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Sample records for breath biomarkers obtained

  1. Comparative analysis of selected exhaled breath biomarkers obtained with two different temperature-controlled devices

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    Brüning Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC is a suitable and non-invasive method for evaluation of airway inflammation. Several studies indicate that the composition of the condensate and the recovery of biomarkers are affected by physical characteristics of the condensing device and collecting circumstances. Additionally, there is an apparent influence of the condensing temperature, and often the level of detection of the assay is a limiting factor. The ECoScreen2 device is a new, partly single-use disposable system designed for studying different lung compartments. Methods EBC samples were collected from 16 healthy non-smokers by using the two commercially available devices ECoScreen2 and ECoScreen at a controlled temperature of -20°C. EBC volume, pH, NOx, LTB4, PGE2, 8-isoprostane and cys-LTs were determined. Results EBC collected with ECoScreen2 was less acidic compared to ECoScreen. ECoScreen2 was superior concerning condensate volume and detection of biomarkers, as more samples were above the detection limit (LTB4 and PGE2 or showed higher concentrations (8-isoprostane. However, NOx was detected only in EBC sampled by ECoScreen. Conclusion ECoScreen2 in combination with mediator specific enzyme immunoassays may be suitable for measurement of different biomarkers. Using this equipment, patterns of markers can be assessed that are likely to reflect the complex pathophysiological processes in inflammatory respiratory disease.

  2. Breath biomarkers in toxicology.

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    Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-11-01

    Exhaled breath has joined blood and urine as a valuable resource for sampling and analyzing biomarkers in human media for assessing exposure, uptake metabolism, and elimination of toxic chemicals. This article focuses current use of exhaled gas, aerosols, and vapor in human breath, the methods for collection, and ultimately the use of the resulting data. Some advantages of breath are the noninvasive and self-administered nature of collection, the essentially inexhaustible supply, and that breath sampling does not produce potentially infectious waste such as needles, wipes, bandages, and glassware. In contrast to blood and urine, breath samples can be collected on demand in rapid succession and so allow toxicokinetic observations of uptake and elimination in any time frame. Furthermore, new technologies now allow capturing condensed breath vapor directly, or just the aerosol fraction alone, to gain access to inorganic species, lung pH, proteins and protein fragments, cellular DNA, and whole microorganisms from the pulmonary microbiome. Future applications are discussed, especially the use of isotopically labeled probes, non-targeted (discovery) analysis, cellular level toxicity testing, and ultimately assessing "crowd breath" of groups of people and the relation to dose of airborne and other environmental chemicals at the population level.

  3. VOC breath biomarkers in lung cancer.

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    Saalberg, Yannick; Wolff, Marcus

    2016-08-01

    This review provides an overview of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which are considered lung cancer biomarkers for diagnostic breath analysis. It includes results of scientific publications from 1985 to 2015. The identified VOCs are listed and ranked according to their occurrence of nomination. The applied detection and sampling methods are specified but not evaluated. Possible reasons for the different results of the studies are stated. Among the most frequently emerging biomarkers are 2-butanone and 1-propanol as well as isoprene, ethylbenzene, styrene and hexanal. The outcome of this review may be helpful for the development of a lung cancer screening device. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes? A historical review on breath acetone measurements.

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    Wang, Zhennan; Wang, Chuji

    2013-09-01

    Since the ancient discovery of the 'sweet odor' in human breath gas, pursuits of the breath analysis-based disease diagnostics have never stopped. Actually, the 'smell' of the breath, as one of three key disease diagnostic techniques, has been used in Eastern-Medicine for more than three thousand years. With advancement of measuring technologies in sensitivity and selectivity, more specific breath gas species have been identified and established as a biomarker of a particular disease. Acetone is one of the breath gases and its concentration in exhaled breath can now be determined with high accuracy using various techniques and methods. With the worldwide prevalence of diabetes that is typically diagnosed through blood testing, human desire to achieve non-blood based diabetic diagnostics and monitoring has never been quenched. Questions, such as is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes and how is the breath acetone related to the blood glucose (BG) level (the golden criterion currently used in clinic for diabetes diagnostic, monitoring, and management), remain to be answered. A majority of current research efforts in breath acetone measurements and its technology developments focus on addressing the first question. The effort to tackle the second question has begun recently. The earliest breath acetone measurement in clearly defined diabetic patients was reported more than 60 years ago. For more than a half-century, as reviewed in this paper, there have been more than 41 independent studies of breath acetone using various techniques and methods, and more than 3211 human subjects, including 1581 healthy people, 242 Type 1 diabetic patients, 384 Type 2 diabetic patients, 174 unspecified diabetic patients, and 830 non-diabetic patients or healthy subjects who are under various physiological conditions, have been used in the studies. The results of the breath acetone measurements collected in this review support that many conditions might cause changes to breath

  5. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

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    Peeyush Sahay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS, integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS, cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS. Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  6. Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits.

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    Wang, Chuji; Sahay, Peeyush

    2009-01-01

    Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC) disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS), integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS), cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS), cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS), photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS). Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  7. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS BREATH BIOMARKERS FOR ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SMOKING

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    Real-time breath measurement technology was used to investigate the suitability of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to serve as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking and to measure actual exposures and resulting breath concentrations for persons exposed to toba...

  8. Exhaled breath condensate biomarkers for the early diagnosis of lung cancer using proteomics.

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    López-Sánchez, Laura M; Jurado-Gámez, Bernabé; Feu-Collado, Nuria; Valverde, Araceli; Cañas, Amanda; Fernández-Rueda, José L; Aranda, Enrique; Rodríguez-Ariza, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    We explored whether the proteomic analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) may provide biomarkers for noninvasive screening for the early detection of lung cancer (LC). EBC was collected from 192 individuals [49 control (C), 49 risk factor-smoking (S), 46 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 48 LC]. With the use of liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, 348 different proteins with a different pattern among the four groups were identified in EBC samples. Significantly more proteins were identified in the EBC from LC compared with other groups (C: 12.4 ± 1.3; S: 15.3 ± 1; COPD: 14 ± 1.6; LC: 24.2 ± 3.6; P = 0.0001). Furthermore, the average number of proteins identified per sample was significantly higher in LC patients, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.8, indicating diagnostic value. Proteins frequently detected in EBC, such as dermcidin and hornerin, along with others much less frequently detected, such as hemoglobin and histones, were identified. Cytokeratins (KRTs) were the most abundant proteins in EBC samples, and levels of KRT6A, KRT6B, and KRT6C isoforms were significantly higher in samples from LC patients (P = 0.0031, 0.0011, and 0.0009, respectively). Moreover, the amount of most KRTs in EBC samples from LC patients showed a significant positive correlation with tumor size. Finally, we used a random forest algorithm to generate a robust model using EBC protein data for the diagnosis of patients with LC where the area under the ROC curve obtained indicated a good classification (82%). Thus this study demonstrates that the proteomic analysis of EBC samples is an appropriated approach to develop biomarkers for the diagnosis of lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Exhaled breath and oral cavity VOCs as potential biomarkers in oral cancer patients.

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    Bouza, M; Gonzalez-Soto, J; Pereiro, R; de Vicente, J C; Sanz-Medel, A

    2017-03-01

    Corporal mechanisms attributed to cancer, such as oxidative stress or the action of cytochrome P450 enzymes, seem to be responsible for the generation of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that could be used as non-invasive diagnosis biomarkers. The present work presents an attempt to use VOCs from exhaled breath and oral cavity air as biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. A total of 52 breath samples were collected (in 3 L Tedlar bags) from 26 OSCC patients and 26 cancer-free controls. The samples were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. Different statistical strategies (e.g., Icoshift, SIMCA, LDA, etc) were used to classify the analytical data. Results revealed that compounds such as undecane, dodecane, decanal, benzaldehyde, 3,7-dimethyl undecane, 4,5-dimethyl nonane, 1-octene, and hexadecane had relevance as possible biomarkers for OSCC. LDA classification with these compounds showed well-defined clusters for patients and controls (non-smokers and smokers). In addition to breath analysis, preliminary studies were carried out to evaluate the possibility of lesion-surrounded air (analyzed OSCC tumors are in the oral cavity) as a source of biomarkers. The oral cavity location of the squamous cell carcinoma tumors constitutes an opportunity to non-invasively collect the air surrounding the lesion. Small quantities (20 ml) of air collected in the oral cavity were analyzed using the above methodology. Results showed that aldehydes present in the oral cavity might constitute potential OSCC biomarkers.

  10. Breathing Raman modes in Ag{sub 2}S nanoparticles obtained from F9 zeolite matrix

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    Delgado-Beleño, Y. [Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-88, 83190 Hermosillo, Son. (Mexico); Cortez-Valadez, M., E-mail: jose.cortez@unison.mx [CONACYT Research Fellow, Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-88, 83190 Hermosillo, Son. (Mexico); Martinez-Nuñez, C.E.; Britto Hurtado, R.; Alvarez, Ramón A.B.; Rocha-Rocha, O.; Arizpe-Chávez, H.; Perez-Rodríguez, A.; Flores-Acosta, M. [Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-88, 83190 Hermosillo, Son. (Mexico)

    2015-12-16

    Highlights: • Raman breathing modes in small silver sulfide nanoparticles. • Low energy (AgS){sub n} clusters. • Vibrational spectra predicted by DFT. • Zeolite synthesis for small nanoparticles. - Abstract: Ag{sub 2}S nanoparticles were synthesized with a combination of synthetic F9, silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) and monohydrated sodium sulfide (Na{sub 2}S{sub 9}H{sub 2}O). An ionic exchange was achieved via hydrothermal reaction. Nanoparticles with a predominant size ranging from 2 to 3 nm were obtained through Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The nanoparticles feature a phase P21/n (14) monoclinic structure. A Raman band can be observed at around 250 cm{sup −1} in the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the vibrational properties and stability parameters of the clusters (AgS){sub n}, (with n = 2–9) were studied by the Density Functional Theory (DFT). The approximation levels used with DFT were: Local Spin Density Approximation (LSDA) and Becke’s three-parameter and the gradient corrected functional of Lee, Yang and Puar (B3LYP) in combination with the basis set LANL2DZ (the effective core potentials and associated double-zeta valence). The Radial Breathing Mode (RBM) for B3LYP was found between 227 and 295 cm{sup −1} as well as in longer wavelengths for LSDA.

  11. Advances in electronic-nose technologies for the detection of volatile biomarker metabolites in the human breath

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    Alphus D. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Recent advancements in the use of electronic-nose (e-nose) devices to analyze human breath profiles for the presence of specific volatile metabolites, known as biomarkers or chemical bio-indicators of specific human diseases, metabolic disorders and the overall health status of individuals, are providing the potential for new noninvasive tools and techniques useful to...

  12. Arterial Pressure Variation as a Biomarker of Preload Dependency in Spontaneously Breathing Subjects - A Proof of Principle.

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    Bronzwaer, Anne-Sophie G T; Ouweneel, Dagmar M; Stok, Wim J; Westerhof, Berend E; van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2015-01-01

    Pulse (PPV) and systolic pressure variation (SPV) quantify variations in arterial pressure related to heart-lung interactions and have been introduced as biomarkers of preload dependency to guide fluid treatment in mechanically ventilated patients. However, respiratory intra-thoracic pressure changes during spontaneous breathing are considered too small to affect preload and stroke volume sufficiently for the detection by PPV and/or SPV. This study addressed the effects of paced breathing and/or an external respiratory resistance on PPV and SPV in detecting preload dependency in spontaneously breathing subjects. In 10 healthy subjects, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were evaluated during progressive central hypovolemia (head-up tilt). Breathing conditions were varied by manipulating breathing frequency and respiratory resistance. Subjects responding with a reduction in stroke volume index ≥15% were classified as having developed preload dependency. The ability for PPV and SPV to predict preload dependency was expressed by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). A breathing frequency at 6/min increased the PPV (16±5% vs. 10±3%, pvariations in non-ventilated subjects.

  13. Volatile Biomarkers in Breath Associated With Liver Cirrhosis — Comparisons of Pre- and Post-liver Transplant Breath Samples

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    R. Fernández del Río

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Limonene, methanol and 2-pentanone are breath markers for a cirrhotic liver. This study raises the potential to investigate these volatiles as markers for early-stage liver disease. By monitoring the wash-out of limonene following transplant, graft liver function can be non-invasively assessed.

  14. Arterial Pressure Variation as a Biomarker of Preload Dependency in Spontaneously Breathing Subjects - A Proof of Principle.

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    Anne-Sophie G T Bronzwaer

    Full Text Available Pulse (PPV and systolic pressure variation (SPV quantify variations in arterial pressure related to heart-lung interactions and have been introduced as biomarkers of preload dependency to guide fluid treatment in mechanically ventilated patients. However, respiratory intra-thoracic pressure changes during spontaneous breathing are considered too small to affect preload and stroke volume sufficiently for the detection by PPV and/or SPV. This study addressed the effects of paced breathing and/or an external respiratory resistance on PPV and SPV in detecting preload dependency in spontaneously breathing subjects.In 10 healthy subjects, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were evaluated during progressive central hypovolemia (head-up tilt. Breathing conditions were varied by manipulating breathing frequency and respiratory resistance. Subjects responding with a reduction in stroke volume index ≥15% were classified as having developed preload dependency. The ability for PPV and SPV to predict preload dependency was expressed by the area under the ROC curve (AUC.A breathing frequency at 6/min increased the PPV (16±5% vs. 10±3%, p<0.001 and SPV (9±3% vs. 5±2%, p<0.001 which was further enhanced by an expiratory resistance (PPV: 19±3%, p = 0.025 and SPV: 10±2%, p = 0.047. These respiratory modifications, compared to free breathing, enhanced the predictive value of PPV with higher accuracy (AUC: 0.92 vs. 0.46.Under conditions of progressive central hypovolemia, the application of an external respiratory resistance at a breathing frequency of 6/min enhanced PPV and SPV and is worth further study for detection of preload dependency from arterial pressure variations in non-ventilated subjects.

  15. Biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate indicate presence and severity of cystic fibrosis in children.

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    Robroeks, Charlotte M H H T; Rosias, Philippe P R; van Vliet, Dillys; Jöbsis, Quirijn; Yntema, Jan-Bart L; Brackel, Hein J L; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C; den Hartog, Gertjan M; Wodzig, Will K W H; Dompeling, Edward

    2008-11-01

    Chronic airway inflammation is present in cystic fibrosis (CF). Non-invasive inflammometry may be useful in disease management. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate: (i) the ability of fractional exhaled nitric oxide and inflammatory markers (IM) [exhaled breath condensate (EBC) acidity, nitrite, nitrate, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), 8-isoprostane, Th1/Th2 cytokines] to indicate (exacerbations of) CF; and (ii) the ability of these non-invasive IM to indicate CF disease severity. In 98 children (48 CF/50 controls), exhaled nitric oxide was measured using the NIOX, and condensate was collected using a glass condenser. In CF interferon (IFN-gamma) and nitrite concentrations were significantly higher, whereas exhaled nitric oxide levels were significantly lower compared with controls (3.3 +/- 0.3 pg/ml, 2.2 +/- 0.2 microM, 10.0 +/- 1.2 p.p.b. vs. 2.6 +/- 0.2 pg/ml, 1.4 +/- 0.1 microM, 15.4 +/- 1.4 p.p.b. respectively). Using multivariate logistic regression models, the presence of CF was best indicated by 8-isoprostane, nitrite and IFN-gamma [sensitivity 78%, specificity 83%; area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) 0.906, p < 0.001]. An exacerbation of CF was best indicated by 8-isoprostane and nitrite (sensitivity 40%, specificity 97%, AUC curve 0.838, p = 0.009). Most indicative biomarkers of CF severity were exhaled nitric oxide, and condensate acidity (sensitivity 96%, specificity 67%; AUC curve 0.751, p = 0.008). In this cross-sectional study, the combination of different exhaled IM could indicate (exacerbations of) CF, and severity of the disease in children. Longitudinal data are necessary to further confirm the role of these markers for the management of CF in children.

  16. Obtaining Human Ischemic Stroke Gene Expression Biomarkers from Animal Models: A Cross-species Validation Study.

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    Wang, Yingying; Cai, Yunpeng

    2016-07-13

    Recent studies have revealed the systematic altering of gene expression in human peripheral blood during the early stages of ischemic stroke, which suggests a new potential approach for the rapid diagnosis or prediction of stroke onset. Nevertheless, due to the difficulties of collecting human samples during proper disease stages, related studies are rather restricted. Many studies have instead been performed on manipulated animal models for investigating the regulation patterns of biomarkers during different stroke stages. An important inquiry is how well the findings of animal models can be replicated in human cases. Here, a method is proposed based on PageRank scores of miRNA-mRNA interaction network to select ischemic stroke biomarkers derived from rat brain samples, and biomarkers are validated with two human peripheral blood gene expression datasets. Hierarchical clustering results revealed that the achieved biomarkers clearly separate the blood gene expression of stroke patients and healthy people. Literature searches and functional analyses further validated the biological significance of these biomarkers. Compared to the traditional methods, such as differential expression, the proposed approach is more stable and accurate in detecting cross-species biomarkers with biological relevance, thereby suggesting an efficient approach of re-using gene biomarkers obtained from animal-model studies for human diseases.

  17. Stable isotope biomarker breath tests for human metabolic and infectious diseases: a review of recent patent literature.

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    Timmins, Graham S

    2016-12-01

    Stable isotope breath tests can rapidly and quantitatively report metabolic phenotypes and disease in both humans and microbes in situ. The labelled compound is administered and acted upon by human or microbial metabolism, producing a labelled gas that is detected in exhaled breath. Areas covered: This review details the unique advantages (and disadvantages) of phenotypic stable isotope based breath tests. A review of recent US patent applications and prosecutions since 2010 is conducted. Finally, current clinical trials, product pipelines and approved products are discussed. Expert opinion: Stable isotope breath tests offer new approaches for rapid and minimally invasive detection and study of metabolic phenotypes, both human and microbial. The patent literature has developed considerably in the last 6 years, with over 30 patent applications made. Rates of issuance remain high, although rejections citing 35 U.S.C. §101(subject matter eligibility), §102 (novelty), §103 (obviousness) and §112 (description, enablement and best mode) have occurred. The prior art is significantly greater for human metabolism than microbial, and may drive differing rates of future issuance. These biomarker and diagnostic tools can enable optimization of drug doses, diagnosis of metabolic disease and its progression, and detection of infectious disease and optimize its treatment.

  18. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies for the Detection of Volatile Biomarker Metabolites in the Human Breath

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    Alphus D. Wilson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in the use of electronic-nose (e-nose devices to analyze human breath profiles for the presence of specific volatile metabolites, known as biomarkers or chemical bio-indicators of specific human diseases, metabolic disorders and the overall health status of individuals, are providing the potential for new noninvasive tools and techniques useful to point-of-care clinical disease diagnoses. This exciting new area of electronic disease detection and diagnosis promises to yield much faster and earlier detection of human diseases and disorders, allowing earlier, more effective treatments, resulting in more rapid patient recovery from various afflictions. E-nose devices are particularly suited for the field of disease diagnostics, because they are sensitive to a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and can effectively distinguish between different complex gaseous mixtures via analysis of electronic aroma sensor-array output profiles of volatile metabolites present in the human breath. This review provides a summary of some recent developments of electronic-nose technologies, particularly involving breath analysis, with the potential for providing many new diagnostic applications for the detection of specific human diseases associated with different organs in the body, detectable from e-nose analyses of aberrant disease-associated VOCs present in air expired from the lungs.

  19. Breath Ketone Testing: A New Biomarker for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring of Diabetic Ketosis

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    Yue Qiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acetone, β-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid are three types of ketone body that may be found in the breath, blood, and urine. Detecting altered concentrations of ketones in the breath, blood, and urine is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of different detection methods for ketones, and to establish whether detection of the concentration of ketones in the breath is an effective and practical technique. Methods. We measured the concentrations of acetone in the breath using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and β-hydroxybutyrate in fingertip blood collected from 99 patients with diabetes assigned to groups 1 (−, 2 (±, 3 (+, 4 (++, or 5 (+++ according to urinary ketone concentrations. Results. There were strong relationships between fasting blood glucose, age, and diabetic ketosis. Exhaled acetone concentration significantly correlated with concentrations of fasting blood glucose, ketones in the blood and urine, LDL-C, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. Conclusions. Breath testing for ketones has a high sensitivity and specificity and appears to be a noninvasive, convenient, and repeatable method for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of diabetic ketosis.

  20. Ultrasensitive, real-time analysis of biomarkers in breath using tunable external cavity laser and off-axis cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

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    Bayrakli, Ismail; Akman, Hatice

    2015-03-01

    A robust biomedical sensor for ultrasensitive detection of biomarkers in breath based on a tunable external cavity laser (ECL) and an off-axis cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OA-CEAS) using an amplitude stabilizer is developed. A single-mode, narrow-linewidth, tunable ECL is demonstrated. A broadly coarse wavelength tuning range of 720 cm⁻¹ for the spectral range between 6890 and 6170 cm⁻¹ is achieved by rotating the diffraction grating forming a Littrow-type external-cavity configuration. A mode-hop-free tuning range of 1.85 cm⁻¹ is obtained. The linewidths below 140 kHz are recorded. The ECL is combined with an OA-CEAS to perform laser chemical sensing. Our system is able to detect any molecule in breath at concentrations to the ppbv range that have absorption lines in the spectral range between 1450 and 1620 nm. Ammonia is selected as target molecule to evaluate the performance of the sensor. Using the absorption line of ammonia at 6528.76 cm⁻¹, a minimum detectable absorption coefficient of approximately 1×10⁻⁸ cm⁻¹ is demonstrated for 256 averages. This is achieved for a 1.4-km absorption path length and a 2-s data-acquisition time. These results yield a detection sensitivity of approximately 8.6×10⁻¹⁰ cm⁻¹ Hz(-1/2). Ammonia in exhaled breath is analyzed and found in a concentration of 870 ppb for our example.

  1. Biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate indicate presence and severity of cystic fibrosis in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robroeks, C.M.; Rosias, P.P.; Vliet, D van; Jobsis, Q.; Yntema, J.L.; Brackel, H.J.; Damoiseaux, J.G.; Hartog, GM den; Wodzig, W.K.; Dompeling, E.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic airway inflammation is present in cystic fibrosis (CF). Non-invasive inflammometry may be useful in disease management. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate: (i) the ability of fractional exhaled nitric oxide and inflammatory markers (IM) [exhaled breath condensate

  2. Exhaled breath condensate pH as a biomarker of COPD severity in ex-smokers

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    Alchanatis Manos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endogenous airway acidification, as assessed by exhaled breath condensate (EBC pH, is present in patients with stable COPD. The aim of this study was to measure EBC pH levels in a large cohort of COPD patients and to evaluate associations with functional parameters according to their smoking status. EBC was collected from 161 patients with stable COPD and 112 controls (current and ex-smokers. EBC pH was measured after Argon deaeration and all subjects underwent pulmonary function testing. EBC pH was lower in COPD patients compared to controls [7.21 (7.02, 7.44 vs. 7.50 (7.40, 7.66; p Endogenous airway acidification is related to disease severity and to parameters expressing hyperinflation and air trapping in ex-smokers with COPD. The possible role of EBC pH in COPD needs to be further evaluated in longitudinal studies.

  3. Phosgene- and chlorine-induced acute lung injury in rats: comparison of cardiopulmonary function and biomarkers in exhaled breath.

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    Luo, Sa; Trübel, Hubert; Wang, Chen; Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2014-12-04

    This study compares changes in cardiopulmonary function, selected endpoints in exhaled breath, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) following a single, high-level 30-min nose-only exposure of rats to chlorine and phosgene gas. The time-course of lung injury was systematically examined up to 1-day post-exposure with the objective to identify early diagnostic biomarkers suitable to guide countermeasures to accidental exposures. Chlorine, due to its water solubility, penetrates the lung concentration-dependently whereas the poorly water-soluble phosgene reaches the alveolar region without any appreciable extent of airway injury. Cardiopulmonary endpoints were continually recorded by telemetry and barometric plethysmography for 20h. At several time points blood was collected to evaluate evidence of hemoconcentration, changes in hemostasis, and osteopontin. One day post-exposure, protein, osteopontin, and cytodifferentials were determined in BAL. Nitric oxide (eNO) and eCO2 were non-invasively examined in exhaled breath 5 and 24h post-exposure. Chlorine-exposed rats elaborated a reflexively-induced decreased respiratory rate and bradycardia whereas phosgene-exposed rats developed minimal changes in lung function but a similar magnitude of bradycardia. Despite similar initial changes in cardiac function, the phosgene-exposed rats showed different time-course changes of hemoconcentration and lung weights as compared to chlorine-exposed rats. eNO/eCO2 ratios were most affected in chlorine-exposed rats in the absence of any marked time-related changes. This outcome appears to demonstrate that nociceptive reflexes with changes in cardiopulmonary function resemble typical patterns of mixed airway-alveolar irritation in chlorine-exposed rats and alveolar irritation in phosgene-exposed rats. The degree and time-course of pulmonary injury was reflected best by eNO/eCO2 ratios, hemoconcentration, and protein in BAL. Increased fibrin in blood occurred only in chlorine

  4. The application of chromatographic breath analysis in the search of volatile biomarkers of chronic kidney disease and coexisting type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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    Grabowska-Polanowska, B; Skowron, M; Miarka, P; Pietrzycka, A; Śliwka, I

    2017-08-15

    Chromatographic studies on breath composition are aimed at finding volatile markers useful for medical diagnostics or in screening investigations. Studies leading to the development of screening breath tests are especially important for the diagnostics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the presented study was to confirm diagnostic usefulness of chosen volatile compounds detected in breath, which are suggested as potential biomarkers of renal dysfunction and diabetes. Breath analysis were carried out in three groups: 10 healthy volunteers, 10 patients with CKD and 10 patients with CKD and T2DM. All exhaled air samples were analyzed using gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890GC) coupled with mass spectrometer (5975MSD). Thermal desorption was applied as the enrichment method. TMA was detected only in CKD patients. Higher breath concentrations of methanethiol (MeSH) were observed in CKD patients with coexisting diabetes than in patients with renal dysfunction only or in the healthy group. There was a tendency of increasing MeSH concentration in breath with increasing total glutathione in plasma (r=0.53, p=0.0026). Also, a trend of increasing dimethylsulfide (DMS) levels detected in breath was noticed with an increase of hydrogen sulfide concentration in plasma (r=0.74; p=0.00001) as well as with aspartate aminotransferase (AST), (r=0.61; p=0.001). The presented results suggest the possibility of applying TMA, MeSH, and DMS detection in breath as diagnostic methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Disordered breathing during sleep and exercise in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and the role of biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R N C; Kelly, E; Nolan, G; Eigenheer, S; Boylan, D; Murphy, D; Dodd, J; Keane, M P; McNicholas, W T

    2015-04-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients report fatigue, possibly reflecting sleep disturbance, but little is known about sleep-related changes. We compared ventilation and gas exchange during sleep and exercise in a cohort of IPF patients, and evaluated associations with selected biological markers. Twenty stable IPF patients (aged 67.9 ± 12.3 [SD]) underwent overnight polysomnography following an acclimatization night. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed and inflammatory markers measured including TNF-α, IL-6, CXCL8, C-C motif ligand 18 (CCL-18) and C-reactive protein (CRP) RESULTS: Nine patients had sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) with an apnea-hypopnea frequency (AHI) ≥ 5/h, but only two had Epworth sleepiness score ≥ 10, thus having an obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep quality was poor. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (PtcCO2) rose by 2.56 ± 1.59 kPa overnight (P = 0.001), suggesting hypoventilation. Oxygen saturation (SaO2) was lower during sleep than exercise (P exercise variables correlated with resting pulmonary function. CCL-18 and CRP levels were elevated and correlated with PtcCO2 rise during sleep (P sleep SaO2 and oxygen uptake (VO2) during exercise (P sleep than exercise; thus, nocturnal pulse oxymetry could be included in clinical assessment. CCL-18 and CRP levels correlate with physiological markers of fibrosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effect of continuous positive airway pressure and upper airway surgery on exhaled breath condensate and serum biomarkers in patients with sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloberes, Patricia; Sánchez-Vidaurre, Sara; Ferré, Àlex; Cruz, María Jesús; Lorente, Juan; Sampol, Gabriel; Morell, Ferran; Muñoz, Xavier

    2014-10-01

    Studies on inflammation biomarkers in serum and in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have shown conflicting results. The objective of this study is to assess EBC and serum biomarkers in OSA patients at baseline and after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or upper airway surgery (UAS). Nine OSA patients referred for UAS were matched for anthropometric characteristics and apnea-hypopnea index with 20 patients receiving CPAP. pH, nitrite (NO2(-)), nitrate and interleukin 6 in EBC and NO2(-), nitrate, leukotriene B4 and interleukin 6 in serum were determined. EBC and serum samples were collected at baseline and 3 months after CPAP or UAS. Patients' mean body mass index was 30 (range 24.9-40) kg/m(2). EBC biomarker levels at baseline were within normal range and did not differ significantly after CPAP or UAS. No significant changes were observed in the serum concentration of the biomarkers determined after CPAP but the serum concentration of NO2(-) increased significantly at 3 months after UAS (P=.0078). In mildly obese OSA patients, EBC biomarkers of inflammation or oxidative stress were normal at baseline and remained unchanged 3 months after UAS or CPAP. Although UAS was not effective in terms of reducing OSA severity, it was associated with an increase in serum NO2(-). Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of LaserBreath-001 for breath acetone measurement in subjects with diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhennan; Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-11-01

    Breath acetone is a promising biomarker of diabetes mellitus. With an integrated standalone, on-site cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer, LaserBreath-001, we tested breath samples from 23 type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, 52 healthy subjects. In the cross-sectional studies, the obtained breath acetone concentrations were higher in the diabetic subjects compared with those in the control group. No correlation between breath acetone and simultaneous BG was observed in the T1D, T2D, and healthy subjects. A moderate positive correlation between the mean individual breath acetone concentrations and the mean individual BG levels was observed in the 20 T1D patients without ketoacidosis. In a longitudinal study, the breath acetone concentrations in a T1D patient with ketoacidosis decreased significantly and remained stable during the 5-day hospitalization. The results from a relatively large number of subjects tested indicate that an elevated mean breath acetone concentration exists in diabetic patients in general. Although many physiological parameters affect breath acetone concentrations, fast (diabetic screening and management under a specifically controlled condition.

  8. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  9. Investigation of acetone, butanol and carbon dioxide as new breath biomarkers for convenient and noninvasive diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakli, Ismail; Öztürk, Önder; Akman, Hatice

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether analysis of carbon dioxide, acetone and/or butanol present in human breath can be used as a simple and noninvasive diagnosis method for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). For this purpose, overnight changes in the concentrations of these breath molecules were measured before and after sleep in 10 patients who underwent polysomnography and were diagnosed with OSAS, and were compared with the levels of these biomarkers determined after sleep in 10 healthy subjects. The concentrations of exhaled carbon dioxide were measured using external cavity laser-based off-axis cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy, whereas the levels of exhaled acetone and butanol were determined using thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry. We observed no significant changes in the levels of exhaled acetone and carbon dioxide in OSAS patients after sleep compared with pre-sleep values and compared with those in healthy control subjects. However, for the first time, to our knowledge, analyses of expired air showed an increased concentration of butanol after sleep compared with that before sleep and compared with that in healthy subjects. These results suggest that butanol can be established as a potential biomarker to enable the convenient and noninvasive diagnosis of OSAS in the future. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effects of occupational exposure to poorly soluble forms of beryllium on biomarkers of pulmonary response in exhaled breath of workers in machining industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radauceanu, Anca; Grzebyk, Michel; Edmé, Jean-Louis; Chérot-Kornobis, Nathalie; Rousset, Davy; Dziurla, Mathieu; De Broucker, Virginie; Hédelin, Guy; Sobaszek, Annie; Hulo, Sébastien

    2016-11-30

    To analyze the effects of occupational exposure to poorly soluble forms of beryllium (Be) on biomarkers of pulmonary inflammation using exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in workers employed in machining industries. Twenty machining operators were compared to 16 controls. The individual exposure to Be was assessed from the work history with several indices of exposure calculated on the basis of task-exposures matrices developed for each plant using historical air measurements. Clinical evaluation consisted in a medical questionnaire, measurements of biomarkers in EBC (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), total nitrogen oxides (NOx)), measurement of the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and resting spirometry. Adjusted multiple linear regressions were used to study the effect of the exposure to Be on inflammatory biomarkers. Levels of TNF-α and NOx in EBC were not statistically different between exposed and controls. We found a statistically significant relationship between levels of TNF-α in EBC and both index of cumulative exposure and duration of exposure to Be. No other statistically significant relationships were found between exposure to Be and pulmonary response. Our results suggest that machining-related exposure to Be is related to pulmonary inflammation involving TNF-α. These findings must be confirmed by larger studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cellular respiration, metabolomics and the search for illicit drug biomarkers in breath: report from PittCon 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual Pittcon meeting is a convenient venue for gathering together a wide range of researchers and analytical equipment manufacturers that may both provide and gain benefit from the more focused topics of breath research. Members of IABR have regularly participated in Pittco...

  12. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Exhaled Breath for the Identification of Volatile Organic Compound Biomarkers in Esophageal and Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sacheen; Huang, Juzheng; Abbassi-Ghadi, Nima; Mackenzie, Hugh A; Veselkov, Kirill A; Hoare, Jonathan M; Lovat, Laurence B; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, David; Hanna, George B

    2015-12-01

    The present study assessed whether exhaled breath analysis using Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry could distinguish esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma from noncancer controls. The majority of patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer present with advanced disease, resulting in poor long-term survival rates. Novel methods are needed to diagnose potentially curable upper gastrointestinal malignancies. A Profile-3 Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry instrument was used for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within exhaled breath samples. All study participants had undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy on the day of breath sampling. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and a diagnostic risk prediction model were used to assess the discriminatory accuracy of the identified VOCs. Exhaled breath samples were analyzed from 81 patients with esophageal (N = 48) or gastric adenocarcinoma (N = 33) and 129 controls including Barrett's metaplasia (N = 16), benign upper gastrointestinal diseases (N = 62), or a normal upper gastrointestinal tract (N = 51). Twelve VOCs-pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid, phenol, methyl phenol, ethyl phenol, butanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, and decanal-were present at significantly higher concentrations (P curve using these significant VOCs to discriminate esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma from those with normal upper gastrointestinal tracts was 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. The area under the ROC curve for the model and validation subsets of the diagnostic prediction model was 0.92 ± 0.01 and 0.87 ± 0.03, respectively. Distinct exhaled breath VOC profiles can distinguish patients with esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma from noncancer controls.

  13. Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath of Workers Exposed to Crystalline Silica Dust by SPME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Mahdi; Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Berijani, Nima; Mahjub, Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Silicosis is considered an oxidative stress related disease that can lead to the development of lung cancer. In this study, our purpose was to analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the exhaled breath of workers exposed to silica containing dust and compare peak area of these compounds with silicosis patients and healthy volunteers (smokers and nonsmokers) groups. In this cross sectional case-control study, the exhaled breath of 69 subjects including workers exposed to silica (n=20), silicosis patient (n=4), healthy non-smoker (n=20) and healthy smoker (n=25) were analyzed. We collected breath samples using 3-liter Tedlar bags. The VOCs were extracted with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Personal exposure intensity was measured according to NIOSH 7601 method. Respiratory parameters were measured using spirometry. Seventy percent and 100% of the exposures to crystalline silica dust exceeded from 8 h TWA ACGIH TLVs in case and positive control groups, respectively. A significant negative correlation was found between dust exposure intensity and FEV1/FVC when exposure and positive control groups were studied in a group (r2=-0.601, Psilica and silicosis patient compared to the healthy smoker and nonsmoker controls. In some cases the difference was significant (Psilica.

  14. Proteomic biomarkers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from postmenopausal women undergoing an intervention with soy isoflavones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, D.; Vafeiadou, K.; Hall, W.L.; Daniel, H.; Williams, C.M.; Schroot, J.H.; Wenzel, U.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The incidence of cardiovascular diseases increases after menopause, and soy consumption is suggested to inhibit disease development. Objective: The objective was to identify biomarkers of response to a dietary supplementation with an isoflavone extract in postmenopausal women by proteome

  15. An improved method for collecting breath from 3- to 7-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anthony A; Paige, Katie N; Gaskins, H Rex; Teran-Garcia, Margarita

    2014-05-01

    Breath sampling and analysis provide healthcare professionals with a practical, noninvasive diagnostic measurement for children with a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. New biomarkers found in human breath have been investigated and provide the opportunity to diagnose bacterial overgrowth and other underlying causes of GI dysfunction. Although several protocols have been described previously regarding breath sampling, few have demonstrated the feasibility of collection in young children. This communication introduces a simple game that allows for 3- to 7-year-old children to practice breath exhalation to give a proper breath sample in a relaxed and comfortable environment. The technique described offers clinicians a creative approach for obtaining breath samples from a child by reducing the apprehension and anxiety associated with the research and clinical environment.

  16. Using multiple biomarkers and determinants to obtain a better measurement of oxidative stress: a latent variable structural equation model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Ronald C; Flanders, W Dana; Bostick, Roberd M; Fedirko, Veronika; Gross, Myron; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Goodman, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Since oxidative stress involves a variety of cellular changes, no single biomarker can serve as a complete measure of this complex biological process. The analytic technique of structural equation modeling (SEM) provides a possible solution to this problem by modelling a latent (unobserved) variable constructed from the covariance of multiple biomarkers. Using three pooled datasets, we modelled a latent oxidative stress variable from five biomarkers related to oxidative stress: F 2 -isoprostanes (FIP), fluorescent oxidation products, mitochondrial DNA copy number, γ-tocopherol (Gtoc) and C-reactive protein (CRP, an inflammation marker closely linked to oxidative stress). We validated the latent variable by assessing its relation to pro- and anti-oxidant exposures. FIP, Gtoc and CRP characterized the latent oxidative stress variable. Obesity, smoking, aspirin use and β-carotene were statistically significantly associated with oxidative stress in the theorized directions; the same exposures were weakly and inconsistently associated with the individual biomarkers. Our results suggest that using SEM with latent variables decreases the biomarker-specific variability, and may produce a better measure of oxidative stress than do single variables. This methodology can be applied to similar areas of research in which a single biomarker is not sufficient to fully describe a complex biological phenomenon.

  17. A five-factor biomarker profile obtained week 4-12 of treatment for improved prognostication in metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Anne V; Geertsen, Poul F; Christensen, Ib J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several biomarkers of treatment efficacy have been associated with a better prognosis in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The prognostic significance of biomarkers in the early treatment phase is unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a complete national cohort of m......RCC patients receiving first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) or interleukin-2 based immunotherapy (IT) from 2006 to 2010, overall survival (OS) was analysed for baseline International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) classification factors and on-treatment time-dependent biomarkers obtained day 1 each...... cycle week 4-12 after treatment initiation with multivariate analysis and bootstrap validation. RESULTS: A total of 735 patients received first-line TKI (59%) or IT (41%). Median OS was overall 14.0 months and 33.4, 18.5, and 5.8 months for baseline IMDC favourable, intermediate, and poor risk groups...

  18. A five-factor biomarker profile obtained week 4-12 of treatment for improved prognostication in metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Anne V; Geertsen, Poul F; Christensen, Ib J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several biomarkers of treatment efficacy have been associated with a better prognosis in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The prognostic significance of biomarkers in the early treatment phase is unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a complete national cohort of m......RCC patients receiving first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) or interleukin-2 based immunotherapy (IT) from 2006 to 2010, overall survival (OS) was analysed for baseline International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) classification factors and on-treatment time-dependent biomarkers obtained day 1 each...... analyses stratified for TKI and IT (p ≤ 0.04). Concordance (C)-index for IMDC classification alone was 0.625 (95% CI 0.59-0.66) and combined with the five-factor biomarker profile 0.683 (95% CI 0.64-0.72). For patients with good (3-5 factors) and poor (0-2 factors) biomarker profile median OS were 23...

  19. Volatile compounds in blood headspace and nasal breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Brian M; Babgi, Randa

    2017-09-13

    Breath analysis is a form of metabolomics that utilises the identification and quantification of volatile chemicals to provide information about physiological or pathological processes occurring within the body. An inherent assumption of such analyses is that the concentration of the exhaled gases correlates with the concentration of the same gas in the tissue of interest. In this study we have investigated this assumption by quantifying some volatile compounds in peripheral venous blood headspace, and in nasal breath collected in Tedlar bags obtained at the same time from 30 healthy volunteers, prior to analysis by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. Some endogenous compounds were significantly correlated between blood headspace and nasal breath, such as isoprene (r p = 0.63) and acetone (r p = 0.68), however many, such as propanol (r p = -0.26) and methanol (r p = 0.23), were not. Furthermore, the relative concentrations of volatiles in blood and breath varied markedly between compounds, with some, such as isoprene and acetone, having similar concentrations in each, while others, such as acetic acid, ammonia and methanol, being significantly more abundant in breath, and others, such as methanal, being detectable only in breath. We also observed that breath propanol and acetic acid concentrations were higher in male compared to female participants, and that the blood headspace methanol concentration was negatively correlated to body mass index. No relationship between volatile concentrations and age was observed. Our data suggest that breath concentrations of volatiles do not necessarily give information about the same compound in the blood stream. This is likely due to the upper airway contributing compounds over and above that originating in the circulation. An investigation of the relationship between breath volatile concentrations and that in the tissue(s) of interest should therefore become a routine part of the development process of breath

  20. Breath odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the abdomen X-ray of the chest Antibiotics may be prescribed for some conditions. For an object in the nose, your provider will use an instrument to remove it. Alternative Names Bad breath; Halitosis References Murr AH. Approach ...

  1. Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough air. Sometimes you can have mild breathing problems because of a stuffy nose or intense exercise. ... Lung conditions such as asthma, emphysema, or pneumonia Problems with your trachea or bronchi, which are part ...

  2. Breathing difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003075.htm Breathing difficulty To use the sharing features on this page, ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  3. Online trapping and enrichment ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for sensitive measurement of 'arginine-asymmetric dimethylarginine cycle' biomarkers in human exhaled breath condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Gangi, Iole Maria, E-mail: giordano@pediatria.unipd.it [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Pirillo, Paola [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Carraro, Silvia [Unit of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Gucciardi, Antonina; Naturale, Mauro [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Baraldi, Eugenio [Unit of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Giordano, Giuseppe [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy)

    2012-11-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous quantification of 'arginine-ADMA cycle' metabolites developed in EBC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBC is a non-invasive matrix highly useful in patients with respiratory diseases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Method, fast, precise and accurate, is suitable in the pediatric clinical studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity is increased using on-line trapping and enrichment-UPLC-MS/MS method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBC measurements in asthmatic adolescents confirm that ADMA is increased in asthma. - Abstract: Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a biofluid collected non invasively that, enabling the measurement of several biomarkers, has proven useful in the study of airway inflammatory diseases, including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report of any analytical method to detect ADMA in EBC. Objectives: Aim of this work was to develop an online sample trapping and enrichment system, coupled with an UPLC-MS/MS method, for simultaneous quantification of seven metabolites related to 'Arginine-ADMA cycle', using the isotopic dilution. Methods: Butylated EBC samples were trapped in an online cartridge, washed before and after each injection with cleanup solution to remove matrix components and switched inline into the high pressure analytical column. Multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode was used for analyte quantification by tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Validation studies were performed in EBC to examine accuracy, precision and robustness of the method. For each compound, the calibration curves showed a coefficient of correlation (r{sup 2}) greater than 0.992. Accuracy (%Bias) was <3% except for NMMA and H-Arg (<20%), intra- and inter-assay precision (expressed as CV%) were within {+-}20% and recovery ranged from 97.1 to 102.8% for all analytes. Inter-day variability analysis on 20 EBC of adult subjects did

  4. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fresh and healthy. Tips for preventing bad breath: Brush your teeth (and tongue!) for at least two minutes twice ... and drinks. This helps prevent damage to your teeth and is great for your overall health. Brush after sweets. If you eat or drink sugary ...

  5. Rapid detection of nicotine from breath using desorption ionisation on porous silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, T M; Abdelmaksoud, H; Voelcker, N H

    2017-05-04

    Desorption ionisation on porous silicon (DIOS) was used for the detection of nicotine from exhaled breath. This result represents proof-of-principle of the ability of DIOS to detect small molecular analytes in breath including biomarkers and illicit drugs.

  6. Collecting exhaled breath condensate (EBC) with two condensers in series: a promising technique for studying the mechanisms of EBC formation, and the volatility of selected biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Goldoni, Matteo; Caglieri, Andrea; Folesani, Giuseppina; Poli, Diana; Corti, Marina; Mutti, Antonio

    2008-03-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) consists mainly of water, but also contains semivolatile and nonvolatile compounds. The aim of this study was to develop a system in which two condensers are simultaneously used in series to clarify the mechanisms of EBC condensation. Two aliquots of EBC (EBC1 and EBC2) were collected from 20 asymptomatic smokers and 20 healthy young nonsmokers using a specifically designed device having two condensers in series in which total volume, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)), and conductivity before and after lyophilization were measured. Water, NH(4)(+) levels and conductivity before lyophilization were significantly lower in the EBC2 than in the EBC1 of smokers and nonsmokers; the contrary was true for H(2)O(2) levels. Almost all nonvolatile salts were collected in the first condenser, because more than 50% of postlyophilization conductivity was below the detection limit in EBC2. The recovery of volatile molecules and their derivatives (water and NH(4)(+)) was partial in the first condenser, but appreciable amounts of both were measured in the second; however, the condenser immediately in contact with exhaled air was more efficient in terms of water, NH(4)(+) and conductivity before lyophilization. On the contrary, nonvolatile ions (conductivity after lyophilization) were mainly collected in the first condenser. Finally, the behavior of H(2)O(2) cannot be explained on the basis of its chemical and physical properties, and the most probable explanation is that some was byproduced by a radical reaction in the gas phase or during the condensation process in water.

  7. Temperatura do ar exalado, um novo biomarcador no controle da asma: um estudo piloto Exhaled breath temperature, a new biomarker in asthma control: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Emrich Melo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a temperatura do ar exalado (TAE, medida por um método não invasivo, é efetiva no monitoramento de pacientes com asma não controlada. MÉTODOS: Estudo piloto com nove pacientes (sete mulheres e dois homens; média de idade: 39 anos com diagnóstico de asma por pelo menos um ano e sem uso de tratamento de manutenção por pelo menos três meses antes do início do estudo. Na primeira visita, os pacientes foram submetidos à espirometria e à medida da TAE. Todos os pacientes foram orientados a iniciar tratamento com budesonida/formoterol (200/6 µg inalatório a cada 12 h por seis semanas. Além disso, os pacientes com asma grave (VEF1 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the exhaled breath temperature (EBT, measured by a noninvasive method, is an effective means of monitoring patients with uncontrolled asthma. METHODS: A pilot study comprising nine patients (seven women and two men; mean age: 39 years diagnosed with asthma at least one year prior to the beginning of the study and not having been under maintenance therapy for the last three months. In the first visit, the patients underwent spirometry and measurement of EBT. The patients were then instructed to use inhaled budesonide/formoterol (200/6 µg every 12 h for six weeks. In addition, the patients with severe asthma (FEV1 < 60% of predicted were instructed to use oral prednisolone (40 mg/day for five days. After six weeks, the patients underwent the same tests. RESULTS: All of the patients reported an improvement in the symptoms of asthma, as confirmed by a statistically significant increase in FEV1 from the first to the second visit (mean, 56.1% vs. 88.7% of predicted; p < 0.05. Five patients used oral prednisolone for the first five days of the treatment period. Six patients used additional doses of inhaled budesonide/formoterol (mean duration, 2.5 weeks. The EBT decreased significantly from the first to the second visit (mean EBT: 35.1ºC vs. 34.1ºC; p < 0

  8. A Portable Real-Time Ringdown Breath Acetone Analyzer: Toward Potential Diabetic Screening and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chenyu; Sun, Meixiu; Wang, Zhennan; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-07-30

    Breath analysis has been considered a suitable tool to evaluate diseases of the respiratory system and those that involve metabolic changes, such as diabetes. Breath acetone has long been known as a biomarker for diabetes. However, the results from published data by far have been inconclusive regarding whether breath acetone is a reliable index of diabetic screening. Large variations exist among the results of different studies because there has been no "best-practice method" for breath-acetone measurements as a result of technical problems of sampling and analysis. In this mini-review, we update the current status of our development of a laser-based breath acetone analyzer toward real-time, one-line diabetic screening and a point-of-care instrument for diabetic management. An integrated standalone breath acetone analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique has been developed. The instrument was validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The linear fittings suggest that the obtained acetone concentrations via both methods are consistent. Breath samples from each individual subject under various conditions in total, 1257 breath samples were taken from 22 Type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 Type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, which is one of the largest numbers of T2D subjects ever used in a single study, and 52 non-diabetic healthy subjects. Simultaneous blood glucose (BG) levels were also tested using a standard diabetic management BG meter. The mean breath acetone concentrations were determined to be 4.9 ± 16 ppm (22 T1D), and 1.5 ± 1.3 ppm (312 T2D), which are about 4.5 and 1.4 times of the one in the 42 non-diabetic healthy subjects, 1.1 ± 0.5 ppm, respectively. A preliminary quantitative correlation (R = 0.56, p acetone concentration and the mean individual BG levels does exist in 20 T1D subjects with no ketoacidosis. No direct correlation is observed in T1D subjects, T2D subjects, and healthy subjects. The results

  9. Breath holding spell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000967.htm Breath holding spell To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some children have breath holding spells. This is an involuntary stop in breathing that ...

  10. Metallic elements in exhaled breath condensate and serum of patients with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Acampa, Olga; Goldoni, Matteo; Andreoli, Roberta; Milton, Donald; Sama, Susan R; Rosiello, Richard; de Palma, Giuseppe; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers in exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be useful in aiding diagnosis, defining specific phenotypes of disease, monitoring the disease and evaluating the effects of drugs. The aim of this study was the characterization of metallic elements in exhaled breath condensate and serum as novel biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility in exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using reference analytical techniques. C-Reactive protein and procalcitonin were assessed as previously validated diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers which have been associated with disease exacerbation, thus useful as a basis of comparison with metal levels. Exhaled breath condensate and serum were obtained in 28 patients at the beginning of an episode of disease exacerbation and when they recovered. Trace elements and toxic metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Serum biomarkers were measured by immunoassay. Exhaled manganese and magnesium levels were influenced by exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, an increase in their concentrations--respectively by 20 and 50%--being observed at exacerbation in comparison with values obtained at recovery; serum elemental composition was not modified by exacerbation; serum levels of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin at exacerbation were higher than values at recovery. In outpatients who experienced a mild-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation, manganese and magnesium levels in exhaled breath condensate are elevated at admission in comparison with values at recovery, whereas no other changes were observed in metallic elements at both the pulmonary and systemic level.

  11. TR-BREATH: Time-Reversal Breathing Rate Estimation and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Han, Yi; Chen, Yan; Lai, Hung-Quoc; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Beibei; Liu, K J Ray

    2017-04-28

    In this paper, we introduce TR-BREATH, a timereversal (TR) based contact-free breathing monitoring system. It is capable of breathing detection and multi-person breathing rate estimation within a short period of time using off-the-shelf WiFi devices. The proposed system exploits the channel state information (CSI) to capture the miniature variations in the environment caused by breathing. To magnify the CSI variations, TRBREATH projects CSIs into the TR resonating strength (TRRS) feature space and analyzes the TRRS by the Root-MUSIC and affinity propagation algorithms. Extensive experiment results indoor demonstrate a perfect detection rate of breathing. With only 10 seconds of measurement, a mean accuracy of 99% can be obtained for single-person breathing rate estimation under the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) scenario. Furthermore, it achieves a mean accuracy of 98:65% in breathing rate estimation for a dozen people under the line-of-sight (LOS) scenario and a mean accuracy of 98:07% in breathing rate estimation of 9 people under the NLOS scenario, both with 63 seconds of measurement. Moreover, TR-BREATH can estimate the number of people with an error around 1. We also demonstrate that TR-BREATH is robust against packet loss and motions. With the prevailing of WiFi, TR-BREATH can be applied for in-home and real-time breathing monitoring.

  12. Continuous Exhaled Breath Analysis on the Icu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2011-09-01

    During admittance to the ICU, critically ill patients frequently develop secondary infections and/or multiple organ failure. Continuous monitoring of biological markers is very much needed. This study describes a new method to continuously monitor biomarkers in exhaled breath with an electronic nose.

  13. Optimization of sampling parameters for standardized exhaled breath sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Sophie; Romano, Andrea; Hanna, George B

    2017-09-05

    The lack of standardization of breath sampling is a major contributing factor to the poor repeatability of results and hence represents a barrier to the adoption of breath tests in clinical practice. On-line and bag breath sampling have advantages but do not suit multicentre clinical studies whereas storage and robust transport are essential for the conduct of wide-scale studies. Several devices have been developed to control sampling parameters and to concentrate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto thermal desorption (TD) tubes and subsequently transport those tubes for laboratory analysis. We conducted three experiments to investigate (i) the fraction of breath sampled (whole vs. lower expiratory exhaled breath); (ii) breath sample volume (125, 250, 500 and 1000ml) and (iii) breath sample flow rate (400, 200, 100 and 50 ml/min). The target VOCs were acetone and potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer belonging to the aldehyde, fatty acids and phenol chemical classes. We also examined the collection execution time and the impact of environmental contamination. The experiments showed that the use of exhaled breath-sampling devices requires the selection of optimum sampling parameters. The increase in sample volume has improved the levels of VOCs detected. However, the influence of the fraction of exhaled breath and the flow rate depends on the target VOCs measured. The concentration of potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer was not significantly different between the whole and lower airway exhaled breath. While the recovery of phenols and acetone from TD tubes was lower when breath sampling was performed at a higher flow rate, other VOCs were not affected. A dedicated 'clean air supply' overcomes the contamination from ambient air, but the breath collection device itself can be a source of contaminants. In clinical studies using VOCs to diagnose gastro-oesophageal cancer, the optimum parameters are 500mls sample volume

  14. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  15. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  16. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea; Heart failure - orthopnea ... does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often worsens other conditions that lead to ...

  17. Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breath-Holding Spells KidsHealth / For Parents / Breath-Holding Spells What's in ... Spells Print en español Espasmos de sollozo About Breath-Holding Spells Many of us have heard stories about stubborn ...

  18. Understanding the Potential of WO3 Based Sensors for Breath Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staerz, Anna; Weimar, Udo; Barsan, Nicolae

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide is the second most commonly used semiconducting metal oxide in gas sensors. Semiconducting metal oxide (SMOX)-based sensors are small, robust, inexpensive and sensitive, making them highly attractive for handheld portable medical diagnostic detectors. WO3 is reported to show high sensor responses to several biomarkers found in breath, e.g., acetone, ammonia, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, toluene, and nitric oxide. Modern material science allows WO3 samples to be tailored to address certain sensing needs. Utilizing recent advances in breath sampling it will be possible in the future to test WO3-based sensors in application conditions and to compare the sensing results to those obtained using more expensive analytical methods. PMID:27801881

  19. Factors that influence the volatile organic compound content in human breath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchet, L.; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Baranska, Agnieszka; Tigchelaar-Feenstra, E.; Swertz, M.; Zhernakova, A.; Dallinga, J. W.; Wijmenga, C.; van Schooten, Frederik J.

