMP-9 in exhaled breath condensate of patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐健; 李一禄; 陈济明; 徐晓妮; 何梦颖

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the changes of matrix metalloproteases-9(MMP-9)in exhaled breath con-densate( EBC) with Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome ( OSAHS) . Methods Select 40 males and OSAHS patients for the experimental group, 30 healthy subjects matched age and body mass index as a control group. exhaled breath condensate The levels of MMP-9 in EBC were determined by ELISA. Results Compared to the control group, the MMP-9 in OSAHS group was significantly higher ( P<0. 05 ) . MMP-9 was positively correlated with AHI ( P<0. 05), and negative correlated the lowest SaO2(P<0. 05). Conclusion The MMP-9 levels in EBC in OSAHS pa-tients may reflect the severity of OSAHS.%目的:观察阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征( OSAHS)患者呼出气冷凝液( EBC)中基质金属蛋白酶9(MMP-9)的变化。方法选取男性40例OSAHS患者为实验组,30例年龄、体重指数等均相匹配的健康查体者为对照组,用ELISA检测EBC中MMP-9水平。结果和对照组比较,OSAHS组EBC中MMP-9明显升高,有显著统计学意义(P<0.05)。 MMP-9与AHI呈正相关,与最低SaO2负相关(P均<0.05)。结论OSAHS患者EBC中MMP-9水平可反映OSAHS病情的严重程度。

  17. Exhaled breath condensate collection for nitrite dosage: a safe and low cost adaptation Coleta do condensado do ar exalado pulmonar para a dosagem de nitrito: Uma adaptação segura e barata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Saraiva Reis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Standardization of a simple and low cost technique of exhaled breath condensate (EBC collection to measure nitrite. METHODS: Two devices were mounted in polystyrene boxes filled either with crushed ice/salt crystals or dry ice/crushed ice. Blood samples were stored at -70º C for posterior nitrite dosages by chemiluminescence and the Griess reaction. RESULTS: a The use of crushed ice/dry ice or salt revealed sufficient EBC room air collection, but was not efficient for patients under ventilation support; b the method using crushed ice/salt collected greater EBC volumes, but the nitrite concentrations were not proportional to the volume collected; c The EBC nitrite values were higher in the surgical group using both methods; d In the surgical group the nasal clip use diminished the EBC nitrite concentrations in both methods. CONCLUSIONS: The exhaled breath condensate (EBC methodology collection was efficient on room air breathing. Either cooling methods provided successful EBC collections showing that it is possible to diminish costs, and, amongst the two used methods, the one using crushed ice/salt crystals revealed better efficiency compared to the dry ice method.OBJETIVO: Padronizar técnica simples e barata de coleta do condensado do ar exalado pulmonar (CEP para medir nitrito. MÉTODOS: Dois dispositivos foram montados em caixas de isopor e preenchidos com gelo picado/sal grosso ou gelo picado/gelo seco. Amostras de sangue foram armazenadas a -70º C para dosagem de nitrito por quimiluminescência e pela reação de Griess. RESULTADOS: a a utilização de gelo picado/gelo seco ou sal foi eficiente para a coleta em respiração espontânea, mas ineficiente durante ventilação mecânica; b o método gelo picado/sal coletou volumes maiores, sem aumento proporcional do nitrito; c os valores do nitrito foram mais elevados no grupo cirúrgico utilizando os dois métodos; d no grupo cirúrgico com clipe nasal ocorreu diminuição do

  18. Breath Figures Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; González-Viñas, W

    2013-01-01

    We present experimental observations of Breath Figures (BF) which are formed by the dew of water when it condenses on a cold surface. The experiments were done in specific conditions and configurations of temperature, surfaces and mixes in controlled concentration of miscibles and immiscibles substances like the salt saturated solution, alcohol and silicon oil (C_6H_18O_2Si). The hydrophobic surfaces used on those observations are thin glasses coated with ITO (Indium Tin Oxide), 3M ECG-1700 w...

  19. Clinical significance of exhaled breath condensate pH in mechanical ventilated patients%机械通气患者呼出气冷凝液pH值测定的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文彬; 朱明慧

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical significance of exhaled breath condensate pH in mechanical ven-tilated patients. Methods 31 ventilated patients in ICU were divided into the survival and the death group based on their prognosis. EBC samples were collected by modified EcoScreen condenser at the 1st and 5th days. The difference of EBC-pH between the two groups was observed, and the relationships between EBC-pH and clinical parameters were analyzed. Results The value of EBC-pH was lower in ventilated patients than in normal people, and it was lower in the death group than in the survival group at the 1st and 5th days. The value of EBC-pH was positively correlated with PaO2/FiO2(r=0. 319, P<0. 05). Conclusion The decrease of EBC-pH value in ventilated patients is related with lung oxygenation dysfunction, and the continuing lower EBC-pH value can indicate a poor prognosis.%目的:研究机械通气患者呼出气冷凝液( Exhaled breath condensate,EBC) pH值的临床意义。方法纳入31例 ICU中行机械通气患者,按预后分为生存和死亡组,在病程第1、第5天使用改进的Eco-Screen冷凝器收集 EBC标本。分析两组患者EBC-pH的差异及其与临床指标的相关性。结果机械通气患者EBC-pH较正常降低,死亡组患者EBC-pH在第1天与第5天均低于生存组。 EBC-pH值与PaO2/FiO2正相关(r=0.319,P<0.05)。结论机械通气患者EBC-pH的降低与肺脏氧合功能障碍相关,持续较低的EBC-pH可能提示预后不良。

  20. Biomarkers in sarcoidosis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadzai H

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hasib Ahmadzai,1,2 Wei Sheng Joshua Loke,1 Shuying Huang,1 Cristan Herbert,1 Denis Wakefield,3 Paul S Thomas2 1Inflammation and Infection Research Centre (IIRC, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Immunology of the Eye Clinic, St Vincent's Clinic, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of undetermined etiology invariably affecting the lungs and thoracic lymph nodes. It has been termed an “immune paradox”, as there is peripheral anergy despite exaggerated inflammation at disease sites. The disease is usually self-limiting, although some individuals experience unremitting inflammation that may progress into pulmonary fibrosis and death. The inflammatory process is largely a T helper-1-driven immune response. Given its heterogeneous clinical manifestations, diagnosis is usually a clinical conundrum. Clinical and radiological findings alone are often inadequate to confirm the diagnosis. At present, sarcoidosis is usually a diagnosis of exclusion, confirmed by histological evidence of noncaseating granulomas in the absence of known granulomagenic agents. This has compelled researchers to look for disease-specific biomarkers that can help diagnose sarcoidosis and delineate its disease course, severity, and prognosis. In this review we highlight various investigations used to diagnose sarcoidosis, outline proposed biomarkers, and discuss novel methods of sampling biomarkers. Keywords: sarcoidosis, biomarkers, inflammatory markers, exhaled breath condensate, proteomics, granuloma

  1. 呼出气冷凝液在COPD、哮喘、肺癌及间质性肺疾病中应用的研究进展%Advances of Application of Exhaled Breath Condensate in COPD, Asthma, Lung Cancer and Interstitial Lung Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伟煌; 黄平

    2015-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate( EBC) is a new method for the detection of respiratory system diseases. Detecting real-time biomarkers in EBC evaluates acute and chronic airway inflammation and oxidative stress level.Since the EBC has non-invasive, real-time monitoring, simple, repeatable advantages, it can be used as diagnosis of lung disease, severity assessment, evaluation of drug efficacy and prognostic marker,and has good application prospects. EBC has extensive application in COPD, asthma, lung cancer and interstitial lung disease.In this paper, we review the advances of EBC in COPD, asthma, lung cancer and interstitial lung disease.%呼出气冷凝液(EBC)是一种新兴的呼吸道系统疾病检测方法。通过检测EBC中的实时生物标记物,以评价气道急慢性炎症、氧化应激水平。由于EBC具有无创、实时监测、简便、可重复等优点,具有良好的发展应用前景,因而可作为肺部疾病的诊断、疾病严重程度、药物疗效及预后评估,在COPD、哮喘、肺癌及间质性肺病得到广泛应用。本文对近年来EBC在COPD、哮喘、肺癌及间质性肺病中的研究做简要综述。

  2. The research progress of exhaled breath condensate detection in piratory disease%呼出气冷凝液在呼吸系统疾病中检测的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨猛; 陶一江

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate(EBC) is a new detection method of biological media in the lower redpiratory tract,because of its advantage such as noninvasiveness,convenience,easily repeat and comparable,and it can be used for patients of all ages,especially for critically ill patients,in clinical,it is attracting increasing attention.As a new measuring method of diagnosing of pulmonary diseases,evaluating treatment effectiveness and disease progression,it is widely used in pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,bronchial asthma,obstructive sleep apnea,lung cancer and so on.EBC has broad prospects for development,and it needs futher study.In this paper,we review the advances of lower respiratory tract detection of biological media at home and abroad.%呼出气冷凝液(exhaled breath condensate,E BC)是一种新的检测下呼吸道生物介质的方法,由于其具有无创、简便、易行、重复性好、结果具有可比性,且可用于各年龄段,尤其是病情危重的患者等特点,因此在临床上被寄予厚望.作为诊断肺部疾病,评估治疗效果及疾病进展的一种新兴的检测手段,被广泛用于COPD、支气管哮喘、睡眠障碍性疾病、肺癌等呼吸系统疾病.EBC具有广阔的发展前景,其研究领域也在不断拓宽,本文综述呼吸系统疾病中下呼吸道生物介质在EBC中检测的国内外最新研究进展.

  3. Lung cancer biomarkers: State of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Subramaniam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide, with the highest incidence and mortality amongst all cancers. While the prognosis of lung cancer is generally grim, with 5-year survival rates of only 15%, there is hope, and evidence, that early detection of lung cancer can reduce mortality. Today, only computed tomography screening has shown to lead to early detection and reduction in mortality, but is limited by being anatomic in nature, unable to differentiate between inflammatory and neoplastic pathways, and therefore, susceptible to false positives. There is increasing interest in biomarkers for lung cancer, especially those that predict metastatic risk. Some biomarkers like DNA mutations and epigenetic changes potentially require tissue from the at-risk site; some like serum proteins and miRNAs are minimally invasive, but may not be specific to the lung. In comparison, emerging biomarkers from exhaled breath, like volatile organic compounds (VOC, and exhaled breath condensate, e.g., small molecules and nucleic acids, have the potential to combine the best of both. This mini review is intended to provide an overview of the field, briefly discussing the potential of what is known and highlighting the exciting recent developments, particularly with miRNAs and VOCs.

  4. 呼气冷凝液中的氮氧化物及相关产物与哮喘%Nitrogen oxides and its related products in exhaled breath condensate and asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冼美兰; 黄平

    2007-01-01

    收集呼气冷凝液(exhaled breath condensate,EBC)是一种非侵入性、安全、简便、易行的收集气道标本的方法 ,可用于检测气道炎症程度和氧化应激状态,是目前国外研究的热点.EBC中的氮氧化物及相关产物是氧化、过氧化、硝基化的产物,从而反映了气道氧化、过氧化、硝基化的状况.它们在哮喘的不同时期、不同严重程度时有着不同的变化,对激素的抗炎治疗有不同的反应,有望成为研究哮喘的发病机制、监测哮喘病情变化、抗炎疗效评价以及调整用药的指标.

  5. 呼出气体冷凝物在肺癌早期诊断中的应用%Application of exhaled breath condensate in early diagnosis of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳蕾; 应可净

    2010-01-01

    As a new tool of detecting lung cancer, exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is now becoming the focus of research because it is non-invasive and easy to obtain. It might be a new method to diagnose lung cancer, but EBC is still at the stage of laboratory research and there are a lot of problems to be solved. This paper explores the possibility of EBC clinical application by discussing the detection,analysis,clinical significance of lung cancer diagnosis,advantages and disadvantages of EBC.%呼出气体冷凝物作为一种尚处于研究阶段的新型检测肺癌的方法,因其非侵入性、易获得等优点越来越成为研究的焦点,且可能会成为诊断筛查肺癌的新型方法,但是其目前仍处于实验室研究阶段,尚有很多未解决的问题.本文从呼出气体冷凝物的检测、分析、对肺癌诊断的临床意义以及优缺点等方面进行论述,分析其应用于临床的可能性.

  6. 呼出气冷凝液检测在肺癌诊断中的研究进展%Research progress of exhaled breath condensate analysis on diagnosis of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱云霞; 李凡; 蔡映云

    2010-01-01

    @@ 肺癌标志物检测在肺癌的早期诊断、病情评估、疗效评价、预后估计等方面起重要作用.目前,临床检测肺癌标志物主要以外周血为标本,也可是支气管肺泡灌洗液、胸腔积液和痰液.呼出气冷凝液(exhaled breath condensate,EBC)检测是近年来新出现的一种无创检测呼吸道生化成分的新技术,具有简便易行和重复性好等优点,但相关的研究相对较少,下面对EBC检测肺癌标志物在肺癌诊断方面的研究进展进行综述.

  7. 急性肺损伤/急性呼吸窘迫综合征患者呼出气冷凝液检测的研究进展%Determination progress in exhaled breath condensate of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文彬; 陈建荣; 蔡映云

    2009-01-01

    呼出气冷凝液榆测是近年来发展的一种榆测气道炎症和氧化应激反应的无创方法.通过监测急件肺损伤/急性呼吸窘迫综合征患者呼出气冷凝液中pH值、一氧化碳及其衍生物、过氧化氢、8-异前列烷、细胞角蛋白和细胞因子等指标,有助于对危重患者病情进行评估和预后判断.%Exhaled breath condensate examination is a new noninvasive method recently developed for detecting airway inflammation and oxidative stress.It can be contributive to evaluate the condition and predict the prognosis of critical illness by monitoring pH,nitrogen oxides,hydrogen peroxide,8-isoprostanes,cytokeratin and cytokines in exhaled breath condensate of patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome in exhaled breath condensate.

  8. Technologies for Clinical Diagnosis Using Expired Human Breath Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalakkotur Lazar Mathew

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review elucidates the technologies in the field of exhaled breath analysis. Exhaled breath gas analysis offers an inexpensive, noninvasive and rapid method for detecting a large number of compounds under various conditions for health and disease states. There are various techniques to analyze some exhaled breath gases, including spectrometry, gas chromatography and spectroscopy. This review places emphasis on some of the critical biomarkers present in exhaled human breath, and its related effects. Additionally, various medical monitoring techniques used for breath analysis have been discussed. It also includes the current scenario of breath analysis with nanotechnology-oriented techniques

  9. Research Progress on Exhaled Breath Condensate in Patients Used Mechanical Ventilation%呼出气冷凝液检测技术在机械通气患者中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋云书

    2011-01-01

    机械通气是抢救呼吸衰竭患者的重要手段之一,但它可以引起炎性反应、氧化应激,导致通气相关性肺损伤和呼吸机相关性肺炎.呼出气冷凝液(EBC)检测作为一种观察呼吸系统疾病生物学指标的新技术,可动态监测呼吸道炎性反应、氧化应激,用于疾病的诊断和病情评估.随着EBC收集技术和检测方法的改进,EBC检测技术被更多地应用于机械通气患者.现就机械通气患者EBC中相关指标及其临床意义进行综述.%Mechanical ventilation was one of very important methods to rescue the patients with respiratory failure, but it can cause ventilator associated lung injury and ventilator associated pneumonia because of inflammation response and oxidative stress. Exhaled breath condensate(EBC ) , a new technology for monitoring respiratory disease,was used to detect biochemical markers. It also be used to diagnose and assess the disease by constantly monitoring inflammation response and oxidative stress in airway. With improvement of collecting technique and detecting method, it was more and more applied in mechanically ventilated patients. This article reviewed biochemical markers , which were detected in EBC of mechanically ventilated patients, and their clinical significance.

  10. Design of Exhaled Breath Condensate Collector and Its Clinical Application%呼出气冷凝液收集器的设计及其临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏; 黄莺; 余荣环; 杨玉琴

    2013-01-01

    目的:呼出气冷凝液(exhaled breath condensate,EBC)检测是评价气道炎性反应和氧化应激程度的一种无创手段.本研究旨在设计一种收集EBC的装置并探讨其可行性及临床应用价值.方法:自制的收集EBC装置由两部分组成:含有冰块的水杯、带有痰液收集器的一次性吸痰管.通过测量20名志愿者在不同时间收集的EBC的量,来确定收集EBC的最佳时间;并对10例肺部感染、10例肺癌患者的EBC进行CEA检测,进一步验证收集效果.结果:收集EBC时,时间以15 min为宜.10例肺部感染、10例肺癌患者收集EBC 15 min,EBC的量平均为(2.15±0.82)mL,肺癌组患者EBC中CEA明显高于肺炎组和对照组.结论:自制EBC收集装置收集EBC效果好、简便、安全、重复性好,适合临床应用.

  11. 机械通气患者呼出气冷凝液收集的临床安全性和可行性%Clinic safety and feasibility of exhaled breath condensate collection in ventilated patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文彬; 陈建荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop a technique for the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collecting from ventilated patients and assess its clinical safety and feasibility.Methods EBC was collected 93 times from 28 cases with mechanical ventilation by modified EcoScreen condensater.The changes of ventilatory and cilinieal parameters were observed before,during,and after three stages of collections,the volume of EBC and the levels of NO and 8-isoPG in EBC were measured at last.Results ① There was no statistical significance difference in breathing parameters (PIP,Pmean,Pplat,PEEP,f,VT and VM)and the vital signs (HR,MAP and SpO2 ) of ventilated patients before and after EBC collection in ventilated patients. ②During the collection of EBC,the ventilatory parameters slight changed within 10% (VT,f and VM decreased in PSV.VT,f and VM decreased and Pmean rised in A/C-PC.VT decreased and PIP rised in A/C-VC),while the clinical parameters (HR,MAP and SpO2 ) did not significant changed.③VT did not decrease progressively during the collection.④The VM was (10.6844.24) L/min,the collection of EBC volume in 30 min was (4.70± 1.48) ml.The EBC volume wasrelated to the VM ( r =0.482,P <0.01).⑤The NO and 8-isoPG in EBC was detectivable.Conclusions It is clinically safe and feasible to perform EBC collection in ventilated patients using modified EcoScreen condensers.To reduce the risk,it is recommended to assess patient's condition beforehand,to take dry ventilation pipe,to raise the VT set appropriately,and to limit the collecting time in 30 min.%目的 研究机械通气患者呼出气冷凝液(exhaled breath condensate,EBC)收集技术的临床安全性和可行性.方法 28例机械通气患者采用改装EcoScreen冷凝器进行93次EBC收集.观察收集前、收集中和收集后三个阶段的呼吸监护和生命体征监护参数的变化.测量EBC收集量并检测其中一氧化氮(NO)和8-异前列烷(8-isoPG)的水平.结果 ①机械通气患

  12. Effects of Xuebijing on Nitric Oxide and VEGF-A in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Patients with ALI/ARDS%血必净对ALI/ARDS患者呼出气冷凝液中NO和VEGF-A的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛垒喜; 陈建荣; 陶一江; 陈金亮; 徐志华; 蒋云书

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical significance of changes of nitric oxide (NO) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) after they were treated by Xuebijing (XBJ),and to evaluate the effect of the EBC detection technology.Methods Totally 32 ALI/ARDS patients receiving mechanical ventilation at intensive care unit (ICU) were randomly assigned to the treatment group and the control group,16 cases in each group.Patients in the control group were treated by routine therapy,while those in the treatment group were treated by routine therapy + XBJ.The therapeutic course for all was 5 days.The EBC sample was collected by improved EcoScreen condenser within 24 h after confirmed diagnosis of ALI/ARDS and on the fifth day of medication.The levels of NO and VEGF-A were measured by EIA in EBC and serum.The changes of NO and VEGF-A in EBC were observed before and after treatment.Results Compared with before treatment,the level of NO in EBC and serum decreased and VEGF-A increased after treatment,showing statistical difference (P <0.05,P <0.01).After treatment the level of NO in EBC and serum was lower in the treatment group than in the control group (P <0.05).The VEGF-A in EBC was higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P <0.05).There was no statistical difference in the serum VEGF-A level between the two groups (P >0.05).Conclusions XBJ was an effective therapeutic drug capable to control the in vivo inflammation reaction in patients with ALI/ARDS.The detection of changes of VEGF-A and NO levels by EBC could judge the inflammatory reaction degree in ALI/ARDS patients,and help evaluating the therapeutic effect.%目的 研究急性肺损伤(acute lung injury,ALI)/急性呼吸窘迫综合征(acute respiratory distress syndrome,ARDS)患者使用血必净治疗后呼出气冷凝液(exhaled breath condensate

  13. Clinical significance of the detection of 8-isoPG in exhaled breath condensate of different lung diseases%EBC中8-isoPG测定在不同肺部疾病中的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨猛; 陶一江; 陈建荣; 朱杰; 陈金亮; 姚苏梅

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究ARDS、OSAHS和AECOPD患者的EBC中8-isoPG浓度变化及临床意义.对象和方法选择江苏省南通大学第二附属医院的ARDS、OSAHS和AECOPD患者,收集ARDS患者入院第一天、OSAHS患者晨起、AECOPD患者以及健康对照组的EBC;采用ELISA法检测EBC中的8-isoPG浓度.结果 1.ARDS组、OSAHS组、AECOPD组和健康对照组EBC中 8-isoPG浓度为[(52.19±11.51 ng/L)、(14.93±1.39 ng/L)、(6.74±3.38 ng/L)、(3.21±0.97 ng/L)];2.ARDS、OSAHS、AECOPD患者EBC中8-isoPG均高于健康对照组,三者EBC中8-isoPG浓度顺序排列为:ARDS组>OSAHS组>AECOPD组(P<0.01).结论 EBC中8-isoPG可以反应多种肺部疾病的炎症及氧化应激程度.%Objective To investigate the rliniral significance of the detection of 8-iso-prostaglandin ( 8-isoPG ) in exhaled breath condensate of patients with anute respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS ), obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome ( OSAHS ) and a-cute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( AECOPD ). Methods The EBC was collected from the patients with AR DS, OSAHS, AECOPD and healthy controlis, and the level of 8-isoPG was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results The concentrations of 8-isoPG in EBC of all patients and the healthy controls were 52. 19 ± 1 1. 51 ng/L( ARDS ), 14. 93 ± 1. 39 ng/L ( OSAHS), 6.74 ±3.38 ng/L( AECOPD), and 3. 21 ±0.97 ng/L( healthy controls). The levels of 8-isoPC in all patients were higher than that in the healthy controls. Conclusion The level of 8-isoPG in EBC can reflect the inflammation of different lung diseases and the degree of oxidative stress.

  14. Effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy with purified Alt a1 on AMP responsiveness, exhaled nitric oxide and exhaled breath condensate pH: a randomized double blind study

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    Prieto Luis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little information is available on the effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy on airway responsiveness and markers in exhaled air. The aims of this study were to assess the safety of immunotherapy with purified natural Alt a1 and its effect on airway responsiveness to direct and indirect bronchoconstrictor agents and markers in exhaled air. Methods This was a randomized double-blind trial. Subjects with allergic rhinitis with or without mild/moderate asthma sensitized to A alternata and who also had a positive skin prick test to Alt a1 were randomized to treatment with placebo (n = 18 or purified natural Alt a1 (n = 22 subcutaneously for 12 months. Bronchial responsiveness to adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP and methacholine, exhaled nitric oxide (ENO, exhaled breath condensate (EBC pH, and serum Alt a1-specific IgG4 antibodies were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Local and systemic adverse events were also registered. Results The mean (95% CI allergen-specific IgG4 value for the active treatment group increased from 0.07 μg/mL (0.03-0.11 at baseline to 1.21 μg/mL (0.69-1.73, P 4 value increased nonsignificantly from 0.09 μg/mL (0.06-0.12 at baseline to 0.13 μg/mL (0.07-0.18 at 6 months and to 0.11 μg/mL (0.07-0.15 at 12 months of treatment. Changes in the active treatment group were significantly higher than in the placebo group both at 6 months (P Conclusion Although allergen-specific immunotherapy with purified natural Alt a1 is well tolerated and induces an allergen-specific IgG4 response, treatment is not associated with changes in AMP or methacholine responsiveness or with significant improvements in markers of inflammation in exhaled air. These findings suggest dissociation between the immunotherapy-induced increase in IgG4 levels and its effect on airway responsiveness and inflammation.

  15. 支气管哮喘患者呼气冷凝液中氮氧化物的意义%The nitrigene oxids level in exhaled breath condensate of patients with asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜秀芳; 黄平; 冼美兰; 陈济明; 宋冰; 李志莹; 洪永忠; 杜冀辉

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨支气管哮喘(哮喘)患者呼气冷凝液(EBC)中氮氧化物与气道炎症的关系.方法 哮喘患者急性发作期30例,缓解期13例,健康对照组30例,收集其EBC,用分光光度法检测EBC中NO2-、NO3-、总NO2-/NO3-浓度.结果 哮喘急性发作期EBC中NO2(1.508±0.705)μmol/L显著高于健康对照组(0.605±0.299)μmol/L,(P<0.01);缓解期NO2-(0.622±0.253)μmol/L较急性发作期显著下降(P<0.01).EBC中NO3-、总NO2-/NO3-的浓度在急性发作期及缓解期变化均无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论 EBC中NO2-水平高低与哮喘病情变化有关,故可作为哮喘患者气道炎症反应的一项重要监测指标.%Objective To investigate the relationship between nitrogen oxides of exhaled breath condensate(EBC) and the airway inflammation in patients with asthma.Methods Thirty patients with asthma exacerbation,13asthma remission and 30 healthy controls performed EBC collection.NO2-,NO3- and total NO2-/NO3- in EBC were measured by the spectrophotometry.Results The level NO2-(1.508±0.705)μmol/L in EBC of asthma exacerbation group was significantly increased than that in control group(0.605±0.299)μmol/L (P<0.01).NO2- in EBC showed decreased significantly in remission groud than that in exacerbation groud (P<0.01).The levels of NO3- and total NO2-/NO3- were no significant difference in all groups.Conclusion These findings suggest that inflammation was characteristic in the airways of asthma patients.The levels of NO2 in EBC are associated with the change of asthma and may prove to be useful inmonitoring of airway inflammation in asthma.

  16. 肺癌痰湿蕴肺证、气阴两虚证患者呼出气冷凝液的代谢组学研究%Metabonomic Study on Exhaled Breath Condensate(EBC)of Lung Cancer with Syndrome of Turbid Phlegm Obstructing Lung and Syndrome of Deficiency of Both Qi and Yin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贤梅; 尤寅骏

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过分析肺癌痰湿蕴肺证和气阴两虚证患者的呼出气冷凝液(EBC)代谢产物,探讨肺癌中医证型科学客观化的可行性.方法:选择肺癌痰湿蕴肺证患者(痰湿蕴肺组)21例、气阴两虚证患者(气阴两虚组)21例及健康志愿者(健康对照组)20例,采集受试者EBC,利用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)技术分析EBC代谢产物.结果:痰湿蕴肺组和气阴两虚组均能够与健康对照组区分,发现9种潜在的肿瘤标志物,其中3种为痰湿蕴肺组和气阴两虚组特有化合物,6种为痰湿蕴肺组和气阴两虚组与对照组共有化合物;痰湿蕴肺组能够与气阴两虚组区分,3-氨基-2-苯甲酰基-4,5,6,7-四氢苯并[b]噻吩为痰湿蕴肺组特有化合物,1-(苯基磺酰基)吡咯为气阴两虚组特有化合物.结论:EBC的代谢组学研究方法具有用于肺癌的诊断及肺癌不同中医证型的临床客观化指标的研究的可能性.%Objective: To analyze the exhaled breath condensate ( EBC) of the patients with lung cancer of syndrome of turbid phlegm obstructing lung and syndrome of deficiency of both Qi and Yin. To explore the results of metabonomics and connotation of modem science on syndrome of turbid phlegm obstructing lung and syndrome of deficiency of both Qi and Yin in lung cancer,and try to discover biomarkers. Methods: The study included 21 patients with lung cancer of syndrome of turbid phlegm obstructing lung,21 patients with lung eancer of syndrome of deficiency of both Qi and Yin,and 20 healthy volunteers. After collection of EBC , the EBC samples were analyzed with GC - MS. Results ;The patients of syndrome of turbid phlegm obstructing lung and syndrome of deficiency of both Qi and Yin were clearly distinguished from healthy persons. 9 potential tumor biomarkers were discovered ,including 3 molecules existed in most patient group samples,and 6 in all groups, while the-quantities of the 6 molecules in patient groups were significantly

  17. Temperatura do ar exalado, um novo biomarcador no controle da asma: um estudo piloto Exhaled breath temperature, a new biomarker in asthma control: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Emrich Melo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a temperatura do ar exalado (TAE, medida por um método não invasivo, é efetiva no monitoramento de pacientes com asma não controlada. MÉTODOS: Estudo piloto com nove pacientes (sete mulheres e dois homens; média de idade: 39 anos com diagnóstico de asma por pelo menos um ano e sem uso de tratamento de manutenção por pelo menos três meses antes do início do estudo. Na primeira visita, os pacientes foram submetidos à espirometria e à medida da TAE. Todos os pacientes foram orientados a iniciar tratamento com budesonida/formoterol (200/6 µg inalatório a cada 12 h por seis semanas. Além disso, os pacientes com asma grave (VEF1 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the exhaled breath temperature (EBT, measured by a noninvasive method, is an effective means of monitoring patients with uncontrolled asthma. METHODS: A pilot study comprising nine patients (seven women and two men; mean age: 39 years diagnosed with asthma at least one year prior to the beginning of the study and not having been under maintenance therapy for the last three months. In the first visit, the patients underwent spirometry and measurement of EBT. The patients were then instructed to use inhaled budesonide/formoterol (200/6 µg every 12 h for six weeks. In addition, the patients with severe asthma (FEV1 < 60% of predicted were instructed to use oral prednisolone (40 mg/day for five days. After six weeks, the patients underwent the same tests. RESULTS: All of the patients reported an improvement in the symptoms of asthma, as confirmed by a statistically significant increase in FEV1 from the first to the second visit (mean, 56.1% vs. 88.7% of predicted; p < 0.05. Five patients used oral prednisolone for the first five days of the treatment period. Six patients used additional doses of inhaled budesonide/formoterol (mean duration, 2.5 weeks. The EBT decreased significantly from the first to the second visit (mean EBT: 35.1ºC vs. 34.1ºC; p < 0

  18. Application of LaserBreath-001 for breath acetone measurement in subjects with diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhennan; Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-11-01

    Breath acetone is a promising biomarker of diabetes mellitus. With an integrated standalone, on-site cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer, LaserBreath-001, we tested breath samples from 23 type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, 52 healthy subjects. In the cross-sectional studies, the obtained breath acetone concentrations were higher in the diabetic subjects compared with those in the control group. No correlation between breath acetone and simultaneous BG was observed in the T1D, T2D, and healthy subjects. A moderate positive correlation between the mean individual breath acetone concentrations and the mean individual BG levels was observed in the 20 T1D patients without ketoacidosis. In a longitudinal study, the breath acetone concentrations in a T1D patient with ketoacidosis decreased significantly and remained stable during the 5-day hospitalization. The results from a relatively large number of subjects tested indicate that an elevated mean breath acetone concentration exists in diabetic patients in general. Although many physiological parameters affect breath acetone concentrations, fast (diabetic screening and management under a specifically controlled condition.

  19. Biomarkers for Gastroesophageal Reflux in Respiratory Diseases

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    Össur Ingi Emilsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux (GER is commonly associated with respiratory symptoms, either through a vagal bronchoconstrictive reflex or through microaspiration of gastric contents. No diagnostic test is available, however, to diagnose when respiratory illnesses are caused by GER and when not, but research in this field has been moving forward. Various biomarkers in different types of biosamples have been studied in this context. The aim of this review is to summarize the present knowledge in this field. GER patients with respiratory diseases seem to have a different biochemical profile from similar patients without GER. Inflammatory biomarkers differ in asthmatics based on GER status, tachykinins are elevated in patients with GER-related cough, and bile acids are elevated in lung transplant patients with GER. However, studies on these biomarkers are often limited by their small size, methods of analysis, and case selections. The two pathogenesis mechanisms are associated with different respiratory illnesses and biochemical profiles. A reliable test to identify GER-induced respiratory disorders needs to be developed. Bronchoalveolar lavage is too invasive to be of use in most patients. Exhaled breath condensate samples need further evaluation and standardization. The newly developed particles in exhaled air measurements remain to be studied further.

  20. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  1. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  2. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  3. 非小细胞肺癌患者呼出气冷凝液VEGF检测的临床意义%Clinical significance of detecting VEGF in exhaled breath condensate of patients with lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜剑松

    2012-01-01

    目的 测定非小细胞肺癌患者(NSCLC)呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)并研究其临床意义.方法 收集40例经病理确诊的NSCLC患者、20例稳定期的慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者和20例健康体检者的EBC和血清标本,采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)分别检测EBC和血清中VEGF水平.结果 ①NSCLC组EBC和血清中VEGF水平[(11.7±6.1) pg/mL、(310.5±23.9) pg/mL]显著高于COPD组[(6.3±4.9) pg/mL、(217.1±14.7) pg/mL]及正常对照组[(3 6±1.2) pg/mL、(162.5±16.5) pg/mL].②EBC和血清中VEGF水平与NSCLC患者的TNM分期及淋巴结转移呈正相关,与肺癌病理类型及患者性别、年龄、吸烟史无密切关系.结论 检测EBC中VEGF有助于肺癌的早期诊断、病情进展及预后判断.%Objective To study the clinical significance of measuring VEGF in exhaled breath condensate(EBC) of patients with non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC). Methods Forty patients with confirmed NSCLC by pathology were enrolled in the study. Among them, 20 patients had stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the rest 20 were healthy subjects. Serum samples were also collected from the three groups. VEGF levels were measured in EBC and serum of all the subjects under study were applied with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results ① VEGF levels in EBC and serum were higher in NSCLC group[ (11. 7±6. 1) pg/mL, (310. 5 + 23. 9) pg/mL] than those in COPD patients[(6. 3 ± 4. 9) pg/mL, (217.1 ±14. 7) pg/mL] and healthy controls[(3. 6 ± 1. 2) pg/mL, (162.5 + 16.5) pg/mL]; ② The VEGF levels in EBC and serum of NSCLC group had a positive correlation with the tumor stages and lymph node metastasis, but were not related to the tumor type, gender, age and smoking history. Conclusion The detection of VEGF levels in EBC is beneficial to the early diagnosis, progress and prognosis of lung cancer.

  4. Nitrite exhaled breath condensate study in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass cardiac surgery Estudo do nitrito do condensado do exalado pulmonar em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca com CEC

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    Viviane dos Santos Augusto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a relative lack of studies on postoperative changes in nitrite (NO2 - concentrations, a marker of injury, following cardiac surgery. In this context, investigations on how exhaled NO concentrations vary in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery will certainly contribute to new clinical findings. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the EBC NO levels in both the pre and postoperative (24 hours periods of cardiac surgery. METHODS: Twenty - eight individuals were divided into three groups: 1 control, 2 coronary artery bypass grafting, and 3 valve surgery. The nitrite (NO2 - levels were measured by chemiluminescence in blood samples and exhaled breath condensate (EBC. Data were analyzed by the Mann - Whitney and Wilcoxon tests. RESULTS: 1 Preoperatively, the EBC NO2 - levels from groups 2 and 3 patients were higher than control individuals; 2 The postoperative (24 hours NO2 - levels in the EBC from group 3 patients were lower compared with preoperative values; 3 The NO2 - levels in the plasma from group 2 patients were lower in the preoperative compared with the postoperative (24h values and; 4 Preoperatively, there was no difference between groups 2 and 3 in terms of plasma NO2 - concentrations. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that NO measurement in EBC is feasible in cardiac surgery patients.INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos mostrando alterações das concentrações de nitrito (NO2 - exalado, com biomarcador de lesão, são raros em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. Nesse contexto, o seu estudo no pré e pós - operatório de cirurgias cardíacas poderá contribuir para novos dados clínicos. OBJETIVO: O objetivo foi comparar os níveis de nitrito (NO2 - do condensado do exalado pulmonar (CEP no pré e pós - operatório de cirurgia cardíaca com circulação extracorpórea. MÉTODOS: Vinte e oito indivíduos foram alocados em três grupos: 1 controle, 2 revascularização do miocárdio e 3 corre

  5. 呼出气冷凝液pH值与迟发型VAP的相关分析%Relevance between pH value of exhaled breath condensate and late ventilator associated pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐天杰; 阎锡新; 李帅; 李海涛

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To find out and master the relevance between pH value of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and late ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). METHODS A prospective study was conducted on 57 patients with late VAP hospitalized in ICU of Respiratory Department in the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from May 2009 to Apr. 2011. Meanwhile, 60 healthy cases were enrolled for control. The clinical data were collected to further calculate the pulmonary infection score (CPIS). In the same time, EBC of all patients were collected to measure pH value. Then the statistical analysis was carried out. RESULTS One hundred and seventy-three pathogenic bacteria were isolated from the secretion of EBC of the 57 patients, which mainly were Pseudo-monas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, acounting for 24. 86% and 23. 70% , respectively. The pH value of EBC on diagnosis day of VAP declined obviously compaired with that on three days after tracheal intubation(t = 5. 802,P<0. 05)and that in healthy control group (t= 12. 146,P<0. 05). CONCLUSION The detection of pH value of EBC is helpful for the diagnosis of late VAP.%目的 探讨呼出气冷凝液pH值水平与迟发型呼吸机相关性肺炎发生及严重程度的相关性.方法 选取2009年5月-2011年4月在河北医科大学第二医院呼吸科ICU住院的迟发型呼吸机相关性肺炎患者57例及健康体检者60名;收集患者临床资料,计算临床肺部感染评分;并同步收集患者的呼出气冷凝液,测量pH值;之后行统计学分析.结果 57例迟发型VAP患者,有创机械通气期间下呼吸道分泌物共分离出病原菌173株,主要为铜绿假单胞菌及鲍氏不动杆菌,分别占24.86%及23.70%;迟发型VAP诊断当天呼出气冷凝液pH值较插管后第3天及健康对照组均有明显下降(t=5.802,P<0.05;t=12.146,P<0.05).结论 呼出气冷凝液pH值检测有助于迟发型VAP的诊治.

  6. 慢性阻塞性肺病患者呼出气冷凝液pH值的变化%Changes of pH Value of Exhaled Breath Condensate in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓尘; 何静雅; 胡克

    2011-01-01

    目的:探索慢性阻塞性肺病(COPD)患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)pH的变化和EBC中CO2对pH的影响.方法:分别对20例C()PD患者和健康志愿者用自制EBC收集器收集EBC,将收集的EBC两等份,一份立即测pH值,另一份通氩气后再测pH.结果:①通氩气前后,COPD组pH均低于健康组,通氩气前两组pH分别为(6.72±0.31)、(7.62±0.23),通氩气后为(7.66±0.17)、(8.54±0.19).②通氩气后,COPD组和对照组pH均显著升高,变异率均较通氩气前小.两组pH变化值与通氩气前pH值均呈负相关(r分别为-0.946,-0.807).结论:COPD患者EBC pH明显降低.EBC中CO2可以降低EBC pH,为排除CO2对pH的影响,检测EBC pH前需预先除去EBC中的CO2.%Objective: To explore the change of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH of patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the impact of CO2 on EBC pH.Methods: Twenty healthy subjects and 20 COPD patients were enrolled in this study.EBC was collected with self-made EBC collection device.Each EBC sample was divided into two aliquots.The pH of one aliquot was measured immediately, and the other was measured after bubbled with argon.Results: Before and after argon treatment respectively, the pH of COPD was lower than that of the healthy (6.72±0.31 vs 7.62±0.23, and 7.66±0.17 vs 8.54±0.19, respectively).There was a significant increase of pH in deaerated aliquot and a correlation between pre-argon and subsequent changeof pH in both COPD and healthy group (r= -0.946 and -0.807 respectively).Conclusion: There is a significant reduction of EBC pH in COPD.CO2 could decrease the pH of EBC.In order to exclude the impact of CO2 on EBC pH, deaeration is needed before the measurement of pH.

  7. 肺癌患者呼出气冷凝液p16基因甲基化检测%Detection of methylation of the p16 gene in exhaled breath condensate from lung cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐有祖; 朱敏; 朱佩华; 吕冬青; 冯加喜

    2012-01-01

    目的:检测肺癌患者呼出气冷凝液中p16基因异常甲基化情况,探讨呼出气冷凝液中p16基因异常甲基化改变作为肺癌临床辅助诊断分子生物学标志物的可能性.方法:利用甲基化特异性聚合酶链反应( MS - PCR)方法,检测20例病理确诊肺癌患者的呼出气冷凝液标本中p16基因的甲基化情况.结果:20例确诊肺癌患者呼出气冷凝液中p16基因异常甲基化阳性例数为8例(40.0%),其中肺鳞癌、腺癌、小细胞癌患者呼出气冷凝液标本的阳性率分别为40.0%,33.3%和50.0%.p16基因的甲基化异常改变与肿瘤的分期、分型无明显相关性.但是呼出气冷凝液中p16基因甲基化水平均为部分甲基化状态.结论:用呼出气冷凝液标本检测甲基化来诊断和筛选肺癌,p16基因可能不是一个理想的候选基因.%Objective:To detect methylation of pl6 gene in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from lung cancer patients, and to assess its potential as a molecular marker for clinical diagnosis of lung cancer. Methods:With methylation - specific PCR( MS - PCR), the status of methylation of the pl6 gene was investigated in EBC from 20 lung cancer patients. Results; Among these 20 EBC specimens, abnormal methylation of pl6 gene was found in 8 cases(40% ) , the positive rates of squamous - cell lung carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and small - cell lung carcinoma were 40. 0% , 33. 3% and 50. 0% respectively. Abnormal methylation of the pl6 gene in EBC was not significantly correlated with the clinical stage and pathological type of the tumor. But methylation of pi6 gene in the EBC was part - methylation. Conclusion; The method of detecting methylation in EBC to diagnose and screen lung cancer showed that pl6 gene may not a suitable candidate gene.

  8. 支气管哮喘患者呼出气冷凝液中8-异前列腺素水平的研究%8-Isoprostane in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Patients with Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翱; 李少莹; 杨伟康; 李永霞; 樊满齐

    2009-01-01

    Objective To invesitgate the relationship between 8-iseprostane (8-iso-PG) level in exhaled breath condensates (EBCs) and severity of asthma and explore the role of 8-iso-PG in asthma evaluation and monitoring.Methods Fifty-nine patients with asthma were enrolled.In which 15 eases were acute exacerbation, 13 eases were mild intermittent, 15 eases were mild persistent, and 16 eases were mederate-to-severe persistent.Thirteen healthy volunteers were recruited as control.EBCs were collected using EeoSereen system.The 8-iso-PG levels in EBCs were measured by a specific enzyme immunoassay.The patients with mild intermittent asthma were treated with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) for one month and their EBCs were recollected for 8-iso-PG measurement.Results Exhaled 8-iso-PG levels were obviously increased in the patients with acute asthma compared with those chronic asthmatics [(47.2±6.8) pg/mL vs (24.5±12.0) pg/mL, P 0.05).After one-month ICS treatment the 8-iso-PG level in the patients with mild intermittent asthma did not change significantly although the ACT score improved.Conclusions 8-iso-PG levels in EBC are associated with the severity of asthma,implicating 8-iso-PG may be useful in monitoring airway oxidative stress in asthma.ICS treatment is incapable of decreasing the 8-iso-PG,suggesting the ICS has minor impact on oxidative stress.%目的 探讨哮喘患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中8-异前列腺素(8-iso-PG)水平与病情严重程度的关系.阐明EBC中8-jso-PG监测对评估哮喘气道氧化应激的价值.方法 纳入59例哮喘患者和13名健康对照为研究对象.哮喘患者按照病情分为急性发作组15例,非急性发作组44例(轻度间歇者13例,轻度持续者15例,中重度持续者16例).采用EcoScreen收集EBC,酶联免疫分析法(EIA)检测EBC中的8-iso-PG水平.结果 哮喘急性发作组EBC中8-iso-PG水平较非急性发作组高(P0.05).中重度持续较轻度持续高,轻度持续较轻度间歇高(P0.05).结论 EBC中8

  9. Clinic significances of 8-isoprostane in Exhaled Breath Condensate in COPD%COPD患者呼出气冷凝液中8-异前列腺素的检测及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金亮; 陈建荣; 蔡映云; 陶一江; 陶国华; 张扬

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究COPD患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中8-异前列腺素(8-isoPG)浓度的改变及临床意义.方法 收集COPD患者(39例)急性发作期和缓解期以及正常对照组(32例)的EBC,用酶标记法检测EBC中8-isoPG,同时检测AECOPD患者的第一秒呼气容量(FEV1)、最大呼气流速(PEF)、pH值、PaCO2、PaO2及血白细胞总数.结果 ①COPD患者急性发作期8-isoPG为6.44±3.68 ne/L,高于缓解期(4.04±1.25 ng/L)及正常对照组(3.31±0.91 ng/L),P<0.05;②COPD患者8-isoPG浓度与痰量呈正相关,r=0.217,P<0.05.结论 COPD的急性发作期,8-isoPG升高反映了氧化应激增强.%Objective To study the changes and clinic significances of 8-isoprostane (8-isoPG) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD).Methods EBC of 39 cases in acute episode COPD(AECOPD) and period of remission, and that of 32 normal person were collected.EIA enzyme labeling regulation was used for assaying the density of 8isoPG in EBC.Forced expiratory volume in one second( FEVt )and peak expiratory flow(PEF) of AECOPD patients were observed at the same time,and pH,PaCO2 ,PaO2 ,SaO2 ,leukocyte were assayed also.Results ① The concentration of 8-isoPG in EBC in AECOPD wes 6.44 ± 3.68 ng/L, and that was 4.04 ± 1.25 ng/L in remission of COPD and that was 3.31 ± O.91 ng/L in normal controls, P < 0.05.② The concentration of 8-isoPG in EBC had positive relationship with the volume of sputum in AECOPD patients,r =0.217 ,P <0.05.Conclusions The concentration of 8-isoPG in EBC in AECOPD patients were raised when oxidation stress was reinforced.

  10. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath

  11. 间质性肺疾病患者呼出气冷凝液中8-异前列腺素及白三烯B4的水平及临床意义%Levels of 8-isoprostane and leukotriene B4 in exhaled breath condensate and its clinical significance in interstitial lung disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄立霞; 李小莉; 黄晓星; 巫翠华; 洪永忠; 钟春; 朱一鑫

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the levels of 8-isoprostane(8-iso-PG) and leukotriene B4(LTB4) in exhaled breath condensate(EBC)and its clinical significance in interstitial lung disease(ILD). Methods 20 ILD patients in our depart-ment from August 2012 to December 2013 were selected as the ILD group,20 healthy subjects matched with age and body mass index were selected as control group.The levels of 8-iso-PG and LTB4 in EBC were measured by ELISA. Results The level of 8-iso-PG in ILD group was (9.69+2.8) ng/L,which was higher than that in control group(4.86+1.9) ng/L, with significant difference (P﹤0.05).The level of LTB4 in EBC of ILD group was (15.46+6.6) ng/L,higher than that in control group (8.55+4.4) ng/L,the difference was statistically significant(P﹤0.01).The specificity of LTB4 and 8-iso-PG was 85%respectively,and the sensitivity was 90% and 60% respectively. Conclusion 8-iso-PG and LTB4 increases in EBC of ILD patients.Measuring biomarkers in EBC may be useful to evaluate inflammatory response of ILD.%目的:探讨间质性肺疾病(ILD)患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中8-异前列腺素(8-iso-PG)及白三烯B4(LTB4)的水平及其临床意义。方法选取2012年8月~2013年12月在我科住院的20例ILD患者为ILD组,20例年龄、性别、体重指数等均相匹配的健康体检者为对照组,采用ELISA检测EBC中8-iso-PG及LTB4水平。结果 ILD组EBC中8-iso-PG水平为(9.69±2.8)ng/L,高于对照组的(4.86±1.9)ng/L,差异有统计学意义(P﹤0.05);ILD组EBC中LTB4水平为(15.46±6.6)ng/L,高于对照组的(8.55±4.4)ng/L,差异有统计学意义(P﹤0.01)。8-iso-PG、LTB4的特异度均为85%,敏感度分别为90%、60%。结论8-iso-PG及LTB4在ILD患者EBC中升高,测定EBC生物标志物或可用于评价ILD炎症反应。

  12. 对机械通气患者呼出气冷凝液中过氧化氢的研究%Determination of the hydrogen peroxide level in exhaled breath condensate of patients under mechanical ventilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国辉; 王广发

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content in condensate of exhaled breath (EBC) in order to explore its relation with intensify of inflammation of the respiratory tract and prognosis of the patients under mechanical ventilation in respiratory intensive care unit (RICU).Methods Thirty-six patients undergoing mechanical ventilation were studied.EBC was collected on the 1,3,5,7 davs after mechanical ventilation.H2O2 in EBC was measured fluorimetrically.Results A significantly lowered H2O2 level in the survivors was observed on day 3[(0.105±0.032)μmol/L],day 5[(0.072±0.034)μmol/L] and day 7 [(O.047±0.029)μmol/L] compared with day 1[(O.192±0.135)μmol/L] after mechanical ventilation(all P0.05).A significant lower H2O2 level was observed in non-survivors on dav 1[(0.055±0.029)μmol/L],and day 3 [(0.088±0.040)μmol/L] and day 5 [(0.150±0.134)μmol/L]compared with day 7 [(0.234±0.152)μmol/L] after mechanical ventilation (all PO.05).A significantly lower H2O2 level in non-survivor compared with survivors on day 1 after mechanical ventilation(P0.05).A significantly higher H2O2 level in non-survivors compared with that of survivors on day 5 and day 7 after mechanical ventilation(P0.05).Conclusion The findings suggest that the level of H2O2 in EBC is correlated with severity of patients under mechanical ventilation,and it may prove to be useful in monitoring of inflammatory reaction in the airway after mechanical ventilation to be used as a guidance of therapy and prognosis in patients under mechanical ventilation.%目的 探讨呼吸重症加强治疗病房(RICU)机械通气患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中过氧化氢(H2O2)浓度与呼吸道炎症反应及预后的关系.方法 采用自行设计的EBC收集器,对36例机械通气患者在通气1、3、5和7 d收集呼气端的EBC,应用化学荧光法测定EBC中H2O2浓度,并进行统计学分析.结果 存活组机械通气3、5和7 d EBC中H2O2浓度较1 d明显降低,差异有统计学意义[(0

  13. The clinical significance of PCT in exhaled breath condensate of patients with AECOPD%AECOPD 患者呼出气冷凝液中降钙素原检测及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金亮; 陈建荣; 陶国华

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期(AECOPD)患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中降钙素原(PCT)水平的变化及临床意义。方法选取92例 AECOPD 患者,根据急性生理学与慢性健康状况Ⅱ评分(APACHEⅡ评分)将 AECOPD 患者分为高危组、中危组和低危组,检测入院后24 h内的 EBC 和血清中 PCT、C 反应蛋白(CRP)和白细胞计数(WBC)水平,比较各组间的差异;根据预后将 AECOPD 患者分为存活组与死亡组,比较2组间各指标的差异。同期选取41例正常对照组,检测其 EBC 和血清中 PCT 水平。结果①AECOPD 患者 EBC 和血清中 PCT 水平[(0.084±0.043)μg/L,(0.767±0.348)μg/L]高于正常对照组[(0.014±0.006)μg/L,(0.041±0.016)μg/L], P <0.01。②EBC 中 PCT 水平在高危组、中危组和低危组3组间的差异有统计学意义(F =20.555, P <0.01)。③死亡组 EBC 和血清中 PCT 水平均高于存活组(t =7.736,P <0.01)。④AECOPD 患者 EBC 中 PCT 水平与血 PCT、血 CRP、WBC 水平和 APACHEⅡ评分均呈正相关(r 分别为0.437、0.399、0.322、0.548,P 值均<0.01)。结论 AECOPD 患者 EBC 中 PCT 水平与患者病情严重程度具有较好的相关性,是判断 AECOPD 严重程度和预后的敏感指标。%Objective To study the changes and clinic significances of procalcitonin (PCT) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in patients of acute episode chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD).Methods We selected 92 patients with AECOPD,and were divided into three groups, namely high score group,median score group and low score group according to acute physiology and chronic health evaluationⅡ(APACHEⅡ) score.EBC PCT,Serum PCT,C-reactive protein (CRP) and WBC were assayed within the first 24 hours after admission,the differences in those indicators between three groups were analyzed.The patients were divided into survival group and death group according to prognosis,and the differences in those indicators between the two groups were

  14. Modular Sampling and Analysis Techniques for the Real-Time Analysis of Human Breath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M; Farquar, G; Adams, K; Bogan, M; Martin, A; Benner, H; Spadaccini, C; Steele, P; Davis, C; Loyola, B; Morgan, J; Sankaran, S

    2007-07-09

    At LLNL and UC Davis, we are developing several techniques for the real-time sampling and analysis of trace gases, aerosols and exhaled breath that could be useful for a modular, integrated system for breath analysis. Those techniques include single-particle bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) for the analysis of exhaled aerosol particles or droplets as well as breath samplers integrated with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or MEMS-based differential mobility spectrometry (DMS). We describe these techniques and present recent data obtained from human breath or breath condensate, in particular, addressing the question of how environmental exposure influences the composition of breath.

  15. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  16. Determination and clinical significance of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in exhaled breath condensate of AECOPD patients%AECOPD患者呼出气冷凝液中分泌性白细胞蛋白酶抑制剂的检测及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 张固琴; 王丽慧

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the change of the levels of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor ( SLPI) in expired breath condensate ( EBC) of AECOPD patients before and after the treatment, and to assess the relation-ship of the levels to airway inflammation and disease severity. Methods 30 AECOPD patients and 18 healthy people were randomly selected. Their levels of SLPI in EBC were compared between the AECOPD group and the control group before and after the treatment. Moreover, the relationship of SLPI levels to clinical features, pulmonary func-tion, blood gas analysis and WBC was analyzed. Results After the treatment, the level of SLPI in EBC increased significantly in the AECOPD group (P0.05)。结论 AECOPD患者EBC中SLPI浓度可作为反映病情的严重程度和临床转归的指标。

  17. 呼气冷凝液中3种肿瘤标志物联合检测在肺癌诊断中的价值研究%Value of combined detection with three tumor markers in exhaled breath condensate on the diagnosis of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伦; 詹伟杰; 廖绍宗; 潘赛英

    2013-01-01

    目的:对呼气冷凝液(EBC )中3种肿瘤标志物进行联合检测,研究其在肺癌诊断中的临床价值,探讨该方法在临床应用的可能性,为今后的肺癌诊断和治疗效果评估提供可靠的参考依据。方法选择2011年1月15日至2012年12月15日该院肿瘤科收治的肺癌患者30例作为肺癌组,另抽取同期健康体检者30例作为健康对照组,对肺癌组患者治疗前后和健康对照组进行 EBC及血清中癌胚抗原(CEA )、细胞角蛋白19的可溶性片段(CYFRA21-1)、血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)水平检测,并对比分析检测结果。采用标准 EBC 收集器收集 EBC , CEA、CYFRA21-1采用化学发光法,VEGF用酶联免疫吸附法测定。结果肺癌组患者EBC及血清中CEA、CY-FRA21-1、VEGF检测水平明显高于对照组(P<0.05),化疗后CEA、CYFRA21-1、VEGF水平较治疗前显著降低(P<0.05),EBC中CEA、CYFRA21-1、VEGF水平较血清中低(P<0.05)。结论对EBC中CEA、CYFRA21-1、V EG F水平进行检测对于肺癌的诊断、病理分型和疗效判断均具有重要的参考价值,EBC检测结果与血清结果联合可实现相互补充,提高阳性率,值得关注。%Objective To combinedly detect three tumor markers in exhaled breath condensate ,analyze the clinical value on diagnosis of lung cancer ,discuss the possibility of the method applied in the clinic ,and provide a reli-able basis for the lung cancer diagnosis and treatment in the future assessment .Methods 30 cases with lung cancer from January 15 ,2011 to December 15 ,2012 in our hospital were selected as lung cancer group ,and the other 30 healthy people were selected as control group .The CEA ,CYFRA21-1 and VEGF levels in exhaled breath condensate and serum were detected in lung cancer group and control group ,and the detection results were comparatively ana-lyzed .Results The CEA ,CYFRA21-1 and VEGF levels in lung cancer group were

  18. 肺癌患者呼出气冷凝液中基因微卫星改变和p53基因变异的检测及其意义%Significance of detection of chromosome microsatellite alterations and p53 gene mutation in exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯哲敏; 陈建荣; 蔡映云

    2009-01-01

    呼出气冷凝液(exhaled breath condensate,EBC)检测是一种新的肺部病变诊断技术.通过检测EBC中相关基因.从而寻找早期诊断肺癌的新方法是目前肺癌研究的热点.采用聚合酶链式反应,对肺癌患者EBC中3号染色体短臂上基因的微卫星异常以及p53基因变异进行检测,结果发现肺癌患者EBC中基因微卫星改变和p53基因变异较正常对照者阳性率明显为高.目前对于EBC基因检测尚属探索阶段,但随着检测技术的不断完善,检测EBC中肺癌的基因标志物是一个较为有希望提高肺癌早期诊断率的方法.%Detection of the exhaled breath condensate(EBC) is a new diagnosis for lung disease.Detecting gene mutation in EBC of lung cancer patients as a potential method of diagnosing lung cancer in early period has become a hot spot in lung cancer research. Some researches, which detect gene mutation in EBC by using polymerase chain reaction, demonstrate that positive rates of p53 gene mutation and chromosome microsatellite alterations in chromosomal region 3p of lung cancer patients are higher than those of healthy peoples. Detecting gene mutation in EBC is still in research stage. However, as the continual development of detecting technique,it is expected to raise the early diagnosis of lung carcinoma.

  19. Clinical update on the use of biomarkers of airway inflammation in the management of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorscheid DR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SJ Wadsworth1,2, DD Sin1,2, DR Dorscheid1,21UBC James Hogg Research Centre, Providence Heart and Lung Institute, St Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada; 2Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Biological markers are already used in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Biomarkers have great potential use in the clinic as a noninvasive means to make more accurate diagnoses, monitor disease progression, and create personalized treatment regimes. Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with several different phenotypes, generally triggered by multiple gene-environment interactions. Pulmonary function tests are most often used objectively to confirm the diagnosis. However, airflow obstruction can be variable and thus missed using spirometry. Furthermore, lung function measurements may not reflect the precise underlying pathological processes responsible for different phenotypes. Inhaled corticosteroids and ß2-agonists have been the mainstay of asthma therapy for over 30 years, but the heterogeneity of the disease means not all asthmatics respond to the same treatment. High costs and undesired side effects of drugs also drive the need for better targeted treatment of asthma. Biomarkers have the potential to indicate an individual's disease phenotype and thereby guide clinicians in their decisions regarding treatment. This review focuses on biomarkers of airway inflammation which may help us to identify, monitor, and guide treatment of asthmatics. We discuss biomarkers obtained from multiple physiological sources, including sputum, exhaled gases, exhaled breath condensate, serum, and urine. We discuss the inherent limitations and benefits of using biomarkers in a heterogeneous disease such as asthma. We also discuss how we may modify our study designs to improve the identification and potential use of potential biomarkers in asthma.Keywords: asthma, inflammation, airway

  20. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? A A A en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  1. Water Condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics......, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address...

  2. From breathing to respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitting, Jean-William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs.

  3. The significance of exhaled nitric oixde and interleukin-8 in exhaled breath condensate in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%检测呼出气一氧化氮和呼出气冷凝液中白介素-8在慢性阻塞性肺疾病中的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬; 许西琳; 辛雯艳; 将雪龙; 鲁德玕

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨呼出气一氧化氮(fraction of exhaled nitric oxide,FeNO)和呼出气冷凝液(exhaled breath condensate,EBC)中白介素-8(interleukin-8,IL-8)在慢性阻塞性肺疾病(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,COPD)病情评估中的意义.方法:选择81例COPD急性加重期到COPD稳定期患者作为观察组,78例健康者为对照组,比较两组肺功能,FeNO水平和EBC中的IL-8的水平.结果:观察组中COPD急性加重期FeNO、IL-8水平均高于稳定期(P<0.05);COPD稳定期FeNO、IL-8水平均高于对照组(P<0.05);观察组FeNO、IL-8水平均高于对照组(P<0.05);相关分析发现FeNO与IL-8呈正相关.结论:FeNO、EBC中的IL-8可能在COPD的发生及发展过程中起到重要作用,可能成为反映COPD患者病情严重程度的指标.

  4. 阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征患者呼出气中TNF-α水平的临床意义%Clinical Significance of the Level of TNF-α in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Patients with OSAHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单琳; 邵川; 朱惠莉; 鲁沈源; 周敬; 励雯静; 李善群

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨呼出气冷凝液(exhaled breath condensate,EBC)中肿瘤坏死因子-α(tumor necrosis factor-α,TNF-α)与阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(obstructive sleep apnea-hyperpnoea syndrome,OSAHS)的关系以及持续气道正压(continuous positive airway pressure,CPAP)治疗对OSAHS患者EBC中TNF-α的影响.方法:将39例分为3组:健康志愿者组10例(AHI0.05).9例中重度OSAHS患者CPAP治疗前后EBC中TNF-α浓度分别为 50.42±24.62 pg·mL-1和29.50±25.20 pg·mL-1,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:中重度OSAHS患者EBC中TNF-α水平明显升高,经CPAP治疗后其水平降低.

  5. Change and significance of cytokines in exhaled breath condensate in COPD patients during treatment%COPD治疗期间呼出气冷凝液中细胞因子的变化及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小莉; 黄平; 杜秀芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨COPD患者治疗期间呼出气冷凝液( EBC)细胞因子水平的变化及与肺功能相关性。方法入选稳定期COPD组24例,健康对照组18例。治疗前及治疗2周、4周、12周收集EBC并检测其LTB4、TNF-α、IL-13水平,并行肺功能检查。结果治疗前COPD组EBC中LTB4、TNF-α、IL-13水平高于对照组,治疗2周后均下降,治疗4周LTB4进一步下降(P0. 05). Changes of FEV1% and FEV1/FVC% before and after treatment had statistic significance. FEV1% pre was negative correlated with LTB4, (r= -0. 574, P=0. 003). Conclusion LTB4 and TNF-α may involve in the process of in-flammatory reaction of COPD, and they may be biomarkers in observing drug effect and monitoring disease severity.

  6. Ethylene and ammonia traces measurements from the patients' breath with renal failure via LPAS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C.; Dutu, D. C. A.; Cernat, R.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Banita, S.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2011-11-01

    The application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) for fast and precise measurements of breath biomarkers has opened up new promises for monitoring and diagnostics in recent years, especially because breath test is a non-invasive method, safe, rapid and acceptable to patients. Our study involved assessment of breath ethylene and breath ammonia levels in patients with renal failure receiving haemodialysis (HD) treatment. Breath samples from healthy subjects and from patients with renal failure were collected using chemically inert aluminized bags and were subsequently analyzed using the LPAS technique. We have found out that the composition of exhaled breath in patients with renal failure contains not only ethylene, but also ammonia and gives valuable information for determining efficacy and endpoint of HD. Analysis of ethylene and ammonia traces from the human breath may provide insight into severity of oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and may ensure optimal therapy and prevention of pathology at patients on continuous HD.

  7. Breath figures of two immiscible substances on a repellent surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; González-Viñas, W.

    2013-05-01

    The understanding of the competition between different substances while condensing on a cold surface is of high interest in situations in which it is desirable to control their condensation rates and the formed morphologies. We do the experiments for mixtures of water and hexamethyldisiloxane vapors at several concentrations. The dropwise condensation of the vapors forms breath figures on a substrate that is repellant to both substances. We report the average radius of the drops for each specie as a function of time. Also, we pay attention to the evolution of the corresponding morphologies and the appearance of hybrid clusters.

  8. SP-D、CCL18、CC16在慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期血清和呼气冷凝液中的变化及临床价值%Change and clinical value of SP-D,CCL18 and CC16 in serum and in exhaled breath condensate in acute exacerbation of COPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠仁; 秦篙

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the change and clinical value of SP‐D ,CCL18 and CC16 in serum and in exhaled breath con‐densate in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease .Methods Sixty two cases of COPD patients admitted in our hospital from 2010 January to 2013 December were selected as the research object .All the 62 patients were divided into group A(32 patients with COPD in acute exacerbation) and group B(30 patients with COPD in remission stage) in accordance with the severity of COPD .Thirty six cases of health people were selected as the control group .Statistical subjects SP‐D ,CCL18 ,CC16 content in se‐rum and in exhaled breath condensate ,and the relations between the various indexes and age ,smoking ,pulmonary function and BMI were analyzed .Results The exhaled breath condensate SP‐D ,CCL18 content in group A was significantly higher than that of B group and the control group (P<0 .05) ,and the SP‐D ,CCL18 in group B was higher than that in control group (P<0 .05) .The se‐rum SP‐D ,CCL18 ,CC16 content in group A was significantly higher than that of B group and the control group (P<0 .05) ,and the SP‐D ,CCL18 ,CC16 in group B was higher than that in control group (P< 0 .05) .Serum SP‐D ,CCL18 levels were significantly higher than those in the exhaled breath condensate (P< 0 .01) .Exhaled breath condensate SP‐D was positively associated with smoking age (r=0 .298 ,P<0 .05) ,and FEV1% pred ,FEV1/FVC (% ) showed a negative correlation (r= -0 .318 ,-0 .402 ,P<0 .05);the serum levels of SP‐D was positively associated with tobacco (r=0 .297 ,P<0 .05) ,and FEV1% pred ,FEV1/FVC (% ) were negative correlated (r= -0 .278 ,-0 .298 ,P<0 .05);serum CC16 and FEV1% pred ,FEV1/FVC (% ) were negatively corre‐lated (r= -0 .358 ,-0 .382 ,P<0 .05);Exhale breath condensate SP‐D ,condensate CCL18 ,SP‐D ,CCL18 serum ,serum CC16 were are positively correlated in each two (P<0 .05);and there was no significant correlation between other

  9. Take a Deep Breath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Everyone involved in Beijing’s Olympic Games held their breath last week, not because of the city’s famously polluted air , but in anticipation of the results of an experiment that could help to clean it up.

  10. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is also placed on proper use of the abdominal muscles to better control episodes of shortness of breath, ... Treatment & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make a Donation Make an Appointment Contact ...

  11. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... short of breath. Considerations This is a common complaint in people with some types of heart or ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  12. Design of a breath analysis system for diabetes screening and blood glucose level prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ke; Zhang, David; Wu, Darong; Wei, Hua; Lu, Guangming

    2014-11-01

    It has been reported that concentrations of several biomarkers in diabetics' breath show significant difference from those in healthy people's breath. Concentrations of some biomarkers are also correlated with the blood glucose levels (BGLs) of diabetics. Therefore, it is possible to screen for diabetes and predict BGLs by analyzing one's breath. In this paper, we describe the design of a novel breath analysis system for this purpose. The system uses carefully selected chemical sensors to detect biomarkers in breath. Common interferential factors, including humidity and the ratio of alveolar air in breath, are compensated or handled in the algorithm. Considering the intersubject variance of the components in breath, we build subject-specific prediction models to improve the accuracy of BGL prediction. A total of 295 breath samples from healthy subjects and 279 samples from diabetic subjects were collected to evaluate the performance of the system. The sensitivity and specificity of diabetes screening are 91.51% and 90.77%, respectively. The mean relative absolute error for BGL prediction is 21.7%. Experiments show that the system is effective and that the strategies adopted in the system can improve its accuracy. The system potentially provides a noninvasive and convenient method for diabetes screening and BGL monitoring as an adjunct to the standard criteria.

  13. System of Optoelectronic Sensors for Breath Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołajczyk Janusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an integrated laser absorption system as a potential tool for breath analysis for clinical diagnostics, online therapy monitoring and metabolic disorder control. The sensors operate basing on cavity enhanced spectroscopy and multi-pass spectroscopy supported by wavelength modulation spectroscopy. The aspects concerning selection of operational spectral range and minimization of interference are also discussed. Tests results of the constructed devices collected with reference samples of biomarkers are also presented. The obtained data provide an opportunity to analyse applicability of optoelectronic sensors in medical screening.

  14. 非小细胞肺癌患者呼出气冷凝液及肿瘤组织中P53蛋白的检测%P53 protein detection in exhaled breath condensate and tumor tissue in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯哲敏; 陈建荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of detecting P53 protein in tumor tissue and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of NSCLC patients.Methods To collected tumor tissue and EBC of NSCLC patients,expression of P53 protein in tumor tissue and normal tissue were evaluated by immunohistochemistry,Level of P53 protein in EBC were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method.Results P53 protein's expression positive rate in NSCLC patients tumor tissues were 60.7%,it was significantly higher than normal control group ( P < 0.01 ) and had no significant difference in different types and TNM stages.The levels of P53 protein in NSCLC group's EBC was (50.81 ± 14.23) ng/L,it was significantly higher than normal control group ( P <0.01).it had no significant difference in different types ( P >0.05) and in Ⅱ + Ⅲ + Ⅳ stage were significantly higher than in Ⅰ stage ( P <0.05).The sensitivity and specificity of P53 protein in tumor tissue detection pathway were 60.7%and 90.0%,when in EBC detection pathway were 42.4% and 93.4%,there were no significant difference in twe pathways ( P <0.05).Conclusions Detecting P53 protein's level in tumor tissue aud EBC was helpful to diagnosis,evaluation of illness state of NSCLC patients.%目的 研究非小细胞肺癌(nonsmall-cell lung cancer,NSCLC)患者肿瘤组织及呼出气冷凝液(exhaled breath condensate,EBC)中P53蛋白的表达及其临床意义.方法 收集NSCLC患者肿瘤组织和EBC,采用免疫组织化学方法(SP)检测肿瘤组织及对照正常肺组织中的P53蛋白表达水平,采用酶免疫法检测肺癌组及对照组EBC中P53蛋白的水平.结果 NSCLC患者肿瘤组织中P53蛋白表达阳性率为60.7%,明显高于对照组(P<0.01);不同病理类型及不同病理分期肿瘤组织中P53蛋白表达无显著性差异;NSCLC患者EBC中P53蛋白浓度为(50.81±14.23) ng/L,明显较正常对照组高(P<0.01);不同病理类型NSCLC患者EBC中P53蛋白

  15. 慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者呼出气冷凝液中髓过氧化物酶检测的临床意义%Clinical Significance of Myeloperoxidase Detection of Exhaled Breath Condensate of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pul-monary Disease (COPD)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林桂娥; 欧邦豪; 张圳峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the change and clinical significance of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods EBC of 49 patients with COPD and 18 healthy controls were collected, and the concentrations of MPO in EBC were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results The concentration of MPO in COPD group was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05). The MPO concentration of COPD group was positively correlated to spirometric parameters, P <0.05. Conclusions The MPO concentration in EBC of COPD patients can reflect the degree of inflammation and oxidative stress. Monitoring of EBC MPO concentration can be used as a better evaluation index of COPD disease.%目的:探讨慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中髓过氧化物酶(MPO)的浓度改变及临床意义。方法收集49例COPD患者、18例健康体检者的EBC,用酶免疫法测定EBC中MPO浓度。结果COPD组MPO浓度显著高于对照组(P<0.05);COPD组EBC中MPO浓度与患者FEV1占预计值%、PEF呈正相关(均P<0.05)。结论 COPD患者EBC中的MPO浓度能反映炎症和氧化应激程度,监测EBC中的MPO浓度可作为一种较好的评价COPD病情的生物学指标。

  16. 呼出气冷凝液中8-异前列腺素水平检测对咳嗽变异性哮喘的临床意义%Clinical significance of 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate of patients with cough variant asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志莹; 徐健; 陈济明; 李一禄; 聂莉; 陈延伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of the detection of 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in patients with cough variant asthma (CVA). Methods 50 patients with CVA and 30 cases of healthy controls were enrolled. The level of 8-iso-PG in EBC was measured in all subjects, and their FEV1%value was evaluated. Results The level of 8-iso-PG in EBC in patents with CVA were significantly higher than that in the healthy controls (P 0. 05). Conclusion 8-iso-PG detection in EBC can reflect the airway oxidative stress response existed in CVA, and 8-iso-PG test can be used as an objective indicator for early diagnosis and the healing efficacy of CVA disease.%目的:探讨8-异前列腺素检测对诊治咳嗽变异性哮喘(CVA)的临床意义。方法选取50例CVA 患者和30例健康对照纳入研究,所有受试者测定呼出气冷凝液中8-异前列腺素水平并进行肺功能检测。结果与健康人群相比,CVA 患者 EBV 中8-iso-PG 水平显著升高(P 0.05)。结论 EBC 中8-iso-PG 检测可直观反映 CVA 患者存在的气道氧化应激状态,并能较好的预测治疗敏感性,从而有助于 CVA 患者的早期诊断和疗效预判。

  17. Change and significance of 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome%阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征呼出气冷凝液8-异前列烷的昼夜变化及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏秋萍; 陈建荣; 陶一江; 蔡映云

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the changes of 8-isoprostane(8-isoPG) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in patients of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and discuss their clinic significance. Methods Forty OSAHS patients and 30 normal controls were included in the study. EBC before and after polysomnography(PSG) were collected by Ecosreen made in JAEGER Company in German. Serum after PSG was collected as well. EBC and serum 8-isoPG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results The concentration of 8-isoPG in EBC was (13.08±1.42) ng/L before PSG, (14.93±1.39) ng/L after PSG in 40 OSAHS patients( P 0.05 ). The concentration of 8-isoPG in EBC after PSG was significantly higher than that in normal controls ( P0.05).OSAHS组睡眠监测后EBC及血清中8-isoPG比正常对照组升高,P<0.01.OSAHS患者睡眠监测后EBC 8-isoPG与血清8-isoPG呈正相关(r=0.685,P<0.01),与AHI呈正相关(r=0.650,P<0.05),与睡眠中最低血氧饱和度、基础血氧饱和度和平均血氧饱和度呈负相关(r=-0.406,-0.439,-0.454,P值均<0.05).结论 OSAHS患者存在夜间氧化应激反应增强,OSAHS患者早晨EBC中8-isoPG可以作为评价患者氧化应激状态和估计病情严重程度的较好指标.

  18. Plasma and EBC microRNAs as early biomarkers of non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzoni, Paola; Banda, Iris; Goldoni, Matteo; Corradi, Massimo; Tiseo, Marcello; Acampa, Olga; Balestra, Valeria; Ampollini, Luca; Casalini, Angelo; Carbognani, Paolo; Mutti, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Lung cancer is a major cause of death in Western countries. Current screening methods are invasive and still lead to a high percentage of false positives. There is, therefore, a need to find biomarkers that increase the probability of detecting lung cancer early. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are stable molecules in blood plasma and exhaled breath condensate (EBC). We quantified miRNA-21 and miRNA-486 expression from plasma and EBC samples from patients with a diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and controls. miRNA-21 was significantly higher in plasma and in EBC of the NSCLC patients and miRNA-486 was significantly lower. This difference indicates a significantly improved diagnostic value, and suggests that these miRNAs could be clinically used as a first-line screening test in high-risk subjects.

  19. Breathing exercises for dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome in adults

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Copyright © 2013 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd. Background: Dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome (DB/HVS) is a respiratory disorder, psychologically or physiologically based, involving breathing too deeply and/or too rapidly (hyperventilation) or erratic breathing interspersed with breath-holding or sighing (DB). DB/HVS can result in significant patient morbidity and an array of symptoms including breathlessness, chest tightness, dizziness, tre...

  20. Ammonia and ethylene biomarkers in the respiration of the people with schizophrenia using photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Cristina; Petrus, Mioara; Bratu, Ana Maria

    2015-05-01

    Oxidative stress has become an exciting area of schizophrenia (SCZ) research, and provides ample opportunities and hope for a better understanding of its pathophysiology, which may lead to new treatment strategies. The first objective of the present study was to analyze the oxidative stress markers in breath samples of patients with SCZ before and after the treatment with Levomepromazine. The second objective was to analyze the deficiency of amino acids marker in breath samples of patients with SCZ before and after the treatment. Exhaled breath was collected from 15 SCZ patients and 19 healthy controls; subsequently, CO2 laser photoacoustic spectroscopy was used to assess the exhaled breath compounds of the study subjects. One of the main breath biomarkers of the oxidative stress is ethylene, while one of the main breath biomarkers of the amino acids deficiency is ammonia. The breath biomarkers in the exhalation of SCZ patients exhibited significant differences from the breath biomarkers in the exhalation of healthy controls. Analysis of breath ethylene and breath ammonia provides a related model of SCZ exhalation that could represent an effective and convenient screening method for this intellectual disability.

  1. Lung cancer screening beyond low-dose computed tomography: the role of novel biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Naveed; Kumar, Rohit; Kavuru, Mani S

    2014-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common and lethal malignancy in the world. The landmark National lung screening trial (NLST) showed a 20% relative reduction in mortality in high-risk individuals with screening low-dose computed tomography. However, the poor specificity and low prevalence of lung cancer in the NLST provide major limitations to its widespread use. Furthermore, a lung nodule on CT scan requires a nuanced and individualized approach towards management. In this regard, advances in high through-put technology (molecular diagnostics, multi-gene chips, proteomics, and bronchoscopic techniques) have led to discovery of lung cancer biomarkers that have shown potential to complement the current screening standards. Early detection of lung cancer can be achieved by analysis of biomarkers from tissue samples within the respiratory tract such as sputum, saliva, nasal/bronchial airway epithelial cells and exhaled breath condensate or through peripheral biofluids such as blood, serum and urine. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy has been employed in research setting to identify pre-invasive lesions not identified on CT scan. Although these modalities are not yet commercially available in clinic setting, they will be available in the near future and clinicians who care for patients with lung cancer should be aware. In this review, we present up-to-date state of biomarker development, discuss their clinical relevance and predict their future role in lung cancer management.

  2. Human Biomonitoring of Engineered Nanoparticles: An Appraisal of Critical Issues and Potential Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bergamaschi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the applicability of biological monitoring to the assessment of exposure and possible effects deriving from exposure to engineered nanomaterials (NM. After establishing a conceptual framework in which human biomonitoring should be placed, the paper reviews the critical issues related to the unusual properties of NM affecting the implementation of biomonitoring activities for this new class of chemicals. Relying on the recent advances in the toxicogenomic, it is possible to assess whether specific biological pathways are activated or perturbed by specific NM. However, to evaluate if quantitative changes in these biomarkers can be used as indicators or predictors for toxicity in humans, validation on well characterised groups of exposed people is needed. At present, it appears more pragmatic to evolve NM-associated biomarker identification considering relevant biological responses found in environmental and occupational studies and assessing the early events associated with exposure to these NM. The battery of biochemical markers includes soluble molecules, antioxidant capacity, peroxidated lipids and carbonyl groups in serum proteins as a biomarkers of systemic inflammation and vascular adhesion molecules to assess endothelial activation/damage. Abnormalities in exhaled breath condensate chemistry reflecting intrinsic changes in the airway lining fluid and lung inflammation seem promising tools suitable for BM studies and are broadly discussed.

  3. 不同肺复张模式对ARDS患者呼吸力学及呼出气冷凝液炎症因子的影响%Effects of various lung recruitment maneuvers on respiratory mechanics and inflammatory cytokines in exhaled breath condensate of patients with ARDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪瑞云; 张建国; 王振红; 熊瑛; 周廷发; 刘清敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of recruitment maneuvers (RM ) with substained inflation (SI) and pressure control ventilation (PCV) on oxygenation ,respiratory mechanics ,concentration of inflammatory cytokine in exhaled breath con‐densate (EBC) and hemodynamics in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) .Methods Forty‐five patients with ARDS were randomized into control group ,SI group and PCV group .The patients of SI group received RM with continu‐ous positive airway pressure ,the PCV group patients received pressure control ventilation and the control group patients re‐ceived lung protective strategy without RM .The RMs were performed and repeated once every 12 hours ,lasting 3 days .Pa‐rameters of Oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2 ) ,Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) ,Plateau pressure (Pplat) and Static pulmonary compliance (Cst) of patients before the trial and at 12 ,24 ,48 ,72 h of the test were measured and compared between groups . The TNF‐α,IL‐6 and IL‐10 level in exhaled breath condensate collected before the trial and at 24 and 72 h was analyzed by ELISA .Hemodynamics changes before and after every RM were monitored .Results ①The PaO2/FiO2 and Cst of three groups showed upward trend after treatment and the PIP and Pplat showed downward trend after treatment .The changes were signifi‐cantly different among the control group and the two recruitment groups ,but not significantly different between recruitment groups .②The TNF‐α,IL‐6 and IL‐10 level in exhaled breath condensate of SI group and PCV group showed downward trend after treatment ,but there were not significantly different between the two groups .③ The MAP and CI of two recruitment groups both showed downward trend and the HR and CVP showed upward trend during and after RM .The wave amplitude and duration of the Parameters of PCV group were lower than that of SI group ,and the change was significantly different at the point of RM and 60 ,120 ,300 s

  4. Biomarkers of environmental benzene exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisel, C.; Yu, R.; Roy, A.; Georgopoulos, P. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Environmental exposures to benzene result in increases in body burden that are reflected in various biomarkers of exposure, including benzene in exhaled breath, benzene in blood and urinary trans-trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic acid. A review of the literature indicates that these biomarkers can be used to distinguish populations with different levels of exposure (such as smokers from nonsmokers and occupationally exposed from environmentally exposed populations) and to determine differences in metabolism. Biomarkers in humans have shown that the percentage of benzene metabolized by the ring-opening pathway is greater at environmental exposures than that at higher occupational exposures, a trend similar to that found in animal studies. This suggests that the dose-response curve is nonlinear; that potential different metabolic mechanisms exist at high and low doses; and that the validity of a linear extrapolation of adverse effects measured at high doses to a population exposed to lower, environmental levels of benzene is uncertain. Time-series measurements of the biomarker, exhaled breath, were used to evaluate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Biases were identified between the PBPK model predictions and experimental data that were adequately described using an empirical compartmental model. It is suggested that a mapping of the PBPK model to a compartmental model can be done to optimize the parameters in the PBPK model to provide a future framework for developing a population physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. 44 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. The Air We Breathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

  6. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  7. Breathing Like a Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  8. Effects of CPAP therapy on the Concentrations of Endothelin-1 and Nitric Oxide in Blood and Exhaled breath condensate of patients with obstructive sleep apnea%正压通气对OSAHS患者血清和呼出气冷凝液中内皮素-1及一氧化氮水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚苏梅; 陶一江; 朱杰; 何海艳

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨自动调节持续气道正压通气(auto-CPAP)治疗对OSAHS患者血管内皮功能紊乱的影响.方法 对确诊为OSAHS的实验组进行三个月auto-CPAP治疗,分别测定三个月前后两组血清及EBC中ET-1及NO水平,以及颈动脉内膜中层厚度(IMT).结果 实验组血清和EBC中ET-1水平以及EBC中NO水平均明显下降,IMT较前减少.血清和EBC中ET-1及NO水平与AHI等睡眠监测指标存在相关性.结论 EBC中ET-1及NO水平检测可了解OSAHS患者血管内皮功能紊乱,这种异常可以通过auto-CPAP治疗改善.%Objective To investigate the effect of auto-CPAP therapy on disturbance of vascular endothelium in patients with obstructive sleep apnea/ hypoventilation syndrome( OSAHS ) and the clinical significance of testing Endothelin-1 and Nitric Oxide in exhaled breath condensate( EBC ) of patients with OSAHS. Methods 42 patients with moderate-to-severe OSAHS were randomly allocated to the active group. The active group received the treatments of three months' auto-CPAP. Endothelin-1 and Nitric Oxide levels in plasma and EBC were measured before and after 3 months. Philips iU22 color doppler ultrasound instrument was used to measure intima-medial thick-ness( IMT) of jugular arteries. Results Between before treatment and after the three months, there were significant decrease inAHI, Endothelin-1 levels in plasma and EBC in the active group, and Nitric Oxide levels in EBC were lower. Endothelin-1 levels and Nitric Oxide levels in plasma and EBC were correlated with AHI, LSpO2 , MSpO2 and IMT, but Nitric Oxide levels in EBC showed no correlation with IMT. Conclusion The disturbance of vascular endothelium in patients with OSAHS can be evaluated by testing Endothelin-1 and Nitric Oxide in their EBC, which can be improved by the auto-CPAP treatment.