    Background. Thousands of endogenous and exogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are excreted in each breath. Inflammatory and deviant metabolic processes affect the level of endogeneous VOCs, which can serve as specific biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and disease monitoring. Important issues

  20. The impact of a dedicated physiotherapist clinic for children with dysfunctional breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Nicola J.; Elphick, Heather; Everard, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunctional breathing is a significant cause of morbidity, adversely affecting an individual's quality of life. There is currently no data from paediatric centres on the impact of breathing retraining for dysfunctional breathing. Symptoms and quality of life were measured in 34 subjects referred sequentially for breathing retraining to the first dedicated paediatric dysfunctional breathing clinic in the UK. Data were obtained prior to the first intervention (time point 1), at discharge (tim...

  1. Biomarkers in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Amit; Kalkanis, Alexandros; Judson, Marc A

    2016-11-01

    Numerous biomarkers have been evaluated for the diagnosis, assessment of disease activity, prognosis, and response to treatment in sarcoidosis. In this report, we discuss the clinical and research utility of several biomarkers used to evaluate sarcoidosis. Areas covered: The sarcoidosis biomarkers discussed include serologic tests, imaging studies, identification of inflammatory cells and genetic analyses. Literature was obtained from medical databases including PubMed and Web of Science. Expert commentary: Most of the biomarkers examined in sarcoidosis are not adequately specific or sensitive to be used in isolation to make clinical decisions. However, several sarcoidosis biomarkers have an important role in the clinical management of sarcoidosis when they are coupled with clinical data including the results of other biomarkers.

  2. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced CXCL10 mRNA Level and Six Stimulant-mRNA Combinations in Whole Blood: Novel Biomarkers for Bortezomib Responses Obtained from a Prospective Multicenter Trial for Patients with Multiple Myeloma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Watanabe

    Full Text Available To identify predictive biomarkers for clinical responses to bortezomib treatment, 0.06 mL of each whole blood without any cell separation procedures was stimulated ex vivo using five agents, and eight mRNAs were quantified. In six centers, heparinized peripheral blood was prospectively obtained from 80 previously treated or untreated, symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM patients with measurable levels of M-proteins. The blood sample was procured prior to treatment as well as 2-3 days and 1-3 weeks after the first dose of bortezomib, which was intravenously administered biweekly or weekly, during the first cycle. Six stimulant-mRNA combinations; that is, lipopolysaccharide (LPS-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, LPS-CXCL chemokine 10 (CXCL10, LPS-CCL chemokine 4 (CCL4, phytohemagglutinin-CCL4, zymosan A (ZA-GMCSF and ZA-CCL4 showed significantly higher induction in the complete and very good partial response group than in the stable and progressive disease group, as determined by both parametric (t-test and non-parametric (unpaired Mann-Whitney test tests. Moreover, LPS-induced CXCL10 mRNA expression was significantly suppressed 2-3 days after the first dose of bortezomib in all patients, as determined by both parametric (t-test and non-parametric (paired Wilcoxon test tests, whereas the complete and very good partial response group showed sustained suppression 1-3 weeks after the first dose. Thus, pretreatment LPS-CXCL10 mRNA and/or the six combinations may serve as potential biomarkers for the response to bortezomib treatment in MM patients.

  3. Ethylene and ammonia traces measurements from the patients' breath with renal failure via LPAS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C.; Dutu, D. C. A.; Cernat, R.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Banita, S.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2011-11-01

    The application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) for fast and precise measurements of breath biomarkers has opened up new promises for monitoring and diagnostics in recent years, especially because breath test is a non-invasive method, safe, rapid and acceptable to patients. Our study involved assessment of breath ethylene and breath ammonia levels in patients with renal failure receiving haemodialysis (HD) treatment. Breath samples from healthy subjects and from patients with renal failure were collected using chemically inert aluminized bags and were subsequently analyzed using the LPAS technique. We have found out that the composition of exhaled breath in patients with renal failure contains not only ethylene, but also ammonia and gives valuable information for determining efficacy and endpoint of HD. Analysis of ethylene and ammonia traces from the human breath may provide insight into severity of oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and may ensure optimal therapy and prevention of pathology at patients on continuous HD.

  4. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  5. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bacteria love to hang out there. It's equally important to floss because brushing alone won't remove harmful plaque and food particles that become stuck between your teeth and gums. Myth #3: If you breathe into ...

  6. Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breathing Problems URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breathingproblems.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  7. Bad Breath - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bad Breath URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/badbreath.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  8. Mapleson's Breathing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where...

  9. Every breath you take

    OpenAIRE

    Padfield, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    The air we breathe is vital to our health. Researchers at the Department of Geosciences (University of Malta) are measuring how clean Malta’s air is. They are also optimising a model of the Mediterranean atmosphere to see how climate change will affect the Maltese Islands and their surrounding region. Words by Natasha Padfield. Photography by Jean Claude Vancell. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/every-breath-you-take/

  10. Breath analysis as a potential and non-invasive frontier in disease diagnosis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge; Porto-Figueira, Priscilla; Cavaco, Carina; Taunk, Khushman; Rapole, Srikanth; Dhakne, Rahul; Nagarajaram, Hampapathalu; Câmara, José S

    2015-01-09

    Currently, a small number of diseases, particularly cardiovascular (CVDs), oncologic (ODs), neurodegenerative (NDDs), chronic respiratory diseases, as well as diabetes, form a severe burden to most of the countries worldwide. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of efficient diagnostic tools, particularly those enabling reliable detection of diseases, at their early stages, preferably using non-invasive approaches. Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach relying only on the characterisation of volatile composition of the exhaled breath (EB) that in turn reflects the volatile composition of the bloodstream and airways and therefore the status and condition of the whole organism metabolism. Advanced sampling procedures (solid-phase and needle traps microextraction) coupled with modern analytical technologies (proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, e-noses, etc.) allow the characterisation of EB composition to an unprecedented level. However, a key challenge in EB analysis is the proper statistical analysis and interpretation of the large and heterogeneous datasets obtained from EB research. There is no standard statistical framework/protocol yet available in literature that can be used for EB data analysis towards discovery of biomarkers for use in a typical clinical setup. Nevertheless, EB analysis has immense potential towards development of biomarkers for the early disease diagnosis of diseases.

  11. Breath Analysis as a Potential and Non-Invasive Frontier in Disease Diagnosis: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a small number of diseases, particularly cardiovascular (CVDs, oncologic (ODs, neurodegenerative (NDDs, chronic respiratory diseases, as well as diabetes, form a severe burden to most of the countries worldwide. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of efficient diagnostic tools, particularly those enabling reliable detection of diseases, at their early stages, preferably using non-invasive approaches. Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach relying only on the characterisation of volatile composition of the exhaled breath (EB that in turn reflects the volatile composition of the bloodstream and airways and therefore the status and condition of the whole organism metabolism. Advanced sampling procedures (solid-phase and needle traps microextraction coupled with modern analytical technologies (proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, e-noses, etc. allow the characterisation of EB composition to an unprecedented level. However, a key challenge in EB analysis is the proper statistical analysis and interpretation of the large and heterogeneous datasets obtained from EB research. There is no standard statistical framework/protocol yet available in literature that can be used for EB data analysis towards discovery of biomarkers for use in a typical clinical setup. Nevertheless, EB analysis has immense potential towards development of biomarkers for the early disease diagnosis of diseases.

  12. Design of a breath analysis system for diabetes screening and blood glucose level prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ke; Zhang, David; Wu, Darong; Wei, Hua; Lu, Guangming

    2014-11-01

    It has been reported that concentrations of several biomarkers in diabetics' breath show significant difference from those in healthy people's breath. Concentrations of some biomarkers are also correlated with the blood glucose levels (BGLs) of diabetics. Therefore, it is possible to screen for diabetes and predict BGLs by analyzing one's breath. In this paper, we describe the design of a novel breath analysis system for this purpose. The system uses carefully selected chemical sensors to detect biomarkers in breath. Common interferential factors, including humidity and the ratio of alveolar air in breath, are compensated or handled in the algorithm. Considering the intersubject variance of the components in breath, we build subject-specific prediction models to improve the accuracy of BGL prediction. A total of 295 breath samples from healthy subjects and 279 samples from diabetic subjects were collected to evaluate the performance of the system. The sensitivity and specificity of diabetes screening are 91.51% and 90.77%, respectively. The mean relative absolute error for BGL prediction is 21.7%. Experiments show that the system is effective and that the strategies adopted in the system can improve its accuracy. The system potentially provides a noninvasive and convenient method for diabetes screening and BGL monitoring as an adjunct to the standard criteria.

  13. Dielectric barrier discharge micro-plasma emission spectrometry for the detection of acetone in exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Gao, Dong-Xue; Yu, Yong-Liang; Chen, Ming-Li; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Acetone is a predominant volatile organic compound (VOC) in the exhaled breath and a promising biomarker for diabetes and ketoacidosis. A non-thermal micro-plasma generated in a planar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is used as a radiation source for the excitation of gaseous acetone followed by its quantification with optical emission spectrometry (OES). Gaseous acetone can be directly sampled, while liquid acetone is evaporated by heated tungsten coil and then introduced into the DBD micro-plasma by a helium carrier flow for performing optical emission and detection at a 519 nm emission line. In the present study, the exhaled breath is collected and transferred into aqueous medium for sampling. With a sampling volume of 7 μL in a micro-drop, a linear range of 40-1600 mg L(-1) is obtained along with a detection limit of 44 ng and a precision of 5.7% RSD. The present system is successfully applied to the determination of breath acetone for both diabetic patients and healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Augmented spontaneous breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachenberg, T

    1996-09-01

    Impaired pulmonary gas exchange can result from lung parenchymal failure inducing oxygenation deficiency and fatigue of the respiratory muscles, which is characterized by hypercapnia or a combination of both mechanisms. Contractility of and coordination between the diaphragm and the thoracoabdominal respiratory muscles predominantly determine the efficiency of spontaneous breathing. Sepsis, cardiac failure, malnutrition or acute changes of the load conditions may induce fatigue of the respiratory muscles. Augmentation of spontaneous breathing is not only achieved by the application of different technical principles or devices; it also has to improve perfusion, metabolism, load conditions and contractility of the respiratory muscles. Intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) allows spontaneous breathing of the patient and augments alveolar ventilation by periodically applying positive airway pressure tidal volumes, which are generated by the respirator. Potential advantages include lower mean airway pressure (PAW), as compared with controlled mechanical ventilation, and improved haemodynamics. Suboptimal IMV systems may impose increased work and oxygen cost of breathing, fatigue of the respiratory muscles and CO2 retention. During pressure support ventilation (PSV), inspiratory alterations of PAW or gas flow (trigger) are detected by the respirator, which delivers a gas flow to maintain PAW at a fixed value (usually 5-20 cm H2O) during inspiration. PSV may be combined with other modalities of respiratory therapy such as IMV or CPAP. Claimed advantages of PSV include decreased effort of breathing, reduced systemic and respiratory muscle consumption of oxygen, prophylaxis of diaphragmatic fatigue and an improved extubation rate after prolonged periods of mechanical ventilation. Minimum alveolar ventilation is not guaranteed during PSV; thus, close observation of the patient is mandatory to avoid serious respiratory complications. Continuous positive airway pressure

  15. Modular Sampling and Analysis Techniques for the Real-Time Analysis of Human Breath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M; Farquar, G; Adams, K; Bogan, M; Martin, A; Benner, H; Spadaccini, C; Steele, P; Davis, C; Loyola, B; Morgan, J; Sankaran, S

    2007-07-09

    At LLNL and UC Davis, we are developing several techniques for the real-time sampling and analysis of trace gases, aerosols and exhaled breath that could be useful for a modular, integrated system for breath analysis. Those techniques include single-particle bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) for the analysis of exhaled aerosol particles or droplets as well as breath samplers integrated with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or MEMS-based differential mobility spectrometry (DMS). We describe these techniques and present recent data obtained from human breath or breath condensate, in particular, addressing the question of how environmental exposure influences the composition of breath.

  16. Individuality of breathing during volitional moderate hyperventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besleaga, Tudor; Blum, Michaël; Briot, Raphaël; Vovc, Victor; Moldovanu, Ion; Calabrese, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the individuality of airflow shapes during volitional hyperventilation. Ventilation was recorded on 18 healthy subjects following two protocols: (1) spontaneous breathing (SP1) followed by a volitional hyperventilation at each subject's spontaneous (HVSP) breathing rate, (2) spontaneous breathing (SP2) followed by hyperventilation at 20/min (HV20). HVSP and HV20 were performed at the same level of hypocapnia: end tidal CO2 (FETCO2) was maintained at 1% below the spontaneous level. At each breath, the tidal volume (VT), the breath (TTOT), the inspiratory (TI) and expiratory durations, the minute ventilation, VT/TI, TI/TTOT and the airflow shape were quantified by harmonic analysis. Under different conditions of breathing, we test if the airflow profiles of the same individual are more similar than airflow profiles between individuals. Minute ventilation was not significantly different between SP1 (6.71 ± 1.64 l·min(-1)) and SP2 (6.57 ± 1.31 l·min(-1)) nor between HVSP (15.88 ± 4.92 l·min(-1)) and HV20 (15.87 ± 4.16 l·min(-1)). Similar results were obtained for FETCO2 between SP1 (5.06 ± 0.54 %) and SP2 (5.00 ± 0.51%), and HVSP (4.07 ± 0.51%) and HV20 (3.88 ± 0.42%). Only TI/TTOT remained unchanged in all four conditions. Airflow shapes were similar when comparing SP1-SP2, HVSP-HV20, and SP1-HVSP but not similar when comparing SP2-HV20. These results suggest the existence of an individuality of airflow shape during volitional hyperventilation. We conclude that volitional ventilation alike automatic breathing follows inherent properties of the ventilatory system. Registered by Pascale Calabrese on ClinicalTrials.gov, # NCT01881945.

  17. Asthma outcomes: Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefler, Stanley J.; Wenzel, Sally; Brown, Robert; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Fahy, John V.; Hamilton, Robert G.; Hunt, John F.; Kita, Hirohito; Liu, Andrew H.; Panettieri, Reynold A.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Minnicozzi, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Measurement of biomarkers has been incorporated within clinical research studies of asthma to characterize the population and associate the disease with environmental and therapeutic effects. Objective National Institutes of Health institutes and federal agencies convened an expert group to propose which biomarkers should be assessed as standardized asthma outcomes in future clinical research studies. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of the literature to identify studies that developed and/or tested asthma biomarkers. We identified biomarkers relevant to the underlying disease process progression and response to treatment. We classified the biomarkers as either core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to study aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an National Institutes of Health–organized workshop convened in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results Ten measures were identified; only 1, multiallergen screening to define atopy, is recommended as a core asthma outcome. Complete blood counts to measure total eosinophils, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (Feno), sputum eosinophils, urinary leukotrienes, and total and allergen-specific IgE are recommended as supplemental measures. Measurement of sputum polymorphonuclear leukocytes and other analytes, cortisol measures, airway imaging, breath markers, and system-wide studies (eg, genomics, proteomics) are considered as emerging outcome measures. Conclusion The working group participants propose the use of multiallergen screening in all asthma clinical trials to characterize study populations with respect to atopic status. Blood, sputum, and urine specimens should be stored in biobanks, and standard procedures should be developed to harmonize sample collection for clinical trial biorepositories. PMID:22386512

  18. Determination of breath acetone in 149 type 2 diabetic patients using a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Jiang, Chenyu; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhennang; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-02-01

    Over 90% of diabetic patients have Type 2 diabetes. Although an elevated mean breath acetone concentration has been found to exist in Type 1 diabetes (T1D), information on breath acetone in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has yet to be obtained. In this study, we first used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to validate a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer based on the cavity-ringdown-spectroscopy technique, through comparing breath acetone concentrations in the range 0.5-2.5 ppm measured using both methods. The linear fitting of R = 0.99 suggests that the acetone concentrations obtained using both methods are consistent with a largest standard deviation of ±0.4 ppm in the lowest concentration of the range. Next, 620 breath samples from 149 T2D patients and 42 healthy subjects were collected and tested using the breath analyzer. Four breath samples were taken from each subject under each of four different conditions: fasting, 2 h post-breakfast, 2 h post-lunch, and 2 h post-dinner. Simultaneous blood glucose levels were also measured using a standard diabetic-management blood-glucose meter. For the 149 T2D subjects, their exhaled breath acetone concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 19.8 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.1-19.8, 0.1-7.1, 0.1-6.3, and 0.1-9.5 ppm, were obtained for the subjects under the four different conditions, respectively. For the 42 healthy subjects, their breath acetone concentration ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.3-2.6, 0.1-2.6, 0.1-1.7, and 0.3-1.6 ppm, were obtained for the four different conditions. The mean breath acetone concentration of the 149 T2D subjects was determined to be 1.5 ± 1.5 ppm, which was 1.5 times that of 1.0 ± 0.6 ppm for the 42 healthy subjects. No correlation was found between the breath acetone concentration and the blood glucose level of the T2D subjects and the healthy volunteers. This study using a relatively large number of

  19. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  20. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with obesity hypoventilation syndrome also have sleep apnea. Deconditioning If you are not active or do not exer- cise regularly, as a result of being out of shape and experiencing muscle fatigue, you may develop shortness of breath with physical exertion beyond your customary activity such as when ...

  1. Breathing, feeding, and neuroprotection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Homma, Ikuo; Shioda, S

    2006-01-01

    ... of knowledge of brain functions and morphology. Akiyoshi Hosoyamada, M.D., Ph.D. President Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan December 2005Preface Brain research is on the march, with several advanced technical developments and new findings uncovered almost daily. Within the brain-research fields, we focus on breathing, neuroprotection, an...

  2. Firefighter's Breathing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

  3. Breath Malodour - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Tandon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The term ′Halitosis′, ′Foetor oris′ and ′foetor ex ore′ are used to describe offensive breath. This embarrassing condition causes social, emotional and psychological anxiety. This article provides an insight into etiology, diagnosis and management of oral malodour.

  4. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Halitosis (Bad Breath) Do You Have Traveler's Breath? Bad breath while ... your desktop! more... Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath Article Chapters Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad ...

  5. Expiration: breathing's other face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, Sarah E M; Milsom, William K

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the aspiration pump seen in tetrapod vertebrates from the buccal-pharyngeal force pump seen in air breathing fish and amphibians appears to have first involved the production of active expiration. Active inspiration arose later. This appears to have involved reconfiguration of a parafacial oscillator (now the parafacial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus (pFRG/RTN)) to produce active expiration, followed by reconfiguration of a paravagal oscillator (now the preBötC) to produce active inspiration. In the ancestral breathing cycle, inspiration follows expiration, which is in turn followed by glottal closure and breath holding. When both rhythms are expressed, as they are in reptiles and birds, and mammals under conditions of elevated respiratory drive, the pFRG/RTN appears to initiate the respiratory cycle. We propose that the coordinated output of this system is a ventilation cycle characterized by four phases. In reptiles, these consist of active inspiration (I), glottal closure (E1), a pause (an apnea or breath hold) (E2), and an active expiration (E3) that initiates the next cycle. In mammals under resting conditions, active expiration (E3) is suppressed and inspiration (I) is followed by airway constriction and diaphragmatic braking (E1) (rather than glottal closure) and a short pause at end-expiration (E2). As respiratory drive increases in mammals, expiratory muscle activity appears. Frequently, it first appears immediately preceding inspiration (E3) just as it does in reptiles. It can also appear in E1, however, and it is not yet clear what mechanisms underlie when and where in the cycle it appears. This may reflect whether the active expiration is recruited to enhance tidal volume, increase breathing frequency, or both. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Periaqueductal gray control of breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Hari H; Holstege, Gert

    2010-01-01

    Change of the basic respiratory rhythm (eupnea) is a pre-requisite for survival. For example, sudden escape from danger needs rapid shallow breathing, strenuous exercise requires tachypnea for sufficient supply of oxygen and a strong anxiety reaction necessitates gasping. Also for vocalization (and for speech in humans) an important mechanism for survival, respiration has to be changed. The caudal brainstem premotor respiratory centers need input from higher brain centers in order to change respiration according to the surrounding circumstances. One of the most important of such a higher brain centers is the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). The PAG co-ordinates motor output, including respiratory changes based on input from limbic, prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex regions. These areas integrate visual, auditory and somatosensory information in the context of basic survival mechanisms and relay the result to the PAG, which has access to respiratory control centers in the caudal brainstem. Through these pathways the PAG can change eupneic respiratory rhythm into the behavior necessary for that specific situation. We present data obtained from the cat and propose a functional framework for the breathing control pathways.

  7. Breathing exercises for dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Nicola J; Jones, Mandy; O'Connell, Neil E; Everard, Mark L

    2013-12-18

    Dysfunctional breathing is described as chronic or recurrent changes in breathing pattern causing respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms. It is an umbrella term that encompasses hyperventilation syndrome and vocal cord dysfunction. Dysfunctional breathing affects 10% of the general population. Symptoms include dyspnoea, chest tightness, sighing and chest pain which arise secondary to alterations in respiratory pattern and rate. Little is known about dysfunctional breathing in children. Preliminary data suggest 5.3% or more of children with asthma have dysfunctional breathing and that, unlike in adults, it is associated with poorer asthma control. It is not known what proportion of the general paediatric population is affected. Breathing training is recommended as a first-line treatment for adults with dysfunctional breathing (with or without asthma) but no similar recommendations are available for the management of children. As such, breathing retraining is adapted from adult regimens based on the age and ability of the child. To determine whether breathing retraining in children with dysfunctional breathing has beneficial effects as measured by quality of life indices.To determine whether there are any adverse effects of breathing retraining in young people with dysfunctional breathing. We identified trials for consideration using both electronic and manual search strategies. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE. We searched the National Research Register (NRR) Archive, Health Services Research Projects in Progress (HSRProj), Current Controlled Trials register (incorporating the metaRegister of Controlled Trials and the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) to identify research in progress and unpublished research. The latest search was undertaken in October 2013. We planned to include randomised, quasi-randomised or cluster-randomised controlled trials. We excluded observational studies, case studies and studies utilising a cross

  8. Mapleson's Breathing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-09-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification) are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  9. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health (NCCDPHP, DACH).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  10. [TMJ, eating and breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheynet, F

    2016-09-01

    The study of the relationship between temporomandibular joints (TMJ), mastication and ventilation and the involvement of these two functions in the genesis of primary Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and in some dentofacial deformities, was initiated in France, more than 30years, by Professor Raymond Gola. Once criticized the weakness of the scientific literature in this domain, the originality of the TMJ within the masticatory system is recalled with its huge adaptation potential to very different biomechanical constraints according to the age and masticatory activities during the day. But the biomechanics of the masticatory system does not stop at night and the positions of the mandible and head during sleep should be studied carefully. In case of nocturnal mouth breathing with open mouth, the predominant sleeping position (generating small but long-term strengths) may be deleterious to the condyle-disc complex, to the surrounding muscles and the occlusal relationships. Some condyle-disc displacements and asymmetric malocclusions occur in this long portion of life what sleep, especially as oral breathing leads to a lot of dysfunctions (low position of the tongue, labio-lingual dysfunctions, exacerbation of bruxism sleep…). The aim of this work was to share our multidisciplinary experience of the biomechanical consequences of the nocturnal mouth breathing on the face involving orthodontists, maxillofacial surgeons, ENT, allergists, speech therapists, physiotherapists and radiologists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Breathing exercises for dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mandy; Harvey, Alex; Marston, Louise; O'Connell, Neil E

    2013-05-31

    Dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome (DB/HVS) is a respiratory disorder, psychologically or physiologically based, involving breathing too deeply and/or too rapidly (hyperventilation) or erratic breathing interspersed with breath-holding or sighing (DB). DB/HVS can result in significant patient morbidity and an array of symptoms including breathlessness, chest tightness, dizziness, tremor and paraesthesia. DB/HVS has an estimated prevalence of 9.5% in the general adult population, however, there is little consensus regarding the most effective management of this patient group. (1) To determine whether breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS have beneficial effects as measured by quality of life indices (2) To determine whether there are any adverse effects of breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS SEARCH METHODS: We identified trials for consideration using both electronic and manual search strategies. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and four other databases. The latest search was in February 2013. We planned to include randomised, quasi-randomised or cluster randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which breathing exercises, or a combined intervention including breathing exercises as a key component, were compared with either no treatment or another therapy that did not include breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS. Observational studies, case studies and studies utilising a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion.We considered any type of breathing exercise for inclusion in this review, such as breathing control, diaphragmatic breathing, yoga breathing, Buteyko breathing, biofeedback-guided breathing modification, yawn/sigh suppression. Programs where exercises were either supervised or unsupervised were eligible as were relaxation techniques and acute-episode management, as long as it was clear that breathing exercises were a key component of the intervention.We excluded any intervention without breathing exercises or

  12. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders N; Nøttrup, Trine Jakobi

    2005-01-01

    , and to compare this respiratory technique with voluntary breath-hold. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 17 patients were CT-scanned during non-coached breathing manoeuvre including free breathing (FB), end-inspiration gating (IG), end-expiration gating (EG), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and end-expiration breath...

  13. The breath of life. Patients' experiences of breathing during and after mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugdahl, Hege S; Dahlberg, Helena; Klepstad, Pål; Storli, Sissel L

    2017-06-01

    Breathlessness is a prevalent and distressing symptom in intensive care, underestimated by nurses and physicians. Therefore, to develop a more comprehensive understanding of this problem, the study had two aims: to compare patients' self-reported scores of breathlessness obtained during mechanical ventilation (MV) with experiences of breathlessness later recalled by patients and: to explore the lived experience of breathing during and after MV. A qualitatively driven sequential mixed method design combining prospective observational breathlessness data at the end of a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) and follow up data from 11 post-discharge interviews. Four out of six patients who reported breathlessness at the end of an SBT did not remember being breathless in retrospect. Experiences of breathing intertwined with the whole illness experience and were described in four themes: existential threat; the tough time; an amorphous and boundless body and getting through. Breathing was not always a clearly separate experience, but intertwined with the whole illness experience. This may explain the poor correspondence between patients' and clinicians assessments of breathlessness. The results suggest patients' own reports of breathing should form part of nursing interventions and follow-up to support patients' quest for meaning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of breath-by-breath alveolar gas exchange: an alternative view of the respiratory cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cettolo, V; Francescato, Maria Pia

    2015-09-01

    Breath-by-breath (BbB) determination of the O2 flux at alveolar level implies the identification of the start and end points of each respiratory cycle; Grønlund defined them as the times in two successive breaths showing equal expiratory gas fractions. Alternatively, the start and end points of each breath might be linked to the ratio between the exchangeable and non-exchangeable gases. The alternative algorithm is described and evaluated with respect to the algorithm proposed by Grønlund. Oxygen and carbon dioxide fractions, and ventilatory flow at the mouth were continuatively recorded in 20 subjects over 6 min at rest and during a cycloergometer exercise including 4 increasing intensities lasting 6 min each. Alveolar BbB oxygen uptake was calculated from the gas and flow traces by means of the two methods at stake. Total number of analysed breaths was 14,257. The data obtained with the two methods were close to the identity line (average slope 0.998 ± 0.004; R > 0.994; n > 334 in all subjects). Average difference between the O2 uptake data obtained by the two methods amounted to -0.27 ± 1.29 mL/min, whilst the standard deviation of the differences was 11.5 ± 4.6 mL/min. The relative percentage difference was independent from the O2 uptake and showed an average bias amongst subjects close to zero (-0.06 ± 0.15 %). The alternative timing of the respiratory cycle provided congruent O2 uptake data and made the identification of the start and end points of each breath more robust without introducing systematic errors.

  15. Combined sensing platform for advanced diagnostics in exhaled mouse breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Paula R.; Wilk, Andreas; Seichter, Felicia; Cajlakovic, Merima; Koestler, Stefan; Ribitsch, Volker; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Carter, Chance; Raimundo, Ivo M.; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Breath analysis is an attractive non-invasive strategy for early disease recognition or diagnosis, and for therapeutic progression monitoring, as quantitative compositional analysis of breath can be related to biomarker panels provided by a specific physiological condition invoked by e.g., pulmonary diseases, lung cancer, breast cancer, and others. As exhaled breath contains comprehensive information on e.g., the metabolic state, and since in particular volatile organic constituents (VOCs) in exhaled breath may be indicative of certain disease states, analytical techniques for advanced breath diagnostics should be capable of sufficient molecular discrimination and quantification of constituents at ppm-ppb - or even lower - concentration levels. While individual analytical techniques such as e.g., mid-infrared spectroscopy may provide access to a range of relevant molecules, some IR-inactive constituents require the combination of IR sensing schemes with orthogonal analytical tools for extended molecular coverage. Combining mid-infrared hollow waveguides (HWGs) with luminescence sensors (LS) appears particularly attractive, as these complementary analytical techniques allow to simultaneously analyze total CO2 (via luminescence), the 12CO2/13CO2 tracer-to-tracee (TTR) ratio (via IR), selected VOCs (via IR) and O2 (via luminescence) in exhaled breath, yet, establishing a single diagnostic platform as both sensors simultaneously interact with the same breath sample volume. In the present study, we take advantage of a particularly compact (shoebox-size) FTIR spectrometer combined with novel substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) recently developed by our research team, and miniaturized fiberoptic luminescence sensors for establishing a multi-constituent breath analysis tool that is ideally compatible with mouse intensive care stations (MICU). Given the low tidal volume and flow of exhaled mouse breath, the TTR is usually determined after sample collection via gas

  16. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Investigation into breath meditation: Phenomenological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This integral heuristic phenomenological investigation records participants' experiences of a single session of breath meditation with special reference to psychotherapy and sport psychology. There were 8 participants, 4 men and 4 women, with mean age of 45 years and age range from 31 to 62 years. Various breathing ...

  18. Does a Smaller Waist Mean Smelly Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Halitosis (Bad Breath) Do You Have Traveler's Breath? Bad breath while ... when saliva production is diminished." ; Tips to combat halitosis: ; 1. Drink water to wash away germs ; Drinking ...

  19. Energy breathing of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynich, Raman A.

    2015-06-01

    The paper considers the energy exchange process of the electromagnetic wave with a spherical metal nanoparticle. Based on the account of the temporal dependencies of electric and magnetic fields, the author presents an analytical dependence of the energy flow passing through the spherical surface. It is shown that the electromagnetic energy, localized in metal nanoparticles, is not a stationary value and periodically varies with time. A consequence of the energy nonstationarity is a nonradiating exit of the electromagnetic energy out of the nanoparticle. During the time equal to the period of wave oscillations, the electromagnetic energy is penetrating twice into the particle and quits it twice. The particle warms up because of the difference in the incoming and outgoing energies. Such "energy breathing" is presented for spherical Ag and Au nanoparticles with radii of 10 i 33 nm, respectively. Calculations were conducted for these nanoparticles embedded into the cell cytoplasm near the frequencies of their surface plasmon resonances.

  20. Breath of hospitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Lenart

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we outline the possibilities of an ethic of care based on our self-affection and subjectivity in the ethical spaces between-two. In this we first refer to three Irigarayan concepts - breath, silence and listening from the third phase of her philosophy, and discuss them within the methodological framework of an ethics of intersubjectivity and interiority. Together with attentiveness, we analyse them as four categories of our ethical becoming. Furthermore, we argue that self-affection is based on our inchoate receptivity for the needs of the other(s) and is thus dialectical in its character. In this we critically confront some epistemological views of our ethical becoming. We wind up this paper with a proposal for an ethics towards two autonomous subjects, based on care and our shared ethical becoming - both as signs of our deepest hospitality towards the other.

  1. Moyamoya Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is an arteriopathy of the intracranial circulation predominantly affecting the branches of the internal carotid arteries. Heterogeneity in presentation, progression and response to therapy has prompted intense study to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of this disease. Recent progress in the development of moyamoya-related biomarkers has stimulated marked interest in this field. Biomarkers can be defined as biologically derived agents-such as specific molecules or unique patterns on imaging-that can identify the presence of disease or help to predict its course. This article reviews the current categories of biomarkers relevant to MMD-including proteins, cells and genes-along with potential limitations and applications for their use. PMID:26180608

  2. A cross-sectional study of breath acetone based on diabetic metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwen; Liu, Yong; Lu, Xiaoyong; Huang, Yanping; Liu, Yu; Cheng, Shouquan; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-02-26

    Breath acetone is a known biomarker for diabetes mellitus in breath analysis. In this work, a cross-sectional study of breath acetone based on clinical metabolic disorders of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was carried out. Breath acetone concentrations of 113 T2DM patients and 56 apparently healthy individuals were measured at a single time point. Concentrations varied from 0.22 to 9.41 ppmv (mean 1.75 ppmv) for T2DM, which were significantly higher than those for normal controls (ranged from 0.32 to 1.96 ppmv, mean 0.72 ppmv, p = 0.008). Observations in our work revealed that breath acetone concentrations elevated to different degrees, along with the abnormality of blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride and cholesterol. Breath acetone showed obviously positive correlations with blood ketone and urine ketone. Possible metabolic relations between breath acetone and diabetic disorders were also discussed. This work aimed at giving an overall assessment of breath acetone from the perspective of clinical parameters for type 2 diabetes.

  3. SERS spectroscopy for detection of hydrogen cyanide in breath from children colonised with P. aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Rikke Kragh; Skou, Peter Bæk; Rindzevicius, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    ) nanochip optimised for detection of trace amounts of the P. aeruginosa biomarker hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was mounted inside a Tedlar bag, which the patient breathed into. The SERS chip was then analysed in a Raman spectrometer, investigating the C≡N peak at 2131 cm-1 and correlated with sputum cultures. One...

  4. Release of erythropoietin and neuron-specific enolase after breath holding in competing free divers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Jattu, T; Nielsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Free diving is associated with extreme hypoxia. This study evaluated the combined effect of maximal static breath holding and underwater swimming on plasma biomarkers of tissue hypoxemia: erythropoietin, neuron-specific enolase and S100B, C-reactive protein, pro-atrial natriuretic peptide...

  5. Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Rikke Kragh; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Molin, Søren

    2015-01-01

    ) at ppb level has been reported to be a PA biomarker. For early PA detection in CF children not yet chronically lung infected a non-invasive Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)-based breath nanosensor is being developed. The triple bond between C and N in cyanide, with its characteristic band...

  6. Optimal breathing protocol for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of solitary pulmonary nodules at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kino, Aya; Takahashi, Masaya [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Ashiku, Simon K.; Decamp, Malcolm M. [Section of Thoracic Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Lenkinski, Robert E. [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology and Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)], E-mail: hhatabu@partners.org

    2007-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate optimal breathing maneuvers that minimize lung parenchymal movement for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), which requires longer scan times, beyond the limit of a single breath hold. A healthy volunteer was scanned on a 3 T MR scanner using two different breathing maneuvers. In the first, the healthy volunteer was instructed to hold his breath as much as possible and breathe in between breath holds while an image was obtained. In the second, the volunteer was instructed to breathe shallowly and freely throughout the scan. On the obtained images, the excursion of the highest point of the right diaphragm and the pulmonary vessel branches located in the four different anatomic regions of the lung were measured in two orthogonal planes. A patient with a solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) underwent DCE-MRI utilizing a 2D spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) sequence while the patient breathed shallowly and freely during the scan. The standard deviations of the excursion of the highest point and selected pulmonary vessels were much smaller during shallow, free breathing maneuver scans than those during breath hold maneuver scans. A dynamic perfusion-fitting curve of the SPN was obtained during the DCE-MRI using shallow free breathing. Shallow, free breathing allows smaller diaphragmatic cranial caudal and lung parenchymal displacements. Therefore, it can be useful during exams where targeting of the lesion is necessary, in studies with long scan times, such as dynamic MRI. This breathing maneuver makes it possible to analyze SPN with DCE-MRI while making use of the advantages of a higher magnetic field in conjunction.

  7. Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Human Breath Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtas, J.; Tittel, F. K.; Stacewicz, T.; Bielecki, Z.; Lewicki, R.; Mikolajczyk, J.; Nowakowski, M.; Szabra, D.; Stefanski, P.; Tarka, J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes two different optoelectronic detection techniques: cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy. These techniques are designed to perform a sensitive analysis of trace gas species in exhaled human breath for medical applications. With such systems, the detection of pathogenic changes at the molecular level can be achieved. The presence of certain gases (biomarkers), at increased concentration levels, indicates numerous human diseases. Diagnosis of a disease in its early stage would significantly increase chances for effective therapy. Non-invasive, real-time measurements, and high sensitivity and selectivity, capable of minimum discomfort for patients, are the main advantages of human breath analysis. At present, monitoring of volatile biomarkers in breath is commonly useful for diagnostic screening, treatment for specific conditions, therapy monitoring, control of exogenous gases (such as bacterial and poisonous emissions), as well as for analysis of metabolic gases.

  8. Palliative care - shortness of breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000471.htm Palliative care - shortness of breath To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Palliative care is a holistic approach to care that focuses ...

  9. EFFECTS OF ORAL IRON SUPPLEMENT ON BREATH-HOLDING SPELLS IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    S.H. TONEKABONI; S. ALAVI; F. MAHVELATI; Z. TABASI

    2006-01-01

    Objectives:Breath holding spells are one of the most frequent and important diagnostic challenges in pediatrics. The aim of this study, conducted on pediatric patients referring to the pediatric neurology clinic in Hormozgan province, was to evaluate therapeutic effects of iron on breath holding spellsMaterials and Methods:35 children (19 males and 16 females), aged between 3 to 60 months, with a history of breath-holding spells, were included in the trial. To obtain all relevant data a speci...

  10. Breath acidification in adolescent runners exposed to atmospheric pollution: A prospective, repeated measures observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Sickle David

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vigorous outdoors exercise during an episode of air pollution might cause airway inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vigorous outdoor exercise during peak smog season on breath pH, a biomarker of airway inflammation, in adolescent athletes. Methods We measured breath pH both pre- and post-exercise on ten days during peak smog season in 16 high school athletes engaged in daily long-distance running in a downwind suburb of Atlanta. The association of post-exercise breath pH with ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations was tested with linear regression. Results We collected 144 pre-exercise and 146 post-exercise breath samples from 16 runners (mean age 14.9 years, 56% male. Median pre-exercise breath pH was 7.58 (interquartile range: 6.90 to 7.86 and did not change significantly after exercise. We observed no significant association between ambient ozone or particulate matter and post-exercise breath pH. However both pre- and post-exercise breath pH were strikingly low in these athletes when compared to a control sample of 14 relatively sedentary healthy adults and to published values of breath pH in healthy subjects. Conclusion Although we did not observe an acute effect of air pollution exposure during exercise on breath pH, breath pH was surprisingly low in this sample of otherwise healthy long-distance runners. We speculate that repetitive vigorous exercise may induce airway acidification.

  11. Biochemical pathways of breath ammonia (NH3) generation in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Laiho, S; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L; Ortiz, F; Forsblom, C; Groop, P-H; Lehto, M; Metsälä, M

    2016-08-12

    Breath ammonia (NH3) has been proposed as a potential biomarker in monitoring hemodialysis (HD) adequacy, since a strong correlation between blood urea and mouth-exhaled breath NH3 has been observed in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing HD. However, the biochemical pathways for breath NH3 generation from blood urea have not been demonstrated. In this study, we show a strong correlation (r s  =  0.77, p  NH3) in most of the patients. This confirms that the hydrolysis of urea by urease generates ammonia in the oral cavity. A further strong correlation between salivary ammonia and breath NH3 indicates that salivary ammonia evaporates into gas phase and turns to breath NH3. Therefore, blood urea is a major biochemical source of breath NH3. Since breath NH3 is generated predominantly in the oral cavity, the levels of breath NH3 are influenced significantly by the patient's oral condition including urease activity and salivary pH. Our results agree with previous studies that have shown a connection between salivary urea and breath NH3.

  12. Breathing retraining for dysfunctional breathing in asthma: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, M.; Mckinley, R; Freeman, E.; Foy, C.; Prodger, P; Price, D.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Functional breathing disorders may complicate asthma and impair quality of life. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of physiotherapy based breathing retraining for patients treated for asthma in the community who have symptoms suggestive of dysfunctional breathing.

  13. Noise Reduction in Breath Sound Files Using Wavelet Transform Based Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, M. F.; Situmeang, S. I. G.; Rahmat, R. F.; Budiarto, R.

    2017-04-01

    The development of science and technology in the field of healthcare increasingly provides convenience in diagnosing respiratory system problem. Recording the breath sounds is one example of these developments. Breath sounds are recorded using a digital stethoscope, and then stored in a file with sound format. This breath sounds will be analyzed by health practitioners to diagnose the symptoms of disease or illness. However, the breath sounds is not free from interference signals. Therefore, noise filter or signal interference reduction system is required so that breath sounds component which contains information signal can be clarified. In this study, we designed a filter called a wavelet transform based filter. The filter that is designed in this study is using Daubechies wavelet with four wavelet transform coefficients. Based on the testing of the ten types of breath sounds data, the data is obtained in the largest SNRdB bronchial for 74.3685 decibels.

  14. Biomarkers for Detecting Mitochondrial Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Objectives: Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs are a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous group of slowly or rapidly progressive disorders with onset from birth to senescence. Because of their variegated clinical presentation, MIDs are difficult to diagnose and are frequently missed in their early and late stages. This is why there is a need to provide biomarkers, which can be easily obtained in the case of suspecting a MID to initiate the further diagnostic work-up. (2 Methods: Literature review. (3 Results: Biomarkers for diagnostic purposes are used to confirm a suspected diagnosis and to facilitate and speed up the diagnostic work-up. For diagnosing MIDs, a number of dry and wet biomarkers have been proposed. Dry biomarkers for MIDs include the history and clinical neurological exam and structural and functional imaging studies of the brain, muscle, or myocardium by ultrasound, computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, MR-spectroscopy (MRS, positron emission tomography (PET, or functional MRI. Wet biomarkers from blood, urine, saliva, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF for diagnosing MIDs include lactate, creatine-kinase, pyruvate, organic acids, amino acids, carnitines, oxidative stress markers, and circulating cytokines. The role of microRNAs, cutaneous respirometry, biopsy, exercise tests, and small molecule reporters as possible biomarkers is unsolved. (4 Conclusions: The disadvantages of most putative biomarkers for MIDs are that they hardly meet the criteria for being acceptable as a biomarker (missing longitudinal studies, not validated, not easily feasible, not cheap, not ubiquitously available and that not all MIDs manifest in the brain, muscle, or myocardium. There is currently a lack of validated biomarkers for diagnosing MIDs.

  15. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    for the health system. It is hard to detect sleep apnea it is beneficial to have a sleep monitoring system in homes of people in high risk zones. However, this system would have to be unobtrusive in order for people to accept to implement them while sleeping. The only really unobtrusive way is through wireless...... human beings life as side effects from not breathing may include death. Breathing monitoring is often used in hospitals, however, the monitoring systems are usually based on physical contact with the patient. As a result, they are often a nuisance to the patient and they may even be disconnected....... A better solution is contactless non-intrusive wireless measurement of the breathing. It is found that up to 20% of the population will suffer from sleep apnea. Sleep apnea has several health related drawback. Among them are several cardiovascular outcomes, increases illness- and accident- related cost...

  16. Transcriptomic Analysis of Compromise Between Air-Breathing and Nutrient Uptake of Posterior Intestine in Loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), an Air-Breathing Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Songqian; Cao, Xiaojuan; Tian, Xianchang

    2016-08-01

    Dojo loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) is an air-breathing fish species by using its posterior intestine to breathe on water surface. So far, the molecular mechanism about accessory air-breathing in fish is seldom addressed. Five cDNA libraries were constructed here for loach posterior intestines form T01 (the initial stage group), T02 (mid-stage of normal group), T03 (end stage of normal group), T04 (mid-stage of air-breathing inhibited group), and T05 (the end stage of air-breathing inhibited group) and subjected to perform RNA-seq to compare their transcriptomic profilings. A total of 92,962 unigenes were assembled, while 37,905 (40.77 %) unigenes were successfully annotated. 2298, 1091, and 3275 differentially expressed genes (fn1, ACE, EGFR, Pxdn, SDF, HIF, VEGF, SLC2A1, SLC5A8 etc.) were observed in T04/T02, T05/T03, and T05/T04, respectively. Expression levels of many genes associated with air-breathing and nutrient uptake varied significantly between normal and intestinal air-breathing inhibited group. Intraepithelial capillaries in posterior intestines of loaches from T05 were broken, while red blood cells were enriched at the surface of intestinal epithelial lining with 241 ± 39 cells per millimeter. There were periodic acid-schiff (PAS)-positive epithelial mucous cells in posterior intestines from both normal and air-breathing inhibited groups. Results obtained here suggested an overlap of air-breathing and nutrient uptake function of posterior intestine in loach. Intestinal air-breathing inhibition in loach would influence the posterior intestine's nutrient uptake ability and endothelial capillary structure stability. This study will contribute to our understanding on the molecular regulatory mechanisms of intestinal air-breathing in loach.

  17. Beware Postpartum Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Guleser; Ipekci, Afsin; Gulen, Bedia; Ikizceli, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is one of the potentially life-threatening complications of pregnancy. We report a case of a 36-year-old female patient who presented with shortness of breath, swelling of feet after giving birth to triplets, and her tests revealed that left ventricle is dilated with its diameter on the borderline and she had EF 35% with advanced systolic dysfunction. Anterior wall and septum were severely hypokinetic. In the presence of these findings, the patient was evaluated as PPCM. PPCM must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with shortness of breath and swelling of feet, which are also common in pregnancy. PMID:26649031

  18. Blue breath holding is benign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life threatening event' deserve immense understanding and help, and it behoves investigators to exercise extreme care and self criticism in the presentation of new knowledge which may bear upon their management and their morale. PMID:2001115

  19. Oral breathing and speech disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia F. Hitos

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Mouth breathing can affect speech development, socialization, and school performance. Early detection of mouth breathing is essential to prevent and minimize its negative effects on the overall development of individuals.

  20. Breath Methane Levels Are Increased Among Patients with Diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Cemal; Arslan, Deniz Cagil; Abraham, Rana; Cushing, Kelly; Keshavarzian, Ali; Mutlu, Ece A

    2016-09-01

    Diverticulosis and its complications are important healthcare problems in the USA and throughout the Western world. While mechanisms as to how diverticulosis occurs have partially been explored, few studies examined the relationship between colonic gases such as methane and diverticulosis in humans. This study aimed to demonstrate a significant relationship between methanogenic Archaea and development of diverticulosis. Subjects who consecutively underwent hydrogen breath test at Rush University Medical Center between 2003 and 2010 were identified retrospectively through a database. Medical records were reviewed for presence of a colonoscopy report. Two hundred and sixty-four subjects were identified who had both a breath methane level measurement and a colonoscopy result. Additional demographic and clinical data were obtained with chart review. Mean breath methane levels were higher in subjects with diverticulosis compared to those without diverticulosis (7.89 vs. 4.94 ppm, p = 0.04). Methane producers (defined as those with baseline fasting breath methane level >5 ppm) were more frequent among subjects with diverticulosis compared to those without diverticulosis (50.9 vs. 34 %, p = 0.0025). When adjusted for confounders, breath methane levels and age were the two independent predictors of diverticulosis on colonoscopy with logistic regression modeling. Methanogenesis is associated with the presence of diverticulosis. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and prospectively evaluate a possible etiological role of methanogenesis and methanogenic archaea in diverticulosis.

  1. A prototype portable breath acetone analyzer for monitoring fat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyooka, Tsuguyoshi; Hiyama, Satoshi; Yamada, Yuki

    2013-09-01

    Acetone contained in our exhaled breath is a metabolic product of the breakdown of body fat and is expected to be a good indicator of fat-burning. Typically, gas chromatography or mass spectrometry are used to measure low-concentration compounds in breath but such large instruments are not suitable for daily use by diet-conscious people. Here, we prototype a portable breath acetone analyzer that has two types of semiconductor-based gas sensors with different sensitivity characteristics, enabling the acetone concentration to be calculated while taking into account the presence of ethanol, hydrogen, and humidity. To investigate the accuracy of our prototype and its application in diet support, experiments were conducted on healthy adult volunteers. Breath acetone concentrations obtained from our prototype and from gas chromatography showed a strong correlation throughout the experiments. Moreover, body fat in subjects with a controlled caloric intake and taking exercise decreased significantly, whereas breath acetone concentrations in those subjects increased significantly. These results prove that our prototype is practical and useful for self-monitoring of fat-burning at home or outside. Our prototype will help to prevent and alleviate obesity and diabetes.

  2. Breathing retraining: a rational placebo?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garssen, B.; de Ruiter, C.; van Dyck, R.

    1992-01-01

    Breathing retraining of patients with Hyperventilation Syndrome (HVS) and/or panic disorder is discussed to evaluate its clinical effectiveness and to examine the mechanism that mediates its effect. In relation to this theoretical question, the validity of HVS as a scientific model is discussed and

  3. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Burgering, M.; Smit, B.; Noordman, W.; Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  4. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, Johannes; Burgering, Maurits; Smit, Bart; Noordman, Wouter; Tangerman, Albert; Winkel, Edwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Objective: Morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  5. Feasibility of multiple breath washout measurements in infants with bronchiolitis: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafler, Patrick; Weinreb, Sigal; Mussaffi, Huda; Mei-Zahav, Meir; Prais, Dario; Steuer, Guy; Bar-On, Ophir; Hoshen, Moshe; Blau, Hannah

    2017-06-01

    Lung clearance index (LCI) reflects ventilation inhomogeneity and is raised in obstructive airway disease. Feasibility of multiple breath washout (MBW) measurement during acute lung disease in infants is unknown. As a further measure of disease, exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) may paradoxically decrease in acute bronchiolitis. We hypothesized that MBW measurements were attainable in infants with bronchiolitis and that LCI was raised and eNO reduced, compared to normal controls. Infants with acute bronchiolitis were tested with sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 ) MBW during hospitalization and compared to controls. Tidal breathing and eNO parameters were obtained. Measurements were performed during natural sleep. Twenty-nine infants with bronchiolitis aged 3.7 ± 2.3 months (mean ± SD) and 23 controls aged 4.2 ± 2.5 months (P = 0.07) were evaluated. Fifteen of 29 (52%) infants with bronchiolitis and 19/23 (83%) controls achieved ≥2 valid MBW measurements. Reasons for test failure included waking up during facemask application and an irregular respiratory pattern. LCI was 8.4 ± 0.8 in the study group and 7.3 ± 0.7 in controls (P infants with acute bronchiolitis. LCI is raised compared to healthy controls. Larger trials, possibly using sedation protocols and shortened washout periods, are required to corroborate these findings. LCI can potentially serve as an objective indicator of severity and could be considered as a biomarker for future interventional trials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...

  7. Urinary Biomarkers in Lupus Nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Thomas, Joyce; Blanco, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Renal involvement in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in the form of severe lupus nephritis is associated with a significant burden of morbidity and mortality. Conventional laboratory biomarkers in current use have not been very successful in anticipating disease flares, predicting renal histology, or decreasing unwanted outcomes. Since early treatment is associated with improved clinical results, it is thus essential to identify new biomarkers with substantial predictive power to reduce the serious sequelae of this difficult to control lupus manifestation. Indeed, considerable efforts and progress have been made over the last few years in the search for novel biomarkers. Since urinary biomarkers are more easily obtainable with much less risk to the patient than repeat renal biopsies, and these may more accurately discern between renal disease and other organ manifestations than their serum counterparts, there has been tremendous interest in studying new candidate urine biomarkers. Below, we review several promising urinary biomarkers under investigation, including total proteinuria and microalbuminuria, urinary proteomic signatures, and the individual inflammatory mediators interleukin-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, CXCL16, IP-10, and tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis. PMID:20127204

  8. The impact of a dedicated physiotherapist clinic for children with dysfunctional breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Barker

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunctional breathing is a significant cause of morbidity, adversely affecting an individual's quality of life. There is currently no data from paediatric centres on the impact of breathing retraining for dysfunctional breathing. Symptoms and quality of life were measured in 34 subjects referred sequentially for breathing retraining to the first dedicated paediatric dysfunctional breathing clinic in the UK. Data were obtained prior to the first intervention (time point 1, at discharge (time point 2 and by post 6 months later (time point 3. The mean (interquartile range age of participants was 13.3 (9.1–16.3 years, with 52% female. Data were obtained at time points 2 and 3 in 23 and 13 subjects, respectively. Statistically significant improvements were observed in symptom scores, child quality of life and parental proxy quality of life between time points 1 and 2 (p<0.0001, while there was no significant difference in the data at time point 3 as compared with time point 2. This study suggests that physiotherapist-led breathing retraining offers significant benefit to young people with dysfunctional breathing which is maintained for at least 6 months after treatment is completed. Future studies will provide more information on the long-term effects of interventions for dysfunctional breathing.

  9. The impact of a dedicated physiotherapist clinic for children with dysfunctional breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Nicola J; Elphick, Heather; Everard, Mark L

    2016-07-01

    Dysfunctional breathing is a significant cause of morbidity, adversely affecting an individual's quality of life. There is currently no data from paediatric centres on the impact of breathing retraining for dysfunctional breathing. Symptoms and quality of life were measured in 34 subjects referred sequentially for breathing retraining to the first dedicated paediatric dysfunctional breathing clinic in the UK. Data were obtained prior to the first intervention (time point 1), at discharge (time point 2) and by post 6 months later (time point 3). The mean (interquartile range) age of participants was 13.3 (9.1-16.3) years, with 52% female. Data were obtained at time points 2 and 3 in 23 and 13 subjects, respectively. Statistically significant improvements were observed in symptom scores, child quality of life and parental proxy quality of life between time points 1 and 2 (p<0.0001), while there was no significant difference in the data at time point 3 as compared with time point 2. This study suggests that physiotherapist-led breathing retraining offers significant benefit to young people with dysfunctional breathing which is maintained for at least 6 months after treatment is completed. Future studies will provide more information on the long-term effects of interventions for dysfunctional breathing.

  10. Evaluation of breathing pattern: comparison of a Manual Assessment of Respiratory Motion (MARM) and respiratory induction plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Rosalba; van Dixhoorn, Jan; Cohen, Marc

    2008-06-01

    Altered breathing pattern is an aspect of dysfunctional breathing but few standardised techniques exist to evaluate it. This study investigates a technique for evaluating and quantifying breathing pattern, called the Manual Assessment of Respiratory Motion (MARM) and compares it to measures performed with Respiratory Induction Plethysmography (RIP). About 12 subjects altered their breathing and posture while 2 examiners assessed their breathing using the MARM. Simultaneous measurements with RIP were taken. Inter-examiner agreement and agreement between MARM and RIP were assessed. The ability of the measurement methods to differentiate between diverse breathing and postural patterns was compared. High levels of agreement between examiners were found with the MARM for measures of the upper rib cage relative to lower rib cage/abdomen motion during breathing but not for measures of volume. The measures of upper rib cage dominance during breathing correlated with similar measures obtained from RIP. Both RIP and MARM measures methods were able to differentiate between abdominal and thoracic breathing patterns, but only MARM was able to differentiate between breathing changes occurring as result of slumped versus erect sitting posture. This study suggests that the MARM is a reliable clinical tool for assessing breathing pattern.