  9. Value of leukotrienes C4 in exhaled breath condensate and the anti-inflammatory effect of montelukast in asthma%哮喘患者呼出气冷凝液白三烯检测及孟鲁司特的抗炎作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦娥; 沈巨信; 周国忠; 孙健

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the level of leukotrienes C4(LTC4) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of patients with asthma and the effect of inflammatory factors after montelukast treatment. Methods: Thirty patients with asthma were enrolled and given 10 mg montelukast once each night for one month. Before therapy and one month later, the levels of LTC4 in EBC were measured. Another 30 healthy controls were selected as control group. Results: LTC4 levels were significantly higher in the asthma patients before and after treatment compared with the control subjects. The level of LTC4 was significantly decreased in patients with asthma after treatment. Conclusion: Detecting the LTC4 level in EBC can monitor asthmatic airway inflammation, which is convenient, noninvasive and safe. Montelukast can decrease the level of LTC4, which is an effective anti - inflammatory reagent.%目的:观察支气管哮喘患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中半胱氨酰白三烯C4 (LTC4)水平及孟鲁司特治疗后的变化.方法:选择哮喘非急性发作期患者30例,均予孟鲁司特10 mg,每晚一次口服,疗程1月,分别于治疗前及治疗后检测EBC中LTC4水平,同时测定肺功能,另选择30例健康人为对照组.结果:哮喘组治疗前LTC4水平(55.17±17.02) ng/ml,显著高于正常对照组(17.15±7.48)ng/ml,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).哮喘组治疗后LTC4水平为(38.36±14.03) ng/ml,仍高于正常对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.0l).哮喘组治疗前LTC4水平显著高于治疗后,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:检测哮喘患者EBC中LTC4水平可简便安全监测哮喘的气道炎症,孟鲁司特是一种有效的气道炎症抑制剂.

  10. Cysteinyl leukotriene and 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate of asthmatic children%哮喘患儿呼出气冷凝液中半胱氨酰白三烯和8-异前列腺素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁俊丽; 王亚亭; 周登余; 刘晓静; 魏丽华; 李鑫

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the change of cysteinyl leukotriene ( Cys-LTs) levels and 8-Isopros-tane (8-iso-PG) levels in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of asthmatic children from acute exacerbation to clinical remission, and investigate the role of the detection of Cys-LTs and 8-iso-PG in EBC in its severity and pathogenesis , and explore the relationship between the Cys-LTs and 8-iso-PG through measuring Cys-LTs levels and 8-iso-PG levels in the EBC of asthmatic children. Methods The outpatient or inpatient asthmatic children of the pediatrics and a group of healthy children were studied. All subjects′ EBC were collected by the R-Tube produced by American Respiratory Research. The concentration of Cys-LTs and 8-iso-PG in EBC were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and compared among children in asthmatic exacerbation, asthmatic remission, and healthy condition. The relevance of their change would be explored at the same time. Results (1) Cys-LTs levels in EBC were higher in asthma exacerbation, compared to healthy controls (P0. 05 ) . ( 2 ) 8-iso-PG levels was higher in asthmatic exacerbation compared to asth-matic remission ( P0.05)。(2) EBC中的8-iso-PG水平发作组较缓解组高( P<0.05);缓解组较健康对照组高( P<0.05)。(3)对三组EBC中Cys-LTs和8-iso-PG分别进行相关性分析,发作组中Cys-LTs与8-iso-PG有显著相关性( n1=35, r1=0.61, P<0.05),缓解组中两者无显著相关性。结论哮喘患儿EBC中8-iso-PG水平与哮喘严重程度有关,可作为疗效监测的客观指标。 Cys-LTs水平与哮喘恶化有关。两种标志物在哮喘发作时有相关性,提示此时气道氧化应激与炎症反应有一定关联。

  11. Clinical significance of myeloperoxidase in exhaled breath condensate of patients with COPD%慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者呼出气冷凝液中髓过氧化物酶的检测及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 张固琴; 王丽慧

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical significance of myeloperoxidase(MPO) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Methods Forty-nine patients with COPD and 18 healthy controls were included in this study.EBC was collected in all subjects with the experimental device.The concentrations of MPO in EBC were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results The MPO level significantly increased in the COPD patients [(35.68 ± 0.32) μg/L],respectively compared with the healthy control group [(11.72± 0.34) μg/L] (P <0.05).An inverse correlation was observed between MPO and spirometric parameters (FEV1 % pred,PEF).Conclusions We concluded that the measurement of the EBC MPO level may be useful in screening and monitoring air inflammation and oxidative stress of patient with COPD,and the change of pathogenetic condition in COPD.The EBC MPO level in COPD patient could reflect the change of lung function and severity of disease to some extent.%目的 检测COPD患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中髓过氧化物酶(MPO)浓度,探讨MPO与COPD发病发展的关系.方法 纳入49例COPD患者、18例健康体检者作为研究对象,采用EcoscrecnEBC收集仪采集标本,以酶免疫法测定EBC中MPO浓度.结果 COPD组EBC中MPO浓度显著高于健康对照组[(35.68±0.32)μg/L vs (11.72±0.34)μg/L,P<0.05];COPD组EBC中MPO浓度与患者FEV1% pred、呼气流量峰值呈正相关(相关系数r分别为0.418、0.327,P值均<0.05).结论 EBC中的MPO浓度能监测肺组织局部的炎症和氧化应激程度,能反映COPD患者病情严重程度,有助于发现COPD的病情变化,是一种较好的评价COPD病情的生物学指标.

  12. 非小细胞肺癌患者呼出气冷凝液中p53基因突变检测的研究%Detection of p53 gene mutation in exhaled breath condensate of patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金亮; 陈建荣; 钱春花; 蔡映云; 陶国华; 周峰; 陶一江; 陆晨希

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中p53基因突变检测的临床意义.方法 采用PCR结合DNA测序法,检测53例NSCLC患者(治疗前)EBC中p53基因第5、6、7、8外显子的突变情况,32名健康体检者EBC标本作为对照.结果 肺癌组(治疗前)EBC标本中扩增到p53基因26例,其中10例检测到p53基因突变,突变率为38.5%;正常对照组EBC标本中扩增到p53基因15名,均未检测到p53基因突变;肺癌患者p53基因突变率高于正常对照组(P<0.01).结论 本研究成功扩增并分析了EBC中p53基因变异,将有助于肺癌发病机制研究和临床诊断.%Objective To investigate the clinical significance of p53 gene mutation in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods The mutations of exons 5,6,7 and 8 of p53 gene in EBC of 53 patients with NSCLC and 32 healthy persons were detected hy polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing method. Results In NSCLC group,p53 gene of 26 cases was amplified,p53 gene mutation was found in ten cases of them,the mutation rate was 38. 5%. In control group,p53 gene of 15 cases was amplified,p53 gene mutation was not found. The mutation rate of p53 gene in NSCLC group was higher than that in control group ( P < 0. 01). Conclusions This research had successfully amplificated and analyzed p53 gene mutation in EBC,which will be helpful for pathogenesis research and clinical diagnosis of lung cancer.

  13. Clinical significance of PCT in exhaled breath condensate and serum of patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome%ALI/ARDS患者呼出气冷凝液和血清中PCT检测及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金亮; 陈建荣; 薛垒喜; 陶一江; 陶国华

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究ALI/ARDS患者呼出气冷凝液( EBC)和血清中降钙素原( PCT)的变化规律,探讨PCT在ALI/ARDS诊断、病情评估、预后判断中的临床意义。方法选择行机械通气的ALI/ARDS患者33例;同时选择20例健康体检者为健康对照组。观察ALI/ARDS患者与健康对照组之间血清和EBC中PCT的差异,分析临床指标和各种指标之间的相关性。结果①ALI/ARDS组EBC和血清中PCT高于健康对照组。②ARDS组患者第七天EBC和血清中PCT中PCT高于ALI组。③存活组患者治疗后EBC和血清中PCT水平下降,病死组患者EBC和血清中PCT持续升高。④EBC和血清中PCT与PaO2/FiO2、APACHEⅡ有相关性。结论 ALI/ARDS患者EBC和血清中PCT的检测,有助于ALI/ARDS的诊断、病情评估和判断预后。%Objective To detect the change of procalcitonin ( PCT) in exhaled breath condensate ( EBC) and serum of ALI/ARDS patients and to explore its clinical significance in diagnosis, illness evaluation and progno-sis. Methods The study selected 33 mechanical ventilation patients with ALI/ARDS as the observation group and 20 healthy people as the control group. The difference of PCT in EBC and serum was compared between the two groups, and the correlation among the clinical indicators was analyzed. Results ①The level of PCT in EBC and se-rum was higher in the observation group than in the control group. ②The level of PCT was higher in the ARDS group than in the ALI group on the seventh day. ③The level of PCT decreased in the survival group after treatment, but it increased in the death group. ④ The level of PCT in EBC and serum was associated with PaO2/FiO2 and APACHE Ⅱ. Conclusion The test of PCT in EBC and serum of ALI/ARDS patients can contribute to their diagnosis, condi-tion evaluation and prognosis.

  14. 哮喘患者呼出气冷凝液及诱导痰中超敏C反应蛋白相关性研究%The relevance of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in exhaled breath condensate and induced sputum in asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何静雅; 胡克; 李晓尘

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨哮喘患者呼出气冷凝液和诱导痰中超敏C反应蛋白含量相关性.方法 随机选择60位哮喘患者,分别在急性期和缓解期检测超敏C反应蛋白在呼出气冷凝液(exhaled breath condensate,EBC)及诱导痰(induced sputum,IS)中含量,研究两者相关性.结果 急性期哮喘患者EBC中hs-CRP的含量(重度组0.32±0.02 mg/L,中度组0.28±0.04 mg/L)均高于缓解期含量(重度组0.20±0.04 mg/L,中度组0.18±0.02 mg/L;均P<0.05)及健康对照组0.08±0.01 mg/L(P<0.05);急性期哮喘患者IS中hs-CRP含量(重度组2.7±0.1 mg/L,中度组2.0±0.16 mg/L)也均高于缓解期(重度组1.2±0.15 mg/L,中度组1.4±0.12 mg/L;均P<0.05)及健康对照组0.4±0.05 mg/L(P<0.05);中、重度组EBC和诱导痰中hs-CRP含量在治疗前、后均具有显著正相关性.结论 哮喘患者EBC中超敏C反应蛋白检测可用于评价气道炎症水平,其临床价值可与诱导痰中超敏C反应蛋白检测相媲美.

  15. The clinical significance of testing LTB4 and TNF-α in exhaled breath condensate and serum of oatients with OSAHS%OSAHS患者呼出气冷凝液和血清中LTB4和TNF-α检测的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚苏梅; 陶一江; 丁松云; 朱杰; 陈建荣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of testing inflammation factor in exhaled breath condensate (EBC)of patients with OSAHS.Methods 50 patients with OSAHS diagnosed by PSG (30 patients with treatment for about 3 months) and 30 age matched controls were enrolled in the study.Leukotriene B4 and tumor necrosis factor α levels were measured by enzyme linked immunesothent assay.Results ①The levels of LTB and TNF-α in EBC and serum with OSAHS were significanfiy higher than that in the control group (all P <0.05 ) ②LTB4 and TNF-α levels in EBC were positively correlated with AHI and negatively correlated with LSpO2 and MSpO2.③During the period of three months'treatment there was such a further significant decrease in LTB4 and TNF-α in EBC in 30 patients with OSAHS.Conclusions There was important clinical significance of detection of inflammation factors in EBC in monitoring the severity and treatment of OSAHS.%目的 探讨阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中炎症因子检测的临床意义.方法 选择经多导睡眠监测确诊的OSAHS患者50例和正常对照30例,采用酶联免疫技术分别检测EBC和血清中白三烯B4、肿瘤坏死因子-α的浓度,30例OSAHS患者经治疗三月后再次检测.结果 ①OSAHS组EBC和血清中LTB4及TNF-α水平均明显高于对照组,P均<0.05.②OSAHS患者EBC中LTB4和TNF-α水平与AHI正相关;与睡眠中LSpO2、MSpO2负相关.③OSAHS患者治疗后EBC中LTB4和TNF-α水平较治疗前下降,差异有统计学意义,P<0.01.结论 EBC中炎症因子检测对判断OSAHS患者病情严重程度和治疗效果具重要意义.

  16. The relationship between the level of NO, 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate and the serious condition of patients with asthma%呼出气冷凝液中NO、8-异前列腺素与哮喘严重程度关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凡; 陈建荣; 蔡映云; 陈晓丽; 朱云霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between the level of NO, 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate ( EBC ) and the serious condition of patients with asthma. Methods The data of 36 patients with asthma 10 normal persons were collected for control study. Results 36 patients with asthma were enrolled in this study, 26 cases were chronic persistent and 10 cases were clinical relieve. There are statistically significant between the 8-isoprostane, NO and FEV, /pre, ACT score in chronic persistent, in remission and normal controls. Concentrations of NO and 8-isoprostane in chronic persistent group were significantly higher than those in remission and control group, while FEV,/pie were significantly lower ( NO and 8-isoprostane in EBC had negative correlation with FEVl/pre( r =0. 610, P < 0. 05 ; r = 0. 545 , P < 0. 05 ), the same as ACT ( NO and 8-isoprostane in EBC had negative correlation with FEV, /pre ( r = 0. 533 , P < 0. 05 ; r = 0. 584 , P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Airway inflammation were persistent in asthma patients. NO and 8-isoprostane levels in EBC were associated with the serious condition of asthma, which indicated inflammation indicators might be useful in monitoring serious condition and guiding treatment for asthma patients.%目的 分析支气管哮喘患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中一氧化氮(NO)、8-异前列腺素(8-isoprostane)浓度与肺功能、ACT变化之间的关系.方法 病例对照研究.结果 36例患者参加了本次研究,慢性持续期26例、缓解期10例,健康对照19例.缓解期、慢性持续期及健康对照组之间,8-isoprostane、NO与FEV1/pre、ACT评分有统计学差异(P<0.01).FEVl/pre与NO、8-isoprostane存在负相关性(r= -0.610,P<0.05;r=-0.545,P<0.05).ACT与NO、8-isoprostane也呈现负相关(r=-0.533,P<0.05;r=-0.584,P<0.05).结论 EBC中炎性标志物能反映出气道炎症程度,且与肺功能和ACT评估指标有较好的相关性.

  17. Isoprostanes-Biomarkers of Lipid Peroxidation: Their Utility in Evaluating Oxidative Stress and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Kot

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Isoprostanes (IsoPs are key biomarkers for investigating the role of free radical generation in the pathogenesis of human disorders. To solve IsoPs-related problems with regard to isoprostanes, analytical tools are required. This paper reviews the problems and trends in this field focusing on the methodology for assaying biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC samples. A large amount of work has been done in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of IsoPs, but a standardized method has yet to emerge. The methodologies described differ, either in the sample preparation steps or in the detection techniques, or both. Requiring a number of chromatographic steps, the relevant extraction and purification procedures are often critical and time-consuming, and they lead to a substantial loss of target compounds. Recent data show that EBC is a promising non‑invasive tool for the evaluation of different diseases. Two main analytical approaches have been adopted for IsoPs measurement: immunological methods and mass spectrometry. The methodologies for the extraction, purification and analysis of IsoPs in EBC samples are presented.Isoprostanes (IsoPs are key biomarkers for investigating the role of free radical generation in the pathogenesis of human disorders. To solve IsoPs-related problems with regard to isoprostanes, analytical tools are required. This paper reviews the problems and trends in this field focusing on the methodology for assaying biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC samples. A large amount of work has been done in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of IsoPs, but a standardized method has yet to emerge. The methodologies described differ, either in the sample preparation steps or in the detection techniques, or both. Requiring a number of chromatographic steps, the relevant extraction and purification procedures are often critical and time-consuming, and they lead to a substantial loss of target compounds. Recent data

  18. Effects of Qingfeitang on ET-1 and PGE2 in exhaled breath condensate and serum of patients with ARDS%清肺汤对急性呼吸窘迫综合征患者呼出气冷凝液和血清中内皮素-1、前列腺素E2的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾言; 陈建荣; 邵峰; 高想; 唐艳芬; 徐志华; 李虹

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察清肺汤对急性呼吸窘迫综合征(ARDS)患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)及血清中内皮素-1(ET-1)和前列腺素E2(PGE2)的影响及其临床意义。方法:选取南通大学第二附属医院ICU行机械通气的52例ARDS患者,分为常规治疗组和清肺汤组,每组26例。52例患者均在治疗的第1、5天采用Ecoscreen 呼出气冷凝液收集器收集 EBC 标本,同步留取血清,以 ELISA 法测定 EBC 和血清中 ET-1和 PGE2浓度。结果:治疗后,清肺汤组 EBC 和血清 ET-1水平均低于常规治疗组(均 P <0.05)。治疗后,清肺汤组血清PGE2水平低于常规治疗组(P<0.05)。治疗前后氧合指数改善差值,清肺汤组高于常规治疗组(P<0.05)。清肺汤组机械通气时间短于常规治疗组(P<0.05)。结论:ARDS患者联用中药清肺汤有助于控制炎症反应,减轻肺损伤,提高疗效。%Objective To observe the changes of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and serum of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after treated by Qingfeitang and investigate its clinical value. Methods 52 ARDS patients receiving mechanical ventilation at intensive care unit (ICU) were divided into the Qingfeitang treatment group and the control group, with 26 cases in each group. The EBC were collected by Ecoscreen condenser within 24 h after diagnosis of ARDS and on the 5th day of medication, and the venous blood were collected at the same time. The levels of ET-1 and PGE2 in the EBC and serum of different period were measured by EIA. Results (1) After treatment, The levels of ET-1 in EBC and serum of the Qingfeitang treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group. (2) After treatment, the levels of PGE2 in serum of the Qingfeitang treatment group were significantly lower than that of the control group. (3) The oxygenation index difference

  19. Condensation heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J. W.

    The paper gives a brief description of some of the better understood aspects of condensation heat transfer and includes discussion of the liquid-vapour interface, natural and forced convection laminar film condensation and dropwise condensation.

  20. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health (NCCDPHP, DACH).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  1. OSAHS伴高血压患者呼出气冷凝液中ET-1、NO的变化及意义%Changes and significance of ET -1 and NO in exhaled breath condensate of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome combined with hypertension patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建辉; 陶一江; 朱杰; 姚坚; 姜剑松

    2011-01-01

    Objective It is to observe the relation between the level of ET - 1 and NO in exhaled breath condensate with blood pressure in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome ( OSAHS ) combined with hypertension patients. Methods Twenty cases of patients simple with OSAHS ( non-hypertension ) were chosen as group A, 15 cases with OSAHS and hypertension were chosen as group B, another 25 healthy ones were chosen as group C. Blood pressure of all subjects were tested at night before sleep on the day accepted polysomnography( PSG )and at waking up time in the next morning. The density of ET - 1 was assayed by non-equilibrium radioimmunoassay and the density of NO was assayed by means of nitrate reduction in EBC. Results There was no significant difference in blood pleasure before and after sleep in the control group. The blood pleasures after sleep were significantly higher than that before sleep in the OSAHS group. There was no difference in the level of ET - 1 and NO before and after sleep in the control group. The level of ET - 1 after sleep was significantly higher and the level of NO after sleep was significantly lower than that before sleep in the OSAHS group. The level of ET - 1 in the OSAHS group was significantly higher and the level of NO in the OSAHS group was significantly lower than that of the control group. The level of ET -1 in the group B was significantly higher while the level of NO was significantly lower than that of group A. Conclusion The concentration of ET - 1 increased and that of NO decreased in exhaled breath condensate of OSAHS combined with hypertension patients, which can lead to imbalance of vasomotor factor and play a role in the patients. They may be used as a set of indicators for predictions of hypertension in patients with OSAHS.%目的 探讨阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(OSAHS)伴高血压患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中内皮素-1(ET-1)、一氧化氮(NO)含量与血压的关系.方法 选择

  2. 慢性阻塞性肺疾病合并肺高压患者血清及呼出气冷凝液中炎症因子变化及意义%Changes and implications of inflammatory mediators in serum and exhaled breath condensate in patients with pulmonary hypertension associated with COPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马航; 何海艳; 邱海艳; 陶一江

    2013-01-01

    目的:通过检测慢性阻塞性肺疾病(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,COPD)伴和不伴肺高压(pulmonary hyptertension,PH)患者血清及呼出气冷凝液(exhaled breath condensate,EBC)中高敏C-反应蛋白(hypersensitive C-reactive protein,hs-CRP)及白介素(interleukin,IL)-6等炎症因子的水平,探讨全身及肺部局部炎症反应与COPD继发PH的关系.方法:收集COPD合并PH患者(37例)、单纯COPD患者(48例)的血清及EBC标本,并常规行肺功能、动脉血气分析及超声心动图检查,ELISA方法检测血清及EBC中IL-6水平,采用乳胶增强透射免疫比浊法检测血清及EBC中hs-CRP水平.结果:①COPD合并PH组血清hs-CRP浓度为(17.16±6.25)mg/L,IL-6浓度为(79.67±18.72)ng/L,均明显高于单纯COPD组的hs-CRP(12.32±7.91)mg/L和IL-6 (47.38±14.94) ng/L(P均<0.05);②COPD合并PH组EBC中hs-CRP浓度为(2.03±0.46)mg/L,IL-6浓度为(8.75±2.03)ng/L,均明显高于单纯COPD组的hs-CRP(1.72±0.65) mg/L和IL-6(5.42±1.58)ng/L(P均<0.05);③COPD合并PH组血清及EBC中hs-CRP及IL-6水平均与肺动脉压呈正相关(r为0.415~0.875,P均<0.001).结论:全身及肺脏局部炎症反应可能参与了COPD继发的PH形成过程.%Objective:To estimate the relationship between inflammation and pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,we investigate the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP)and interleukin-6(IL-6)in serum and exhaled breath condensate(EBC)in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)with or without pulmonary hypertension. Methods:EBC and serum of 37 cases in PH associated with COPD and 48 cases in single COPD were collected. Lung function, arterial blood gases and echocardiography were assayed in all cases. ELJSA was used for detecting the levels of IL-6 in EBC and serum. Particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay was used for analyses the levels of hs-CRP in EBC and serum. Results: ①The levels of CRP[ (17.16 ± 6.25) mg/L]and IL-6 [(79

  3. Symptoms, but Not a Biomarker Response to Inhaled Corticosteroids, Predict Asthma in Preschool Children with Recurrent Wheeze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. M. Klaassen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A reliable asthma diagnosis is challenging in preschool wheezing children. As inhaled corticosteroids (ICS are more effective in asthmatics than in children with transient wheeze, an ICS response might be helpful in early asthma diagnosis. Methods. 175 children (aged two–four years with recurrent wheeze received 200 μg Beclomethasone extra-fine daily for eight weeks. Changes in Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC biomarkers (pH, interleukin (IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IFN-γ, sICAM, and CCL-11, Fractional exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO, airway resistance, and symptoms were assessed. At six years of age a child was diagnosed as transient wheezer or asthmatic. Adjusted logistic regression analysis was performed with multiple testing correction. Results. 106 transient wheezers and 64 asthmatics were analysed at six years of age. Neither changes in EBC biomarkers, nor FeNO, airway resistance, or symptoms during ICS trial at preschool age were related to asthma diagnosis at six years of age. However, asthmatics had more airway symptoms before the start of the ICS trial than transient wheezers (P<0.01. Discussion. Although symptom score in preschool wheezing children at baseline was associated with asthma at six years of age, EBC biomarkers, airway resistance, or symptom response to ICS at preschool age could not predict asthma diagnosis at six years of age.

  4. Analysis of human breath with micro extraction techniques and continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Liu, Xinyu; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2006-08-01

    The detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath can be useful for the clinical routine diagnosis of several diseases in a non-invasive manner. Traditional methods of breath analysis have some major technical problems and limitations. Membrane extraction with a sorbent interface (MESI), however, has many advantages over current methods, including good selectivity and sensitivity, and is well suited for breath analysis. The aim of this project was to develop a simple and reproducible sampling device and method based on the MESI system for breath analysis. The feasibility and validity of the MESI system was tested with real human breath samples. Internal standard calibration methods were used for the quantitative analysis of various breath samples. Calibration curves for some main components (target analytes such as acetone and pentane) were determined in the research. The optimized stripping-side and feeding-side gas velocities were determined. The use of breath CO2 as an internal standard for the analysis of breath VOCs is an effective method to solve the difficulties associated with variations in the target analyte concentrations in a sample, which are attributed to mass losses and different breathing patterns of different subjects. In this study, the concentration of breath acetone was successfully expressed normalized to CO2 as in the alveolar air. Breath acetone of healthy males and females profiled at different times of the day was plotted using the MESI system, and results were consistent with the literature. This technique can be used for monitoring breath acetone concentrations of diabetic patients and for applications with other biomarker monitoring.

  5. Monitoring and its clinical significance of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in exhaled breath condensate of AECOPD undergoing mechanical ventilation%AECOPD 机械通气时呼出气冷凝液 H2 O2和 TNF-α水平的监测及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 秦立志; 牛艳慧; 王晓静; 高勇

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨重症监护病房(ICU)慢阻肺急性加重期(AECOPD)机械通气患者气道炎症反应与预后的关系。方法69例 AECOPD 机械通气患者按预后分为存活组(36例)和死亡组(33例),采用自行设计的呼出气冷凝液(EBC)收集器收集机械通气1、3、5和7 d 呼气端的 EBC,用化学荧光法测定 EBC 中过氧化氢(H2 O2)浓度,用放射免疫分析法测定 EBC 中肿瘤坏死因子(TNF-α)含量。结果①存活组 EBC 中 H2 O2和 TNF-α含量逐渐下降,机械通气3、5、7 d 较1 d 明显降低 H2 O2(μmol/ L):0.12±0.04、0.08±0.02、0.03±0.01比0.22±0.14,TNF-α(ng/ L):15.14±3.11、12.24±2.37、9.76±1.89比18.54±2.59,均 P 0.05)。结论 EBC 中 H2 O2水平和 TNF-α含量的高低与预后有关,故可作为 AECOPD 机械通气患者气道炎症反应的重要监测指标,并可作为评估其治疗和预后的重要监测指标。%Objective To explore the relationship between inflammatory response of respiratory tract and prognosis of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases(AECOPD) patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) in intensive care unit (ICU). Methods 69 patients with AECOPD undergoing MV were involved in the study, and they were divided into the survival group (n = 36) and the non-survival group (n = 33). Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was collected on Day 1, 3, 5 and 7 after MV. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) in EBC was measured by fluorescence method, and the content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in EBC was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results ① The levels of H2 O2 and TNF-α de-creased gradually in the survival group undergoing MV, with the H2 O2 value of 0. 12 ± 0. 04, 0. 08 ± 0. 02, 0. 03 ± 0. 01 and 0. 22 ± 0. 14 μmol/ L, and the TNF-α value of 15. 14 ± 3. 11, 12. 24 ± 2. 37, 9. 76 ± 1. 89 and 18. 54 ± 2. 59 ng/ L (P 0. 05). Conclusion The findings suggest

  6. Clinical significance of detection of 8-iso-prostaglandin in exhaled breath condensate and serum of patients with commu-nity-acquired pneumonia%社区获得性肺炎患者呼出气冷凝液和血清中8-异前列腺素检测的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚苏梅; 陈金亮; 吕学东; 徐永谦; 陶一江; 陈建荣

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨社区获得性肺炎(CAP)患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)和血清中8‐异前列腺素(8‐isoPG)对病情评估及疗效评价中的价值。方法选择CAP患者71例(CAP组),给予正规治疗,分别收集患者入院第1、3、7天EBC及血清标本,并记录患者入院时白细胞计数、红细胞沉降率、CURB‐65评分。选择健康体检者46例(健康对照组),收集其EBC及血清标本。以酶免疫法测定EBC和血清中8‐isoPG浓度。结果CAP患者EBC和血清中8‐isoPG浓度均高于健康对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。与入院第1天比较,CAP患者入院第3、7天EBC和血清中8‐isoPG浓度均下降,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。CAP患者EBC和血清中8‐isoPG浓度与CURB‐65评分呈正相关(r分别为0.774、0.655,P<0.05)。结论CAP患者体内存在不同程度的炎性反应和氧化应激,EBC和血清中的8‐isoPG浓度对CAP的病情评估和疗效评价具有价值。%Objective To study the value of 8‐isoprostane (8‐isoPG)in exhaled breath condensate(EBC) and serum in the patients of community‐acquired pneumonia (CAP) .Methods Totally 71 cases of CAP were selected as the CAP group and given the routine therapy .EBC and serum samples on 1 ,3 ,7 d of admission were collected .The while blood cell(WBC) count ,erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and CURB‐65 score were recorded .Other 46 in‐dividuals undergoing the healthy physical examination were collected as the healthy control group and their EBC and serum samples also collected for detecting 8‐isoPG by the enzyme immunosorbent assay .Results The EBC and ser‐um 8‐isoPG levels in the CAP group were higher than those in the healthy control group ,the difference was statisti‐cally significant(P<0 .05) .Compared with 1 d of admission ,the EBC and serum 8‐isoPG levels in the CAP group were decreased on 3 ,7 d ,the differences were statistically

  7. 慢性阻塞性肺疾病并肺动脉高压患者呼出气冷凝液中 ET-1检测临床意义%The clinical significance of ET -1 detection in exhaled breath condensate frompatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一禄; 陈济明; 徐晓妮

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the levels of endothelin-1 ( ET-1 ) in exhaled breath condensate ( EBC ) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) and pulmonary hypertension.Methods ET-1 levels in EBC were detected in 83 cases of COPD patients andthe pulmonary artery pressure in all subjects were measured by echocardiography.The 83 patients were divided into two groups according to whether they with pulmonary hypertension.Compared the ET-1 levels in EBC in two groups and analyzed the correlation between ET-1 and pulmonary arterial pressure.Results There were 36 patients were proved to have pulmonary hypertension in the 83 patients.ET-1 levels in pulmonary hypertension group were significantly higher than those in patients without pulmonary hypertension (P<0.05).The levels of ET-1were correlated with pulmonary artery pressure in pulmonary hypertension group (r=0.573,P<0.05).Conclusions ET-1 in EBC may be associated with COPD and pulmonary hypertension formation, ET-1 in EBC mayreflect the level of pulmonary artery pressureto some extent.%目的:探讨慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中内皮素-1(ET-1)水平与COPD合并肺动脉高压的关系。方法检测83例COPD患者EBC中ET-1水平,同期应用心脏超声测定所有研究对象的肺动脉压,按是否存在肺动脉高压再将83例患者分为单纯COPD组和COPD合并肺动脉高压组,比较两组研究对象的EBC中ET-1水平,并将ET-1与肺动脉压进行相关分析。结果83例COPD患者经检测有36例存在肺动脉高压。 COPD合并肺动脉高压组ET-1水平明显高于单纯COPD组(P<0.05)。 COPD合并肺动脉高压组肺动脉压与ET-1水平呈正相关(r=0.573,P<0.05)。结论EBC中ET-1可能与COPD并肺动脉高压形成有关,EBC中ET-1可在一定程度上反映肺动脉压水平。

  8. The study between the level of LTC4, 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate and the serious condition of patients with asthma%支气管哮喘患者呼出气冷凝液半胱氨酰白三烯C4及8异前列腺素水平与病情的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦娥; 沈巨信; 余月芳; 周国忠; 孙健

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨支气管哮喘患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中半胱氨酰白三烯C4(LTC4)及8异前列腺素水平与病情的关系.方法 对哮喘患者观察组30例(哮喘慢性持续期患者16例,哮喘临床缓解期14例)用自行设计的EBC收集仪器采集标本,采用酶联免疫法测定EBC中LTC4及8异前列腺素水平.结果 观察组中哮喘持续期及缓解期LTC4水平[(67.38±10.30) ng/ml、(41.21±11.41)ng/ml]均高于正常对照组[(17.15±7.48) ng/ml,P<0.01];哮喘持续期LTC4水平高于缓解期(P<0.01).哮喘持续期和缓解期8异前列腺素水平[( 14.29±10.74) ng/ml、(12.40±7.45) ng/ml]显著高于正常对照组[(6.93±5.58) ng/ml](P<0.01或P<0.05);哮喘持续期8异前列腺素水平高于缓解期,其差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 哮喘慢性持续期和缓解期均有持续气道炎症存在,呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中LTC4水平与哮喘病情严重度有关,监测患者EBC中LTC4水平有助于哮喘的病情判断及指导治疗.%Objective To study the relationship between the level of LTC4,8-lsoprostane in exhaled breath condensate and the serious condition of patients with asthma.Methods 30 patients with asthma were enrolled in this study,16 cases were chronic persistent and 14 cases were clinical relieve.EBC was collected in all subjects with a self-designed experimental device.The concentrations of LTC4 and 8-Isoprostane in EBC were measured by enzyme immunoassay.Results Both LTC4 [ ( 67.38 ± 10.30) ng/ml,(41.21 ± 11.41 ) ng/ml ] and 8-Isoprostane levels[ ( 14.29 ± 10.74) ng/ml,( 12.40 ± 7.45 ) ng/ml ]were significantly increased in the asthma patients compared with the control subjects[ (17.15 ±7.48 )ng/ml,P <0.01 ].Exhaled LTC4 levels were obviously increased in the patients with chronic persistent asthma compared with those clinical relieve asthma,while 8-Isoprostane level had no significant difference between two asthma groups ( P > 0.05 ).Conclusions Airway inflammation were

  9. Detection and clinical implication of TNF-α and 8-isoPG in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Asthmatic Patients%哮喘患者呼出气冷凝液中TNF-α、8-isoPG检测的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建辉; 陶一江; 陈晓笑; 马航; 陈金亮

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解哮喘患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中TNF-α、8-isoPG的含量,并观察激素治疗对其水平的影响.方法 选择轻、中度哮喘患者38例和健康对照组25例,其中轻度哮喘组20例、中度哮喘组18例.轻度哮喘组予以吸入激素治疗一个 月.采用EHSA双抗体夹心法测定EBC中TN F-α、8 -isoPG的含量.结果 哮喘组EBC中TNF-α、8-isoPG的含量显著高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 哮喘患者EBC中TNF-α、8-isoPG的含量增高与哮喘严重程度有关,可作为检测哮喘气道炎症反应和氧化应激的客观指标.吸入糖皮质激素治疗后TNF-α、8-isoPG含量无显著变化,提示糖皮质激素不能完全有效控制哮喘患者气道炎症反应和氧化应激损伤.%Objective To examine the levels of TNF-α and 8-isoPC in exhaled breath condensates (EBC) in patients with asthma, and to investigate the effect of corticosteroid treatment. Methods 38 patients with mild to moderate asthma and 25 notnal controls were included in the study. Among 38 patients, 20 cases were mild asthma group and 18 cases were moderate asthma group. The mild asthma group were treated by Corticosteroid for one month. TNF-α and 8-isoPG in EBC were assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbenl assay. Results ①The TNF-α and 8-isoPG levels in EBC of the asthma group were higher than those of control group (P 0.05) in the TNF-a and 8-isoPC levels in EBC of the mild asthma group before and after therapy. Conclusion TNF-α and 8-isoPC levels in EBC are associated with the severity of asthma, and implicating TNF-α and 8-isoPG may be useful in monitoring airway inflammation and airway oxidative stress in asthma. ICS treatment had no significant difference of the TNF-α and 8-isoPG levels, which suggests that the ICS could not have an impact on airway inflammation and oxidative stress completely.

  10. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. (a) Compressed breathing gas...

  11. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your desktop! more... Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath Article Chapters Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce ... oral cavity. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Halitosis (Bad Breath) Do You Have Traveler's Breath? Does a ...

  12. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses.

  13. BREATHE to Understand©

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  14. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... radar chip which, through the use of a simple modulation scheme, is able to measure the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance. A high frequency output makes sure that the radar cannot penetrate solid obstacles which is a wanted feature in private homes where people therefore cannot measure...

  15. Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Rikke Kragh; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Molin, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    ) at ppb level has been reported to be a PA biomarker. For early PA detection in CF children not yet chronically lung infected a non-invasive Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)-based breath nanosensor is being developed. The triple bond between C and N in cyanide, with its characteristic band...

  16. Release of erythropoietin and neuron-specific enolase after breath holding in competing free divers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Jattu, T; Nielsen, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    Free diving is associated with extreme hypoxia. This study evaluated the combined effect of maximal static breath holding and underwater swimming on plasma biomarkers of tissue hypoxemia: erythropoietin, neuron-specific enolase and S100B, C-reactive protein, pro-atrial natriuretic peptide...

  17. A review on airway biomarkers: exposure, effect and susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Goldoni, Matteo; Mutti, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Current research in pulmonology requires the use of biomarkers to investigate airway exposure and diseases, for both diagnostic and prognostic purposes. The traditional approach based on invasive approaches (lung lavages and biopsies) can now be replaced, at least in part, through the use of non invasively collected specimens (sputum and breath), in which biomarkers of exposure, effect and susceptibility can be searched. The discovery of specific lung-related proteins, which can spill over in blood or excreted in urine, further enhanced the spectrum of airway specific biomarkers to be studied. The recent introduction of high-performance 'omic' technologies - genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, and the rate at which biomarker candidates are being discovered, will permit the use of a combination of biomarkers for a more precise selection of patient with different outcomes and responses to therapies. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the use of airway biomarkers in the context of research and clinical practice.

  18. Detection heart failures (HF) biomarkers by proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltaeva, Y. R.; Vasilev, V. K.; Yakovlev, D. Y.; Kopylov, F. Iu; Syrkin, A. L.; Chomakhidze, P. Sh; Bykova, A. A.; Malinovskaya, L. K.; Skorokhod, A. I.

    2016-10-01

    Exhaled breath contains 1% of volatile organic compounds. The concentration of individual biomarkers in hundreds of volatile organic compounds lies within the range ppm- ppb. In compare with control group the concentrations of acetone, acetic acid, ethanol, propylene biomarkers is significantly higher in HF-PEF group.

  19. Condensation in insulated homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, R A

    1978-05-28

    A research proposal on condensation in insulated homes is presented. Information is provided on: justification for condensation control; previous work and present outlook (good vapor barrier, condensation and retrofit insulation, vapor barrier decreases condensation, brick-veneer walls, condensation in stress-skin panels, air-conditioned buildings, retrofitting for conservation, study on mobile homes, high indoor relative humidity, report on various homes); and procedure (after funding has been secured). Measures are briefly described on opening walls, testing measures, and retrofitting procedures. An extensive bibliography and additional informative citations are included. (MCW)

  20. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  1. Imaging Biomarkers or Biomarker Imaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Mitterhauser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since biomarker imaging is traditionally understood as imaging of molecular probes, we highly recommend to avoid any confusion with the previously defined term “imaging biomarkers” and, therefore, only use “molecular probe imaging (MPI” in that context. Molecular probes (MPs comprise all kinds of molecules administered to an organism which inherently carry a signalling moiety. This review highlights the basic concepts and differences of molecular probe imaging using specific biomarkers. In particular, PET radiopharmaceuticals are discussed in more detail. Specific radiochemical and radiopharmacological aspects as well as some legal issues are presented.

  2. Value of leukotrienes C4, 8-isoprostane, nitrite/nitrate in exhaled breath condensate and the effect of montelukast on inflammatory factors in asthma%呼出气冷凝液白三烯、8异前列腺素、硝酸盐/亚硝酸盐检测在哮喘中的应用及孟鲁司特对炎症指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈巨信; 秦娥; 李明晖; 孙健; 周国忠

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the levels of leukotrienes C4 ( LTC4 ), 8-isoprostane, nitrite / nitrate(NO2/NO3) in exhaled breath condensate of patients with asthma and the effect of inflammatory factors after montelukast treatment. METHODS: 30 patients with asthma were enrolled. They were given 10 mg montelukast once each night for one month. Before starting therapy and one month later, the levels of LTC4, 8-isoprostane, NO2/NO3 in exhaled breath condensate were measured. RESULTS: The levels of LTC4(55 + 17) ng/mL, 8-isoprostane (13 + 9) ng/mL, and NO2/NO3 (4.2 + 1.2) ng/mL were significantly higher in the asthma group than those in the control group (17 + 17) ,(7 + 6) ,(3. 2 + 0. 6) ng/mL(P 0. 05). CONCLUSION: Detecting the LTC4, 8-isoprostane and NO2/NO3 in EBC can be used to monitor asthmatic airway inflammation, which are convenient, noninvasive and safe. Montelukast can decrease the level of LTC4 , which is an effective anti-inflammatory a-gent.%目的:观察支气管哮喘患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中半胱氨酰白三烯C4(LTC4)、8异前列腺素(8-isoprostane)、硝酸盐/亚硝酸盐(NO2/NO3)水平及孟鲁司特干预前后炎症指标的变化.方法:选择哮喘非急性发作期患者30例,均予孟鲁司特10 mg,每晚一次口服,疗程1月,分别于治疗前及治疗后检测EBC中LTC4、8-isoprostane、NO2/NO3水平,另选择30例健康人为健康对照组.结果:哮喘组LTC4( 55±17) ng/mL、8-isoprostane( 13±9)ng/mL、NO2/NO3(4.2±1.2) ng/mL显著高于正常对照组(17±17)、(7±6)、(3.2±0.6) ng/mL(均P<0.01).哮喘组治疗前LTC4 (55±17) ng/mL显著高于治疗后(38±14) ng/mL,P<0.01.哮喘组治疗前8- isoprostane (13±9)ng/mL,高于治疗后(11±6) ng/mL,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).哮喘组治疗前NO2 /NO3 水平为(4.2±1.2) ng/mL,治疗后为(4.1±1.4) ng/mL,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:检测哮喘患者EBC中LTC4、8-isoprostane、NO2/NO3水平可简便安全监测哮喘的气道炎

  3. Breath acidification in adolescent runners exposed to atmospheric pollution: A prospective, repeated measures observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Sickle David

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vigorous outdoors exercise during an episode of air pollution might cause airway inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vigorous outdoor exercise during peak smog season on breath pH, a biomarker of airway inflammation, in adolescent athletes. Methods We measured breath pH both pre- and post-exercise on ten days during peak smog season in 16 high school athletes engaged in daily long-distance running in a downwind suburb of Atlanta. The association of post-exercise breath pH with ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations was tested with linear regression. Results We collected 144 pre-exercise and 146 post-exercise breath samples from 16 runners (mean age 14.9 years, 56% male. Median pre-exercise breath pH was 7.58 (interquartile range: 6.90 to 7.86 and did not change significantly after exercise. We observed no significant association between ambient ozone or particulate matter and post-exercise breath pH. However both pre- and post-exercise breath pH were strikingly low in these athletes when compared to a control sample of 14 relatively sedentary healthy adults and to published values of breath pH in healthy subjects. Conclusion Although we did not observe an acute effect of air pollution exposure during exercise on breath pH, breath pH was surprisingly low in this sample of otherwise healthy long-distance runners. We speculate that repetitive vigorous exercise may induce airway acidification.

  4. Effects of diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise on pulmonary function in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Min-Sik; Lee, Hae-Yong; Lee, Yun-Seob

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated effects of diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise on respiratory function. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one subjects were randomly assigned to two groups; the feedback breathing exercise group and the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group. The feedback breathing exercise group was asked to breathe with feedback breathing device, and the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group was asked to perform diaphragm respiration. Respiratory function...

  5. 非小细胞肺癌患者呼出气冷凝液和肿瘤组织中p16基因突变的研究%Study on p16 gene mutations in tumor tissues and exhaled breath condensate of patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡淑娟; 陈建荣; 陶国华; 周峰; 陈金亮; 陶一江

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究呼出气冷凝液(EBC)和肺癌组织中p16基因突变,探讨EBC中检测的可行性和临床意义.方法 收集30例非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)患者的肺癌组织和EBC标本,同期20名健康体检者的EBC标本作为对照.提取NSCLC患者手术切除的肺癌组织中的DNA,对β-actin基因片段扩增阳性的EBC标本和已提取的肺癌组织DNA进行p16基因1、2、3号外显子PCR扩增,并进行DNA基因测序,用DNASTAR软件进行突变比对,结果进行统计学分析.结果 ①30例NSCLC患者的EBC中β-actin基因片段扩增阳性26例,26例中有9例检出p16基因突变,突变率为34.6%;EBC中检出p16基因突变患者,其肺癌组织中均发现p16基因突变.②30例NSCLC癌组织中检测到p16基因突变15例,突变率为50.0%;癌旁组织均未检测到p16基因突变.③9例NSCLC患者EBC中p16基因突变的外显子为1号外显子3例,2号外显子5例,3号外显子1例;15例NSCLC患者肿瘤组织中p16基因突变的外显子为1号外显子4例,2号外显子8例,3号外显子3例.④26例NSCLC患者EBC中β-actin基因扩增阳性,Ⅰ期、Ⅱ期和Ⅲ期患者p16基因突变率分别为25.0%(3/12)、28.6%(2/7)和57.1%(4/7)( P>0.05);鳞癌和腺癌患者的p16基因突变率分别为42.9%(6/14)和25.0%(3/12)(P>0.05).⑤同一患者EBC与肺癌组织中p16基因突变的外显子种类、突变方式、突变类型和密码子均相同.结论 肺癌患者EBC和癌组织中均能检测到p16基因突变,并有高度的一致性.EBC中p16基因突变检测可作为一种简便、快速的肺癌诊断方法.%Objective To study the clinical significance and the feasibility of detection in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) by study on p16 gene mutation in EBC and lung cancer tissue.Methods The lung cancer tissue and EBC specimens of 30 cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were collected,the EBC specimens of 20 cases of physical health were colleted at the same time.DNA of lung cancer

  6. 非小细胞肺癌患者呼出气冷凝液中p53蛋白检测的临床意义%Clinical significance of detection of p53 protein in exhaled breath condensate of patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖平; 陈建荣; 蔡映云; 陈金亮; 杨其昌; 陶国华; 陆晨希; 陶一江

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical significance of the detection of p53 protein in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods EBC and plasma of 98 patients with NSCLC were collected,p53 protein expression in EBC and plasma was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,and the data were compared with those of 98 healthy controls. p53 protein expression in cancer tissue of 98 patients with NSCLC was detected by immunohistochemistry. p53 protein expression in EBC and plasma and positive expression rate of p53 protein in cancer tissue were compared among patients with different lung cancer type,stage,histologic type,tumor size,and lymph node metastasis,smoking history. The specificity and sensitivity of diagnosis of p53 protein in patients with NSCLC were analyzed by ROC curve. Results ① The level of p53 protein in EBC of patients with NSCLC was significantly higher than that in healthy control group [(233.99±7.91) ng/L vs ( 130. 26 ± 4. 73) ng/L,P <0. 01]. The level of p53 protein in serum of patients with NSCI.C was significantly higher than that in healthy control group [(292. 58 ± 8. 79) ng/L vs (141. 66±3. 33) ng/L,P <0. 01]. ② The level of p53 protein in EBC of patients with central lung cancer was higher than that in patients with peripheral lung cancer [(248. 22 ± 8. 58) ng/L vs (215. 78 ± 6.61) ng/L,P<0. 01]. ③The level of p53 protein in EBC of patients with positive immunostaining group was higher than that in negative group [(249.77 ± 8.07) ng/L vs (216.86 ± 7.44) ng/L,P < 0. 05]. ④The level of p53 protein in serum of smokers was significantly higher than that in non-smokers [(310.18 ± 9.04) ng/L vs (254. 55 ± 6. 91) ng/L,P <0. 01]. ⑤The positive expression rate of p53 protein in cancer tissue was 47. 96% (47/98). ⑥The sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis of p53 protein were 95. 90% and 90. 04% in plasma,and those were 92. 90% and 79. 59% in EBC. The cut off values of p53

  7. Detection of Torque Teno Virus DNA in Exhaled Breath by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawanishi,Satoshi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether exhaled breath contains Torque teno virus (TTV or not, we tested exhaled breath condensate (EBC samples by semi-nested PCR assay. We detected TTV DNA in 35% (7/20 of EBC samples collected from the mouth of one of the authors, demonstrating that TTV DNA is excreted in exhaled breath with moderate frequency. TTV DNA was detected also in oral EBC samples from 4 of 6 other authors, indicating that TTV DNA excretion in exhaled breath is not an exception but rather a common phenomenon. Furthermore, the same assay could amplify TTV DNA from room air condensate (RAC samples collected at distances of 20 and 40cm from a human face with 40 (8/20 and 35% (7/20 positive rates, respectively. TTV transmission has been reported to occur during infancy. These distances seem equivalent to that between an infant and its household members while caring for the infant. Taken together, it seems that exhaled breath is one of the possible transmission routes of TTV. We also detected TTV DNA in 25% (10/40 of RAC samples collected at a distance of more than 180cm from any human face, suggesting the risk of airborne infection with TTV in a room.

  8. Condensation Energy of a Spacetime Condensate

    CERN Document Server

    de Matos, Clovis Jacinto

    2010-01-01

    Starting from an analogy between the Planck-Einstein scale and the dual length scales in Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity, and assuming that space-time is a condensate of neutral fermionic particles with Planck mass, we derive the baryonic mass of the universe. In that theoretical framework baryonic matter appears to be associated with the condensation energy gained by spacetime in the transition from its normal (symetric) to its (less symetric) superconducting-like phase. It is shown however that the critical transition temperature cannot be the Planck temperature. Thus leaving open the enigma of the microscopic description of spacetime at quantum level.

  9. A systematic review of breath analysis and detection of volatile organic compounds in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anders; Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Titlestad, Ingrid;

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is, according to the WHO, the fifth leading cause of death worldwide, and is expected to increase to rank third in 2030. Few robust biomarkers for COPD exist, and several attempts have been made to find suitable molecular marker candidates. One rising...... research area is breath analysis, with several published attempts to find exhaled compounds as diagnostic markers. The field is broad and no review of published COPD breath analysis studies exists yet. We have conducted a systematic review examining the state of art and identified 12 suitable papers, which...

  10. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This measure guideline on evaporative condensers provides information on properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices.

  11. Systematic text condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies.......To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies....

  12. Taking a deep breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    2012-12-01

    be paid to language revision and reference citation. Together with its authors and readers, IJHDR contributes to the development of a kind of knowledge close to the borders of science. Therefore, to establish a valid scientific background, the articles must be clearly written, and based on sound assumptions. High-visibility for articles is a fundamental aspect desired by all authors. As an open and free access journal, IJHDR meets that condition, and we are planning to make our influence and visibility even wider. Inclusion in the major databases has paramount importance in the academic milieu, however, it should be considered as a consequence, rather than a goal. In 2013, IJHDR will chair a collaborative project with several research institutions aiming to deliver information everywhere, increasing the visibility of the published articles. Thus, now it is the time to take a deep breath, relax, and prepare you for the forthcoming work! See you in 2013!

  13. Mechanisms linking metabolism of Helicobacter pylori to (18)O and (13)C-isotopes of human breath CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Suman; De, Anulekha; Banik, Gourab Dutta; Maity, Abhijit; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Pal, Mithun; Daschakraborty, Sunil B; Chaudhuri, Sujit; Jana, Subhra; Pradhan, Manik

    2015-06-03

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori utilize glucose during metabolism, but the underlying mechanisms linking to oxygen-18 ((18)O) and carbon-13 ((13)C)-isotopic fractionations of breath CO2 during glucose metabolism are poorly understood. Using the excretion dynamics of (18)O/(16)O and (13)C/(12)C-isotope ratios of breath CO2, we found that individuals with Helicobacter pylori infections exhibited significantly higher isotopic enrichments of (18)O in breath CO2 during the 2h-glucose metabolism regardless of the isotopic nature of the substrate, while no significant enrichments of (18)O in breath CO2 were manifested in individuals without the infections. In contrast, the (13)C-isotopic enrichments of breath CO2 were significantly higher in individuals with Helicobacter pylori compared to individuals without infections in response to (13)C-enriched glucose uptake, whereas a distinguishable change of breath (13)C/(12)C-isotope ratios was also evident when Helicobacter pylori utilize natural glucose. Moreover, monitoring the (18)O and (13)C-isotopic exchange in breath CO2 successfully diagnosed the eradications of Helicobacter pylori infections following a standard therapy. Our findings suggest that breath (12)C(18)O(16)O and (13)C(16)O(16)O can be used as potential molecular biomarkers to distinctively track the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori and also for eradication purposes and thus may open new perspectives into the pathogen's physiology along with isotope-specific non-invasive diagnosis of the infection.

  14. Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

  15. Correlation Between the Levels of IL-8 and IL-17 in Exhaled Breath Condensate and FEV1% of Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease%慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者呼出气冷凝液中白介素8、白介素17水平及其与第1秒用力呼气末容积占预计值百分比的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小双; 许西琳; 刘冬; 辛雯艳; 蒋雪龙; 鲁德玕

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the levels of IL-8 and IL-17 in exhaled breath condensate ( EBC) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) , and investigate their correlation with FEV 1%.Methods We enrolled 81 patients with acute COPD who were admitted into the Department of Respiratory of the First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Shihezi University from November 2014 to June 2015 as case group , and we also enrolled 78 healthy adults who received physical examination in the hospital in the same period .At admission and in stable phrase after treatment , EBC of the two groups was collected and detected , and the pulmonary function test was conducted .Results The two groups were not significantly different in gender , average age , ethnic group and BMI ( P >0.05 ) .Before treatment , the two groups were significantly different in the levels of IL-8 and IL-17 of EBC (P0.05) and IL-17 (r=0.09, P>0.05) in EBC had no correlative with FEV1%in AECOPD patients; the levels of IL-8 (r=-0.21, P>0.05) and IL-17 (r=-0.03, P>0.05) in EBC had no correlation with FEV1% in COPD patients in stable phrase; the improved value of the levels of IL-8 (r=-0.33, P0.05). 治疗前两组EBC中IL-8和IL-17水平比较, 差异有统计学意义 ( P0.05) 和IL-17 (r=0.09, P>0.05) 水平与FEV1%无直线相关关系; COPD稳定期患者EBC中IL-8 (r=-0.21,P>0.05) 和IL-17 (r=-0.03, P>0.05) 水平与FEV1%无直线相关关系; 治疗前后患者EBC中IL-8 (r=-0.33, P<0.05) 和IL-17 (r=-0.30, P<0.05) 改善值与FEV1%改善值存在负相关关系. 结论 COPD患者EBC中IL-8和IL-17水平改善情况与FEV1%改善情况有关, 可以作为患者病情严重程度和治疗效果的评估指标.

  16. 阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征患者血清和呼出气冷凝液中基质金属蛋白酶-2的水平及意义%The levels and meaning of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in serum and exhaled breath condensate of patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建勇; 曾玉琴; 邝军; 陈功; 张立波; 王永兰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the relation between the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in serum and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS).Methods Thirty patients with mild OSAHS (mild OSAHS group),sixty-eight patients with middle-severe OSAHS (middle-severe OSAHS group),and twenty-two healthy adults (control group) were collected,the levels of MMP-2 in their serum and EBC were detected with ELISA.They were detected again in the forty patients from the middle-severe group after treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for 1 month.Results In the mild and middle-severe OSAHS groups the levels of MMP-2 in serum and EBC were significantly higher than those of the control group.there was a significant decrease in the 40 patients from the middle-severe OSAHS group after treated with CPAP for 1 month (t =2.369,2.512,P <0.05).Conclusions The levels of MMP-2 in serum and EBC of patients with OSAHS was higher,it may be involved with OSAHS.%目的 探讨血清和呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中基质金属蛋白酶-2(MMP-2)的水平与阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(OSAHS)发病的关系.方法 利用酶联免疫吸附法对30例轻度OSAHS患者(轻度OSAHS组)、68例中重度OSAHS患者(中重度OSAHS组)和22名健康者(正常对照组)血清及EBC中MMP-2的水平进行检测,对其中40例中重度OSAHS患者在持续气道正压通气(CPAP)治疗1个月后进行复查.结果 与正常对照组相比,轻度、中重度OSAHS患者血清及EBC中MMP-2的水平依次增高,40例中重度OSAHS患者在CPAP治疗后明显下降,差异具有统计学意义(t=2.369、2.512,P值均<0.05).结论 OSAHS患者血清及EBC中MMP-2水平升高,与OSAHS的发病可能相关.

  17. Breath-holding and its breakpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, M J

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the basic properties of breath-holding in humans and the possible causes of the breath at breakpoint. The simplest objective measure of breath-holding is its duration, but even this is highly variable. Breath-holding is a voluntary act, but normal subjects appear unable to breath-hold to unconsciousness. A powerful involuntary mechanism normally overrides voluntary breath-holding and causes the breath that defines the breakpoint. The occurrence of the breakpoint breath does not appear to be caused solely by a mechanism involving lung or chest shrinkage, partial pressures of blood gases or the carotid arterial chemoreceptors. This is despite the well-known properties of breath-hold duration being prolonged by large lung inflations, hyperoxia and hypocapnia and being shortened by the converse manoeuvres and by increased metabolic rate. Breath-holding has, however, two much less well-known but important properties. First, the central respiratory rhythm appears to continue throughout breath-holding. Humans cannot therefore stop their central respiratory rhythm voluntarily. Instead, they merely suppress expression of their central respiratory rhythm and voluntarily 'hold' the chest at a chosen volume, possibly assisted by some tonic diaphragm activity. Second, breath-hold duration is prolonged by bilateral paralysis of the phrenic or vagus nerves. Possibly the contribution to the breakpoint from stimulation of diaphragm muscle chemoreceptors is greater than has previously been considered. At present there is no simple explanation for the breakpoint that encompasses all these properties.

  18. Sedimentary condensation and authigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föllmi, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Most marine authigenic minerals form in sediments, which are subjected to condensation. Condensation processes lead to the formation of well individualized, extremely thin ( 100ky), and which experienced authigenesis and the precipitation of glaucony, verdine, phosphate, iron and manganese oxyhydroxides, iron sulfide, carbonate and/or silica. They usually show complex internal stratigraphies, which result from an interplay of sediment accumulation, halts in sedimentation, sediment winnowing, erosion, reworking and bypass. They may include amalgamated faunas of different origin and age. Hardgrounds may be part of condensed beds and may embody strongly condensed beds by themselves. Sedimentary condensation is the result of a hydrodynamically active depositional regime, in which sediment accumulation, winnowing, erosion, reworking and bypass are processes, which alternate as a function of changes in the location and intensity of currents, and/or as the result of episodic high-energy events engendered by storms and gravity flow. Sedimentary condensation has been and still is a widespread phenomenon in past and present-day oceans. The present-day distribution of glaucony and verdine-rich sediments on shelves and upper slopes, phosphate-rich sediments and phosphorite on outer shelves and upper slopes, ferromanganese crusts on slopes, seamounts and submarine plateaus, and ferromanganese nodules on abyssal seafloors is a good indication of the importance of condensation processes today. In the past, we may add the occurrence of oolitic ironstone, carbonate hardgrounds, and eventually also silica layers in banded iron formations as indicators of the importance of condensation processes. Besides their economic value, condensed sediments are useful both as a carrier of geochemical proxies of paleoceanographic and paleoenvironmental change, as well as the product of episodes of paleoceanographic and paleoenvironmental change themselves.

  19. Neural mechanisms underlying breathing complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Hess

    Full Text Available Breathing is maintained and controlled by a network of automatic neurons in the brainstem that generate respiratory rhythm and receive regulatory inputs. Breathing complexity therefore arises from respiratory central pattern generators modulated by peripheral and supra-spinal inputs. Very little is known on the brainstem neural substrates underlying breathing complexity in humans. We used both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher these mechanisms in healthy humans and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. COPD is the most frequent chronic lung disease in the general population mainly due to tobacco smoke. In patients, airflow obstruction associated with hyperinflation and respiratory muscles weakness are key factors contributing to load-capacity imbalance and hence increased respiratory drive. Unexpectedly, we found that the patients breathed with a higher level of complexity during inspiration and expiration than controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we scanned the brain of the participants to analyze the activity of two small regions involved in respiratory rhythmogenesis, the rostral ventro-lateral (VL medulla (pre-Bötzinger complex and the caudal VL pons (parafacial group. fMRI revealed in controls higher activity of the VL medulla suggesting active inspiration, while in patients higher activity of the VL pons suggesting active expiration. COPD patients reactivate the parafacial to sustain ventilation. These findings may be involved in the onset of respiratory failure when the neural network becomes overwhelmed by respiratory overload We show that central neural activity correlates with airflow complexity in healthy subjects and COPD patients, at rest and during inspiratory loading. We finally used a theoretical approach of respiratory rhythmogenesis that reproduces the kernel activity of neurons involved in the automatic breathing. The model reveals how a chaotic activity in

  20. Physics of condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Prasanta K

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Condensed Matter is designed for a two-semester graduate course on condensed matter physics for students in physics and materials science. While the book offers fundamental ideas and topic areas of condensed matter physics, it also includes many recent topics of interest on which graduate students may choose to do further research. The text can also be used as a one-semester course for advanced undergraduate majors in physics, materials science, solid state chemistry, and electrical engineering, because it offers a breadth of topics applicable to these majors. The book be

  1. Molecular fossils in Cretaceous condensate from western India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sharmila Bhattacharya; Suryendu Dutta; Ratul Dutta

    2014-07-01

    The present study reports the biomarker distribution of condensate belonging to the early Cretaceous time frame using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The early Cretaceous palaeoenvironment was inscribed into these molecular fossils which reflected the source and conditions of deposition of the condensate. The saturate fraction of the condensate is characterized by normal alkanes ranging from -C9 to -C29} (CPI-1.13), cycloalkanes and C14 and C15 sesquiterpanes. The aromatic fraction comprises of naphthalene, phenanthrene, their methylated derivatives and cyclohexylbenzenes. Isohexylalkylnaphthalenes, a product of rearrangement process of terpenoids, is detected in the condensate. Several aromatic sesquiterpenoids and diterpenoids have been recorded. Dihydro-ar-curcumene, cadalene and ionene form the assemblage of sesquiterpenoids which are indicative of higher plant input. Aromatic diterpenoid fraction comprises of simonellite and retene. These compounds are also indicative of higher plants, particularly conifer source which had been a predominant flora during the Cretaceous time.

  2. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

  3. 急性肺损伤/急性呼吸窘迫综合征患者呼出气冷凝液和血清一氧化氮及内皮素检测的意义%The clinical significance of nitric oxide and endothelin-1 in exhaled breath condensate and serum of patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾言; 陈建荣; 邵峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the level of the nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the exhaled breath condensate(EBC)and serum of the patients with ALI /ARDS, and investigate its clinical significance. Methods The study group included 52 mechanical ventilation patients with ALI/ARDS in ICU , which were divided into the survival and death group, while 30 healthy volunteers were recruited as healthy control. EBC samples of the healthy control and the study group on the 1st day and 5st day were collected by EcoScreen condenser with the synchronous collection of the venous blood. The concentrations of NO and ET-1 in the EBC and serum were measured by EIA. Results The levels of NO and ET-1 in EBC and serum of the patients with ALI /ARDS were all significantly higher than those of the healthy control. After treatment , the levels of NO and ET-1 in EBC and serum of the patients all decreased significantly compared with before treatment. After treatment , The levels of NO in EBC and serum of the survival group were significantly lower than those of the death group. After treatment , the levels of ET-1 in serum of the survival group was significantly lower than that of the death group. Conclusions Detecting the levels of NO and ET-1 in the EBC and serum can reflect oxidative stress , inflammatory reaction and endothelial injury in lung of patients with ALI/ARDS.%目的:研究急性肺损伤/急性呼吸窘迫综合征(acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome, ALI/ARDS)患者呼出气冷凝液(exhaled breath condensate, EBC)和血清中一氧化氮(nitric oxide, NO)和内皮素(endothelin-1, ET-1)改变与病情变化及预后的关系。方法:研究组为南通大学第二附属医院重症监护病房(intensive care unit,ICU)行机械通气的52例ALI/ARDS患者,根据预后分为存活组和病死组;健康对照组为30例健康体检者。采用Ecoscreen呼出气冷凝液收集器收集健康对

  4. DNA methylation-based biomarkers for early detection of non-small cell lung cancer: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laird-Offringa Ite A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lung cancer is the number one cancer killer in the United States. This disease is clinically divided into two sub-types, small cell lung cancer, (10–15% of lung cancer cases, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; 85–90% of cases. Early detection of NSCLC, which is the more common and less aggressive of the two sub-types, has the highest potential for saving lives. As yet, no routine screening method that enables early detection exists, and this is a key factor in the high mortality rate of this disease. Imaging and cytology-based screening strategies have been employed for early detection, and while some are sensitive, none have been demonstrated to reduce lung cancer mortality. However, mortality might be reduced by developing specific molecular markers that can complement imaging techniques. DNA methylation has emerged as a highly promising biomarker and is being actively studied in multiple cancers. The analysis of DNA methylation-based biomarkers is rapidly advancing, and a large number of potential biomarkers have been identified. Here we present a detailed review of the literature, focusing on DNA methylation-based markers developed using primary NSCLC tissue. Viable markers for clinical diagnosis must be detectable in 'remote media' such as blood, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, or even exhaled breath condensate. We discuss progress on their detection in such media and the sensitivity and specificity of the molecular marker panels identified to date. Lastly, we look to future advancements that will be made possible with the interrogation of the epigenome.

  5. Breath air measurement using wide-band frequency tuning IR laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistenev, Yury V.; Borisov, Alexey V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Boyko, Andrey A.; Kostyukova, Nadezhda Y.; Karapuzikov, Alexey A.

    2016-03-01

    The results of measuring of biomarkers in breath air of patients with broncho-pulmonary diseases using wide-band frequency tuning IR laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy and the methods of data mining are presented. We will discuss experimental equipment and various methods of intellectual analysis of the experimental spectra in context of above task. The work was carried out with partial financial support of the FCPIR contract No 14.578.21.0082 (ID RFMEFI57814X0082).

  6. [Stahl, Leibniz, Hoffmann and breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the XVIII th century, Wilhelm Gottfried Leibniz and Friedrich Hoffmann criticize Georg Ernst Stahl's medical theory. They differenciate between unsound and true reasonings. Namely, they validate Stahl's definition of breath but extracting it from its animist basis and placing it in an epistemology obeying to the principle of sufficient reason and to the mechanical model. The stahlian discovery consists in understanding breath as a calorific ventilation against the ancient conception; the iatromechanists recognize its accuracy, but they try then to transpose it to a mechanical model of ventilation. Using it in a different epistemological context implies that they analyze the idea of discovery "true" in its contents, but "wrong" in its hypothesis. It impels to examine the epistemology of medical knowledge, as science and therapeutics, and in its links with the other scientific theories. Thus, if Leibniz as philosopher and Hoffmann as doctor consider Stahl's animism so important, it is because its discoveries question the fundamental principles of medicine.

  7. Effects of diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise on pulmonary function in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Min-Sik; Lee, Hae-Yong; Lee, Yun-Seob

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated effects of diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise on respiratory function. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one subjects were randomly assigned to two groups; the feedback breathing exercise group and the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group. The feedback breathing exercise group was asked to breathe with feedback breathing device, and the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group was asked to perform diaphragm respiration. Respiratory function was evaluated when a subject sat on a chair comfortably. [Results] There was a significant difference in the functional vital capacity and slow vital capacity before and after all breathing exercises. There was a significant between-group difference in functional vital capacity. However, no between-group difference was found in slow vital capacity. [Conclusion] Diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise can affect respiratory function.

  8. Breathing Modes in Dusty Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓钢; 王爽; 潘秋惠; 刘悦; 贺明峰

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic breathing modes of dusty plasmas have been investigated in a cylindricalsystem with an axial symmetry. The linear wave solution and a "dispersion" relation were derived.It was found that in an infinite area, the mode is reduced to a "classical" dust acoustic wave inthe region away from the center. If the dusty plasma is confined in a finite region, however, thebreathing (or heart-beating) behavior would be found as observed in many experiments.

  9. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  10. CONDENSATION OF WATER VAPOR IN A VERTICAL TUBE CONDENSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havlík

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of heat transfer in the process of condensation of water vapor in a vertical shell-and-tube condenser. We analyze the use of the Nusselt model for calculating the condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC inside a vertical tube and the Kern, Bell-Delaware and Stream-flow analysis methods for calculating the shell-side HTC from tubes to cooling water. These methods are experimentally verified for a specific condenser of waste process vapor containing air. The operating conditions of the condenser may be different from the assumptions adopted in the basic Nusselt theory. Modifications to the Nusselt condensation model are theoretically analyzed.

  11. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange.

  12. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Isihara, A

    2007-01-01

    More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional

  13. Design and Evaluation of a Breath Analysis System for Occupational Exposure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldat, Kelvin L.; Thrall, Karla D.

    2001-06-01

    Exposure assessment is an integral part of industrial hygiene and occupational health. To ensure the health and safety of workers, integrated industrial hygiene methodologies often include biological monitoring strategies. Exhaled breath is an ideal matrix for measuring volatile biomarkers, particularly since the non-invasive collection of breath may improve volunteer participation. A real-time, field-portable system was developed to analyze undiluted exhaled air from experimental animals and humans. The system combines (1) an ion-trap mass spectrometer capable of atmospheric sampling; (2) a breath interface for continual analysis of the exhaled breath stream; (3) chemical dosimeters that are analyzed in the field/workplace; and (4) physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to estimate total exposure and internal target tissue dosimetry. The intent of this development was to provide new instrumentation to evaluate volatile chemical exposures as part of a daily monitoring pro gram. For example, the system was designed to monitor a worker every time they enter and leave a work environment - a vast improvement over current 8-hr integrated monitoring strategies. To evaluate the system in actual work environments, field tests were conducted using volunteers providing exhaled breath samples before and after each specific job task. In these field studies, several volunteers had post-task breath levels higher than pre-task levels. Compared to the breath analysis findings, chemical dosimeters underpredicted exposures, particularly for longer sampling intervals where the volume of air sampled may have diluted exposures. The results of these field studies illustrate the utility of monitoring workers for exposures at numerous times throughout the day, particularly when job-specific tasks may indicate a potential for exposure.

  14. Changes and Clinical Significances of Hydrogen Peroxide and Interleukin -6 Levels in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Treated with Mechanical Ventilation%急性呼吸窘迫综合征机械通气患者呼出气冷凝液中过氧化氢和白介素6水平变化及其临床意义研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛毓茜; 杨国辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes and clinical significances of hydrogen peroxide ( H2 O2 ) and interleukin-6 ( IL -6 ) levels in exhaled breath condensate ( EBC ) of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)treated with mechanical ventilation. Methods From September 2012 to December 2013,a total of 42 patients with ARDS treated with mechanical ventilation were selected in MICU,the Second People′s Hospital of Guiyang,and they were divided into survival group ( n = 22 ) and death group ( n = 20 ) according to 2 - week prognosis after admission of MICU. APACHEⅡscore,APACHEⅢscore,H2 O2 and IL-6 levels in EBC were compared between the two groups after 1 day, 3 days,5 days,7 days of mechanical ventilation,and their correlations were analyzed. Results H2 O2 and IL-6 levels in EBC after 3 days,5 days,7 days of mechanical ventilation of survival group were lower than those after 1 day of mechanical ventilation,respectively;while H2 O2 and IL-6 level in EBC after 7 days of mechanical ventilation of death group were higher than those after 1 day,3 days,5 days of mechanical ventilation,respectively(P 0. 05);while APACHEⅡscore and APACHEⅢscore of death group were higher than those of survival group after 3 days,5 days,7 days of mechanical ventilation,respectively(P0. 05);while H2O2 and IL-6 levels in EBC of death group were higher than those of survival group after 5 days,7 days of mechanical ventilation, respectively(P0. 05);in death group,H2O2 in EBC after 5 days,7 days of mechanical ventilation was positively correlated with APACHEⅡ score and APACHEⅢ score ,IL-6 level in EBC after 5 days,7 days of mechanical ventilation was negatively correlated with APACHEⅡscore and APACHEⅢscore(P0.05);机械通气后3、5、7 d死亡组患者APACHEⅡ和APACHE Ⅲ评分高于存活组( P0.05);机械通气后5、7 d死亡组患者EBC中H2 O2和IL-6水平均高于存活组(P0.05);死亡组患者机械通气后5、7 d EBC中H2 O2水平

  15. 慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者呼出气冷凝液中NO2-、LTB4、PGE2、IL-6、IL-10水平的研究%Levels of NO2-, LTB4, PGE2, IL-6, IL-10 in exhaled breath condensate with acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄平; 聂莉; 杜秀芳; 钟春; 宋冰; 陈济明; 周蓓

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者呼出气冷凝液(EBC)中亚硝酸盐(NO2-)、白三烯B4(LTB4)、前列腺素E2(PGE2)、白介素6(IL-6)和IL-10的水平与气道炎症及肺功能的关系.方法 收集20例COPD患者和20名健康体检者,测定肺通气功能,收集EBC,用比色法测定EBC中NO2-水平,用ELISA法测定EBC中LTB4、PGE2、IL-6和IL-10的水平.结果 ①COPD组EBC中NO2-和LTB4的水平分别为(2.029±1.992) μmol/L、(0.400 ±0.235)μmol/L,均显著高于健康对照组(0.400±0.235)μmol/L,(9.742±2.348) ng/L,差异有统计学意义(P值均<0.05);EBC中PGE2、IL-6、IL-10的水平在两组间比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);COPD组EBC中NO2-、LTB4、PGE2、IL-6、IL-10的水平与FEV/FVC和FEV%预计值无相关性(P>0.05).结论 COPD患者EBC中NO2-、LTB4与气道炎症及氧化应激有关系,PGE2、IL-6、IL-10与气道炎症的关系需进一步研究,这些细胞因子与肺功能无相关性.%Objective To investigate the relationship between NO2-,LTB4,PGE2,IL-6 and IL-10levels in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and airway inflammation as well as pulmonary function from COPD patients.Methods Twenty cases of COPD and twenty healthy control were enrolled.ALL subjects detected FEV1/FVC and FEV1% predict.EBC were collected using EcoScreen system.The NO2-levei in EBC was determined by the spectrophotometry.The levels of LTB4,PGE2,IL-6 and IL-10in EBC were measured by enzyme linked immuosorbent assay.Results The levels of NO2-and LTB4 in EBC of COPDgroup were significantly higher than that of the control group [(2.029 ± 1.992) μmol/L,(13.598±3.910)ng/L vs (0.400 ±0.235) μmol/L,(9.742 ±2.348) ng/L,respectively,all P <0.05].There were no signficant difference of PGE2,IL-6 and IL-10 levels in EBC both groups (all P >0.05).There were no correlation between NO2-,LTB4,PGE2,IL-6,IL-10 in EBC with FEV1/FVC and FEV1% predict (P >0.05).Conclusions The COPD patients NO2-and LTB4 levels in EBC

  16. [Breath-analysis tests in gastroenetrological diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspary, W F

    1975-12-01

    The introduction of a simple method for analysis of 14CO2 in breath allowed a more widely application of breath-tests in the diagnosis of gastroenterological diseases. During a breath-test a 14C-labelled compound is administered orally and 14CO2 is subsequently measured in breath by discontinuous samplings of 14CO2 by virtue of a trapping solution (hyamine hydroxide). Most helpful tests in gastroenterology are the 14C-glycyl-cholate breath test for detecting increased deconjugation of bile acids due to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth or bile acid malabsorption in ileal resection or Crohn's disease of the ileum, the 14C-lactose breath test in lactase deficiency, whereas the 14C-tripalmitin test seems less helpful in the diagnosis of fat malabsorption. A 14C-aminopyrine breath test may turn out to be a simple and valuable liver function test. Oral loading tests with breath analysis of H2 have shown to be helpful in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, determination of intestinal transit time and intestinal gas production. Due to technical reasons (gas-chromatographie analysis) H2-breath analysis is still limited to research centers. Despite low radiation doses after oral administration of 14C-labelled compounds oral loading tests with H2- or 13C-analysis might be preferable in the future.

  17. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgay Izci Balserak

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the severity of SDB, the epidemiology and the risk factors of SDB in pregnancy, the association of SDB with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and screening and management options specific for this population.

  18. 42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.79 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.79 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply... respiratory tract irritating compounds. (c) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the...

  19. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing apparatus shall be designed and constructed to prevent: (a)...

  20. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  1. Preventing freezing of condensate inside tubes of air cooled condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Jeong A; Hwang, In Hwan; Lee, Dong Hwan [Chonbuk Nat' l Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young Il [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia (United States)

    2012-08-15

    An air cooled condenser is a device that is used for converting steam into condensate by using ambient air. The air cooled condenser is prone to suffer from a serious explosion when the condensate inside the tubes of a heat exchanger is frozen; in particular, tubes can break during winter. This is primarily due to the structural problem of the tube outlet of an existing conventional air cooled condenser system, which causes the backflow of residual steam and noncondensable gases. To solve the backflow problem in such condensers, such a system was simulated and a new system was designed and evaluated in this study. The experimental results using the simulated condenser showed the occurrence of freezing because of the backflow inside the tube. On the other hand, no backflow and freezing occurred in the advanced new condenser, and efficient heat exchange occurred.

  2. Soft condensed matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, D.

    2002-01-01

    These lectures illustrate some of the concepts of soft-condensed matter physics, taking examples from colloid physics. Many of the theoretical concepts will be illustrated with the results of computer simulations. After a brief introduction describing interactions between colloids, the paper focuses

  3. Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    A modern, unified treatment of condensed matter physics This new work presents for the first time in decades a sweeping review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching "not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, electron interference in nanometer-sized channels, and the quantum Hall effect." Six major areas are covered---atomic structure, electronic structure, mechanical properties, electron transport, optical properties, and magnetism. But rather than defining the field in terms of particular materials, the author focuses on the way condensed matter physicists approach physical problems, combining phenomenology and microscopic arguments with information from experiments. For graduate students and professionals, researchers and engineers, applied mathematicians and materials scientists, Condensed Matter Physics provides: * An exciting collection of new topics from the past two decades. * A thorough treatment of classic topics, including band theory, transport theory, and semiconductor physics. * Over 300 figures, incorporating many images from experiments. * Frequent comparison of theory and experiment, both when they agree and when problems are still unsolved. * More than 50 tables of data and a detailed index. * Ample end-of-chapter problems, including computational exercises. * Over 1000 references, both recent and historically significant.

  4. Biomarkers in Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Michael J; Smith, Emily R; Turfle, Phillip G

    2017-02-08

    This article summarizes the relevant definitions related to biomarkers; reviews the general processes related to biomarker discovery and ultimate acceptance and use; and finally summarizes and reviews, to the extent possible, examples of the types of biomarkers used in animal species within veterinary clinical practice and human and veterinary drug development. We highlight opportunities for collaboration and coordination of research within the veterinary community and leveraging of resources from human medicine to support biomarker discovery and validation efforts for veterinary medicine.

  5. Combination of biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurfjell, Lennart; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Lundqvist, Roger;

    2012-01-01

    The New National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease (AD) incorporate biomarkers in the diagnostic criteria and suggest division of biomarkers into two categories: Aβ accumulation and neuronal degeneration or injury.......The New National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease (AD) incorporate biomarkers in the diagnostic criteria and suggest division of biomarkers into two categories: Aβ accumulation and neuronal degeneration or injury....

  6. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  7. Droplet pattern and condensation gradient around a humidity sink

    OpenAIRE

    González-Viñas, W; Beysens, D. A.; Narhe, R.D. (Ramchandra D.); Guadarrama-Cetina, J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the evolution of a water drop saturated with NaCl and the growth of pure water droplets in a breath figure pattern (BF) condensing around it. This salty drop acts as a humidity sink, inhibiting the BF inside a ring at a distance r=δ from the sink center and slowing down BF growth outside the ring. The initial salty drop is taken either from a salt-saturated solution (type I experiment) or by placing an NaCl crystal on the substrate (type II experiment). The results are similar, pr...

  8. Domains of Disoriented Chiral Condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Amado, R D; Lu, Yang

    1996-01-01

    The probability distribution of neutral pion fraction from independent domains of disoriented chiral condensate is characterized. The signal for the condensate is clear for a small number of domains but is greatly reduced for more than three.

  9. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  10. 42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Respirators § 84.141 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply supplied-air respirators shall be respirable breathing air and contain no less than 19.5 volume-percent of oxygen....

  11. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  12. Controlled Frequency Breathing Reduces Inspiratory Muscle Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtch, Alex R; Ogle, Ben T; Sims, Patrick A; Harms, Craig A; Symons, Thorburn B; Folz, Rodney J; Zavorsky, Gerald S

    2016-08-16

    Controlled frequency breathing (CFB) is a common swim training modality involving holding one's breath for about 7 to 10 strokes before taking another breath. We sought to examine the effects of CFB training on reducing respiratory muscle fatigue. Competitive college swimmers were randomly divided into either the CFB group that breathed every 7 to 10 strokes, or a control group that breathed every 3-4 strokes. Twenty swimmers completed the study. The training intervention included 5-6 weeks (16 sessions) of 12x50-m repetitions with breathing 8-10 breaths per 50m (control group), or 2-3 breaths per 50-m (CFB group). Inspiratory muscle fatigue was defined as the decrease in maximal inspiratory mouth-pressure (MIP) between rest and 46s after a 200 yard free-style swimming race [115s (SD 7)]. Aerobic capacity, pulmonary diffusing capacity, and running economy were also measured pre and post-training. Pooled results demonstrated a 12% decrease in MIP at 46s post-race [-15 (SD 14) cm H2O, Effect size = -0.48, p training, only the CFB group prevented a decline in MIP values pre to 46 s post-race [-2 (13) cm H2O, p > 0.05]. However, swimming performance, aerobic capacity, pulmonary diffusing capacity, and running economy did not improve (p > 0.05) post-training in either group. In conclusion, CFB training appears to prevent inspiratory muscle fatigue yet no difference was found in performance outcomes.

  13. Relationships between hippocampal activity and breathing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, R M; Poe, G R; Rector, D M;

    1998-01-01

    Single cell discharge, EEG activity, and optical changes accompanying alterations in breathing patterns, as well as the knowledge that respiratory musculature is heavily involved in movement and other behavioral acts, implicate hippocampal regions in some aspects of breathing control. The control...

  14. 呼出气体冷凝物中肺癌标志物采集装置的改进和优化设计%Improvement and Optimal Design of Collection Device for Lung Cancer Biomarker in Exhaled Breath Condensate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林; 邹莹畅; 张希; 王镝; 赵聪; 王平

    2013-01-01

    为提高呼出气体冷凝物(EBC)中肺癌标志物的准确采集,设计一种新型的EBC采集装置,为提高EBC中肺癌标志物的准确分析,我们研究最佳采集温度、最佳采集时间等采集装置的优化工作参数.针对EBC中的肺癌标志物癌胚抗原(CEA),使用设计的装置与国外的EBC采集装置Ecoscreen进行对比分析,实验结果表明,在同样条件下我们的装置采集量多于Ecoscreen、CEA浓度明显高于Ecoscreen,说明该装置更适合采集EBC中的CEA.使用该装置采集了65例肺癌患者与56例健康受试者EBC,发现肺癌患者EBC中CEA浓度明显高于健康受试者,通过受试者工作特征曲线(ROC curve)获得EBC中CEA阳性阈值为2.55 ng/mL,此时敏感性为49.2%,特异性为83.9%.结果表明,本研究设计的新型呼出气体冷凝物采集装置能够很好地采集到肺癌病人EBC中的CEA,具有更高的灵敏度和特异性.

  15. 慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期呼出气冷凝液中的标记物及其意义%Biomarkers and their significance in exhaled breath condensate of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高蕾; 周新

    2007-01-01

    慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)急性加重期存在着炎症反应和氧化应激反应,这些变化可通过对呼出气冷凝液中生物学标记物的检测得知.呼出气冷凝液是一种可重复的无创检测手段,目前可用于检测的主要标记物有过氧化氢、花生四烯酸衍生物、脂质过氧化产物、一氧化氮衍生物及细胞因子等.本文主要介绍上述各标记物在COPD急性加重期的临床意义.

  16. Photon condensation: A new paradigm for Bose-Einstein condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Renju; Ramesh Babu, P.; Senthilnathan, K.

    2016-10-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation is a state of matter known to be responsible for peculiar properties exhibited by superfluid Helium-4 and superconductors. Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in its pure form is realizable with alkali atoms under ultra-cold temperatures. In this paper, we review the experimental scheme that demonstrates the atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. We also elaborate on the theoretical framework for atomic Bose-Einstein condensation, which includes statistical mechanics and the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. As an extension, we discuss Bose-Einstein condensation of photons realized in a fluorescent dye filled optical microcavity. We analyze this phenomenon based on the generalized Planck's law in statistical mechanics. Further, a comparison is made between photon condensate and laser. We describe how photon condensate may be a possible alternative for lasers since it does not require an energy consuming population inversion process.