  11. Randomized Clinical Trials With Biomarkers: Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Lisa M.; Korn, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical biomarker tests that aid in making treatment decisions will play an important role in achieving personalized medicine for cancer patients. Definitive evaluation of the clinical utility of these biomarkers requires conducting large randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Efficient RCT design is therefore crucial for timely introduction of these medical advances into clinical practice, and a variety of designs have been proposed for this purpose. To guide design and interpretation of RCTs evaluating biomarkers, we present an in-depth comparison of advantages and disadvantages of the commonly used designs. Key aspects of the discussion include efficiency comparisons and special interim monitoring issues that arise because of the complexity of these RCTs. Important ongoing and completed trials are used as examples. We conclude that, in most settings, randomized biomarker-stratified designs (ie, designs that use the biomarker to guide analysis but not treatment assignment) should be used to obtain a rigorous assessment of biomarker clinical utility. PMID:20075367

  12. Oral or nasal breathing? Real-time effects of switching sampling route onto exhaled VOC concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Trefz, Phillip

    2017-03-21

    There is a need for standardisation in sampling and analysis of breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in order to minimise ubiquitous confounding effects. Physiological factors may mask concentration changes induced by pathophysiological effects. In humans, unconscious switching of oral and nasal breathing can occur during breath sampling, which may affect VOC patterns. Here, we investigated exhaled VOC concentrations in real-time while switching breathing routes. Breath from 15 healthy volunteers was analysed continuously by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry during paced breathing (12 breaths min-1). Every two minutes breathing routes were switched (Setup-1: Oral → Nasal → Oral → Nasal; Setup-2: OralinNasalout → NasalinOralout → OralinNasalout → NasalinOralout). VOCs in inspiratory and alveolar air and respiratory and hemodynamic parameters were monitored quantitatively in parallel. Changing of the breathing routes and patterns immediately affected exhaled VOC concentrations. These changes were reproducible in both setups. In setup-1 cardiac output and acetone concentrations remained constant, while partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (pET-CO2), isoprene and furan concentrations inversely mirrored tidal-volume and minute-ventilation. H2S (hydrogen-sulphide), C4H8S (allyl-methyl-sulphide), C3H8O (isopropanol) and C3H6O2 increased during oral exhalation. C4H10S increased during nasal exhalations. CH2O2 steadily decreased during the whole measurement. In setup-2 pET-CO2, C2H6S (dimethyl-sulphide), isopropanol, limonene and benzene concentrations decreased whereas, minute-ventilation, H2S and acetonitrile increased. Isoprene and furan remained unchanged. Breathing route and patterns induced VOC concentration changes depended on respiratory parameters, oral and nasal cavity exposure and physico-chemical characters of the compounds. Before using breath VOC concentrations as biomarkers it is essential that the breathing

  13. Biomarkers for predicting complete debulking in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten Lindberg; Ottesen, Bent; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2014-01-01

    AIM: We aimed to construct and validate a model based on biomarkers to predict complete primary debulking surgery for ovarian cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study consisted of three parts: Part I: Biomarker data obtained from mass spectrometry, baseline data and, surgical outcome were.......64. CONCLUSION: Our validated model based on biomarkers was unable to predict surgical outcome for patients with ovarian cancer....

  14. A systematic review of breath analysis and detection of volatile organic compounds in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anders; Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Titlestad, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    research area is breath analysis, with several published attempts to find exhaled compounds as diagnostic markers. The field is broad and no review of published COPD breath analysis studies exists yet. We have conducted a systematic review examining the state of art and identified 12 suitable papers, which......Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is, according to the WHO, the fifth leading cause of death worldwide, and is expected to increase to rank third in 2030. Few robust biomarkers for COPD exist, and several attempts have been made to find suitable molecular marker candidates. One rising...... we investigated in detail to extract a list of potential COPD breath marker molecules. First, we observed that no candidate markers were detected in all 12 studies. Only three were reported in more than one paper, thus reliable exhaled markers are still missing. A major challenge is the heterogeneity...

  15. Mapleson′s breathing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej K Kaul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  16. Air-Breathing Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  17. Interfering substances identified in the breath of drinking drivers with Intoxilyzer 5000S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A W

    1996-01-01

    The selectivity of analytical methods used to determine ethanol in body fluids has always been an important concern in connection with chemical testing for intoxication. Allegations of false high breath-alcohol readings obtained because of the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) other than ethanol is a well-known defense argument in trials concerning driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI). However, not much information exists to substantiate this claim, especially when modern analytical technology such as multiple wavelength infrared breath-alcohol instruments is used for forensic purposes. Whenever breath tests were aborted because interfering substances were ostensibly detected during routine evidential breath-alcohol analysis in Sweden with the Intoxilyzer 5000S, a sample of venous blood was taken for analysis by headspace gas chromatography. Most of the aborted breath tests could be explained by abnormally high concentrations of acetone, isopropanol, or methyl ethyl ketone in the samples analyzed. These VOCs originate in blood and breath after DUI suspects consume denatured alcohol preparations containing these solvents. However, the intoxilyzer 5000S sometimes aborted the evidential breath test even though VOCs other than ethanol were not identified in the blood samples. The reason for these latter tests being aborted is hard to understand because the blood-breath ratios of ethanol were within the range expected (1900:1 to 2800:1) for a large number of other DUI suspects tested with Intoxilyzer 5000S under the same conditions when interfering substances were not detected.

  18. Conductivity in Exhaled Breath Condensate from Subjects with Emphysema and Type ZZ alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Jan; Fumagalli, Marco; Viglio, Simona; Iadarola, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    The assessment of biomarkers in biological samples from the lung has long been employed. Upon cooling water vapor present in exhaled breath, variable amounts of droplets of condensate (EBC) containing volatile and non-volatile compounds may be easily and non-invasively obtained from patients of any age.Objective of the present study was to compare the level of EBC conductivity determined for cohorts of individuals with different inflammatory lung disorders with that of healthy never-smoking individuals.The conductivity in EBC of PiZZ-Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency patients with a diagnosis of emphysema (PiZZ-AATD) was 3 fold lower than in spouse controls (54.5 ± 11.6 vs 165.3 ± 10.7 μS/cm). Non-PiZZ emphysema patients had conductivity in EBC of 59.6 ± 5.8 μS/cm and patients with sarcoidosis without airflow obstruction had EBC conductivity of 178,8 ± 6,2 μS/cm, 
not significantly different (p = 0.5) from healthy controls. Conductivity in serial EBC samples from patients with PiZZ-AATD emphysema and healthy controls was stable in 6 different samples collected over a period of 14 months. We conclude that conductivity values in EBC can be used as a correction factor for dilution of non-volatile components in EBC.

  19. Metabolic Signatures of Lung Cancer in Sputum and Exhaled Breath Condensate Detected by H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Lung cancer is one of the most lethal cancers. Currently, there are no biomarkers for early detection, monitoring treatment response, and detecting recurrent lung cancer. We undertook this study to determine if 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS of sputum and exhaled breath condensate (EBC, as a noninvasive tool, can identify metabolic biomarkers of lung cancer. Materials and Methods Sputum and EBC samples were collected from 20 patients, comprising patients with pathologically confirmed non-small cell lung cancer ( n = 10 and patients with benign respiratory conditions ( n = 10. Both sputum and EBC samples were collected from 18 patients; 2 patients provided EBC samples only. 1 H MR spectra were obtained on a Bruker Avance 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectrometer. Sputum samples were further confirmed cytologically to distinguish between true sputum and saliva. Results In the EBC samples, median concentrations of propionate, ethanol, acetate, and acetone were higher in lung cancer patients compared to the patients with benign conditions. Median concentration of methanol was lower in lung cancer patients (0.028 mM than in patients with benign conditions (0.067 mM; P = 0.028. In the combined sputum and saliva and the cytologically confirmed sputum samples, median concentrations of N -acetyl sugars, glycoprotein, propionate, lysine, acetate, and formate were lower in the lung cancer patients than in patients with benign conditions. Glucose was found to be consistently absent in the combined sputum and saliva samples (88% as well as in the cytologically confirmed sputum samples (86% of lung cancer patients. Conclusion Absence of glucose in sputum and lower concentrations of methanol in EBC of lung cancer patients discerned by 1 H MRS may serve as metabolic biomarkers of lung cancer for early detection, monitoring treatment response, and detecting recurrence.

  20. Analysis of Endogenous Alkanes and Aldehydes in the Exhaled Breath of Workers Exposed to Silica Containing Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Jalali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Silica is one of the most air pollutant in workplaces which long-term occupational exposure to silica is associated with an increased risk for respiratory diseases such as silicosis. Silicosis is an oxidative stress related disease and can lead to the development of lung cancer. This study aims to analysis of endogenous alkanes and aldehydes in the exhaled breath of workers exposed to silica containing dusts. Methods: In this study, the exhaled breath of 20 workers exposed to silica containing dust (case group, 20 healthy non-smokers and 25 healthy smokers (control group were analyzed. The breath samples using 3-liter Tedlar bags were collected. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs were extracted with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC- MS. Result: Totally, thirty nine VOCs were found in all breath samples (at least once. Aldehydes and alkanes such as acetaldehyde, hexanal, nonanal, decane, pentadecane, 2-methle propane, 3-methyle pentane and octane were detected in the exhaled breath subjects. Among the these compounds, mean peak area of acetaldehyde, hexanal, nonanal, decane and pentadecane were higher in the exhaled breath of an case group than control groups (Pvalue<0.05 . Conclusions : The use of exhaled breath analysis as well as new media in the occupational toxicology and exposure biomarker assessment studies. It seems that acetaldehyde, hexanal, nonanal, decane and pentadecane can be considered as useful breath biomarkers for exposure assessment of silica containing dust. However, additional studies are needed to confirm thes results.

  1. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Mette K; van Vulpen, Marco; Barendrecht, Maurits M; Zonnenberg, Bernard A; Intven, Martijn; Crijns, Sjoerd P M; Lagendijk, Jan J W; Raaymakers, Bas W

    2013-04-07

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney.

  2. Chiral Biomarkers in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    The chirality of organic molecules with the asymmetric location of group radicals was discovered in 1848 by Louis Pasteur during his investigations of the rotation of the plane of polarization of light by crystals of sodium ammonium paratartrate. It is well established that the amino acids in proteins are exclusively Levorotary (L-aminos) and the sugars in DNA and RNA are Dextrorotary (D-sugars). This phenomenon of homochirality of biological polymers is a fundamental property of all life known on Earth. Furthermore, abiotic production mechanisms typically yield recemic mixtures (i.e. equal amounts of the two enantiomers). When amino acids were first detected in carbonaceous meteorites, it was concluded that they were racemates. This conclusion was taken as evidence that they were extraterrestrial and produced by abiologically. Subsequent studies by numerous researchers have revealed that many of the amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites exhibit a significant L-excess. The observed chirality is much greater than that produced by any currently known abiotic processes (e.g. Linearly polarized light from neutron stars; Circularly polarized ultraviolet light from faint stars; optically active quartz powders; inclusion polymerization in clay minerals; Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis of parity violations, etc.). This paper compares the measured chirality detected in the amino acids of carbonaceous meteorites with the effect of these diverse abiotic processes. IT is concluded that the levels observed are inconsistent with post-arrival biological contamination or with any of the currently known abiotic production mechanisms. However, they are consistent with ancient biological processes on the meteorite parent body. This paper will consider these chiral biomarkers in view of the detection of possible microfossils found in the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous meteorites. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data obtained on these morphological biomarkers will be

  3. Can high intensity workloads be simulated at moderate intensities by reduced breathing frequency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Štrumbelj

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to investigate whether reduced breathing frequency during moderate intensity exercise produces similar metabolic responses as during exercise with spontaneous breathing at higher absolute intensity.Methods: Eight healthy male subjects performed a constant load test with reduced breathing frequency at 10 breaths per minute to exhaustion (B10 at the peak power output obtained during the incremental test with RBF (peak power output increased every two minutes for 30 W. The subjects then performed a constant load test with the spontaneous breathing to exhaustion (SB at peak power output obtained during the incremental test with spontaneous breathing. Results: Respiratory parameters (VE, PETO2, PETCO2, metabolic parameters (Vo2, Vco2 and oxygen saturation (SaO2 were measured during both constant load tests. Capillary blood samples were taken before and every minute during both constant load tests in order to measure lactate concentration ([LA-] and parameters of capillary blood gases and acid base status (Po2, Pco2, pH. Regardless of the type of comparison (the data obtained at the defined time or maximum and minimum values during the exercise, there were significant differences between SB and B10 in all respiratory parameters, metabolic parameters and SaO2 (p ≤ 0.01 and 0.05. There were significantly lower [LA-] and Pco2 during B10, when compared to SB (p≤0.01. However, there were no significant differences in pH during the exercise between different breathing conditions. Conclusion: It can be concluded that reduced breathing frequency during exercise at lower absolute intensity did not produce similar conditions as during the exercise with spontaneous breathing at higher absolute intensity.

  4. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange.

  5. Brain damage in commercial breath-hold divers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotaka Kohshi

    Full Text Available Acute decompression illness (DCI involving the brain (Cerebral DCI is one of the most serious forms of diving-related injuries which may leave residual brain damage. Cerebral DCI occurs in compressed air and in breath-hold divers, likewise. We conducted this study to investigate whether long-term breath-hold divers who may be exposed to repeated symptomatic and asymptomatic brain injuries, show brain damage on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Our study subjects were 12 commercial breath-hold divers (Ama with long histories of diving work in a district of Japan. We obtained information on their diving practices and the presence or absence of medical problems, especially DCI events. All participants were examined with MRI to determine the prevalence of brain lesions.Out of 12 Ama divers (mean age: 54.9±5.1 years, four had histories of cerebral DCI events, and 11 divers demonstrated ischemic lesions of the brain on MRI studies. The lesions were situated in the cortical and/or subcortical area (9 cases, white matters (4 cases, the basal ganglia (4 cases, and the thalamus (1 case. Subdural fluid collections were seen in 2 cases.These results suggest that commercial breath-hold divers are at a risk of clinical or subclinical brain injury which may affect the long-term neuropsychological health of divers.

  6. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Key points Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common and the severity increases as pregnancy progresses. Frequent snoring, older age and high pre-pregnancy body mass index (>25 kg⋅m−2) could be reliable indicators for SDB in early pregnancy. SDB screening tools, including questionnaires, used in the nonpregnant population have poor predictive ability in pregnancy. Accumulating evidence suggests that SDB during pregnancy may be associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously because several studies failed to adjust for potential maternal confounders and have other study limitations. There are no pregnancy-specific practice guidelines for SDB treatment. Many clinicians and practices follow recommendations for the treatment in the general population. Women with pre-existing SDB might need to be reassessed, particularly after the sixth month of pregnancy, because symptoms can worsen with nasal congestion and weight gain. Educational aims To highlight the prevalence and severity of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in the pregnant population. To inform readers about risk factors for SDB in pregnancy. To explore the impact of SDB on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, and biological pathways for associated adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. To introduce current management options for SDB in pregnancy, including medical and behavioural approaches. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the

  7. Qualitative assessment of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography using breath-hold and non-breath-hold techniques in the portal venous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Eun-Hoe; Kim, Sun-Ju; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Kim, Kwang-Choul; Chung, Woon-Kwan

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the image quality in delineation of the portal venous systems with two different methods, breath-hold and non-breath-hold by using the 3D FLASH sequence. We used a 1.5 T system to obtain magnetic resonance(MR)images. Arterial and portal phase 3D FLASH images were obtained with breath-hold after a bolus injection of GD-DOTA. The detection of PVS on the MR angiograms was classified into three grades. First, the angiograms of the breath-hold method showed well the portal vein, the splenic vein and the superior mesenteric vein systems in 13 of 15 patients (86%) and the inferior mesenteric vein system in 6 of 15 patients (40%), Second, MR angiograms of the non-breath-hold method demonstrated the PVS and the SMV in 12 of 15 patients (80%) and the IMV in 5 of 15 patients (33%). Our study showed contrast-enhanced 3D FLASH MR angiography, together with the breath-hold technique, may provide reliable and accurate information on the portal venous system.

  8. Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pull upward. This increases the size of the thoracic cavity and decreases the pressure inside. As a result, ... the diaphragm relaxes, and the volume of the thoracic cavity decreases, while the pressure within it increases. As ...

  9. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgay Izci Balserak

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the severity of SDB, the epidemiology and the risk factors of SDB in pregnancy, the association of SDB with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and screening and management options specific for this population.

  10. Defining Pesticide Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomarkers are measurable substances or characteristics in the human body that can be used to monitor the presence of a chemical in the body, biological responses or harm to health. This Web page describes categories of biomarkers and provides examples.

  11. Relationship between musical characteristics and temporal breathing pattern in piano performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Sakaguchi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon’s exercise, J. S. Bach’s Invention, Mozart’s Sonatas, and Debussy’s Clair de lune, was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. 1 Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. 2 Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. 3 Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise, but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. 4 Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. 5 Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists.

  12. Combination of biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurfjell, Lennart; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Lundqvist, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The New National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease (AD) incorporate biomarkers in the diagnostic criteria and suggest division of biomarkers into two categories: Aβ accumulation and neuronal degeneration or injury.......The New National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease (AD) incorporate biomarkers in the diagnostic criteria and suggest division of biomarkers into two categories: Aβ accumulation and neuronal degeneration or injury....

  13. Biomarkers in Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Michael J; Smith, Emily R; Turfle, Phillip G

    2017-02-08

    This article summarizes the relevant definitions related to biomarkers; reviews the general processes related to biomarker discovery and ultimate acceptance and use; and finally summarizes and reviews, to the extent possible, examples of the types of biomarkers used in animal species within veterinary clinical practice and human and veterinary drug development. We highlight opportunities for collaboration and coordination of research within the veterinary community and leveraging of resources from human medicine to support biomarker discovery and validation efforts for veterinary medicine.

  14. Inspiratory resistive breathing induces acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumpanakis, Dimitris; Kastis, George A; Zacharatos, Panagiotis; Sigala, Ioanna; Michailidou, Tatiana; Kouvela, Maroussa; Glynos, Constantinos; Divangahi, Maziar; Roussos, Charis; Theocharis, Stamatios E; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros

    2010-11-01

    Resistive breathing is associated with large negative intrathoracic pressures. Increased mechanical stress induces high-permeability pulmonary edema and lung inflammation. To determine the effects of resistive breathing on the healthy lung. Anesthetized rats breathed through a two-way nonrebreathing valve. The inspiratory line was connected to a resistance setting peak inspiratory tracheal pressure at 50% of maximum (inspiratory resistive breathing), while 100% oxygen was supplied to prevent hypoxemia. Quietly breathing animals (100% oxygen) served as controls. Lung injury was evaluated after 3 and 6 hours of resistive breathing. After both 3 and 6 hours of resistive breathing, lung permeability was increased, as assessed by (99m)Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid scintigraphy and Evans blue dye extravasation. Tissue elasticity, measured on the basis of static pressure-volume curves and by the low-frequency forced oscillation technique, was also increased. After both 3 and 6 hours of resistive breathing, gravimetric measurements revealed the presence of pulmonary edema and analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage showed increased total protein content, whereas the total cell count was elevated only after 6 hours of resistive breathing. Cytokine levels were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue by ELISA and were increased after 6 hours compared with controls. Western blot analysis showed early activation of Src kinase via phosphorylation (at 30 min), and Erk1/2 and IκBα (nuclear factor-κB inhibitor) were phosphorylated at 3 and 6 hours. Pathology revealed the presence of lung injury after resistive breathing. Resistive breathing induces acute lung injury and inflammation.

  15. Quartz-enhanced photo-acoustic spectroscopy for breath analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jan C.; Lamard, Laurent; Feng, Yuyang; Focant, Jeff-F.; Peremans, Andre; Lassen, Mikael

    2017-03-01

    An innovative and novel quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor for highly sensitive and selective breath gas analysis is introduced. The QEPAS sensor consists of two acoustically coupled micro- resonators (mR) with an off-axis 20 kHz quartz tuning fork (QTF). The complete acoustically coupled mR system is optimized based on finite element simulations and experimentally verified. Due to the very low fabrication costs the QEPAS sensor presents a clear breakthrough in the field of photoacoustic spectroscopy by introducing novel disposable gas chambers in order to avoid cleaning after each test. The QEPAS sensor is pumped resonantly by a nanosecond pulsed single-mode mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator (MIR OPO). Spectroscopic measurements of methane and methanol in the 3.1 μm to 3.7 μm wavelength region is conducted. Demonstrating a resolution bandwidth of 1 cm-1. An Allan deviation analysis shows that the detection limit at optimum integration time for the QEPAS sensor is 32 ppbv@190s for methane and that the background noise is solely due to the thermal noise of the QTF. Spectra of both individual molecules as well as mixtures of molecules were measured and analyzed. The molecules are representative of exhaled breath gasses that are bio-markers for medical diagnostics.

  16. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  17. Cephalometric Evaluation of Children with Allergic Rhinitis and Mouth Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, Helena Afonso; Furtado, Ivo Ãlvares; Silva, Francisco Salvado; Ustrell Torrent, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontists frequently treat children with mouth breathing. The purpose of the present study was to examine dental positions, skeletal effects and the pharyngeal airway space of children with chronic allergic rhinitis, when compared with a control group exhibiting a normal breathing pattern. Seventy Caucasian children from Santa Maria University Hospital - North Lisbon Hospital Center were evaluated, between September 2009 and February 2013. The study group comprised of 35 children with chronic allergic rhinitis, both genders, aged 5 - 14, with positive reaction to allergens, mouth breathing and malocclusion. The control group was composed of 35 children, both genders, displaying normal nasal breathing and malocclusion, who resorted to the orthodontic department. Measures of Ricketts, Steiner and McNamara's analysis were used and the t- Student test was applied to the data obtained. Statistically significant differences were observed between the oral and nasal breathers, respectively: lower facial height (49.1/45.9 mm), Frankfurt â mandibular plane angle (30.1/26.9º) and Sela-Nasion - oclusal plane angle (17.3/15º), maxillary length (78.4/82.4 mm), mandibular length (102.4/107 mm), overbite (0.8/3.1mm) and overjet (4/4.7 mm). Comparison between the allergic rhinitis and control group showed that there is an increased lower facial height, larger Frankfurt â mandibular plane angle and Sela-Nasion oclusal plane angle in children with chronic allergic rhinitis. This group also had a shorter maxillary and mandibular length, less overbite and decreased upper airway space. Children with allergic rhinitis and mouth breathing have longer faces, shorter maxillas and mandibles and a narrowed pharyngeal airway space. No statistical differences between the groups in sagital relationships or in dental inclinations were found.

  18. Biomarkers for lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangar, Richard C.; Varnum, Susan M.

    2014-09-02

    A biomarker, method, test kit, and diagnostic system for detecting the presence of lymphoma in a person are disclosed. The lymphoma may be Hodgkin's lymphoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The person may be a high-risk subject. In one embodiment, a plasma sample from a person is obtained. The level of at least one protein listed in Table S3 in the plasma sample is measured. The level of at least one protein in the plasma sample is compared with the level in a normal or healthy subject. The lymphoma is diagnosed based upon the level of the at least one protein in the plasma sample in comparison to the normal or healthy level.

  19. Biomarkers for lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangar, Richard C.; Varnum, Susan M.

    2014-09-02

    A biomarker, method, test kit, and diagnostic system for detecting the presence of lymphoma in a person are disclosed. The lymphoma may be Hodgkin's lymphoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The person may be a high-risk subject. In one embodiment, a plasma sample from a person is obtained. The level of at least one protein listed in Table S3 in the plasma sample is measured. The level of at least one protein in the plasma sample is compared with the level in a normal or healthy subject. The lymphoma is diagnosed based upon the level of the at least one protein in the plasma sample in comparison to the normal or healthy level.

  20. New sepsis biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Limongi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis remains a leading cause of death in the intensive care units and in all age groups worldwide. Early recognition and diagnosis are key to achieving improved outcomes. Therefore, novel biomarkers that might better inform clinicians treating such patients are surely needed. The main attributes of successful biomarkers would be high sensitivity, specificity, possibility of bedside monitoring and financial accessibility. A panel of sepsis biomarkers along with currently used laboratory tests will facilitate earlier diagnosis, timely treatment and improved outcome may be more effective than single biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances on sepsis biomarkers evaluated in clinical and experimental studies.

  1. Breath analysis and blood alcohol concentration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.A.G. & Noordzij, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    Devices for breath analysis are intended to meet the need for a simple method for determining the blood alcohol concentration. Devices have already been developed for several purposes. For applying breath analyses a compromise has to be found between users' requirements and technical

  2. Relationships between hippocampal activity and breathing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, R M; Poe, G R; Rector, D M

    1998-01-01

    Single cell discharge, EEG activity, and optical changes accompanying alterations in breathing patterns, as well as the knowledge that respiratory musculature is heavily involved in movement and other behavioral acts, implicate hippocampal regions in some aspects of breathing control. The control...

  3. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  4. NASA firefighters breathing system program report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the rising incidence of respiratory injury to firefighters, local governments expressed the need for improved breathing apparatus. A review of the NASA firefighters breathing system program, including concept definition, design, development, regulatory agency approval, in-house testing, and program conclusion is presented.

  5. BREATH OF USE AND VOCAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuran ACAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breathable, who escorted us in every aspect of our lives and our survival is our primary activity, allowing for quality of life in a healthy way. quality of breaths taken the right technique, you need both health professional sense should perhaps take advantage of individuals who want to achieve success in life is the primary rule. When the diaphragm is born with assisted breathing lungs of every person's life starts to grow to keep up with the flurry lose this special and important skills. First and foremost, which is important for our body health, including every aspect of proper breathing, especially correct use of the voice carries particular importance. In this article, breathing subject discussed, correct breathing and our lives have tried to give us information about the benefits of both vocal training.

  6. Rapid eye movement sleep in breath holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, J; Hasegawa, T; Shimohira, M; Fukumizu, M; Iwakawa, Y

    2000-07-01

    One-night polysomnography was performed on seven subjects suffering from breath-holding spells, including one whose death was suggested to be a consequence of a breath-holding spell. The fatal case showed no rapid eye movements (REMs) during REM sleep, although he exhibited REMs during wakefulness. The average numbers of both REMs and bursts of REMs in REM sleep in the other six breath holders were significantly lower than those in age-matched controls. The breath holders showed no airway obstruction, desaturation, or sleep fragmentation. Since the rapid ocular activity in REM sleep is generated in the brain stem, we hypothesized that a functional brainstem disturbance is involved in the occurrence of breath-holding spells.

  7. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Philip; Casement, Melynda; Chen, Chiau-Fang; Hoffmann, Robert F.; Armitage, Roseanne; Deldin, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Individuals with major depressive disorder often experience obstructive sleep apnea. However, the relationship between depression and less severe sleep disordered breathing is less clear. This study examines the rate of sleep disordered breathing in depression after excluding those who had clinically significant sleep apnea (> 5 apneas/hr). Archival data collected between 1991 and 2005 was used to assess the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing events in 60 (31 depressed; 29 healthy controls) unmedicated participants. Respiratory events were automatically detected using a program developed in-house measuring thermal nasal air-flow and chest pressure. Results show that even after excluding participants with clinically significant sleep disordered breathing, individuals with depression continue to exhibit higher rates of sleep disordered breathing compared to healthy controls (Depressed group: AHI mean=.524, SE =.105; Healthy group: AHI mean =.179, SE =.108). Exploratory analyses were also conducted to assess for rates of exclusion in depression studies due to sleep-disordered breathing. Study exclusion of sleep disordered breathing was quantified based on self-report during telephone screening, and via first night polysomnography. Results from phone screening data reveal that individuals reporting depression were 5.86 times more likely to report a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea than presumptive control participants. Furthermore, all of the participants excluded for severe sleep disordered breathing detected on the first night were participants with depression. These findings illustrate the importance of understanding the relationship between sleep disordered breathing and depression, and suggests that screening and quantification of sleep disordered breathing should be considered in depression research. PMID:23350718

  8. Sleep disordered breathing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Deepti; Guilleminault, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is increasingly being recognised as a cause of morbidity even in young children. With an estimated prevalence of 1 to 4 per cent, SDB results from having a structurally narrow airway combined with reduced neuromuscular tone and increased airway collapsibility. SDB in children differs from adults in a number of ways, including presenting symptoms and treatment. Presentation may differ according to the age of the child. Children have a more varied presentation from snoring and frequent arousals to enuresis to hyperactivity. Those with Down syndrome, midface hypoplasia or neuromuscular disorders are at higher risk for developing SDB. First line definitive treatment in children involves tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Rapid maxillary expansion, allergy treatment and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) are other options. As untreated SDB results in complications as learning difficulties, memory loss and a long term increase in risk of hypertension, depression and poor growth, it is important to diagnose SDB.

  9. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well...

  10. Voucher-Based Reinforcement for Alcohol Abstinence Using the Ethyl-Glucuronide Alcohol Biomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonell, Michael G.; Howell, Donelle N,; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M.; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase.…

  11. Characterization of a portable method for the collection of exhaled breath condensate and subsequent analysis of metal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Julie R; Spannhake, Ernst W; Macri, Kristin K; Torrey, Christine M; Mihalic, Jana N; Eftim, Sorina E; Lees, Peter S J; Geyh, Alison S

    2013-04-01

    Using exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as a biological media for analysis of biomarkers of exposure may facilitate the understanding of inhalation exposures. In this study, we present method validation for the collection of EBC and analysis of metals in EBC. The collection method was designed for use in a small scale longitudinal study with the goal of improving reproducibility while maintaining economic feasibility. We incorporated the use of an Rtube with additional components as an assembly, and trained subjects to breathe into the apparatus. EBC was collected from 8 healthy adult subjects with no known elevated exposures to Mn, Cr, Ni, and Cd repeatedly (10 times) within 7 days and analyzed for these metals via ICP-MS. Method detection limits were obtained by mimicking the process of EBC collection with ultrapure water, and resulted in 46-62% of samples falling in a range less than the method detection limit. EBC metal concentrations were found to be statistically significantly associated (p < 0.05) with room temperature and relative humidity during collection, as well as with the gender of the subject. The geometric mean EBC metal concentrations in our unexposed subjects were 0.57 μg Mn per L, 0.25 μg Cr per L, 0.87 μg Ni per L, and 0.14 μg Cd per L. The overall standard deviation was greater than the mean estimate, and the major source in EBC metals concentrations was due to fluctuations in subjects' measurements over time rather than to the differences between separate subjects. These results suggest that measurement and control of EBC collection and analytical parameters are critical to the interpretation of EBC metals measurements. In particular, rigorous estimation of method detection limits of metals in EBC provides a more thorough evaluation of accuracy.

  12. Carbon Monoxide in Exhaled Breath Testing and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W.; Choi, Augustine M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation, and potential diagnostic value remains incompletely characterized. Among other candidate “medicinal gases” with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease. PMID:23446063

  13. Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2013-03-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation and its potential diagnostic value remain incompletely characterized. Among other candidate 'medicinal gases' with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease.

  14. Influence of short breathing stop on the cardiovascular system during exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poderienė, Kristina; Trinkūnas, Eugenijus; Poderys, Jonas; Grūnovas, Albinas

    2011-01-01

    Breathing is both a voluntary and an involuntary action, and the changes in breathing intensity or breathing stops has an influence on vegetative functions of the body during exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the possible changes in cardiovascular parameters when patients shortly stopped to breath at the beginning of exercise testing. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Two series of investigation were performed. During the first investigation, the psychomotor tonus was assessed, and the breathing frequency during exercising was monitored in the cohort of 27 healthy adult males who were recruited for the first time to be participants of exercise testing. All the participants performed the Roufier exercise test (30 squats per 45 s). A 12-lead electrocardiogram was continuously recorded during exercise and first two minutes of recovery, and arterial blood pressure was measured at each minute of experiment. During the second investigation, the influence of short breathing stop for 15 s on the changes in cardiovascular functional parameters during exercise test was evaluated. RESULTS. The results obtained during the study showed that patients who had increased psychomotor tonus stopped the breathing involuntary more frequently at the beginning of exercise testing. An involuntary or voluntary breathing stop at the beginning of exercising had an influence on the dynamics of cardiovascular parameters during exercise and recovery: heart rate increased more slowly; lesser changes in the JT interval of electrocardiogram, a trend toward an increase in the arterial blood pressure, and a significantly slower recovery of cardiovascular parameters were documented. CONCLUSION. An involuntary breathing stop caused the changes in cardiovascular parameters during exercise and recovery; therefore, functional status might be assessed not so accurately.

  15. The additional work of breathing imposed by Mapleson A systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, R; Pattison, J; Soni, N

    1993-07-01

    The additional work attributable to breathing through five Mapleson A anaesthetic breathing systems (Magill, Lack, Parallel Lack, Humphrey ADE and Enclosed Magill) was studied using a lung model. With all five systems, the additional work was found to be a function of fresh gas flow, respiratory flow as well as system geometry. Within the range of fresh gas flow and respiratory flow studied, the additional work ranged between 80 mJ.l-1 and 182 mJ.l-1. Expiratory work was always greater than the inspiratory workload. Increasing fresh gas inflow into the system increases expiratory work, both resistive and elastic components. The Magill system posed the least work expenditure. The values for the additional work obtained with the lung model were of the same order of magnitude when measurements were taken in volunteers.

  16. Breathing frequency bias in fractal analysis of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakakis, Pandelis; Taylor, Michael; Martinez-Nieto, Eduardo; Revithi, Ioanna; Vila, Jaime

    2009-09-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is an algorithm widely used to determine fractal long-range correlations in physiological signals. Its application to heart rate variability (HRV) has proven useful in distinguishing healthy subjects from patients with cardiovascular disease. In this study we examined the effect of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) on the performance of DFA applied to HRV. Predictions based on a mathematical model were compared with those obtained from a sample of 14 normal subjects at three breathing frequencies: 0.1Hz, 0.2Hz and 0.25Hz. Results revealed that: (1) the periodical properties of RSA produce a change of the correlation exponent in HRV at a scale corresponding to the respiratory period, (2) the short-term DFA exponent is significantly reduced when breathing frequency rises from 0.1Hz to 0.2Hz. These findings raise important methodological questions regarding the application of fractal measures to short-term HRV.

  17. Multifrequency high precise subTHz-THz-IR spectroscopy for exhaled breath research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaks, Vladimir L.; Domracheva, Elena G.; Pripolzin, Sergey I.; Chernyaeva, Mariya B.

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays the development of analytical spectroscopy with high performance, sensitivity and spectral resolution for exhaled breath research is attended. The method of two-frequency high precise THz spectroscopy and the method of high precise subTHz-THz-IR spectroscopy are presented. Development of a subTHz-THz-IR gas analyzer increases the number of gases that can be identified and the reliability of the detection by confirming the signature in both THz and MIR ranges. The testing measurements have testified this new direction of analytical spectroscopy to open widespread trends of its using for various problems of medicine and biology. First of all, there are laboratory investigations of the processes in exhaled breath and studying of their dynamics. Besides, the methods presented can be applied for detecting intermediate and short time living products of reactions in exhaled breath. The spectrometers have been employed for investigations of acetone, methanol and ethanol in the breath samples of healthy volunteers and diabetes patients. The results have demonstrated an increased concentration of acetone in breath of diabetes patients. The dynamic of changing the acetone concentration before and after taking the medicines is discovered. The potential markers of pre-cancer states and oncological diseases of gastrointestinal tract organs have been detected. The changes in the NO concentration in exhaled breath of cancer patients during radiotherapy as well as increase of the NH3 concentration at gastrointestinal diseases have been revealed. The preliminary investigations of biomarkers in three frequency ranges have demonstrated the advantages of the multifrequency high precise spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnostics.

  18. Autonomic nervous system functions in children with breath-holding spells and effects of iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkiran, Abdülkerim; Tutar, Ercan; Atalay, Semra; Deda, Gülhis; Cin, Sükrü

    2005-09-01

    To analyse the activity of the autonomic nervous system during breath-holding spells, we assessed the ECG changes, including ventricular repolarization parameters before and during the spell. We also analysed the effects of iron deficiency on these ECG parameters. The study group consisted of 37 children with breath-holding spells (30 cyanotic, 7 pallid) (mean age+/-SD: 12.9+/-10.8 mo). Twenty-six healthy children (mean age+/-SD: 14.4+/-8.6 mo) served as a control group. All patients and controls had standard 12-lead simultaneous surface ECG. All patients had ECG recordings during at least one severe breath-holding spell obtained by "event recorder". Traces obtained by "event recorder" were analysed in terms of mean heart rate and the frequency and duration of asystole during the spell. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia on standard ECGs and asystole frequency during spells were higher in patients with pallid breath-holding spells. Patients with iron deficiency had a lower frequency of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and prolonged asystole time during the spell. There was no difference in terms of ventricular repolarization parameters (QT/QTc intervals and QT/QTc dispersions) between patients and controls and between patient subgroups (cyanotic versus pallid). These results confirmed the presence of autonomic dysregulation in children with breath-holding spells. Iron deficiency may have an impact on this autonomic dysregulation. Ventricular repolarization was unaffected in patients with breath-holding spells.

  19. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Arlotto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569.

  20. An ultrasonic contactless sensor for breathing monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlotto, Philippe; Grimaldi, Michel; Naeck, Roomila; Ginoux, Jean-Marc

    2014-08-20

    The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569).

  1. Role of biomarkers in patients with dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, C S; Magrini, L; Travaglino, F; Di Somma, S

    2011-02-01

    The use of biomarkers has been demonstrated useful in many acute diseases both for diagnosis, prognosis and risk stratification. The purpose of this review is to analyze several biomarkers of potential use in patients referring to Emergency Department with acute dyspnea. The role of natriuretic peptides has a proven utility in the diagnosis, risk stratification, patient management and prediction of outcome in acute and chronic heart failure (HF). New immunoassays are available for the detection of mid-region prohormones in patients with acute dyspnea such as Mid-region pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) and Mid-region pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP). Also procalcitonin, copeptin and D-dimer, which are markers of inflammation, bacterial infections and sepsis, seem to be useful in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea. Conventional and high-sensitivity troponins are fundamental, not only in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes, but also as indicators of mortality in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Further studies with randomized controlled clinical trials will be needed to prove the theoretical clinical advantages offered by a shortness of breath biomarkers in terms of diagnostic, prognostic, cost effective work-up and management of patients with acute dyspnea. A multimarker pannel approach performed by rapid and accurate assays could be useful for emergency physicians to promptly identify different causes of dyspnea thus managing to improve diagnosis, treatment and risk stratification.

  2. Air sampling unit for breath analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabra, Dariusz; Prokopiuk, Artur; Mikołajczyk, Janusz; Ligor, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław; Bielecki, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents a portable breath sampling unit (BSU) for human breath analyzers. The developed unit can be used to probe air from the upper airway and alveolar for clinical and science studies. The BSU is able to operate as a patient interface device for most types of breath analyzers. Its main task is to separate and to collect the selected phases of the exhaled air. To monitor the so-called I, II, or III phase and to identify the airflow from the upper and lower parts of the human respiratory system, the unit performs measurements of the exhaled CO2 (ECO2) in the concentration range of 0%-20% (0-150 mm Hg). It can work in both on-line and off-line modes according to American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society standards. A Tedlar bag with a volume of 5 dm3 is mounted as a BSU sample container. This volume allows us to collect ca. 1-25 selected breath phases. At the user panel, each step of the unit operation is visualized by LED indicators. This helps us to regulate the natural breathing cycle of the patient. There is also an operator's panel to ensure monitoring and configuration setup of the unit parameters. The operation of the breath sampling unit was preliminarily verified using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) laboratory setup. At this setup, volatile organic compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction. The tests were performed by the comparison of GC/MS signals from both exhaled nitric oxide and isoprene analyses for three breath phases. The functionality of the unit was proven because there was an observed increase in the signal level in the case of the III phase (approximately 40%). The described work made it possible to construct a prototype of a very efficient breath sampling unit dedicated to breath sample analyzers.

  3. Metabolomics Toward Biomarker Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peiyuan; Xu, Guowang

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics has been used as practical tool in the discovery of novel biomarkers in a broad area in the clinic. The analytical platforms including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) can cover thousands of metabolites. With the help of multivariate data analysis, many potential biomarkers can be defined in the studies. Since metabolites stand at the end point of metabolism, it remains difficult to find novel biomarkers with good diagnostic or prognostic performance. In this chapter, we will introduce a general protocol for biomarker discovery within the scope of metabolomics using MS.

  4. Diabetes and the metabolic syndrome: possibilities of a new breath test in a dolphin model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eSchivo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes type-2 and the metabolic syndrome are prevalent in epidemic proportions and result in significant co-morbid disease. Limitations in understanding of dietary effects and cholesterol metabolism exist. Current methods to assess diabetes are essential, though many are invasive; for example, blood glucose and lipid monitoring require regular finger sticks and blood draws. A novel method to study these diseases may be non-invasive breath testing of exhaled compounds. Currently, acetone and lipid peroxidation products have been seen in small scale studies, though other compounds may be significant. As Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus have been proposed as a good model for human diabetes, applications of dietary manipulations and breath testing in this population may shed important light on how to design human clinical studies. In addition, ongoing studies indicate that breath testing in dolphins is feasible, humane, and yields relevant metabolites. By studying the metabolic and cholesterol responses of dolphins to dietary modifications, researchers may gain insight into human diabetes, improve the design of costly human clinical trials, and potentially discover biomarkers for non-invasive breath monitoring.

  5. Real-time breath gas analysis of CO and CO2 using an EC-QCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Ramin; Schmidt, Florian M.

    2017-05-01

    Real-time breath gas analysis is a promising, non-invasive tool in medical diagnostics, and well-suited to investigate the physiology of carbon monoxide (CO), a potential biomarker for oxidative stress and respiratory diseases. A sensor for precise, breath-cycle resolved, simultaneous detection of exhaled CO (eCO) and carbon dioxide (eCO2) was developed based on a continuous wave, external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL), a low-volume multi-pass cell and wavelength modulation spectroscopy. The system achieves a noise-equivalent (1σ) sensitivity of 8.5 × 10-8 cm-1 Hz-1/2 and (2σ) detection limits of 9 ± 2 ppbv and 650 ± 7 ppmv at 0.14 s spectrum acquisition time for CO and CO2, respectively. Integration over 15 s yields a precision of 0.6 ppbv for CO. The fact that the eCO2 expirograms measured by capnography and laser spectroscopy have essentially identical shape confirms true real-time detection. It is found that the individual eCO exhalation profiles from healthy non-smokers have a slightly different shape than the eCO2 profiles and exhibit a clear dependence on exhalation flow rate and breath-holding time. Detection of indoor air CO and broadband breath profiling across the 93 cm-1 mode-hop-free tuning range of the EC-QCL are also demonstrated.

  6. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain...... species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplos/emum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of a fast air...... overlap considerably in their kinematics (turning rates and distance covered), suggesting that air breathing in this species is performed using escapelike C-start motions. This demonstrates that C-starts in fish do not need external stimulation and can be spontaneous behaviours used outside the context...

  7. Biomarkers in Paediatric Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Kathryn A; Schultz, André; Stick, Stephen M

    2015-09-01

    Biomarkers in cystic fibrosis are used i. for the measurement of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator function in order to diagnose cystic fibrosis, and ii. to assess aspects of lung disease severity (e.g. inflammation, infection). Effective biomarkers can aid disease monitoring and contribute to the development of new therapies. The tests of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator function each have unique strengths and weaknesses, and biomarkers of inflammation, infection and tissue destruction have the potential to enhance the management of cystic fibrosis through the early detection of disease processes. The development of biomarkers of cystic fibrosis lung disease, in particular airway inflammation and infection, is influenced by the challenges of obtaining relevant samples from infants and children for whom early detection and treatment of disease might have the greatest long term benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomarkers: background, classification and guidelines for applications in nutritional epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corella, Dolores; Ordovás, José M

    2015-02-26

    One of the main problems in nutritional epidemiology is to assess food intake as well as nutrient/food component intake to a high level of validity and reliability. To help in this process, the need to have good biomarkers that more objectively allow us to evaluate the diet consumed in a more standardized, valid and precise way has often been commented upon. There are various definitions of biomarkers and also different classifications of the same. In general a biomarker can be defined as a characteristic that can objectively measure different biological samples and that can be evaluated as an exposure marker of normal or pathogenic biological processes or of responses to a certain intervention. The biological samples most commonly used in nutritional epidemiology are blood, red blood cells, plasma, serum, urine, nails, saliva, faeces and samples of different tissues. Exposure biomarkers (dietary intake), biomarkers of effects and biomarkers of disease status can be determined from these samples. In turn, exposure biomarkers can be temporarily categorized into markers of acute, medium term or chronic effects. Many difficulties arise in identifying good biomarkers. Currently, advances in omics are opening up new possibilities for obtaining new biomarkers of various kinds, using genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, lipidomics, proteomics and metabolomics. We shall review the present situation of biomarkers in nutritional epidemiology as well as the future trends of the new omic biomarkers. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Amplitude gating for a coached breathing approach in respiratory gated 10 MV flattening filter-free VMAT delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Francis; Lee, Richard; Gete, Ermias; Duzenli, Cheryl

    2015-07-08

    The purpose of this study was to investigate amplitude gating combined with a coached breathing strategy for 10 MV flattening filter-free (FFF) volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) on the Varian TrueBeam linac. Ten patient plans for VMAT SABR liver were created using the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). The verification plans were then transferred to a CT-scanned Quasar phantom and delivered on a TrueBeam linac using a 10 MV FFF beam and Varian's real-time position management (RPM) system for respiratory gating based on breathing amplitude. Breathing traces were acquired from ten patients using two kinds of breathing patterns: free breathing and an interrupted (~ 5 s pause) end of exhale coached breathing pattern. Ion chamber and Gafchromic film measurements were acquired for a gated delivery while the phantom moved under the described breathing patterns, as well as for a nongated stationary phantom delivery. The gate window was set to obtain a range of residual target motion from 2-5 mm. All gated deliveries on a moving phantom have been shown to be dosimetrically equivalent to the nongated deliveries on a static phantom, with differences in point dose measurements under 1% and average gamma 2%/2 mm agreement above 98.7%. Comparison with the treatment planning system also resulted in good agreement, with differences in point-dose measurements under 2.5% and average gamma 3%/3 mm agreement of 97%. The use of a coached breathing pattern significantly increases the duty cycle, compared with free breathing, and allows for shorter treatment times. Patients' free-breathing patterns contain considerable variability and, although dosimetric results for gated delivery may be acceptable, it is difficult to achieve efficient treatment delivery. A coached breathing pattern combined with a 5 mm amplitude gate, resulted in both high-quality dose distributions and overall shortest gated beam delivery times.

  10. Early postoperative erythromycin breath test correlates with hepatic cytochrome P4503A activity in liver transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Olsen, A K; Stentoft, K

    2001-01-01

    , but the method has never been directly validated. The aim of the study was to investigate whether an early postoperative erythromycin breath test correlated with the hepatic CYP3A protein level and catalytic activity in liver transplant recipients. METHODS: In 18 liver transplant recipients, the erythromycin...... breath test was performed within 2 hours after transplantation. A graft biopsy was obtained during surgery and analyzed for the CYP3A protein level by Western blotting and for CYP3A activity with erythromycin demethylation and testosterone 6beta- hydroxylation assays. RESULTS: The erythromycin breath......). CONCLUSION: Our data support the erythromycin breath test as a specific in vivo assay of CYP3A activity in humans. The test is applicable in liver transplant recipients in the early postoperative phase. Future studies should evaluate the clinical usefulness of an early postoperative erythromycin breath test...

  11. The effect of a heat and moisture exchanger on gas flow in a Mapleson F breathing system during inhalational induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, J M; Wheeler, D W; Pook, J A

    2000-06-01

    Heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) humidify, warm and filter inspired gas, protecting patients and apparatus during anaesthesia. Their incorporation into paediatric anaesthetic breathing systems is recommended. We experienced delays in inhalational induction whilst using a Mapleson F breathing system with an HME. We have demonstrated that the HME significantly alters gas flow within the breathing system. Approximately half of the fresh gas flow is delivered to the patient, the remainder being wasted into the expiratory limb of the breathing system. We suggest that the HME should be removed from the Mapleson F breathing system until inhalational induction is complete, or that the reservoir bag is completely occluded until an effective seal is obtained with the mask.

  12. Managing Asthma: Learning to Breathe Easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe June 2014 Print this issue Managing Asthma Learn To Breathe Easier En español Send us ... Allergy Therapy Seeking Allergy Relief Wise Choices Controlling Asthma Get regular checkups for your asthma. Make a ...

  13. Coordination of Mastication, Swallowing and Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Koichiro; Palmer, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The pathways for air and food cross in the pharynx. In breathing, air may flow through either the nose or the mouth, it always flows through the pharynx. During swallowing, the pharynx changes from an airway to a food channel. The pharynx is isolated from the nasal cavity and lower airway by velopharyngeal and laryngeal closure during the pharyngeal swallow. During mastication, the food bolus accumulates in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation. The structures in the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx serve multiple functions in breathing, speaking, mastication and swallowing. Thus, the fine temporal coordination of feeding among breathing, mastication and swallowing is essential to provide proper food nutrition and to prevent pulmonary aspiration. This review paper will review the temporo-spatial coordination of the movements of oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal structures during mastication and swallowing, and temporal coordination between breathing, mastication, and swallowing. PMID:20161022

  14. Breath-holding spells in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ran D

    2015-02-01

    I have children in my clinic who experience seizurelike episodes in which they cry and hold their breath to the point of cyanosis and loss of consciousness. Their examination or investigation findings are normal and referral to a pediatric specialist results in no further investigation. Are breath-holding spells common, and what type of investigation is needed? A breath-holding spell is a benign paroxysmal nonepileptic disorder occurring in healthy children 6 to 48 months of age. The episodes start with a provocation such as emotional upset or minor injury, and might progress to breath holding, cyanosis, and syncope. The episodes are extremely frightening to watch but have benign consequences. Once a clinical diagnosis is made, it is recommended to conduct an electrocardiogram and to rule out anemia, but no further investigation or referral is warranted. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  15. 21 CFR 868.5280 - Breathing tube support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing tube support. 868.5280 Section 868.5280...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5280 Breathing tube support. (a) Identification. A breathing tube support is a device that is intended to support and anchor a patient's breathing...

  16. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being placed...

  17. Comparison of work of breathing using drawover and continuous flow anaesthetic breathing systems in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G T; McEwen, J P J; Beaton, S J; Young, D

    2007-04-01

    We compared the work of breathing under general anaesthesia in children using drawover and continuous flow anaesthetic systems. A pilot study was conducted in four children weighing > 20 kg in whom it would usually be considered appropriate to use breathing systems designed for adult anaesthesia. The pilot study compared work of breathing using the Mapleson D breathing system and the Triservice Anaesthetic Apparatus (TSAA). Work of breathing was calculated using the modified Campbell technique that calculates work using a pressure volume loop derived from oesophageal pressure and airway gas volume measurements. We found no difference in the work of breathing when comparing the Mapleson D and the TSAA in children > 20 kg. Following completion of the pilot study, we conducted a study on 10 children weighing between 10 and 20 kg comparing work of breathing using the Mapleson F breathing system and the TSAA. We found no significant difference in the work of breathing between the Mapleson F and the TSAA for these children. The TSAA can therefore be recommended for use down to a lower weight limit of 10 kg.

  18. Control of breathing in invertebrate model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Harold J; Syed, Naweed I

    2012-07-01

    The invertebrates have adopted a myriad of breathing strategies to facilitate the extraction of adequate quantities of oxygen from their surrounding environments. Their respiratory structures can take a wide variety of forms, including integumentary surfaces, lungs, gills, tracheal systems, and even parallel combinations of these same gas exchange structures. Like their vertebrate counterparts, the invertebrates have evolved elaborate control strategies to regulate their breathing activity. Our goal in this article is to present the reader with a description of what is known regarding the control of breathing in some of the specific invertebrate species that have been used as model systems to study different mechanistic aspects of the control of breathing. We will examine how several species have been used to study fundamental principles of respiratory rhythm generation, central and peripheral chemosensory modulation of breathing, and plasticity in the control of breathing. We will also present the reader with an overview of some of the behavioral and neuronal adaptability that has been extensively documented in these animals. By presenting explicit invertebrate species as model organisms, we will illustrate mechanistic principles that form the neuronal foundation of respiratory control, and moreover appear likely to be conserved across not only invertebrates, but vertebrate species as well. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1745-1766, 2012.

  19. Biomarkers of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Daniel Shu Wei; Tan, Kara-Anne; Phua, Val; Tan, Gavin Siew Wei; Wong, Chee Wai; Wong, Tien Yin

    2016-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a leading cause of acquired vision loss, is a microvascular complication of diabetes. While traditional risk factors for diabetic retinopathy including longer duration of diabetes, poor blood glucose control, and dyslipidemia are helpful in stratifying patient's risk for developing retinopathy, many patients without these traditional risk factors develop DR; furthermore, there are persons with long diabetes duration who do not develop DR. Thus, identifying biomarkers to predict DR or to determine therapeutic response is important. A biomarker can be defined as a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. Incorporation of biomarkers into risk stratification of persons with diabetes would likely aid in early diagnosis and guide treatment methods for those with DR or with worsening DR. Systemic biomarkers of DR include serum measures including genomic, proteomic, and metabolomics biomarkers. Ocular biomarkers including tears and vitreous and retinal vascular structural changes have also been studied extensively to prognosticate the risk of DR development. The current studies on biomarkers are limited by the need for larger sample sizes, cross-validation in different populations and ethnic groups, and time-efficient and cost-effective analytical techniques. Future research is important to explore novel DR biomarkers that are non-invasive, rapid, economical, and accurate to help reduce the incidence and progression of DR in people with diabetes.

  20. Respiratory Toxicity Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advancement in high throughput genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques have accelerated pace of lung biomarker discovery. A recent growth in the discovery of new lung toxicity/disease biomarkers have led to significant advances in our understanding of pathological proce...

  1. Novel biomarkers for sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frederik Fruergaard; Petersen, J Asger

    2017-01-01

    biomarkers to discriminate between patients with and without infection, as the cause of deterioration. METHOD: Narrative review of current literature. RESULTS: A number of the most promising biomarkers for diagnoses and prognostication of sepsis are presented. CONCLUSION: Procalcitonin, presepsin, CD64, su...

  2. Impact of respiratory pattern on lung mechanics and interstitial proteoglycans in spontaneously breathing anaesthetized healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriondo, A; Marcozzi, C; Bianchin, F; Passi, A; Boschetti, F; Lattanzio, S; Severgnini, P; Pelosi, P; Negrini, D

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different pattern of spontaneous breathing on the respiratory mechanics and on the integrity of the pulmonary extracellular matrix. Experiments were performed on adult healthy rats in which different spontaneously breathing pattern was elicited through administration of two commonly used anaesthetic mixtures: pentobarbital/urethane (P/U) and ketamine/medetomidine (K/M). The animals (five per group) were randomized and left to spontaneously breath for 10 min (P/U-sham; K/M-sham) or for 4h (P/U-4h; K/M-4h), targeting the anaesthesia level to obtain a tidal volume of about 8 mL kg(-1) body wt. At the end of the experiment, lung matrix integrity was assessed through determination of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) content in the lung parenchyma. Compared with K/M, anaesthesia with P/U cocktail induced: (1) a higher respiratory rate and minute ventilation attained with lower P(a) CO(2) ; (2) a higher pressure-time-product and work of breathing per minute; (3) a lower static lung compliance; (4) an increased activation of lung tissue metalloproteases; and (5) greater extraction of pulmonary interstitial GAGs. This study suggests that the breathing pattern induced by the different anaesthetic regimen may damage the pulmonary interstitium even during spontaneous breathing at physiological tidal volumes. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Physiologica © 2011 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  3. (13)C-Breath testing in animals: theory, applications, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Welch, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    The carbon isotope values in the exhaled breath of an animal mirror the carbon isotope values of the metabolic fuels being oxidized. The measurement of stable carbon isotopes in carbon dioxide is called (13)C-breath testing and offers a minimally invasive method to study substrate oxidation in vivo. (13)C-breath testing has been broadly used to study human exercise, nutrition, and pathologies since the 1970s. Owing to reduced use of radioactive isotopes and the increased convenience and affordability of (13)C-analyzers, the past decade has witnessed a sharp increase in the use of breath testing throughout comparative physiology--especially to answer questions about how and when animals oxidize particular nutrients. Here, we review the practical aspects of (13)C-breath testing and identify the strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches including the use of natural abundance versus artificially-enriched (13)C tracers. We critically compare the information that can be obtained using different experimental protocols such as diet-switching versus fuel-switching. We also discuss several factors that should be considered when designing breath testing experiments including extrinsic versus intrinsic (13)C-labelling and different approaches to model nutrient oxidation. We use case studies to highlight the myriad applications of (13)C-breath testing in basic and clinical human studies as well as comparative studies of fuel use, energetics, and carbon turnover in multiple vertebrate and invertebrate groups. Lastly, we call for increased and rigorous use of (13)C-breath testing to explore a variety of new research areas and potentially answer long standing questions related to thermobiology, locomotion, and nutrition.

  4. Oxidative stress in breath-hold divers after repetitive dives

    OpenAIRE

    Theunissen, S; Sponsiello, N; Rozloznik, M; Germonpre, P.; Guerrero, F.; Cialoni, D; Balestra, C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Hyperoxia causes oxidative stress. Breath-hold diving is associated with transient hyperoxia followed by hypoxia and a build-up of carbon dioxide (CO2), chest-wall compression and significant haemodynamic changes. This study analyses variations in plasma oxidative stress markers after a series of repetitive breath-hold dives.Methods: Thirteen breath-hold divers were asked to perform repetitive breath-hold dives to 20 metres’ depth to a cumulative breath-hold time of approximatel...

  5. Metabolic Signatures of Lung Cancer in Sputum and Exhaled Breath Condensate Detected by 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Naseer; Bezabeh, Tedros; Ijare, Omkar B; Myers, Renelle; Alomran, Reem; Aliani, Michel; Nugent, Zoann; Banerji, Shantanu; Kim, Julian; Qing, Gefei; Bshouty, Zoheir

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most lethal cancers. Currently, there are no biomarkers for early detection, monitoring treatment response, and detecting recurrent lung cancer. We undertook this study to determine if 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of sputum and exhaled breath condensate (EBC), as a noninvasive tool, can identify metabolic biomarkers of lung cancer. Sputum and EBC samples were collected from 20 patients, comprising patients with pathologically confirmed non-small cell lung cancer (n = 10) and patients with benign respiratory conditions (n = 10). Both sputum and EBC samples were collected from 18 patients; 2 patients provided EBC samples only. 1H MR spectra were obtained on a Bruker Avance 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer. Sputum samples were further confirmed cytologically to distinguish between true sputum and saliva. In the EBC samples, median concentrations of propionate, ethanol, acetate, and acetone were higher in lung cancer patients compared to the patients with benign conditions. Median concentration of methanol was lower in lung cancer patients (0.028 mM) than in patients with benign conditions (0.067 mM; P = 0.028). In the combined sputum and saliva and the cytologically confirmed sputum samples, median concentrations of N-acetyl sugars, glycoprotein, propionate, lysine, acetate, and formate were lower in the lung cancer patients than in patients with benign conditions. Glucose was found to be consistently absent in the combined sputum and saliva samples (88%) as well as in the cytologically confirmed sputum samples (86%) of lung cancer patients. Absence of glucose in sputum and lower concentrations of methanol in EBC of lung cancer patients discerned by 1H MRS may serve as metabolic biomarkers of lung cancer for early detection, monitoring treatment response, and detecting recurrence.

  6. Preclinical biomarker qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John-Michael; Porter, Amy C

    2017-01-01

    Biomarkers are ubiquitously used within drug development programs in both nonclinical species and in humans to assess safety and efficacy of novel compounds. To routinely apply such novel biomarkers with certainty, a well-defined data package is necessary for review and endorsement by regulatory agencies including the US Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency, and Japanese Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. This type of endorsement is known as regulatory qualification. Novel approaches are being applied to speed the process, lower the resource intensity, and increase the accessibility of biomarker qualification data and it is likely that consortia will continue to play a fundamental role in the qualification process by bringing together like-minded stakeholders focused on specific tools to accelerate drug development. This article will focus on learnings from the previous three nonclinical biomarker qualification projects, as well as discuss the progression of preclinical biomarker projects into the clinical qualification space and the current strategy for the use of nonclinical biomarker data in the translational qualification of clinical biomarkers; much like nonclinical information is used in the approval of drug development candidates. Impact statement This minireview provides an overview of the history of preclinical biomarker qualification by summarizing the three examples of this type of qualification with US Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency, and Japanese Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. In addition, an overview of the biomarker qualification process is included to educate key stakeholders with links to relevant white papers that provide information on current evidentiary considerations. The manuscript also provides new information on the evolution of the role that preclinical qualification plays in clinical qualification of biomarkers and the novel approaches that are being utilized to improve the

  7. Chloromethane emissions in human breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, Frank; Fischer, Jan; Sattler, Tobias; Polag, Daniela; Jaeger, Nicole; Schöler, Heinz Friedrich; Greule, Markus

    2017-12-15

    Chloromethane (CH3Cl), currently the most abundant chlorinated organic compound in the atmosphere at around ~550 parts per trillion by volume (pptv), is considered responsible for approximately 16% of halogen-catalyzed stratospheric ozone destruction. Although emissions of CH3Cl are known to occur from animals such as cattle, formation and release of CH3Cl from humans has not yet been reported. In this study a pre-concentration unit coupled with a gas chromatograph directly linked to a mass spectrometer was used to precisely measure concentrations of CH3Cl at the pptv level in exhaled breath from 31 human subjects with ages ranging from 3 to 87years. We provide analytical evidence that all subjects exhaled CH3Cl in the range of 2.5 to 33 parts per billion by volume, levels which significantly exceed those of inhaled air by a factor of up to 60. If the mean of these emissions was typical for the world's population, then the global source of atmospheric CH3Cl from humans would be around 0.66Ggyr(-1) (0.33 to 1.48Ggyr(-1)), which is less than 0.03% of the total annual global atmospheric source strength. The observed endogenous formation of a chlorinated methyl group in humans might be of interest to biochemists and medical scientists as CH3Cl is also known to be a potent methylating agent and thus, could be an important target compound in future medical research diagnostic programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biomarkers in biological fluids using surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Yiping; Zughaier, Susu M.

    2014-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is an opportunistic pathogen that causes major infection not only in Cystic Fibrosis patients but also in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in critically ill patients in intensive care units. Successful antibiotic treatment of the infection relies on accurate and rapid identification of the infectious agents. Conventional microbiological detection methods usually take more than 3 days to obtain accurate results. We have developed a rapid diagnostic technique based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering to directly identify PA from biological fluids. P. aeruginosa strains, PAO1 and PA14, are cultured in lysogeny broth, and the SERS spectra of the broth show the signature Raman peaks from pyocyanin and pyoverdine, two major biomarkers that P. aeruginosa secretes during its growth, as well as lipopolysaccharides. This provides the evidence that the presence of these biomarkers can be used to indicate P. aeruginosa infection. A total of 22 clinical exhaled breath condensates (EBC) samples were obtained from subjects with CF disease and from non-CF healthy donors. SERS spectra of these EBC samples were obtained and further analyzed by both principle component analysis and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). PLS-DA can discriminate the samples with P. aeruginosa infection and the ones without P. aeruginosa infection at 99.3% sensitivity and 99.6% specificity. In addition, this technique can also discriminate samples from subject with CF disease and healthy donor with 97.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity. These results demonstrate the potential of using SERS of EBC samples as a rapid diagnostic tool to detect PA infection.

  9. Recovery of Percent Vital Capacity by Breathing Training in Patients With Panic Disorder and Impaired Diaphragmatic Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tatsuji; Inoue, Akiomi; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori; Nagata, Shoji

    2017-09-01

    Slow diaphragmatic breathing is one of the therapeutic methods used in behavioral therapy for panic disorder. In practice, we have noticed that some of these patients could not perform diaphragmatic breathing and their percent vital capacity was initially reduced but could be recovered through breathing training. We conducted a comparative study with healthy controls to investigate the relationship between diaphragmatic breathing ability and percent vital capacity in patients with panic disorder. Our findings suggest that percent vital capacity in patients with impaired diaphragmatic breathing was significantly reduced compared with those with normal diaphragmatic breathing and that diaphragmatic breathing could be restored by breathing training. Percent vital capacity of the healthy controls was equivalent to that of the patients who had completed breathing training. This article provides preliminary findings regarding reduced vital capacity in relation to abnormal respiratory movements found in patients with panic disorder, potentially offering alternative perspectives for verifying the significance of breathing training for panic disorder.

  10. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  11. Biomarkers for chronic fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, Nancy G; Broderick, Gordon; Fletcher, Mary Ann

    2012-11-01

    Fatigue that persists for 6 months or more is termed chronic fatigue. Chronic fatigue (CF) in combination with a minimum of 4 of 8 symptoms and the absence of diseases that could explain these symptoms, constitute the case definition for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). Inflammation, immune system activation, autonomic dysfunction, impaired functioning in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and neuroendocrine dysregulation have all been suggested as root causes of fatigue. The identification of objective markers consistently associated with CFS/ME is an important goal in relation to diagnosis and treatment, as the current case definitions are based entirely on physical signs and symptoms. This review is focused on the recent literature related to biomarkers for fatigue associated with CFS/ME and, for comparison, those associated with other diseases. These markers are distributed across several of the body's core regulatory systems. A complex construct of symptoms emerges from alterations and/or dysfunctions in the nervous, endocrine and immune systems. We propose that new insight will depend on our ability to develop and deploy an integrative profiling of CFS/ME pathogenesis at the molecular level. Until such a molecular signature is obtained efforts to develop effective treatments will continue to be severely limited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. BIOMARKERS for CHRONIC FATIGUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Gordon; Fletcher, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue that persists for 6 months or more is termed chronic fatigue. Chronic fatigue (CF) in combination with a minimum of 4 of 8 symptoms and the absence of diseases that could explain these symptoms, constitute the case definition for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). Inflammation, immune system activation, autonomic dysfunction, impaired functioning in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and neuroendocrine dysregulation have all been suggested as root causes of fatigue. The identification of objective markers consistently associated with CFS/ME is an important goal in relation to diagnosis and treatment, as the current case definitions are based entirely on physical signs and symptoms. This review is focused on the recent literature related to biomarkers for fatigue associated with CFS/ME and, for comparison, those associated with other diseases. These markers are distributed across several of the body’s core regulatory systems. A complex construct of symptoms emerges from alterations and/or dysfunctions in the nervous, endocrine and immune systems. We propose that new insight will depend on our ability to develop and deploy an integrative profiling of CFS/ME pathogenesis at the molecular level. Until such a molecular signature is obtained efforts to develop effective treatments will continue to be severely limited. PMID:22732129

  13. Spectral Properties of Holstein and Breathing Polarons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slezak, Cyrill [University of Cincinnati; Macridin, Alexandru [University of Cincinnati; Sawatzky, George [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Jarrell, Mark [University of Cincinnati; Maier, Thomas A [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the spectral properties of the one-dimensional Holstein and breathing polarons using the self-consistent Born approximation. The Holstein model electron-phonon coupling is momentum independent while the breathing coupling increases monotonically with the phonon momentum. We find that for a linear or tight binding electron dispersion: i) for the same value of the dimensionless coupling the quasiparticle renormalization at small momentum in the breathing polaron is much smaller, ii) the quasiparticle renormalization at small momentum in the breathing polaron increases with phonon frequency unlike in the Holstein model where it decreases, iii) in the Holstein model the quasiparticle dispersion displays a kink and a small gap at an excitation energy equal to the phonon frequency $\\omega_0$ while in the breathing model it displays two gaps, one at excitation energy $\\omega_0$ and another one at $2\\omega_0$. These differences have two reasons: first, the momentum of the relevant scattered phonons increases with increasing polaron momentum and second, the breathing bare coupling is an increasing function of the phonon momentum. These result in an effective electron-phonon coupling for the breathing model which is an increasing function of the total polaron momentum, such that the small momentum polaron is in the weak coupling regime while the large momentum one is in the strong coupling regime. However the first reason does not hold if the free electron dispersion has low energy states separated by large momentum, as in a higher dimensional system for example, in which situation the difference between the two models becomes less significant.

  14. Airflow Characteristics At The Breathing Zone of a Seated Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Velte, Clara Marika

    2011-01-01

    was the same: 4, 6, 8 and 10 L/s. The mean velocity field at the breathing zone was obtained by Particle Image Velocimetry: a dual cavity laser (λ = 532 nm) and two CCD cameras with 35 and 60 mm lenses. Seeding, glycerol droplets, was added to the total volume supply. The maximum absolute mean velocity...... measured near the mouth was 0.1 m/s, when the boxes were installed but not working. When the two slots supplied equal amount of air, the measured absolute mean velocity increased with increasing the supplied air with a maximum of 0.35 m/s at 10 L/s....

  15. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis: a biomarker analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortún, J; Martín-Dávila, P; Gómez-Mampaso, E; Vallejo, A; Cuartero, C; González-García, A; Rubí, J; Pallarés, E; Moreno, S

    2014-08-01

    Studies on biomarkers in tuberculosis are focused on pulmonary forms of this disease (PTB), and only limited information is currently available on biomarkers of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). Serum samples from 24 patients with PTB, 29 patients with EPTB and 27 healthy controls were obtained, and the levels of interferon-gamma, chemokine ligand 9, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), tumor marker Ca-125 and adenosine deaminase were determined. The circulating levels of all tested biomarkers in the serum were significantly higher in PTB and EPTB patients than in controls. However, there were no significant differences in the levels of the biomarkers between patients with PTB and EPTB, with the exception of serum levels of MBL which were significantly higher in patients with EPTB than in patients with PTB (p = 0.01). In patients with EPTB, no significant differences were observed in biomarker levels among patients with or without concomitant PTB involvement. Based on MBL serum levels, ROC curve analysis showed an AUC of 0.85 for EPTB versus non-EPTB. The optimal cut-off value of MBL serum levels for EPTB versus non-EPTB was 1,000 μg/ml, with a sensitivity and specificity of 79.3 and 78.0 %, respectively. Biomarkers usually present as acute phase reactants and do not enable pulmonary forms to be differentiated from more serious or extra-pulmonary forms. MBL may be an exception.

  16. Prognostic biomarkers in osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attur, Mukundan; Krasnokutsky-Samuels, Svetlana; Samuels, Jonathan; Abramson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Identification of patients at risk for incident disease or disease progression in osteoarthritis remains challenging, as radiography is an insensitive reflection of molecular changes that presage cartilage and bone abnormalities. Thus there is a widely appreciated need for biochemical and imaging biomarkers. We describe recent developments with such biomarkers to identify osteoarthritis patients who are at risk for disease progression. Recent findings The biochemical markers currently under evaluation include anabolic, catabolic, and inflammatory molecules representing diverse biological pathways. A few promising cartilage and bone degradation and synthesis biomarkers are in various stages of development, awaiting further validation in larger populations. A number of studies have shown elevated expression levels of inflammatory biomarkers, both locally (synovial fluid) and systemically (serum and plasma). These chemical biomarkers are under evaluation in combination with imaging biomarkers to predict early onset and the burden of disease. Summary Prognostic biomarkers may be used in clinical knee osteoarthritis to identify subgroups in whom the disease progresses at different rates. This could facilitate our understanding of the pathogenesis and allow us to differentiate phenotypes within a heterogeneous knee osteoarthritis population. Ultimately, such findings may help facilitate the development of disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs). PMID:23169101

  17. Variability of breath condensate pH may contribute to the better understanding of non-allergic seasonal respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Tamás; Szipőcs, Annamária

    2017-09-01

    The seasonal variability of certain non-allergic respiratory diseases is not clearly understood. Analysis of the breath condensate, the liquid that can be collected by breathing into a cold tube, has been proposed to bring closer to the understanding of airway pathologies. It has been assumed, that (1) airway lining fluid was a stable body liquid and (2) the breath condensate samples were representative of the airway lining fluid. Research was focussed on the identification of biomarkers indicative of respiratory pathologies. Despite 30 years of extended investigations breath condensate analysis has not gained any clinical implementation so far. The pH of the condensate is the characteristic that can be determined with the highest reproducibility. The present paper shows, that contrary to the initial assumptions, breath condensate is not a representative of the airway lining fluid, and the airway lining fluid is not a stable body liquid. Condensate pH shows baseline variability and it is influenced by drinking and by the ambient temperature. The changes in condensate pH are linked to changes in airway lining fluid pH. The variability of airway lining fluid pH may explain seasonal incidence of certain non-allergic respiratory diseases such as the catching of a common cold and the increased incidence of COPD exacerbations and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in cold periods.

  18. Exploring Airway Diseases by NMR-Based Metabonomics: A Review of Application to Exhaled Breath Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that biomarkers of exhaled gases or exhaled breath condensate (EBC may help in detecting abnormalities in respiratory diseases mirroring increased, oxidative stress, airways inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Beside the traditional techniques to investigate biomarker profiles, “omics” sciences have raised interest in the clinical field as potentially improving disease phenotyping. In particular, metabonomics appears to be an important tool to gain qualitative and quantitative information on low-molecular weight metabolites present in cells, tissues, and fluids. Here, we review the potential use of EBC as a suitable matrix for metabonomic studies using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. By using this approach in airway diseases, it is now possible to separate specific EBC profiles, with implication in disease phenotyping and personalized therapy.

  19. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.

    by the fall of a prey item on the water surface, and in tapping motions of goldfish, a behaviour that was interpreted to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air...... at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South...... America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of a fast air-gulping motion at the surface, followed by swimming towards the bottom. Using high-speed video in the laboratory, we compared the kinematics of spontaneous air-gulping performed by H. littorale in normoxia...

  20. Metabolic products as biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, M.J.; Alscher, R.; Benson, W.; Kruzynski, G.; Lee, R.F.; Sikka, H.C.; Spies, R.B.; Huggett, Robert J.; Kimerle, Richard A.; Mehrle, Paul M.=; Bergman, Harold L.

    1992-01-01

    Ideally, endogenous biomarkers would indicate both exposure and environmental effects of toxic chemicals; however, such comprehensive biochemical and physiological indices are currently being developed and, at the present time, are unavailable for use in environmental monitoring programs. Continued work is required to validate the use of biochemical and physiological stress indices as useful components of monitoring programs. Of the compounds discussed only phytochelatins and porphyrins are currently in biomarkers in a useful state; however, glutathione,metallothioneins, stress ethylene, and polyamines are promising as biomarkers in environmental monitoring.

  1. Human breath metabolomics using an optimized non-invasive exhaled breath condensate sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Aksenov, Alexander A; Pasamontes, Alberto; Brown, Joshua F; Pettit, Dayna R; Foutouhi, Soraya; Weimer, Bart C; Schivo, Michael; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Davis, Cristina E

    2016-12-22

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis is a developing field with tremendous promise to advance personalized, non-invasive health diagnostics as new analytical instrumentation platforms and detection methods are developed. Multiple commercially-available and researcher-built experimental samplers are reported in the literature. However, there is very limited information available to determine an effective breath sampling approach, especially regarding the dependence of breath sample metabolomic content on the collection device design and sampling methodology. This lack of an optimal standard procedure results in a range of reported results that are sometimes contradictory. Here, we present a design of a portable human EBC sampler optimized for collection and preservation of the rich metabolomic content of breath. The performance of the engineered device is compared to two commercially available breath collection devices: the RTube(™) and TurboDECCS. A number of design and performance parameters are considered, including: condenser temperature stability during sampling, collection efficiency, condenser material choice, and saliva contamination in the collected breath samples. The significance of the biological content of breath samples, collected with each device, is evaluated with a set of mass spectrometry methods and was the primary factor for evaluating device performance. The design includes an adjustable mass-size threshold for aerodynamic filtering of saliva droplets from the breath flow. Engineering an inexpensive device that allows efficient collection of metalomic-rich breath samples is intended to aid further advancement in the field of breath analysis for non-invasive health diagnostic. EBC sampling from human volunteers was performed under UC Davis IRB protocol 63701-3 (09/30/2014-07/07/2017).

  2. Abdominal breathing increases tear secretion in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Kokoro; Kawashima, Motoko; Ikeura, Kazuhiro; Arita, Reiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    To determine the relationship between abdominal breathing and tear meniscus volume in healthy women, we investigated the change in tear meniscus volume in two groups: normal breathing and abdominal breathing. We used a crossover experimental model and examined 20 healthy women aged 20-54 years (mean ± SD, 32.7 ± 11.1 years). The participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. During the first visit, the normal breathing group was subjected to normal breathing for 3 min, whereas the abdominal breathing group was subjected to abdominal breathing (4-second inhalation and 6-second exhalation) for 3 min. During the second visit, the protocols were swapped between the two groups. We estimated the R wave to R wave (R-R) interval, tear meniscus volume, salivary amylase activity, pulse, and blood pressure before and immediately after, 15 min after, and 30 min after completion of the breathing activity. After abdominal breathing, compared to that before breathing, the tear meniscus volume increased significantly 15 min after breathing (Pabdominal breathing (PAbdominal breathing for 3 minutes increases the tear meniscus volume in healthy women. Consequently, abdominal breathing may be considered in the treatment of dry eye disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A Zope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

  4. Estimation of respiratory impedance at low frequencies during spontaneous breathing using the forced oscillation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Hannes; Vandersteen, Gerd; Ionescu, Clara

    2014-01-01

    The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a non-invasive method to measure the respiratory impedance Z, defined as the complex ratio of transrespiratory pressure P to the airflow at the airway opening Q as a function of frequency. FOT determines Z by superimposing small amplitude pressure oscillations on the normal breathing and measuring the resulting air flow. In this work a new approach for the analysis of the respiratory impedance Z at low frequencies (0.1-5 Hz) during spontaneous breathing is presented. When the respiratory impedance is measured in frequency ranges that overlap with the frequency of spontaneous breathing (0.1-1 Hz), the measured air flow will contain both the breathing of the patient and the response of the respiratory impedance to the pressure oscillations. A nonlinear estimator is developed which is able to separate the breathing signal from the respiratory response in order to obtain the respiratory impedance. The estimated results are used to obtain accurate estimates of airway and tissue components of a constant phase model.

  5. Biomarkers in Airway Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherent limitations of spirometry and clinical history have prompted clinicians and scientists to search for surrogate markers of airway diseases. Although few biomarkers have been widely accepted into the clinical armamentarium, the authors explore three sources of biomarkers that have shown promise as indicators of disease severity and treatment response. In asthma, exhaled nitric oxide measurements can predict steroid responsiveness and sputum eosinophil counts have been used to titrate anti-inflammatory therapies. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory plasma biomarkers, such as fibrinogen, club cell secretory protein-16 and surfactant protein D, can denote greater severity and predict the risk of exacerbations. While the multitude of disease phenotypes in respiratory medicine make biomarker development especially challenging, these three may soon play key roles in the diagnosis and management of airway diseases.

  6. amphibian_biomarker_data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amphibian metabolite data used in Snyder, M.N., Henderson, W.M., Glinski, D.G., Purucker, S. T., 2017. Biomarker analysis of american toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and...

  7. Theranostic Biomarkers for Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matea Nikolac Perkovic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a highly heritable, chronic, severe, disabling neurodevelopmental brain disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background, which is still poorly understood. To allow better diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies in schizophrenia patients, use of easy accessible biomarkers is suggested. The most frequently used biomarkers in schizophrenia are those associated with the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine system, metabolism, different neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors. However, there are still no validated and reliable biomarkers in clinical use for schizophrenia. This review will address potential biomarkers in schizophrenia. It will discuss biomarkers in schizophrenia and propose the use of specific blood-based panels that will include a set of markers associated with immune processes, metabolic disorders, and neuroendocrine/neurotrophin/neurotransmitter alterations. The combination of different markers, or complex multi-marker panels, might help in the discrimination of patients with different underlying pathologies and in the better classification of the more homogenous groups. Therefore, the development of the diagnostic, prognostic and theranostic biomarkers is an urgent and an unmet need in psychiatry, with the aim of improving diagnosis, therapy monitoring, prediction of treatment outcome and focus on the personal medicine approach in order to improve the quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and decrease health costs worldwide.

  8. Theranostic Biomarkers for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolac Perkovic, Matea; Nedic Erjavec, Gordana; Svob Strac, Dubravka; Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver; Pivac, Nela

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable, chronic, severe, disabling neurodevelopmental brain disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background, which is still poorly understood. To allow better diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies in schizophrenia patients, use of easy accessible biomarkers is suggested. The most frequently used biomarkers in schizophrenia are those associated with the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine system, metabolism, different neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors. However, there are still no validated and reliable biomarkers in clinical use for schizophrenia. This review will address potential biomarkers in schizophrenia. It will discuss biomarkers in schizophrenia and propose the use of specific blood-based panels that will include a set of markers associated with immune processes, metabolic disorders, and neuroendocrine/neurotrophin/neurotransmitter alterations. The combination of different markers, or complex multi-marker panels, might help in the discrimination of patients with different underlying pathologies and in the better classification of the more homogenous groups. Therefore, the development of the diagnostic, prognostic and theranostic biomarkers is an urgent and an unmet need in psychiatry, with the aim of improving diagnosis, therapy monitoring, prediction of treatment outcome and focus on the personal medicine approach in order to improve the quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and decrease health costs worldwide. PMID:28358316

  9. Luminally expressed gastrointestinal biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Gerard; Yung, Diana E; Cox, Ben F; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Desmulliez, Marc P Y; Cochran, Sandy

    2017-12-01

    A biomarker is a measurable indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes or pharmacological responses. The identification of a useful biomarker is challenging, with several hurdles to overcome before clinical adoption. This review gives a general overview of a range of biomarkers associated with inflammatory bowel disease or colorectal cancer along the gastrointestinal tract. Areas covered: These markers include those that are already clinically accepted, such as inflammatory markers such as faecal calprotectin, S100A12 (Calgranulin C), Fatty Acid Binding Proteins (FABP), malignancy markers such as Faecal Occult Blood, Mucins, Stool DNA, Faecal microRNA (miRNA), other markers such as Faecal Elastase, Faecal alpha-1-antitrypsin, Alpha2-macroglobulin and possible future markers such as microbiota, volatile organic compounds and pH. Expert commentary: There are currently a few biomarkers that have been sufficiently validated for routine clinical use at present such as FC. However, many of these biomarkers continue to be limited in sensitivity and specificity for various GI diseases. Emerging biomarkers have the potential to improve diagnosis and monitoring but further study is required to determine efficacy and validate clinical utility.

  10. Theranostic Biomarkers for Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkovic, Matea Nikolac; Erjavec, Gordana Nedic; Strac, Dubravka Svob; Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver; Pivac, Nela

    2017-03-30

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable, chronic, severe, disabling neurodevelopmental brain disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background, which is still poorly understood. To allow better diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies in schizophrenia patients, use of easy accessible biomarkers is suggested. The most frequently used biomarkers in schizophrenia are those associated with the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine system, metabolism, different neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors. However, there are still no validated and reliable biomarkers in clinical use for schizophrenia. This review will address potential biomarkers in schizophrenia. It will discuss biomarkers in schizophrenia and propose the use of specific blood-based panels that will include a set of markers associated with immune processes, metabolic disorders, and neuroendocrine/neurotrophin/neurotransmitter alterations. The combination of different markers, or complex multi-marker panels, might help in the discrimination of patients with different underlying pathologies and in the better classification of the more homogenous groups. Therefore, the development of the diagnostic, prognostic and theranostic biomarkers is an urgent and an unmet need in psychiatry, with the aim of improving diagnosis, therapy monitoring, prediction of treatment outcome and focus on the personal medicine approach in order to improve the quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and decrease health costs worldwide.

  11. Stratum corneum biomarkers for inflammatory skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focusses on development of biomarkers, obtained by a non-invasive sampling method, for skin inflammatory diseases relevant for occupational settings; irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and atopic dermatitis (AD). In various studies, in which different

  12. Using the heart rate variability for classifying patients with and without chronic heart failure and periodic breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Giraldo, Beatriz; Téllez, Joan P.; Herrera, Sergio; Benito, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of the dynamic interactions between cardiovascular signals can provide valuable information that improves the understanding of cardiovascular control. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is known to provide information about the autonomic heart rate modulation mechanism. Using the HRV signal, we aimed to obtain parameters for classifying patients with and without chronic heart failure (CHF), and with periodic breathing (PB), non-periodic breathing (nPB), and Cheyne-Stokes respira...

  13. Acoustic signal classification of breathing movements to virtually aid breath regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushakra, Ahmad; Faezipour, Miad

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring breath and identifying breathing movements have settled importance in many biomedical research areas, especially in the treatment of those with breathing disorders, e.g., lung cancer patients. Moreover, virtual reality (VR) revolution and their implementations on ubiquitous hand-held devices have a lot of implications, which could be used as a simulation technology for healing purposes. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to detect and classify breathing movements. The overall VR framework is intended to encourage the subjects regulate their breath by classifying the breathing movements in real time. This paper focuses on a portion of the overall VR framework that deals with classifying the acoustic signal of respiration movements. We employ Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) along with speech segmentation techniques using voice activity detection and linear thresholding to the acoustic signal of breath captured using a microphone to depict the differences between inhale and exhale in frequency domain. For every subject, 13 MFCCs of all voiced segments are computed and plotted. The inhale and exhale phases are differentiated using the sixth MFCC order, which carries important classification information. Experimental results on a number of individuals verify our proposed classification methodology.

  14. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for breath phase detection and breath cycle segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, Rajkumar; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Sundaraj, Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    The monitoring of the respiratory rate is vital in several medical conditions, including sleep apnea because patients with sleep apnea exhibit an irregular respiratory rate compared with controls. Therefore, monitoring the respiratory rate by detecting the different breath phases is crucial. This study aimed to segment the breath cycles from pulmonary acoustic signals using the newly developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based on breath phase detection and to subsequently evaluate the performance of the system. The normalised averaged power spectral density for each segment was fuzzified, and a set of fuzzy rules was formulated. The ANFIS was developed to detect the breath phases and subsequently perform breath cycle segmentation. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient values were calculated and analysed, and the proposed method was then validated using data collected at KIMS Hospital and the RALE standard dataset. The analysis of the correlation coefficient of the neuro-fuzzy model, which was performed to evaluate its performance, revealed a correlation strength of r = 0.9925, and the RMSE for the neuro-fuzzy model was found to equal 0.0069. The proposed neuro-fuzzy model performs better than the fuzzy inference system (FIS) in detecting the breath phases and segmenting the breath cycles and requires less rules than FIS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in breathing variables during a 30-minute spontaneous breathing trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Casas, Juan B; Connery, Sean M; Montoya, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    Spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs) are increasingly performed. Significant changes in monitored breathing variables and the timing of those changes during the trial have important implications for its outcome determination and supervision. We aimed to study the magnitude and timing of change in breathing variables during the course of a 30-min SBT. Breathing variables were continuously measured and averaged by minute during the SBT in 32 subjects with trial success and 8 subjects with trial failure from a general ICU population. Percentage changes in breathing variables during the trial and proportions of subjects showing a ≥20% change at different time points relative to the second minute of the trial were calculated. The commonly monitored breathing variables (frequency, tidal volume, their ratio, and minute ventilation) showed median coefficients of variation of <15% throughout the trial and a median change of less than ±20% by the end of the trial. Changes in a detrimental direction of ≥20% at the end of the trial but not already present at 10 min were noted in ≤5% of all subjects. During the course of a 30-min SBT, breathing variables remain relatively constant, and potentially significant changes in these variables after 10 min into the trial are uncommon. These findings should be considered when addressing aspects of duration and supervision of SBTs in weaning protocols. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  16. Breath testing and personal exposure--SIFT-MS detection of breath acetonitrile for exposure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Malina; Curry, Kirsty; Squire, Marie; Kingham, Simon; Epton, Michael

    2015-05-26

    Breath testing has potential for the rapid assessment of the source and impact of exposure to air pollutants. During the development of a breath test for acetonitrile using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) raised acetonitrile concentrations in the breath of volunteers were observed that could not be explained by known sources of exposure. Workplace/laboratory exposure to acetonitrile was proposed since this was common to the volunteers with increased breath concentrations. SIFT-MS measurements of acetonitrile in breath and air were used to confirm that an academic chemistry laboratory was the source of exposure to acetonitrile, and quantify the changes that occurred to exhaled acetonitrile after exposure. High concentrations of acetonitrile were detected in the air of the chemistry laboratory. However, concentrations in the offices were not significantly different across the campus. There was a significant difference in the exhaled acetonitrile concentrations of people who worked in the chemistry laboratories (exposed) and those who did not (non-exposed). SIFT-MS testing of air and breath made it possible to determine that occupational exposure to acetonitrile in the chemistry laboratory was the cause of increased exhaled acetonitrile. Additionally, the sensitivity was adequate to measure the changes to exhaled amounts and found that breath concentrations increased quickly with short exposure and remained increased even after periods of non-exposure. There is potential to add acetonitrile to a suite of VOCs to investigate source and impact of poor air quality.

  17. Comparison of two devices and two breathing patterns for exhaled breath condensate sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttmann, Eva-Maria; Greulich, Timm; Hattesohl, Akira; Schmid, Severin; Noeske, Sarah; Herr, Christian; John, Gerrit; Jörres, Rudolf A; Müller, Bernd; Vogelmeier, Claus; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive method to access the epithelial lining fluid of the lungs. Due to standardization problems the method has not entered clinical practice. The aim of the study was to assess the comparability for two commercially available devices in healthy controls. In addition, we assessed different breathing patterns in healthy controls with protein markers to analyze the source of the EBC. EBC was collected from ten subjects using the RTube and ECoScreen Turbo in a randomized crossover design, twice with every device--once in tidal breathing and once in hyperventilation. EBC conductivity, pH, surfactant protein A, Clara cell secretory protein and total protein were assessed. Bland-Altman plots were constructed to display the influence of different devices or breathing patterns and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. The volatile organic compound profile was measured using the electronic nose Cyranose 320. For the analysis of these data, the linear discriminant analysis, the Mahalanobis distances and the cross-validation values (CVV) were calculated. Neither the device nor the breathing pattern significantly altered EBC pH or conductivity. ICCs ranged from 0.61 to 0.92 demonstrating moderate to very good agreement. Protein measurements were greatly influenced by breathing pattern, the device used, and the way in which the results were reported. The electronic nose could distinguish between different breathing patterns and devices, resulting in Mahalanobis distances greater than 2 and CVVs ranging from 64% to 87%. EBC pH and (to a lesser extent) EBC conductivity are stable parameters that are not influenced by either the device or the breathing patterns. Protein measurements remain uncertain due to problems of standardization. We conclude that the influence of the breathing maneuver translates into the necessity to keep the volume of ventilated air constant in further studies.

  18. Comparison of two devices and two breathing patterns for exhaled breath condensate sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Hüttmann

    Full Text Available Analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC is a noninvasive method to access the epithelial lining fluid of the lungs. Due to standardization problems the method has not entered clinical practice. The aim of the study was to assess the comparability for two commercially available devices in healthy controls. In addition, we assessed different breathing patterns in healthy controls with protein markers to analyze the source of the EBC.EBC was collected from ten subjects using the RTube and ECoScreen Turbo in a randomized crossover design, twice with every device--once in tidal breathing and once in hyperventilation. EBC conductivity, pH, surfactant protein A, Clara cell secretory protein and total protein were assessed. Bland-Altman plots were constructed to display the influence of different devices or breathing patterns and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was calculated. The volatile organic compound profile was measured using the electronic nose Cyranose 320. For the analysis of these data, the linear discriminant analysis, the Mahalanobis distances and the cross-validation values (CVV were calculated.Neither the device nor the breathing pattern significantly altered EBC pH or conductivity. ICCs ranged from 0.61 to 0.92 demonstrating moderate to very good agreement. Protein measurements were greatly influenced by breathing pattern, the device used, and the way in which the results were reported. The electronic nose could distinguish between different breathing patterns and devices, resulting in Mahalanobis distances greater than 2 and CVVs ranging from 64% to 87%.EBC pH and (to a lesser extent EBC conductivity are stable parameters that are not influenced by either the device or the breathing patterns. Protein measurements remain uncertain due to problems of standardization. We conclude that the influence of the breathing maneuver translates into the necessity to keep the volume of ventilated air constant in further studies.

  19. Finger dexterity and visual discrimination following two yoga breathing practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Telles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Practicing yoga has been shown to improve motor functions and attention. Though attention is required for fine motor and discrimination tasks, the effect of yoga breathing techniques on fine motor skills and visual discrimination has not been assessed. Aim: To study the effect of yoga breathing techniques on finger dexterity and visual discrimination. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of one hundred and forty subjects who had enrolled for stress management. They were randomly divided into two groups, one group practiced high frequency yoga breathing while the other group practiced breath awareness. High frequency yoga breathing (kapalabhati, breath rate 1.0 Hz and breath awareness are two yoga practices which improve attention. The immediate effect of high frequency yoga breathing and breath awareness (i were assessed on the performance on the O′Connor finger dexterity task and (ii (in a shape and size discrimination task. Results: There was a significant improvement in the finger dexterity task by 19% after kapalabhati and 9% after breath awareness (P<0.001 in both cases, repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc analyses. There was a significant reduction (P<0.001 in error (41% after kapalabhati and 21% after breath awareness as well as time taken to complete the shape and size discrimination test (15% after kapalabhati and 15% after breath awareness; P<0.001 was also observed. Conclusion: Both kapalabahati and breath awareness can improve fine motor skills and visual discrimination, with a greater magnitude of change after kapalabhati.

  20. WONOEP appraisal: Imaging biomarkers in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Erwin A; Dedeurwaerdere, Stefanie; Cole, Andrew J; Friedman, Alon; Koepp, Matthias J; Potschka, Heidrun; Immonen, Riikka; Pitkänen, Asla; Federico, Paolo

    2017-03-01

    Neuroimaging offers a wide range of opportunities to obtain information about neuronal activity, brain inflammation, blood-brain barrier alterations, and various molecular alterations during epileptogenesis or for the prediction of pharmacoresponsiveness as well as postoperative outcome. Imaging biomarkers were examined during the XIII Workshop on Neurobiology of Epilepsy (XIII WONOEP) organized in 2015 by the Neurobiology Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). Here we present an extended summary of the discussed issues and provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the biomarker potential of different neuroimaging approaches for epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  1. Chemoresistive Gas Sensors for the Detection of Colorectal Cancer Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Malagù

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous medical studies show that tumor growth is accompanied by protein changes that may lead to the peroxidation of the cell membrane with consequent emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs by breath or intestinal gases that should be seen as biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC. The analysis of VOCs represents a non-invasive and potentially inexpensive preliminary screening technique. An array of chemoresistive gas sensors based on screen-printed metal oxide semiconducting films has been selected to discriminate gases of oncological interest, e.g., 1-iodononane and benzene, widely assumed to be biomarkers of colorectal cancer, from those of interference in the gut, such as methane and nitric oxide.

  2. Hemoptysis due to breath-hold diving following chemotherapy and lung irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsche, Markus; Kuschner, Ware G

    2012-08-01

    Breath-hold diving, also known as free-diving, describes the practice of intentional immersion under water without an external supply of oxygen. Pulmonary hemorrhage with hemoptysis has been reported as a complication of immersion and breath-hold diving in young healthy athletes. We report the case of a 60-year-old man with a history of radiation and chemotherapy for breast carcinoma, who developed the abrupt onset of hemoptysis in the setting of swimming and breath-hold diving. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest demonstrated an area of ground glass opacification, suggestive of pulmonary hemorrhage, superimposed on a background of reticular opacities within the prior radiation field. A follow-up CT scan of the chest, obtained 2 months after presentation, demonstrated resolution of the ground glass opacification, but persistence of fibrotic features attributable to prior radiation therapy. We postulate that prior irradiation of the chest resulted in lung injury and fibrosis which, in turn, rendered the affected region of the lung susceptible to "stress failure," due to an increase in the transcapillary pressure gradient arising from immersion and breath-hold diving. Patients with a history of lung injury resulting from chest irradiation should be cautioned about pulmonary hemorrhage and hemoptysis as a potential complication of swimming and breath-hold diving.

  3. Whole left ventricular functional assessment from two minutes free breathing multi-slice CINE acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, M.; Atkinson, D.; Heathfield, E.; Greil, G.; Schaeffter, T.; Prieto, C.

    2015-04-01

    Two major challenges in cardiovascular MRI are long scan times due to slow MR acquisition and motion artefacts due to respiratory motion. Recently, a Motion Corrected-Compressed Sensing (MC-CS) technique has been proposed for free breathing 2D dynamic cardiac MRI that addresses these challenges by simultaneously accelerating MR acquisition and correcting for any arbitrary motion in a compressed sensing reconstruction. In this work, the MC-CS framework is combined with parallel imaging for further acceleration, and is termed Motion Corrected Sparse SENSE (MC-SS). Validation of the MC-SS framework is demonstrated in eight volunteers and three patients for left ventricular functional assessment and results are compared with the breath-hold acquisitions as reference. A non-significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed in the volumetric functional measurements (end diastolic volume, end systolic volume, ejection fraction) and myocardial border sharpness values obtained with the proposed and gold standard methods. The proposed method achieves whole heart multi-slice coverage in 2 min under free breathing acquisition eliminating the time needed between breath-holds for instructions and recovery. This results in two-fold speed up of the total acquisition time in comparison to the breath-hold acquisition.

  4. Variation in the rapid shallow breathing index associated with common measurement techniques and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kapil N; Ganatra, Kalpesh D; Bates, Jason H T; Young, Michael P

    2009-11-01

    The rapid-shallow-breathing index (RSBI) is widely used to evaluate mechanically ventilated patients for weaning and extubation, but it is determined in different clinical centers in a variety of ways, under conditions that are not always comparable. We hypothesized that the value of RSBI may be significantly influenced by common variations in measurement conditions and technique. Sixty patients eligible for a weaning evaluation after >or=72 hours of mechanical ventilation were studied over 15 months in a medical intensive care unit. RSBI was measured while the patients were on 2 different levels of ventilator support: 5 cm H2O continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus T-piece. RSBI was also calculated in 2 different ways: using the values of minute ventilation and respiratory rate provided by the digital output of the ventilator, versus values obtained manually with a Wright spirometer. Finally, RSBI was measured at 2 different times of the day. RSBI was significantly less when measured on 5 cm H2O CPAP, compared to T-piece: the medians and interquartile ranges were 71 (52-88) breaths/min/L versus 90 (59-137) breaths/min/L, respectively (Pventilator-derived versus manual measures of the breathing pattern. RSBI was also not significantly different in the morning versus evening measurements. RSBI can be significantly affected by the level of ventilator support, but is relatively unaffected by both the technique used to determine the breathing pattern and the time of day at which it is measured.

  5. Pulmonary Function Responses to Active Cycle Breathing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic heart failure patients experience restrictive respiratory dysfunction, resulting in alterations of FEV1, FVC and FEV /FVC as demonstrated in exercise 1 intolerance, dyspnoea and poor quality of life (QoL). Active Cycle of Breathing Techniques (ACBT) is traditionally used by Physiotherapists in the management of ...

  6. Breath psychotherapy | Edwards | Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are many forms of breathbased healing: basic breathing and relaxation methods, with or without the practice of psychological skills such as imagery, centring and concentration; expressive physical and emotional techniques; advanced meditation, prayer and other spiritual exercises. Such an approach has been ...

  7. ACTIVE CYCLE BREATHING TECHNIQUES IN HEART FAILURE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    FVC and FEV /FVC as demonstrated in exercise. 1 intolerance, dyspnoea and poor quality of life (QoL). Active Cycle of Breathing Techniques (ACBT) is traditionally used by Physiotherapists in the management of respiratory conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological effects of ACBT on pulmonary ...

  8. Sleep effects on breathing and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhary Sumer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand normal sleep pattern and physiological changes during sleep, sleep and breathing interaction, nomenclature and scales used in sleep study, discuss the effect of rapid eye movements and non-rapid eye movements while sleep and to review the effects of obstructive and restrictive lung disease on gas exchange during sleep and sleep architecture.

  9. The Physics of Breath-Hold Diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilella, Vicente; Aguilella-Arzo, Marcelo

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes physical features of breath-hold diving. Considers the diver's descent and the initial surface dive and presents examples that show the diver's buoyancy equilibrium varying with depth, the driving force supplied by finning, and the effect of friction between the water and the diver. (Author/JRH)

  10. A breath actuated dry powder inhaler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anne; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hagedoorn, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A breath actuated dry powder inhaler with a single air circulation chamber for de-agglomeration of entrained powdered medicament using the energy of the inspiratory air stream. The chamber has a substantially polygonal sidewall, a plurality of air supply channels entering the chamber substantially

  11. The NASA firefighter's breathing system program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Carson, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The research is reported in the development of a firefighter's breathing system (FBS) to satisfy the operational requirements of fire departments while remaining within their cost constraints. System definition for the FBS is discussed, and the program status is reported. It is concluded that the most difficult problem in the FBS Program is the achievement of widespread fire department acceptance of the system.

  12. Breathing Better with a COPD Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help prevent the airways from getting inflamed. PulmoNary rehabilitatioN This is a program that helps you learn ... call your health care provider right away. breathiNg better with a CoPD DiagNosis 4 W Seek emergency ...

  13. Fast and accurate exhaled breath ammonia measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew L; Spacek, Lisa A; Risby, Terence H

    2014-06-11

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations.

  14. Using Aptamers for Cancer Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Min Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are single-stranded synthetic DNA- or RNA-based oligonucleotides that fold into various shapes to bind to a specific target, which includes proteins, metals, and molecules. Aptamers have high affinity and high specificity that are comparable to that of antibodies. They are obtained using iterative method, called (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment SELEX and cell-based SELEX (cell-SELEX. Aptamers can be paired with recent advances in nanotechnology, microarray, microfluidics, and other technologies for applications in clinical medicine. One particular area that aptamers can shed a light on is biomarker discovery. Biomarkers are important in diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In this paper, we will describe ways in which aptamers can be used to discover biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and therapeutics.

  15. Biomarkers of sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis is an unusual systemic reaction to what is sometimes an otherwise ordinary infection, and it probably represents a pattern of response by the immune system to injury. A hyper-inflammatory response is followed by an immunosuppressive phase during which multiple organ dysfunction is present and the patient is susceptible to nosocomial infection. Biomarkers to diagnose sepsis may allow early intervention which, although primarily supportive, can reduce the risk of death. Although lactate is currently the most commonly used biomarker to identify sepsis, other biomarkers may help to enhance lactate’s effectiveness; these include markers of the hyper-inflammatory phase of sepsis, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines; proteins such as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin which are synthesized in response to infection and inflammation; and markers of neutrophil and monocyte activation. Recently, markers of the immunosuppressive phase of sepsis, such as anti-inflammatory cytokines, and alterations of the cell surface markers of monocytes and lymphocytes have been examined. Combinations of pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers in a multi-marker panel may help identify patients who are developing severe sepsis before organ dysfunction has advanced too far. Combined with innovative approaches to treatment that target the immunosuppressive phase, these biomarkers may help to reduce the mortality rate associated with severe sepsis which, despite advances in supportive measures, remains high. PMID:23480440

  16. Quantification of the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio for breathing motion modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Benjamin M; Zhao, Tianyu; Lamb, James; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Low, Daniel A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology to quantitatively measure the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio from a 4DCT dataset for breathing motion modeling and breathing motion studies. The thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio was quantified by measuring the rate of cross-sectional volume increase throughout the thorax and abdomen as a function of tidal volume. Twenty-six 16-slice 4DCT patient datasets were acquired during quiet respiration using a protocol that acquired 25 ciné scans at each couch position. Fifteen datasets included data from the neck through the pelvis. Tidal volume, measured using a spirometer and abdominal pneumatic bellows, was used as breathing-cycle surrogates. The cross-sectional volume encompassed by the skin contour when compared for each CT slice against the tidal volume exhibited a nearly linear relationship. A robust iteratively reweighted least squares regression analysis was used to determine η(i), defined as the amount of cross-sectional volume expansion at each slice i per unit tidal volume. The sum Ση(i) throughout all slices was predicted to be the ratio of the geometric expansion of the lung and the tidal volume; 1.11. The Xiphoid process was selected as the boundary between the thorax and abdomen. The Xiphoid process slice was identified in a scan acquired at mid-inhalation. The imaging protocol had not originally been designed for purposes of measuring the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio so the scans did not extend to the anatomy with η(i) = 0. Extrapolation of η(i)-η(i) = 0 was used to include the entire breathing volume. The thorax and abdomen regions were individually analyzed to determine the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratios. There were 11 image datasets that had been scanned only through the thorax. For these cases, the abdomen breathing component was equal to 1.11 - Ση(i) where the sum was taken throughout the thorax. The average Ση(i) for thorax and abdomen image datasets was found to be 1.20

  17. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to a...

  18. Breathing Exercises for Inpatients with Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Matthie, Nadine; Brewer, Cheryl A.; Moura, Vera L.; Jenerette, Coretta M.

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a painful condition wherein breathing often is compromised. This pilot study supports the premise that individuals with SCD are willing to learn breathing exercises. Medical-surgical nurses should encourage breathing exercises for managing pain and preventing complications.

  19. 21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing frequency monitor. 868.2375 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2375 Breathing frequency monitor. (a) Identification. A breathing (ventilatory) frequency monitor is a device intended to measure or monitor a patient...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5330 - Breathing gas mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... apparatus to control the mixing of gases that are to be breathed by a patient. (b) Classification. Class II... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing gas mixer. 868.5330 Section 868.5330...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5330 Breathing gas mixer. (a...

  1. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  2. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The maximum...

  3. Experiencing the Meaning of Breathing | Edwards | Indo-Pacific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The meaning of breathing is discussed in relation to consciousness, bodiliness, spirituality, illness prevention and health promotion. Experiencing the meaning of breathing is to experience more meaning in life itself. Experiential vignettes confirm that breathing skills may be regarded as an original method of survival, ...

  4. Diagnosing lactase deficiency in three breaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberacher, M; Pohl, D; Vavricka, S R; Fried, M; Tutuian, R

    2011-05-01

    Lactose hydrogen breath tests (H(2)-BTs) are widely used to diagnose lactase deficiency, the most common cause of lactose intolerance. The main time-consuming part of the test relates to the sampling frequency and number of breath samples. Evaluate sensitivities and specificities of two- and three-sample breath tests compared with standard breath sampling every 15 min. Lactose H(2)-BT with probes samples every 15 min served as gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of two-sample tests (0-60 min, 0-90 min or 0-120 min) and three-sample tests (0-60-90 min, 0-60-120 min or 0-90-120 min) were calculated. Among 1049 lactose H(2)-BT performed between July 1999 and December 2005, 337 (32%) had a positive result. Two-sample tests had sensitivity and specificity of 52.5 and 100.0% (0-60 min), 81.9 and 99.7% (0-90 min), and 92.6 and 99.2% (0-120 min), respectively. Three-sample tests had sensitivity and specificity of 83.4 and 99.7% (0-60-90 min), 95.0 and 99.2% (0-60-120 min), and 95.0 and 98.9% (0-90-120 min), respectively. A three-sample breath test (baseline, 60/90 min and 120 min) has excellent sensitivity and specificity for lactase deficiency. Lactose H(2)-BT can be simplified but not shortened to <2 h.

  5. Biomarkers intersect with the exposome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Stephen M

    2012-09-01

    The exposome concept promotes use of omic tools for discovering biomarkers of exposure and biomarkers of disease in studies of diseased and healthy populations. A two-stage scheme is presented for profiling omic features in serum to discover molecular biomarkers and then for applying these biomarkers in follow-up studies. The initial component, referred to as an exposome-wide-association study (EWAS), employs metabolomics and proteomics to interrogate the serum exposome and, ultimately, to identify, validate and differentiate biomarkers of exposure and biomarkers of disease. Follow-up studies employ knowledge-driven designs to explore disease causality, prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.

  6. TO STUDY THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BUTEYKO BREATHING TECHNIQUE VERSUS DIAPHRAGMATIC BREATHING IN ASTHMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Mayank Afle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. It is estimated that around 300 million people in the world currently have asthma In Asthmatics dysfunctional breathing pattern is common. Breathing pattern is the basis of abnormal patterns in asthma. The purpose of this study was to find out the effectiveness of Buteyko breathing technique versus diaphragmatic breathing in asthmatics. Methods: 46 patients with asthma aged 20-65 years were taken. The duration of the study was 2 weeks & data was collected on day zero and at the end of 2nd week. The subjects were divided into two groups A & B 23 patients of asthma in each group were distributed by convenient sampling. Each subject was assessed according to FEV1, FEV1/FVC and PEFR Statistics were applied by using SPSS 11. Results: Results were calculated by using 0.05 level of significance. On the basis of above statistical analysis the p value for group A is less than 0.05. So the intervention on group A is effective than intervention on group B. Conclusion: So Buteyko breathing technique proves to be more effective than diaphragmatic breathing technique in asthmatics.

  7. Does Manual Therapy Provide Additional Benefit To Breathing Retraining In The Management Of Dysfunctional Breathing? A Randomised Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, MO; Troup, F; Nugus, J; Roughton, M; Hodson, ME; Rayner, C.; Bowen, F; Pryor, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Dysfunctional breathing (DB) is associated with an abnormal breathing pattern, unexplained breathlessness and significant patient morbidity. Treatment involves breathing retraining through respiratory physiotherapy. Recently, manual therapy (MT) has also been used, but no evidence exists to validate its use. This study sought to investigate whether MT produces additional benefit when compared with breathing retraining alone in patients with DB. Methods: Sixty subjects with primary...