  17. Pulse pressure variation to predict fluid responsiveness in spontaneously breathing patients: tidal vs. forced inspiratory breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, D M; Lee, J M; Seo, J H; Min, J J; Jeon, Y; Bahk, J H

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated whether pulse pressure variation can predict fluid responsiveness in spontaneously breathing patients. Fifty-nine elective thoracic surgical patients were studied before induction of general anaesthesia. After volume expansion with hydroxyethyl starch 6 ml.kg(-1) , patients were defined as responders by a ≥ 15% increase in the cardiac index. Haemodynamic variables were measured before and after volume expansion and pulse pressure variations were calculated during tidal breathing and during forced inspiratory breathing. Median (IQR [range]) pulse pressure variation during forced inspiratory breathing was significantly higher in responders (n = 29) than in non-responders (n = 30) before volume expansion (18.2 (IQR 14.7-18.2 [9.3-31.3])% vs. 10.1 (IQR 8.3-12.6 [4.8-21.1])%, respectively, p breathing could predict fluid responsiveness (area under the curve 0.910, p breathing can be used to guide fluid management in spontaneously breathing patients.

  18. Discriminating between Nasal and Mouth Breathing

    CERN Document Server

    Curran, Kevin; Coyle, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing. Our findings show that the breath pattern can be discriminated in certain places of the body both by visual spectrum analysis and with a Back Propagation neural network classifier. The sound file recoded from the sensor placed on the hollow in the neck shows the most promising accuracy which is as high as 90%.

  19. Abortion--the breath of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joling, R J

    1974-01-01

    A scholarly review of medical-legal and biblical authority on the su bject of abortion supports abortion as a woman's right when it is performed before the fetus has had its "breath of life." Based on biblical evidence, a person becomes a living being when the soul, the "breath of life" is breathed into it. Without the "breath of life" no person exists. A fetus less than 28 weeks old is incapable of breathing alone; thus an aborted fetus that age is not truly a living human being capable of surviving independently of its mother's womb. Legal aspects include supreme, local and state court decisions defining abortion. It is ultimately expected that each person will determine what approach to take towards the abortion question. Abortion is still a personal problem regardless of supreme court decisions or ecclesiastical determinants. Religion and moral concepts should be the guiding conscience involved in the question of abortion.

  20. Rapid eye movement sleep in breath holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, J; Hasegawa, T; Shimohira, M; Fukumizu, M; Iwakawa, Y

    2000-07-01

    One-night polysomnography was performed on seven subjects suffering from breath-holding spells, including one whose death was suggested to be a consequence of a breath-holding spell. The fatal case showed no rapid eye movements (REMs) during REM sleep, although he exhibited REMs during wakefulness. The average numbers of both REMs and bursts of REMs in REM sleep in the other six breath holders were significantly lower than those in age-matched controls. The breath holders showed no airway obstruction, desaturation, or sleep fragmentation. Since the rapid ocular activity in REM sleep is generated in the brain stem, we hypothesized that a functional brainstem disturbance is involved in the occurrence of breath-holding spells.

  1. New sepsis biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Limongi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis remains a leading cause of death in the intensive care units and in all age groups worldwide. Early recognition and diagnosis are key to achieving improved outcomes. Therefore, novel biomarkers that might better inform clinicians treating such patients are surely needed. The main attributes of successful biomarkers would be high sensitivity, specificity, possibility of bedside monitoring and financial accessibility. A panel of sepsis biomarkers along with currently used laboratory tests will facilitate earlier diagnosis, timely treatment and improved outcome may be more effective than single biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances on sepsis biomarkers evaluated in clinical and experimental studies.

  2. New sepsis biomarkers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dolores Limongi; Cartesio D’Agostini; Marco Ciotti

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis remains a leading cause of death in the intensive care units and in all age groups worldwide. Early recognition and diagnosis are key to achieving improved outcomes.Therefore, novel biomarkers that might better inform clinicians treating such patients are surely needed. The main attributes of successful biomarkers would be high sensitivity,specificity, possibility of bedside monitoring and financial accessibility. A panel of sepsis biomarkers along with currently used laboratory tests will facilitate earlier diagnosis,timely treatment and improved outcome may be more effective than single biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances on sepsis biomarkers evaluated in clinical and experimental studies.

  3. New sepsis biomarkers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dolores Limongi; Cartesio DAgostini; Marco Ciotti

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis remains a leading cause of death in the intensive care units and in all age groups worldwide. Early recognition and diagnosis are key to achieving improved outcomes. Therefore, novel biomarkers that might better inform clinicians treating such patients are surely needed. The main attributes of successful biomarkers would be high sensitivity, specificity, possibility of bedside monitoring and financial accessibility. A panel of sepsis biomarkers along with currently used laboratory tests will facilitate earlier diagnosis, timely treatment and improved outcome may be more effective than single biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances on sepsis biomarkers evaluated in clinical and experimental studies.

  4. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Marder, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    This Second Edition presents an updated review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, granular materials, quantum dots, Berry phases, the quantum Hall effect, and Luttinger liquids.

  5. Voucher-Based Reinforcement for Alcohol Abstinence Using the Ethyl-Glucuronide Alcohol Biomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonell, Michael G.; Howell, Donelle N,; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M.; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase.…

  6. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate can be very light, $10^{-22}\\,{\\rm eV} \\lesssim m \\lesssim 10^2\\,{\\rm eV}$; the lower limit arises from constraints on small-scale structure formation, while the upper bound ensures that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of deco...

  7. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  8. Chaos of chiral condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Koji; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2016-01-01

    Assigning a chaos index for vacua of generic quantum field theories is a challenging problem. We find chaotic behavior of chiral condensates of a quantum gauge theory at strong coupling limit, by using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We evaluate the time evolution of homogeneous quark condensates and in an N=2 supersymmetric QCD with the SU(N_c) gauge group at large N_c and at large 't Hooft coupling lambda. At an equivalent classical gravity picture, a Lyapunov exponent is readily defined. We show that the condensates exhibit chaotic behavior for energy density E > (6x10^2) (N_c/lambda^2) (m_q)^4 where m_q is the quark mass. The energy region of the chaotic vacua of the N=2 supersymmetric QCD increases for smaller N_c or larger lambda. The Lyapunov exponent is calculated as a function of the theory (N_c,lambda,E), showing that the N=2 supersymmetric QCD is more chaotic for smaller N_c.

  9. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well...

  10. Multifrequency high precise subTHz-THz-IR spectroscopy for exhaled breath research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaks, Vladimir L.; Domracheva, Elena G.; Pripolzin, Sergey I.; Chernyaeva, Mariya B.

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays the development of analytical spectroscopy with high performance, sensitivity and spectral resolution for exhaled breath research is attended. The method of two-frequency high precise THz spectroscopy and the method of high precise subTHz-THz-IR spectroscopy are presented. Development of a subTHz-THz-IR gas analyzer increases the number of gases that can be identified and the reliability of the detection by confirming the signature in both THz and MIR ranges. The testing measurements have testified this new direction of analytical spectroscopy to open widespread trends of its using for various problems of medicine and biology. First of all, there are laboratory investigations of the processes in exhaled breath and studying of their dynamics. Besides, the methods presented can be applied for detecting intermediate and short time living products of reactions in exhaled breath. The spectrometers have been employed for investigations of acetone, methanol and ethanol in the breath samples of healthy volunteers and diabetes patients. The results have demonstrated an increased concentration of acetone in breath of diabetes patients. The dynamic of changing the acetone concentration before and after taking the medicines is discovered. The potential markers of pre-cancer states and oncological diseases of gastrointestinal tract organs have been detected. The changes in the NO concentration in exhaled breath of cancer patients during radiotherapy as well as increase of the NH3 concentration at gastrointestinal diseases have been revealed. The preliminary investigations of biomarkers in three frequency ranges have demonstrated the advantages of the multifrequency high precise spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnostics.

  11. Collapse and revival of the monopole mode of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a spherical harmonic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussi, Victor; Straatsma, Cameron; Davis, Matthew; Lobser, Dan; Holland, Murray; Anderson, Dana; Cornell, Eric; Lewandowski, Heather

    2016-05-01

    We observe the relaxation of the monopole (breathing) mode of a rubidium-87 Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a highly spherical harmonic trap at finite temperature. The experiments show a collapse and revival of the condensate oscillation, consistent with numerical simulations of the system using the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin methodology for the nonequilibrium dynamics of BECs. The beating signal is shown to be due to the resonant excitation of the ``out-of-phase'' normal mode of the condensate and thermal cloud. Permanent Address: School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland.

  12. Condensation Dynamics on Mimicked Metal Matrix Hydrophobic Nanoparticle-Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Viraj; Sun, Xiaoda; Rykaczewski, Konrad

    2014-11-01

    Use of hydrophobic surfaces promotes condensation in the dropwise mode, which is significantly more efficient than the common filmwise mode. However, limited longevity of hydrophobic surface modifiers has prevented their wide spread use in industry. Recently, metal matrix composites (MMCs) having microscale hydrophobic heterogeneities dispersed in hydrophilic metal matrix have been proposed as durable and self-healing alternative to hydrophobic surface coatings interacting with deposited water droplets. While dispersion of hydrophobic microparticles in MMC is likely to lead to surface flooding during condensation, the effect of dispersion of hydrophobic nanoparticles (HNPs) with size comparable to water nuclei critical radii and spacing is not obvious. To this end, we fabricated highly ordered arrays of Teflon nanospheres on silicon substrates that mimic the top surface of the MMCs with dispersed HNPs. We used light and electron microscopy to observe breath figures resulting from condensation on these surfaces at varied degrees of subcooling. Here, we discuss the relation between the droplet size distribution, Teflon nanosphere diameter and spacing, and condensation mode. KR acknowledges startup funding from ASU.

  13. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Arlotto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569.

  14. Decreased chewing activity during mouth breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H-Y; Yamaguchi, K

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth breathing on the strength and duration of vertical effect on the posterior teeth using related functional parameters during 3 min of gum chewing in 39 nasal breathers. A CO(2) sensor was placed over the mouth to detect expiratory airflow. When no airflow was detected from the mouth throughout the recording period, the subject was considered a nasal breather and enrolled in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded during 3 min of gum chewing. The protocol was repeated with the nostrils occluded. The strength of the vertical effect was obtained as integrated masseter muscle EMG activity, and the duration of vertical effect was also obtained as chewing stroke count, chewing cycle variation and EMG activity duration above baseline. Baseline activity was obtained from the isotonic EMG activity during jaw movement at 1.6 Hz without making tooth contact. The duration represented the percentage of the active period above baseline relative to the 3-min chewing period. Paired t-test and repeated analysis of variance were used to compare variables between nasal and mouth breathing. The integrated EMG activity and the duration of EMG activity above baseline, chewing stroke count and chewing cycle significantly decreased during mouth breathing compared with nasal breathing (Pmouth breathing was significantly greater than nasal breathing (PMouth breathing reduces the vertical effect on the posterior teeth, which can affect the vertical position of posterior teeth negatively, leading to malocclusion.

  15. An ultrasonic contactless sensor for breathing monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlotto, Philippe; Grimaldi, Michel; Naeck, Roomila; Ginoux, Jean-Marc

    2014-08-20

    The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569).

  16. Breathing and sleep at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, Philip N; Lucas, Samuel J E; Burgess, Keith R

    2013-09-15

    We provide an updated review on the current understanding of breathing and sleep at high altitude in humans. We conclude that: (1) progressive changes in pH initiated by the respiratory alkalosis do not underlie early (48 h), complex cellular and neurochemical re-organization occurs both in the peripheral chemoreceptors as well as within the central nervous system. The latter is likely influenced by central acid-base changes secondary to the extent of the initial respiratory responses to initial exposure to high altitude; (3) sleep at high altitude is disturbed by various factors, but principally by periodic breathing; (4) the extent of periodic breathing during sleep at altitude intensifies with duration and severity of exposure; (5) complex interactions between hypoxic-induced enhancement in peripheral and central chemoreflexes and cerebral blood flow--leading to higher loop gain and breathing instability--underpin this development of periodic breathing during sleep; (6) because periodic breathing may elevate rather than reduce mean SaO2 during sleep, this may represent an adaptive rather than maladaptive response; (7) although oral acetazolamide is an effective means to reduce periodic breathing by 50-80%, recent studies using positive airway pressure devices to increase dead space, hyponotics and theophylline are emerging but appear less practical and effective compared to acetazolamide. Finally, we suggest avenues for future research, and discuss implications for understanding sleep pathology.

  17. Biomarkers in clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-He; Huang, Shuwen; Kerr, David

    2011-01-01

    Biomarkers have been used in clinical medicine for decades. With the rise of genomics and other advances in molecular biology, biomarker studies have entered a whole new era and hold promise for early diagnosis and effective treatment of many diseases. A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention (1). They can be classified into five categories based on their application in different disease stages: 1) antecedent biomarkers to identify the risk of developing an illness, 2) screening biomarkers to screen for subclinical disease, 3) diagnostic biomarkers to recognize overt disease, 4) staging biomarkers to categorise disease severity, and 5) prognostic biomarkers to predict future disease course, including recurrence, response to therapy, and monitoring efficacy of therapy (1). Biomarkers can indicate a variety of health or disease characteristics, including the level or type of exposure to an environmental factor, genetic susceptibility, genetic responses to environmental exposures, markers of subclinical or clinical disease, or indicators of response to therapy. This chapter will focus on how these biomarkers have been used in preventive medicine, diagnostics, therapeutics and prognostics, as well as public health and their current status in clinical practice.

  18. Circadian variation of the human metabolome captured by real-time breath analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Martinez-Lozano Sinues

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks play a significant role in the correct timing of physiological metabolism, and clock disruption might lead to pathological changes of metabolism. One interesting method to assess the current state of metabolism is metabolomics. Metabolomics tries to capture the entirety of small molecules, i.e. the building blocks of metabolism, in a given matrix, such as blood, saliva or urine. Using mass spectrometric approaches we and others have shown that a significant portion of the human metabolome in saliva and blood exhibits circadian modulation; independent of food intake or sleep/wake rhythms. Recent advances in mass spectrometry techniques have introduced completely non-invasive breathprinting; a method to instantaneously assess small metabolites in human breath. In this proof-of-principle study, we extend these findings about the impact of circadian clocks on metabolomics to exhaled breath. As previously established, our method allows for real-time analysis of a rich matrix during frequent non-invasive sampling. We sampled the breath of three healthy, non-smoking human volunteers in hourly intervals for 24 hours during total sleep deprivation, and found 111 features in the breath of all individuals, 36-49% of which showed significant circadian variation in at least one individual. Our data suggest that real-time mass spectrometric "breathprinting" has high potential to become a useful tool to understand circadian metabolism, and develop new biomarkers to easily and in real-time assess circadian clock phase and function in experimental and clinical settings.

  19. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research

  20. 慢性阻塞性肺疾病机械通气患者呼出气冷凝液中过氧化氢和白细胞介素-6的监测及意义%The monitoring and its clinical significance of the hydrogen peroxide and interleukin-6 levels in exhaled breath condensate of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases patients undergoing mechanical ventilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国辉; 王广发

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship of inflammatory response of the respiratory tract and prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) in respiratory intensive care unit (RICU). Methods Thirty patients with COPD undergoing MV were involved in the study, and divided into survival group (n=16) and non-survival group (n=14). Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was collected on day 1,3,5,7 after MV. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in EBC was measured fluorimetrically. The content of interleukin-6(IL-6) in EBC was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results ①The significantly lower H2O2 and IL-6 levels in the survival group were observed on days 3,5 and 7 compared with those of day 1 after MV [H2O2 (μmol/L): 0.10±0.03, 0.06±0.03, 0.04±0.03 vs.0.19±0.14,IL-6 (ng/L):11.11±2.39,10.35±2.09,8.89±2.63vs. 14.45±6.03,all P0.05). A significantly higher H2O2 level in non-survivors was observed compared with survivors on day 5 (P0.05). Conclusion The findings suggest that the levels of H2O2 and IL-6 in EBC are correlated with prognosis of patients undergoing MV, and it may prove to be useful in monitoring inflammatory response in the airway after MV as a guidance of therapy and prognosis in COPD patients undergoing MV.%目的 探讨呼吸重症监护病房(RICU)慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)机械通气患者气道炎症反应与预后的关系.方法 30例COPD机械通气患者按预后分为存活组(16例)和死亡组(14例),采用自行设计的呼出气冷凝液(EBC)收集器收集机械通气1、3、5和7 d呼气端的EBC,用化学荧光法测定EBC中过氧化氢(H2O2)浓度,用酶联免疫吸附法测定EBC中白细胞介素-6(IL-6)含量.结果 ①存活组EBC中H2O2和IL-6含量逐渐下降,机械通气3、5、7 d较1 d明显降低[H2O2(μmol/L):0.10±0.03、0.06±0.03、0.04±0.03比0.19±0.14,IL-6(ng/L):11.11±2.39、10.35±2.09、8.89±2.63比14.45±6.03,均P0

  1. 非小细胞肺癌患者血清和呼出气冷凝液中白介素-17及血管内皮生长因子水平变化及意义%Changes and implications of interleukin-17 and vascular endothelial growth factor in serum and exhaled breath con-densate in non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱杰; 何海艳; 马航; 吕学东

    2015-01-01

    目的:观测非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)患者血清和呼出气冷凝液中白介素-17(IL-17)、血管内皮生长因子( VEGF)水平及其在肺癌发病机制中的作用。方法收集NSCLC患者39例为NSCLC组,同期健康体检者20例为健康对照组,采集空腹血清和呼出气冷凝液( EBC)标本,采用ELISA方法检测血清及EBC中IL-17、VEGF水平,并进行相关性分析。结果(1) NSCLC组血清IL-17及VEGF水平分别为(27.34±8.12)pg/ml及(42.72±7.69)pg/ml,均明显高于健康对照组的IL-17(16.23±4.22)pg/ml、VEGF(24.64±5.17)pg/ml( P均<0.01)。(2)NSCLC组EBC中IL-17水平和VEGF水平分别为(5.96±1.51)pg/ml,(22.73±4.26)pg/ml,均高于健康对照组的(1.96±0.49)pg/ml、(13.31±4.61)pg/ml( P均<0.01)。(3)NSCLC患者外周血清和EBC中IL-17、VEGF水平随临床分期进展呈上升趋势( P <0.01)。(4)NSCLC患者血清中IL-17水平与VEGF水平呈正相关性( r =0.594, P <0.01),EBC中IL-17水平与VEGF亦呈正相关( r =0.704, P =0.000)。血清中IL-17、VEGF水平与临床分期呈正相关( r =0.811、0.722, P均<0.01)。 EBC中IL-17、VEGF水平与临床分期亦呈正相关( r =0.843、0.789, P均<0.01)。结论 IL-17参与NSCLC的发病过程,可能和其促进VEGF的表达,进一步促进肿瘤生长有关。 EBC中IL-17水平的检测可作为NSCLC患者监测病情变化的无创性指标。%Objective To observe interleukin 17 (IL-17) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in serum and exhaled breath condensate( EBC) in non-small cell lung cancer ( NSCLC) ,and it role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. Methods Collected 39 NSCLC patients as NSCLC group, 20 cases of healthy subjects as healthy control group, collected fasting serum and EBC specimens, using ELISA method for the detection of serum and EBC IL-17 and VEGF levels, and cor-relation analysis were performed. Results (1) In the NSCLC group, the serum levels of IL-17 and VEGF levels were (27. 34 ± 8. 12) pg/ml and (42. 72 ± 7. 69) pg

  2. Convective condensation heat transfer in a horizontal condenser tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, P.K. [College of Engineering, GITAM, Visakhapatnam (India); Sastry, C.V.N.; Rao, V.D. [Andhra Univ., College of Engineering, Visakhapatnam (India); Kakac, S.; Liu, H. [Miami Univ., College of Engineering, FL (United States)

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to solve analytically the problem of convective condensation of vapors inside a horizontal condenser tube. Homogeneous model approach is employed in the estimation of shear velocity, which is subsequently, made use of in predicting local convective condensation heat transfer coefficients. The resulting analysis of the present study is compared with some of the available equations in the literature. It is observed that the agreement is reasonably satisfactory validating the assumptions and the theory presented. (authors)

  3. Superfluidity in polariton condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amo, A; Lefrere, J; Adrados, C; Giacobino, E; Bramati, A [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC, ENS and CNRS, 75005 Paris (France); Sanvitto, D; Laussy, F P; Ballarini, D; Valle, E del; MartIn, M D; Tejedor, C; Vina, L [SEMICUAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pigeon, S; Ciuti, C [Laboratoire Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques, UMR 7162, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7 and CNRS, 75013 Paris (France); Carusotto, I [BEC-CNR-INFM and Dip. di Fisica, Universita di Trento, I-38050 Povo (Italy); Houdre, R [Institut de Photonique et d' Electronique Quantique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 3, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); LemaItre, A; Bloch, J [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Krizhanovskii, D N; Skolnick, M S, E-mail: alberto.amo@spectro.jussieu.f [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, S3 7RH, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-01

    Exciton-polaritons, two-dimensional composite bosons arising from the quantum mixture of excitons and photons, can manifest many-body quantum effects at liquid He temperatures (4 K). Interestingly, polaritons are predicted to behave as particular quantum fluids due to their out of equilibrium character, arising from their reduced lifetime (shorter than their thermalization time). Here we report the observation of superfluid motion of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities both under cw and pulsed excitation. Among other signatures, superfluidity is manifested via the absence of scattering of the polariton condensates when encountering a localized defect in their flow path.

  4. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    demands, quality of space, mixture of functions, urban complexity, public life and cultural heritage. In order to launch such an approach, an understanding of the spatial, social and environmental significance of a radical re-thinking of relationships between architecture and landscape is necessary....... This paper addresses the question of whether the sensation of landscape can be condensed in function or to the size of an urban building. It also discusses the benefits and potentials of the amalgamate, by underlining the unique qualities of such a hybrid. In an attempt to define the experience of landscape...

  5. Galaxies as condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Bugg, D V

    2012-01-01

    A novel interpretation of MOND is presented. For galactic data, in addition to Newtonian acceleration, there is an attractive acceleration peaking at Milgrom's parameter a_0. The peak lies within experimental error where a_0 = cH_0/2\\pi and H_0 is the present-time value of the Hubble constant. This peaking may be understood in terms of quantum mechanical mixing between Newtonian gravitation and the Hubble mechanism. There are five pointers towards galaxies being Fermi-Dirac condensates.

  6. Biomarkers for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Todd B

    2011-04-20

    Biomarkers for detecting the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) could accelerate development of new treatments. Such biomarkers could be used to identify individuals at risk for developing PD, to improve early diagnosis, to track disease progression with precision, and to test the efficacy of new treatments. Although some progress has been made, there are many challenges associated with developing biomarkers for detecting PD in its earliest stages.

  7. Understanding the Potential of WO3 Based Sensors for Breath Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staerz, Anna; Weimar, Udo; Barsan, Nicolae

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide is the second most commonly used semiconducting metal oxide in gas sensors. Semiconducting metal oxide (SMOX)-based sensors are small, robust, inexpensive and sensitive, making them highly attractive for handheld portable medical diagnostic detectors. WO3 is reported to show high sensor responses to several biomarkers found in breath, e.g., acetone, ammonia, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, toluene, and nitric oxide. Modern material science allows WO3 samples to be tailored to address certain sensing needs. Utilizing recent advances in breath sampling it will be possible in the future to test WO3-based sensors in application conditions and to compare the sensing results to those obtained using more expensive analytical methods. PMID:27801881

  8. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being...

  9. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section... Systems § 862.3080 Breath nitric oxide test system. (a) Identification. A breath nitric oxide test system is a device intended to measure fractional nitric oxide in human breath. Measurement of changes...

  10. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation...-circuit apparatus with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88, and the exhalation resistance...

  11. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  12. Biomarkers to Improve Diagnosis and Monitoring of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Archontogeorgis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway collapse associated with oxygen desaturation and sleep disruption. It is proposed that these periodic changes lead to molecular variations that can be detected by assessing serum biomarkers. Studies have identified inflammatory, oxidative, and metabolic perturbations attributable to sleep-disordered breathing. Given that OSAS is associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity, the ideal biomarker should enable timely recognition with the possibility of intervention. There is accumulating data on the utility of serum biomarkers for the evaluation of disease severity, prognosis, and response to treatment. However, current knowledge is limited by data collection techniques, disease complexity, and potential confounding factors. The current paper reviews the literature on the use of serum biomarkers in OSAS. It is concluded that the ideal serum biomarker still needs to be discovered, while caution is needed in the interpretation of hitherto available results.

  13. Investigation of C3-C10 aldehydes in the exhaled breath of healthy subjects using selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juzheng; Kumar, Sacheen; Hanna, George B

    2014-09-01

    Aldehydes have attracted great scientific and clinical interest as potential disease biomarkers. We have investigated selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) in detecting and quantifying C3 to C10 saturated aldehydes (propanal, butanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal and decanal) from the exhaled breath of 26 healthy human volunteers. To assess the reliability of the Nalophan® bag sampling method employed, the water level in the breath sample was measured up to 4 h after collection and showed no significant degradation. Propanal was found to be the most abundant aldehyde in the exhaled breath of healthy volunteers. For the C4-C10 aldehydes, their median concentrations were all less than 3 ppbv, demonstrating only trace quantities are present in the exhaled breath of the 26 healthy volunteers.

  14. An introduction to the psychophysiology of breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, R

    1994-06-01

    Breathing can be viewed as an independent variable which affects emotion, cognition, and behavior as well as a dependent variable which reflects changes in emotion, cognition, and behavior. This bidirectional interaction is basic to an appreciation of the significance of breathing in terms of its relevance in research and application. The underlying premise of the present article is that since breathing is a behavior that is under voluntary as well as reflexive control, it can be modified according to the principles of both instrumental training (operant conditioning) and Pavlovian (classical) conditioning. The implications of this premise are relevant to theory, diagnosis, and treatment of stress and anxiety-related disorders (e.g., panic disorder, phobias, test anxiety, occupational strain, and related psychosomatic disorders), and to basic and applied research in the psychophysiology of breathing.

  15. Can Breath Test Detect Stomach Cancers Earlier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163342.html Can Breath Test Detect Stomach Cancers Earlier? New technology may also spot esophageal cancers ... the only way to diagnose esophageal cancer or stomach cancer is with endoscopy. This method is expensive, invasive ...

  16. Breathing exercises for adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Asthma is a common long-term condition that remains poorly controlled in many people despite the availability of pharmacological interventions, evidence-based treatment guidelines and care pathways.(1) There is considerable public interest in the use of non-pharmacological approaches for the treatment of asthma.(2) A survey of people with asthma reported that many have used complementary and alternative medicine, often without the knowledge of their clinical team.(3) Such interventions include breathing techniques, herbal products, homeopathy and acupuncture. The role of breathing exercises within the management of asthma has been controversial, partly because early claims of effectiveness were exaggerated.(4) UK national guidance and international guidelines on the management of asthma have included the option of breathing exercise programmes as an adjuvant to pharmacological treatment.(5,6) Here we discuss the types of breathing exercises used and review the evidence for their effectiveness.

  17. Polariton condensates put in motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanvitto, D; Amo, A; Vina, L [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); Laussy, F P; Tejedor, C [Departamento de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); LemaItre, A; Bloch, J, E-mail: daniele.sanvitto@uam.es [LPN/CNRS, Route de Nozay, F-91460, Marcoussis (France)

    2010-04-02

    We present several examples of the interesting phenomenology shown by a moving polariton condensate in semiconductor microcavities. The superfluid behavior is probed by colliding the polariton condensate against physical obstacles in the form of natural defects of the sample, demonstrating a clear suppression of scattering when the speed of the flow lies below the critical velocity. At higher velocities Cerenkov-like shock waves around the defect and disruption of the condensate are also observed.

  18. Quantitative assessment of DNA condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, V S; Slattum, P M; Hagstrom, J E; Wolff, J A; Budker, V G

    1999-02-15

    A fluorescent method is proposed for assessing DNA condensation in aqueous solutions with variety of condensing agents. The technique is based on the effect of concentration-dependent self-quenching of covalently bound fluorophores upon DNA collapse. The method allows a more precise determination of charge equivalency in titration experiments with various polycations. The technique's ability to determine the number of DNA molecules that are condensed together in close proximity is under further investigation.

  19. Fast and Accurate Exhaled Breath Ammonia Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew L; Spacek, Lisa A.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Toge...

  20. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  1. Swimming in air-breathing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, S; Domenici, P; McKenzie, D J

    2014-03-01

    Fishes with bimodal respiration differ in the extent of their reliance on air breathing to support aerobic metabolism, which is reflected in their lifestyles and ecologies. Many freshwater species undertake seasonal and reproductive migrations that presumably involve sustained aerobic exercise. In the six species studied to date, aerobic exercise in swim flumes stimulated air-breathing behaviour, and there is evidence that surfacing frequency and oxygen uptake from air show an exponential increase with increasing swimming speed. In some species, this was associated with an increase in the proportion of aerobic metabolism met by aerial respiration, while in others the proportion remained relatively constant. The ecological significance of anaerobic swimming activities, such as sprinting and fast-start manoeuvres during predator-prey interactions, has been little studied in air-breathing fishes. Some species practise air breathing during recovery itself, while others prefer to increase aquatic respiration, possibly to promote branchial ion exchange to restore acid-base balance, and to remain quiescent and avoid being visible to predators. Overall, the diversity of air-breathing fishes is reflected in their swimming physiology as well, and further research is needed to increase the understanding of the differences and the mechanisms through which air breathing is controlled and used during exercise.

  2. Clinical Applications of CO2 and H2 Breath Test

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO Si-qian; Chen, Bao-Jun; LUO Zhi-fu

    2016-01-01

    Breath test is non-invasive, high sensitivity and high specificity. In this article, CO2 breath test, H2 breath test and their clinical applications were elaborated. The main applications of CO2 breath test include helicobacter pylori test, liver function detection, gastric emptying test, insulin resistance test, pancreatic exocrine secretion test, etc. H2 breath test can be applied in the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption and detecting small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. With further res...

  3. Nonequilibrium Weak Processes in Kaon Condensation; 2, Kinetics of condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Muto, T; Iwamoto, N; Muto, Takumi; Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Iwamoto, Naoki

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics of negatively charged kaon condensation in the early stages of a newly born neutron star is considered. The thermal kaon process, in which kaons are thermally produced by nucleon-nucleon collisions, is found to be dominant throughout the equilibration process. Temporal changes of the order parameter of the condensate and the number densities of the chemical species are obtained from the rate equations, which include the thermal kaon reactions as well as the kaon-induced Urca and the modified Urca reactions. It is shown that the dynamical evolution of the condensate is characterized by three stages: the first, prior to establishment of a condensate, the second, during the growth and subsequent saturation of the condensate, and the third, near chemical equilibrium. The connection between the existence of a soft kaon mode and the instability of the noncondensed state is discussed. Implications of the nonequilibrium process on the possible delayed collapse of a protoneutron star are also mentioned.

  4. Condensation Processes in Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, D. I.; Moore, J. N.

    2005-12-01

    We model condensation processes in geothermal systems to understand how this process changes fluid chemistry. We assume two processes operate in geothermal systems: 1) condensation of a vapor phase derived by boiling an aqueous geothermal fluid into a cool near surface water and 2) condensation of a magmatic vapor by a deep circulating meteoric thermal fluid. It is assumed that the condensation process has two stages. Initially the condensing fluid is under saturated in gaseous species. Condensation of the vapor phase continues until the pressure on the fluid equals the sum of the partial pressures of water and the dissolved gaseous species. At that time bubbles flux through the condensing fluid. In time the fluid and fluxing gas phase come to equilibrium. Calculation shows that during the second stage of the condensation process the liquid phase becomes enriched in more soluble gaseous species like CO2 and H2S, and depleted in less soluble species like CH4 and N2. Stage 2 condensation processes can therefore be monitored by ratios of more and less condensable species like CO2/N2. Condensation of vapor released by boiling geothermal fluids results in liquids with high concentrations of H2S and CO2 like is seen in geothermal system steam-heated waters. Condensation of a magmatic vapor into circulating meteoric water has been proposed, but not well demonstrated. We compare to our models the Cerro Prieto, Mexico gas analysis data set collected over twelve years time by USGS personnel. It was assumed for modeling that the Cerro Prieto geothermal fluids are circulating meteoritic fluids with N2/Ar ratios about 40 to which is added a magmatic vapor with N2/Ar ratio = 400. The Cerro Prieto analyses show a strong correlation between N2/Ar and CO2/N2 as predicted by calculation. Two dimensional image plots of well N2/Ar + CO2/N2 show a bull's-eye pattern on the geothermal field. Image plots of analyses collected over a year or less time show N2/Ar and CO2/N2 hot spots

  5. Respiratory Toxicity Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advancement in high throughput genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques have accelerated pace of lung biomarker discovery. A recent growth in the discovery of new lung toxicity/disease biomarkers have led to significant advances in our understanding of pathological proce...

  6. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches 90.degree.. Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

  7. Inflammatory biomarkers in asthma%哮喘的炎症标志物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓娟

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease.Detection and evaluation of airway inflammation has important clinical significance in asthma diagnosis and severity judgement.It is also important to select drugs,dosage,and withdrawal time for patients whose symptoms have been controlled.So,it is necessary to find the technology which can response to airway inflammation to guide the asthma diagnosis and therapy.At present,many inflammatory biomarkers have been researched including exhaled nitric oxide,leukotrienes,exhaled breath condensate determination,Periosrin,YKL-40 etc.This review summarizes the biological characteristics and clinical application of inflammatory markers in asthma.%哮喘是一种慢性气道炎症性疾病.检测、评估气道炎症对于哮喘的早期诊断、病情严重程度的判断、药物种类和剂量的选择以及对已控制症状患者停药时机的选择等,均有重要的临床指导意义,故迫切需要能客观地反映气道炎症的检测技术来指导哮喘的诊断和治疗.目前研究较多的炎症标志物主要有呼出气一氧化氮、白三烯、呼出气冷凝液测定、骨膜蛋白、人软骨糖蛋白等.该文就上述炎症标志物的生物学特性及在哮喘临床中的应用进行阐述.

  8. On consensus biomarker selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gambin Anna

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent development of mass spectrometry technology enabled the analysis of complex peptide mixtures. A lot of effort is currently devoted to the identification of biomarkers in human body fluids like serum or plasma, based on which new diagnostic tests for different diseases could be constructed. Various biomarker selection procedures have been exploited in recent studies. It has been noted that they often lead to different biomarker lists and as a consequence, the patient classification may also vary. Results Here we propose a new approach to the biomarker selection problem: to apply several competing feature ranking procedures and compute a consensus list of features based on their outcomes. We validate our methods on two proteomic datasets for the diagnosis of ovarian and prostate cancer. Conclusion The proposed methodology can improve the classification results and at the same time provide a unified biomarker list for further biological examinations and interpretation.

  9. Biomarkers of Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Leila; Pandolfino, John E; Kahrilas, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) encompasses an array of disorders unified by the reflux of gastric contents. Because there are many potential disease manifestations, esophageal and extraesophageal, there is no single biomarker of the entire disease spectrum; a set of GERD biomarkers that each quantifies specific aspects of GERD-related pathology might be needed. We review recent reports of biomarkers of GERD, specifically in relation to endoscopically negative esophageal disease and excluding conventional pH-impedance monitoring. We consider histopathologic biomarkers, baseline impedance, and serologic assays to determine that most markers are based on manifestations of impaired esophageal mucosal integrity, which is based on increased ionic and molecular permeability, and/or destruction of tight junctions. Impaired mucosal integrity quantified by baseline mucosal impedance, proteolytic fragments of junctional proteins, or histopathologic features has emerged as a promising GERD biomarker.

  10. Biomarkers in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John C; Mehta, Shyamal H; Sethi, Kapil D

    2010-11-01

    Biomarkers are objectively measured characteristics that are indicators of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or responses to therapeutic interventions. To date, clinical assessment remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and clinical rating scales are well established as the gold standard for tracking progression of PD. Researchers have identified numerous potential biomarkers that may aid in the differential diagnosis of PD and/or tracking disease progression. Clinical, genetic, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics), and neuroimaging biomarkers may provide useful tools in the diagnosis of PD and in measuring disease progression and response to therapies. Some potential biomarkers are inexpensive and do not require much technical expertise, whereas others are expensive or require specialized equipment and technical skills. Many potential biomarkers in PD show great promise; however, they need to be assessed for their sensitivity and specificity over time in large and varied samples of patients with and without PD.

  11. PPOOLEX experiments on wall condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2009-08-15

    This report summarizes the results of the wall condensation experiments carried out in December 2008 and January 2009 with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through a DN200 blowdown pipe to the condensation pool. Altogether five experiments, each consisting of several blows, were carried out. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study wall condensation phenomenon inside the dry well compartment while steam is discharged through it into the condensation pool and to produce comparison data for CFD calculations at VTT. The PPOOLEX test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. For the wall condensation experiments the test facility was equipped with a system for collecting and measuring the amount of condensate from four different wall segments of the dry well compartment. A thermo graphic camera was used in a couple of experiments for filming the outside surface of the dry well wall. The effect of the initial temperature level of the dry well structures and of the steam flow rate for the accumulation of condensate was studied. The initial temperature level of the dry well structures varied from 23 to 99 deg. C. The steam flow rate varied from 90 to 690 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 115 to 160 deg. C. During the initial phase of steam discharge the accumulation of condensate was strongly controlled by the temperature level of the dry well structures; the lower the initial temperature level was the more condensate was accumulated. As the dry well structural temperatures increased the condensation process slowed down. Most of the condensate usually accumulated during the first 200 seconds of the discharge. However, the condensation process never completely stopped because a small temperature difference remained between the dry well atmosphere and inner wall

  12. APPARATUS FOR CONDENSATION AND SUBLIMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R.J.; Fuis, F. Jr.

    1958-10-01

    An apparatus is presented for the sublimation and condensation of uranium compounds in order to obtain an improved crystalline structure of this material. The apparatus comprises a vaporizing chamber and condensing structure connected thereto. There condenser is fitted with a removable liner having a demountable baffle attached to the liner by means of brackets and a removable pin. The baffle is of spiral cross-section and is provided with cooling coils disposed between the surfaces of the baffle for circulation of a temperature controlling liquid within the baffle. The cooling coll provides for controlllng the temperature of the baffle to insure formatlon of a satisfactory condensate, and the removable liner facilitates the removal of condensate formed during tbe sublimation process.

  13. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.

    by the fall of a prey item on the water surface, and in tapping motions of goldfish, a behaviour that was interpreted to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air...... at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South......, with those of mechanically-triggered C-start escape responses. Our results show that these two behaviours overlap considerably in their kinematics (turning rates and distance covered), suggesting that air breathing in this species is performed using escapelike C-start motions. This demonstrates that C...

  14. Ecological sounds affect breath duration more than artificial sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Mauro; Santoro, Ilaria; Tamburini, Giorgia; Prpic, Valter; Sors, Fabrizio; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that auditory rhythms affect both movement and physiological functions. We hypothesized that the ecological sounds of human breathing can affect breathing more than artificial sounds of breathing, varying in tones for inspiration and expiration. To address this question, we monitored the breath duration of participants exposed to three conditions: (a) ecological sounds of breathing, (b) artificial sounds of breathing having equal temporal features as the ecological sounds, (c) no sounds (control). We found that participants' breath duration variability was reduced in the ecological sound condition, more than in the artificial sound condition. We suggest that ecological sounds captured the timing of breathing better than artificial sounds, guiding as a consequence participants' breathing. We interpreted our results according to the Theory of Event Coding, providing further support to its validity, and suggesting its possible extension in the domain of physiological functions which are both consciously and unconsciously controlled.

  15. [Biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ribas, G; López-Sendón Moreno, J L; García-Caldentey, J

    2014-04-01

    The new diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD) include brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, with the aim of increasing the certainty of whether a patient has an ongoing AD neuropathologic process or not. Three CSF biomarkers, Aß42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau, reflect the core pathological features of AD. It is already known that these pathological processes of AD starts decades before the first symptoms, so these biomarkers may provide means of early disease detection. At least three stages of AD could be identified: preclinical AD, mild cognitive impairment due to AD, and dementia due to AD. In this review, we aim to summarize the CSF biomarker data available for each of these stages. We also review the actual research on blood-based biomarkers. Recent studies on healthy elderly subjects and on carriers of dominantly inherited AD mutations have also found biomarker changes that allow separate groups in these preclinical stages. These studies may aid for segregate populations in clinical trials and objectively evaluate if there are changes over the pathological processes of AD. Limits to widespread use of CSF biomarkers, apart from the invasive nature of the process itself, is the higher coefficient of variation for the analyses between centres. It requires strict pre-analytical and analytical procedures that may make feasible multi-centre studies and global cut-off points for the different stages of AD.

  16. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A Zope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

  17. Pulse Ejection Presentation System Synchronized with Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Ami; Sato, Junta; Ohtsu, Kaori; Bannai, Yuichi; Okada, Kenichi

    Trials on transmission of olfactory information together with audio/visual information are currently being conducted in the field of multimedia. However, continuous emission of scents in high concentration creates problems of human adaptation and remnant odors in air. To overcome such problems we developed an olfactory display in conjunction with Canon Inc. This display has high emission control in the ink-jet so that it can provide stable pulse emission of scents. Humans catch a scent when they breathe in and inhale smell molecules in air. Therefore, it is important that the timing of scent presentation is synchronized with human breathing. We also developed a breath sensor which detects human inspiration. In this study, we combined the olfactory display with the breath sensor to make a pulse ejection presentation system synchronized the breath. The experimental evaluation showed that the system had more than 90 percent of detection rate. Another evaluation was held at KEIO TECHNO-MALL 2007. From questionnaire results of the participants, we found that the system made the user feel continuous sense of smell avoiding adaptation. It is expected that our system enables olfactory information to be synchronized with audio/visual information in arbitrary duration at any time.