  8. Inflammatory biomarkers and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line Jee Hartmann; Schultz, Martin; Gaardsting, Anne

    2017-01-01

    soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) pentraxin-3, mannose-binding lectin, ficolin-1, ficolin-2 and ficolin-3. We aimed to evaluate these biomarkers and compare their diagnostic ability to classical biomarkers for diagnosing cancer......In Denmark, patients with serious nonspecific symptoms and signs of cancer (NSSC) are referred to the diagnostic outpatient clinics (DOCs) where an accelerated cancer diagnostic program is initiated. Various immunological and inflammatory biomarkers have been associated with cancer, including...... in patients with NSSC. Patients were included from the DOC, Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre. Patients were given a final diagnosis based on the combined results from scans, blood work and physical examination. Weight loss, Charlson score and previous cancer were...

  9. Biomarkers of the Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikio Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in biomarker studies on dementia are summarized here. CSF Aβ40, Aβ42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau are the most sensitive biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD and prediction of onset of AD from mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Based on this progress, new diagnostic criteria for AD, MCI, and preclinical AD were proposed by National Institute of Aging (NIA and Alzheimer's Association in August 2010. In these new criteria, progress in biomarker identification and amyloid imaging studies in the past 10 years have added critical information. Huge contributions of basic and clinical studies have established clinical evidence supporting these markers. Based on this progress, essential therapy for cure of AD is urgently expected.

  10. Towards Improved Biomarker Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldahl, Karin

    This thesis takes a look at the data analytical challenges associated with the search for biomarkers in large-scale biological data such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics data. These studies aim to identify genes, proteins or metabolites which can be associated with e.g. a diet...... to actually identify strong biomarkers when strict validation is applied; the latter phenomenon is to some extentmasked by a publication bias, but has been widely observed among researchers working with omics data. In this thesis, the background of this apparent small effect size of the biomarkers...... is investigated and followed by some suggestions which can potentially improve the chances of a successful outcome of an omics study. A method widely applied in the analysis of omics studies is Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression which is one of the work horses within the chemometrics tool box; a method which...

  11. Biomarkers of kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbschat, Anja; Obermüller, Nicholas; Haferkamp, Axel

    2011-07-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a common serious clinical problem. Up to date mortality due to AKI, especially in intensive care units, has not been changed significantly over the past 50 years. This is partly due to a delay in initiating renal protective and appropriate therapeutic measures since until now there are no reliable early-detecting biomarkers. The gold standard, serum creatinine, displays poor specificity and sensitivity with regard to recognition of the early period of AKI. Our objective was to review established markers versus novel urine and serum biomarkers of AKI in humans, which have progressed to clinical phase with regard to their diagnostic and prognostic value. A review was performed on the basis of literature search of renal failure, acute kidney injury, and biomarkers in Pubmed. Next to established biomarkers as creatinine and cystatin C, other molecules such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), monocyte chemotactic peptide (MCP-1), Netrin-1, and interleukin (IL)-18 are available and represent promising new markers that, however, need to be further evaluated in the clinical setting for suitability. In clinical settings with incipient AKI, not only the development and the implementation of more sensitive biomarkers are required for earlier treatment initiation in order to attenuate the severity of kidney injury, but also equally important remains the substantial improvement and application of refined and prophylactic therapeutic options in these situations. Adequately powered clinical trials testing a row of biomarkers are warranted before they may qualify for full adoption in clinical practice.

  12. Real time detection of exhaled human breath using quantum cascade laser based sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittel, Frank K.; Lewicki, Rafal; Dong, Lei; Liu, Kun; Risby, Terence H.; Solga, Steven; Schwartz, Tim

    2012-02-01

    The development and performance of a cw, TE-cooled DFB quantum cascade laser based sensor for quantitative measurements of ammonia (NH3) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations present in exhaled breath will be reported. Human breath contains ~ 500 different chemical species, usually at ultra low concentration levels, which can serve as biomarkers for the identification and monitoring of human diseases or wellness states. By monitoring NH3 concentration levels in exhaled breath a fast, non-invasive diagnostic method for treatment of patients with liver and kidney disorders, is feasible. The NH3 concentration measurements were performed with a 2f wavelength modulation quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) technique, which is suitable for real time breath measurements, due to the fast gas exchange inside a compact QEPAS gas cell. A Hamamatsu air-cooled high heat load (HHL) packaged CW DFB-QCL is operated at 17.5°C, targeting the optimum interference free NH3 absorption line at 967.35 cm-1 (λ~10.34 μm), with ~ 20 mW of optical power. The sensor architecture includes a reference cell, filled with a 2000 ppmv NH3 :N2 mixture at 130 Torr, which is used for absorption line-locking. A minimum detection limit (1σ) for the line locked NH3 sensor is ~ 6 ppbv (with a 1σ 1 sec time resolution of the control electronics). This NH3 sensor was installed in late 2010 and is being clinically tested at St. Luke's Hospital in Bethlehem, PA.

  13. [Erythromycin ethylsuccinate obtaining possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Cătălina Daniela; Stefanache, Alina; Tântaru, Gladiola; Poiată, Antonia; Dumitrache, M; Diaconu, D E; Profire, Lenuţa

    2008-01-01

    In this study we tried to improve the erythromycin ethylsuccinate obtaining, having in view to separate the erythromycin ester by crystallization in water. The erythromycin acylation and the erythromycin ethylsuccinate crystallization were realized, following the next steps: 1. the acylation of the erythromycin with a methylene chloride solution of monoethylsuccinyl chloride, at 25-28 degrees C for 3 hours in the presence of NaHCO3; 2. the transfer of the erythromycin ethylsuccinate from methylene chloride solution in acetone solution by distillation of mixture methylene chloride: acetone 1:1 at 25-28 degrees C; 3. erythromycin ethylsuccinate separation by crystallization in water at pH = 8-8.5 and 5 degrees C for 90 minutes. The quality control for the erythromycin ester was performed according to the Xth edition of Romanian Pharmacopoeia standards using national standard for erythromycin ethylsuccinate and national standard for erythromycin with an activity of 1: 937 U and 2.02% humidity. The Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 was used as a test microorganism and a thin layer cromatography was performed for qualitative control. 13.1 g of erythromycin ethylsuccinate were obtained with an output of the process of 82.02%. Using water for the separation of erythromycin ethylsuccinate the output of the process is greater (82.02%) than in case of using petroleum ether (74.14%) or hexane (80.25%). The thin layer cromatography revealed an Rf = 0.56 and the microbiological activity of the erythromycin ethylsuccinate was 98.7% compared with the standard. Using water instead of hexane or petroleum ether is gainful for the separation of erythromycin ethylsuccinate from the reaction medium. The obtained erythromycin ethylsuccinate corresponds to the Xth edition of Romanian Pharmacopoeia standards. So, the raw materials consumption is decreased, the costs are cut down, the obtained product purity is high and the output of the process is greater.

  14. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Cancer Biomarker: Consensus and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar R. Padhani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available On May 3, 2008, a National Cancer Institute (NCI-sponsored open consensus conference was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, during the 2008 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Meeting. Approximately 100 experts and stakeholders summarized the current understanding of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI and reached consensus on the use of DW-MRI as a cancer imaging biomarker. DW-MRI should be tested as an imaging biomarker in the context of well-defined clinical trials, by adding DW-MRI to existing NCI-sponsored trials, particularly those with tissue sampling or survival indicators. Where possible, DW-MRI measurements should be compared with histologic indices including cellularity and tissue response. There is a need for tissue equivalent diffusivity phantoms; meanwhile, simple fluid-filled phantoms should be used. Monoexponential assessments of apparent diffusion coefficient values should use two b values (> 100 and between 500 and 1000 mm2/sec depending on the application. Free breathing with multiple acquisitions is superior to complex gating techniques. Baseline patient reproducibility studies should be part of study designs. Both region of interest and histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient measurements should be obtained. Standards for measurement, analysis, and display are needed. Annotated data from validation studies (along with outcome measures should be made publicly available. Magnetic resonance imaging vendors should be engaged in this process. The NCI should establish a task force of experts (physicists, radiologists, and oncologists to plan, organize technical aspects, and conduct pilot trials. The American College of Radiology Imaging Network infrastructure may be suitable for these purposes. There is an extraordinary opportunity for DW-MRI to evolve into a clinically valuable imaging tool, potentially important for drug development.

  15. Impaired memory consolidation in children with obstructive sleep disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maski, Kiran; Steinhart, Erin; Holbrook, Hannah; Katz, Eliot S; Kapur, Kush; Stickgold, Robert

    2017-01-01

    consolidation. All results retained significance after controlling for age and BMI. In sum, participants with mild OSA had impaired memory consolidation and results were mediated by N2 sigma power. These results suggest that N2 sigma power could serve as biomarker of risk for cognitive dysfunction in children with sleep disordered breathing.

  16. Impaired memory consolidation in children with obstructive sleep disordered breathing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Maski

    .03, P = 0.04]. NREM slow oscillation power did not correlate with memory consolidation. All results retained significance after controlling for age and BMI. In sum, participants with mild OSA had impaired memory consolidation and results were mediated by N2 sigma power. These results suggest that N2 sigma power could serve as biomarker of risk for cognitive dysfunction in children with sleep disordered breathing.

  17. UNDERWATER STROKE KINEMATICS DURING BREATHING AND BREATH-HOLDING FRONT CRAWL SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickos Vezos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of breathing on the three - dimensional underwater stroke kinematics of front crawl swimming. Ten female competitive freestyle swimmers participated in the study. Each subject swam a number of front crawl trials of 25 m at a constant speed under breathing and breath-holding conditions. The underwater motion of each subject's right arm was filmed using two S-VHS cameras, operating at 60 Hz, which were positioned behind two underwater viewing windows. The spatial coordinates of selected points were calculated using the DLT procedure with 30 control points and after the digital filtering of the raw data with a cut-off frequency of 6 Hz, the hand's linear displacements and velocities were calculated. The results revealed that breathing caused significantly increases in the stroke duration (t9 = 2.764; p < 0.05, the backward hand displacement relative to the water (t9 = 2.471; p<0.05 and the lateral displacement of the hand in the X - axis during the downsweep (t9 = 2.638; p < 0.05. On the contrary, the peak backward hand velocity during the insweep (t9 = 2.368; p < 0.05 and the displacement of the hand during the push phase (t9 = -2.297; p < 0.05 were greatly reduced when breathing was involved. From the above, it was concluded that breathing action in front crawl swimming caused significant modifications in both the basic stroke parameters and the overall motor pattern were, possibly due to body roll during breathing

  18. Upper reference limits for biomarkers of exposure to aromatic diisocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennbro, Carl Johan; Littorin, Margareta; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Jönsson, Bo A G

    2005-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of 2,4-toluenediamine, 2,6-toluenediamine, 1,5-naphthtalenediamine and 4,4'-methylenediphenyldianiline in hydrolyzed urine and plasma for occupationally unexposed workers and to calculate upper reference limits (URLs). These analytes are biomarkers of exposure to 2,4-toluene diisocyanate and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI), 1,5-naphtalene diisocyanate (NDI) and 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), respectively. The biomarker levels were determined in urinary and plasma samples obtained from 121 occupationally unexposed workers. Based on these biomarkers levels and the biomarker levels in an occupationally exposed group of workers, URLs were calculated. The method used for these calculations was based on the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve method technique, and the URLs were set at the optimum of sum of sensitivity and specificity. The URLs for the different diisocyanates were calculated to be in the range of 0.1-0.5 microg/L. Occupationally unexposed workers had detectable biomarker levels of the diisocyanates investigated. Especially abundant was the biomarkers of MDI which were found in 97% of both urinary and plasma samples. For the other biomarkers, 0-15% of the unexposed workers had detectable levels. The detected levels were mostly close to the limit of detection (LOD), but urinary levels of biomarkers of MDI up to 60 times the LOD were found. The sensitivities and specificities for classification of the workers as occupationally exposed or not, were in the range of 88-100% and 97-100%, respectively. The URLs were calculated that may be applicable when screening for occupational exposure. A worker with a biomarker level above the URL will be classified as occupationally exposed. Biomarkers of aromatic diisocyanates, especially biomarkers of MDI, were present among occupationally unexposed workers, but the source and nature of the exposure is unknown.

  19. Validation of New Cancer Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Michael J; Sturgeon, Catherine M; Söletormos, Georg

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biomarkers are playing increasingly important roles in the detection and management of patients with cancer. Despite an enormous number of publications on cancer biomarkers, few of these biomarkers are in widespread clinical use. CONTENT: In this review, we discuss the key steps in ad...

  20. Emerging Biomarkers in Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren P. Mason

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor, has few available therapies providing significant improvement in survival. Molecular signatures associated with tumor aggressiveness as well as with disease progression and their relation to differences in signaling pathways implicated in gliomagenesis have recently been described. A number of biomarkers which have potential in diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy have been identified and along with imaging modalities could contribute to the clinical management of GBM. Molecular biomarkers including O(6-methlyguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT promoter and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA methylation, loss of heterozygosity (LOH of chromosomes 1p and 19q, loss of heterozygosity 10q, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH mutations, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, epidermal growth factor, latrophilin, and 7 transmembrane domain-containing protein 1 on chromosome 1 (ELTD1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, tumor suppressor protein p53, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN, p16INK4a gene, cytochrome c oxidase (CcO, phospholipid metabolites, telomerase messenger expression (hTERT messenger ribonucleic acid [mRNA], microRNAs (miRNAs, cancer stem cell markers and imaging modalities as potential biomarkers are discussed. Inclusion of emerging biomarkers in prospective clinical trials is warranted in an effort for more effective personalized therapy in the future.

  1. Emerging Biomarkers in Glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Mairéad G.; Sahebjam, Solmaz; Mason, Warren P., E-mail: warren.mason@uhn.ca [Pencer Brain Tumor Centre, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2013-08-22

    Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor, has few available therapies providing significant improvement in survival. Molecular signatures associated with tumor aggressiveness as well as with disease progression and their relation to differences in signaling pathways implicated in gliomagenesis have recently been described. A number of biomarkers which have potential in diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy have been identified and along with imaging modalities could contribute to the clinical management of GBM. Molecular biomarkers including O(6)-methlyguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosomes 1p and 19q, loss of heterozygosity 10q, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), epidermal growth factor, latrophilin, and 7 transmembrane domain-containing protein 1 on chromosome 1 (ELTD1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor suppressor protein p53, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), p16INK4a gene, cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), phospholipid metabolites, telomerase messenger expression (hTERT messenger ribonucleic acid [mRNA]), microRNAs (miRNAs), cancer stem cell markers and imaging modalities as potential biomarkers are discussed. Inclusion of emerging biomarkers in prospective clinical trials is warranted in an effort for more effective personalized therapy in the future.

  2. Emerging Biomarkers in Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklund, Meredith; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The field of aging and dementia is rapidly evolving with the aim of identifying individuals in the earliest stages of disease processes. Biomarkers allow the clinician to demonstrate the presence of an underlying pathologic process and resultant synapse dysfunction and neurodegeneration, even in those earliest stages. For example, PET amyloid imaging and CSF Aβ42 provide direct evidence of amyloid deposition and structural MRI, FDG-PET or SPECT and CSF tau provide indirect evidence of synapse dysfunction and neurodegeneration when the pathologic process is due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). While this review will focus on biomarkers for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD, structural MRI, FDG-PET or SPECT, and PET with dopamine ligands are also valuable in suggesting non-AD pathologic processes. While these biomarkers are very useful and can even be applied to diagnostic criteria in MCI, several limitations exist. As the field continues to grow, several new biomarkers are emerging and ultimately, a more biological characterization of subjects’ underlying pathophysiologic spectra will be possible. PMID:24094298

  3. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirmi, Goberdhan P.; Campisi, Judith; Peacocke, Monica

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, .beta.-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in in vitro cell cultures or in vivo.

  4. Biomarkers for anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgren, Jan Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Biomarkers for anorexia nervosa (AN) which reflect the pathophysiology and relate to the aetiology of the disease, are warranted and could bring us one step closer to targeted treatment of AN. Some leads may be found in the biochemistry which often is found disturbed in AN, although normalization...

  5. Microstructured optical fiber interferometric breathing sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, Fernando C; Villatoro, Joel; Pruneri, Valerio

    2012-03-01

    In this paper a simple photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometric breathing sensor is introduced. The interferometer consists of a section of PCF fusion spliced at the distal end of a standard telecommunications optical fiber. Two collapsed regions in the PCF caused by the splicing process allow the excitation and recombination of a core and a cladding PCF mode. As a result, the reflection spectrum of the device exhibits a sinusoidal interference pattern that instantly shifts when water molecules, present in exhaled air, are adsorbed on or desorbed from the PCF surface. The device can be used to monitor a person's breathing whatever the respiration rate. The device here proposed could be particularly important in applications where electronic sensors fail or are not recommended. It may also be useful in the evaluation of a person's health and even in the diagnosis and study of the progression of serious illnesses such as sleep apnea syndrome. © 2012 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  6. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage....... The performance of the envelope is simulated and put through an optimization process. The impact of a design system on the architectural potential of Performance -based design was investigated.......A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  7. Bifurcation Study of Thin Plate with an All-Over Breathing Crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An all-over breathing crack on the plate surface having arbitrary depth and location is assumed to be nonpropagating and parallel to one side of the plate. Based on a piecewise model, the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of thin plate with the all-over breathing crack are studied to analyze the effect of external excitation amplitudes and frequencies on cracked plate with different crack parameters (crack depth and crack location. Firstly, the mode shape functions of cracked thin plate are obtained by using the simply supported boundary conditions and the boundary conditions along the crack line. Then, natural frequencies and mode functions of the cracked plate are calculated, which are assessed with FEM results. The stress functions of thin plate with large deflection are obtained by the equations of compatibility in the status of opening and closing of crack, respectively. To compare with the effect of breathing crack on the plate, the nonlinear dynamic responses of open-crack plate and intact plate are analyzed too. Lastly, the waveforms, bifurcation diagrams, and phase portraits of the model are gained by the Runge-Kutta method. It is found that complex nonlinear dynamic behaviors, such as quasi-periodic motion, bifurcation, and chaotic motion, appear in the breathing crack plate.

  8. Biomarkers of cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loumaye, Audrey; Thissen, Jean-Paul

    2017-12-01

    Cachexia is a complex multifactorial syndrome, characterized by loss of skeletal muscle and fat mass, which affects the majority of advanced cancer patients and is associated with poor prognosis. Interestingly, reversing muscle loss in animal models of cancer cachexia leads to prolong survival. Therefore, detecting cachexia and maintaining muscle mass represent a major goal in the care of cancer patients. However, early diagnosis of cancer cachexia is currently limited for several reasons. Indeed, cachexia development is variable according to tumor and host characteristics. In addition, safe, accessible and non-invasive tools to detect skeletal muscle atrophy are desperately lacking in clinical practice. Finally, the precise molecular mechanisms and the key players involved in cancer cachexia remain poorly characterized. The need for an early diagnosis of cancer cachexia supports therefore the quest for a biomarker that might reflect skeletal muscle atrophy process. Current research offers different promising ways to identify such a biomarker. Initially, the quest for a biomarker of cancer cachexia has mostly focused on mediators of muscle atrophy, produced by both tumor and host, in an attempt to define new therapeutic approaches. In another hand, molecules released by the muscle into the circulation during the atrophy process have been also considered as potential biomarkers. More recently, several "omics" studies are emerging to identify new muscular or circulating markers of cancer cachexia. Some genetic markers could also contribute to identify patients more susceptible to develop cachexia. This article reviews our current knowledge regarding potential biomarkers of cancer cachexia. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Convolutional Neural Network for the Detection of End-Diastole and End-Systole Frames in Free-Breathing Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; He, Yan; Hussain, Mubashir; Xie, Hong; Lei, Pinggui

    2017-01-01

    Free-breathing cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has short examination time with high reproducibility. Detection of the end-diastole and the end-systole frames of the free-breathing cardiac magnetic resonance, supplemented by visual identification, is time consuming and laborious. We propose a novel method for automatic identification of both the end-diastole and the end-systole frames, in the free-breathing CMR imaging. The proposed technique utilizes the convolutional neural network to locate the left ventricle and to obtain the end-diastole and the end-systole frames from the respiratory motion signal. The proposed procedure works successfully on our free-breathing CMR data, and the results demonstrate a high degree of accuracy and stability. Convolutional neural network improves the postprocessing efficiency greatly and facilitates the clinical application of the free-breathing CMR imaging.

  10. Convolutional Neural Network for the Detection of End-Diastole and End-Systole Frames in Free-Breathing Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-breathing cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR imaging has short examination time with high reproducibility. Detection of the end-diastole and the end-systole frames of the free-breathing cardiac magnetic resonance, supplemented by visual identification, is time consuming and laborious. We propose a novel method for automatic identification of both the end-diastole and the end-systole frames, in the free-breathing CMR imaging. The proposed technique utilizes the convolutional neural network to locate the left ventricle and to obtain the end-diastole and the end-systole frames from the respiratory motion signal. The proposed procedure works successfully on our free-breathing CMR data, and the results demonstrate a high degree of accuracy and stability. Convolutional neural network improves the postprocessing efficiency greatly and facilitates the clinical application of the free-breathing CMR imaging.

  11. Sleep disordered breathing in patients with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Vengamma B; Vijayabhaskara Rao J; Mohan A

    2016-01-01

    Background:Sleep has long been known to affect epilepsy. Little has been documented regarding the epidemiology of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in patients with epilepsy from India. Methods:Between April 2009 and September 2011, in the first stage of the study, 452 consecutive patients with epilepsy (cases) and 500 age- and gender-matched normal control subjects were screened using Epworth’s Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Of these, 98 (23%) had an ESS score of 10 or more, suggestive of exce...

  12. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2002-01-01

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Water loss from the cell is minimized by making the conductive cathode assembly hydrophobic and the conductive anode assembly hydrophilic.

  13. Measurement of ammonia in human breath with a liquid-film conductivity sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Kei; Li, Jianzhong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2006-10-15

    Measurement of breath NH3 is of interest in clinical applications as it can be used as a measure of kidney/liver functions as well as halitosis. We have developed a liquid-film conductivity sensor to measure NH3 in human breath. A film of dilute H2SO4 is formed on the top of two metal capillary tubes placed in a concentric annular arrangement. The tube exterior has been specially treated to render it hydrophilic. As breath passes over the sensor tip, the film collects NH3 and the solution conductivity (measured by the concentric capillaries functioning as electrodes) decreases accordingly. This initial rate of conductivity decrease was determined to be the best metric (most rapid and least dependent on breath pCO2) for ammonia, relative to time to attain complete neutralization (conductivity minimum) or the final rate of conductivity increase as more ammonia dissolves after neutralization. The absorbing solution composition was optimized so that CO2 does not interfere. Both dynamic measurement using mask sampling and offline balloon sampling were performed. Ammonia readily absorbs on surfaces when significant concentrations of water vapor are present. As such, memory effects are common when analyzing human breath for ammonia. This problem was successfully eliminated. The results from this sensor agreed well with data obtained by a solution-phase fluorometric technique using a porous membrane diffusion scrubber and o-phthalaldehyde derivatization chemistry. For breath CO2 measurement, the applicability of a similar sensor that relies on a NaOH film was also demonstrated.

  14. Free-breathing steady-state free precession cine cardiac magnetic resonance with respiratory navigator gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghari, Mehdi H; Komarlu, Rukmini; Annese, David; Geva, Tal; Powell, Andrew J

    2015-04-01

    To develop and validate a respiratory motion compensation method for free-breathing cardiac cine imaging. A free-breathing navigator-gated cine steady-state free precession acquisition (Cine-Nav) was developed which preserves the equilibrium state of the net magnetization vector, maintains the high spatial and temporal resolutions of standard breath-hold (BH) acquisition, and images entire cardiac cycle. Cine image data is accepted only from cardiac cycles occurring entirely during end-expiration. Prospective validation was performed in 10 patients by obtaining in each three complete ventricular image stacks with different respiratory motion compensation approaches: (1) BH, (2) free-breathing with 3 signal averages (3AVG), and (3) free-breathing with Cine-Nav. The subjective image quality score (1 = worst, 4 = best) for Cine-Nav (3.8 ± 0.4) was significantly better than for 3AVG (2.2 ± 0.5, P = 0.002), and similar to BH (4.0 ± 0.0, P = 0.13). The blood-to-myocardium contrast ratio for Cine-Nav (6.3 ± 1.5) was similar to BH (5.9 ± 1.6, P = 0.52) and to 3AVG (5.6 ± 2.5, P = 0.43). There were no significant differences between Cine-Nav and BH for the ventricular volumes and mass. In contrast, there were significant differences between 3AVG and BH in all of these measurements but right ventricular mass. Free-breathing cine imaging with Cine-Nav yielded comparable image quality and ventricular measurements to BH, and was superior to 3AVG. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Optimal allocation of resources in a biomarker setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Bernard; Hendrickson, Sara; Willett, Walter

    2015-01-30

    Nutrient intake is often measured with substantial error both in commonly used surrogate instruments such as a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and in gold standard-type instruments such as a diet record (DR). If there is a correlated error between the FFQ and DR, then standard measurement error correction methods based on regression calibration can produce biased estimates of the regression coefficient (λ) of true intake on surrogate intake. However, if a biomarker exists and the error in the biomarker is independent of the error in the FFQ and DR, then the method of triads can be used to obtain unbiased estimates of λ, provided that there are replicate biomarker data on at least a subsample of validation study subjects. Because biomarker measurements are expensive, for a fixed budget, one can use a either design where a large number of subjects have one biomarker measure and only a small subsample is replicated or a design that has a smaller number of subjects and has most or all subjects validated. The purpose of this paper is to optimize the proportion of subjects with replicated biomarker measures, where optimization is with respect to minimizing the variance of ln(λ̂). The methodology is illustrated using vitamin C intake data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study where plasma vitamin C is the biomarker. In this example, the optimal validation study design is to have 21% of subjects with replicated biomarker measures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. A deep breath bronchoconstricts obese asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguin, Fernando; Cribbs, Sushma; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Ingram, Roland H; Jackson, Andrew C

    2010-02-01

    Asthma is characterized by the loss of a deep breath (DB)-induced bronchodilation and bronchoprotection. Obesity causes lung restriction and increases airway resistance, which may further worsen the capacity of a DB to induce bronchodilation; however, whether increasing BMI impairs the bronchodilatory response to a DB in asthmatics is unknown. The population consisted of 99 subjects, 87 with moderate to severe persistent asthma and 12 obese control subjects. Using transfer impedance we derived airway resistance (Raw). Participants breathed for 1 minute and took a slow DB followed by passive exhalation to functional residual capacity (FRC) and tidal breathing for another minute. After a DB, obese asthmatics had the largest percent increase in Raw (median 9.8% interquartile range [IQR] 3.1-15.1), compared with overweight (6.5% IQR -1.3, 12.1) and lean (0.7% IQR -3, 7.9) asthmatics and obese controls (2.5% IQR -.6, 11) (p for trend = 0.008). The association between the percent increase in Raw after a DB and BMI as a continuous variable was significant (p = 0.02). In obese, moderate to severe and poorly controlled asthmatics, a DB results in increased Raw. This phenomenon was not observed in leaner asthmatics of similar severity or in obese control subjects.

  17. Forced Air-Breathing PEMFC Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Dhathathreyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-breathing fuel cells have a great potential as power sources for various electronic devices. They differ from conventional fuel cells in which the cells take up oxygen from ambient air by active or passive methods. The air flow occurs through the channels due to concentration and temperature gradient between the cell and the ambient conditions. However developing a stack is very difficult as the individual cell performance may not be uniform. In order to make such a system more realistic, an open-cathode forced air-breathing stacks were developed by making appropriate channel dimensions for the air flow for uniform performance in a stack. At CFCT-ARCI (Centre for Fuel Cell Technology-ARC International we have developed forced air-breathing fuel cell stacks with varying capacity ranging from 50 watts to 1500 watts. The performance of the stack was analysed based on the air flow, humidity, stability, and so forth, The major advantage of the system is the reduced number of bipolar plates and thereby reduction in volume and weight. However, the thermal management is a challenge due to the non-availability of sufficient air flow to remove the heat from the system during continuous operation. These results will be discussed in this paper.

  18. Sleep Disorders: Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Deepa

    2017-09-01

    Sleep-related breathing disorders or sleep-disordered breathing are characterized by abnormal respiration during sleep. They are grouped into obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), central sleep apnea, sleep-related hypoventilation, and sleep-related hypoxemia disorder. OSA is a common disorder encountered in the family medicine setting that is increasingly being recognized because of the obesity epidemic and greater public and physician awareness. OSA is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete closure of the upper airway resulting in disturbed breathing during sleep. It is associated with decreased quality of life and significant medical comorbidities. Untreated OSA can lead to a host of cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease, stroke, and atrial fibrillation. Patients who report symptoms of snoring, witnessed apneas, or daytime sleepiness should be screened for sleep apnea. In-laboratory attended diagnostic polysomnography or portable home sleep testing can be used to diagnose sleep apnea. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is the first-line treatment for OSA in adults. Other modalities include mandibular advancement devices, surgery, or upper airway stimulation therapy. Adjunctive therapy should include weight loss in overweight patients, avoidance of sedatives and alcohol before sleep, and possibly positional therapy. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  19. Getting to grips with 'dysfunctional breathing'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Nicki; Everard, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunctional breathing (DB) is common, frequently unrecognised and responsible for a substantial burden of morbidity. Previously lack of clarity in the use of the term and the use of multiple terms to describe the same condition has hampered our understanding. DB can be defined as an alteration in the normal biomechanical patterns of breathing that result in intermittent or chronic symptoms. It can be subdivided into thoracic and extra thoracic forms. Thoracic DB is characterised by breathing patterns involving relatively inefficient, excessive upper chest wall activity with or without accessory muscle activity. This is frequently associated with increased residual volume, frequent sighing and an irregular pattern of respiratory effort. It may be accompanied by true hyperventilation in the minority of subjects. Extra thoracic forms include paradoxical vocal cord dysfunction and the increasingly recognised supra-glottic 'laryngomalacia' commonly seen in young sportsmen and women. While the two forms would appear to be two discreet entities they often share common factors in aetiology and respond to similar interventions. Hence both forms are considered in this review which aims to generate a more coherent approach to understanding, diagnosing and treating these conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Asthma - A Disease of How We Breathe: Role of Breathing Exercises and Pranayam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Jhuma; Das, Rashmi Ranjan

    2017-12-16

    To describe the role of breathing exercises or yoga and/or pranayama in the management of childhood asthma. We conducted an updated literature search and retrieved relevant literature on the role of breathing exercises or yoga and/or pranayama in the management of childhood asthma. We found that the breathing exercises or yoga and/or pranayama are generally multi-component packaged interventions, and are described as follows: Papworth technique, Buteyko technique, Yoga and/or Pranayam. These techniques primarily modify the pattern of breathing to reduce hyperventilation resulting in normalisation of CO2 level, reduction of bronchospasm and resulting breathlessness. In addition they also change the behaviour, decrease anxiety, improve immunological parameters, and improve endurance of the respiratory muscles that may ultimately help asthmatic children. We found 10 clinical trials conducted in children with asthma of varying severity, and found to benefit children with chronic (mild and moderate) and uncontrolled asthma, but not acute severe asthma. Breathing exercises or yoga and/or pranayama may benefit children with chronic (mild and moderate) and uncontrolled asthma, but not acute severe asthma. Before these techniques can be incorporated into the standard care of asthmatic children, important outcomes like quality of life, medication use, and patient reported outcomes need to be evaluated in future clinical trials.

  1. Electronic Nose To Detect Patients with COPD From Exhaled Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Adriana; Durán, Cristhian M.; Gualdron, Oscar; Rodríguez, Juan C.; Manjarres, Leonardo

    2009-05-01

    To date, there is no effective tool analysis and detection of COPD syndrome, (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) which is linked to smoking and, less frequently to toxic substances such as, the wood smoke or other particles produced by noxious gases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of this disease show it affects more than 52 million people and kills more than 2.7 million human beings each year. In order to solve the problem, a low-cost Electronic Nose (EN) was developed at the University of Pamplona (N. S) Colombia, for this specific purpose and was applied to a sample group of patients with COPD as well as to others who were healthy. From the exhalation breath samples of these patients, the results were as expected; an appropriate classification of the patients with the disease, as well as from the healthy group was obtained.

  2. Calcium [¹³C]carbonate breath test for quantitative measurement of total gastric acid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Makoto; Kunizaki, Jun-ichi; Tobita, Kazuki; Akamatsu, Suguru; Sato, Hitoshi

    2012-02-01

    A traditional measurement of gastric acid, involving nasogastric intubation of stomach and acid suction, has been suggested as a gold standard. However, this causes the patient discomfort and cost increase, and is 'time-consuming'. A calcium [(13)C]carbonate (Ca(13)CO(3)) breath test was carried out in rats without or with concomitant drugs omeprazole (OMP) and pentagastrin (PG) known as an inhibitor and an inducer of acid, respectively. This test was aimed at evaluating a correlation between the breath response and the total amount of gastric acid. To search for an absorption pathway of (13)CO(2) gas produced by the reaction of Ca(13)CO(3) with hydrochloric acid in the stomach of rats, we compared the breath responses after intra-gastric administration of (13)CO(2) gas and sodium [(13)C]bicarbonate (NaH(13)CO(3)). A linear relationship of the breath parameter (breath-C(max)) with the dose of Ca(13)CO(3) was obtained in the range of 4-200 µmol/kg. However, theses parameters were saturated at >200 µmol/kg. The direct correlation between the breath-C(max) and the total amount of gastric acid in rats with or without OMPs or PG (r = 0.994) demonstrated that the change in breath response is an accurate or sensitive indicator of the total amount of gastric acid. (13)CO(2) gas generated in the rat stomach was likely to diffuse across the stomach wall as (13)CO(2) gas directly into the blood plasma. The present study showed that Ca(13)CO(3) breath test is a good tool to accurately predict the total amount of gastric acid.

  3. Development of Highly Sensitive and Selective Breathing Sensors Using Molecular Imprinted Filtering for Diabetic and Alcoholic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Md. Saleh Akram

    Wellness sensor technology is an emerging diagnostic test research field, which mostly deal with the point of care of the patients in the recent days. Due to the lack of awareness from the patients, most diseases cannot be detected in due time. This led to worse conditions, such as diabetic and alcoholic syndrome. Therefore, many research groups have been working to develop portable sensor devices that can track serious diseases. These include diabetic and alcoholic biomarkers in breathing. These devices have very high selectivity and reliability. However, the major limitation of biomarkers is that it deals with the bio-molecular based sensing mechanism. Extensive challenges exist in the selectivity and reliability of breathing sensors. These require development of proper materials and effective detection methods. Thus, selection of proper materials, correct sensing parameters, effective device architecture and simple fabrication processing are substantially critical. The goal of this work is to develop graphene based breathing sensors with high selectivity and sensitivity using a novel molecular imprinted filtering technique. The sensors have various applications including Point of Care Testing (POCT) device for personalized home and clinical use in early detection of diabetic and alcoholic patients. Different fabrication procedures were used to optimize the sensor performance. The optimized results demonstrate that a proper biomarker molecule imprinting process could selectively detect diabetes and alcohol. The graphene layer was optimized by maintaining spray coating time, pattern and distance between the substrate and spray coater. Graphene adhesion to the substrate was also improved using polyvinyl pyrrolidone. The molecular imprinting filter made on top of the graphene layer improved the performance of acetone and ethanol molecule detection, indicated by the change of resistance in the graphene layer. The sensors showed poor performance for long-time exposure

  4. Breathing mode influence on craniofacial development and head posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambi-Rocha, Annel; Cabrera-Domínguez, Mª Eugenia; Domínguez-Reyes, Antonia

    2017-08-14

    The incidence of abnormal breathing and its consequences on craniofacial development is increasing, and is not limited to children with adenoid faces. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cephalometric differences in craniofacial structures and head posture between nasal breathing and oral breathing children and teenagers with a normal facial growth pattern. Ninety-eight 7-16 year-old patients with a normal facial growth pattern were clinically and radiographically evaluated. They were classified as either nasal breathing or oral breathing patients according to the predominant mode of breathing through clinical and historical evaluation, and breathing respiratory rate predomination as quantified by an airflow sensor. They were divided in two age groups (G1: 7-9) (G2: 10-16) to account for normal age-related facial growth. Oral breathing children (8.0±0.7 years) showed less nasopharyngeal cross-sectional dimension (MPP) (p=0.030), whereas other structures were similar to their nasal breathing counterparts (7.6±0.9 years). However, oral breathing teenagers (12.3±2.0 years) exhibited a greater palate length (ANS-PNS) (p=0.049), a higher vertical dimension in the lower anterior face (Xi-ANS-Pm) (p=0.015), and a lower position of the hyoid bone with respect to the mandibular plane (H-MP) (p=0.017) than their nasal breathing counterparts (12.5±1.9 years). No statistically significant differences were found in head posture. Even in individuals with a normal facial growth pattern, when compared with nasal breathing individuals, oral breathing children present differences in airway dimensions. Among adolescents, these dissimilarities include structures in the facial development and hyoid bone position. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. A Novel Respiratory Motion Perturbation Model Adaptable to Patient Breathing Irregularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Amy [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wei, Jie [Department of Computer Science, City College of New York, New York, New York (United States); Gaebler, Carl P.; Huang, Hailiang; Olek, Devin [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Li, Guang, E-mail: lig2@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To develop a physical, adaptive motion perturbation model to predict tumor motion using feedback from dynamic measurement of breathing conditions to compensate for breathing irregularities. Methods and Materials: A novel respiratory motion perturbation (RMP) model was developed to predict tumor motion variations caused by breathing irregularities. This model contained 2 terms: the initial tumor motion trajectory, measured from 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images, and motion perturbation, calculated from breathing variations in tidal volume (TV) and breathing pattern (BP). The motion perturbation was derived from the patient-specific anatomy, tumor-specific location, and time-dependent breathing variations. Ten patients were studied, and 2 amplitude-binned 4DCT images for each patient were acquired within 2 weeks. The motion trajectories of 40 corresponding bifurcation points in both 4DCT images of each patient were obtained using deformable image registration. An in-house 4D data processing toolbox was developed to calculate the TV and BP as functions of the breathing phase. The motion was predicted from the simulation 4DCT scan to the treatment 4DCT scan, and vice versa, resulting in 800 predictions. For comparison, noncorrected motion differences and the predictions from a published 5-dimensional model were used. Results: The average motion range in the superoinferior direction was 9.4 ± 4.4 mm, the average ΔTV ranged from 10 to 248 mm{sup 3} (−26% to 61%), and the ΔBP ranged from 0 to 0.2 (−71% to 333%) between the 2 4DCT scans. The mean noncorrected motion difference was 2.0 ± 2.8 mm between 2 4DCT motion trajectories. After applying the RMP model, the mean motion difference was reduced significantly to 1.2 ± 1.8 mm (P=.0018), a 40% improvement, similar to the 1.2 ± 1.8 mm (P=.72) predicted with the 5-dimensional model. Conclusions: A novel physical RMP model was developed with an average accuracy of 1.2 ± 1.8 mm for

  6. Development of a statistical model for predicting the ethanol content of blood from measurements on saliva or breath samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, J; Linares, P; Luque de Castro, M D; Caridad, J M; Valcarcel, M

    1989-01-01

    Blood, saliva and breath samples from a population of males and females subjected to the intake of preselected amounts of ethanol, whilst in different physical conditions (at rest, after physical exertion, on an empty stomach and after eating), were analysed by automatic methods employing immobilized (blood) or dissolved (saliva) enzymes and a breathanalyser. Treatment of the results obtained enabled the development of a statistical model for prediction of the ethanol concentration in blood at a given time from the ethanol concentration in saliva or breath obtained at a later time.

  7. Ethane and n-pentane in exhaled breath are biomarkers of exposure not effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorham, Katrine A; Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Meinardi, Simone

    2009-01-01

    The relationship of exhaled ethane and n-pentane to exhaled NO, carbonylated proteins, and indoor/outdoor atmospheric pollutants were examined in order to evaluate ethane and n-pentane as potential markers of airway inflammation and/or oxidative stress. Exhaled NO and carbonylated proteins were f...

  8. Meeting Report: Breath Biomarkers Networking Sessions at PittCon 2010, Orlando, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or "PittCon" (www.pittcon.org/), is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chemistry and instrumentation typically attracting about 25,000 attendees and 1,000 commercial exhibitors. PittCon began in 1950 as a small sp...

  9. Consensus paper: radiological biomarkers of cerebellar diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldarçara, Leonardo; Currie, Stuart; Hadjivassiliou, M; Hoggard, Nigel; Jack, Allison; Jackowski, Andrea P; Mascalchi, Mario; Parazzini, Cecilia; Reetz, Kathrin; Righini, Andrea; Schulz, Jörg B; Vella, Alessandra; Webb, Sara Jane; Habas, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Hereditary and sporadic cerebellar ataxias represent a vast and still growing group of diseases whose diagnosis and differentiation cannot only rely on clinical evaluation. Brain imaging including magnetic resonance (MR) and nuclear medicine techniques allows for characterization of structural and functional abnormalities underlying symptomatic ataxias. These methods thus constitute a potential source of radiological biomarkers, which could be used to identify these diseases and differentiate subgroups of them, and to assess their severity and their evolution. Such biomarkers mainly comprise qualitative and quantitative data obtained from MR including proton spectroscopy, diffusion imaging, tractography, voxel-based morphometry, functional imaging during task execution or in a resting state, and from SPETC and PET with several radiotracers. In the current article, we aim to illustrate briefly some applications of these neuroimaging tools to evaluation of cerebellar disorders such as inherited cerebellar ataxia, fetal developmental malformations, and immune-mediated cerebellar diseases and of neurodegenerative or early-developing diseases, such as dementia and autism in which cerebellar involvement is an emerging feature. Although these radiological biomarkers appear promising and helpful to better understand ataxia-related anatomical and physiological impairments, to date, very few of them have turned out to be specific for a given ataxia with atrophy of the cerebellar system being the main and the most usual alteration being observed. Consequently, much remains to be done to establish sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of available MR and nuclear medicine features as diagnostic, progression and surrogate biomarkers in clinical routine.

  10. Consensus Paper: Radiological Biomarkers of Cerebellar Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldarçara, Leonardo; Currie, Stuart; Hadjivassiliou, M.; Hoggard, Nigel; Jack, Allison; Jackowski, Andrea P.; Mascalchi, Mario; Parazzini, Cecilia; Reetz, Kathrin; Righini, Andrea; Schulz, Jörg B.; Vella, Alessandra; Webb, Sara Jane; Habas, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary and sporadic cerebellar ataxias represent a vast and still growing group of diseases whose diagnosis and differentiation cannot only rely on clinical evaluation. Brain imaging including magnetic resonance (MR) and nuclear medicine techniques allows for characterization of structural and functional abnormalities underlying symptomatic ataxias. These methods thus constitute a potential source of radiological biomarkers, which could be used to identify these diseases and differentiate subgroups of them, and to assess their severity and their evolution. Such biomarkers mainly comprise qualitative and quantitative data obtained from MR including proton spectroscopy, diffusion imaging, tractography, voxel-based morphometry, functional imaging during task execution or in a resting state, and from SPETC and PET with several radiotracers. In the current article, we aim to illustrate briefly some applications of these neuroimaging tools to evaluation of cerebellar disorders such as inherited cerebellar ataxia, fetal developmental malformations, and immune-mediated cerebellar diseases and of neurodegenerative or early-developing diseases, such as dementia and autism in which cerebellar involvement is an emerging feature. Although these radiological biomarkers appear promising and helpful to better understand ataxia-related anatomical and physiological impairments, to date, very few of them have turned out to be specific for a given ataxia with atrophy of the cerebellar system being the main and the most usual alteration being observed. Consequently, much remains to be done to establish sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of available MR and nuclear medicine features as diagnostic, progression and surrogate biomarkers in clinical routine. PMID:25382714

  11. Biomarkers in Neurocritical Care

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly, W. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The gold standard for assessing neurological function is the bedside clinical examination. However, in neurocritical patients, the signs and symptoms related to the severity of illness can often be ambiguous. It can be hard to distinguish between a severe but stable disease state and one that is dynamic and in a critical decline. Clinicians and family members alike may struggle with the uncertainty of functional outcome prediction. Intermediate biomarkers of brain injury can assist with ongoi...

  12. Biomarkers of Selenium Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald F. Combs, Jr.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential trace element, selenium (Se, has multiple biological activities, which depend on the level of Se intake. Relatively low Se intakes determine the expression of selenoenzymes in which it serves as an essential constituent. Higher intakes have been shown to have anti-tumorigenic potential; and very high Se intakes can produce adverse effects. This hierarchy of biological activities calls for biomarkers informative at different levels of Se exposure. Some Se-biomarkers, such as the selenoproteins and particularly GPX3 and SEPP1, provide information about function directly and are of value in identifying nutritional Se deficiency and tracking responses of deficient individuals to Se-treatment. They are useful under conditions of Se intake within the range of regulated selenoprotein expression, e.g., for humans <55 μg/day and for animals <20 μg/kg diet. Other Se-biomarkers provide information indirectly through inferences based on Se levels of foods, tissues, urine or feces. They can indicate the likelihood of deficiency or adverse effects, but they do not provide direct evidence of either condition. Their value is in providing information about Se status over a wide range of Se intake, particularly from food forms. There is need for additional Se biomarkers particularly for assessing Se status in non-deficient individuals for whom the prospects of cancer risk reduction and adverse effects risk are the primary health considerations. This would include determining whether supranutritional intakes of Se may be required for maximal selenoprotein expression in immune surveillance cells. It would also include developing methods to determine low molecular weight Se-metabolites, i.e., selenoamino acids and methylated Se-metabolites, which to date have not been detectable in biological specimens. Recent analytical advances using tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry suggest prospects for detecting these metabolites.

  13. Improved multimodal biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment diagnosis: data from ADNI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Torteya, Antonio; Treviño-Alvarado, Víctor; Tamez-Peña, José

    2013-02-01

    The accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) confers many clinical research and patient care benefits. Studies have shown that multimodal biomarkers provide better diagnosis accuracy of AD and MCI than unimodal biomarkers, but their construction has been based on traditional statistical approaches. The objective of this work was the creation of accurate AD and MCI diagnostic multimodal biomarkers using advanced bioinformatics tools. The biomarkers were created by exploring multimodal combinations of features using machine learning techniques. Data was obtained from the ADNI database. The baseline information (e.g. MRI analyses, PET analyses and laboratory essays) from AD, MCI and healthy control (HC) subjects with available diagnosis up to June 2012 was mined for case/controls candidates. The data mining yielded 47 HC, 83 MCI and 43 AD subjects for biomarker creation. Each subject was characterized by at least 980 ADNI features. A genetic algorithm feature selection strategy was used to obtain compact and accurate cross-validated nearest centroid biomarkers. The biomarkers achieved training classification accuracies of 0.983, 0.871 and 0.917 for HC vs. AD, HC vs. MCI and MCI vs. AD respectively. The constructed biomarkers were relatively compact: from 5 to 11 features. Those multimodal biomarkers included several widely accepted univariate biomarkers and novel image and biochemical features. Multimodal biomarkers constructed from previously and non-previously AD associated features showed improved diagnostic performance when compared to those based solely on previously AD associated features.

  14. IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF INVERSE RATIO BREATHING VERSUS DIAPHRAGMATIC BREATHING ON INSPIRATORY VITAL CAPACITY AND THORACIC EXPANSION IN ADULT HEALTHY FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshipra Baban Pedamkar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The normal inspiratory to expiratory ratio is 1:2.However, the duration of inspiration can be increased voluntarily till the ratio becomes 2:1.This is called as inverse ratio breathing. The effects of inverse ratio ventilation have been studied on patients with respiratory failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. No studies have been carried out to study the effects of inverse ratio breathing in voluntarily breathing individuals. Hence this study was carried out to find the immediate effects of inverse ratio breathing versus diaphragmatic breathing on inspiratory vital capacity and thoracic expansion. Methods: 30 healthy adult females in the age group 20-25 years were included in the study. Inspiratory vital capacity and thoracic expansion at 2nd, 4th and 6th intercostal space was measured using a digital spirometer and an inelastic inch tape respectively. Diaphragmatic breathing was administered for one minute and the same parameters were measured again. A washout period of one day was given and same outcome measures were measured before and after individuals performed inverse ratio breathing with the help of a visual feedback video for one minute. Results: Data was analysed using Wilcoxon test. There was extremely significant difference between the mean increase in the inspiratory vital capacity and thoracic expansion at the 2nd, 4th and 6th intercostals space after inverse ratio breathing as compared to diaphragmatic breathing (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Inspiratory vital capacity and thoracic expansion increase significantly after inverse ratio breathing.

  15. [Biomarkers of cardiorenal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Nils; Moréna, Marion; Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Leray, Hélène; Chenine, Leila; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Canaud, Bernard; Cristol, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Complex interactions existing between cardiac and renal diseases led to define 5 types of so-called cardiorenal syndromes. This classification is based on the organ primarily involved and the acute or chronic failure. The mutual impact of renal and cardiac functions makes it difficult to evaluate and manage patients with cardiorenal syndromes and worsen morbidity and mortality. This review seeks to discuss the place of biomarkers in diagnosis, management and follow-up of patients with cardiorenal syndromes. Biomarkers can be classified as functional (creatinine, cystatin C…) or lesional (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, urinary cystatin C…) renal markers and functional (natriuretic peptides…) or lesional (troponin, fatty acid binding protein) cardiac markers. A last kind of biomarkers reflects the dialogue between heart and kidney (renin-angiotensin-aldosteron-system, indicators of activation of arginine vasopressin system) or the systemic impact (inflammation, oxidative stress…). In order to evaluate accurately the complex interactions that are the basis of cardiorenal syndromes, a multi-marker approach seems nowadays necessary.

  16. Biomarkers in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Alicia J.; Joglekar, Mugdha V.; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A.; Keech, Anthony C.; O'Neal, David N.; Januszewski, Andrzej S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a global diabetes epidemic correlating with an increase in obesity. This coincidence may lead to a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. There is also an as yet unexplained increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes, which is not related to adiposity. Whilst improved diabetes care has substantially improved diabetes outcomes, the disease remains a common cause of working age adult-onset blindness. Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes; it is greatly feared by many diabetes patients. There are multiple risk factors and markers for the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy, yet residual risk remains. Screening for diabetic retinopathy is recommended to facilitate early detection and treatment. Common biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy and its risk in clinical practice today relate to the visualization of the retinal vasculature and measures of glycemia, lipids, blood pressure, body weight, smoking, and pregnancy status. Greater knowledge of novel biomarkers and mediators of diabetic retinopathy, such as those related to inflammation and angiogenesis, has contributed to the development of additional therapeutics, in particular for late-stage retinopathy, including intra-ocular corticosteroids and intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors ('anti-VEGFs') agents. Unfortunately, in spite of a range of treatments (including laser photocoagulation, intraocular steroids, and anti-VEGF agents, and more recently oral fenofibrate, a PPAR-alpha agonist lipid-lowering drug), many patients with diabetic retinopathy do not respond well to current therapeutics. Therefore, more effective treatments for diabetic retinopathy are necessary. New analytical techniques, in particular those related to molecular markers, are accelerating progress in diabetic retinopathy research. Given the increasing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, and the limited capacity of healthcare systems to screen and treat

  17. Analysis of ketone bodies in exhaled breath and blood of ten healthy Japanese at OGTT using a portable gas chromatograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanda, Naoko; Hinokio, Yoshinori; Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Koseki, Takeyoshi

    2014-11-24

    Ketone bodies including acetone are disease biomarkers for diabetes that sometimes causes severe ketoacidosis. The present study was undertaken to clarify the significance of exhaled acetone and plasma ketone bodies at bedside in a clinical setting. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in 10 healthy Japanese volunteers (five females and five males). Exhaled breath acetone and volatile sulfide compounds (VSCs) in mouth air were measured simultaneously with blood sampling during the OGTT using a portable gas chromatograph equipped with an In2O3 thick-film type gas sensor and a VSC monitor. Acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) and acetoacetate (AcAc) in blood plasma as well as glucose and insulin were examined. Oral conditions were examined based on the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) by one dentist. In addition, the same type of analysis was applied to two uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus patients hospitalized at Tohoku University Hospital. Exhaled acetone was measured at the same time as blood withdrawal in the morning before breakfast and at night before bed at the beginning, the middle, and the end of hospitalization. All volunteers showed normal OGTT patterns with no ketonuria and periodontitis; however, there were significant correlations between breath acetone and plasma β-ΟΗΒ and between breath acetone and plasma AcAc under fasting conditions. Breath acetone of the type 2 diabetes mellitus patients showed positive correlations with plasma glucose when the level of plasma glucose tended to decrease during hospitalization. In spite of a very limited number of cases, our results support the idea that exhaled breath acetone may be related to plasma β-OHB and AcAc, which reflect glucose metabolism in the body.

  18. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang [Los Alamos, NM; Cao, Wenqing [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  19. Exhaled breath analysis: physical methods, instruments, and medical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaks, V. L.; Domracheva, E. G.; Sobakinskaya, E. A.; Chernyaeva, M. B.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the analysis of exhaled breath, a rapidly growing field in noninvasive medical diagnostics that lies at the intersection of physics, chemistry, and medicine. Current data are presented on gas markers in human breath and their relation to human diseases. Various physical methods for breath analysis are described. It is shown how measurement precision and data volume requirements have stimulated technological developments and identified the problems that have to be solved to put this method into clinical practice.

  20. Mouth breathing, another risk factor for asthma: the Nagahama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuhara, Y; Matsumoto, H; Nagasaki, T; Kanemitsu, Y; Murase, K; Ito, I; Oguma, T; Muro, S; Asai, K; Tabara, Y; Takahashi, K; Bessho, K; Sekine, A; Kosugi, S; Yamada, R; Nakayama, T; Matsuda, F; Niimi, A; Chin, K; Mishima, M

    2016-07-01

    Allergic rhinitis, a known risk factor for asthma onset, often accompanies mouth breathing. Mouth breathing may bypass the protective function of the nose and is anecdotally considered to increase asthma morbidity. However, there is no epidemiological evidence that mouth breathing is independently associated with asthma morbidity and sensitization to allergens. In this study, we aimed to clarify the association between mouth breathing and asthma morbidity and allergic/eosinophilic inflammation, while considering the effect of allergic rhinitis. This community-based cohort study, the Nagahama Study, contained a self-reporting questionnaire on mouth breathing and medical history, blood tests, and pulmonary function testing. We enrolled 9804 general citizens of Nagahama City in the Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Mouth breathing was reported by 17% of the population and was independently associated with asthma morbidity. The odds ratio for asthma morbidity was 1.85 (95% CI, 1.27-2.62) and 2.20 (95% CI, 1.72-2.80) in subjects with mouth breathing alone and allergic rhinitis alone, which additively increased to 4.09 (95% CI, 3.01-5.52) when mouth breathing and allergic rhinitis coexisted. Mouth breathing in nonasthmatics was a risk for house dust mite sensitization, higher blood eosinophil counts, and lower pulmonary function after adjusting for allergic rhinitis. Mouth breathing may increase asthma morbidity, potentially through increased sensitization to inhaled allergens, which highlights the risk of mouth-bypass breathing in the 'one airway, one disease' concept. The risk of mouth breathing should be well recognized in subjects with allergic rhinitis and in the general population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. ABA-Cloud: support for collaborative breath research

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Ludescher, Thomas; King, Julian; Ager, Clemens; Trosin, Michael; Senocak, Uygar; Brezany, Peter; Feilhauer, Thomas; Amann, Anton

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the advanced breath analysis (ABA) platform, an innovative scientific research platform for the entire breath research domain. Within the ABA project, we are investigating novel data management concepts and semantic web technologies to document breath analysis studies for the long run as well as to enable their full automatic reproducibility. We propose several concept taxonomies (a hierarchical order of terms from a glossary of terms), which can be seen as a first step ...

  2. Chiari malformation and sleep related breathing disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvilliers, Y; Stal, V; Abril, B; Coubes, P; Bobin, S; Touchon, J; Escourrou, P; Parker, F; Bourgin, P

    2007-01-01

    Objective To estimate the frequency, mechanisms and predictive factors of sleep apnoea syndrome (SAS) in a large group of children and adults with type I (CMI) and II (CMII) Chiari malformation (CM). Background The anatomical and functional integrity of both respiratory circuits and lower cranial nerves controlling the upper airway is necessary for breathing control during sleep. These latter structures may be altered in CM, and a few investigations have reported CM related sleep disordered breathing. Methods Forty‐six consecutive unrelated patients with CM (40 CMI, six CMII), of which 20 were children (eight males) and 26 were adults (12 males), underwent physical, neurological and oto‐rhino‐laryngoscopic examination, MRI and polysomnography. Results SAS was present in 31 (67.4%) of the patients with CM (70% of CMI, 50% of CMII, including mainly children). Sixty per cent of children with CM exhibited SAS, including 35% with obstructive (OSAS) and 25% with central (CSAS) sleep apnoea syndrome. SAS was observed in 73% of CM adults (57.7% OSAS, 15.4% CSAS). Severe SAS was found in 23% of CM adults. Multiple regression analysis revealed that age, type II Chiari and vocal cord paralysis predicted the central apnoea index. Conclusion SAS is highly prevalent in all age groups of patients suffering from CM. CSAS, a rare condition in the general population, was common among the patients with CM in our study. Sleep disordered breathing associated with CM may explain the high frequency of respiratory failures observed during curative surgery of CM. Our results suggest that SAS should be systematically screened for in patients with CM, especially before surgery. PMID:17400590

  3. Air-Breathing Rocket Engine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine that completed an hour or 3,600 seconds of testing at the General Applied Sciences Laboratory in Ronkonkoma, New York. Referred to as ARGO by its design team, the engine is named after the mythological Greek ship that bore Jason and the Argonauts on their epic voyage of discovery. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced SpaceTransportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  4. A young male with shortness of breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Fahmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of primary mediastinal seminoma, which presented initially with shortness of breath and a swelling in upper part of anterior chest wall. The diagnosis of primary mediastinal seminoma was established on the basis of histologic findings and was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Abdominal, pelvis and cerebral CT scan, testicular ultrasound and TC-99 MDP bone scintigraphy were negative. Chemotherapy was initiated with B.E.P. protocol (Bleomycin, Etoposide, Cisplatinum; the patient received four cycles of chemotherapy. After 8 months, the patient was seen in the clinic; he was well.

  5. Breath hydrogen test in children with giardiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Franco, L; Meza, C; Romero, J L; Alanis, S E; Meijerink, J

    1987-01-01

    Respiratory hydrogen excretion was measured in 50 children with giardiasis in order to study lactose absorption. Samples of expired air were collected before and after the children drank 250 ml of whole cow's milk. The test was repeated after successful elimination of Giardia lamblia following treatment with tinidazol. The number of children showing a rise in breath hydrogen excretion greater than 20 ppm decreased from 33 (72%) before treatment to 20 (44%) after treatment. This study permits the conclusion that the presence of G. lamblia in the intestine might interfere with optimum lactose absorption.

  6. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijacika, Tanja; Dujic, Zeljko

    2016-12-01

    The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise.In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition.According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  7. Progress of air-breathing cathode in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zejie; Mahadevan, Gurumurthy Dummi; Wu, Yicheng; Zhao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an emerging technology to produce green energy and vanquish the effects of environmental contaminants. Cathodic reactions are vital for high electrical power density generated from MFCs. Recently tremendous attentions were paid towards developing high performance air-breathing cathodes. A typical air-breathing cathode comprises of electrode substrate, catalyst layer, and air-diffusion layer. Prior researches demonstrated that each component influenced the performance of air-breathing cathode MFCs. This review summarized the progress in development of the individual component and elaborated main factors to the performance of air-breathing cathode.

  8. Can resistive breathing injure the lung? Implications for COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilakopoulos T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Theodoros Vassilakopoulos, Dimitrios Toumpanakis Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece Abstract: In obstructive lung diseases, airway inflammation leads to bronchospasm and thus resistive breathing, especially during exacerbations. This commentary discusses experimental evidence that resistive breathing per se (the mechanical stimulus in the absence of underlying airway inflammation leads to lung injury and inflammation (mechanotransduction. The potential implications of resistive breathing-induced mechanotrasduction in COPD exacerbations are presented along with the available clinical evidence. Keywords: resistive breathing, COPD, mechanotransduction, bronchoconstriction, inflammation

  9. Evolution of the Cardiorespiratory System in Air-Breathing Fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Ishimatsu, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Fishes have evolved a wide variety of air-breathing organs independently along different lineages. Of these air-breathing fishes, only some (e.g., mudskippers) venture onto land but the vast majority of them remain in water and use air as an oxygen source to different degrees. With the development of air-breathing capacity, the circulatory system of fishes has often been modified in various ways to accommodate blood to and from the newly developed air-breathing surface. However, most air-brea...

  10. General Anesthesia with Preserved Spontaneous Breathing through an Intubation Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study whether spontaneous patient breathing may be preserved during elective operations under general anesthesia with tracheal intubation. Subjects and methods. One hundred and twelve patients undergoing elective surgeries under general endotracheal anesthesia were randomized into 2 groups: 1 patients who had forced mechanical ventilation in the volume-controlled mode and 2 those who received assisted ventilation as spontaneous breathing with mechanical support. Conclusion. The study shows that spontaneous breathing with mechanical support may be safely used during some surgical interventions in patients with baseline healthy lungs. Key words: Pressure Support, assisted ventilation, spontaneous breathing, general anesthesia, lung function.

  11. Appropriate sample bags and syringes for preserving breath samples in breath odor research : a technical note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, E. G.; Tangerman, A.

    It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. The VSCs hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are the major causes of bad breath in oral malodour

  12. An analysis of estimation of pulmonary blood flow by the single-breath method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R.

    1986-01-01

    The single-breath method represents a simple noninvasive technique for the assessment of capillary blood flow across the lung. However, this method has not gained widespread acceptance, because its accuracy is still being questioned. A rigorous procedure is described for estimating pulmonary blood flow (PBF) using data obtained with the aid of the single-breath method. Attention is given to the minimization of data-processing errors in the presence of measurement errors and to questions regarding a correction for possible loss of CO2 in the lung tissue. It is pointed out that the estimations are based on the exact solution of the underlying differential equations which describe the dynamics of gas exchange in the lung. The reported study demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining highly reliable estimates of PBF from expiratory data in the presence of random measurement errors.

  13. Biomarkers-A General Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Ferner, Robin E

    2017-03-17

    A biomarker is a biological observation that substitutes for and ideally predicts a clinically relevant endpoint or intermediate outcome that is more difficult to observe. The use of clinical biomarkers is easier and less expensive than direct measurement of the final clinical endpoint, and biomarkers are usually measured over a shorter time span. They can be used in disease screening, diagnosis, characterization, and monitoring; as prognostic indicators; for developing individualized therapeutic interventions; for predicting and treating adverse drug reactions; for identifying cell types; and for pharmacodynamic and dose-response studies. To understand the value of a biomarker, it is necessary to know the pathophysiological relationship between the biomarker and the relevant clinical endpoint. Good biomarkers should be measurable with little or no variability, should have a sizeable signal to noise ratio, and should change promptly and reliably in response to changes in the condition or its therapy. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. [A new serum biomarker for lung cancer - transthyretin.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyun; Sun, Suozhu; Liu, Jifu; Wu, Shanshan; Dai, Songwei; Wang, Xiaomin; Huang, Lingyun; Xiao, Xueyuan; He, Dacheng

    2009-04-20

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and very few specific biomarkers could be used in clinical diagnosis at present. The aim of this study is to find novel potential serum biomarkers for lung cancer using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI) technique. Serum sample of 227 cases including 146 lung cancer, 13 pneumonia, 28 tuberculous pleurisy and 40 normal individuals were analyzed by CM10 chips. The candidate biomarkers were identified by ESI/MS-MS and database searching, and further confirmed by immunoprecipitation. The same sets of serum sample from all groups were re-measured by ELISA assay. Three protein peaks with the molecular weight 13.78 kDa, 13.90 kDa and 14.07 kDa were found significantly decreased in lung cancer serum compared to the other groups and were all automatically selected as specific biomarkers by Biomarker Wizard software. The candidate biomarkers obtained from 1-D SDS gel bands by matching the molecular weight with peaks on CM10 chips were identified by Mass spectrometry as the native transthyretin (nativeTTR), cysTTR and glutTTR, and the identity was further validated by immunoprecipitation using commercial TTR antibodies. Downregulated of TTR was found in both ELISA and SELDI analysis. TTRs acted as the potentially useful biomarkers for lung cancer by SELDI technique.

  15. A New Serum Biomarker for Lung Cancer - Transthyretin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun LIU

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and very few specific biomarkers could be used in clinical diagnosis at present. The aim of this study is to find novel potential serum biomarkers for lung cancer using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI technique. Methods Serumsample of 227 cases including 146 lung cancer, 13 pneumonia, 28 tuberculous pleurisy and 40 normal individuals were analyzed by CM10 chips. The candidate biomarkers were identified by ESI/MS-MS and database searching, and further confirmed by immunoprecipitation. The same sets of serum sample from all groups were re-measured by ELISA assay. Results Three protein peaks with the molecular weight 13.78 kDa, 13.90 kDa and 14.07 kDa were found significantlydecreased in lung cancer serum compared to the other groups and were all automatically selected as specific biomarkers by Biomarker Wizard software. The candidate biomarkers obtained from 1-D SDS gel bands by matching the molecular weight with peaks on CM10 chips were identified by Mass spectrometry as the native transthyretin (nativeTTR, cysTTR and glutTTR, and the identity was further validated by immunoprecipitation using commercial TTR antibodies. Downregulated of TTR was found in both ELISA and SELDI analysis. Conclusion TTRs acted as the potentially useful biomarkers for lung cancer by SELDI technique.

  16. Recovery of Breathing and Forelimb Function after Prolonged Exposure to Repetitive Acute Intermittent Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    and on markers of neuro- cognitive and cardiovascular safety (Florida). Three specific aims were proposed: Aim 1: Test the hypothesis that prolonged...Subtask 1a. Milestone #1 Obtain Animal Use Approvals—Completed at both sites. Subtask 1b. Breathing assessment of naïve rats prior to performing C2HS...Subtask 2f. Quantify the expression of key proteins at regular time points during and after rAIH for 3 months in AIH and SHAM animals . Pending

  17. Microsoft Kinect Visual and Depth Sensors for Breathing and Heart Rate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Procházka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to a new method of using Microsoft (MS Kinect sensors for non-contact monitoring of breathing and heart rate estimation to detect possible medical and neurological disorders. Video sequences of facial features and thorax movements are recorded by MS Kinect image, depth and infrared sensors to enable their time analysis in selected regions of interest. The proposed methodology includes the use of computational methods and functional transforms for data selection, as well as their denoising, spectral analysis and visualization, in order to determine specific biomedical features. The results that were obtained verify the correspondence between the evaluation of the breathing frequency that was obtained from the image and infrared data of the mouth area and from the thorax movement that was recorded by the depth sensor. Spectral analysis of the time evolution of the mouth area video frames was also used for heart rate estimation. Results estimated from the image and infrared data of the mouth area were compared with those obtained by contact measurements by Garmin sensors (www.garmin.com. The study proves that simple image and depth sensors can be used to efficiently record biomedical multidimensional data with sufficient accuracy to detect selected biomedical features using specific methods of computational intelligence. The achieved accuracy for non-contact detection of breathing rate was 0.26% and the accuracy of heart rate estimation was 1.47% for the infrared sensor. The following results show how video frames with depth data can be used to differentiate different kinds of breathing. The proposed method enables us to obtain and analyse data for diagnostic purposes in the home environment or during physical activities, enabling efficient human–machine interaction.

  18. Microsoft Kinect Visual and Depth Sensors for Breathing and Heart Rate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procházka, Aleš; Schätz, Martin; Vyšata, Oldřich; Vališ, Martin

    2016-06-28

    This paper is devoted to a new method of using Microsoft (MS) Kinect sensors for non-contact monitoring of breathing and heart rate estimation to detect possible medical and neurological disorders. Video sequences of facial features and thorax movements are recorded by MS Kinect image, depth and infrared sensors to enable their time analysis in selected regions of interest. The proposed methodology includes the use of computational methods and functional transforms for data selection, as well as their denoising, spectral analysis and visualization, in order to determine specific biomedical features. The results that were obtained verify the correspondence between the evaluation of the breathing frequency that was obtained from the image and infrared data of the mouth area and from the thorax movement that was recorded by the depth sensor. Spectral analysis of the time evolution of the mouth area video frames was also used for heart rate estimation. Results estimated from the image and infrared data of the mouth area were compared with those obtained by contact measurements by Garmin sensors (www.garmin.com). The study proves that simple image and depth sensors can be used to efficiently record biomedical multidimensional data with sufficient accuracy to detect selected biomedical features using specific methods of computational intelligence. The achieved accuracy for non-contact detection of breathing rate was 0.26% and the accuracy of heart rate estimation was 1.47% for the infrared sensor. The following results show how video frames with depth data can be used to differentiate different kinds of breathing. The proposed method enables us to obtain and analyse data for diagnostic purposes in the home environment or during physical activities, enabling efficient human-machine interaction.

  19. Biomarkers in Lysosomal Storage Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Bobillo Lobato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A biomarker is generally an analyte that indicates the presence and/or extent of a biological process, which is in itself usually directly linked to the clinical manifestations and outcome of a particular disease. The biomarkers in the field of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs have particular relevance where spectacular therapeutic initiatives have been achieved, most notably with the introduction of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT. There are two main types of biomarkers. The first group is comprised of those molecules whose accumulation is directly enhanced as a result of defective lysosomal function. These molecules represent the storage of the principal macro-molecular substrate(s of a specific enzyme or protein, whose function is deficient in the given disease. In the second group of biomarkers, the relationship between the lysosomal defect and the biomarker is indirect. In this group, the biomarker reflects the effects of the primary lysosomal defect on cell, tissue, or organ functions. There is no “gold standard” among biomarkers used to diagnosis and/or monitor LSDs, but there are a number that exist that can be used to reasonably assess and monitor the state of certain organs or functions. A number of biomarkers have been proposed for the analysis of the most important LSDs. In this review, we will summarize the most promising biomarkers in major LSDs and discuss why these are the most promising candidates for screening systems.

  20. Biomarker Identification Using Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database.

  1. Breath sensors for lung cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiguzel, Yekbun; Kulah, Haluk

    2015-03-15

    The scope of the applications of breath sensors is abundant in disease diagnosis. Lung cancer diagnosis is a well-fitting health-related application of this technology, which is of utmost importance in the health sector, because lung cancer has the highest death rate among all cancer types, and it brings a high yearly global burden. The aim of this review is first to provide a rational basis for the development of breath sensors for lung cancer diagnostics from a historical perspective, which will facilitate the transfer of the idea into the rapidly evolving sensors field. Following examples with diagnostic applications include colorimetric, composite, carbon nanotube, gold nanoparticle-based, and surface acoustic wave sensor arrays. These select sensor applications are widened by the state-of-the-art developments in the sensors field. Coping with sampling sourced artifacts and cancer staging are among the debated topics, along with the other concerns like proteomics approaches and biomimetic media utilization, feature selection for data classification, and commercialization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sleep-disordered breathing in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaig, Carles; Iranzo, Alex

    2012-04-01

    Sleep disorders are common in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), hereditary ataxias, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Type, frequency, and severity of sleep disturbances vary depending on each of these diseases. Cell loss of the brainstem nuclei that modulates respiration, and dysfunction of bulbar and diaphragmatic muscles increase the risk for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in MSA and ALS. The most relevant SDB in MSA is stridor, whereas in ALS nocturnal hypoventilation due to diaphragmatic weakness is the most common sleep breathing abnormality. Stridor and nocturnal hypoventilation are associated with reduced survival in MSA and ALS. In contrast, sleep apnea seems not to be more prevalent in PD than in the general population. In some PD patients, however, coincidental obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be the cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). SDB can also occur in some hereditary ataxias, such as stridor in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (Machado-Joseph disease). The presence of concomitant OSA in patients with AD can have deleterious effects on nocturnal sleep, may result in EDS, and might aggravate the cognitive deficits inherent to the disease. However, whether OSA is more frequent in patients with AD than in the general population is uncertain. Recognition of SDB in neurodegenerative disease is important because they are associated with significant morbidity and potential effective treatments are available.

  3. Sleep and Breathing … and Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Robert L.; Gold, Kathryn A.; Gozal, David; Peppard, Paul E.; Jun, Jonathan C.; Dannenberg, Andrew J.; Lippman, Scott M.; Malhotra, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Sleep, like eating and breathing, is an essential part of the daily life cycle. Although the science is still emerging, sleep plays an important role in immune, cardiovascular, and neurocognitive function. Despite its great importance, nearly 40% of US Adults experience problems with sleep ranging from insufficient total sleep time, trouble initiating or maintaining sleep (Insomnia), Circadian Rhythm Disorders, Sleep-Related Movement Disorders, and Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Herein, we discuss new evidence that suggests that sleep may also impact carcinogenesis. Specifically, we review recent epidemiological data suggesting links between cancer and OSA. As OSA is a common, underdiagnosed, and undertreated condition, this has public health implications. Intriguing animal model data support a link between cancer and sleep/OSA, although mechanisms are not yet clear. Leaders in the fields of Sleep Medicine, Pulmonology and Oncology recently met to review and discuss these data, as well as to outline future directions of study. We propose a multidisciplinary, three-pronged approach to studying the associations between cancer and sleep, utilizing mutually interactive epidemiologic studies, pre-clinical models, and early-phase clinical trials. PMID:27604751

  4. To boldly gulp: standard metabolic rate and boldness have context-dependent influences on risk-taking to breathe air in a catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, David J; Belão, Thiago C; Killen, Shaun S; Rantin, F Tadeu

    2015-12-01

    The African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus has bimodal respiration, it has a suprabranchial air-breathing organ alongside substantial gills. We used automated bimodal respirometry to reveal that undisturbed juvenile catfish (N=29) breathed air continuously in normoxia, with a marked diurnal cycle. Air breathing and routine metabolic rate (RMR) increased in darkness when, in the wild, this nocturnal predator forages. Aquatic hypoxia (20% air saturation) greatly increased overall reliance on air breathing. We investigated whether two measures of risk taking to breathe air, namely absolute rates of aerial O2 uptake (ṀO2,air) and the percentage of RMR obtained from air (%ṀO2,air), were influenced by individual standard metabolic rate (SMR) and boldness. In particular, whether any influence varied with resource availability (normoxia versus hypoxia) or relative fear of predation (day versus night). Individual SMR, derived from respirometry, had an overall positive influence on ṀO2,air across all contexts but a positive influence on %ṀO2,air only in hypoxia. Thus, a pervasive effect of SMR on air breathing became most acute in hypoxia, when individuals with higher O2 demand took proportionally more risks. Boldness was estimated as time required to resume air breathing after a fearful stimulus in daylight normoxia (Tres). Although Tres had no overall influence on ṀO2,air or %ṀO2,air, there was a negative relationship between Tres and %ṀO2,air in daylight, in normoxia and hypoxia. There were two Tres response groups, 'bold' phenotypes with Tres below 75 min (N=13) which, in daylight, breathed proportionally more air than 'shy' phenotypes with Tres above 115 min (N=16). Therefore, individual boldness influenced air breathing when fear of predation was high. Thus, individual energy demand and personality did not have parallel influences on the emergent tendency to take risks to obtain a resource; their influences varied in strength with context. © 2015

  5. A clinical method for detecting bronchial reversibility using a breath sound spectrum analysis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enseki, Mayumi; Nukaga, Mariko; Tabata, Hideyuki; Hirai, Kota; Matsuda, Shinichi; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-01

    Using a breath sound analyzer, we investigated clinical parameters for detecting bronchial reversibility in infants. A total of 59 infants (4-39 months, mean age 7.8 months) were included. In Study 1, the intra- and inter-observer variability was measured in 23 of 59 infants. Breath sound parameters, the frequency at 99% of the maximum frequency (F99), frequency at 25%, 50%, and 75% of the power spectrum (Q25, Q50, and Q75), and highest frequency of inspiratory breath sounds (HFI), and parameters obtained using the ratio of parameters, i.e. spectrum curve indices, the ratio of the third and fourth area to total area (A3/AT and B4/AT, respectively) and ratio of power and frequency at F75 and F50 (RPF75 and RPF50), were calculated. In Study 2, the relationship between parameters of breath sounds and age and stature were studied. In Study 3, breath sounds were studied before and after β2 agonist inhalation. In Study 1, the data showed statistical intra- and inter-observer reliability in A3/AT (p=0.042 and 0.034, respectively) and RPF50 (p=0.001 and 0.001, respectively). In Study 2, there were no significant relationships between age, height, weight, and BMI. In Study 3, A3/AT and RPF50 significantly changed after β2 agonist inhalation (p=0.001 and psound analysis can be performed in infants, as in older children, and the spectrum curve indices are not significantly affected by age-related factors. These sound parameters may play a role in the assessment of bronchial reversibility in infants. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A computer-based instrumentation system for measurement of breath-by-breath oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C; Gallagher, R R

    1994-01-01

    Improvements are implemented (Version 4) in a Computer-Based Respiratory Measurement System (CBRMS) identified as Version 3. The programming language has been changed from Pascal to C. A Gateway 2000 desktop computer with 486 DX2/50MHz CPU and a plug-in data I/O board (KEITHLEY METRABYTE/ASYST/DAC's DAS-HRES 16-bit Analog and Digital I/O board) replaces an HP 9836 system used in Version 3. The breath-by-breath system consists of a mass spectrometer for measuring fractional concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide and the accommodation of a turbine or pneumotachometer for measuring inspiratory and expiratory flows. The temperature of the inspiratory and expiratory gases can be monitored if temperature corrections are necessary for the flow measurement device. These signals are presented to the PC via the data acquisition module. To compare the two Versions, ten significant respiratory parameters were investigated and compared for physiological resting states and steady states obtained during an exercise forcing. Both graphical and statistical (analysis of variance, regression, and correlation) tests were carried out on the data. The results from the two versions compared well for all ten parameters. Also, no evidence of a statistically significant difference was found between the resting and steady-state results of the present CBRMS (Version 4) and the previous CBRMS (Version 3). This evidence suggests that Version 3 (Pascal) has been successfully converted to Version 4 (C). Implementation of the CBRMS in C on a PC has several advantages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. A Raman cell based on hollow core photonic crystal fiber for human breath analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Kam Kong; Short, Michael; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette; Zeng, Haishan

    2014-09-01

    Breath analysis has a potential prospect to benefit the medical field based on its perceived advantages to become a point-of-care, easy to use, and cost-effective technology. Early studies done by mass spectrometry show that volatile organic compounds from human breath can represent certain disease states of our bodies, such as lung cancer, and revealed the potential of breath analysis. But mass spectrometry is costly and has slow-turnaround time. The authors' goal is to develop a more portable and cost effective device based on Raman spectroscopy and hollow core-photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) for breath analysis. Raman scattering is a photon-molecular interaction based on the kinetic modes of an analyte which offers unique fingerprint type signals that allow molecular identification. HC-PCF is a novel light guide which allows light to be confined in a hollow core and it can be filled with a gaseous sample. Raman signals generated by the gaseous sample (i.e., human breath) can be guided and collected effectively for spectral analysis. A Raman-cell based on HC-PCF in the near infrared wavelength range was developed and tested in a single pass forward-scattering mode for different gaseous samples. Raman spectra were obtained successfully from reference gases (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide gases), ambient air, and a human breath sample. The calculated minimum detectable concentration of this system was ∼15 parts per million by volume, determined by measuring the carbon dioxide concentration in ambient air via the characteristic Raman peaks at 1286 and 1388 cm(-1). The results of this study were compared to a previous study using HC-PCF to trap industrial gases and backward-scatter 514.5 nm light from them. The authors found that the method presented in this paper has an advantage to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This SNR advantage, coupled with the better transmission of HC-PCF in the near-IR than in the visible wavelengths led to an estimated seven

  8. A computational physiology approach to personalized treatment models: the beneficial effects of slow breathing on the human cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonoberova, Maria; Mezić, Igor; Buckman, Jennifer F; Fonoberov, Vladimir A; Mezić, Adriana; Vaschillo, Evgeny G; Mun, Eun-Young; Vaschillo, Bronya; Bates, Marsha E

    2014-10-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback intervention involves slow breathing at a rate of ∼6 breaths/min (resonance breathing) to maximize respiratory and baroreflex effects on heart period oscillations. This intervention has wide-ranging clinical benefits and is gaining empirical support as an adjunct therapy for biobehavioral disorders, including asthma and depression. Yet, little is known about the system-level cardiovascular changes that occur during resonance breathing or the extent to which individuals differ in cardiovascular benefit. This study used a computational physiology approach to dynamically model the human cardiovascular system at rest and during resonance breathing. Noninvasive measurements of heart period, beat-to-beat systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and respiration period were obtained from 24 healthy young men and women. A model with respiration as input was parameterized to better understand how the cardiovascular processes that control variability in heart period and blood pressure change from rest to resonance breathing. The cost function used in model calibration corresponded to the difference between the experimental data and model outputs. A good match was observed between the data and model outputs (heart period, blood pressure, and corresponding power spectral densities). Significant improvements in several modeled cardiovascular functions (e.g., blood flow to internal organs, sensitivity of the sympathetic component of the baroreflex, ventricular elastance) were observed during resonance breathing. Individual differences in the magnitude and nature of these dynamic responses suggest that computational physiology may be clinically useful for tailoring heart rate variability biofeedback interventions for the needs of individual patients. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Biomarkers of Selenium Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Gerald F.

    2015-01-01

    The essential trace element, selenium (Se), has multiple biological activities, which depend on the level of Se intake. Relatively low Se intakes determine the expression of selenoenzymes in which it serves as an essential constituent. Higher intakes have been shown to have anti-tumorigenic potential; and very high Se intakes can produce adverse effects. This hierarchy of biological activities calls for biomarkers informative at different levels of Se exposure. Some Se-biomarkers, such as the selenoproteins and particularly GPX3 and SEPP1, provide information about function directly and are of value in identifying nutritional Se deficiency and tracking responses of deficient individuals to Se-treatment. They are useful under conditions of Se intake within the range of regulated selenoprotein expression, e.g., for humans health considerations. This would include determining whether supranutritional intakes of Se may be required for maximal selenoprotein expression in immune surveillance cells. It would also include developing methods to determine low molecular weight Se-metabolites, i.e., selenoamino acids and methylated Se-metabolites, which to date have not been detectable in biological specimens. Recent analytical advances using tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry suggest prospects for detecting these metabolites. PMID:25835046

  10. Ventilatory functions response to breathing training versus aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Egypt J Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012;10(1):33-37. 33. Ventilatory functions response to breathing training versus aerobic training in asthmatic children. INTRODUCTION ... as anxiety, light headedness, and fatigue4. Many previous ... Objective: To compare the effects of a program of breathing training and aerobic training ...

  11. Bad-breath: Perceptions and misconceptions of Nigerian adults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Objective: To provide baseline data about bad‑breath perception and misconceptions among Nigerian adults. Methods: ... Oral causes account for 90% of bad‑breath[7] with only a ... University, Ile‑Ife, Osun, 1Department of Child Dental Health, University of Lagos, 2Department of Preventive and Social.

  12. Health, social and economical consequences of sleep-disordered breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described.......The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described....

  13. Symptoms of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Risk of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Sofie; Clark, Alice; Salo, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered hormonal levels, all of which could affect the risk of cancer. The aim of the study is to examine if symptoms of SDB including snoring, breathing cessations, and daytime sleepiness affect...

  14. Breathing pattern and ventilatory control in chronic tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spungen, Ann M; Bauman, William A; Lesser, Marvin; McCool, F Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Blunted ventilatory responses to carbon dioxide indicate that respiratory control is impaired when ventilation is stimulated in individuals with tetraplegia; however, respiratory control during resting breathing has not been extensively studied in this population. Our objective was to evaluate respiratory control and sigh frequency during resting breathing in persons with tetraplegia. A prospective, two-group comparative study was performed. Breathing pattern was assessed in ten outpatients with chronic tetraplegia and eight age- and gender-matched able-bodied controls. Subjects were noninvasively monitored for 1 h, while seated and at rest. Tidal volume (V(T)) was calculated from the sum of the anteroposterior displacements of the rib cage and abdomen and the axial displacement of the chest wall. Inspiratory time (T(I)), V(T), and the ratio of V(T) to inspiratory time (V(T)/T(I)) were calculated breath by breath. A sigh was defined as any breath greater than two or more times an individual's mean V(T). Minute ventilation, V(T)/T(I), and sigh frequency were reduced in tetraplegia compared with controls (5.24 +/- 1.15 vs. 7.16 +/- 1.29 L/min, P tetraplegia: R = 0.88; P = 0.001 and control: R = 0.70; P tetraplegia. These findings extend prior observations of disordered respiratory control during breathing stimulated by CO(2) in tetraplegia to resting breathing.

  15. Adaptation of Endurance Training with a Reduced Breathing Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Kapus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of training with reduced breathing frequency (RBF on tidal volume during incremental exercise where breathing frequency was restricted and on ventilatory response during exercise when breathing a 3% CO2 mixture. Twelve male participants were divided into two groups: experimental (Group E and control (Group C. Both groups participated three cycle ergometry interval training sessions per week for six weeks. Group E performed it with RBF i.e. 10 breaths per minute and group C with spontaneous breathing. After training Group E showed a higher vital capacity (+8 ± 8%; p = 0.02 and lower ventilatory response during exercise when breathing a 3% CO2 mixture (-45 ± 27%; p = 0.03 compared with pre-training. These parameters were unchanged in Group C. Post-training peak power output with RBF (PPORBF was increased in both groups. The improvement was greater in Group E (+42 ± 11%; p < 0.01 than in Group C (+11 ± 9%; p = 0.03. Tidal volume at PPORBF was higher post-training in Group E (+41 ± 19%; p = 0.01. The results of the present study indicate that RBF training during cycle ergometry exercise increased tidal volume during incremental exercise where breathing frequency was restricted and decreased ventilatory sensitivity during exercise when breathing a 3% CO2 mixture.

  16. Bad-breath: Perceptions and misconceptions of Nigerian adults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... University, Ile‑Ife, Osun, 1Department of Child Dental Health, University of Lagos, 2Department of Preventive and Social ..... While claiming to understand the importance of oral hygiene in avoiding bad‑breath, they were unaware of the role of foods like garlic in causing bad‑breath. This is important.

  17. QUALITATIVE ABNORMAL FETAL BREATHING MOVEMENTS, ASSOCIATED WITH TRACHEAL ATRESIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BAARSMA, R; BEKEDAM, DJ; VISSER, GHA

    A case is reported in which qualitatively, grossly abnormal fetal breathing movements turned out to be indicative of complete tracheal atresia. Fetal breathing movements were vigorous and jerky and of large amplitude; similarly abnormal movements were observed after birth. At postmortem tracheal

  18. Measurement of Personal Exposure Using a Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    In this paper personal exposure measurements are performed by means of the Breathing Thermal Manikin. Contaminant concentration is measured in a number of locations in the breathing zone and in the inhaled air. Two cases are investigated: exposure to different contaminant sources in a displacement...

  19. A pacemaker for asystole in breath-holding spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Leah M; Kantoch, Michal J; Seshia, Shashi S; Soni, Reeni

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of young children with frequent severe breath-holding spells complicated by prolonged asystole and seizures are reported. A ventricular pacemaker was implanted in each child, and both have subsequently remained free of syncope, although they continue to exhibit breath-holding behaviour. PMID:20046299

  20. Oxidative stress in breath-hold divers after repetitive dives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Sigrid; Sponsiello, Nicola; Rozloznik, Miroslav; Germonpré, Peter; Guerrero, François; Cialoni, Danilo; Balestra, Constantino

    2013-06-01

    Hyperoxia causes oxidative stress. Breath-hold diving is associated with transient hyperoxia followed by hypoxia and a build-up of carbon dioxide (CO₂), chest-wall compression and significant haemodynamic changes. This study analyses variations in plasma oxidative stress markers after a series of repetitive breath-hold dives. Thirteen breath-hold divers were asked to perform repetitive breath-hold dives to 20 metres' depth to a cumulative breath-hold time of approximately 20 minutes over an hour in the open sea. Plasma nitric oxide (NO), peroxinitrites (ONOO⁻) and thiols (R-SH) were measured before and after the dive sequence. Circulating NO significantly increased after successive breath-hold dives (169.1 ± 58.26% of pre-dive values; P = 0.0002). Peroxinitrites doubled after the dives (207.2 ± 78.31% of pre-dive values; P = 0.0012). Thiols were significantly reduced (69.88 ± 19.23% of pre-dive values; P = 0.0002). NO may be produced by physical effort during breath-hold diving. Physical exercise, the transient hyperoxia followed by hypoxia and CO₂ accumulation would all contribute to the increased levels of superoxide anions (O₂²⁻). Since interaction of O₂²⁻ with NO forms ONOO⁻, this reaction is favoured and the production of thiol groups is reduced. Oxidative stress is, thus, present in breath-hold diving.

  1. Breathing and the Oboe: Playing, Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Helena

    2004-01-01

    Breathing and breath control are central to playing the oboe, yet few detailed educational resources are available to support their teaching and learning. This paper presents a review of existing knowledge and expertise in the field. It highlights common ground and points of controversy, and indicates some key areas for consideration. It points to…

  2. Breathing retraining for dysfunctional breathing in asthma: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M; McKinley, R K; Freeman, E; Foy, C; Prodger, P; Price, D

    2003-02-01

    Functional breathing disorders may complicate asthma and impair quality of life. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of physiotherapy based breathing retraining for patients treated for asthma in the community who have symptoms suggestive of dysfunctional breathing. 33 adult patients aged 17-65 with diagnosed and currently treated asthma and Nijmegen questionnaire scores > or =23 were recruited to a randomised controlled trial comparing short physiotherapy breathing retraining and an asthma nurse education control. The main outcome measures were asthma specific health status (Asthma Quality of Life questionnaire) and Nijmegen questionnaire scores Of the 33 who entered the study, data were available on 31 after 1 month and 28 at 6 months. The median (interquartile range) changes in overall asthma quality of life score at 1 month were 0.6 (0.05-1.12) and 0.09 (-0.25-0.26) for the breathing retraining and education groups, respectively (p=0.018), 0.42 (0.11-1.17) and 0.09 (-0.58-0.5) for the symptoms domain (p=0.042), 0.52 (0.09-1.25) and 0 (-0.45-0.45) for the activities domain (p=0.007), and 0.50 (0-1.50) and -0.25 (-0.75-0.75) for the environment domain (p=0.018). Only the change in the activities domain remained significant at 6 months (0.83 (-0.10-1.71) and -0.05 (-0.74-0.34), p=0.018), although trends to improvement were seen in the overall score (p=0.065), the symptoms domain (p=0.059), and the environment domain (p=0.065). There was a correlation between changes in quality of life scores and Nijmegen questionnaire scores at 1 month and at 6 months. The number needed to treat to produce a clinically important improvement in health status was 1.96 and 3.57 at 1 and 6 months. Over half the patients treated for asthma in the community who have symptoms suggestive of dysfunctional breathing show a clinically relevant improvement in quality of life following a brief physiotherapy intervention. This improvement is maintained in over 25% 6 months after the

  3. Definition, discrimination, diagnosis and treatment of central breathing disturbances during sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerath, Winfried; Verbraecken, Johan; Andreas, Stefan; Arzt, Michael; Bloch, Konrad E; Brack, Thomas; Buyse, Bertien; De Backer, Wilfried; Eckert, Danny Joel; Grote, Ludger; Hagmeyer, Lars; Hedner, Jan; Jennum, Poul; La Rovere, Maria Teresa; Miltz, Carla; McNicholas, Walter T; Montserrat, Josep; Naughton, Matthew; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Pevernagie, Dirk; Sanner, Bernd; Testelmans, Dries; Tonia, Thomy; Vrijsen, Bart; Wijkstra, Peter; Levy, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of central breathing disturbances during sleep has become increasingly obvious. They present as central sleep apnoeas (CSAs) and hypopnoeas, periodic breathing with apnoeas, or irregular breathing in patients with cardiovascular, other internal or neurological disorders, and can

  4. Definition, discrimination, diagnosis and treatment of central breathing disturbances during sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randerath, Winfried; Verbraecken, Johan; Andreas, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of central breathing disturbances during sleep has become increasingly obvious. They present as central sleep apnoeas (CSAs) and hypopnoeas, periodic breathing with apnoeas, or irregular breathing in patients with cardiovascular, other internal or neurological disorders, and can em...

  5. Improved workflow for quantification of left ventricular volumes and mass using free-breathing motion corrected cine imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Russell; Olivieri, Laura; O'Brien, Kendall; Kellman, Peter; Xue, Hui; Hansen, Michael

    2016-02-25

    Traditional cine imaging for cardiac functional assessment requires breath-holding, which can be problematic in some situations. Free-breathing techniques have relied on multiple averages or real-time imaging, producing images that can be spatially and/or temporally blurred. To overcome this, methods have been developed to acquire real-time images over multiple cardiac cycles, which are subsequently motion corrected and reformatted to yield a single image series displaying one cardiac cycle with high temporal and spatial resolution. Application of these algorithms has required significant additional reconstruction time. The use of distributed computing was recently proposed as a way to improve clinical workflow with such algorithms. In this study, we have deployed a distributed computing version of motion corrected re-binning reconstruction for free-breathing evaluation of cardiac function. Twenty five patients and 25 volunteers underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for evaluation of left ventricular end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-diastolic mass. Measurements using motion corrected re-binning were compared to those using breath-held SSFP and to free-breathing SSFP with multiple averages, and were performed by two independent observers. Pearson correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots tested agreement across techniques. Concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis tested inter-observer variability. Total scan plus reconstruction times were tested for significant differences using paired t-test. Measured volumes and mass obtained by motion corrected re-binning and by averaged free-breathing SSFP compared favorably to those obtained by breath-held SSFP (r = 0.9863/0.9813 for EDV, 0.9550/0.9685 for ESV, 0.9952/0.9771 for mass). Inter-observer variability was good with concordance correlation coefficients between observers across all acquisition types suggesting substantial agreement. Both motion

  6. Association between halitosis and mouth breathing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Lara Jansiski; Bachiega, Joanna Carolina; Guedes, Carolina Cardoso; Laranja, Lorena Tristão; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether there is a correlation between halitosis and mouth breathing in children. Fifty-five children between 3 and 14 years of age were divided into two groups (nasal and mouth breathing) for the assessment of halitosis. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the degree of halitosis in each group. The chi-square test was used for comparison between groups, with a 5% level of significance. There was a significantly greater number of boys with the mouth-breathing pattern than girls. A total of 23.6% of the participants had no mouth odor, 12.7% had mild odor, 12.7% had moderate odor and 50.9% had strong odor. There was a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing. The occurrence of halitosis was high among the children evaluated, and there was a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing.

  7. ABA-Cloud: support for collaborative breath research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Ludescher, Thomas; King, Julian; Ager, Clemens; Trosin, Michael; Senocak, Uygar; Brezany, Peter; Feilhauer, Thomas; Amann, Anton

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces the advanced breath analysis (ABA) platform, an innovative scientific research platform for the entire breath research domain. Within the ABA project, we are investigating novel data management concepts and semantic web technologies to document breath analysis studies for the long run as well as to enable their full automatic reproducibility. We propose several concept taxonomies (a hierarchical order of terms from a glossary of terms), which can be seen as a first step toward the definition of conceptualized terms commonly used by the international community of breath researchers. They build the basis for the development of an ontology (a concept from computer science used for communication between machines and/or humans and representation and reuse of knowledge) dedicated to breath research.

  8. Biomarkers of spontaneous preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polettini, Jossimara; Cobo, Teresa; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Despite decades of research on risk indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), reliable biomarkers are still not available to screen or diagnose high-risk pregnancies. Several biomarkers in maternal and fetal compartments have been mechanistically linked to PTB, but none of them are reliable...

  9. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  10. Sleep-disordered breathing in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Philip; D Casement, Melynda; Chen, Chiau-Fang; Hoffmann, Robert F; Armitage, Roseanne; Deldin, Patricia J

    2013-08-01

    Individuals with major depressive disorder often experience obstructive sleep apnea. However, the relationship between depression and less severe sleep-disordered breathing is unclear. This study examined the rate of sleep-disordered breathing in depression after excluding those who had clinically significant sleep apnea (>5 apneas∙h⁻¹). Archival data collected between 1991 and 2005 were used to assess the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing events in 60 (31 depressed; 29 healthy controls) unmedicated participants. Respiratory events were automatically detected using a program developed in-house measuring thermal nasal air-flow and chest pressure. Results show that even after excluding participants with clinically significant sleep-disordered breathing, individuals with depression continue to exhibit higher rates of sleep-disordered breathing compared with healthy controls (depressed group: apnea-hypopnea index mean = 0.524, SE = 0.105; healthy group: apnea-hypopnea index mean = 0.179, SE = 0.108). Exploratory analyses were also conducted to assess for rates of exclusion in depression studies due to sleep-disordered breathing. Study exclusion of sleep-disordered breathing was quantified based on self-report during telephone screening, and via first night polysomnography. Results from phone screening data reveal that individuals reporting depression were 5.86 times more likely to report a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea than presumptive control participants. Furthermore, all of the participants excluded for severe sleep-disordered breathing detected on the first night were participants with depression. These findings illustrate the importance of understanding the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and depression, and suggest that screening and quantification of sleep-disordered breathing should be considered in depression research. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  11. Experimental Dynamic Analysis of a Breathing Cracked Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chao-Zhong; Yan, Ji-Hong; Bergman, Lawrence A.

    2017-09-01

    Crack fault diagnostics plays a critical role for rotating machinery in the traditional and Industry 4.0 factory. In this paper, an experiment is set up to study the dynamic response of a rotor with a breathing crack as it passes through its 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 and 1/5 subcritical speeds. A cracked shaft is made by applying fatigue loads through a three-point bending apparatus and then placed in a rotor testbed. The vibration signals of the testbed during the coasting-up process are collected. Whirl orbit evolution at these subcritical speed zones is analyzed. The Fourier spectra obtained by FFT are used to investigate the internal frequencies corresponding to the typical orbit characteristics. The results show that the appearance of the inner loops and orientation change of whirl orbits in the experiment are agreed well with the theoretical results obtained previously. The presence of higher frequencies 2X, 3X, 4X and 5X in Fourier spectra reveals the causes of subharmonic resonances at these subcritical speed zones. The experimental investigation is more systematic and thorough than previously reported in the literature. The unique dynamic behavior of the orbits and frequency spectra are feasible features for practical crack diagnosis. This paper provides a critical technology support for the self-aware health management of rotating machinery in the Industry 4.0 factory.

  12. Biomarkers of inflammation in persons with chronic tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulovic, Miroslav; Bauman, William A; Wecht, Jill M; LaFountaine, Michael; Kahn, Nighat; Hobson, Joshua; Singh, Kamaldeep; Renzi, Christopher; Yen, Christina; Schilero, Gregory J

    2015-05-14

    In addition to lung volume restriction, individuals with chronic tetraplegia exhibit reduced airway caliber and bronchodilator responsiveness similar to persons with asthma. In asthma, airflow obstruction is closely linked to airway inflammation. Conversely, little is known regarding the airway inflammatory response in tetraplegia. To compare levels of biomarkers of inflammation in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and serum in subjects with chronic tetraplegia, mild asthma, and able-bodied controls.Prospective, observational pilot study. Thirty-four subjects participated: tetraplegia (n = 12), asthma (n = 12), controls (n = 10). Biomarkers in EBC [8-isoprostane (8-IP), leukotriene B4 (LT-B4), prostaglandin E2 (PG-E2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6)] and serum (8-IP, LT-B4, TNF-α, IL-6) were determined using commercially available EIA kits (Cayman Chemical Company, Ann Arbor, MI). Separate, one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni's post-hoc analyses were performed to determine group differences in demographic and dependent variables [EBC and serum biomarkers, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), pulmonary function parameters, and specific airway conductance (sGaw)]. The tetraplegia group had significantly elevated 8-IP levels in EBC compared to the asthma (68 ± 38 versus 21 ± 13 pg ml(-1); p tetraplegia group (15 ± 6; p = 0.08). Levels of serum biomarkers did not differ significantly among groups. Through analysis of EBC, levels of 8-IP were significantly elevated compared to levels found in individuals with mild asthma and healthy controls. Further studies are needed to extend upon these preliminary findings that suggest the presence of airway inflammation in subjects with chronic tetraplegia, and how this relates to pulmonary dysfunction in this population.

  13. Sleep disordered breathing following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Jennum, Poul; Laub, Michael

    2009-01-01

    with SCI, especially with regard to obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, there is a correlation between the incidence of sleep disturbances and the spinal cord level injured, age, body mass index, neck circumference, abdominal girth, and use of sedating medications. Regulation of respiration is dependent...... be a potential disparity between daytime and nocturnal ventilation, as individuals with partially reduced muscle tone are susceptible to not only sleep apnea, but also sleep-related hypoventilation which may be aggravated during rapid eye movement sleep.......Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly complain about difficulty in sleeping. Although various sleep disordered breathing definitions and indices are used that make comparisons between studies difficult, it seems evident that the frequency of sleep disorders is higher in individuals...

  14. Allergy and sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimple, Adam J; Ishman, Stacey L

    2013-06-01

    An inconsistent link between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and allergic rhinitis has been reported in the literature for decades. This review attempts to highlight some of the recent epidemiological studies purporting and refuting this connection, discuss possible mechanisms for this relationship and discuss how treatment of allergic rhinitis can help ameliorate SDB. Recently, a large systematic review that included 18 studies and 27 000 individuals of the association between allergic rhinitis and SDB in children was published supporting a correlation between SDB and allergic rhinitis. Although the evidence generally supports a connection between SDB and allergic rhinitis, this connection is not definitive and the mechanism linking these two diseases remains poorly understood. In addition to epidemiological studies, several small studies have demonstrated an improvement in SDB upon treatment of allergic rhinitis; however, large studies using objective measures to quantify SDB and allergic rhinitis are needed.

  15. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMauro, Antonella; D'Angelo, Maria Grazia; Aliverti, Andrea

    2017-05-01

    This review aims to explain the inevitable imbalance between respiratory load, drive, and muscular force that occurs in the natural aging of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and that predisposes these patients to sleep disordered breathing (SDB). In DMD, SDB is characterized by oxygen desaturation, apneas, hypercapnia, and hypoventilation during sleep and ultimately develops into respiratory failure during wakefulness. It can be present in all age groups. Young patients risk obstructive apneas because of weight gain, secondary to progressive physical inactivity and prolonged corticosteroid therapy; older patients hypoventilate and desaturate because of respiratory muscle weakness, in particular the diaphragm. These conditions are further exacerbated during REM sleep, the phase of maximal muscle hypotonia during which the diaphragm has to provide most of the ventilation. Evidence is given to the daytime predictors of early symptoms of SDB, important indicators for the proper time to initiate mechanical ventilation.

  16. Sleep disordered breathing in children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffanello, Marco; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Piacentini, Giorgio; Gasperi, Emma; Nosetti, Luana; Cavarzere, Paolo; Ramaroli, Diego Alberto; Mittal, Aliza; Antoniazzi, Franco

    2017-02-01

    Children with achondroplasia often have breathing problems, especially during sleep. The most important treatments are adenotonsillectomy (for treating upper obstruction) and/or neurosurgery (for resolving cervicomedullar junction stenosis). We reviewed the scientific literature on polysomnographic investigations which assessed the severity of respiratory disorders during sleep. Recent findings have highlighted the importance of clinical investigations in patients with achondroplasia, differentiating between those that look for neurological patterns and those that look for respiratory problems during sleep. In particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and somatosensory evoked potentials are the main tools to evaluate necessary neurosurgery and over myelopathy, respectively. The use of polysomnography enables clinicians to identify children with upper airway obstruction and to quantify disease severity; it is not suitable for MRI and/or neurosurgery considerations.

  17. Evaluation of pulmonary function using single-breath-hold dual-energy computed tomography with xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoyama, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sakai, Kosuke; Saito, Yuriko; Mikami, Shintaro; Moriyama, Gaku; Yanagita, Hisami; Watanabe, Wataru; Otani, Katharina; Honda, Norinari; Uematsu, Kazutsugu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Xenon-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (xenon-enhanced CT) can provide lung ventilation maps that may be useful for assessing structural and functional abnormalities of the lung. Xenon-enhanced CT has been performed using a multiple-breath-hold technique during xenon washout. We recently developed xenon-enhanced CT using a single-breath-hold technique to assess ventilation. We sought to evaluate whether xenon-enhanced CT using a single-breath-hold technique correlates with pulmonary function testing (PFT) results. Twenty-six patients, including 11 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, underwent xenon-enhanced CT and PFT. Three of the COPD patients underwent xenon-enhanced CT before and after bronchodilator treatment. Images from xenon-CT were obtained by dual-source CT during a breath-hold after a single vital-capacity inspiration of a xenon–oxygen gas mixture. Image postprocessing by 3-material decomposition generated conventional CT and xenon-enhanced images. Low-attenuation areas on xenon images matched low-attenuation areas on conventional CT in 21 cases but matched normal-attenuation areas in 5 cases. Volumes of Hounsfield unit (HU) histograms of xenon images correlated moderately and highly with vital capacity (VC) and total lung capacity (TLC), respectively (r = 0.68 and 0.85). Means and modes of histograms weakly correlated with VC (r = 0.39 and 0.38), moderately with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (r = 0.59 and 0.56), weakly with the ratio of FEV1 to FVC (r = 0.46 and 0.42), and moderately with the ratio of FEV1 to its predicted value (r = 0.64 and 0.60). Mode and volume of histograms increased in 2 COPD patients after the improvement of FEV1 with bronchodilators. Inhalation of xenon gas caused no adverse effects. Xenon-enhanced CT using a single-breath-hold technique depicted functional abnormalities not detectable on thin-slice CT. Mode, mean, and volume of HU histograms of xenon images

  18. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Denotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral breathing is a respiratory dysfunction that affects approximately 10-15% of child population. It is responsable of local effects and systemic effects, both immediate and long-term. They affect the growth of the subject and his physical health in many ways: pediatric, psycho-behavioral and cognitive. The etiology is multifactorial. It’s important the establishment of a vicious circle involving more areas and it is essential to stop it as soon as possible. In order to correct this anomaly, the pediatric dentist must be able to make a correct diagnosis to treat early the disfunction and to avoid the onset of cascade mechanisms. Who plays a central role is the pediatrician who first and frequently come into contact with little patients. He can identify the anomalies, and therefore collaborate with other specialists, including the dentist. The key aspect that guides us in the diagnosis, and allows us to identify the oral respirator, is the “adenoid facies”. The purpose of the study is to highlight the importance and benefits of an early and multidisciplinary intervention (pediatric, orthopedic-orthodontic-functional. A sample of 20 patients was selected with the following inclusion criteria: mouth breathing, transverse discrepancy > 4 mm, early mixed dentition, central and lateral permenent incisors, overjet increased, lip and nasal incompetence, snoring and/or sleep apnea episodes. The protocol of intervention includes the use of the following devices and procedures: a maxillary rapid expander (to correct the transverse discrepancy, to increase the amplitude of the upper respiratory airway and to reduce nasal resistances tract in association with myo-functional devices (nasal stimulator and oral obturator. They allow the reconstruction of a physiological balance between the perioral musculature and tongue, the acquisition of nasal and lips competence and the reduction of overjet. This protocol speeds up and stabilizes the results. The

  19. Respiratory pattern of diaphragmatic breathing and pilates breathing in COPD subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina M. Cancelliero-Gaiad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic breathing (DB is widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation (PR of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, however it has been little studied in the scientific literature. The Pilates breathing (PB method has also been used in the rehabilitation area and has been little studied in the scientific literature and in COPD. OBJECTIVES: To compare ventilatory parameters during DB and PB in COPD patients and healthy adults. METHOD: Fifteen COPD patients (COPD group and fifteen healthy patients (healthy group performed three types of respiration: natural breathing (NB, DB, and PB, with the respiratory pattern being analyzed by respiratory inductive plethysmography. The parameters of time, volume, and thoracoabdominal coordination were evaluated. After the Shapiro-Wilk normality test, ANOVA was applied followed by Tukey's test (intragroup analysis and Student's t-test (intergroup analysis; p<0.05. RESULTS: DB promoted increase in respiratory volumes, times, and SpO2 as well as decrease in respiratory rate in both groups. PB increased respiratory volumes in healthy group, with no additional benefits of respiratory pattern in the COPD group. With respect to thoracoabdominal coordination, both groups presented higher asynchrony during DB, with a greater increase in the healthy group. CONCLUSIONS: DB showed positive effects such as increase in lung volumes, respiratory motion, and SpO2 and reduction in respiratory rate. Although there were no changes in volume and time measurements during PB in COPD, this breathing pattern increased volumes in the healthy subjects and increased oxygenation in both groups. In this context, the acute benefits of DB are emphasized as a supporting treatment in respiratory rehabilitation programs.