  18. Metabolic products as biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, M.J.; Alscher, R.; Benson, W.; Kruzynski, G.; Lee, R.F.; Sikka, H.C.; Spies, R.B.; Huggett, Robert J.; Kimerle, Richard A.; Mehrle, Paul M.=; Bergman, Harold L.

    1992-01-01

    Ideally, endogenous biomarkers would indicate both exposure and environmental effects of toxic chemicals; however, such comprehensive biochemical and physiological indices are currently being developed and, at the present time, are unavailable for use in environmental monitoring programs. Continued work is required to validate the use of biochemical and physiological stress indices as useful components of monitoring programs. Of the compounds discussed only phytochelatins and porphyrins are currently in biomarkers in a useful state; however, glutathione,metallothioneins, stress ethylene, and polyamines are promising as biomarkers in environmental monitoring.

  19. Commentary: statistics for biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, David P

    2012-05-01

    This short commentary discusses Biomarkers' requirements for the reporting of statistical analyses in submitted papers. It is expected that submitters will follow the general instructions of the journal, the more detailed guidance given by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the specific guidelines developed by the EQUATOR network, and those of various specialist groups. Biomarkers expects that the study design and subsequent statistical analyses are clearly reported and that the data reported can be made available for independent assessment. The journal recognizes that there is continuing debate about different approaches to statistical science. Biomarkers appreciates that the field continues to develop rapidly and encourages the use of new methodologies.

  20. Antikaon condensation in neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, S; Greiner, W

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the condensation of charged K sup - meson and neutral anti-K sup 0 meson in dense neutron star matter. Calculations are performed in relativistic mean field models in which both the baryon-baryon and (anti)kaon-baryon interactions are mediated by meson exchange. It is found that anti-K sup 0 condensation is quite sensitive to the antikaon optical potential and depends more strongly on the nucleonic equation of state. For moderate values of antikaon potential and a rather stiff equation of state, a significant region of maximum mass star will contain anti-K sup 0 meson. The critical density of anti-K sup 0 condensation is always higher than that of K sup - condensation. With the appearance of K sup - and anti-K sup 0 condensates, pairs of p-K sup - and n-Kbar sup 0 are produced with equal proportion leading to a perfectly symmetric matter of nucleons and antikaons in neutron stars. Along with K sup - condensate, anti-K sup 0 condensate makes the equation of state much softer resulting in smaller...

  1. Human Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC) Media: Implementation of Automated Quanterix SIMOA Immunochemistry Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunochemistry is an important clinical tool for observing biological pathways leading to disease. Standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for cytokines are typically labor intensive and lack sensitivity at sub pg/ml concentrations. Here we report on emerging tec...

  2. Exhaled breath condensate nitric oxide end products and pH in controlled asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elhefny

    2012-10-01

    Conclusion: EBC-NOx is significantly higher and EBC-pH is significantly lower in asthmatic patients than in control subjects. Asthmatics receiving ICS have a lower EBC-NOx level than those not. EBC-NOx and EBC-pH were significantly correlated and both of them showed significant correlations with spirometric parameters of airway obstruction.

  3. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines in human blood, breath condensate, and urine using a multiplex immunoassay platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    A change in the expression of cytokines in human biological media indicates an inflammatory response to external stressors and reflects an early step along the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for various health endpoints. To characterize and interpret this inflammatory response, m...

  4. Efficient, Long-Life Biocidal Condenser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental control systems for manned lunar and planetary bases will require condensing heat exchangers to control humidity in manned modules. Condensing surfaces...

  5. Efficient, Long-Life Biocidal Condenser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental control systems for manned lunar and planetary bases will require condensing heat exchangers to control humidity. Condensing surfaces must be...

  6. Bose condensation in (random traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Zagrebnov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a non-interacting (perfect Bose-gas in random external potentials (traps. It is shown that a generalized Bose-Einstein condensation in the random eigenstates manifests if and only if the same occurs in the one-particle kinetic-energy eigenstates, which corresponds to the generalized condensation of the free Bose-gas. Moreover, we prove that the amounts of both condensate densities are equal. This statement is relevant for justification of the Bogoliubov approximation} in the theory of disordered boson systems.

  7. Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable

  8. Electrospray ionization of volatiles in breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lozano, P.; de La Mora, J. Fernández

    2007-08-01

    Recent work by Zenobi and colleagues [H. Chen, A. Wortmann, W. Zhang, R. Zenobi, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46 (2007) 580] reports that human breath charged by contact with an electrospray (ES) cloud yields many mass peaks of species such as urea, glucose, and other ions, some with molecular weights above 1000 Da. All these species are presumed to be involatile, and to originate from breath aerosols by so-called extractive electrospray ionization EESI [H. Chen, A. Venter, R.G. Cooks, Chem. Commun. (2006) 2042]. However, prior work by Fenn and colleagues [C.M. Whitehouse, F. Levin, C.K. Meng, J.B. Fenn, Proceedings of the 34th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, Denver, 1986 p. 507; S. Fuerstenau, P. Kiselev, J.B. Fenn, Proceedings of the 47th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry, 1999, Dallas, TX, 1999] and by Hill and colleagues [C. Wu, W.F. Siems, H.H. Hill Jr., Anal. Chem. 72 (2000) 396] have reported the ability of electrospray drops to ionize a variety of low vapor pressure substances directly from the gas phase, without an apparent need for the vapor to be brought into the charging ES in aerosol form. The Ph.D. Thesis of Martínez-Lozano [P. Martínez-Lozano Sinués, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Thermal and Fluid Engineering, University Carlos III of Madrid; April 5, 2006 (in Spanish); http://hdl.handle.net/10016/655] had also previously argued that the numerous human breath species observed via a similar ES ionization approach were in fact ionized directly from the vapor. Here, we observe that passage of the breath stream through a submicron filter does not eliminate the majority of the breath vapors seen in the absence of the filter. We conclude that direct vapor charging is the leading mechanism in breath ionization by electrospray drops, though aerosol ionization may also play a role.

  9. Breath testing and personal exposure--SIFT-MS detection of breath acetonitrile for exposure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Malina; Curry, Kirsty; Squire, Marie; Kingham, Simon; Epton, Michael

    2015-05-26

    Breath testing has potential for the rapid assessment of the source and impact of exposure to air pollutants. During the development of a breath test for acetonitrile using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) raised acetonitrile concentrations in the breath of volunteers were observed that could not be explained by known sources of exposure. Workplace/laboratory exposure to acetonitrile was proposed since this was common to the volunteers with increased breath concentrations. SIFT-MS measurements of acetonitrile in breath and air were used to confirm that an academic chemistry laboratory was the source of exposure to acetonitrile, and quantify the changes that occurred to exhaled acetonitrile after exposure. High concentrations of acetonitrile were detected in the air of the chemistry laboratory. However, concentrations in the offices were not significantly different across the campus. There was a significant difference in the exhaled acetonitrile concentrations of people who worked in the chemistry laboratories (exposed) and those who did not (non-exposed). SIFT-MS testing of air and breath made it possible to determine that occupational exposure to acetonitrile in the chemistry laboratory was the cause of increased exhaled acetonitrile. Additionally, the sensitivity was adequate to measure the changes to exhaled amounts and found that breath concentrations increased quickly with short exposure and remained increased even after periods of non-exposure. There is potential to add acetonitrile to a suite of VOCs to investigate source and impact of poor air quality.

  10. Validation of New Cancer Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Michael J; Sturgeon, Catherine M; Söletormos, Georg;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biomarkers are playing increasingly important roles in the detection and management of patients with cancer. Despite an enormous number of publications on cancer biomarkers, few of these biomarkers are in widespread clinical use. CONTENT: In this review, we discuss the key steps...... in advancing a newly discovered cancer candidate biomarker from pilot studies to clinical application. Four main steps are necessary for a biomarker to reach the clinic: analytical validation of the biomarker assay, clinical validation of the biomarker test, demonstration of clinical value from performance...... of the biomarker test, and regulatory approval. In addition to these 4 steps, all biomarker studies should be reported in a detailed and transparent manner, using previously published checklists and guidelines. Finally, all biomarker studies relating to demonstration of clinical value should be registered before...

  11. Biomarker time out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Axel; Bowser, Robert; Calabresi, Paolo; Zetterberg, Henrik; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J

    2014-10-01

    The advancement of knowledge relies on scientific investigations. The timing between asking a question and data collection defines if a study is prospective or retrospective. Prospective studies look forward from a point in time, are less prone to bias and are considered superior to retrospective studies. This conceptual framework conflicts with the nature of biomarker research. New candidate biomarkers are discovered in a retrospective manner. There are neither resources nor time for prospective testing in all cases. Relevant sources for bias are not covered. Ethical questions arise through the time penalty of an overly dogmatic concept. The timing of sample collection can be separated from testing biomarkers. Therefore the moment of formulating a hypothesis may be after sample collection was completed. A conceptual framework permissive to asking research questions without the obligation to bow to the human concept of calendar time would simplify biomarker research, but will require new safeguards against bias.

  12. Biomarkers in Airway Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherent limitations of spirometry and clinical history have prompted clinicians and scientists to search for surrogate markers of airway diseases. Although few biomarkers have been widely accepted into the clinical armamentarium, the authors explore three sources of biomarkers that have shown promise as indicators of disease severity and treatment response. In asthma, exhaled nitric oxide measurements can predict steroid responsiveness and sputum eosinophil counts have been used to titrate anti-inflammatory therapies. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory plasma biomarkers, such as fibrinogen, club cell secretory protein-16 and surfactant protein D, can denote greater severity and predict the risk of exacerbations. While the multitude of disease phenotypes in respiratory medicine make biomarker development especially challenging, these three may soon play key roles in the diagnosis and management of airway diseases.

  13. Medication effects on sleep and breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Gilbert; Tsai, Sheila; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo

    2014-09-01

    Sleep respiration is regulated by circadian, endocrine, mechanical and chemical factors, and characterized by diminished ventilatory drive and changes in Pao2 and Paco2 thresholds. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are more pronounced during rapid eye movement. Breathing is influenced by sleep stage and airway muscle tone. Patient factors include medical comorbidities and body habitus. Medications partially improve obstructive sleep apnea and stabilize periodic breathing at altitude. Potential adverse consequences of medications include precipitation or worsening of disorders. Risk factors for adverse medication effects include aging, medical disorders, and use of multiple medications that affect respiration.

  14. Silurian shale origin for light oil, condensate, and gas in Algeria and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumberge, J.E. (GeoMark Research Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Macko, S. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)) Engel, M. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)) (and others)

    1996-01-01

    Two of the largest gas fields in the world, Hasi R'Mel, Algeria and North Dome, Qatar, also contain substantial condensate and light oil reserves. Gas to source rock geochemical correlation is difficult due to the paucity of molecular parameters in the former although stable isotope composition is invaluable. However, by correlating source rocks with light oils and condensates associated with gas production using traditional geochemical parameters such as biomarkers and isotopes, a better understanding of the origin of the gas is achieved. Much of the crude oil in the Ghadames/Illizi Basins of Algeria has long been thought to have been generated from Silurian shales. New light oil discoveries in Saudi Arabia have also been shown to originate in basal euxinic Silurian shales. Key sterane and terpane biomarkers as well as the stable carbon isotopic compositions of the C15+ saturate and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions allow for the typing of Silurian-sourced, thermally mature light oils in Algeria and the Middle East. Even though biomarkers are often absent due to advanced thermal maturity, condensates can be correlated to the light oils using (1) carbon isotopes of the residual heavy hydrocarbon fractions, (2) light hydrocarbon distributions (e.g., C7 composition), and (3) compound specific carbon isotopic composition of the light hydrocarbons. The carbon isotopes of the C2-C4 gas components ran then be compared to the associated condensate and light oil isotopic composition.

  15. Silurian shale origin for light oil, condensate, and gas in Algeria and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumberge, J.E. [GeoMark Research Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Macko, S. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)] Engel, M. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Two of the largest gas fields in the world, Hasi R`Mel, Algeria and North Dome, Qatar, also contain substantial condensate and light oil reserves. Gas to source rock geochemical correlation is difficult due to the paucity of molecular parameters in the former although stable isotope composition is invaluable. However, by correlating source rocks with light oils and condensates associated with gas production using traditional geochemical parameters such as biomarkers and isotopes, a better understanding of the origin of the gas is achieved. Much of the crude oil in the Ghadames/Illizi Basins of Algeria has long been thought to have been generated from Silurian shales. New light oil discoveries in Saudi Arabia have also been shown to originate in basal euxinic Silurian shales. Key sterane and terpane biomarkers as well as the stable carbon isotopic compositions of the C15+ saturate and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions allow for the typing of Silurian-sourced, thermally mature light oils in Algeria and the Middle East. Even though biomarkers are often absent due to advanced thermal maturity, condensates can be correlated to the light oils using (1) carbon isotopes of the residual heavy hydrocarbon fractions, (2) light hydrocarbon distributions (e.g., C7 composition), and (3) compound specific carbon isotopic composition of the light hydrocarbons. The carbon isotopes of the C2-C4 gas components ran then be compared to the associated condensate and light oil isotopic composition.

  16. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders N; Nøttrup, Trine Jakobi;

    2005-01-01

    -hold (EBH). The Varian Real-time Position Management system (RPM) was used to monitor respiratory movement and to gate the scanner. For each breathing phase, a population based internal margin (IM) was estimated based on average chest wall excursion, and incorporated into an individually optimised three...

  17. In vivo proton MRS of normal pancreas metabolites during breath-holding and free-breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, T.-H. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China); Jin, E.-H., E-mail: erhujin1@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China); Shen, H. [GE China Company Ltd, Healthcare, General Electric Company, Beijing (China); Zhang, Y.; He, W. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-15

    Aim: To characterize normal pancreas metabolites using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) at 3 T under conditions of breath-holding and free-breathing. Materials and methods: The pancreases of 32 healthy volunteers were examined using {sup 1}H MRS during breath-holding and free-breathing acquisitions in a single-voxel point-resolved selective spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) technique using a 3 T MRI system. Resonances were compared between paired spectra of the two breathing modes. Furthermore, correlations between lipid (Lip) content and age, body-mass index (BMI), as well as choline (Cho) peak visibility of the normal pancreas were analysed during breath-holding. Results: Twenty-nine pairs of spectra were successfully obtained showing three major resonances, Lip, Cho, cholesterol and the unsaturated parts of the olefinic region of fatty acids (Chol + Unsat). Breath-hold spectra were generally better, with higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR; Z=-2.646, p = 0.008) and Cho peak visible status (Z=-2.449, p = 0.014). Correlations were significant between spectra acquired by the two breathing modes, especially for Lip height, Lip area, and the area of other peaks at 1.9-4.1 ppm. However, the Lip resonance was significantly different between the spectra of the two breathing modes (p < 0.05). In the breath-holding spectra, there were significant positive correlations between Lip peak height, area, and age (r = 0.491 and 0.521, p = 0.007 and 0.004), but not between Lip peak area and BMI. There was no statistical difference in Cho resonances between males and females. The Lip peak height and area were significantly higher in the Cho peak invisible group than in the Cho peak visible group (t = 2.661 and 2.353, p = 0.030 and 0.043). Conclusion: In vivo{sup 1}H MRS of the normal pancreas at 3 T is technically feasible and can characterize several metabolites. {sup 1}H MRS during breath-holding acquisition is superior to that during free-breathing

  18. Biomarkers for neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-Hsuan; Ro, Long-Sun; Lyu, Rong-Kuo; Chen, Chiung-Mei

    2015-02-02

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an acquired, heterogeneous inflammatory disorder, which is characterized by recurrent optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions. The discovery of the serum autoantibody marker, anti-aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4) antibody, revolutionizes our understanding of pathogenesis of NMO. In addition to anti-AQP4 antibody, other biomarkers for NMO are also reported. These candidate biomarkers are particularly involved in T helper (Th)17 and astrocytic damages, which play a critical role in the development of NMO lesions. Among them, IL-6 in the peripheral blood is associated with anti-AQP4 antibody production. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in CSF demonstrates good correlations with clinical severity of NMO relapses. Detecting these useful biomarkers may be useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of disease activity of NMO. Development of compounds targeting these biomarkers may provide novel therapeutic strategies for NMO. This article will review the related biomarker studies in NMO and discuss the potential therapeutics targeting these biomarkers.

  19. Breath Analysis as a Potential and Non-Invasive Frontier in Disease Diagnosis: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a small number of diseases, particularly cardiovascular (CVDs, oncologic (ODs, neurodegenerative (NDDs, chronic respiratory diseases, as well as diabetes, form a severe burden to most of the countries worldwide. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of efficient diagnostic tools, particularly those enabling reliable detection of diseases, at their early stages, preferably using non-invasive approaches. Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach relying only on the characterisation of volatile composition of the exhaled breath (EB that in turn reflects the volatile composition of the bloodstream and airways and therefore the status and condition of the whole organism metabolism. Advanced sampling procedures (solid-phase and needle traps microextraction coupled with modern analytical technologies (proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, e-noses, etc. allow the characterisation of EB composition to an unprecedented level. However, a key challenge in EB analysis is the proper statistical analysis and interpretation of the large and heterogeneous datasets obtained from EB research. There is no standard statistical framework/protocol yet available in literature that can be used for EB data analysis towards discovery of biomarkers for use in a typical clinical setup. Nevertheless, EB analysis has immense potential towards development of biomarkers for the early disease diagnosis of diseases.

  20. Nuclear fusion inside condense matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jing-tang

    2007-01-01

    This article describes in detail the nuclear fusion inside condense matters--the Fleischmann-Pons effect, the reproducibility of cold fusions, self-consistentcy of cold fusions and the possible applications.

  1. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Wealth Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, D

    2006-01-01

    We analyze wealth condensation for a wide class of stochastic economy models on the basis of the economic analog of thermodynamic potentials, termed transfer potentials. The economy model is based on three common transfers modes of wealth: random transfer, profit proportional to wealth and motivation of poor agents to work harder. The economies never reach steady state. Wealth condensation is the result of stochastic tunneling through a metastable transfer potential. In accordance with reality, both wealth and income distribution transiently show Pareto tails for high income subjects. For metastable transfer potentials, exponential wealth condensation is a robust feature. For example with 10 % annual profit 1% of the population owns 50 % of the wealth after 50 years. The time to reach such a strong wealth condensation is a hyperbolic function of the annual profit rate.

  2. Solar engineering - a condensed course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, Lars

    2011-11-15

    The document represents the material covered in a condensed two-week course focusing on the most important thermal and PV solar energy engineering topics, while also providing some theoretical background.

  3. Single-breath analysis using a novel simple sampler and capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greguš, Michal; Foret, František; Kubáň, Petr

    2015-02-01

    The analysis of ionic content of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from one single breath by CE with C(4) D is demonstrated for the first time. A miniature sampler made from a 2-mL syringe and an aluminum cooling cylinder for collection of EBC was developed. Various parameters of the sampler that influence its collection efficiency, repeatability, and effect of respiratory patterns were studied in detail. Efficient procedures for the cleanup of the miniature sampler were also developed and resulted in significant improvement of sampling repeatability. Analysis of EBC was performed by CE-C(4) D in a 60 mM MES/l-histidine BGE with 30 μM CTAB and 2 mM 18-crown-6 at pH 6 and excellent repeatability of migration times (RSD < 1.3% (n = 7)) and peak areas (RSD < 7% (n = 7)) of 12 inorganic anions, cations, and organic acids was obtained. It has been shown that the breathing pattern has a significant impact on the concentration of the analytes in the collected EBC. As the ventilatory pattern can be easily controlled during single exhalation, the developed collection system and method provides a highly reproducible and fast way of collecting EBC with applicability in point-of-care diagnostics.

  4. 42 CFR 84.195 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cartridge Respirators § 84.195 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators shall be designed and constructed to prevent: (a) Restriction of free...

  5. 42 CFR 84.132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Respirators § 84.132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with supplied-air respirators shall be designed and constructed to prevent: (a) Restriction of free...

  6. Apolo Ohno: Breathing Easier | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breathing Easier Apolo Ohno: Breathing Easier Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of ... skating. What does the future hold for Apolo Ohno? Even though I'm no longer skating competitively, ...

  7. Chemoresistive Gas Sensors for the Detection of Colorectal Cancer Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Malagù

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous medical studies show that tumor growth is accompanied by protein changes that may lead to the peroxidation of the cell membrane with consequent emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs by breath or intestinal gases that should be seen as biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC. The analysis of VOCs represents a non-invasive and potentially inexpensive preliminary screening technique. An array of chemoresistive gas sensors based on screen-printed metal oxide semiconducting films has been selected to discriminate gases of oncological interest, e.g., 1-iodononane and benzene, widely assumed to be biomarkers of colorectal cancer, from those of interference in the gut, such as methane and nitric oxide.

  8. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endogenous acetone production is a by‐product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in...

  9. Breathing Better with a COPD Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Now that you kNow it’s CoPD, here’s how to breathe better. You have taken the important step of being aware of your symptoms, and seeing your doctor ... care provider for testing and a diagnosis. While COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is a serious lung ...

  10. Ineffective breathing pattern related to malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openbrier, D R; Covey, M

    1987-03-01

    This article has highlighted the problem of malnutrition in the stable COPD patient and the critically ill, hypercatabolic patient, and has reviewed resultant mechanisms which influence the alteration of breathing pattern. These complex patients present a challenge for the nurse. Table 1 briefly summarizes the manifestations of malnutrition, goals, interventions and expected outcomes of the nursing diagnosis, ineffective breathing pattern related to malnutrition. The goal of the interventions is to modify the cause (malnutrition) of the nursing diagnosis (altered breathing pattern). The success of the interventions will lead to the achievement of expected outcome As expected outcomes are achieved, relief of signs and symptoms related to the nursing diagnosis will occur. The nurse caring for the patient with actual or potential malnutrition must be knowledgeable about the physiology of malnutrition and effect on breathing pattern. It is essential that the nurse assess and provide appropriate nutritional support and evaluate progress toward expected outcomes. In the event that expected outcomes are not achieved, reassessment with modification of interventions is necessary. Nurses play a key role in the total health care delivery to these complex patients. Further study will strengthen the research base of nursing interventions.

  11. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  12. Fast and accurate exhaled breath ammonia measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew L; Spacek, Lisa A; Risby, Terence H

    2014-06-11

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations.

  13. Sleep-disordered breathing in acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L K Dzeranova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-disordered breathing is higly prevalent in acromegaly, disturbing patients quality of life and increasing the risk of acute cardiovascular compications. Presented clinical case discusses key considerations for timely diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome and treatment planning. The case of 41 y.o. woman with newly diagnosed acromegaly and concomitant sleep apnea is typical for this disease.

  14. Coordination of breathing with nonrespiratory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Donald; Leiter, James C

    2012-04-01

    Many articles in this section of Comprehensive Physiology are concerned with the development and function of a central pattern generator (CPG) for the control of breathing in vertebrate animals. The action of the respiratory CPG is extensively modified by cortical and other descending influences as well as by feedback from peripheral sensory systems. The central nervous system also incorporates other CPGs, which orchestrate a wide variety of discrete and repetitive, voluntary and involuntary movements. The coordination of breathing with these other activities requires interaction and coordination between the respiratory CPG and those governing the nonrespiratory activities. Most of these interactions are complex and poorly understood. They seem to involve both conventional synaptic crosstalk between groups of neurons and fluid identity of neurons as belonging to one CPG or another: neurons that normally participate in breathing may be temporarily borrowed or hijacked by a competing or interrupting activity. This review explores the control of breathing as it is influenced by many activities that are generally considered to be nonrespiratory. The mechanistic detail varies greatly among topics, reflecting the wide variety of pertinent experiments.

  15. Oral Breathing Challenge in Participants with Vocal Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2003-01-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (P[subscript th]) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is…

  16. Human respiratory deposition of particles during oronasal breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, David L.; Proctor, Donald F.

    Deposition of particles in the tracheobronchial and pulmonary airways is computed as a function of particle size, correcting for deposition in the parallel nasal and oral airways with oronasal breathing. Thoracic deposition is lower at all sizes for oronasal breathing than for mouth breathing via tube, and is negligible for aerodynamic equivalent diameters of 10 μm or larger.

  17. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for...

  18. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5330 - Breathing gas mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing gas mixer. 868.5330 Section 868.5330...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5330 Breathing gas mixer. (a) Identification. A breathing gas mixer is a device intended for use in conjunction with a respiratory...

  20. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a...

  1. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of a gas mask mounted on a breathing machine both before and...

  2. 46 CFR 197.450 - Breathing gas tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas tests. 197.450 Section 197.450 Shipping....450 Breathing gas tests. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) The output of each air... or modification. (b) Purchased supplies of breathing mixtures supplied to a diver are checked...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to...

  4. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.115 Section 84.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

  5. 42 CFR 84.172 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.172... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.172 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators shall be designed and constructed to prevent:...

  6. Effect of slow deep breathing (6 breaths/min) on pulmonary function in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Shravya Keerthi G, Hari Krishna Bandi, Suresh M, Mallikarjuna Reddy

    2013-01-01

    We designed this study to test the hypothesis that whether 10 minutes of slow deep breathing have any effect on pulmonary function in healthy volunteers. The main objective was to study the immediate effect of slow deep breathing on Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), Forced expiratory volume percent (FEV1/FVC%), Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), Forced expiratory flow 25-75%(FEF25-75%), Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), Slow vital capacity (SV...

  7. Condenser Optimization in Steam Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sukru Bekdemir; Recep Ozturk; Zehra Yumurtac

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the effects of the condenser design parameters (such as turbine inlet condition, turbine power and condenser pressure) on heat transfer area, cooling water flow-rate, condenser cost and specific energy generation cost are studied for surface type condenser.The results are given in the text and also shown as diagrams.

  8. Rapid Drop Dynamics During Superhydrophobic Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Boreyko, Jonathan; Chen, Chuan-Hua

    2008-11-01

    Rapid drop motion is observed on superhydrophobic surfaces during condensation; condensate drops with diameter of order 10 μm can move at above 100G and 0.1 m/s. When water vapor condenses on a horizontal superhydrophobic surface, condensate drops move in a seemingly random direction. The observed motion is attributed to the energy released through coalescence of neighboring condensate drops. A scaling analysis captured the initial acceleration and terminal velocity. Our work is a step forward in understanding the dynamics of superhydrophobic condensation occurring in both natural water-repellant plants and engineered dropwise condensers.

  9. Upper limb kinematic differences between breathing and non-breathing conditions in front crawl sprint swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Carla B; Sanders, Ross H; Psycharakis, Stelios G

    2015-11-26

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the breathing action in front crawl (FC) sprint swimming affects the ipsilateral upper limb kinematics relative to a non-breathing stroke cycle (SC). Ten male competitive swimmers performed two 25m FC sprints: one breathing to their preferred side (Br) and one not breathing (NBr). Both swim trials were performed through a 6.75m(3) calibrated space and recorded by six gen-locked JVC KY32 CCD cameras. A paired t-test was used to assess statistical differences between the trials, with a confidence level of pswim performance is compromised by the inclusion of taking a breath in sprint FC swimming. It was proposed that swimmers aim to orient their ipsilateral shoulder into a stronger position by stretching and rolling the shoulders more in the entry phase whilst preparing to take a breath. Swimmers should focus on lengthening the push phase by extending the elbow more and not accelerating the hand too quickly upwards when preparing to inhale.

  10. Biomarkers intersect with the exposome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Stephen M

    2012-09-01

    The exposome concept promotes use of omic tools for discovering biomarkers of exposure and biomarkers of disease in studies of diseased and healthy populations. A two-stage scheme is presented for profiling omic features in serum to discover molecular biomarkers and then for applying these biomarkers in follow-up studies. The initial component, referred to as an exposome-wide-association study (EWAS), employs metabolomics and proteomics to interrogate the serum exposome and, ultimately, to identify, validate and differentiate biomarkers of exposure and biomarkers of disease. Follow-up studies employ knowledge-driven designs to explore disease causality, prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.

  11. Scrutinizing the pion condensed phase

    CERN Document Server

    Carignano, Stefano; Mammarella, Andrea; Mannarelli, Massimo; Pagliaroli, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    When the isospin chemical potential exceeds the pion mass, charged pions condense in the zero-momentum state forming a superfluid. Chiral perturbation theory provides a very powerful tool for studying this phase. However, the formalism that is usually employed in this context does not clarify various aspects of the condensation mechanism and makes the identification of the soft modes problematic. We re-examine the pion condensed phase using different approaches within the chiral perturbation theory framework. As a first step, we perform a low-density expansion of the chiral Lagrangian valid in the normal phase and close to the onset of the Bose-Einstein condensation. We obtain an effective theory that can be mapped to a Gross-Pitaevskii Lagrangian in which, remarkably, all the coefficients depend on the isospin chemical potential. The low-density expansion becomes unreliable deep in the pion condensed phase. For this reason, we develop an alternative field expansion deriving a low-energy Lagrangian analog to ...

  12. Polariton condensates at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, Thierry; Brimont, Christelle

    2016-10-01

    We review the recent developments of the polariton physics in microcavities featuring the exciton-photon strong coupling at room temperature, and leading to the achievement of room-temperature polariton condensates. Such cavities embed active layers with robust excitons that present a large binding energy and a large oscillator strength, i.e. wide bandgap inorganic or organic semiconductors, or organic molecules. These various systems are compared, in terms of figures of merit and of common features related to their strong oscillator strength. The various demonstrations of polariton laser are compared, as well as their condensation phase diagrams. The room-temperature operation indeed allows a detailed investigation of the thermodynamic and out-of-equilibrium regimes of the condensation process. The crucial role of the spatial dynamics of the condensate formation is discussed, as well as the debated issue of the mechanism of stimulated relaxation from the reservoir to the condensate under non-resonant excitation. Finally the prospects of polariton devices are presented.

  13. First Breath prenatal smoking cessation pilot study: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehn, Lisette; Lokker, Nicole; Matitz, Debra; Christiansen, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Despite the many dangers associated with smoking during pregnancy, it remains a salient public health problem for Wisconsin women. The First Breath pilot program was developed in an attempt to reduce rates of smoking during pregnancy among low-income women. Preliminary results suggest that the First Breath counseling-based approach is effective, with a quit rate of 43.8% among First Breath enrollees at 1 month postpartum. Women receiving First Breath cessation counseling also had higher quit rates at every measurement period versus women in a comparison group who were receiving whatever cessation care was available in their county in the absence of First Breath. The First Breath pilot study has demonstrated success in helping pregnant women quit smoking and in creating a model for integration of cessation services into prenatal health care service provision. It is through this success that First Breath is expanding beyond the pilot study stage to a statewide program in 2003.

  14. Information dynamics in cardiorespiratory analyses: application to controlled breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Devy; Faes, Luca; Montalto, Alessandro; Van Diest, Ilse; Marinazzo, Daniele; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Voluntary adjustment of the breathing pattern is widely used to deal with stress-related conditions. In this study, effects of slow and fast breathing with a low and high inspiratory to expiratory time on heart rate variability (HRV) are evaluated by means of information dynamics. Information transfer is quantified both as the traditional transfer entropy as well as the cross entropy, where the latter does not condition on the past of HRV, thereby taking the highly unidirectional relation between respiration and heart rate into account. The results show that the cross entropy is more suited to quantify cardiorespiratory information transfer as this measure increases during slow breathing, indicating the increased cardiorespiratory coupling and suggesting the shift towards vagal activation during slow breathing. Additionally we found that controlled breathing, either slow or fast, results as well in an increase in cardiorespiratory coupling, compared to spontaneous breathing, which demonstrates the beneficial effects of instructed breathing.

  15. Breathing pattern, thoracoabdominal motion and muscular activity during three breathing exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Tomich

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate breathing pattern, thoracoabdominal motion and muscular activity during three breathing exercises: diaphragmatic breathing (DB, flow-oriented (Triflo II incentive spirometry and volume-oriented (Voldyne incentive spirometry. Seventeen healthy subjects (12 females, 5 males aged 23 ± 5 years (mean ± SD were studied. Calibrated respiratory inductive plethysmography was used to measure the following variables during rest (baseline and breathing exercises: tidal volume (Vt, respiratory frequency (f, rib cage contribution to Vt (RC/Vt, inspiratory duty cycle (Ti/Ttot, and phase angle (PhAng. Sternocleidomastoid muscle activity was assessed by surface electromyography. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Tukey or Friedman and Wilcoxon tests, with the level of significance set at P < 0.05. Comparisons between baseline and breathing exercise periods showed a significant increase of Vt and PhAng during all exercises, a significant decrease of f during DB and Voldyne, a significant increase of Ti/Ttot during Voldyne, and no significant difference in RC/Vt. Comparisons among exercises revealed higher f and sternocleidomastoid activity during Triflo II (P < 0.05 with respect to DB and Voldyne, without a significant difference in Vt, Ti/Ttot, PhAng, or RC/Vt. Exercises changed the breathing pattern and increased PhAng, a variable of thoracoabdominal asynchrony, compared to baseline. The only difference between DB and Voldyne was a significant increase of Ti/Ttot compared to baseline. Triflo II was associated with higher f values and electromyographic activity of the sternocleidomastoid. In conclusion, DB and Voldyne showed similar results while Triflo II showed disadvantages compared to the other breathing exercises.

  16. Biomarkers for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, Joseph M; Liu, Chau-Ching; Kao, Amy H; Manzi, Susan

    2012-04-01

    The urgent need for lupus biomarkers was demonstrated in September 2011 during a Workshop sponsored by the Food and Drug Administration: Potential Biomarkers Predictive of Disease Flare. After 2 days of discussion and more than 2 dozen presentations from thought leaders in both industry and academia, it became apparent that highly sought biomarkers to predict lupus flare have not yet been identified. Even short of the elusive biomarker of flare, few biomarkers for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) diagnosis, monitoring, and stratification have been validated and employed for making clinical decisions. This lack of reliable, specific biomarkers for SLE hampers proper clinical management of patients with SLE and impedes development of new lupus therapeutics. As such, the intensity of investigation to identify lupus biomarkers is climbing a steep trajectory, lending cautious optimism that a validated panel of biomarkers for lupus diagnosis, monitoring, stratification, and prediction of flare may soon be in hand.

  17. Biomarkers in Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Brian J; Blount, Patricia L; Rabinovitch, Peter S

    2003-04-01

    This article provides a framework for clinicians who are attempting the difficult task of interpreting the Barrett's biomarker literature with the goal of improving care for their patients. Although many articles. including more that 60 proposed biomarkers, have been published on this subject, only a few describe phase 3 and 4 studies that are of interest to the clinical gastroenterologist (Table 1). For year, dysplasia grade has been the sole means of risk stratification for patients with BE, and it likely will continue to be used in the foreseeable future. The current authors believe that dysplasia classification can be valuable using the team management approach and quality controls described previously. Significant problems, however, have emerged in phase 2 through 4 studies of dysplasia that make it imperative for the Barrett's field to incorporate additional biomarkers as they are validated. These problems include poor reproducibility of dysplasia interpretations, poor predictive value for negative, indefinite, and low-grade dysplasia, and inconsistent results for HGD in different centers, all of which makes it virtually impossible to develop national guidelines for surveillance. Some studies have even suggested that endoscopic biopsy surveillance using dysplasia may not be worthwhile. Currently, flow cytometric tetraploidy and aneuploidy have progressed furthest in biomarker validation (see Table 1). With proper handling, endoscopic biopsy specimens can be shipped to reference laboratories that have the instruments, computer analytic methods, and expertise to reproducibly detect tetraploidy and aneuploidy. The results of phase 4 studies indicate that flow cytometry appears to be useful in detecting a subset of patients who do not have HGD and yet have an increased risk of progression to cancer that cannot be identified by dysplasia grade. For many reasons, the authors anticipate that the number of validated biomarkers will increase substantially in the

  18. On the onset of surface condensation: formation and transition mechanisms of condensation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qiang; Sun, Jie; Wang, Qian; Wang, Wen; Wang, Hua Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to investigate the onset of surface condensation. On surfaces with different wettability, we snapshot different condensation modes (no-condensation, dropwise condensation and filmwise condensation) and quantitatively analyze their characteristics by temporal profiles of surface clusters. Two different types of formation of nanoscale droplets are identified, i.e. the formations with and without film-like condensate. We exhibit the effect of surface tensions on the formations of nanoscale droplets and film. We reveal the formation mechanisms of different condensation modes at nanoscale based on our simulation results and classical nucleation theory, which supplements the ‘classical hypotheses’ of the onset of dropwise condensation. We also reveal the transition mechanism between different condensation modes based on the competition between surface tensions and reveal that dropwise condensation represents the transition states from no-condensation to filmwise condensation.

  19. Condensed Matter Physics - Biology Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, G.

    The field of condensed matter physics had its genesis this century and it has had a remarkable evolution. A closer look at its growth reveals a hidden aim in the collective consciousness of the field - a part of the development this century is a kind of warm up exercise to understand the nature of living condensed matter, namely the field of biology, by a growing new breed of scientists in the coming century. Through some examples the vitality of this interaction will be pointed out.

  20. Turbulent mixing condensation nucleus counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavliev, Rashid

    The construction and operating principles of the Turbulent Mixing Condensation Nucleus Counter (TM CNC) are described. Estimations based on the semiempirical theory of turbulent jets and the classical theory of nucleation and growth show the possibility of detecting particles as small as 2.5 nm without the interference of homogeneous nucleation. This conclusion was confirmed experimentally during the International Workshop on Intercomparison of Condensation Nuclei and Aerosol Particle Counters (Vienna, Austria). Number concentration, measured by the Turbulent Mixing CNC and other participating instruments, is found to be essentially equal.

  1. Breathing dissipative solitons in optical microresonators

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Erwan; Guo, Hairun; Gorodetsky, Michael; Kippenberg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Dissipative solitons are self-localized structures resulting from a double balance between dispersion and nonlinearity as well as dissipation and a driving force. They occur in a wide variety of fields ranging from optics, hydrodynamics to chemistry and biology. Recently, significant interest has focused on their temporal realization in driven optical microresonators, known as dissipative Kerr solitons. They provide access to coherent, chip-scale optical frequency combs, which have already been employed in optical metrology, data communication and spectroscopy. Such Kerr resonator systems can exhibit numerous localized intracavity patterns and provide rich insights into nonlinear dynamics. A particular class of solutions consists of breathing dissipative solitons, representing pulses with oscillating amplitude and duration, for which no comprehensive understanding has been presented to date. Here, we observe and study single and multiple breathing dissipative solitons in two different microresonator platforms...

  2. Protective supplied-breathing-air garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, E.L.; von Hortenau, E.F.

    1982-05-28

    A breathing-air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants is disclosed. The garment includes a suit and a separate head-protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air-delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air-delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  3. C-130J Breathing Resistance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    flows used in the study . The simulated workloads were: 1) 60 ALPM: Rest; 2) 90 ALPM: Light Work ; 3) 125 ALPM: Moderate Work ; and 4) 150 ALPM...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2016-0040 C-130J BREATHING RESISTANCE STUDY George W. Miller Air Force Research Laboratory Wright-Patterson Air...ASSIGNED DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT. //signed// //signed// GEORGE W. MILLER SCOTT M. GALSTER Work Unit Manager Chief, Applied

  4. Breath alcohol, multisensor arrays, and electronic noses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsson, Nils; Winquist, Fredrik

    1997-01-01

    The concept behind a volatile compound mapper, or electronic nose, is to use the combination of multiple gas sensors and pattern recognition techniques to detect and quantify substances in gas mixtures. There are several different kinds of sensors which have been developed during recent years of which the base techniques are conducting polymers, piezo electrical crystals and solid state devices. In this work we have used a combination of gas sensitive field effect devices and semiconducting metal oxides. The most useful pattern recognition routine was found to be ANNs, which is a mathematical approximation of the human neural network. The aim of this work is to evaluate the possibility of using electronic noses in field instruments to detect drugs, arson residues, explosives etc. As a test application we have chosen breath alcohol measurements. There are several reasons for this. Breath samples are a quite complex mixture contains between 200 and 300 substances at trace levels. The alcohol level is low but still possible to handle. There are needs for replacing large and heavy mobile instruments with smaller devices. Current instrumentation is rather sensitive to interfering substances. The work so far has dealt with sampling, how to introduce ethanol and other substances in the breath, correlation measurements between the electronic nose and headspace GC, and how to evaluate the sensor signals.

  5. Emerging Biomarkers in Glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Mairéad G.; Sahebjam, Solmaz; Mason, Warren P., E-mail: warren.mason@uhn.ca [Pencer Brain Tumor Centre, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2013-08-22

    Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor, has few available therapies providing significant improvement in survival. Molecular signatures associated with tumor aggressiveness as well as with disease progression and their relation to differences in signaling pathways implicated in gliomagenesis have recently been described. A number of biomarkers which have potential in diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy have been identified and along with imaging modalities could contribute to the clinical management of GBM. Molecular biomarkers including O(6)-methlyguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosomes 1p and 19q, loss of heterozygosity 10q, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), epidermal growth factor, latrophilin, and 7 transmembrane domain-containing protein 1 on chromosome 1 (ELTD1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor suppressor protein p53, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), p16INK4a gene, cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), phospholipid metabolites, telomerase messenger expression (hTERT messenger ribonucleic acid [mRNA]), microRNAs (miRNAs), cancer stem cell markers and imaging modalities as potential biomarkers are discussed. Inclusion of emerging biomarkers in prospective clinical trials is warranted in an effort for more effective personalized therapy in the future.

  6. Evaporative Condensers in Comfortable Air Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Ying-de; ZHU Dong-sheng; DU Gui-mei; LI Yuan-xi; SUN He-jing; LIU Qing-ming

    2009-01-01

    The operating theory of an evaporative condenser was expatiated.The difference between an e-vaporative condensing refrigeration system and a general refrigeration system was analyzed.Compared with the air-cooled and the water-cooled,the virtues of energy-conservation and water-conservation of evaporative con-densers were analyzed.Some questions existing in the application of evaporative condensers were pointed out,the corresponding solving methods were analyzed accordingly,and the development trend of evaporative con-densing technique in mechanical refrigeration system field and the applied foreground of evaporative condensers in comfortable air conditioning were prospected.