  20. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for reduction of cardiac exposure using deep inspiration breath-hold technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Joo; Jung, Joo Young; Woong, Cho; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Most of breast cancer patient has suffered from unnecessary radiation exposure to heart, lung. Low radiation dose to the heart could lead to the worsening of preexisting cardiovascular lesions caused by radiation-induced pneumonitis. Also, several studies have demonstrated the dose to heart and artery, especially the dose to left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery were maximized for left-sided breast cancer patient and could cause the subsequent risk causing more severe myocardial infarction than the other coronary artery. Several effective treatment techniques for breast cancer patient have been reported that partial breast irradiation technique for early stage breast cancer patient an alternative to whole breast irradiation, is a beam delivery method that uses a limited range of treatment volume to minimize Organ At Risks (OARs) and Computed Tomography (CT) images from several breathing control technique during treatment time could reduce the delivered dose to heart, lung. Particularly, Deep Inspiration Breath Hold (DIBH) technique which the patient takes a deep inspiration and holds during treatment and could move the heart away from the chest wall and lung, has showed to lead to reduction in cardiac volume and to minimize the unnecessary radiation exposure to heart during treatment. In this study, we investigated the displacement of heart using DIBH CT data compared to free-breathing (FB) CT data and radiation exposure to heart, lung. The present study demonstrates that cardiac dose during left-sided breast treatment can be reduced by applying DIBH breathing control technique. Also, RHC could help assess the risk of radiation induced cardiac dose, toxicity.

  1. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauro Salomoni

    Full Text Available Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential

  2. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomoni, Sauro; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen) to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential improvements in voice

  3. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a PAH biomarker in foundry workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Øyvind; Sherson, D; Hansen, Åse Marie

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to PAH in foundry workers has been studied by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (HPU) levels, quantitatively measured by reversed phase HPLC. Seventy male foundry workers and 68 matched controls were investigated. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure was defined by 17 breathing zone...... hygienic samples, consisting of 16 selected PAH compounds. Mean total PAH concentration (SD) was 10.40 (4.04) mu g/m3. A multiple regression model of tobacco consumption, age, airborne PAH-exposure and foundry work on log HPU showed a significant correlation, p ....0001) and airborne PAH exposure (p = 0.0478) contributed significantly to the model. These data suggest that HPU is a sensitive biomarker for low-dose PAH exposure....

  4. Cardiac Biomarkers and Cycling Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Le Goff, Jean-François Kaux, Sébastien Goffaux, Etienne Cavalier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In cycling as in other types of strenuous exercise, there exists a risk of sudden death. It is important both to understand its causes and to see if the behavior of certain biomarkers might highlight athletes at risk. Many reports describe changes in biomarkers after strenuous exercise (Nie et al., 2011, but interpreting these changes, and notably distinguishing normal physiological responses from pathological changes, is not easy. Here we have focused on the kinetics of different cardiac biomarkers: creatin kinase (CK, creating kinase midbrain (CK-MB, myoglobin (MYO, highly sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP. The population studied was a group of young trained cyclists participating in a 177-km cycling race. The group of individuals was selected for maximal homogeneity. Their annual training volume was between 10,000 and 16,000 kilometers. The rhythm of races is comparable and averages 35 km/h, depending on the race’s difficulty. The cardiac frequency was recorded via a heart rate monitor. Three blood tests were taken. The first blood test, T0, was taken approximately 2 hours before the start of the race and was intended to gather values which would act as references for the following tests. The second blood test, T1, was realized within 5 minutes of their arrival. The third and final blood test, T3, was taken 3 hours following their arrival. The CK, CK-MB, MYO, hs-TnT and NT-proBNP were measured on the Roche Diagnostic modular E (Manhein, Germany. For the statistical analysis, an ANOVA and post hoc test of Scheffé were calculated with the Statistica Software version 9.1. We noticed an important significant variation in the cardiac frequency between T0 and T1 (p < 0.0001, T0 and T3 (p < 0.0001, and T1 and T3 (p < 0.01. Table 1 shows the results obtained for the different biomarkers. CK and CK-MB showed significant variation between T0-T1 and T0-T3 (p < 0.0001. Myoglobin increased significantly

  5. Biomarkers of adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Daniel F; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2017-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions can be caused by a wide range of therapeutics. Adverse drug reactions affect many bodily organ systems and vary widely in severity. Milder adverse drug reactions often resolve quickly following withdrawal of the casual drug or sometimes after dose reduction. Some adverse drug reactions are severe and lead to significant organ/tissue injury which can be fatal. Adverse drug reactions also represent a financial burden to both healthcare providers and the pharmaceutical industry. Thus, a number of stakeholders would benefit from development of new, robust biomarkers for the prediction, diagnosis, and prognostication of adverse drug reactions. There has been significant recent progress in identifying predictive genomic biomarkers with the potential to be used in clinical settings to reduce the burden of adverse drug reactions. These have included biomarkers that can be used to alter drug dose (for example, Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) and azathioprine dose) and drug choice. The latter have in particular included human leukocyte antigen (HLA) biomarkers which identify susceptibility to immune-mediated injuries to major organs such as skin, liver, and bone marrow from a variety of drugs. This review covers both the current state of the art with regard to genomic adverse drug reaction biomarkers. We also review circulating biomarkers that have the potential to be used for both diagnosis and prognosis, and have the added advantage of providing mechanistic information. In the future, we will not be relying on single biomarkers (genomic/non-genomic), but on multiple biomarker panels, integrated through the application of different omics technologies, which will provide information on predisposition, early diagnosis, prognosis, and mechanisms. Impact statement • Genetic and circulating biomarkers present significant opportunities to personalize patient therapy to minimize the risk of adverse drug reactions. ADRs are a significant heath issue

  6. Does manual therapy provide additional benefit to breathing retraining in the management of dysfunctional breathing? A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mandy; Troup, Fiona; Nugus, John; Roughton, Michael; Hodson, Margaret; Rayner, Charlotte; Bowen, Frances; Pryor, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunctional breathing (DB) is associated with an abnormal breathing pattern, unexplained breathlessness and significant patient morbidity. Treatment involves breathing retraining through respiratory physiotherapy. Recently, manual therapy (MT) has also been used, but no evidence exists to validate its use. This study sought to investigate whether MT produces additional benefit when compared with breathing retraining alone in patients with DB. Sixty subjects with primary DB were randomised into either breathing retraining (standard treatment; n = 30) or breathing retraining plus MT (intervention; n = 30) group. Both the groups received standardised respiratory physiotherapy, which included: DB education, breathing retraining, home regimen, and audio disc. Intervention group subjects additionally received MT following further assessment. Data from 57 subjects were analysed. At baseline, standard treatment group subjects were statistically younger (41.7 + 13.5 versus 50.8 + 13.0 years; p = 0.001) with higher Nijmegen scores (38.6 + 9.5 versus 31.5 + 6.9; p = 0.001). However, no significant difference was found between the groups for primary outcome Nijmegen score (95% CI (-1.1, 6.6) p = 0.162), or any secondary outcomes (Hospital Anxiety & Depression Score, spirometry or exercise tolerance). Breathing retraining is currently the mainstay of treatment for patients with DB. The results of this study suggest MT provides no additional benefit in this patient group. Dysfunctional breathing (DB) is associated with significant patient morbidity but often goes unrecognised, leading to prolonged investigation and significant use of health care resources. Breathing retraining remains the primary management of this condition. However, physiotherapists are also using manual therapy (MT) as an adjunctive treatment for patients with DB. However, the results of this study suggest that MT provides no further benefit and cannot be recommended in

  7. Noninvasive Strategy Based on Real-Time in Vivo Cataluminescence Monitoring for Clinical Breath Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runkun; Huang, Wanting; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yufei

    2017-03-21

    The development of noninvasive methods for real-time in vivo analysis is of great significant, which provides powerful tools for medical research and clinical diagnosis. In the present work, we described a new strategy based on cataluminescence (CTL) for real-time in vivo clinical breath analysis. To illustrate such strategy, a homemade real-time CTL monitoring system characterized by coupling an online sampling device with a CTL sensor for sevoflurane (SVF) was designed, and a real-time in vivo method for the monitoring of SVF in exhaled breath was proposed. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analyzing the real exhaled breath samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by GC/MS. The measured data obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. Subsequently, the method was applied to real-time monitoring of SVF in exhaled breath from rat models of the control group to investigate elimination pharmacokinetics. In order to further probe the potential of the method for clinical application, the elimination pharmacokinetics of SVF from rat models of control group, liver fibrosis group alcohol liver group, and nonalcoholic fatty liver group were monitored by the method. The raw data of pharmacokinetics of different groups were normalized and subsequently subjected to linear discriminant analysis (LDA). These data were transformed to canonical scores which were visualized as well-clustered with the classification accuracy of 100%, and the overall accuracy of leave-one-out cross-validation procedure is 88%, thereby indicating the utility of the potential of the method for liver disease diagnosis. Our strategy undoubtedly opens up a new door for real-time clinical analysis in a pain-free and noninvasive way and also guides a promising development direction for CTL.

  8. A Modified Carbon Monoxide Breath Test for Measuring Erythrocyte Lifespan in Small Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jian Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to develop a CO breath test for RBC lifespan estimation of small animals. The ribavirin induced hemolysis rabbit models were placed individually in a closed rebreath cage and air samples were collected for measurement of CO concentration. RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO, blood volume, and hemoglobin concentration data. RBC lifespan was determined in the same animals with the standard biotin-labeling method. RBC lifespan data obtained by the CO breath test method for control (CON, 49.0±5.9 d rabbits, rabbits given 10 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB10, 31.0±4.0 d, and rabbits given 20 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB20, 25.0±2.9 d were statistically similar (all p>0.05 to and linearly correlated (r=0.96, p<0.01 with the RBC lifespan data obtained for the same rabbits by the standard biotin-labeling method (CON, 51.0±2.7 d; RIB10, 33.0±1.3 d; and RIB20, 27.0±0.8 d. The CO breath test method takes less than 3 h to complete, whereas the standard method requires at least several weeks. In conclusion, the CO breath test method provides a simple and rapid means of estimating RBC lifespan and is feasible for use with small animal models.

  9. Blood-borne biomarkers and bioindicators for linking exposure to health effects in environmental health science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M Ariel Geer; Kormos, Tzipporah M; Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime. The exposome is composed of endogenous and exogenous chemicals, many of which are measurable as biomarkers in blood, breath, and urine. Exposure to pollutants is assessed by analyzing biofluids for the pollutant itself or its metabolic products. New methods are being developed to use a subset of biomarkers, termed bioindicators, to demonstrate biological changes indicative of future adverse health effects. Typically, environmental biomarkers are assessed using noninvasive (excreted) media, such as breath and urine. Blood is often avoided for biomonitoring due to practical reasons such as medical personnel, infectious waste, or clinical setting, despite the fact that blood represents the central compartment that interacts with every living cell and is the most relevant biofluid for certain applications and analyses. The aims of this study were to (1) review the current use of blood samples in environmental health research, (2) briefly contrast blood with other biological media, and (3) propose additional applications for blood analysis in human exposure research.

  10. Evaluation of Fractional Regional Ventilation Using 4D-CT and Effects of Breathing Maneuvers on Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistry, Nilesh N., E-mail: nmistry@som.umaryland.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Diwanji, Tejan; Shi, Xiutao [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Pokharel, Sabin [Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Feigenberg, Steven [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Scharf, Steven M. [Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); D' Souza, Warren D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Current implementations of methods based on Hounsfield units to evaluate regional lung ventilation do not directly incorporate tissue-based mass changes that occur over the respiratory cycle. To overcome this, we developed a 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT)-based technique to evaluate fractional regional ventilation (FRV) that uses an individualized ratio of tidal volume to end-expiratory lung volume for each voxel. We further evaluated the effect of different breathing maneuvers on regional ventilation. The results from this work will help elucidate the relationship between global and regional lung function. Methods and Materials: Eight patients underwent 3 sets of 4D-CT scans during 1 session using free-breathing, audiovisual guidance, and active breathing control. FRV was estimated using a density-based algorithm with mass correction. Internal validation between global and regional ventilation was performed by use of the imaging data collected during the use of active breathing control. The impact of breathing maneuvers on FRV was evaluated comparing the tidal volume from 3 breathing methods. Results: Internal validation through comparison between the global and regional changes in ventilation revealed a strong linear correlation (slope of 1.01, R{sup 2} of 0.97) between the measured global lung volume and the regional lung volume calculated by use of the “mass corrected” FRV. A linear relationship was established between the tidal volume measured with the automated breathing control system and FRV based on 4D-CT imaging. Consistently larger breathing volumes were observed when coached breathing techniques were used. Conclusions: The technique presented improves density-based evaluation of lung ventilation and establishes a link between global and regional lung ventilation volumes. Furthermore, the results obtained are comparable with those of other techniques of functional evaluation such as spirometry and hyperpolarized-gas magnetic

  11. Isopropanol interference with breath alcohol analysis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, B K; Gullberg, R G; Elenbaas, J K

    1994-07-01

    The presence of interfering substances, particularly acetone, has historically been a concern in the forensic measurement of ethanol in human breath. Although modern infrared instruments employ methods for distinguishing between ethanol and acetone, false-positive interferant results can arise from instrumental or procedural problems. The case described gives the analytical results of an individual arrested for driving while intoxicated and subsequently providing breath samples in two different BAC Verifier Datamaster infrared breath alcohol instruments. The instruments recorded ethanol results ranging from 0.09 to 0.17 g/210 L with corresponding interferant results of 0.02 to 0.06 g/210 L over approximately three hours. Breath and venous blood specimens collected later were analyzed by gas chromatography and revealed in the blood: isopropanol 0.023 g/100 mL, acetone 0.057 g/100 mL and ethanol 0.076g/100 mL. Qualitative analysis of the breath sample by GCMS also showed the presence of all three compounds. This individual had apparently consumed both ethanol and isopropanol with acetone resulting from the metabolism of isopropanol. An important observation is that the breath test instruments detected the interfering substances on each breath sample and yet they did not show tendencies to report false interferences when compared with statewide interferant data.

  12. Detection of serological biomarkers by proximity extension assay for detection of colorectal neoplasias in symptomatic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch Thorsen, Stine; Lundberg, Martin; Villablanca, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    of biomarkers from the bench to clinical practice we initiated a biomarker study focusing on a novel technique, the proximity extension assay, with multiplexing capability and the possible additive effect obtained from biomarker panels. We performed a screening of 74 different biomarkers in plasma derived from...... a case–control sample set consisting of symptomatic individuals representing CRC patients, patients with adenoma, patients with non-neoplastic large bowel diseases and healthy individuals. After statistical evaluation we found 12 significant indicators of CRC and the receiver operating characteristic...

  13. Can audio coached 4D CT emulate free breathing during the treatment course?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Gitte F; Nygaard, Ditte E; Olsen, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    breathing without changing the breathing amplitude. The interfraction variation of the breathing cycle amplitude in free and coached breathing was studied as well as the possible impact of fatigue on longer coaching sessions. METHODS: Thirteen volunteers completed respiratory audio coaching on 3 days within...... a 2 week period. An external marker system monitoring the motion of the thoraco-abdominal wall was used to track the respiration. On all days, free breathing and two coached breathing curves were recorded. We assumed that free versus coached breathing from day 1 (reference session) simulated breathing...... during an uncoached versus coached planning 4DCT, respectively, and compared the mean breathing cycle amplitude to the free versus coached breathing from day 2 and 3 simulating free versus coached breathing during treatment. RESULTS: For most volunteers it was impossible to apply coaching without changes...

  14. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Miller, Austin; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Underwood, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1) were obtained from four groups of men: (1) Controls (2) with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx) (3) with clinically localized CaP and (4) with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93) and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97) were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP). The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997). The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992) and PSA (AUC = 0.963) levels. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted. PMID:25593898

  15. Off-line breath acetone analysis in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturney, S C; Storer, M K; Shaw, G M; Shaw, D E; Epton, M J

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of breath acetone could be useful in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting to monitor evidence of starvation and metabolic stress. The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between acetone concentrations in breath and blood in critical illness, to explore any changes in breath acetone concentration over time and correlate these with clinical features. Consecutive patients, ventilated on controlled modes in a mixed ICU, with stress hyperglycaemia requiring insulin therapy and/or new pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph were recruited. Once daily, triplicate end-tidal breath samples were collected and analysed off-line by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Thirty-two patients were recruited (20 males), median age 61.5 years (range 26-85 years). The median breath acetone concentration of all samples was 853 ppb (range 162-11 375 ppb) collected over a median of 3 days (range 1-8). There was a trend towards a reduction in breath acetone concentration over time. Relationships were seen between breath acetone and arterial acetone (rs = 0.64, p acetone concentration over time corresponded to changes in arterial acetone concentration. Some patients remained ketotic despite insulin therapy and normal arterial glucose concentrations. This is the first study to look at breath acetone concentration in ICU patients for up to 8 days. Breath acetone concentration may be used as a surrogate for arterial acetone concentration, which may in future have a role in the modulation of insulin and feeding in critical illness.

  16. Oxidative stress biomarkers and asthma characteristics in adults of the EGEA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianjafimasy, Miora; Zerimech, Farid; Akiki, Zeina; Huyvaert, Helene; Le Moual, Nicole; Siroux, Valérie; Matran, Régis; Dumas, Orianne; Nadif, Rachel

    2017-12-01

    Asthma is an oxidative stress related disease, but associations with asthma outcomes are poorly studied in adults. We aimed to study the associations between several biomarkers related to oxidative stress and various asthma outcomes.Cross-sectional analyses were conducted in 1388 adults (mean age 43 years, 44% with asthma) from the Epidemiological Study of the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA2). Three blood antioxidant enzyme activities (biomarkers of response to oxidative stress) and exhaled breath condensate 8-isoprostanes and plasma fluorescent oxidation products (FlOPs) levels (two biomarkers of damage) were measured. Associations between biomarkers and 1) ever asthma and 2) asthma attacks, asthma control and lung function in participants with asthma were evaluated using regression models adjusted for age, sex and smoking.Biomarkers of response were unrelated to asthma outcomes. Higher 8-isoprostane levels were significantly associated with ever asthma (odds ratio for one interquartile range increase 1.28 (95% CI 1.06-1.67). Among participants with asthma, 8-isoprostane levels were negatively associated with adult-onset asthma (0.63, 0.41-0.97) and FlOPs levels were positively associated with asthma attacks (1.33, 1.07-1.65), poor asthma control (1.30, 1.02-1.66) and poor lung function (1.34, 1.04-1.74).Our results suggest that 8-isoprostanes are involved in childhood-onset asthma and FlOPs are linked to asthma expression. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  17. Lactose malabsorption during gastroenteritis, assessed by the hydrogen breath test.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, A J; Tarlow, M. J.; Sutherland, I T; Sammons, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-eight infants and young children with gastroenteritis were investigated for lactose malabsorption. Each of them was given an oral lactose load of either 0.5 g/kg or 2 g/kg after which breath hydrogen excretion was measured, and each was observed to see if he had clinical symptoms of lactose intolerance. Only one patient, given 2 g/kg lactose, had clinical intolerance. His breath hydrogen excretion however was negative. Three of 18 patients given 0.5 g/kg lactose had positive breath hyd...

  18. Abnormalities in serum biomarkers correlate with lower cardiac index in the Fontan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Bradley S; Goldberg, David J; Dorfman, Adam L; King, Eileen; Kalkwarf, Heidi; Zemel, Babette S; Smith, Margaret; Pratt, Jesse; Fogel, Mark A; Shillingford, Amanda J; Deal, Barbara J; John, Anitha S; Goldberg, Caren S; Hoffman, Timothy M; Jacobs, Marshall L; Lisec, Asher; Finan, Susan; Kochilas, Lazaros K; Pawlowski, Thomas W; Campbell, Kathleen; Joiner, Clinton; Goldstein, Stuart L; Stephens, Paul; Chin, Alvin J

    2017-01-01

    Fontan survivors have depressed cardiac index that worsens over time. Serum biomarker measurement is minimally invasive, rapid, widely available, and may be useful for serial monitoring. The purpose of this study was to identify biomarkers that correlate with lower cardiac index in Fontan patients. Methods and results This study was a multi-centre case series assessing the correlations between biomarkers and cardiac magnetic resonance-derived cardiac index in Fontan patients ⩾6 years of age with biochemical and haematopoietic biomarkers obtained ±12 months from cardiac magnetic resonance. Medical history and biomarker values were obtained by chart review. Spearman's Rank correlation assessed associations between biomarker z-scores and cardiac index. Biomarkers with significant correlations had receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve estimated. In total, 97 cardiac magnetic resonances in 87 patients met inclusion criteria: median age at cardiac magnetic resonance was 15 (6-33) years. Significant correlations were found between cardiac index and total alkaline phosphatase (-0.26, p=0.04), estimated creatinine clearance (0.26, p=0.02), and mean corpuscular volume (-0.32, pbiomarkers was 0.63-0.69. Area under the curve for the three-biomarker panel was 0.75. Comparison of cardiac index above and below the receiver operating characteristic curve-identified cut-off points revealed significant differences for each biomarker (pbiomarkers to monitor haemodynamics and organ-specific effects warrants prospective investigation.

  19. Motion management within two respiratory-gating windows: feasibility study of dual quasi-breath-hold technique in gated medical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Kim, Siyong; Park, Yang-Kyun; Youn, Kaylin K.; Keall, Paul; Lee, Rena

    2014-11-01

    A dual quasi-breath-hold (DQBH) technique is proposed for respiratory motion management (a hybrid technique combining breathing-guidance with breath-hold task in the middle). The aim of this study is to test a hypothesis that the DQBH biofeedback system improves both the capability of motion management and delivery efficiency. Fifteen healthy human subjects were recruited for two respiratory motion measurements (free breathing and DQBH biofeedback breathing for 15 min). In this study, the DQBH biofeedback system utilized the abdominal position obtained using an real-time position management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA) to audio-visually guide a human subject for 4 s breath-hold at EOI and 90% EOE (EOE90%) to improve delivery efficiency. We investigated the residual respiratory motion and the delivery efficiency (duty-cycle) of abdominal displacement within the gating window. The improvement of the abdominal motion reproducibility was evaluated in terms of cycle-to-cycle displacement variability, respiratory period and baseline drift. The DQBH biofeedback system improved the abdominal motion management capability compared to that with free breathing. With a phase based gating (mean ± std: 55  ±  5%), the averaged root mean square error (RMSE) of the abdominal displacement in the dual-gating windows decreased from 2.26 mm of free breathing to 1.16 mm of DQBH biofeedback (p-value = 0.007). The averaged RMSE of abdominal displacement over the entire respiratory cycles reduced from 2.23 mm of free breathing to 1.39 mm of DQBH biofeedback breathing in the dual-gating windows (p-value = 0.028). The averaged baseline drift dropped from 0.9 mm min-1 with free breathing to 0.09 mm min-1 with DQBH biofeedback (p-value = 0.048). The averaged duty-cycle with an 1 mm width of displacement bound increased from 15% of free breathing to 26% of DQBH biofeedback (p-value = 0.003). The study demonstrated that the DQBH biofeedback

  20. Analysis of breath samples for lung cancer survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmekel, Birgitta [Division of of Clinical Physiology, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping (Sweden); Clinical Physiology, Department of Medicine and Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping (Sweden); Winquist, Fredrik, E-mail: frw@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 83 (Sweden); Vikström, Anders [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University hospital of Linköping, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-08-20

    Graphical abstract: Predictions of survival days for lung cancer patients. - Highlights: • Analyses of exhaled air offer a large diagnostic potential. • Patientswith diagnosed lung cancer were studied using an electronic nose. • Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day were obtained. • Consecutive measurements were very important. - Abstract: Analyses of exhaled air by means of electronic noses offer a large diagnostic potential. Such analyses are non-invasive; samples can also be easily obtained from severely ill patients and repeated within short intervals. Lung cancer is the most deadly malignant tumor worldwide, and monitoring of lung cancer progression is of great importance and may help to decide best therapy. In this report, twenty-two patients with diagnosed lung cancer and ten healthy volunteers were studied using breath samples collected several times at certain intervals and analysed by an electronic nose. The samples were divided into three sub-groups; group d for survivor less than one year, group s for survivor more than a year and group h for the healthy volunteers. Prediction models based on partial least square and artificial neural nets could not classify the collected groups d, s and h, but separated well group d from group h. Using artificial neural net, group d could be separated from group s. Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day for group d were obtained, both based on partial least square and artificial neural nets, with correlation coefficients 0.981 and 0.985, respectively. Finally, the importance of consecutive measurements was shown.

  1. Whole-heart magnetic resonance coronary angiography with multiple breath-holds and automatic breathing-level tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhara, Shigehide; Ninomiya, Ayako; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanao, Shotaro; Kamae, Toshikazu; Togashi, Kaori

    2010-05-01

    Whole-heart (WH) magnetic resonance coronary angiography (MRCA) studies are usually performed during free breathing while monitoring the position of the diaphragm with real-time motion correction. However, this results in a long scan time and the patient's breathing pattern may change, causing the study to be aborted. Alternatively, WH MRCA can be performed with multiple breath-holds (mBH). However, one problem in the mBH method is that patients cannot hold their breath at the same position every time, leading to image degradation. We have developed a new WH MRCA imaging method that employs both the mBH method and automatic breathing-level tracking to permit automatic tracking of the changes in breathing or breath-hold levels. Evaluation of its effects on WH MRCA image quality showed that this method can provide high-quality images within a shorter scan time. This proposed method is expected to be very useful in clinical WH MRCA studies.

  2. Qualidade de vida em sujeitos respiradores orais e oronasais Life quality for mouth and oronasal breathing subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Hideko Nagae

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar a qualidade de vida de sujeitos com respiração oral ou oronasal. MÉTODO: compuseram a amostra 49 voluntários, distribuídos em dois grupos: grupo de respiradores orais com 24 sujeitos e grupo de respiradores oronasais com 25 sujeitos, com faixa etária ente 18 e 38 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos. O protocolo utilizado foi o WHOQOL-BREF (versão em português e o registro e análise dos dados foi realizado pelo sistema Statistical Analysis System. RESULTADOS: os resultados obtidos foram submetidos aos testes de qui-quadrado de Mantel-Haenszele análise de variância. A qualidade de vida dos respiradores mistos se revelou inferior nos domínios ambiental, físico e psicológico em relação aos respiradores orais. CONCLUSÃO: com a detecção das diferenças obtidas, o estudo chama a atenção para a necessidade de aprofundar investigações sobre o perfil dos respiradores oronasais e sua relevância. Para que condutas como desconsiderar o grupo de respiradores oronasais ou agrupá-los como respiradores orais não sejam adotadas de forma inadequada.PURPOSE: to investigate the life quality of subjects with mouth or oronasal breathing. METHOD: the sampling was composed of 49 volunteers distributed into 2 groups: mouth breathing subjects’ group with 24 subjects and oronasal breathing subjects’ group (mouth and nose with 25 subjects, within the 18-38 age group, both genders. The WHOQOL-BREF (Portuguese version protocol was used and the data analysis and recording were carried out using the Statistical Analysis System. RESULTS: the obtained results underwent Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test and variance analysis. Life quality in oronasal breathing subjects was demonstrated to be better in environmental, physical and psychological domain in relation to mouth breathing subjects. CONCLUSION: considering the obtained differences, the study draws attention to the need for better investigating the profile of oronasal breathing

  3. Biomarker in archaeological soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; Schneeweiß, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The use of biomarkers in an archaeological context allow deeper insights into the understanding of anthropogenic (dark) earth formation and from an archaeological point of view, a completely new perspective on cultivation practices in the historic past. During an archaeological excavation of a Slavic settlement (10th/11th C. A.D.) in Brünkendorf (Wendland region in Northern Germany), a thick black soil (Nordic Dark Earth) was discovered that resembled the famous terra preta phenomenon. For the humid tropics, terra preta could act as model for sustainable agricultural practices and as example for long-term CO2-sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems. The question was whether this Nordic Dark Earth had similar properties and genesis as the famous Amazonian Dark Earth in order to find a model for sustainable agricultural practices and long term CO2-sequestration in temperate zones. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach was used to characterize the sandy-textured Nordic Dark Earth in comparison to less anthropogenically influenced soils in the adjacent area in respect of ecological conditions (e.g. amino sugar), input materials (faeces) and the presence of stable soil organic matter (black carbon). Amino sugar analyses showed that Nordic Dark Earth contained higher amounts of microbial residues being dominated by soil fungi. Faecal biomarkers such as stanols and bile acids indicated animal manure from omnivores and herbivores but also human excrements. Black carbon content of about 30 Mg ha-1 in the Nordic Dark Earth was about four times higher compared to the adjacent soil and in the same order of magnitude compared to terra preta. Our data strongly suggest parallels to anthropogenic soil formation in Amazonia and in Europe by input of organic wastes, faecal material and charred organic matter. An obvious difference was that in terra preta input of human-derived faecal material dominated while in NDE human-derived faecal material played only a minor role

  4. Measuring Ventilatory Activity with Structured Light Plethysmography (SLP Reduces Instrumental Observer Effect and Preserves Tidal Breathing Variability in Healthy and COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Cécile Niérat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of a mouthpiece to measure ventilatory flow with a pneumotachograph (PNT introduces a major perturbation to breathing (“instrumental/observer effect” and suffices to modify the respiratory behavior. Structured light plethysmography (SLP is a non-contact method of assessment of breathing pattern during tidal breathing. Firstly, we validated the SLP measurements by comparing timing components of the ventilatory pattern obtained by SLP vs. PNT under the same condition; secondly, we compared SLP to SLP+PNT measurements of breathing pattern to evaluate the disruption of breathing pattern and breathing variability in healthy and COPD subjects. Measurements were taken during tidal breathing with SLP alone and SLP+PNT recording in 30 COPD and healthy subjects. Measurements included: respiratory frequency (Rf, inspiratory, expiratory, and total breath time/duration (Ti, Te, and Tt. Passing-Bablok regression analysis was used to evaluate the interchangeability of timing components of the ventilatory pattern (Rf, Ti, Te, and Tt between measurements performed under the following experimental conditions: SLP vs. PNT, SLP+PNT vs. SLP, and SLP+PNT vs. PNT. The variability of different ventilatory variables was assessed through their coefficients of variation (CVs. In healthy: according to Passing-Bablok regression, Rf, TI, TE and TT were interchangeable between measurements obtained under the three experimental conditions (SLP vs. PNT, SLP+PNT vs. SLP, and SLP+PNT vs. PNT. All the CVs describing “traditional” ventilatory variables (Rf, Ti, Te, Ti/Te, and Ti/Tt were significantly smaller in SLP+PNT condition. This was not the case for more “specific” SLP-derived variables. In COPD: according to Passing-Bablok regression, Rf, TI, TE, and TT were interchangeable between measurements obtained under SLP vs. PNT and SLP+PNT vs. PNT, whereas only Rf, TE, and TT were interchangeable between measurements obtained under SLP+PNT vs. SLP. However, most

  5. Attaining specificity in the measurement of ethanol in breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C M

    1990-01-01

    In most cases, new breath alcohol measuring devices satisfy the requirements for accuracy and precision. All instruments however, have responded to some substances other than ethanol. In this area of instruments specificity for ethanol there is scope for further development. Substances other than ethanol may be distinguished as interfering substances by the use of two methods of ethanol detection. One example of this is dual-wavelength infra-red detection. Alternatively, infra-red detection could be coupled to a fuel-cell or Taguchi cell detector. Comparison of the two readings obtained should allow most substances other than ethanol to be distinguished as interfering substances. Two instruments using two modes of ethanol detection are the Intoximeter 3000 (3.4 um infra-red plus Taguchi cell) and the BAC DataMaster (dual wavelength infra-red). These have proved unsuitable because of incomplete specificity for ethanol, largely because acetone appears to be considered the only potential interfering substance. In the selection of two modes of ethanol detection, each system must be chosen such that a comparison of the response from each mode would indicate a wide range of possible interfering substances, not just acetone. A performance specification has been developed, against which future commercial instruments will be evaluated.

  6. Ultrasound for critical care physicians: take a deep breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 40 year old man with a past medical history of intravenous drug abuse presented to the emergency department with difficulty walking and lower extremity weakness. He did admit to recent heroin use. He became somnolent in the ED and was given naloxone. However, he did not improve his level of consciousness sufficiently and was intubated for hypercarbia. The patient was transferred to the MICU and was evaluated for respiratory failure. He later that day passed a spontaneous breathing trial after he awoke and was extubated. However, he was soon thereafter was re-intubated for poor respiratory efforts and a weak cough. With an unexplained etiology for the respiratory failure, CT of the head, MRI of the brain and lab evaluation were pursued but were negative. At that point, a bedside ultrasound of the right hemi-diaphragm in the zone of apposition was obtained and is shown below: Figure 1. Ultrasound of ...

  7. Network biomarkers, interaction networks and dynamical network biomarkers in respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaodan; Chen, Luonan; Wang, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    Identification and validation of interaction networks and network biomarkers have become more critical and important in the development of disease-specific biomarkers, which are functionally changed during disease development, progression or treatment. The present review headlined the definition, significance, research and potential application for network biomarkers, interaction networks and dynamical network biomarkers (DNB). Disease-specific interaction networks, network biomarkers, or DNB...

  8. Biomarkers in acute myocardial infarction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chan, Daniel; Ng, Leong L

    2010-01-01

    .... Biomarkers have been used to assist with timely diagnosis, while an increasing number of novel markers have been identified to predict outcome following an acute myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome...

  9. Urinary Biomarkers of Brain Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manxia An

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are the measurable changes associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood, urine is not subject to homeostatic mechanisms. Therefore, greater fluctuations could occur in urine than in blood, better reflecting the changes in human body. The roadmap of urine biomarker era was proposed. Although urine analysis has been attempted for clinical diagnosis, and urine has been monitored during the progression of many diseases, particularly urinary system diseases, whether urine can reflect brain disease status remains uncertain. As some biomarkers of brain diseases can be detected in the body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and blood, there is a possibility that urine also contain biomarkers of brain diseases. This review summarizes the clues of brain diseases reflected in the urine proteome and metabolome.

  10. Biomarkers of latent TB infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Ravn, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    For the last 100 years, the tuberculin skin test (TST) has been the only diagnostic tool available for latent TB infection (LTBI) and no biomarker per se is available to diagnose the presence of LTBI. With the introduction of M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-gamma release assays (IGRAs), a new area...... of in vitro immunodiagnostic tests for LTBI based on biomarker readout has become a reality. In this review, we discuss existing evidence on the clinical usefulness of IGRAs and the indefinite number of potential new biomarkers that can be used to improve diagnosis of latent TB infection. We also present...... early data suggesting that the monocyte-derived chemokine inducible protein-10 may be useful as a novel biomarker for the immunodiagnosis of latent TB infection....

  11. Developing Biomarkers for Methamphetamine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Mendelson, John; Baggott, Matthew J.; Flower, Keith; Galloway, Gantt

    2011-01-01

    There are an estimated 11.7 million methamphetamine (MA) abusers in the United States and epidemics of MA addiction are occurring worldwide. In our human laboratory and outpatient clinical trials we use innovative methods to quantify the severity of MA addiction and test biomarkers that may predict response to therapy or risk of relapse. One potential biomarker of addiction is the quantity of abused drug intake. Qualitative urinalysis is used in clinical trials and during treatment but provid...

  12. Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders and Bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewa-Janicka, J; Jurkowski, P; Zycinska, K; Przybyłowska, D; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, E

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is a sleep-related breathing disorder, due mainly to peripheral causes, characterized by repeated episodes of obstruction of the upper airways, associated with snoring and arousals. The sleep process fragmentation and oxygen desaturation events lead to the major health problems with numerous pathophysiological consequences. Micro-arousals occurring during sleep are considered to be the main causal factor for night jaw-closing muscles activation called bruxism. Bruxism is characterized by clenching and grinding of the teeth or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible. The causes of bruxism are multifactorial and are mostly of central origin. Among central factors there are secretion disorders of central nervous system neurotransmitters and basal ganglia disorders. Recently, sleep bruxism has started to be regarded as a physiological phenomenon occurring in some parts of the population. In this article we present an evaluation of the relationship between OSA and sleep bruxism. It has been reported that the frequency of apneic episodes and that of teeth clenching positively correlates in OSA. However, clinical findings suggest that further studies are needed to clarify sleep bruxism pathophysiology and to develop new approaches to tailor therapy for individual patients with concomitant sleep bruxism and OSA.

  13. GAS FLOW IN UNDERWATER BREATHING INSTALLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca CONSTANTIN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The open circuit underwater breathing apparatus can be a one or two-stage regulator used in scuba diving or a two-stage regulator used in surface supplied installations. These installations are proper in underwater sites at small depth. The pneumatic circuit of a two-stage regulator is composed mainly of a first stage regulator mounted on the air cylinders and a second stage carried by the diver in his mouth. The two regulators are linked together by a medium pressure hose. The circuit opens when the depression created by the diver’s inhalation, in the second stage body, reaches a certain value. The second stage opening causes a transient movement, namely an expansion wave that propagates through the medium pressure hose to the first stage regulator. The first stage regulator opens and the air in the cylinders is allowed to flow to the diver. The longer the hose, the greater the duration of the expansion wave propagation. Investigations on the wave propagation offer data on the inspiration unsteady motion duration which influences the respiratory effort of the diver.

  14. Sleep disordered breathing in motor neurone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, Rebecca F; Murphy, Patrick B; Kaltsakas, Georgios

    2018-01-01

    Motor neurone disease (MND) is a neurodegenerative disease defined by axonal loss and gliosis of upper and lower motor neurones in the motor cortex, lower brainstem nuclei and ventral horn of the spinal cord. MND is currently incurable and has a poor prognosis, with death typically occurring 3 to 5 years after disease onset. The disease is characterised by rapidly progressive weakness leading to paralysis, fasciculations, bulbar symptoms (including dysarthria and dysphagia) and respiratory compromise. Respiratory complications arise as a result of weakness of upper airway (pharyngeal and laryngeal) muscles and respiratory muscles (diaphragm, intercostal and accessory muscles) leading to respiratory failure. Due to early involvement of respiratory muscles in MND, sleep disordered breathing (SDB) occurs at a higher frequency than compared to the general population. SDB usually precedes daytime respiratory symptoms and chronic respiratory failure. It significantly impacts upon patients' quality of life and survival and its presence may predict prognosis. Managing SDB in MND with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves quality of life and survival. Early identification and management of SDB in MND patients is therefore crucial. This update will review assessments of respiratory muscle function, types of SDB and the effects of NIV in patients with MND.

  15. Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharpaiman, S; Saburi, A; Waters, Karen A

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia are thought to underlie the increased risk for sudden infant death and neuropsychological deficits seen in this condition. This review evaluates literature regarding respiratory dysfunctions and their sequelae in patients with achondroplasia. The limited number of prospective studies of respiratory disease in achondroplasia means that observational studies and case series provide a large proportion of the data regarding the spectrum of respiratory diseases in achondroplasia and their treatments. Amongst clinical respiratory problems described, snoring is the commonest observed abnormality, but the reported incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows wide variance (10% to 75%). Reported treatments of OSA include adenotonsillectomy, the use of CPAP, and surgical improvement of the airway, including mid-face advancement. Otolaryngologic manifestations are also common. Respiratory failure due to small thoracic volumes is reported, but uncommon. Mortality rate at all ages was 2.27 (CI: 1.7-3.0) with age-specific mortality increased at all ages. Sudden death was most common in infants and children. Cardiovascular events are the main cause of mortality in adults. Despite earlier recognition and treatment of respiratory complications of achondroplasia, increased mortality rates and other complications remain high. Future and ongoing evaluation of the prevalence and impact of respiratory disorders, particularly OSA, in achondroplasia is recommended. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improved Oxygen Sources for Breathing Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, P. C.; Wydeven, T.

    1983-01-01

    Research is described which is directed toward the preparation of chemical oxygen sources which exhibited improved O2 storage and reaction characteristics when compared to potassium superoxide (KO2). The initial focus of the research was the preparation of calcium superoxide (Ca(O2)2) by the disproportionation of calcium peroxide diperoxyhydrate. the Ca(O2)2 was characterized by chemical, thermal, and x ray analyses. Several methods for scaling up the Ca(O2)2 syntheis process were studied. The reactivity of Ca(O2)2 toward humidified carbon dioxide (CO2) was evaluated and was compared to that of KO2 under flow test conditions approximating those existing in portable breathing apparatus. The reactivities of mixtures of KO2 and Ca(O2)2 or lithium peroxide towards humidified CO2 were also studied. Finally, an analysis of two commercial, KO2-based, self contained self rescuers was conducted to determine the potential weight and volume savings which would be possible if Ca(O2)2 or a mixture of KO2 and Ca(O2)2 were used as a replacement for KO2.

  17. FBG sensor of breathing encapsulated into polydimethylsiloxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajkus, Marcel; Nedoma, Jan; Siska, Petr; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    The technology of Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) belongs to the most widespread fiber-optic sensors. They are used for measuring a large number of physical and chemical quantities. Small size, immunity to electromagnetic interference, high sensitivity and a principle of information encoding about the measurement value into spectral characteristics causes usability of FBG sensors in medicine for monitoring vital signs such as temperature, blood pressure, pulse, and respiration. An important factor is the use of an inert material for the encapsulation of Bragg gratings in this area. A suitable choice is a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer having excellent thermal and elastic properties. Experimental results describe the creation of FBG sensory prototype for monitoring breathing in this paper. The sensor is realized by encapsulation of Bragg grating into PDMS. The FBG sensor is mounted on the elastic contact strap which encircles the chest of the patient. This tension leads to a spectral shift of the reflected light from the FBG. For measurement, we used a broadband light source Light-Emitting Diode (LED) with central wavelength 1550 nm and optical spectrum analyzer.

  18. Neuroimmune biomarkers in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Jakub; Rahmoune, Hassan; Guest, Paul C; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical and biological manifestations. Due to the lack of objective tests, the accurate diagnosis and selection of effective treatments for schizophrenia remains challenging. Numerous technologies have been employed in search of schizophrenia biomarkers. These studies have suggested that neuroinflammatory processes may play a role in schizophrenia pathogenesis, at least in a subgroup of patients. The evidence indicates alterations in both pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules in the central nervous system, which have also been found in peripheral tissues and may correlate with schizophrenia symptoms. In line with these findings, certain immunomodulatory interventions have shown beneficial effects on psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients, in particular those with distinct immune signatures. In this review, we evaluate these findings and their potential for more targeted drug interventions and the development of companion diagnostics. Although currently no validated markers exist for schizophrenia patient stratification or the prediction of treatment efficacy, we propose that utilisation of inflammatory markers for diagnostic and theranostic purposes may lead to novel therapeutic approaches and deliver more effective care for schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Noninvasive Estimation of Respiratory Mechanics in Spontaneously Breathing Ventilated Patients: A Constrained Optimization Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Francesco; Albanese, Antonio; Karamolegkos, Nikolaos; Wang, Dong; Seiver, Adam; Chbat, Nicolas W

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a method for breath-by-breath noninvasive estimation of respiratory resistance and elastance in mechanically ventilated patients. For passive patients, well-established approaches exist. However, when patients are breathing spontaneously, taking into account the diaphragmatic effort in the estimation process is still an open challenge. Mechanical ventilators require maneuvers to obtain reliable estimates for respiratory mechanics parameters. Such maneuvers interfere with the desired ventilation pattern to be delivered to the patient. Alternatively, invasive procedures are needed. The method presented in this paper is a noninvasive way requiring only measurements of airway pressure and flow that are routinely available for ventilated patients. It is based on a first-order single-compartment model of the respiratory system, from which a cost function is constructed as the sum of squared errors between model-based airway pressure predictions and actual measurements. Physiological considerations are translated into mathematical constraints that restrict the space of feasible solutions and make the resulting optimization problem strictly convex. Existing quadratic programming techniques are used to efficiently find the minimizing solution, which yields an estimate of the respiratory system resistance and elastance. The method is illustrated via numerical examples and experimental data from animal tests. Results show that taking into account the patient effort consistently improves the estimation of respiratory mechanics. The method is suitable for real-time patient monitoring, providing clinicians with noninvasive measurements that could be used for diagnosis and therapy optimization.

  20. Breathing mode distortion and magnetic order in rare-earth nickelates RNiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, Alexander; Ederer, Claude [Materials Theory, ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    Rare-earth nickelate perovskites display a rich and not yet fully understood phase diagram, where all RNiO{sub 3} compounds with R from Sm to Lu undergo a non-magnetic metal-insulator transition (MIT). This transition is connected to a lattice distortion, which can be described as breathing mode of the oxygen octahedra surrounding the Ni cations. Between 100-250 K the RNiO{sub 3} compounds undergo a magnetic transition to an antiferromagnetic (AFM) state, with a wave-vector k= [(1)/(4) (1)/(4) (1)/(4)] relative to the underlying simple cubic perovskite structure. Here, we use density functional theory and its extensions (DFT+U, DFT+DMFT) together with distortion mode analysis to explore the interplay between lattice distortions, magnetic order, and the strength of the local Coulomb interaction U in rare earth nickelates. Our results show a strong dependency of the breathing mode amplitude on the magnetic order, with a much larger breathing mode obtained for the AFM state compared to the ferromagnetic case. Furthermore, we demonstrate that DFT+U is able to capture the correct trends of the lattice distortions across the nickelate series.

  1. Codeine and Tramadol Can Cause Breathing Problems for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Codeine and Tramadol Can Cause Breathing Problems for Children ... children and nursing babies. Beware of Giving Kids Codeine or Tramadol The FDA is warning that children ...

  2. Acute effect of pure oxygen breathing on diabetic macular edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinten, Carl Martin; La Cour, Morten; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. A small-scale pilot study of the pathophysiology of diabetic macular edema (DME) was made by assessing concomitant changes in macular volume (MV), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), intraocular pressure (IOP), retinal artery diameter (RAD), and retinal vein diameter (RVD) in response...... to 120 minutes of pure oxygen breathing. Methods. Eleven eyes of 11 patients with DME were examined at baseline and while breathing pure oxygen for 120 minutes followed by 120 minutes of breathing atmospheric air. Macular volume was determined by optical coherence tomography, retinal trunk vessel...... diameters by fundus photography, intraocular pressure by pulse-air tonometry, and arterial blood pressure by sphygmomanometry. Results. After initiation of pure oxygen breathing, reductions of 2.6% in RAD (p=0.04) and 11.5% reduction in RVD (p...

  3. Data Mining Techniques Applied to Hydrogen Lactose Breath Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rubio-Escudero

    Full Text Available Analyze a set of data of hydrogen breath tests by use of data mining tools. Identify new patterns of H2 production.Hydrogen breath tests data sets as well as k-means clustering as the data mining technique to a dataset of 2571 patients.Six different patterns have been extracted upon analysis of the hydrogen breath test data. We have also shown the relevance of each of the samples taken throughout the test.Analysis of the hydrogen breath test data sets using data mining techniques has identified new patterns of hydrogen generation upon lactose absorption. We can see the potential of application of data mining techniques to clinical data sets. These results offer promising data for future research on the relations between gut microbiota produced hydrogen and its link to clinical symptoms.

  4. Breath hydrogen analysis in patients with ileoanal pouch anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, E; Meyer, J N; Rumessen, J J

    1995-01-01

    The possible influence on functional outcomes of hydrogen production in the ileoanal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy was investigated by means of lactulose H2 breath tests. Eight of 15 patients had significant increases in breath hydrogen after 10 g lactulose. One patient declined...... to participate in further investigations, the remaining seven responders had no evidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth after glucose H2 breath tests. The ability to produce hydrogen by anaerobic fermentation of lactulose in the pouch was unrelated to the age of the patients or of the pouch. Seven of eight...... responders had successive breath tests after ingestion of lactulose 20 g and wheat starch 100 g. Five of seven had significant increases after lactulose but none after wheat starch. The overall function of the pouch continence, spontaneity of defecation, and 24 hour stool frequency was significantly better...

  5. COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better ... Trial to Look at Home Oxygen Therapy for COPD The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) ...

  6. Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disparities Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women Disparities in Lung Health Series More ... the U.S. live with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Millions more ...

  7. Alterations in Glucose Disposal in Sleep-disordered Breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Punjabi, Naresh M.; Beamer, Brock A.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: It is well established that sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is independently associated with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, data on whether SDB alters in vivo kinetics of glucose and insulin are lacking.

  8. Flight Path Angle Dynamics of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolender, Michael A; Doman, David B

    2005-01-01

    .... This is not the case, however, with air-breathing hypersonic aircraft. This class of aircraft is characterized by unstable longitudinal dynamics, strong loop interactions, and the presence of non-minimum phase transmission zeros...

  9. Training Studies with Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus – Methodology, Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buks Roberts

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article describes topics ranging from the respiratory physiology and the structure of compressed air breathing apparatus to the performance of practical training exercises in an unbreathable environment (hereinafter referred to as UE.

  10. Atmospheric Breathing Electric Thruster for Planetary Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study will investigate the development of an atmosphere-breathing electric propulsion solar-powered vehicle to explore planets such as Mars. The vehicle would...

  11. CO2 Washout Capability with Breathing Manikin Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The intent of this particular project was to perform the following:Provide a breathing capability to be integrated into existing EC5 Ventilation Lab Suited...

  12. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Punjabi, Naresh M; Caffo, Brian S; Goodwin, James L; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Newman, Anne B; O'Connor, George T; Rapoport, David M; Redline, Susan; Resnick, Helaine E; Robbins, John A; Shahar, Eyal; Unruh, Mark L; Samet, Jonathan M

    2009-01-01

    .... The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community...

  13. Ask Your Dental Hygienist about Understanding and Eliminating Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help prevent can cause more harm than good. periodontal disease bad breath. Carefully Use products that are ... pressure that forces chewing process • Eating a balanced diet. A vitamin deficiency may contribute to gum disease ...

  14. Data Mining Techniques Applied to Hydrogen Lactose Breath Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Escudero, Cristina; Valverde-Fernández, Justo; Nepomuceno-Chamorro, Isabel; Pontes-Balanza, Beatriz; Hernández-Mendoza, Yoedusvany; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Analyze a set of data of hydrogen breath tests by use of data mining tools. Identify new patterns of H2 production. Hydrogen breath tests data sets as well as k-means clustering as the data mining technique to a dataset of 2571 patients. Six different patterns have been extracted upon analysis of the hydrogen breath test data. We have also shown the relevance of each of the samples taken throughout the test. Analysis of the hydrogen breath test data sets using data mining techniques has identified new patterns of hydrogen generation upon lactose absorption. We can see the potential of application of data mining techniques to clinical data sets. These results offer promising data for future research on the relations between gut microbiota produced hydrogen and its link to clinical symptoms.

  15. Down Syndrome and Sleep-Disordered Breathing: The Dentist's Role

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waldman, H. Barry; Hasan, Faysal M; Perlman, Steven

    2009-01-01

    .... The diagnosis and treatment of sleep-disordered breathing in the Down syndrome population reinforce the important role that dentists play in recognizing its association with comorbidities and daily...

  16. Analysis of biomarker data a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Looney, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    A "how to" guide for applying statistical methods to biomarker data analysis Presenting a solid foundation for the statistical methods that are used to analyze biomarker data, Analysis of Biomarker Data: A Practical Guide features preferred techniques for biomarker validation. The authors provide descriptions of select elementary statistical methods that are traditionally used to analyze biomarker data with a focus on the proper application of each method, including necessary assumptions, software recommendations, and proper interpretation of computer output. In addition, the book discusses

  17. Novel Biomarkers of Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic-Radojevic, A; Pljesa-Ercegovac, M; Matic, M; Simic, D; Radovanovic, S; Simic, T

    Although substantial improvements have been made in majority of cardiac disorders, heart failure (HF) remains a major health problem, with both increasing incidence and prevalence over the past decades. For that reason, the number of potential biomarkers that could contribute to diagnosis and treatment of HF patients is, almost exponentially, increasing over the recent years. The biomarkers that are, at the moment, more or less ready for use in everyday clinical practice, reflect different pathophysiological processes present in HF. In this review, seven groups of biomarkers associated to myocardial stretch (mid-regional proatrial natriuretic peptide, MR-proANP), myocyte injury (high-sensitive troponins, hs-cTn; heart-type fatty acid-binding protein, H-FABP; glutathione transferase P1, GSTP1), matrix remodeling (galectin-3; soluble isoform of suppression of tumorigenicity 2, sST2), inflammation (growth differentiation factor-15, GDF-15), renal dysfunction (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL; kidney injury molecule-1, KIM-1), neurohumoral activation (adrenomedullin, MR-proADM; copeptin), and oxidative stress (ceruloplasmin; myeloperoxidase, MPO; 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG; thioredoxin 1, Trx1) in HF will be overviewed. It is important to note that clinical value of individual biomarkers within the single time points in both diagnosis and outcome prediction in HF is limited. Hence, the future of biomarker application in HF lies in the multimarker panel strategy, which would include specific combination of biomarkers that reflect different pathophysiological processes underlying HF. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Biomarkers of Risk for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tyrka, Audrey R

    2008-01-01

    .... Cortisol samples have been obtained from 96 of these subjects. Hormone and genetic data will be used to predict the development of PTSD and chronic PTSD. In addition, interactions of these biomarkers with trauma severity and other stressors as well as social supports will be examined.

  19. Electronic Nose Functionality for Breath Gas Analysis during Parabolic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolch, Michael E.; Hummel, Thomas; Fetter, Viktor; Helwig, Andreas; Lenic, Joachim; Moukhamedieva, Lana; Tsarkow, Dimitrij; Chouker, Alexander; Schelling, Gustav

    2017-06-01

    The presence of humans in space represents a constant threat for their health and safety. Environmental factors such as living in a closed confinement, as well as exposure to microgravity and radiation, are associated with significant changes in bone metabolism, muscular atrophy, and altered immune response, which has impacts on human performance and possibly results in severe illness. Thus, maintaining and monitoring of crew health status has the highest priority to ensure whole mission success. With manned deep space missions to moon or mars appearing at the horizon where short-term repatriation back to earth is impossible the availability of appropriate diagnostic platforms for crew health status is urgently needed. In response to this need, the present experiment evaluated the functionality and practicability of a metal oxide based sensor system (eNose) together with a newly developed breath gas collecting device under the condition of altering acceleration. Parabolic flights were performed with an Airbus A300 ZeroG at Bordeaux, France. Ambient air and exhaled breath of five healthy volunteers was analyzed during steady state flight and parabolic flight maneuvres. All volunteers completed the study, the breath gas collecting device valves worked appropriately, and breathing through the collecting device was easy and did not induce discomfort. During breath gas measurements, significant changes in metal oxide sensors, mainly sensitive to aromatic and sulphur containing compounds, were observed with alternating conditions of acceleration. Similarly, metal oxide sensors showed significant changes in all sensors during ambient air measurements. The eNose as well as the newly developed breath gas collecting device, showed appropriate functionality and practicability during alternating conditions of acceleration which is a prerequisite for the intended use of the eNose aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for breath gas analysis and crew health status

  20. Vagal Sensory Neuron Subtypes that Differentially Control Breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Rui B.; Strochlic, David E.; Williams, Erika K.; Umans, Benjamin D.; Liberles, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Breathing is essential for survival and under precise neural control. The vagus nerve is a major conduit between lung and brain required for normal respiration. Here, we identify two populations of mouse vagus nerve afferents (P2ry1, Npy2r), each a few hundred neurons, that exert powerful and opposing effects on breathing. Genetically guided anatomical mapping revealed that these neurons densely innervate the lung and send long-range projections to different brainstem targets. Npy2r neurons a...