  7. Determination of breath isoprene allows the identification of the expiratory fraction of the propofol breath signal during real-time propofol breath monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornuss, Cyrill; Dolch, Michael E; Janitza, Silke; Souza, Kimberly; Praun, Siegfried; Apfel, Christian C; Schelling, Gustav

    2013-10-01

    Real-time measurement of propofol in the breath may be used for routine clinical monitoring. However, this requires unequivocal identification of the expiratory phase of the respiratory propofol signal as only expiratory propofol reflects propofol blood concentrations. Determination of CO2 breath concentrations is the current gold standard for the identification of expiratory gas but usually requires additional equipment. Human breath also contains isoprene, a volatile organic compound with low inspiratory breath concentration and an expiratory concentration plateau. We investigated whether breath isoprene could be used similarly to CO2 to identify the expiratory fraction of the propofol breath signal. We investigated real-time breath data obtained from 40 study subjects during routine anesthesia. Propofol, isoprene, and CO2 breath concentrations were determined by a combined ion molecule reaction/electron impact mass spectrometry system. The expiratory propofol signal was identified according to breath CO2 and isoprene concentrations and presented as median of intervals of 30 s duration. Bland-Altman analysis was applied to detect differences (bias) in the expiratory propofol signal extracted by the two identification methods. We investigated propofol signals in a total of 3,590 observation intervals of 30 s duration in the 40 study subjects. In 51.4 % of the intervals (1,844/3,590) both methods extracted the same results for expiratory propofol signal. Overall bias between the two data extraction methods was -0.12 ppb. The lower and the upper limits of the 95 % CI were -0.69 and 0.45 ppb. Determination of isoprene breath concentrations allows the identification of the expiratory propofol signal during real-time breath monitoring.

  8. Neuroimaging Biomarkers for Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Brandon M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomarkers provide clinicians with a predictable model for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of medical ailments. Psychiatry has lagged behind other areas of medicine in the identification of biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we investigated the current state of neuroimaging as it pertains to biomarkers for psychosis. Methods We reviewed systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the structural (sMRI), functional (fMRI), diffusion-tensor (DTI), Positron emission tomography (PET) and spectroscopy (MRS) studies of subjects at-risk or those with an established schizophrenic illness. Only articles reporting effect-sizes and confidence intervals were included in an assessment of robustness. Results Out of the identified meta-analyses and systematic reviews, 21 studies met the inclusion criteria for assessment. There were 13 sMRI, 4 PET, 3 MRS, and 1 DTI studies. The search terms included in the current review encompassed familial high risk (FHR), clinical high risk (CHR), First episode (FES), Chronic (CSZ), schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), and healthy controls (HC). Conclusions Currently, few neuroimaging biomarkers can be considered ready for diagnostic use in patients with psychosis. At least in part, this may be related to the challenges inherent in the current symptom-based approach to classifying these disorders. While available studies suggest a possible value of imaging biomarkers for monitoring disease progression, more systematic research is needed. To date, the best value of imaging data in psychoses has been to shed light on questions of disease pathophysiology, especially through the characterization of endophenotypes. PMID:25883891

  9. Magnetofermionic condensate in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, L. V.; Zhuravlev, A. S.; Dickmann, S.; Gorbunov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.; Kukushkin, I. V.; Schmult, S.

    2016-11-01

    Coherent condensate states of particles obeying either Bose or Fermi statistics are in the focus of interest in modern physics. Here we report on condensation of collective excitations with Bose statistics, cyclotron magnetoexcitons, in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron system in a magnetic field. At low temperatures, the dense non-equilibrium ensemble of long-lived triplet magnetoexcitons exhibits both a drastic reduction in the viscosity and a steep enhancement in the response to the external electromagnetic field. The observed effects are related to formation of a super-absorbing state interacting coherently with the electromagnetic field. Simultaneously, the electrons below the Fermi level form a super-emitting state. The effects are explicable from the viewpoint of a coherent condensate phase in a non-equilibrium system of two-dimensional fermions with a fully quantized energy spectrum. The condensation occurs in the space of vectors of magnetic translations, a property providing a completely new landscape for future physical investigations.

  10. Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Loris

    2011-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

  11. Condensational theory of stationary tornadoes

    CERN Document Server

    Makarieva, Anastassia M; Nefiodov, Andrei V; 10.1016/j.physleta.2011.04.023

    2012-01-01

    Using the Bernoulli integral for air streamline with condensing water vapor a stationary axisymmetric tornado circulation is described. The obtained profiles of vertical, radial and tangential velocities are in agreement with observations for the Mulhall tornado, world's largest on record and longest-lived among the three tornadoes for which 3D velocity data are available. Maximum possible vortex velocities are estimated.

  12. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    overlap considerably in their kinematics (turning rates and distance covered), suggesting that air breathing in this species is performed using escapelike C-start motions. This demonstrates that C-starts in fish do not need external stimulation and can be spontaneous behaviours used outside the context...... to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain...... of Denmark, Denmark), John F. Steffensen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), Morten Svendsen (Technical University of Denmark, Denmark) and Augusto Abe (Unlversidade Estadual Paulista, Brazil) Fast starts are brief accelerations commonly observed in fish within the context of predator-prey interactions...

  13. Clinical utility of asthma biomarkers: from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijverberg SJH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Susanne JH Vijverberg,1,2,* Bart Hilvering,2,* Jan AM Raaijmakers,1 Jan-Willem J Lammers,2 Anke-Hilse Maitland-van der Zee,1,* Leo Koenderman2,* 1Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and recurrent episodes of reversible airway obstruction. The disease is very heterogeneous in onset, course, and response to treatment, and seems to encompass a broad collection of heterogeneous disease subtypes with different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. There is a strong need for easily interpreted clinical biomarkers to assess the nature and severity of the disease. Currently available biomarkers for clinical practice – for example markers in bronchial lavage, bronchial biopsies, sputum, or fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO – are limited due to invasiveness or lack of specificity. The assessment of markers in peripheral blood might be a good alternative to study airway inflammation more specifically, compared to FeNO, and in a less invasive manner, compared to bronchoalveolar lavage, biopsies, or sputum induction. In addition, promising novel biomarkers are discovered in the field of breath metabolomics (eg, volatile organic compounds and (pharmacogenomics. Biomarker research in asthma is increasingly shifting from the assessment of the value of single biomarkers to multidimensional approaches in which the clinical value of a combination of various markers is studied. This could eventually lead to the development of a clinically applicable algorithm composed of various markers and clinical features to phenotype asthma and improve diagnosis and asthma management

  14. Molecular Effects on Evaporation and Condensation

    OpenAIRE

    Meland, Roar

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis the evaporation from and condensation on a plane liquid surface have been studied by analysis and molecular dynamics simulations. The effect of the condensation coefficient on the inverted temperature gradient for a two-surface evaporation-condensation geometry is investigated by the moment method. The influence of the molecular exchange phenomenon on the gas-kinetic treatment of evaporation and condensation is shown to be neglible under certain assumptions. Methods to simulate...

  15. Ethane and n-pentane in exhaled breath are biomarkers of exposure not effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorham, Katrine A; Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Meinardi, Simone

    2009-01-01

    The relationship of exhaled ethane and n-pentane to exhaled NO, carbonylated proteins, and indoor/outdoor atmospheric pollutants were examined in order to evaluate ethane and n-pentane as potential markers of airway inflammation and/or oxidative stress. Exhaled NO and carbonylated proteins were...... found to have no significant associations with either ethane (p = 0.96 and p = 0.81, respectively) or n-pentane (p = 0.44 and 0.28, respectively) when outliers were included. In the case where outliers were removed n-pentane was found to be inversely associated with carbonylated proteins. Exhaled...... hydrocarbons adjusted for indoor hydrocarbon concentrations were instead found to be positively associated with air pollutants (NO, NO(2) and CO), suggesting pollutant exposure is driving exhaled hydrocarbon concentrations. Given these findings, ethane and n-pentane do not appear to be markers of airway...

  16. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Cao, Wenqing

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  17. Development of Techniques for Trace Gas Detection in Breath

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims to investigate the possibility of developing spectroscopic techniques for trace gas detection, with particular emphasis on their applicability to breath analysis and medical diagnostics. Whilst key breath molecules such as methane and carbon dioxide will feature throughout this work, the focus of the research is on the detection of breath acetone, a molecule strongly linked with the diabetic condition. Preliminary studies into the suitability of cavity enhanced absorption...

  18. Automatic Recognition of Breathing Route During Sleep Using Snoring Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Yohichiro

    This letter classifies snoring sounds into three breathing routes (oral, nasal, and oronasal) with discriminant analysis of the power spectra and k-nearest neighbor method. It is necessary to recognize breathing route during snoring, because oral snoring is a typical symptom of sleep apnea but we cannot know our own breathing and snoring condition during sleep. As a result, about 98.8% classification rate is obtained by using leave-one-out test for performance evaluation.

  19. Polymer induced condensation of dna supercoils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bessa Ramos Jr., J.E.; Ruggiero Neto, J.; Vries, de R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Macromolecular crowding is thought to be a significant factor driving DNA condensation in prokaryotic cells. Whereas DNA in prokaryotes is supercoiled, studies on crowding-induced DNA condensation have so far focused on linear DNA. Here we compare DNA condensation by poly(ethylene oxide) for superco

  20. Biomarkers of Selenium Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald F. Combs, Jr.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential trace element, selenium (Se, has multiple biological activities, which depend on the level of Se intake. Relatively low Se intakes determine the expression of selenoenzymes in which it serves as an essential constituent. Higher intakes have been shown to have anti-tumorigenic potential; and very high Se intakes can produce adverse effects. This hierarchy of biological activities calls for biomarkers informative at different levels of Se exposure. Some Se-biomarkers, such as the selenoproteins and particularly GPX3 and SEPP1, provide information about function directly and are of value in identifying nutritional Se deficiency and tracking responses of deficient individuals to Se-treatment. They are useful under conditions of Se intake within the range of regulated selenoprotein expression, e.g., for humans <55 μg/day and for animals <20 μg/kg diet. Other Se-biomarkers provide information indirectly through inferences based on Se levels of foods, tissues, urine or feces. They can indicate the likelihood of deficiency or adverse effects, but they do not provide direct evidence of either condition. Their value is in providing information about Se status over a wide range of Se intake, particularly from food forms. There is need for additional Se biomarkers particularly for assessing Se status in non-deficient individuals for whom the prospects of cancer risk reduction and adverse effects risk are the primary health considerations. This would include determining whether supranutritional intakes of Se may be required for maximal selenoprotein expression in immune surveillance cells. It would also include developing methods to determine low molecular weight Se-metabolites, i.e., selenoamino acids and methylated Se-metabolites, which to date have not been detectable in biological specimens. Recent analytical advances using tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry suggest prospects for detecting these metabolites.

  1. Progress of biomarkers in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期生物标志物的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马淑颖; 解卫平

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD) is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality throughout the world .It not only has a great impact on the patients′ work and quality of life ,but also creates an enormous social and economic burden .Furthermore ,acute exacerbation of COPD ( AECOPD) accelerates the progression of the disease and increases the rates of hospitalizations and deaths .For this reason ,lots of studies have been done in regard to biomarkers of AECOPD during recent years .This review summarizes the research progress of biomarkers in the aspects of blood ,sputum ( including induced sputum) ,exhaled nitric oxide ,exhaled breath condensate ,bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bronchial biopsies .%C O PD是患病率和病死率居高不下的常见病、多发病,严重影响患者的劳动力和生活质量,也造成了巨大的社会、经济负担。而COPD急性加重(AECOPD)不仅加速疾病进展、进一步降低患者活动耐量,更增加了住院率及病死率,因而近年来开展了大量围绕 A EC O PD生物标志物的研究。本文将从外周血、痰液(包括诱导痰)、呼出气、呼出气冷凝液、BALF、支气管黏膜活检这6个方面分类对近年来A EC O PD生物标志物的研究进展作一综述。

  2. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  3. General Anesthesia with Preserved Spontaneous Breathing through an Intubation Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study whether spontaneous patient breathing may be preserved during elective operations under general anesthesia with tracheal intubation. Subjects and methods. One hundred and twelve patients undergoing elective surgeries under general endotracheal anesthesia were randomized into 2 groups: 1 patients who had forced mechanical ventilation in the volume-controlled mode and 2 those who received assisted ventilation as spontaneous breathing with mechanical support. Conclusion. The study shows that spontaneous breathing with mechanical support may be safely used during some surgical interventions in patients with baseline healthy lungs. Key words: Pressure Support, assisted ventilation, spontaneous breathing, general anesthesia, lung function.

  4. Using acoustic sensors to discriminate between nasal and mouth breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Kevin; Yuan, Peng; Coyle, Damian

    2012-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing.

  5. A fibre-optic oxygen sensor for monitoring human breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongsheng; Formenti, Federico; Obeid, Andy; Hahn, Clive E W; Farmery, Andrew D

    2013-09-01

    The development and construction of a tapered-tip fibre-optic fluorescence based oxygen sensor is described. The sensor is suitable for fast and real-time monitoring of human breathing. The sensitivity and response time of the oxygen sensor were evaluated in vitro with a gas pressure chamber system, where oxygen partial pressure was rapidly changed between 5 and 15 kPa, and then in vivo in five healthy adult participants who synchronized their breathing to a metronome set at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 breaths min(-1). A Datex Ultima medical gas analyser was used to monitor breathing rate as a comparator. The sensor's response time in vitro was less than 150 ms, which allows accurate continuous measurement of inspired and expired oxygen pressure. Measurements of breathing rate by means of our oxygen sensor and of the Datex Ultima were in strong agreement. The results demonstrate that the device can reliably resolve breathing rates up to 60 breaths min(-1), and that it is a suitable cost-effective alternative for monitoring breathing rates and end-tidal oxygen partial pressure in the clinical setting. The rapid response time of the sensor may allow its use for monitoring rapid breathing rates as occur in children and the newborn.

  6. A simple optical fiber interferometer based breathing sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xixi; Liu, Dejun; Kumar, Rahul; Ng, Wai Pang; Fu, Yong-qing; Yuan, Jinhui; Yu, Chongxiu; Wu, Yufeng; Zhou, Guorui; Farrell, Gerald; Semenova, Yuliya; Wu, Qiang

    2017-03-01

    A breathing sensor has been experimentally demonstrated based on a singlemode–multimode–singlemode (SMS) fiber structure which is attached to a thin plastic film in an oxygen mask. By detecting power variations due to the macro bending applied to the SMS section by each inhalation and exhalation process, the breath state can be monitored. The proposed sensor is capable of distinguishing different types of breathing conditions including regular and irregular breath state. The sensor can be used in a strong electric/magnetic field and radioactive testing systems such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems and computed tomography (CT) examinations where electrical sensors are restricted.

  7. Can resistive breathing injure the lung? Implications for COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilakopoulos T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Theodoros Vassilakopoulos, Dimitrios Toumpanakis Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece Abstract: In obstructive lung diseases, airway inflammation leads to bronchospasm and thus resistive breathing, especially during exacerbations. This commentary discusses experimental evidence that resistive breathing per se (the mechanical stimulus in the absence of underlying airway inflammation leads to lung injury and inflammation (mechanotransduction. The potential implications of resistive breathing-induced mechanotrasduction in COPD exacerbations are presented along with the available clinical evidence. Keywords: resistive breathing, COPD, mechanotransduction, bronchoconstriction, inflammation

  8. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Mijacika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise. In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition. According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.

  9. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijacika, Tanja; Dujic, Zeljko

    2016-12-01

    The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise.In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition.According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.

  10. Optimal technique for deep breathing exercises after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, E

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac surgery patients often develop a restrictive pulmonary impairment and gas exchange abnormalities in the early postoperative period. Chest physiotherapy is routinely prescribed in order to reduce or prevent these complications. Besides early mobilization, positioning and shoulder girdle exercises, various breathing exercises have been implemented as a major component of postoperative care. A variety of deep breathing maneuvres are recommended to the spontaneously breathing patient to reduce atelectasis and to improve lung function in the early postoperative period. Different breathing exercises are recommended in different parts of the world, and there is no consensus about the most effective breathing technique after cardiac surgery. Arbitrary instructions are given, and recommendations on performance and duration vary between hospitals. Deep breathing exercises are a major part of this therapy, but scientific evidence for the efficacy has been lacking until recently, and there is a lack of trials describing how postoperative breathing exercises actually should be performed. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of postoperative breathing exercises for patients undergoing cardiac surgery via sternotomy, and to discuss and suggest an optimal technique for the performance of deep breathing exercises.

  11. IDBD: infectious disease biomarker database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, In Seok; Ryu, Chunsun; Cho, Ki Joon; Kim, Jin Kwang; Ong, Swee Hoe; Mitchell, Wayne P; Kim, Bong Su; Oh, Hee-Bok; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Biomarkers enable early diagnosis, guide molecularly targeted therapy and monitor the activity and therapeutic responses across a variety of diseases. Despite intensified interest and research, however, the overall rate of development of novel biomarkers has been falling. Moreover, no solution is yet available that efficiently retrieves and processes biomarker information pertaining to infectious diseases. Infectious Disease Biomarker Database (IDBD) is one of the first efforts to build an easily accessible and comprehensive literature-derived database covering known infectious disease biomarkers. IDBD is a community annotation database, utilizing collaborative Web 2.0 features, providing a convenient user interface to input and revise data online. It allows users to link infectious diseases or pathogens to protein, gene or carbohydrate biomarkers through the use of search tools. It supports various types of data searches and application tools to analyze sequence and structure features of potential and validated biomarkers. Currently, IDBD integrates 611 biomarkers for 66 infectious diseases and 70 pathogens. It is publicly accessible at http://biomarker.cdc.go.kr and http://biomarker.korea.ac.kr.

  12. Electronic response to nuclear breathing mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Hendrik; Ruffini, Remo [ICRANet, P.zza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara, Italy Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Università di Roma P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); ICRANet, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 28 Av. de Valrose, 06103 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Xue, She-Sheng [ICRANet, P.zza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara, Italy Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Università di Roma P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Based on our previous work on stationary oscillation modes of electrons around giant nuclei, we show how to treat a general driving force on the electron gas, such as the one generated by the breathing mode of the nucleus, by means of the spectral method. As an example we demonstrate this method for a system with Z = 10{sup 4} in β-equilibrium with the electrons compressed up to the nuclear radius. In this case the stationary modes can be obtained analytically, which allows for a very speedy numerical calculation of the final result.

  13. Extensive Epidermoid Cyst and Breathing Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Dantas Soares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are common cystic lesions in the skin, ovaries, and testicles, but their occurrence in the oral cavity is uncommon. They consist of cysts delimited by a fibrous capsule without cutaneous annexes and are lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The differential diagnosis includes ranula, dermoid cysts, and lingual thyroid. Despite their benign presentation, these cysts can cause functional limitations, requiring special clinical attention for extensive lesions located in regions that preserve vital structures. This paper aims to report a case of epidermoid cyst in patient with swallowing and breathing difficulty, highlighting the clinical and surgical planning.

  14. A young male with shortness of breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Fahmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of primary mediastinal seminoma, which presented initially with shortness of breath and a swelling in upper part of anterior chest wall. The diagnosis of primary mediastinal seminoma was established on the basis of histologic findings and was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Abdominal, pelvis and cerebral CT scan, testicular ultrasound and TC-99 MDP bone scintigraphy were negative. Chemotherapy was initiated with B.E.P. protocol (Bleomycin, Etoposide, Cisplatinum; the patient received four cycles of chemotherapy. After 8 months, the patient was seen in the clinic; he was well.

  15. Extensive Epidermoid Cyst and Breathing Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ciro Dantas; Gurgel, Alberto Costa; de Souza Júnior, Francisco de Assis; de Oliveira, Samila Neres; de Carvalho, Maria Goretti Freire; Oliveira, Hanieri Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are common cystic lesions in the skin, ovaries, and testicles, but their occurrence in the oral cavity is uncommon. They consist of cysts delimited by a fibrous capsule without cutaneous annexes and are lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The differential diagnosis includes ranula, dermoid cysts, and lingual thyroid. Despite their benign presentation, these cysts can cause functional limitations, requiring special clinical attention for extensive lesions located in regions that preserve vital structures. This paper aims to report a case of epidermoid cyst in patient with swallowing and breathing difficulty, highlighting the clinical and surgical planning. PMID:26180645

  16. Polymer Bose–Einstein condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos, E., E-mail: ecastellanos@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, A.P. 14-740, México D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Chacón-Acosta, G., E-mail: gchacon@correo.cua.uam.mx [Departamento de Matemáticas Aplicadas y Sistemas, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40, México D.F. 01120 (Mexico)

    2013-05-13

    In this work we analyze a non-interacting one-dimensional polymer Bose–Einstein condensate in a harmonic trap within the semiclassical approximation. We use an effective Hamiltonian coming from the polymer quantization that arises in loop quantum gravity. We calculate the number of particles in order to obtain the critical temperature. The Bose–Einstein functions are replaced by series, whose high order terms are related to powers of the polymer length. It is shown that the condensation temperature presents a shift respect to the standard case, for small values of the polymer scale. In typical experimental conditions, it is possible to establish a bound for λ{sup 2} up to ≲10{sup −16} m{sup 2}. To improve this bound we should decrease the frequency of the trap and also decrease the number of particles.

  17. Fundamentals of condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Marvin L

    2016-01-01

    Based on an established course and covering the fundamentals, central areas, and contemporary topics of this diverse field, Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics is a much-needed textbook for graduate students. The book begins with an introduction to the modern conceptual models of a solid from the points of view of interacting atoms and elementary excitations. It then provides students with a thorough grounding in electronic structure as a starting point to understand many properties of condensed matter systems - electronic, structural, vibrational, thermal, optical, transport, magnetic and superconductivity - and methods to calculate them. Taking readers through the concepts and techniques, the text gives both theoretically and experimentally inclined students the knowledge needed for research and teaching careers in this field. It features 200 illustrations, 40 worked examples and 150 homework problems for students to test their understanding. Solutions to the problems for instructors are available at w...

  18. Heat and moisture exchanger: importance of humidification in anaesthesia and ventilatory breathing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Vandana

    2008-08-01

    Adequate humidification is vital to maintain homeostasis of the airway. Heat and moisture exchangers conserve some of the exhaled water, heat and return them to inspired gases. Many heat and moisture exchangers also perfom bacterial/viral filtration and prevent inhalation of small particles. Heat and moisture exchangers are also called condenser humidifier, artificial nose, etc. Most of them are disposable devices with exchanging medium enclosed in a plastic housing. For adult and paediatric age group different dead space types are available. Heat and moisture exchangers are helpful during anaesthesia and ventilatory breathing system. To reduce the damage of the upper respiratory tract through cooling and dehydration inspiratory air can be heated and humidified, thus preventing the serious complications.

  19. Water management in a planar air-breathing fuel cell array using operando neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coz, E.; Théry, J.; Boillat, P.; Faucheux, V.; Alincant, D.; Capron, P.; Gébel, G.

    2016-11-01

    Operando Neutron imaging is used for the investigation of a planar air-breathing array comprising multiple cells in series. The fuel cell demonstrates a stable power density level of 150 mW/cm2. Water distribution and quantification is carried out at different operating points. Drying at high current density is observed and correlated to self-heating and natural convection. Working in dead-end mode, water accumulation at lower current density is largely observed on the anode side. However, flooding mechanisms are found to begin with water condensation on the cathode side, leading to back-diffusion and anodic flooding. Specific in-plane and through-plane water distribution is observed and linked to the planar array design.

  20. Impact of microphysics on the growth of one-dimensional breath figures

    CERN Document Server

    Stricker, L

    2015-01-01

    Droplet patterns condensing on solid substrates (breath figures) tend to evolve into a self-similar regime, characterized by a bimodal droplet size distribution. The distributions comprise a bell-shaped peak of monodisperse large droplets, and a broad range of smaller droplets. The size distribution of the latter follows a scaling law characterized by a non-trivial polydispersity exponent. We present here a numerical model for three-dimensional droplets on a one-dimensional substrate (fiber) that accounts for droplet nucleation, growth and merging. The polydispersity exponent retrieved using this model is not universal. Rather it depends on the thickness of the fiber and on details of the droplet interaction leading to merging. In addition, its values consistently differ from the theoretical prediction by Blackman (Phys. Rev. Lett., 2000). Possible causes of this discrepancy are pointed out.

  1. Appropriate sample bags and syringes for preserving breath samples in breath odor research : a technical note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, E. G.; Tangerman, A.

    2008-01-01

    It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. The VSCs hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are the major causes of bad breath in oral malodour where

  2. Advances in condensed matter optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Liangyao; Jiang, Xunya; Jin, Kuijuan; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    This book describes some of the more recent progresses and developmentsin the study of condensed matter optics in both theoretic and experimental fields.It will help readers, especially graduate students and scientists who are studying and working in the nano-photonic field, to understand more deeply the characteristics of light waves propagated in nano-structure-based materials with potential applications in the future.

  3. Atomistic modeling of dropwise condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikarwar, B. S.; Singh, P. L.; Muralidhar, K.; Khandekar, S.

    2016-05-01

    The basic aim of the atomistic modeling of condensation of water is to determine the size of the stable cluster and connect phenomena occurring at atomic scale to the macroscale. In this paper, a population balance model is described in terms of the rate equations to obtain the number density distribution of the resulting clusters. The residence time is taken to be large enough so that sufficient time is available for all the adatoms existing in vapor-phase to loose their latent heat and get condensed. The simulation assumes clusters of a given size to be formed from clusters of smaller sizes, but not by the disintegration of the larger clusters. The largest stable cluster size in the number density distribution is taken to be representative of the minimum drop radius formed in a dropwise condensation process. A numerical confirmation of this result against predictions based on a thermodynamic model has been obtained. Results show that the number density distribution is sensitive to the surface diffusion coefficient and the rate of vapor flux impinging on the substrate. The minimum drop radius increases with the diffusion coefficient and the impinging vapor flux; however, the dependence is weak. The minimum drop radius predicted from thermodynamic considerations matches the prediction of the cluster model, though the former does not take into account the effect of the surface properties on the nucleation phenomena. For a chemically passive surface, the diffusion coefficient and the residence time are dependent on the surface texture via the coefficient of friction. Thus, physical texturing provides a means of changing, within limits, the minimum drop radius. The study reveals that surface texturing at the scale of the minimum drop radius does not provide controllability of the macro-scale dropwise condensation at large timescales when a dynamic steady-state is reached.

  4. Radiative corrections to Bose condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A. (Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, La Habana. Inst. de Matematica, Cibernetica y Computacion)

    1985-04-01

    The Bose condensation of the scalar field in a theory behaving in the Coleman-Weinberg mode is considered. The effective potential of the model is computed within the semiclassical approximation in a dimensional regularization scheme. Radiative corrections are shown to introduce certain ..mu..-dependent ultraviolet divergences in the effective potential coming from the Many-Particle theory. The weight of radiative corrections in the dynamics of the system is strongly modified by the charge density.

  5. Air pollution source apportionment before, during, and after the 2008 Beijing Olympics and association of sources to aldehydes and biomarkers of blood coagulation, pulmonary and systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress in healthy young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent A.

    Based on principal component analysis (PCA) of air pollution data collected during the Summer Olympic Games held in Beijing, China during 2008, the five source types of air pollution identified -- natural soil/road dust, vehicle and industrial combustion, vegetative burning, oil combustion, and secondary formation, were all distinctly lower during the Olympics. This was particularly true for vehicle and industrial combustion and oil combustion, and during the main games period between the opening and closing ceremonies. The reduction in secondary formation was reflective of a reduction in nitrogen oxides, but this also contributed to increased ozone concentrations during the Olympic period. Among three toxic aldehydes measured in Beijing during the same time period, only acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Accordingly, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion, and with several pollutants emitted mainly from primary sources. In contrast, formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the Olympic air pollution control period; accordingly both were significantly correlated with ozone and with the secondary formation source type. These findings indicate primary sources may dominate for acetaldehyde while secondary sources may dominate for formaldehyde and acrolein. Biomarkers for pulmonary inflammation (exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, exhaled nitric oxide, and EBC nitrite) and hemostasis and blood coagulation (vWF and sCD62p) were most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion, oil combustion, and vegetative burning. The systemic inflammation biomarker 8-OHdG was most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion. In contrast, the associations between the biomarkers and the aldehydes were generally not significant or in the hypothesized direction, although

  6. Theory of laminar film condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Tetsu

    1991-01-01

    Since the petroleum crisis in the 1970s, a lot of effort to save energy was made in industry, and remarkable achievements have been made. In the research and development concerning thermal energy, however, it was clar­ ified that one of the most important problems was manufacturing con­ densing systems with smaller size and higher performance. To solve this problem we need a method which synthesizes selections_ of the type of con­ denser, cooling tube and its arrangement, assessment of fouling on the cooling surfaces, consideration of transient characteristics of a condenser, etc. The majority of effort, however, has been to devise a surface element which enhances the heat transfer coefficient in condensation of a single or multicomponent vapor. Condensation phenomena are complexly affected by a lot of physical property values, and accordingly the results of theo­ retical research are expressed with several dimensionless parameters. On the other hand, the experimental research is limited to those with som...

  7. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-11-01

    Controlling dropwise condensation by designing surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and be shed as quickly as possible is fundamental to water harvesting systems, thermal power generation, distillation towers, etc. However, cutting-edge approaches based on micro/nanoscale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants that synergistically couples both aspects of condensation and outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle's bump geometry in promoting condensation, we show how to maximize vapor diffusion flux at the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing curvature and shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope analogous to cactus spines couples rapid drop growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free energy profile that drives the drop down the slope. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher plant-inspired coating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion. We further observe an unprecedented six-fold higher exponent in growth rate and much faster shedding time compared to other surfaces. We envision that our fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be applied to a wide range of phase change applications.

  8. Quality factors to consider in condensate selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lywood, B. [Crude Quality Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Many factors must be considered when assessing the feasibility of using condensates as a diluent for bitumen or heavy crude production blending. In addition to commercial issues, the effect of condensate quality is a key consideration. In general, condensate quality refers to density and viscosity. However, valuation decisions could be enhanced through the expansion of quality definitions and understanding. This presentation focused on the parameters that are important in choosing a diluent grade product. It also reviewed pipeline and industry specifications and provided additional information regarding general properties for bitumen and condensate compatibility; sampling and quality testing needs; and existing sources of information regarding condensate quality. tabs., figs.

  9. Condensate from a two-stage gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jens Dall; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Hindsgaul, Claus

    2000-01-01

    that the organic compounds and the inhibition effect are very low even before treatment with activated carbon. The moderate inhibition effect relates to a high content of ammonia in the condensate. The nitrifiers become tolerant to the condensate after a few weeks of exposure. The level of organic compounds......Condensate, produced when gas from downdraft biomass gasifier is cooled, contains organic compounds that inhibit nitrifiers. Treatment with activated carbon removes most of the organics and makes the condensate far less inhibitory. The condensate from an optimised two-stage gasifier is so clean...

  10. Early diagnosis of complex diseases by molecular biomarkers, network biomarkers, and dynamical network biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Xiangdong; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Chen, Luonan

    2014-05-01

    Many studies have been carried out for early diagnosis of complex diseases by finding accurate and robust biomarkers specific to respective diseases. In particular, recent rapid advance of high-throughput technologies provides unprecedented rich information to characterize various disease genotypes and phenotypes in a global and also dynamical manner, which significantly accelerates the study of biomarkers from both theoretical and clinical perspectives. Traditionally, molecular biomarkers that distinguish disease samples from normal samples are widely adopted in clinical practices due to their ease of data measurement. However, many of them suffer from low coverage and high false-positive rates or high false-negative rates, which seriously limit their further clinical applications. To overcome those difficulties, network biomarkers (or module biomarkers) attract much attention and also achieve better performance because a network (or subnetwork) is considered to be a more robust form to characterize diseases than individual molecules. But, both molecular biomarkers and network biomarkers mainly distinguish disease samples from normal samples, and they generally cannot ensure to identify predisease samples due to their static nature, thereby lacking ability to early diagnosis. Based on nonlinear dynamical theory and complex network theory, a new concept of dynamical network biomarkers (DNBs, or a dynamical network of biomarkers) has been developed, which is different from traditional static approaches, and the DNB is able to distinguish a predisease state from normal and disease states by even a small number of samples, and therefore has great potential to achieve "real" early diagnosis of complex diseases. In this paper, we comprehensively review the recent advances and developments on molecular biomarkers, network biomarkers, and DNBs in particular, focusing on the biomarkers for early diagnosis of complex diseases considering a small number of samples and high

  11. Patient-specific simulation of tidal breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, M.; Wells, A. K.; Jones, I. P.; Hamill, I. S.; Veeckmans, B.; Vos, W.; Lefevre, C.; Fetitia, C.

    2016-03-01

    Patient-specific simulation of air flows in lungs is now straightforward using segmented airways trees from CT scans as the basis for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. These models generally use static geometries, which do not account for the motion of the lungs and its influence on important clinical indicators, such as airway resistance. This paper is concerned with the simulation of tidal breathing, including the dynamic motion of the lungs, and the required analysis workflow. Geometries are based on CT scans obtained at the extremes of the breathing cycle, Total Lung Capacity (TLC) and Functional Residual Capacity (FRC). It describes how topologically consistent geometries are obtained at TLC and FRC, using a `skeleton' of the network of airway branches. From this a 3D computational mesh which morphs between TLC and FRC is generated. CFD results for a number of patient-specific cases, healthy and asthmatic, are presented. Finally their potential use in evaluation of the progress of the disease is discussed, focusing on an important clinical indicator, the airway resistance.

  12. Screening Sleep Disordered Breathing in Stroke Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Väyrynen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In acute stroke, OSA has been found to impair rehabilitation and increase mortality but the effect of central apnea is more unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using limited ambulatory recording system (sleep mattress to evaluate nocturnal breathing and EOG-electrodes for sleep staging in sleep disordered breathing (SDB diagnostics in mild acute cerebral ischemia patients and to discover the prevalence of various SDB-patterns among these patients. 42 patients with mild ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were studied. OSA was found in 22 patients (52.4%. Central apnea was found in two patients (4.8% and sustained partial obstruction in only one patient (2.4%. Sleep staging with EOG-electrodes only yielded a similar outcome as scoring with standard rules. OSA was found to be common even after mild stroke. Its early diagnosis and treatment would be favourable in order to improve recovery and reduce mortality. Our results suggest that OSA can be assessed by a limited recording setting with EOG-electrodes, sleep mattress, and pulse oximetry.

  13. Epiglottic movements during breathing in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amis, T C; O'Neill, N; Di Somma, E; Wheatley, J R

    1998-01-01

    Using X-ray fluoroscopy we measured antero-posterior (A–P) and cranio-caudal (C–C) displacements of the epiglottic tip (ET), corniculate cartilage and hyoid bone in seven seated, normal human subjects (age 34 ± 3 years; mean ±s.e.m.; 4 males, 3 females) breathing via a nasal mask or mouthpiece with (RL) and without (UB) a fixed resistive load.During UB, via either mouth or nose, there were no significant A-P ET movements. During RL via the nose the ET at peak expiratory flow was 2.6 ± 1.3 mm cranial to its position at peak inspiratory flow (P <0.05, ANOVA). C–C movements of the ET correlated strongly with C-C movements of the corniculate cartilage and hyoid bone.The ET, corniculate cartilage and hyoid bone (at zero airflow) were situated more caudally during oral UB than for any other condition.When present, epiglottic movements during breathing do not appear to be independent of those of the larynx and hyoid. Furthermore, epiglottic position may be related to the level of upper airway resistance. PMID:9729637

  14. Biomarker Identification Using Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database.

  15. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Verma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.

  16. Definition, discrimination, diagnosis and treatment of central breathing disturbances during sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerath, Winfried; Verbraecken, Johan; Andreas, Stefan; Arzt, Michael; Bloch, Konrad E; Brack, Thomas; Buyse, Bertien; De Backer, Wilfried; Eckert, Danny Joel; Grote, Ludger; Hagmeyer, Lars; Hedner, Jan; Jennum, Poul; La Rovere, Maria Teresa; Miltz, Carla; McNicholas, Walter T; Montserrat, Josep; Naughton, Matthew; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Pevernagie, Dirk; Sanner, Bernd; Testelmans, Dries; Tonia, Thomy; Vrijsen, Bart; Wijkstra, Peter; Levy, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of central breathing disturbances during sleep has become increasingly obvious. They present as central sleep apnoeas (CSAs) and hypopnoeas, periodic breathing with apnoeas, or irregular breathing in patients with cardiovascular, other internal or neurological disorders, and can emerg

  17. Definition, discrimination, diagnosis and treatment of central breathing disturbances during sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randerath, Winfried; Verbraecken, Johan; Andreas, Stefan;

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of central breathing disturbances during sleep has become increasingly obvious. They present as central sleep apnoeas (CSAs) and hypopnoeas, periodic breathing with apnoeas, or irregular breathing in patients with cardiovascular, other internal or neurological disorders, and can em...

  18. Chiral Biomarkers in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    The chirality of organic molecules with the asymmetric location of group radicals was discovered in 1848 by Louis Pasteur during his investigations of the rotation of the plane of polarization of light by crystals of sodium ammonium paratartrate. It is well established that the amino acids in proteins are exclusively Levorotary (L-aminos) and the sugars in DNA and RNA are Dextrorotary (D-sugars). This phenomenon of homochirality of biological polymers is a fundamental property of all life known on Earth. Furthermore, abiotic production mechanisms typically yield recemic mixtures (i.e. equal amounts of the two enantiomers). When amino acids were first detected in carbonaceous meteorites, it was concluded that they were racemates. This conclusion was taken as evidence that they were extraterrestrial and produced by abiologically. Subsequent studies by numerous researchers have revealed that many of the amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites exhibit a significant L-excess. The observed chirality is much greater than that produced by any currently known abiotic processes (e.g. Linearly polarized light from neutron stars; Circularly polarized ultraviolet light from faint stars; optically active quartz powders; inclusion polymerization in clay minerals; Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis of parity violations, etc.). This paper compares the measured chirality detected in the amino acids of carbonaceous meteorites with the effect of these diverse abiotic processes. IT is concluded that the levels observed are inconsistent with post-arrival biological contamination or with any of the currently known abiotic production mechanisms. However, they are consistent with ancient biological processes on the meteorite parent body. This paper will consider these chiral biomarkers in view of the detection of possible microfossils found in the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous meteorites. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data obtained on these morphological biomarkers will be

  19. [Prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felcar, Josiane Marques; Bueno, Izabele Rafael; Massan, Ana Carolina Silva; Torezan, Roberta Pereira; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this article is to identify the prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school. 496 questionnaires were answered by 1st and 4th grade children's parents or sponsors in order to identify mouth-breathing. There were questions about habits, sleeping, behavior, eating, personal care and breathing. Mann-Whitney and the Chi-square tests were used to compare the variables between mouth-breathing and nose-breathing among the groups. To measure the exposure effect of the explanatory variables on mouth breathing, the test of logistic regression was used and its magnitude was calculated through Odds Ratio. The statistical significance was set at 5%, and the rate of returned questionnaires was 84.5%. The prevalence of the mouthbreathing over this population was 56.8%. The average age was 7 years old (6-9). There was no significant statistical difference between genders, considering 49.1% male and 50.9% female. The final model of logistic regression identified the variables dribble, sleeps well (negative association) and snores as factors that predict the occurrence of the mouth-breathing. The prevalence of mouthbreathing was similar to related in the literature. The variables dribble, sleeps well (negative association) and snores may be factors that predict the occurrence of mouth-breathing.

  20. Health, social and economical consequences of sleep-disordered breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described.......The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described....

  1. Symptoms of sleep disordered breathing and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Sofie; Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula;

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered hormonal levels, all of which could affect the risk of cancer. The aim of the study is to examine if symptoms of SDB including snoring, breathing cessations, and daytime sleepiness affect...

  2. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Type A and Type B supplied-air respirators shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type which extend from the... employed on Type C supplied-air respirators of the continuous flow class shall meet the...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air...

  4. Measurement of Personal Exposure Using a Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    In this paper personal exposure measurements are performed by means of the Breathing Thermal Manikin. Contaminant concentration is measured in a number of locations in the breathing zone and in the inhaled air. Two cases are investigated: exposure to different contaminant sources in a displacement...

  5. Breathing simulator of workers for respirator performance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Hisashi; Kumita, Mikio; Honda, Takeshi; Kimura, Kazushi; Nozaki, Kosuke; Emi, Hitoshi; Otani, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Breathing machines are widely used to evaluate respirator performance but they are capable of generating only limited air flow patterns, such as, sine, triangular and square waves. In order to evaluate the respirator performance in practical use, it is desirable to test the respirator using the actual breathing patterns of wearers. However, it has been a difficult task for a breathing machine to generate such complicated flow patterns, since the human respiratory volume changes depending on the human activities and workload. In this study, we have developed an electromechanical breathing simulator and a respiration sampling device to record and reproduce worker's respiration. It is capable of generating various flow patterns by inputting breathing pattern signals recorded by a computer, as well as the fixed air flow patterns. The device is equipped with a self-control program to compensate the difference in inhalation and exhalation volume and the measurement errors on the breathing flow rate. The system was successfully applied to record the breathing patterns of workers engaging in welding and reproduced the breathing patterns.

  6. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.203 Section 84.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance...

  7. Breath hydrogen analysis in patients with ileoanal pouch anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, E; Meyer, J N; Rumessen, J J;

    1995-01-01

    The possible influence on functional outcomes of hydrogen production in the ileoanal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy was investigated by means of lactulose H2 breath tests. Eight of 15 patients had significant increases in breath hydrogen after 10 g lactulose. One patient declined to part...

  8. Towards Improved Biomarker Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldahl, Karin

    This thesis takes a look at the data analytical challenges associated with the search for biomarkers in large-scale biological data such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics data. These studies aim to identify genes, proteins or metabolites which can be associated with e.g. a diet, dis...... is used both for regression and classification purposes. This method has proven its strong worth in the multivariate data analysis throughout an enormous range of applications; a very classic data type is near infrared (NIR) data, but many similar data types have also be very successful...

  9. Condensation on slippery asymmetric bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Grinthal, Alison; He, Neil; Fox, David; Weaver, James C.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Controlling dropwise condensation is fundamental to water-harvesting systems, desalination, thermal power generation, air conditioning, distillation towers, and numerous other applications. For any of these, it is essential to design surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and to be shed as quickly as possible. However, approaches based on microscale, nanoscale or molecular-scale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach—based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants—that synergistically combines these aspects of condensation and substantially outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle’s bumpy surface geometry in promoting condensation, and using theoretical modelling, we show how to maximize vapour diffusion fluxat the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing the radius of curvature and cross-sectional shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope, analogous to cactus spines, directly couples facilitated droplet growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free-energy profile that drives the droplet down the slope before its growth rate can decrease. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher-plant-inspired nanocoating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion on the way down. Bumps that are rationally designed to integrate these mechanisms are able to grow and transport large droplets even against gravity and overcome the effect of an unfavourable temperature gradient. We further observe an unprecedented sixfold-higher exponent of growth rate, faster onset, higher steady-state turnover rate, and a greater volume of water collected compared to other surfaces. We envision that this fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be

  10. Quantum tunnelling in condensed media

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yu

    1992-01-01

    The essays in this book deal with of the problem of quantum tunnelling and related behavior of a microscopic or macroscopic system, which interacts strongly with an ""environment"" - this being some form of condensed matter. The ""system"" in question need not be physically distinct from its environment, but could, for example, be one particular degree of freedom on which attention is focussed, as in the case of the Josephson junction studied in several of the papers. This general problem has been studied in many hundreds, if not thousands, of articles in the literature, in contexts as diverse

  11. Velocity condensation for magnetotactic bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Rupprecht, Jean-Francois; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2015-01-01

    Magnetotactic swimmers tend to align along magnetic field lines against stochastic reorientations. We show that the swimming strategy, e.g. active Brownian motion versus run-and-tumble dynamics, strongly affects the orientation statistics. The latter can exhibit a velocity condensation whereby the alignment probability density diverges. As a consequence, we find that the swimming strategy affects the nature of the phase transition to collective motion, indicating that L\\'evy run-and-tumble walks can outperform active Brownian processes as strategies to trigger collective behavior.

  12. Dropwise Condensation on Hydrophobic Cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Hoang, Michelle; McManus, Brendan; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we studied the effect of the diameter of horizontal hydrophobic cylinders on droplet growth. We postulate that the concentration gradient created by natural convection around a horizontal circular cylinder is related to the droplet growth on the cylinder by condensation. We derive a simple scaling law of droplet growth and compare it with experimental results. The predicted negative exponent of drop diameter (d) as a function of cylinder diameter (D) at different time points is similar to the general trend of experimental data. Further, this effect of cylinder diameter on droplet growth is observed to be stronger than the supersaturation conditions created by different surface temperatures.

  13. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  14. The Influence of Age on Interaction between Breath-Holding Test and Single-Breath Carbon Dioxide Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembach, Nikita; Zabolotskikh, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the breath-holding test and single-breath carbon dioxide test in evaluation of the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects of different age. Methods. The study involved 47 healthy volunteers between ages of 25 and 85 years. All participants were divided into 4 groups according to age: 25 to 44 years (n = 14), 45 to 60 years (n = 13), 60 to 75 years (n = 12), and older than 75 years (n = 8). Breath-holding test was performed in the morning before breakfast. The single-breath carbon dioxide (SB-CO2) test was performed the following day. Results. No correlation was found between age and duration of breath-holding (r = 0.13) and between age and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to CO2 (r = 0.07). In all age groups there were no significant differences in the mean values from the breath-holding test and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity tests. In all groups there was a strong significant inverse correlation between breath-holding test and SB-CO2 test. Conclusion. A breath-holding test reflects the sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreflex to carbon dioxide in healthy elderly humans. Increasing age alone does not alter the peripheral ventilatory response to hypercapnia.

  15. Arrays of Hollow Silica Half-Nanospheres Via the Breath Figure Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Yangqin

    2015-04-21

    Breath figures (BFs) are patterns of liquid droplets that usually form upon condensation on a cold surface. Earlier work has shown that BFs can be used to produce continuous films of porous honeycomb-structured patterns on various types of materials, paving the path to a number of important applications such as the manufacturing of highly ordered nano- and micron-sized templates, micro lenses, and superhydrophobic coatings. It is worth noting, however, that few new findings have been reported in this area in recent years, limiting pursuits of novel architectures and key applications. In this report, an alternative method is described by which arrays of hollow silica half-nanospheres can be produced via BF templates. In the present method, a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) protocol performed while the BF is formed on a glass substrate yields a nanostructured pattern of silica half-spheres, which size (100-700 nm) and density across the glass surface vary with substrate modification and with the relative rates of water condensation and hydrolysis from silica precursors (a process carried out at room temperature). This method of forming arrays of hollow half-nanospheres via the BF approach may be applicable to various other oxides and a broad range of substrates including large-area flexible plastics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Sleep-disordered breathing and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Latisha K; Avidan, Alon Y

    2008-01-01

    Sleep and stroke have an important and fascinating interaction. Patients with sleep-disordered breathing present with cardiovascular heart disease, cognitive decline, and increased risk of stroke. Stroke adversely affects sleep and factors such as prolonged immobilization, chronic pain, nocturnal hypoxia, and depression, which can also adversely impact sleep quality. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), one of the most common and serious sleep disturbances, manifests itself in almost 50% of all stroke patients. Sleep apnea patients who experience a stroke may be at a greater impairment in their rehabilitation potential and have increased risk of secondary stroke and mortality. Given these factors, the practicing neurologist should possess the skills to appropriately recognize, rapidly diagnose, and properly manage stroke patients with OSA.

  17. Which biomarkers reveal neonatal sepsis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wang

    Full Text Available We address the identification of optimal biomarkers for the rapid diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. We employ both canonical correlation analysis (CCA and sparse support vector machine (SSVM classifiers to select the best subset of biomarkers from a large hematological data set collected from infants with suspected sepsis from Yale-New Haven Hospital's Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU. CCA is used to select sets of biomarkers of increasing size that are most highly correlated with infection. The effectiveness of these biomarkers is then validated by constructing a sparse support vector machine diagnostic classifier. We find that the following set of five biomarkers capture the essential diagnostic information (in order of importance: Bands, Platelets, neutrophil CD64, White Blood Cells, and Segs. Further, the diagnostic performance of the optimal set of biomarkers is significantly higher than that of isolated individual biomarkers. These results suggest an enhanced sepsis scoring system for neonatal sepsis that includes these five biomarkers. We demonstrate the robustness of our analysis by comparing CCA with the Forward Selection method and SSVM with LASSO Logistic Regression.

  18. Respiratory pattern of diaphragmatic breathing and pilates breathing in COPD subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina M. Cancelliero-Gaiad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic breathing (DB is widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation (PR of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, however it has been little studied in the scientific literature. The Pilates breathing (PB method has also been used in the rehabilitation area and has been little studied in the scientific literature and in COPD. OBJECTIVES: To compare ventilatory parameters during DB and PB in COPD patients and healthy adults. METHOD: Fifteen COPD patients (COPD group and fifteen healthy patients (healthy group performed three types of respiration: natural breathing (NB, DB, and PB, with the respiratory pattern being analyzed by respiratory inductive plethysmography. The parameters of time, volume, and thoracoabdominal coordination were evaluated. After the Shapiro-Wilk normality test, ANOVA was applied followed by Tukey's test (intragroup analysis and Student's t-test (intergroup analysis; p<0.05. RESULTS: DB promoted increase in respiratory volumes, times, and SpO2 as well as decrease in respiratory rate in both groups. PB increased respiratory volumes in healthy group, with no additional benefits of respiratory pattern in the COPD group. With respect to thoracoabdominal coordination, both groups presented higher asynchrony during DB, with a greater increase in the healthy group. CONCLUSIONS: DB showed positive effects such as increase in lung volumes, respiratory motion, and SpO2 and reduction in respiratory rate. Although there were no changes in volume and time measurements during PB in COPD, this breathing pattern increased volumes in the healthy subjects and increased oxygenation in both groups. In this context, the acute benefits of DB are emphasized as a supporting treatment in respiratory rehabilitation programs.

  19. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Denotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral breathing is a respiratory dysfunction that affects approximately 10-15% of child population. It is responsable of local effects and systemic effects, both immediate and long-term. They affect the growth of the subject and his physical health in many ways: pediatric, psycho-behavioral and cognitive. The etiology is multifactorial. It’s important the establishment of a vicious circle involving more areas and it is essential to stop it as soon as possible. In order to correct this anomaly, the pediatric dentist must be able to make a correct diagnosis to treat early the disfunction and to avoid the onset of cascade mechanisms. Who plays a central role is the pediatrician who first and frequently come into contact with little patients. He can identify the anomalies, and therefore collaborate with other specialists, including the dentist. The key aspect that guides us in the diagnosis, and allows us to identify the oral respirator, is the “adenoid facies”. The purpose of the study is to highlight the importance and benefits of an early and multidisciplinary intervention (pediatric, orthopedic-orthodontic-functional. A sample of 20 patients was selected with the following inclusion criteria: mouth breathing, transverse discrepancy > 4 mm, early mixed dentition, central and lateral permenent incisors, overjet increased, lip and nasal incompetence, snoring and/or sleep apnea episodes. The protocol of intervention includes the use of the following devices and procedures: a maxillary rapid expander (to correct the transverse discrepancy, to increase the amplitude of the upper respiratory airway and to reduce nasal resistances tract in association with myo-functional devices (nasal stimulator and oral obturator. They allow the reconstruction of a physiological balance between the perioral musculature and tongue, the acquisition of nasal and lips competence and the reduction of overjet. This protocol speeds up and stabilizes the results. The

  20. The physics of exciton-polariton condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Lagoudakis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    In 2006 researchers created the first polariton Bose-Einstein condensate at 19K in the solid state. Being inherently open quantum systems, polariton condensates open a window into the unpredictable world of physics beyond the “fifth state of matter”: the limited lifetime of polaritons renders polariton condensates out-of-equilibrium and provides a fertile test-bed for non-equilibrium physics. This book presents an experimental investigation into exciting features arising from this non-equilibrium behavior. Through careful experimentation, the author demonstrates the ability of polaritons to synchronize and create a single energy delocalized condensate. Under certain disorder and excitation conditions the complete opposite case of coexisting spatially overlapping condensates may be observed. The author provides the first demonstration of quantized vortices in polariton condensates and the first observation of fractional vortices with full phase and amplitude characterization. Finally, this book investigate...

  1. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C.; Jones, Samuel T.; Pollard, Anthony

    2017-04-04

    The present invention relates to a method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also disclosed are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  2. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  3. Epigenetic biomarkers in liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaudha, Krishna K; Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma or HCC) is a major cancer worldwide. Research in this field is needed to identify biomarkers that can be used for early detection of the disease as well as new approaches to its treatment. Epigenetic biomarkers provide an opportunity to understand liver cancer etiology and evaluate novel epigenetic inhibitors for treatment. Traditionally, liver cirrhosis, proteomic biomarkers, and the presence of hepatitis viruses have been used for the detection and diagnosis of liver cancer. Promising results from microRNA (miRNA) profiling and hypermethylation of selected genes have raised hopes of identifying new biomarkers. Some of these epigenetic biomarkers may be useful in risk assessment and for screening populations to identify who is likely to develop cancer. Challenges and opportunities in the field are discussed in this chapter.

  4. Biomarkers in inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Tue; Birkelund, Svend; Stensballe, Allan

    2014-01-01

    with medications with the concomitant risk of adverse events. In addition, identification of disease and course specific biomarker profiles can be used to identify biological pathways involved in the disease development and treatment. Knowledge of disease mechanisms in general can lead to improved future...... development of preventive and treatment strategies. Thus, the clinical use of a panel of biomarkers represents a diagnostic and prognostic tool of potentially great value. The technological development in recent years within proteomic research (determination and quantification of the complete protein content......) has made the discovery of novel biomarkers feasible. Several IBD-associated protein biomarkers are known, but none have been successfully implemented in daily use to distinguish CD and UC patients. The intestinal tissue remains an obvious place to search for novel biomarkers, which blood, urine...

  5. Muonic Chemistry in Condensed Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    When polarized muons (@m|+) stop in condensed matter, muonic atoms are formed in the final part of their range, and direct measurements of the @m|+-spin polarization are possible via the asymmetric decay into positrons. The hyperfine interaction determines the characteristic precession frequencies of the @m|+ spin in muonium, @w(Mu). Such frequencies can be altered by the interactions of the muonium's electron spin with the surrounding medium. The measurement of @w(Mu) in a condensed system is known often to provide unique information regarding the system. \\\\ \\\\ In particular, the use of muonium atoms as a light isotope of the simple reactive radical H|0 allows the investigation of fast reactions of radicals over a typical time scale 10|-|9~@$<$~t~@$<$~10|-|5~sec, which is determined by the instrumental resolution at one end and by the @m|+ lifetime at the other. \\\\ \\\\ In biological macromolecules transient radicals, such as the constituents of DNA itself, exist on a time scale of sub-microseconds, acco...

  6. Condensation induced water hammer safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gintner, M.A.

    1997-03-10

    Condensation induced water hammer events in piping systems can cause catastrophic steam system failures which can result in equipment damage, personal injury, and even death. As an industry, we have learned to become accustomed to the ''banging'' that we often hear in our steam piping systems, and complacent in our actions to prevent it. It is unfortunate that lives are lost needlessly, as this type of water hammer event is preventable if one only applies some basic principles when operating and maintaining their steam systems. At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site where I work, there was one such accident that occurred in 1993 which took the life of a former co-worker and friend of mine. Hanford was established as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. it is a 560 square mile complex located along the banks of the Columbia River in Southeastern Washington State. For almost 45 years, hanford's mission was to produce weapons grade plutonium for our nations defense programs. Today, Hanford no longer produces plutonium, but is focused on site clean-up and economic diversification. Hanford still uses steam for heating and processing activities, utilizing over 20 miles of piping distribution systems similar to those found in industry. Although these aging systems are still sound, they cannot stand up to the extreme pressure pulses developed by a condensation induced water hammer.

  7. DNA condensation in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardatscher, Günther; Bracha, Dan; Daube, Shirley S.; Vonshak, Ohad; Simmel, Friedrich C.; Bar-Ziv, Roy H.

    2016-12-01

    DNA can be programmed to assemble into a variety of shapes and patterns on the nanoscale and can act as a template for hybrid nanostructures such as conducting wires, protein arrays and field-effect transistors. Current DNA nanostructures are typically in the sub-micrometre range, limited by the sequence space and length of the assembled strands. Here we show that on a patterned biochip, DNA chains collapse into one-dimensional (1D) fibres that are 20 nm wide and around 70 µm long, each comprising approximately 35 co-aligned chains at its cross-section. Electron beam writing on a photocleavable monolayer was used to immobilize and pattern the DNA molecules, which condense into 1D bundles in the presence of spermidine. DNA condensation can propagate and split at junctions, cross gaps and create domain walls between counterpropagating fronts. This system is inherently adept at solving probabilistic problems and was used to find the possible paths through a maze and to evaluate stochastic switching circuits. This technique could be used to propagate biological or ionic signals in combination with sequence-specific DNA nanotechnology or for gene expression in cell-free DNA compartments.

  8. Breath formate is a marker of airway S-nitrosothiol depletion in severe asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roby Greenwald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Children with severe asthma have poor symptom control and elevated markers of airway oxidative and nitrosative stress. Paradoxically, they have decreased airway levels of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs, a class of endogenous airway smooth muscle relaxants. This deficiency results from increased activity of an enzyme that both reduces SNOs to ammonia and oxidizes formaldehyde to formic acid, a volatile carboxylic acid that is more easily detected in exhaled breath condensate (EBC than SNOs. We therefore hypothesize that depletion of airway SNOs is related to asthma pathology, and breath formate concentration may be a proxy measure of SNO catabolism. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected EBC samples from children and adolescents, including 38 with severe asthma, 46 with mild-to-moderate asthma and 16 healthy adolescent controls, and the concentration of ionic constituents was quantified using ion chromatography. The concentrations of EBC components with volatile conjugates were log-normally distributed. Formate was the principal ion that displayed a significant difference between asthma status classifications. The mean EBC formate concentration was 40% higher in samples collected from all asthmatics than from healthy controls (mean = 5.7 microM, mean+/-standard deviation = 3.1-10.3 microM vs. 4.0, 2.8-5.8 microM, p = 0.05. EBC formate was higher in severe asthmatics than in mild-to-moderate asthmatics (6.8, 3.7-12.3 microM vs. 4.9, 2.8-8.7 microM, p = 0.012. In addition, formate concentration was negatively correlated with methacholine PC(20 (r = -0.39, p = 0.002, asthmatics only, and positively correlated with the NO-derived ion nitrite (r = 0.46, p<0.0001 as well as with total serum IgE (r = 0.28, p = 0.016, asthmatics only. Furthermore, formate was not significantly correlated with other volatile organic acids nor with inhaled corticosteroid dose. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that EBC formate concentration is significantly higher in the breath of

  9. Lorentz violation and Condensed Matter Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ajaib, Muhammad Adeel

    2014-01-01

    We present heuristic arguments that hint to a possible connection of Lorentz violation with observed phenomenon in condensed matter physics. Various references from condensed matter literature are cited where operators in the Standard Model Extension (SME) appear to be enhanced. Based on this we propose that, in the non-relativistic limit, Lorentz violation in the context of the SME exhibits itself in various condensed matter systems.

  10. Van der Waals Interactions and Exciton Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, P. H.; Kittel, C.

    1971-01-01

    It is shown that the van der Waals interaction can lead at low temperatures to a condensed state of excitons with properties in qualitative agreement with the observations of exciton droplets. Our calculation gives a binding energy of the correct sign and magnitude for the exciton condensate. In a diclectric medium, the strong enhancement of the exciton polarizability leads to a giant van der Waals interaction, and this interaction appears to make possible a condensed exciton phase. PMID:16591958

  11. Ultra-low threshold polariton condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Steger, Mark; Alberi, Kirstin; Mascarenhas, Angelo; Snoke, David W; Pfeiffer, Loren N; West, Ken

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate condensation of microcavity polaritons with a very sharp threshold occuring at two orders of magnitude lower pump intensity than previous demonstrations of condensation. The long cavity-lifetime and trapping and pumping geometries are crucial to the realization of this low threshold. Polariton condensation, or "polariton lasing" has long been proposed as a promising source of coherent light at lower threshold than traditional lasing, and these results suggest methods to bring this threshold even lower.

  12. Structure of Nonlocal Vacuum Condensate of Quarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽娟; 马维兴

    2003-01-01

    The Dyson-Schwinger formalism is used to derive a fully dressed quark propagator. By use of the derived form of the quark propagator, the structure of non-local quark vacuum condensate is studied, and the values of local quark vacuum condensate as well as quark gluon mixed condensate are calculated. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the empirical one used commonly in the literature.

  13. Enhanced condensation heat transfer with wettability patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha Mahapatra, Pallab; Ghosh, Aritra; Ganguly, Ranjan; Megaridis, Constantine

    2015-11-01

    Condensation of water vapor on metal surfaces is useful for many engineering applications. A facile and scalable method is proposed for removing condensate from a vertical plate during dropwise condensation (DWC) in the presence of non-condensable gases (NCG). We use wettability-patterned superhydrophilic tracks (filmwise condensing domains) on a mirror-finish (hydrophilic) aluminum surface that promotes DWC. Tapered, horizontal ``collection'' tracks are laid to create a Laplace pressure driven flow, which collects condensate from the mirror-finish domains and sends it to vertical ``drainage tracks'' for gravity-induced shedding. An optimal design is achieved by changing the fractional area of superhydrophilic tracks with respect to the overall plate surface, and augmenting capillary-driven condensate-drainage by adjusting the track spatial layout. The design facilitates pump-less condensate drainage and enhances DWC heat transfer on the mirror-finish regions. The study highlights the relative influences of the promoting and retarding effects of dropwise and filmwise condensation zones on the overall heat transfer improvement on the substrate. The study demonstrated ~ 34% heat transfer improvement on Aluminum surface for the optimized design.

  14. Advances in modelling of condensation phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.S.; Zaltsgendler, E. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada); Hanna, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The physical parameters in the modelling of condensation phenomena in the CANDU reactor system codes are discussed. The experimental programs used for thermal-hydraulic code validation in the Canadian nuclear industry are briefly described. The modelling of vapour generation and in particular condensation plays a key role in modelling of postulated reactor transients. The condensation models adopted in the current state-of-the-art two-fluid CANDU reactor thermal-hydraulic system codes (CATHENA and TUF) are described. As examples of the modelling challenges faced, the simulation of a cold water injection experiment by CATHENA and the simulation of a condensation induced water hammer experiment by TUF are described.

  15. Biomarker measurements in a coastal fish-eating population environmentally exposed to organochlorines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Lambert, George H; Perkins, Sherry L; Poon, Raymond; Feeley, Mark; Larochelle, Christian; Pereg, Daria

    2005-10-01

    The Lower North Shore region of the St. Lawrence River is home to a fish-eating population that displays an unusually high body burden of several organochlorines, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). We measured biomarkers indicative of liver enzyme induction and investigated the relationship with organochlorine body burden in adult volunteers from this population. We determined plasma concentrations of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) with electron capture detection. DLC concentrations were measured by the dioxin-receptor chemically activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) assay and in a subset of participants, by HRGC/high-resolution mass spectrometry. We measured cotinine, d-glucaric acid, and porphyrins in morning urine samples and determined liver CYP1A2 activity in vivo using the caffeine breath test. Neither DLC concentrations as measured by the DR-CALUX nor PCB-153 concentrations, the latter representing total PCB exposure, were correlated with biomarkers of effects. Smoking (morning urinary cotinine concentration) was positively related to CYP1A2 activity as measured by the caffeine breath test (p biomarkers of hepatic enzyme induction. Our data are consistent with smoking-induced liver CYP1A2 activity altering heme metabolism and increasing the biotransformation of mono-ortho PCB congeners.

  16. Breathing abnormalities in a female mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M; Cui, Ningren; Zhong, Weiwei; Oginsky, Max F; Jiang, Chun

    2015-09-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a female neurodevelopmental disease with breathing abnormalities. To understand whether breathing defects occur in the early lives of a group of female Mecp2(+/-) mice, a mouse model of RTT, and what percentage of mice shows RTT-like breathing abnormality, breathing activity was measured by plethysmography in conscious mice. Breathing frequency variation and central apnea in a group of Mecp2(+/-) females displayed a distribution pattern similar to Mecp2(-/Y) males, while the rest resembled the wild-type mice. Similar results were obtained using the k-mean clustering statistics analysis. With two independent methods, about 20% of female Mecp2(+/-) mice showed RTT-like breathing abnormalities that began as early as 3 weeks of age in the Mecp2(+/-) mice, and were suppressed with 3% CO2. The finding that only a small proportion of Mecp2(+/-) mice develops RTT-like breathing abnormalities suggests incomplete allele inactivation in the RTT-model Mecp2(+/-) mice.

  17. Biomarkers for lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangar, Richard C.; Varnum, Susan M.

    2014-09-02

    A biomarker, method, test kit, and diagnostic system for detecting the presence of lymphoma in a person are disclosed. The lymphoma may be Hodgkin's lymphoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The person may be a high-risk subject. In one embodiment, a plasma sample from a person is obtained. The level of at least one protein listed in Table S3 in the plasma sample is measured. The level of at least one protein in the plasma sample is compared with the level in a normal or healthy subject. The lymphoma is diagnosed based upon the level of the at least one protein in the plasma sample in comparison to the normal or healthy level.

  18. Molecular biomarkers of neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Kina; Salter, Hugh

    2013-11-01

    Neuronal dysfunction and degeneration are central events of a number of major diseases with significant unmet need. Neuronal dysfunction may not necessarily be the result of cell death, but may also be due to synaptic damage leading to impaired neuronal cell signaling or long-term potentiation. Once degeneration occurs, it is unclear whether axonal or synaptic loss comes first or whether this precedes neuronal cell death. In this review we summarize the pathophysiology of four major neurodegenerative diseases; Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease) For each of these diseases, we describe how biochemical biomarkers are currently understood in relation to the pathophysiology and in terms of neuronal biology, and we discuss the clinical and diagnostic utility of these potential tools, which are at present limited. We discuss how markers may be used to drive drug development and clinical practice.

  19. Inflammatory biomarkers for AMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Chloe M; Wright, Alan F

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, affecting an estimated 50 million individuals aged over 65 years.Environmental and genetic risk-factors implicate chronic inflammation in the etiology of AMD, contributing to the formation of drusen, retinal pigment epithelial cell dysfunction and photoreceptor cell death. Consistent with a role for chronic inflammation in AMD pathogenesis, several inflammatory mediators, including complement components, chemokines and cytokines, are elevated at both the local and systemic levels in AMD patients. These mediators have diverse roles in the alternative complement pathway, including recruitment of inflammatory cells, activation of the inflammasome, promotion of neovascularisation and in the resolution of inflammation. The utility of inflammatory biomarkers in assessing individual risk and progression of the disease is controversial. However, understanding the role of these inflammatory mediators in AMD onset, progression and response to treatment may increase our knowledge of disease pathogenesis and provide novel therapeutic options in the future.

  20. Voluntary control of breathing does not alter vagal modulation of heart rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, A. R.; Evans, J. M.; Bruce, E. N.; Eckberg, D. L.; Knapp, C. F.

    1995-01-01

    Variations in respiratory pattern influence the heart rate spectrum. It has been suggested, hence, that metronomic respiration should be used to correctly assess vagal modulation of heart rate by using spectral analysis. On the other hand, breathing to a metronome has been reported to increase heart rate spectral power in the high- or respiratory frequency region; this finding has led to the suggestion that metronomic respiration enhances vagal tone or alters vagal modulation of heart rate. To investigate whether metronomic breathing complicates the interpretation of heart rate spectra by altering vagal modulation, we recorded the electrocardiogram and respiration from eight volunteers during three breathing trials of 10 min each: 1) spontaneous breathing (mean rate of 14.4 breaths/min); 2) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 15, 18, and 21 breaths/min for 2, 6, and 2 min, respectively; and 3) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 18 breaths/min for 10 min. Data were also collected from eight volunteers who breathed spontaneously for 20 min and breathed metronomically at each subject's mean spontaneous breathing frequency for 20 min. Results from the three 10-min breathing trials showed that heart rate power in the respiratory frequency region was smaller during metronomic breathing than during spontaneous breathing. This decrease could be explained fully by the higher breathing frequencies used during trials 2 and 3 of metronomic breathing. When the subjects breathed metronomically at each subject's mean breathing frequency, the heart rate powers during metronomic breathing were similar to those during spontaneous breathing. Our results suggest that vagal modulation of heart rate is not altered and vagal tone is not enhanced during metronomic breathing.

  1. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    This review considers in detail the background, principles, techniques, limitations and advantages of the hydrogen and methane breath tests. Resistant food carbohydrates, defined as dietary carbohydrates partly or totally escaping small intestinal assimilation, are fermented in the human colon...... carbohydrates. Methane breath tests may supplement the information gained from hydrogen measurements, but further evaluations are needed. The hydrogen breath technique is rapid, simple and non-invasive as well as non-radioactive. It may be carried out in a large number of intact individuals under physiological...

  2. Lactose malabsorption during gastroenteritis, assessed by the hydrogen breath test.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, A J; Tarlow, M J; Sutherland, I T; Sammons, H G

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-eight infants and young children with gastroenteritis were investigated for lactose malabsorption. Each of them was given an oral lactose load of either 0.5 g/kg or 2 g/kg after which breath hydrogen excretion was measured, and each was observed to see if he had clinical symptoms of lactose intolerance. Only one patient, given 2 g/kg lactose, had clinical intolerance. His breath hydrogen excretion however was negative. Three of 18 patients given 0.5 g/kg lactose had positive breath hyd...

  3. [Novel biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Shin-ichi

    2014-02-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. An early clinical sign of this complication is an increase of urinary albumin excretion, called microalbuminuria, which is not only a predictor of the progression of nephropathy, but also an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although microalbuminuria is clinically important to assess the prognosis of diabetic patients, it may be insufficient as an early and specific biomarker of diabetic nephropathy because of a large day-to-day variation and lack of a good correlation of microalbuminuria with renal dysfunction and pathohistological changes. Thus, more sensitive and specific biomarkers are needed to improve the diagnostic capability of identifying patients at high risk. The factors involved in renal tubulo-interstitial damage, the production and degradation of extracellular matrix, microinflammation, etc., are investigated as candidate molecules. Despite numerous efforts so far, the assessment of these biomarkers is still a subject of ongoing investigations. Recently, a variety of omics and quantitative techniques in systems biology are rapidly emerging in the field of biomarker discovery, including proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics, and they have been applied to search for novel putative biomarkers of diabetic nephropathy. Novel biomarkers or their combination with microalbuminuria provide a better diagnostic accuracy than microalbuminuria alone, and may be useful for establishing personal medicine. Furthermore, the identification of novel biomarkers may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying diabetic nephropathy.

  4. Droplet pattern and condensation gradient around a humidity sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J; Narhe, R D; Beysens, D A; González-Viñas, W

    2014-01-01

    We describe the evolution of a water drop saturated with NaCl and the growth of pure water droplets in a breath figure pattern (BF) condensing around it. This salty drop acts as a humidity sink, inhibiting the BF inside a ring at a distance r=δ from the sink center and slowing down BF growth outside the ring. The initial salty drop is taken either from a salt-saturated solution (type I experiment) or by placing an NaCl crystal on the substrate (type II experiment). The results are similar, provided that the initial time for type II evolution is taken at the end of the crystal dissolution. The evolution of the salty drop radius R is deduced from the establishment of a three-dimensional hyperbolic concentration profile around the salty drop. This profile scales with r/δ. Accounting for the salt concentration decrease with salty drop growth, R is seen to grow as t5. In the region r>δ, water droplets nucleate and grow. The rate of evolution of the water droplets at constant r/δ can be used to determine the local water pressure. The corresponding data reasonably agree with a hyperbolic water vapor profile around the salty drop. These results can be applied to the growth of BF patterns to determine whether hyperbolic or linear water vapor profiles apply.

  5. The mean condensate heat resistance of dropwise condensation with flowing inert gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geld, van der C.W.M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    1995-01-01

    The quantification of the condensate heat resistance is studied for dropwise condensation from flowing air-steam mixtures. Flows are essentially laminar and stable with gas Reynolds numbers around 900 and 2000. The condensate shaping up as hemispheres on a plastic plane wall and the presence of iner

  6. Analytic solutions and their dynamics of atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein condensates with time- and space-modulated nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huilan; Yao, Yuqin

    2017-01-01

    The time- and space-modulated nonlinearity is the important character of the Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). Many works have been done on atomic BECs with spatially modulated nonlinearity, but there is little work on atomic-molecular BECs. In this paper, we construct one family of explicitly exact solutions of the atomic-molecular BECs with time- and space-modulated nonlinearities and trapping potential by similarity transformations. We discuss the dynamics of matter waves including breathing solitons, quasi-breathing solitons, resonant solitons and moving solitons. We analyze the linear stability of the solutions by adding various initial stochastic noise. We also provide the experimental parameters to produce these phenomena in future experiments.

  7. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; He, Neil; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Bumps are omnipresent from human skin to the geological structures on planets, which offer distinct advantages in numerous phenomena including structural color, drag reduction, and extreme wettability. Although the topographical parameters of bumps such as radius of curvature of convex regions significantly influence various phenomena including anti-reflective structures and contact time of impacting droplets, the effect of the detailed bump topography on growth and transport of condensates have not been clearly understood. Inspired by the millimetric bumps of the Namib Desert beetle, here we report the identified role of radius of curvature and width of bumps with homogeneous surface wettability in growth rate, coalescence and transport of water droplets. Further rational design of asymmetric convex topography and synergetic combination with slippery coating simultaneously enable self-transport, leading to unseen five-fold higher growth rate and an order of magnitude faster shedding time of droplets compared...

  8. Whole-heart magnetic resonance coronary angiography with multiple breath-holds and automatic breathing-level tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhara, Shigehide; Ninomiya, Ayako; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanao, Shotaro; Kamae, Toshikazu; Togashi, Kaori

    2010-05-01

    Whole-heart (WH) magnetic resonance coronary angiography (MRCA) studies are usually performed during free breathing while monitoring the position of the diaphragm with real-time motion correction. However, this results in a long scan time and the patient's breathing pattern may change, causing the study to be aborted. Alternatively, WH MRCA can be performed with multiple breath-holds (mBH). However, one problem in the mBH method is that patients cannot hold their breath at the same position every time, leading to image degradation. We have developed a new WH MRCA imaging method that employs both the mBH method and automatic breathing-level tracking to permit automatic tracking of the changes in breathing or breath-hold levels. Evaluation of its effects on WH MRCA image quality showed that this method can provide high-quality images within a shorter scan time. This proposed method is expected to be very useful in clinical WH MRCA studies.

  9. Statistical physics and condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document is divided into 4 sections: 1) General aspects of statistical physics. The themes include: possible geometrical structures of thermodynamics, the thermodynamical foundation of quantum measurement, transport phenomena (kinetic theory, hydrodynamics and turbulence) and out of equilibrium systems (stochastic dynamics and turbulence). The techniques involved here are typical of applied analysis: stability criteria, mode decomposition, shocks and stochastic equations. 2) Disordered, glassy and granular systems: statics and dynamics. The complexity of the systems can be studied through the structure of their phase space. The geometry of this phase space is studied in several works: the overlap distribution can now be computed with a very high precision; the boundary energy between low lying states does not behave like in ordinary systems; and the Edward's hypothesis of equi-probability of low lying metastable states is invalidated. The phenomenon of aging, characteristic of glassy dynamics, is studied in several models. Dynamics of biological systems or of fracture is shown to bear some resemblance with that of disordered systems. 3) Quantum systems. The themes include: mesoscopic superconductors, supersymmetric approach to strongly correlated electrons, quantum criticality and heavy fermion compounds, optical sum rule violation in the cuprates, heat capacity of lattice spin models from high-temperature series expansion, Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem in dimension larger than one, quantum Hall effect, Bose-Einstein condensation and multiple-spin exchange model on the triangular lattice. 4) Soft condensed matter and biological systems. Path integral representations are invaluable to describe polymers, proteins and self-avoiding membranes. Using these methods, problems as diverse as the titration of a weak poly-acid by a strong base, the denaturation transition of DNA or bridge-hopping in conducting polymers have been addressed. The problems of RNA folding

  10. Condensed Matter Theories - Volume 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, Heidi; Röpke, Gerd; de Llano, Manuel

    2007-09-01

    pt. A. Fermi liquids. Pressure comparison between the spherical cellular model and the Thomas-Fermi model / G.A. Baker, Jr. Pair excitations and vertex corrections in Fermi fluids and the dynamic structure function of two-dimension 3He / H.M. Böhm, H. Godfrin, E. Krotscheck, H.J. Lauter, M. Meschke and M. Panholzer. Condensation of helium in wedges / E.S. Hernádez ... [et al.]. Non-Fermi liquid behavior from the Fermi-liquid approach / V.A. Khodel ... [et al.]. Theory of third sound and stability of thin 3He-4He superfluid films / E. Krotscheck and M.D. Miller. Pairing in asymmetrical Fermi systems / K.F. Quader and R. Liao. Ground-state properties of small 3He drops from quantum Monte Carlo simulations / E. Sola, J. Casulleras and J. Boronat. Ground-state energy and compressibility of a disordered two-dimensional electron gas / Tanatar ... [et al.]. Quasiexcitons in photoluminescence of incompressible quantum liquids / A. Wójs, A.G ladysiewicz and J.J. Quinn -- pt. B. Bose liquids. Quantum Boltzmann liquids / K.A. Gernoth, M L. Ristig and T. Lindenau. Condensate fraction in the dynamic structure function of Bose fluids / M. Saarela, F. Mazzanti and V. Apaja -- pt. C. Strongly-correlated electronic systems. Electron gas in high-field nanoscopic transport: metallic carbon nanotubes / F. Green and D. Neilson. Evolution and destruction of the Kondo effect in a capacitively coupled double dot system / D.E. Logan and M.R. Galpin. The method of increments-a wavefunction-based Ab-Initio correlation method for solids / B. Paulus. Fractionally charged excitations on frustrated lattices / E. Runge, F. Pollmann and P. Fulde. 5f Electrons in actinides: dual nature and photoemission spectra / G. Zwicknagl -- pt. D. Magnetism. Magnetism in disordered two-dimensional Kondo-Necklace / W. Brenig. On the de Haas-can Alphen oscillation in 2D / S. Fujita and D.L. Morabito. Dynamics in one-dimensional spin systems-density matrix reformalization group study / S. Nishimoto and M

  11. Assessment of the controllability of condensible emissions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shareef, G.S.; Waddell, J.T.

    1990-10-01

    The report gives results of a study to gain insights into the condensible emissions area from an air toxics perspective, with emphasis on controllability and chemical composition of these emissions. The study: compiled existing data on condensible emissions; determined the chemical composition of condensible emissions, where possible; identified source categories that are major emitters of condensibles; evaluated the effectiveness of various control devices in reducing condensible emissions; and evaluated how the performance of currently available control technologies can be improved to better control condensible emissions. Two data bases were developed: the Condensibles Data Base contains 43 emission source categories; the Specialized Condensibles Data Base focuses on the chemical composition of condensible emissions.

  12. Cardiorespiratory biomarker responses in healthy young adults to drastic air quality changes surrounding the 2008 Beijing Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Zhu, Tong; Kipen, Howard; Wang, Guangfa; Huang, Wei; Rich, David; Zhu, Ping; Wang, Yuedan; Lu, Shou-En; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Diehl, Scott; Hu, Min; Tong, Jian; Gong, Jicheng; Thomas, Duncan

    2013-02-01

    Associations between air pollution and cardiorespiratory mortality and morbidity have been well established, but data to support biologic mechanisms underlying these associations are limited. We designed this study to examine several prominently hypothesized mechanisms by assessing Beijing residents' biologic responses, at the biomarker level, to drastic changes in air quality brought about by unprecedented air pollution control measures implemented during the 2008 Beijing Olympics. To test the hypothesis that changes in air pollution levels are associated with changes in biomarker levels reflecting inflammation, hemostasis, oxidative stress, and autonomic tone, we recruited and retained 125 nonsmoking adults (19 to 33 years old) free of cardiorespiratory and other chronic diseases. Using the combination of a quasi-experimental design and a panel-study approach, we measured biomarkers of autonomic dysfunction (heart rate [HR*] and heart rate variability [HRV]), of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress (plasma C-reactive protein [CRP], fibrinogen, blood cell counts and differentials, and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]), of pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress (fractional exhaled nitric oxide [FeNO], exhaled breath condensate [EBC] pH, EBC nitrate, EBC nitrite, EBC nitrite+nitrate [sum of the concentrations of nitrite and nitrate], and EBC 8-isoprostane), of hemostasis (platelet activation [plasma sCD62P and sCD40L], platelet aggregation, and von Willebrand factor [vWF]), and of blood pressure (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and diastolic blood pressure [DBP]). These biomarkers were measured on each subject twice before, twice during, and twice after the Beijing Olympics. For each subject, repeated measurements were separated by at least one week to avoid potential residual effects from a prior measurement. We measured a large suite of air pollutants (PM2.5 [particulate matter Olympics periods). We used mixed-effects models to assess changes

  13. Development of Parkinson's disease biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Kumar M; Tan, Eng-King

    2010-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, affecting over 6 million people worldwide. It is anticipated that the number of affected individuals may increase significantly in the most populous nations by 2030. During the past 20 years, much progress has been made in identifying and assessing various potential clinical, biochemical, imaging and genetic biomarkers for PD. Despite the wealth of information, development of a validated biomarker for PD is still ongoing. It is hoped that reliable and well-validated biomarkers will provide critical clues to assist in the diagnosis and management of Parkinson's disease patients in the near future.

  14. Heat and moisture exchangers and breathing system filters: their use in anaesthesia and intensive care. Part 1 - history, principles and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, A R

    2011-01-01

    Heat and moisture exchangers and breathing system filters are intended to replace the normal warming, humidifying and filtering functions of the upper airways when these structures are bypassed during anaesthesia and intensive care. Guidance on their use continues to evolve. The aim of this part of the review is to describe the principles of their action and efficiency and to summarise the findings from clinical and laboratory studies. Based on previous studies, an appropriate minimum target for moisture output is 30 and 20 g.m⁻³ for long-duration use in intensive care and short-duration use in anaesthesia, respectively. The practice of reusing a breathing system in anaesthesia, provided it is protected by a filter, assumes that the filter is effective. However, there is wide variation in the gas-borne filtration performance, and contaminated condensate can potentially pass through some filters under typical pressures encountered during mechanical ventilation.

  15. Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willmann, L

    1999-01-01

    The recent creation of a Bose-Einstein condensate of atomic hydrogen has added a new system to this exciting field, The differences between hydrogen and the alkali metal atoms require other techniques for the initial trapping and cooling of the atoms and the subsequent detection of the condensate. T

  16. Phase contrast imaging of Bose condensed clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, R; Rozendaal, R.A.; Koller, S.B.; Vogels, J.M.; van der Straten, P.

    2010-01-01

    Phase contrast imaging is used to observe Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) at finite temperature in situ. The imaging technique is used to accurately derive the absolute phase shift of a probe laser beam due to both the condensate and the thermal cloud. The accuracy of the method is enhanced by usin

  17. ASSESSMENT OF THE CONTROLLABILITY OF CONDENSIBLE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study to gain insights into the condensible emissions area from an air toxics perspective, with emphasis on controllability and chemical composition of these emissions. he study compiled existing data on condensible emissions; determined the chemical...

  18. Soliton resonance in bose-einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail; Kulikov, I.

    2002-01-01

    A new phenomenon in nonlinear dispersive systems, including a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), has been described. It is based upon a resonance between an externally induced soliton and 'eigen-solitons' of the homogeneous cubic Schrodinger equation. There have been shown that a moving source of positive /negative potential induces bright /dark solitons in an attractive / repulsive Bose condensate.

  19. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J.; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2016-02-02

    An appliance that includes a cabinet having an exterior surface; a refrigeration compartment located within the cabinet; and a hydrophilic structure disposed on the exterior surface. The hydrophilic structure is configured to spread condensation. The appliance further includes a wicking structure located in proximity to the hydrophilic structure, and the wicking structure is configured to receive the condensation.

  20. Syllable-Related Breathing in Infants in the Second Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Douglas F.; Buder, Eugene H.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Boliek, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether breathing behaviors of infants within the 2nd year of life differ between tidal breathing and breathing supporting single unarticulated syllables and canonical/articulated syllables. Method: Vocalizations and breathing kinematics of 9 infants between 53 and 90 weeks of age were recorded. A strict selection…