  1. Cephalometric evaluation of children with allergic rhinitis and mouth breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso Agostinho, Helena; Álvares Furtado, Ivo; Salvado e Silva, Francisco; Ustrell i Torrent, Josep Maria, 1953-

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Orthodontists frequently treat children with mouth breathing. The purpose of the present study was to examine dental positions, skeletal effects and the pharyngeal airway space of children with chronic allergic rhinitis, when compared with a control group exhibiting a normal breathing pattern. Material and Methods: Seventy Caucasian children from Santa Maria University Hospital - North Lisbon Hospital Center were evaluated, between September 2009 and February 2013. The study gro...

  2. [Neurocognitive and behavioural abnormalities in paediatric sleep-related breathing disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller Moré, Eduard; Barceló Mongil, Mercé; Segarra Isern, Francesc; Piñeiro Aguín, Zenaida; Pujol Olmo, Albert; Soler, Eusebi Matiñó; Ademà Alcover, Joan Manel

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural and neurocognitive abnormalities in children may be a consequence of sleep-related breathing disorders. The effectiveness of assessments based on questioning parents is dubious and objective assessment tools are therefore required. To ascertain the impact of these abnormalities in children with sleep-related breathing disorders and compare the reliability of questioning parents in relation to validated psychological tests. A prospective study was performed on 20 children with sleep-related breathing disorders and 20 healthy control children between 3 and 12 years of age. Both groups were subjected to a battery of validated psychological tests. The results of both groups were compared with each other and with the response to clinical questionnaires given to parents in the problem group. More than 75% of the cases in the problem group presented abnormalities with regard to attention, anxiety, memory and spatial structuring. The percentage involvement in all concepts was higher in the problem group. Comparisons of attention (40% of children affected in the control group and 80% in the problem group), memory (50% and 84.2%), and spatial structuring (45% and 75%) were statistically significant. More abnormality was observed in the parameters assessed with psychological tests than the equivalent concept obtained from interviewing the parents. Comparison of abnormal concentration assessed from the questionnaires (40% of children affected) with attention during the psychological test (80%), memory (15% and 84.21%), and delayed language development (10%) compared to spatial structuring (75%) was statistically significant. A high prevalence of behavioural and neurocognitive abnormalities was observed in children with sleep-related breathing disorders compared to a control group of healthy children. The use of objective assessment such as psychological tests revealed more abnormalities than were expressed by parents in response to clinical interviews.

  3. A Medical Cloud-Based Platform for Respiration Rate Measurement and Hierarchical Classification of Breath Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atena Roshan Fekr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of human respiratory signals is crucial in cyberbiological systems. A disordered breathing pattern can be the first symptom of different physiological, mechanical, or psychological dysfunctions. Therefore, a real-time monitoring of the respiration patterns, as well as respiration rate is a critical need in medical applications. There are several methods for respiration rate measurement. However, despite their accuracy, these methods are expensive and could not be integrated in a body sensor network. In this work, we present a real-time cloud-based platform for both monitoring the respiration rate and breath pattern classification, remotely. The proposed system is designed particularly for patients with breathing problems (e.g., respiratory complications after surgery or sleep disorders. Our system includes calibrated accelerometer sensor, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE and cloud-computing model. We also suggest a procedure to improve the accuracy of respiration rate for patients at rest positions. The overall error in the respiration rate calculation is obtained 0.53% considering SPR-BTA spirometer as the reference. Five types of respiration disorders, Bradapnea, Tachypnea, Cheyn-stokes, Kaussmal, and Biot’s breathing are classified based on hierarchical Support Vector Machine (SVM with seven different features. We have evaluated the performance of the proposed classification while it is individualized to every subject (case 1 as well as considering all subjects (case 2. Since the selection of kernel function is a key factor to decide SVM’s performance, in this paper three different kernel functions are evaluated. The experiments are conducted with 11 subjects and the average accuracy of 94.52% for case 1 and the accuracy of 81.29% for case 2 are achieved based on Radial Basis Function (RBF. Finally, a performance evaluation has been done for normal and impaired subjects considering sensitivity, specificity and G-mean parameters

  4. Influence of the breathing pattern on the learning process: a systematic review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Genef Caroline Andrade; Dos Santos, Isadora Diniz; Santos, Ana Claudia Nascimento; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; César, Carla Patrícia Hernandez Alves Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Mouth breathing leads to negative consequences on quality of life, especially in school-age children. To determine whether the breathing pattern influences children's learning process. This systematic review was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) instructions, with no restrictions regarding the year of publication and language, created based on the clinical question formulation according to the Problem/Patient/Population, Intervention/Indicator, Comparison, Outcome (PICO) strategy: "Is the mouth-breathing child more likely to have learning disabilities when compared to nasal breathers?" in the SciELO, PubMed, LILACS, and Scopus electronic databases. Google Scholar was used to search the gray literature. The keywords "learning," "mouth breathing," and their equivalent terms in Portuguese were used in an integrated manner. The studies included in the review were observational, conducted with schoolchildren aged 7-11 years. Afterwards, the studies were evaluated regarding their methodological quality. The research was performed by two eligible reviewers. A total of 357 records were obtained, of which 43 records were duplicate. After applying the eligibility criteria, ten articles were included in the research scope. Half of the studies used a control group and otorhinolaryngological assessment, whereas a minority used validated (20%) and sample calculation protocols (10%). The evaluation procedures were varied. Overall, 80% of the articles showed a higher incidence of learning disabilities among mouth breathers. This systematic review has shown that mouth breathers are more likely to have learning difficulties than nasal breathers. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of the breathing pattern on the learning process: a systematic review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genef Caroline Andrade Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Mouth breathing leads to negative consequences on quality of life, especially in school-age children. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the breathing pattern influences children's learning process. METHODS: This systematic review was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA instructions, with no restrictions regarding the year of publication and language, created based on the clinical question formulation according to the Problem/Patient/Population, Intervention/Indicator, Comparison, Outcome (PICO strategy: "Is the mouth-breathing child more likely to have learning disabilities when compared to nasal breathers?" in the SciELO, PubMed, LILACS, and Scopus electronic databases. Google Scholar was used to search the gray literature. The keywords "learning," "mouth breathing," and their equivalent terms in Portuguese were used in an integrated manner. The studies included in the review were observational, conducted with schoolchildren aged 7-11 years. Afterwards, the studies were evaluated regarding their methodological quality. The research was performed by two eligible reviewers. RESULTS: A total of 357 records were obtained, of which 43 records were duplicate. After applying the eligibility criteria, ten articles were included in the research scope. Half of the studies used a control group and otorhinolaryngological assessment, whereas a minority used validated (20% and sample calculation protocols (10%. The evaluation procedures were varied. Overall, 80% of the articles showed a higher incidence of learning disabilities among mouth breathers. CONCLUSION: This systematic review has shown that mouth breathers are more likely to have learning difficulties than nasal breathers.

  6. Lung function, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep-disordered breathing in children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julliand, Sébastien; Boulé, Michèle; Baujat, Geneviève; Ramirez, Adriana; Couloigner, Vincent; Beydon, Nicole; Zerah, Michel; di Rocco, Federico; Lemerrer, Martine; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2012-08-01

    Children with achondroplasia are at risk of sleep-disordered breathing. The aim of the study was to evaluate lung function and sleep-disordered breathing in children with achondroplasia. An interview, clinical examination, lung function tests with blood gases, and a polygraphic sleep study were obtained as part of routine annual evaluation in consecutive children with achondroplasia. We included 30 children (median age 3.0 years, range: 0.4-17.1) over a period of 21 months. Habitual snoring and witnessed apneas were observed in 77% and 33% of the patients, respectively. Prior to the sleep study, 10/29 (34%) patients had undergone upper airway surgery and 5/29 (17%) craniocervical decompression operation. Arterial blood gases were abnormal in two (7%) patients. Sleep findings were abnormal in 28/30 (93%) patients. Eleven (37%) patients had an apnea index≥1 event/hr and 26 (87%) had an apnea-hypopnea index≥5 events/hr. The ≥3% desaturation index was >5/hr in 22 (73%) patients. Sixteen (53%) patients had a minimal pulse oximetry50 mmHg during sleep. As a consequence, the following therapeutic interventions were performed: upper airway surgery in four patients and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in five other patients, resulting in an improvement in sleep studies in all nine patients. Systematic sleep studies are recommended in children with achondroplasia because of the high prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing. Upper airway surgery and NPPV are effective treatments of sleep-disordered breathing. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Infant-feeding methods and childhood sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Downs, Hawley Evelyn; Crabtree, Valerie McLaughlin; Sans Capdevila, Oscar; Gozal, David

    2007-11-01

    Childhood sleep-disordered breathing has an adverse impact on cognitive development, behavior, quality of life, and use of health care resources. Early viral infections and other immune-mediated responses may contribute to development of the chronic inflammation of the upper airway and hypertrophic upper airway lymphadenoid tissues underlying childhood sleep-disordered breathing. Breastfeeding provides immunologic protection against such early exposures. Therefore, we sought to explore whether sleep-disordered breathing severity would differ for children who were breastfed as infants. The parents or guardians of 196 habitually snoring children (mean +/- SD: 6.7 +/- 2.9 years old) who were undergoing overnight polysomnography at Kosair Children's Hospital Sleep Medicine and Apnea Center completed a retrospective survey on the method(s) used to feed the child as an infant. Among habitually snoring children, those who were fed breast milk for at least 2 months had significantly reduced sleep-disordered breathing severity on every measure assessed, including apnea-hypopnea index, oxyhemoglobin desaturation nadir, and respiratory arousal index. Breastfeeding for longer than 5 months did not contribute additional benefits. Our findings support the notion that breastfeeding may provide long-term protection against the severity of childhood sleep-disordered breathing. Future research should explore mechanism(s) whereby infant-feeding methods may affect the pathophysiology of development of childhood sleep-disordered breathing.

  8. Diaphragmatic Breathing Reduces Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Martarelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity of cells and that melatonin is a strong antioxidant; therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of diaphragmatic breathing on exercise-induced oxidative stress and the putative role of cortisol and melatonin hormones in this stress pathway. We monitored 16 athletes during an exhaustive training session. After the exercise, athletes were divided in two equivalent groups of eight subjects. Subjects of the studied group spent 1 h relaxing performing diaphragmatic breathing and concentrating on their breath in a quiet place. The other eight subjects, representing the control group, spent the same time sitting in an equivalent quite place. Results demonstrate that relaxation induced by diaphragmatic breathing increases the antioxidant defense status in athletes after exhaustive exercise. These effects correlate with the concomitant decrease in cortisol and the increase in melatonin. The consequence is a lower level of oxidative stress, which suggests that an appropriate diaphragmatic breathing could protect athletes from long-term adverse effects of free radicals.

  9. Brain metabolite values in children with breath-holding spells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calik M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mustafa Calik,1 Dilek Sen Dokumaci,2 Suna Sarikaya,3 Mahmut Demir,4 Ilhan Isik,5 Halil Kazanasmaz,4 Cemil Kaya,4 Hasan Kandemir6 1Department of Pediatric Neurology, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Neurology, 4Department of Pediatrics, Harran University School of Medicine, 5Department of Pediatric Neurology, Eyyubiye Training and Research Hospital, 6Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Harran University School of Medicine, Sanliurfa, Turkey Abstract: Breath-holding spells are benign, paroxysmal events with apnea and postural tone changes after a crying episode in infants. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathologies in brain metabolite values in the absence of seizure in children with breath-holding spells by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. Brain MRS examination was performed on 18 children with breath-holding spells and 13 neurologically normal children who were included as the control group. There was no significant difference in terms of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, creatine (Cr, and myoinositol (mI levels and also in terms of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr ratios between the patients and the control group (all P>0.05. Our study suggested that there is no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells. This result confirms the previous studies, which reported no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells. Keywords: brain metabolite, children, breath holding, magnetic resonance spectroscopy 

  10. Neural Control of Breathing and CO2 Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Patrice G; Bayliss, Douglas A

    2015-09-02

    Recent advances have clarified how the brain detects CO2 to regulate breathing (central respiratory chemoreception). These mechanisms are reviewed and their significance is presented in the general context of CO2/pH homeostasis through breathing. At rest, respiratory chemoreflexes initiated at peripheral and central sites mediate rapid stabilization of arterial PCO2 and pH. Specific brainstem neurons (e.g., retrotrapezoid nucleus, RTN; serotonergic) are activated by PCO2 and stimulate breathing. RTN neurons detect CO2 via intrinsic proton receptors (TASK-2, GPR4), synaptic input from peripheral chemoreceptors and signals from astrocytes. Respiratory chemoreflexes are arousal state dependent whereas chemoreceptor stimulation produces arousal. When abnormal, these interactions lead to sleep-disordered breathing. During exercise, central command and reflexes from exercising muscles produce the breathing stimulation required to maintain arterial PCO2 and pH despite elevated metabolic activity. The neural circuits underlying central command and muscle afferent control of breathing remain elusive and represent a fertile area for future investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Utility of R2* obtained from T2*-weighted imaging in differentiating hepatocellular carcinomas from cavernous hemangiomas of the liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyu Sun

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of applying R2* values to differentiate hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC from cavernous hemangiomas of the liver (CHL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by the participating Institutional Review Board and written informed consent for all subjects were obtained. Seventy-three patients with 79 pathologically identified HCCs and 65 patients with 91 clinically or pathologically identified CHLs were enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent a breath-hold multi-echo T2* weighted MR imaging on a 1.5 T clinical MR scanner. R2* values from HCC and CHL groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric U test. A cut-off value of R2* was evaluated with receiver operator characteristic (ROC analysis. RESULTS: The mean R2* value was 23.32 ± 12.23 Hz (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.58 Hz, 26.06 Hz for the HCC group, and 3.66 ± 2.37 Hz (95% CI: 3.17 Hz, 4.15 Hz for the CHL group. The mean R2* value for HCC was significantly higher than that of CHL (p<0.001. A threshold of 9.48 Hz for the minimum R2* value in the diagnosis of HCC resulted in a sensitivity of 96.20% (76 out of 79 patients, and a specificity of 97.80% (89 out of 91 patients. The positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and diagnostic accuracy for HCC were 97.44% (76 out of 78 patients, 96.74% (89 out of 92 patients and 97.06% (165 out of 170 patients, respectively. The AUC for differentiation between these two groups was 0.994 (95% CI: 0.980, 1.000. CONCLUSIONS: R2* is a significant MRI biomarker to differentiate HCC from CHL with satisfying sensitivity and specificity.

  12. Increased cerebral blood flow velocity in children with mild sleep-disordered breathing: a possible association with abnormal neuropsychological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine M; Hogan, Alexandra M; Onugha, Nwanneka; Harrison, Dawn; Cooper, Sara; McGrigor, Victoria J; Datta, Avijit; Kirkham, Fenella J

    2006-10-01

    , height, and head circumference were measured in all of the children. BMI and occipitofrontal circumference z scores were computed. Resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure were obtained. Both sleep-disordered breathing children and the age- and BMI-similar controls were assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), Neuropsychological Test Battery for Children (NEPSY) visual attention and visuomotor integration, and IQ assessment (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Version III). Transcranial Doppler was performed using a TL2-64b 2-MHz pulsed Doppler device between 2 pm and 7 pm in all of the patients and the majority of controls while awake. Time-averaged mean of the maximal cerebral blood flow velocities was measured in the left and right middle cerebral artery and the higher used for analysis. Twenty-one snoring children had an apnea/hypopnea index breathing below the conventional threshold for surgical intervention. Compared with 17 nonsnoring controls, these children had significantly raised middle cerebral artery blood flow velocities. There was no correlation between cerebral blood flow velocities and BMI or systolic or diastolic blood pressure indices. Exploratory analyses did not reveal any significant associations with apnea/hypopnea index, apnea index, hypopnea index, mean pulse oxygen saturation, lowest pulse oxygen saturation, accumulated time at pulse oxygen saturation breathing. However, it is important to note that whereas the sleep-disordered breathing group did not exhibit significant hypoxia at the time of study, it was unclear to what extent this may have been a feature of their sleep-disordered breathing in the past. IQ measures were in the average range and comparable bet

  13. Urinary metalloproteinases: noninvasive biomarkers for breast cancer risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pories, Susan E; Zurakowski, David; Roy, Roopali

    2008-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and a disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM 12) can be detected in the urine of breast cancer patients and provide independent prediction of disease status. To evaluate the potential of urinary metalloproteinases as biomarkers to predict breast cancer risk status...... as biomarkers in the identification of women at increased risk of developing breast cancer......., urine samples from women with known risk marker lesions, atypical hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), were analyzed. Urine samples were obtained from 148 women: 44 women with atypical hyperplasia, 24 women with LCIS, and 80 healthy controls. MMP analysis was done using gelatin zymography...

  14. Cyanotic breath-holding spells in children respond to adenotonsillectomy for sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilleminault, Christian; Huang, Yu-Shu; Chan, Allison; Hagen, Chad C

    2007-12-01

    Children with breath-holding (BH) spells may demonstrate sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) during polysomnography. We studied five young children with cyanotic spells retrospectively and found both SDB and a response to adenotonsillectomy. We therefore proceeded with a prospective investigation of treatment for SDB in children with comorbid cyanotic spells. Nineteen children with cyanotic BH spells were identified and enrolled in the prospective study. Parents chose either treatment or observation. Fourteen children underwent complete SDB evaluation and treatment trials while five selected observation only (control group). Sleep and sleep-surgery specialist evaluation and polysomnography revealed the presence of a narrow upper-airway and an abnormal respiratory disturbance index in all 14 children. Nasal CPAP was not successful, but adenotonsillectomy performed near 14 months of age eliminated SDB. BH spells were eliminated 1 month after surgery, while they persisted to the end of the study (24 months of age) in the control group. In conclusion, the presence of cyanotic BH should prompt investigation and polysomnography for possible SDB. Independent treatment of SDB may hasten resolution of BH spells in these cases.

  15. Biomarkers of coagulation, fibrinolysis, endothelial function, and inflammation in arterialized venous blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Skov, Jane; Ploug, Thorkil

    2014-01-01

    Effects of venous blood arterialization on cardiovascular risk markers are still unknown. We evaluated biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, fibrinolysis, and endothelial function in arterialized compared with regular venous blood. Cubital venipunctures were obtained from 10 healthy volunteers...

  16. Oxygen breathing affects 3'-deoxy-3'-18F-fluorothymidine uptake in mouse models of arthritis and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Kerstin; Kukuk, Damaris; Reischl, Gerald; Föller, Michael; Eichner, Martin; Reutershan, Jörg; Lang, Florian; Röcken, Martin; Pichler, Bernd J; Kneilling, Manfred

    2012-05-01

    Noninvasive in vivo imaging of biologic processes using PET is an important tool in preclinical studies. We observed significant differences in 3'-deoxy-3'-(18)F-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT) uptake in arthritic ankles and carcinomas between dynamic and static PET measurements when mice breathed oxygen. Thus, we suspected that air or oxygen breathing and the anesthesia protocol might influence (18)F-FLT tracer uptake. We injected arthritic, healthy, and CT26 colon carcinoma-bearing mice with (18)F-FLT before static or dynamic small-animal PET measurements. The spontaneously oxygen- or air-breathing mice were kept conscious or anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine during (18)F-FLT uptake before the 10-min static PET measurements. For dynamic PET scans, mice were anesthetized during the entire measurement. (18)F-FLT uptake was reported in percentage injected dose per cubed centimeter by drawing regions of interest around ankles, carcinomas, and muscle tissue. Additionally, venous blood samples were collected before (18)F-FLT injection and after PET measurement to analyze pH, carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO(2)), and lactate values. A significantly reduced (18)F-FLT uptake was measured in arthritic ankles and in CT26 colon carcinomas when the mice breathed oxygen and were conscious during tracer uptake, compared with mice that were anesthetized during (18)F-FLT uptake. Breathing air completely abolished this phenomenon. Analysis of blood samples that were obtained from the mice before (18)F-FLT injection and after the PET scan implicated respiratory acidosis that was induced by oxygen breathing and consciousness during tracer uptake. Acidosis was found to be the primary factor responsible for the reduced (18)F-FLT uptake, as reflected by increased pCO(2) and reduced pH and lactate values. Oxygen-breathing conscious mice sustained respiratory acidosis and, consequently, reduced cell proliferation and (18)F-FLT uptake in arthritic ankles and CT26 colon carcinomas

  17. Does low dose13C-urea breath test maintain a satisfactory accuracy in diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Vaz Coelho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The standard doses of 13C-urea in 13C-urea breath test is 75 mg. OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of 13C-urea breath test containing 25 mg of 13C-urea comparing with the standard doses of 75 mg in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. METHODS: Two hundred seventy adult patients (96 males, 174 females, median age 41 years performed the standard 13C-urea breath test (75 mg 13C-urea and repeated the 13C-urea breath test using only 25 mg of 13C-urea within a 2 week interval. The test was performed using an infrared isotope analyzer. Patients were considered positive if delta over baseline was >4.0‰ at the gold standard test. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-one (59.6% patients were H. pylori negative and 109 (40.4% were positive by the gold standard test. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis we established a cut-off value of 3.4% as the best value of 25 mg 13C-urea breath test to discriminate positive and negative patients, considering the H. pylori prevalence (95% CI: 23.9-37.3 at our setting. Therefore, we obtained to 25 mg 13C-urea breath test a diagnostic accuracy of 92.9% (95% CI: 88.1-97.9, sensitivity 83.5% (95% CI: 75.4-89.3, specificity 99.4% (95% CI: 96.6-99.9, positive predictive value 98.3% (95% CI: 92.4-99.4, and negative predictive value 93.0% (95% CI: 88.6-96.1. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose 13C-urea breath test (25 mg 13C-urea does not reach accuracy sufficient to be recommended in clinical setting where a 30% prevalence of H. pylori infection is observed. Further studies should be done to determine the diagnostic accuracy of low doses of 13C-urea in the urea breath test.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative determination of human biomarkers by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Matei, C.; Cernat, R.; Popescu, A.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2011-07-01

    The hypothesis that blood, urine and other body fluids and tissues can be sampled and analyzed to produce clinical information for disease diagnosis or therapy monitoring is the basis of modern clinical diagnosis and medical practice. The analysis of breath air has major advantages because it is a non-invasive method, represents minimal risk to personnel collecting the samples and can be often sampled. Breath air samples from the human subjects were collected using aluminized bags from QuinTron and analyzed using the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) technique. LPAS is used to detect traces of ethylene in breath air resulting from lipid peroxidation in lung epithelium following the radiotherapy and also traces of ammonia from patients subjected to hemodialysis for treatment of renal failure. In the case of patients affected by cancer and treated by external radiotherapy, all measurements were done at 10P(14) CO2 laser line, where the ethylene absorption coefficient has the largest value (30.4 cm-1 atm-1), whereas for patients affected by renal failure and treated by standard dialysis, all measurements were performed at 9R(30) CO2 laser line, where the ammonia absorption coefficient has the maximum value of 57 cm-1 atm-1. The levels of ethylene and ammonia in exhaled air, from patients with cancer and renal failure, respectively, were measured and compared with breath air contents from healthy humans. Human gas biomarkers were measured at sub-ppb (parts per billion) concentration sensitivities. It has been demonstrated that LPAS technique will play an important role in the future of exhaled breath air analysis. The key attributes of this technique are sensitivity, selectivity, fast and real time response, as well as its simplicity.

  19. Novel Findings in Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Seham F.A.; Siam, Ahmed G.; Saleh, Safaa H.; Elshafei, Mona M.; Elsaeed, Wafaa F.; Arafa, Mohamed A.; Bendary, Eman A.; Farag, Elsayed M.; Basset, Maha A.A.; Ismail, Sanaa M.; Elazouni, Osama M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The mechanism of breath-holding spells (BHS) is not fully understood and most probably multifactorial; so, this study was designed to clarify the pathophysiology of BHS through assessing some laboratory parameters and electrocardiographic (ECG) changes which might be contributing to the occurrence of the attacks. Another aim of the study was to evaluate the differences in the pathophysiology between pallid and cyanotic types of BHS. This was a prospective study performed in Zagazig University Hospitals. Seventy-six children diagnosed with BHS were included as follows: 32 children with cyanotic BHS, 14 children with pallid BHS, and 30 healthy children as a control group. All children were subjected to the following: full history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory work up in the form of CBC, serum iron, ferritin, and zinc levels. Twenty-four hours ambulatory ECG (Holter) recording was also performed. No significant statistical difference was found between cyanotic and pallid groups regarding family history of BHS, severity, and precipitating factors of the attacks. Frequent runs of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during 24 hours ECG were significantly higher in children with BHS; the frequency of RSA was significantly correlated with the frequency (severity) of the attacks. Low serum ferritin was significantly associated with BHS groups but not correlated with the severity of the attacks. Autonomic dysregulation evidenced by frequent RSA is considered to be an important cause of BHS in children and is correlated with the frequency of the attacks. Low serum ferritin is additional factor in the pathophysiology. Both pallid and cyanotic BHS are suggested to be types of the same disease sharing the same pathophysiology. PMID:26181556

  20. Panic disorder and control of breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Antonio E; Freire, Rafael C; Zin, Walter A

    2009-05-30

    Anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder (PD), are associated with respiratory abnormalities. PD consists of unexpected panic attacks (PA) with anxiety, fear and many autonomic and respiratory symptoms. There is a substantial body of literature demonstrating that stimulation of respiration is a common event in panic disorder patients during PA. A number of abnormalities in respiration, such as enhanced CO(2) sensitivity, have been detected in PD patients. As a result, some investigators advanced that there is a fundamental abnormality in the physiological mechanisms that control breathing in PD. Studies indicate that PD patients with dominant respiratory symptoms are particularly sensitive to respiratory tests compared with those who do not manifest dominant respiratory symptoms, possibly representing a distinct subtype. Accumulated evidence suggests that respiratory physiology remains normal in PD patients and that their tendency to hyperventilate and to react with panic to respiratory stimulants like CO(2) represents the triggering of a hypersensitive fear network. However, some recent evidences support the presence of subclinical abnormalities in respiration and other functions related to body homeostasis. The fear network, composed by the hippocampus, the medial prefrontal cortex, the amygdala and its brainstem projections, may be abnormally sensitive in PD patients. This theory might explain why both medication and psychosocial therapies are clearly effective. The evidence of abnormalities in several neurochemical systems might be just the expression of the complex interactions among brain circuits. Our aim was to review the relationship between respiration and panic disorder, addressing the respiratory subtype of panic disorder, the hyperventilation syndrome, the respiratory challenge tests, the current mechanistic concepts and the pharmacological implications.

  1. Validation of CBCT for the computation of textural biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Beatriz; Ruellas, Antonio C.; Benavides, Erika; Marron, Steve; Wolford, Larry; Cevidanes, Lucia

    2015-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with significant pain and 42.6% of patients with TMJ disorders present with evidence of TMJ OA. However, OA diagnosis and treatment remain controversial, since there are no clear symptoms of the disease. The subchondral bone in the TMJ is believed to play a major role in the progression of OA. We hypothesize that the textural imaging biomarkers computed in high resolution Conebeam CT (hr- CBCT) and μCT scans are comparable. The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility of computing textural imaging biomarkers in-vivo using hr-CBCT, compared to those computed in μCT scans as our Gold Standard. Specimens of condylar bones obtained from condylectomies were scanned using μCT and hr- CBCT. Nine different textural imaging biomarkers (four co-occurrence features and five run-length features) from each pair of μCT and hr-CBCT were computed and compared. Pearson correlation coefficients were computed to compare textural biomarkers values of μCT and hr-CBCT. Four of the nine computed textural biomarkers showed a strong positive correlation between biomarkers computed in μCT and hr-CBCT. Higher correlations in Energy and Contrast, and in GLN (grey-level non-uniformity) and RLN (run length non-uniformity) indicate quantitative texture features can be computed reliably in hr-CBCT, when compared with μCT. The textural imaging biomarkers computed in-vivo hr-CBCT have captured the structure, patterns, contrast between neighboring regions and uniformity of healthy and/or pathologic subchondral bone. The ability to quantify bone texture non-invasively now makes it possible to evaluate the progression of subchondral bone alterations, in TMJ OA.

  2. Influence of breathing resistance of heat and moisture exchangers on tracheal climate and breathing pattern in laryngectomized individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheenstra, Renske J; Muller, Sara H; Vincent, Andrew; Sinaasappel, Michiel; Hilgers, Frans J M

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of breathing resistance of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) on endotracheal climate and breathing pattern. Endotracheal temperature and humidity and tidal volumes were measured in 11 laryngectomized patients with a regularly used HME with "standard" breathing resistance (Provox Normal HME; R-HME), a low breathing-resistance HME (Provox HiFlow HME; L-HME), and without HME. Both R-HME and L-HME increased end-inspiratory humidity (+5.8 and 4.7 mgH(2)O/L, respectively), decreased end-inspiratory temperature (-1.6 and -1.0 degrees C, respectively), and prolonged the exhalation breath length to approximately 0.5 seconds. The R-HME significantly enlarged tidal volumes (0.07 L; p < .05). Both HMEs significantly improve tracheal climate. The R-HME has better moistening properties and a small but significant positive effect on tidal volume. Therefore, if the higher resistance is tolerated, the R-HME is the preferred pulmonary rehabilitation device. The L-HME is indicated if lower breathing resistance is required. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2010.

  3. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh M Punjabi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older.We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: or=30.0 events/h sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42, and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86, respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33. Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality.Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  4. Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Kragh Lauridsen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. Due to its ready adaptation to the dehydrated mucosa of CF airways, PA infections tend to become chronic, eventually killing the patient. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN at ppb level has been reported to be a PA biomarker. For early PA detection in CF children not yet chronically lung infected a non-invasive Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS-based breath nanosensor is being developed. The triple bond between C and N in cyanide, with its characteristic band at ∼2133 cm−1, is an excellent case for the SERS-based detection due to the infrequent occurrence of triple bonds in nature. For demonstration of direct HCN detection in the gas phase, a gold-coated silicon nanopillar substrate was exposed to 5 ppm HCN in N2. Results showed that HCN adsorbed on the SERS substrate can be consistently detected under different experimental conditions and up to 9 days after exposure. For detection of lower cyanide concentrations serial dilution experiments using potassium cyanide (KCN demonstrated cyanide quantification down to 1 μM in solution (corresponding to 18 ppb. Lower KCN concentrations of 10 and 100 nM (corresponding to 0.18 and 1.8 ppb produced SERS intensities that were relatively similar to the reference signal. Since HCN concentration in the breath of PA colonized CF children is reported to be ∼13.5 ppb, the detection of cyanide is within the required range.

  5. Exploring alternative ovarian cancer biomarkers using innovative nanotechnology strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Cesar M; Im, Hyungsoon; Le, Christine; Lee, Hakho; Weissleder, Ralph; Birrer, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Our increased understanding of ovarian cancer's blueprints (mediated by DNA and RNA) and behavior (mediated by proteins) points to wide differences across patients that cannot be depicted by histology alone. Conventional diagnosis usually entails an adequate tissue biopsy, which limits serial testing. There is thus a motivation to shift towards easier to obtain clinical samples (e.g., ascites or blood). In response, investigators are increasingly leveraging alternative circulating biomarkers in blood or proximal fluids and harnessing novel profiling platforms to help explore treatment-related effects on such biomarkers in serial fashion. In this review, we discuss how new nanotechnologies we developed intersect with alternative ovarian cancer biomarkers for improved understanding of metastases and therapeutic response.

  6. Biomarkers in acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Leong L

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial infarction causes significant mortality and morbidity. Timely diagnosis allows clinicians to risk stratify their patients and select appropriate treatment. Biomarkers have been used to assist with timely diagnosis, while an increasing number of novel markers have been identified to predict outcome following an acute myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome. This may facilitate tailoring of appropriate therapy to high-risk patients. This review focuses on a variety of promising biomarkers which provide diagnostic and prognostic information. Heart-type Fatty Acid Binding Protein and copeptin in combination with cardiac troponin help diagnose myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome in the early hours following symptoms. An elevated N-Terminal Pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide has been well validated to predict death and heart failure following a myocardial infarction. Similarly other biomarkers such as Mid-regional pro-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide, ST2, C-Terminal pro-endothelin 1, Mid-regional pro-Adrenomedullin and copeptin all provide incremental information in predicting death and heart failure. Growth differentiation factor-15 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein predict death following an acute coronary syndrome. Pregnancy associated plasma protein A levels following chest pain predicts risk of myocardial infarction and revascularisation. Some biomarkers such as myeloperoxidase and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in an apparently healthy population predicts risk of coronary disease and allows clinicians to initiate early preventative treatment. In addition to biomarkers, various well-validated scoring systems based on clinical characteristics are available to help clinicians predict mortality risk, such as the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction score and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events score. A multimarker approach incorporating biomarkers and clinical scores will increase the prognostic

  7. Biomarkers in acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Aditi; Januzzi, James L

    2015-06-01

    The care of patients with acutely decompensated heart failure is being reshaped by the availability and understanding of several novel and emerging heart failure biomarkers. The gold standard biomarkers in heart failure are B-type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, which play an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure. Novel biomarkers that are increasingly involved in the processes of myocardial injury, neurohormonal activation, and ventricular remodeling are showing promise in improving diagnosis and prognosis among patients with acute decompensated heart failure. These include midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide, soluble ST2, galectin-3, highly-sensitive troponin, and midregional proadrenomedullin. There has also been an emergence of biomarkers for evaluation of acute decompensated heart failure that assist in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea, such as procalcitonin (for identification of acute pneumonia), as well as markers that predict complications of acute decompensated heart failure, such as renal injury markers. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology and usefulness of established and emerging biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Extracellular genomic biomarkers of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Emma; Nalesso, Giovanna; Mobasheri, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA), a chronic, debilitating and degenerative disease of the joints, is the most common form of arthritis. The seriousness of this prevalent and chronic disease is often overlooked. Disease modifying OA drug development is hindered by the lack of soluble biomarkers to detect OA early. The objective of OA biomarker research is to identify early OA prior to the appearance of radiographic signs and the development of pain. Areas covered: This review has focused on extracellular genomic material that could serve as biomarkers of OA. Recent studies have examined the expression of extracellular genomic material such as miRNA, lncRNA, snoRNA, mRNA and cell-free DNA, which are aberrantly expressed in the body fluids of OA patients. Changes in genomic content of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in OA could also function as biomarkers of OA. Expert commentary: There is an unmet need for soluble biomarkers for detecting and then monitoring OA disease progression. Extracellular genomic material research may also reveal more about the underlying pathophysiology of OA. Minimally-invasive liquid biopsies such as synovial fluid and blood sampling of genomic material may be more sensitive over radiography in the detection, diagnosis and monitoring of OA in the future.

  9. Effect of iron supplementation in children with breath holding spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rahul; Omanakuttan, Divin; Singh, Amitabh; Jajoo, Mamta

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of iron supplementation in children with breath holding spells, irrespective of their iron status and study the factors associated with the response. This was a prospective interventional study. Study population comprised of patients aged 6-36 months, attending a paediatric outpatient department with recurrent episodes (more than three in last 4 weeks) of breath holding spells. Children with loss of consciousness or convulsive movements associated with breath holding spells were considered as severe. After baseline investigations, all enrolled patients were given elemental iron at the dose of 3 mg/kg/day as a single daily dose. Four weekly follow-ups were done until 3 months after initiation of the intervention. At 12 weeks, investigations were repeated and outcome assessed for remission or decrease in severity of breath holding episodes. A total of 100 children with breath holding spells received iron supplementation. Almost 73% of children showed complete response, with another 23% showing greater than 50% reduction in frequency. Frequency of spells at diagnosis and intolerance to oral iron were significantly associated with poor response to iron supplementation. Other factors such as age at onset, age at presentation, severity of spells, anaemia and serum iron parameters had no significant association with the response. Of the 27 children without iron deficiency (serum ferritin ≥ 30 µg/L), 77.7% responded completely to iron supplementation, similar to the iron-deficient group. Iron supplementation is effective in the management of breath holding spells. Non-anaemic and iron-replete children with breath holding spells also respond well to iron supplementation. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Comparison of the Usefulness of N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide to Other Serum Biomarkers as an Early Predictor of ST-Segment Recovery After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verouden, Niels J. W.; Haeck, Joost D. E.; Kuijt, Wichert J.; van Geloven, Nan; Koch, Karel T.; Henriques, José P. S.; Baan, Jan; Vis, Marije M.; van Straalen, Jan P.; Fischer, Johan; Piek, Jan J.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; de Winter, Robbert J.

    2010-01-01

    Data on the ability of serum biomarkers to predict microvascular obstruction by ST-segment recovery after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is largely absent. Therefore, we determined the association between 5 serum biomarkers, obtained before emergency coronary angiography, and

  11. Mouth Breathing Syndrome: cervical muscles recruitment during nasal inspiration before and after respiratory and postural exercises on Swiss Ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Eliane C R; Bérzin, Fausto

    2008-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the recruitment of cervical muscles during nasal inspiration before and after breathing and postural exercises on the Swiss Ball in children with Mouth Breathing Syndrome (MBS). Surface electromyography from the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), sub-occipitals and upper Trapezius muscles was recorded during nasal inspiration, before and at the end of three months of the treatment. A physical therapy program consisting in muscular stretching and strengthening exercises along with naso-diaphragmatic breathing on the Swiss Ball were carried out for body posture realignment and respiratory training. Nineteen mouth breathing children, mean age of 10.6 years, both genres, were the subjects of this study. In order to establish a comparison between the eletromyographic results (normalized values) obtained from pre and post-physical therapy program it was used the Wilcoxon non-parametric test for dependent data. It was found a significant decrease (pupper Trapezius). At the end of the treatment, the assessed muscles reached lower activity electromyographic levels during nasal inspiration and they became closer of those in the quiet position. The lower activity after the physical therapy program in these muscles indicates a less effort of the accessory inspiratory muscles, probably due to a better performance of diaphragm muscle with the improvement of the body posture.

  12. Imaging Biomarkers for Adult Medulloblastomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, V C; Warmuth-Metz, M; Reh, C

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The occurrence of medulloblastomas in adults is rare; nevertheless, these tumors can be subdivided into genetic and histologic entities each having distinct prognoses. This study aimed to identify MR imaging biomarkers to classify these entities and to uncover differences...... in MR imaging biomarkers identified in pediatric medulloblastomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible preoperative MRIs from 28 patients (11 women; 22-53 years of age) of the Multicenter Pilot-study for the Therapy of Medulloblastoma of Adults (NOA-7) cohort were assessed by 3 experienced neuroradiologists......-WNT/non-SHH medulloblastomas (in adults, Group 4), and histologic entities were correlated with the imaging criteria. These MR imaging biomarkers were compared with corresponding data from a pediatric study. RESULTS: There were 19 SHH TP53 wild type (69%), 4 WNT-activated (14%), and 5 Group 4 (17%) medulloblastomas. Six...

  13. Biomarkers of replicative senescence revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehlin, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers of replicative senescence can be defined as those ultrastructural and physiological variations as well as molecules whose changes in expression, activity or function correlate with aging, as a result of the gradual exhaustion of replicative potential and a state of permanent cell cycle...... arrest. The biomarkers that characterize the path to an irreversible state of cell cycle arrest due to proliferative exhaustion may also be shared by other forms of senescence-inducing mechanisms. Validation of senescence markers is crucial in circumstances where quiescence or temporary growth arrest may...... be triggered or is thought to be induced. Pre-senescence biomarkers are also important to consider as their presence indicate that induction of aging processes is taking place. The bona fide pathway leading to replicative senescence that has been extensively characterized is a consequence of gradual reduction...

  14. Biomarkers in inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Tue; Birkelund, Svend; Stensballe, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Unambiguous diagnosis of the two main forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD): Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), represents a challenge in the early stages of the diseases. The diagnosis may be established several years after the debut of symptoms. Hence, protein biomarkers...... for early and accurate diagnostic could help clinicians improve treatment of the individual patients. Moreover, the biomarkers could aid physicians to predict disease courses and in this way, identify patients in need of intensive treatment. Patients with low risk of disease flares may avoid treatment...... with medications with the concomitant risk of adverse events. In addition, identification of disease and course specific biomarker profiles can be used to identify biological pathways involved in the disease development and treatment. Knowledge of disease mechanisms in general can lead to improved future...

  15. Biomarkers, dementia, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C F; Hall, A; Matthews, F E; Brayne, C

    2009-10-01

    Public health is defined as the organized efforts of society to improve health. This is often framed in terms of prevention, with primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention representing, respectively, fundamental prevention through understanding of causation, to alteration of natural history, through understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms and palliation. Biomarkers play a role in all of these levels of prevention of dementias. The clearest application of biomarkers from a public health perspective is in the setting of screening. Screening has particular meaning for public health and includes early detection as a core element, coupled with treatments or preventative actions to reduce the burden of disease. Here, we will cover the range of evidence required if biomarkers are to play a part in population prevention of dementia, including scientific and technical aspects together with ethical, legal, and social considerations. Ensuring research activity that addresses these wider perspectives is essential.

  16. Method for obtaining Chromosomes Method for obtaining Chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogart James P.

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available It is very easy to obtain chromosomes from anuran amphibians.Amphibians have very large chromosomes which can easily be seen with an ordinary microscope. The method used has been tested in the laboratory and also at collecting sites. All that is required are a few chemicals and simple equipment.It is very easy to obtain chromosomes from anuran amphibians.Amphibians have very large chromosomes which can easily be seen with an ordinary microscope. The method used has been tested in the laboratory and also at collecting sites. All that is required are a few chemicals and simple equipment.

  17. Narcolepsy and sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataka, A D; Frangulyan, R R; Mackay, T W; Douglas, N J; Riha, R L

    2012-05-01

    There is a high incidence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in narcoleptic patients. Some narcoleptics with SDB may benefit from treatment with continuous positive airway pressure therapy (CPAP). The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of SDB in narcoleptics referred to a tertiary sleep disorders clinic and assess the effectiveness of CPAP as adjunctive therapy. A retrospective review of patients meeting ICSD-2 criteria for the diagnosis of narcolepsy from 2000 to 2009.   One hundred and two patients (61 women) with narcolepsy were included in the study. Twenty-nine (29) patients (eight women, 21 men) were diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) of whom 26 commenced CPAP therapy with 11 patients concurrently treated with stimulants. Patients with narcolepsy and OSAHS were older (P = 0.009) and heavier (BMI, 29.6 ± 4.8 vs. 27.3 ± 6, P = 0.042), but their ESS did not differ from patients with narcolepsy alone. Patients treated with both CPAP and stimulants were younger (P = 0.008) and less obese (BMI, 29.1 ± 4.6 vs. 30.4 ± 5.4, P = 0.044) with higher apnoea-hypopnoea index (36.15 ± 21.9 vs. 31.5 ± 16.7, P = 0.03) than those treated with CPAP alone. The ESS of CPAP-treated patients improved during follow-up (19 ± 3.6 vs. 15.8 ± 4.5, P = 0.006), but BMI increased (30.6 ± 5 vs. 31.7 ± 5.6, P = 0.05). The use of stimulants did not seem to improve on the effectiveness of CPAP.   Coexisting SDB is common in narcoleptics (28.5%). CPAP therapy in narcoleptics with OSAHS remains a useful second-line adjunct to standard therapy. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  18. Brain metabolite values in children with breath-holding spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Mustafa; Sen Dokumaci, Dilek; Sarikaya, Suna; Demir, Mahmut; Isik, Ilhan; Kazanasmaz, Halil; Kaya, Cemil; Kandemir, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Breath-holding spells are benign, paroxysmal events with apnea and postural tone changes after a crying episode in infants. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathologies in brain metabolite values in the absence of seizure in children with breath-holding spells by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Brain MRS examination was performed on 18 children with breath-holding spells and 13 neurologically normal children who were included as the control group. There was no significant difference in terms of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and myoinositol (mI) levels and also in terms of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr ratios between the patients and the control group (all P>0.05). Our study suggested that there is no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells. This result confirms the previous studies, which reported no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells.

  19. Breath analysis: clinical research to the end-user market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T

    2011-09-01

    Breath research is now well established and is solving some of the applications in the area of identifying volatiles for medical diagnosis. This paper looks at how this research has been taken to an end-user market. It is not intended to be an indepth study of the science but simply to draw attention to the role of the commercial link between the researcher and end-user. This market is not only in research but exists in hospitals, clinics, sports medicine and even homecare. The link between research and the end-user market is a vital one to avoid breath analysis being the tool of researchers only. The ubiquitous use of breath analysis depends upon it. This is a review of some of the success stories in commercializing the important breath analysis research that has been conducted over the last few decades. In order to make breath analysis the new blood test, products that have end-user appeal need to be developed and routes to market established.

  20. Acoustic rhinometry in mouth breathing patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ana Carolina Cardoso de; Gomes, Adriana de Oliveira de Camargo; Cavalcanti, Arlene Santos; Silva, Hilton Justino da

    2015-01-01

    When there is a change in the physiological pattern of nasal breathing, mouth breathing may already be present. The diagnosis of mouth breathing is related to nasal patency. One way to access nasal patency is by acoustic rhinometry. To systematically review the effectiveness of acoustic rhinometry for the diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing. Electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE via PubMed and Bireme, SciELO, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Science Direct, from August to December 2013, were consulted. 11,439 articles were found: 30 from LILACS, 54 from MEDLINE via Bireme, 5558 from MEDLINE via PubMed, 11 from SciELO, 2056 from Web of Science, 1734 from Scopus, 13 from PsycInfo, 1108 from CINAHL, and 875 from Science Direct. Of these, two articles were selected. The heterogeneity in the use of equipment and materials for the assessment of respiratory mode in these studies reveals that there is not yet consensus in the assessment and diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing. According to the articles, acoustic rhinometry has been used for almost twenty years, but controlled studies attesting to the efficacy of measuring the geometry of nasal cavities for complementary diagnosis of respiratory mode are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Acoustic rhinometry in mouth breathing patients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Cardoso de Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: When there is a change in the physiological pattern of nasal breathing, mouth breathing may already be present. The diagnosis of mouth breathing is related to nasal patency. One way to access nasal patency is by acoustic rhinometry.OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the effectiveness of acoustic rhinometry for the diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing.METHODS: Electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE via PubMed and Bireme, SciELO, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Science Direct, from August to December 2013, were consulted. 11,439 articles were found: 30 from LILACS, 54 from MEDLINE via Bireme, 5558 from MEDLINE via PubMed, 11 from SciELO, 2056 from Web of Science, 1734 from Scopus, 13 from PsycInfo, 1108 from CINAHL, and 875 from Science Direct. Of these, two articles were selected.RESULTS: The heterogeneity in the use of equipment and materials for the assessment of respiratory mode in these studies reveals that there is not yet consensus in the assessment and diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing.CONCLUSION: According to the articles, acoustic rhinometry has been used for almost twenty years, but controlled studies attesting to the efficacy of measuring the geometry of nasal cavities for complementary diagnosis of respiratory mode are warranted.

  2. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph C

    2015-12-01

    Endogenous acetone production is a by-product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in predicting fat loss and its sensitivity to changes in physiologic parameters. BrAce can range from 1 ppm in healthy non-dieting subjects to 1,250 ppm in diabetic ketoacidosis. A strong correlation exists between increased BrAce and the rate of fat loss. Multiple metabolic and respiratory factors affect the measurement of BrAce. BrAce is most affected by changes in the following factors (in descending order): dietary macronutrient composition, caloric restriction, exercise, pulmonary factors, and other assorted factors that increase fat metabolism or inhibit acetone metabolism. Pulmonary factors affecting acetone exchange in the lung should be controlled to optimize the breath sample for measurement. When biologic factors are controlled, BrAce measurement provides a non-invasive tool for monitoring the rate of fat loss in healthy subjects. © 2015 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  3. Cognitive dysfunction in children with sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luciane Bizari Coin; Prado, Lucila F; Silva, Luciana; de Almeida, Marilaine Medeiros; Almeida e Silva, Tatiana; Lora, Mayra Ivanoff; Prado, Gilmar F

    2005-05-01

    Two daily school periods are mandatory in Brazil owing to a shortage of academic facilities, which can decrease cognitive performance, especially in children with sleep-disordered breathing. This study aimed to verify the influence of starting time to school on cognition, comparing children with sleep disorders and normal children. Cognition was assessed in 79 children with sleep-disordered breathing, 468 children with nonrespiratory sleep disorders, and 633 normal control children. We analyzed total sleep time, starting time to school (morning or afternoon), and grades. First grade morning students with sleep-disordered breathing had 8.04 higher odds for cognitive dysfunction than normal children. For children with sleep-disordered breathing, second and third grade morning students had higher odds for cognitive dysfunction than those who studied in the afternoon (3.69 and 4.07). Fourth grade morning students had 8.27 higher odds for cognitive dysfunction than first grade children. In conclusion, sleep-disordered breathing, grades, and starting time to school interact to affect cognition in Brazilian children.

  4. Behavior of lung ultrasound findings during spontaneous breathing trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Ana Carolina Peçanha; Teixeira, Cassiano; Castro, Priscylla Souza; Savi, Augusto; Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; Oliveira, Roselaine Pinheiro; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to investigate a potential association between B-lines and weaning failure. Fifty-seven subjects eligible for ventilation liberation were enrolled. Patients with tracheostomy were excluded. Lung ultrasound assessments of six thoracic zones were performed immediately before and at the exnd of the spontaneous breathing trial. B-predominance was defined as any profile with anterior bilateral B-pattern. Patients were followed up to 48 hours after extubation. Thirty-eight individuals were successfully extubated; 11 failed the spontaneous breathing trial and 8 needed reintubation within 48 hours of extubation. At the beginning of the T-piece trial, B-pattern or consolidation was already found at the lower and posterior lung regions in more than half of the individuals and remained non-aerated at the end of the trial. A trend toward loss of lung aeration during spontaneous breathing trials was observed only in the spontaneous breathing trial-failure group (p = 0.07), and there was higher B-predominance at the end of the trial (p = 0.01). A loss of lung aeration during the spontaneous breathing trial in non-dependent lung zones was demonstrated in subjects who failed to wean.

  5. Extended theory of elastica for free torsional, longitudinal, and radial breathing vibrations of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfani, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) can be viewed as a two-dimensional elastica obtained from rolling up graphene into a cylinder. By extending the formulation of elastica to dynamic problems, the present study provides an analysis for free torsional, longitudinal, and radial breathing vibrations of SWCNTs. With incorporating the effects of both geometrical and material nonlinearities, the exact closed-form expressions are obtained for the deformation field and the natural angular frequency of the elastica corresponding to the freely vibrating SWCNT. It is shown that torsional, longitudinal, and radial breathing modes of deformation are coupled to each other in free vibration of SWCNTs. However, for the special cases of zigzag and armchair SWCNTs as well as the limiting case of large-radius SWCNTs, torsional mode of deformation is decoupled from the other two modes.

  6. Bias in Peripheral Depression Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, André F; Köhler, Cristiano A; Brunoni, André R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To aid in the differentiation of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) from healthy controls, numerous peripheral biomarkers have been proposed. To date, no comprehensive evaluation of the existence of bias favoring the publication of significant results or inflating effect......-analysis would equal the one of its largest study. A significant summary effect size estimate was observed for 20 biomarkers. We observed an excess of statistically significant studies in 21 meta-analyses. The summary effect size of the meta-analysis was higher than the effect of its largest study in 25 meta...

  7. Impact of Exhaled Breath Acetone in the Prognosis of Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF. One Year of Clinical Follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana G Marcondes-Braga

    Full Text Available The identification of new biomarkers of heart failure (HF could help in its treatment. Previously, our group studied 89 patients with HF and showed that exhaled breath acetone (EBA is a new noninvasive biomarker of HF diagnosis. However, there is no data about the relevance of EBA as a biomarker of prognosis.To evaluate whether EBA could give prognostic information in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF.After breath collection and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by spectrophotometry, the 89 patients referred before were followed by one year. Study physicians, blind to the results of cardiac biomarker testing, ascertained vital status of each study participant at 12 months.The composite endpoint death and heart transplantation (HT were observed in 35 patients (39.3%: 29 patients (32.6% died and 6 (6.7% were submitted to HT within 12 months after study enrollment. High levels of EBA (≥3.7μg/L, 50th percentile were associated with a progressively worse prognosis in 12-month follow-up (log-rank = 11.06, p = 0.001. Concentrations of EBA above 3.7μg/L increased the risk of death or HT in 3.26 times (HR = 3.26, 95%CI = 1.56-6.80, p = 0.002 within 12 months. In a multivariable cox regression model, the independent predictors of all-cause mortality were systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate and EBA levels.High EBA levels could be associated to poor prognosis in HFrEF patients.

  8. Impact of Exhaled Breath Acetone in the Prognosis of Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF). One Year of Clinical Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldiva, Paulo H. N.; Mangini, Sandrigo; Issa, Victor S.; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia M.; Bocchi, Edimar A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The identification of new biomarkers of heart failure (HF) could help in its treatment. Previously, our group studied 89 patients with HF and showed that exhaled breath acetone (EBA) is a new noninvasive biomarker of HF diagnosis. However, there is no data about the relevance of EBA as a biomarker of prognosis. Objectives To evaluate whether EBA could give prognostic information in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Methods After breath collection and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by spectrophotometry, the 89 patients referred before were followed by one year. Study physicians, blind to the results of cardiac biomarker testing, ascertained vital status of each study participant at 12 months. Results The composite endpoint death and heart transplantation (HT) were observed in 35 patients (39.3%): 29 patients (32.6%) died and 6 (6.7%) were submitted to HT within 12 months after study enrollment. High levels of EBA (≥3.7μg/L, 50th percentile) were associated with a progressively worse prognosis in 12-month follow-up (log-rank = 11.06, p = 0.001). Concentrations of EBA above 3.7μg/L increased the risk of death or HT in 3.26 times (HR = 3.26, 95%CI = 1.56–6.80, p = 0.002) within 12 months. In a multivariable cox regression model, the independent predictors of all-cause mortality were systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate and EBA levels. Conclusions High EBA levels could be associated to poor prognosis in HFrEF patients. PMID:28030609

  9. Clinical implications of sleep disordered breathing in acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doron Aronson

    Full Text Available Sleep disordered breathing (SDB, characterized by nightly intermittent hypoxia, is associated with multiple pathophysiologic alterations that may adversely affect patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. This prospective study investigated whether the metabolic perturbations associated with SDB are present when these patients develop AMI and if they affect clinical outcomes.We prospectively enrolled 180 AMI patients. SDB was defined as oxygen desaturation index (ODI >5 events/hour based on a Watch Pat-100 sleep study. Blood samples were obtained for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and markers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxides [PD] and serum paraoxonase-1 [PON-1] (arylesterase activity. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac dimensions and pulmonary artery systolic pressure.SDB was present in 116 (64% patients. Hs-CRP levels, PD and PON-1 were similar in patients with and without SDB. Echocardiography revealed higher left atrial dimension (4.1 ± 0.5 vs 3.8 ± 0.5 cm; P = 0.003 and a significant positive correlation between ODI and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (r = 0.41, P<0.0001. After a median follow up of 68 months, no significant differences were observed between the study groups with regard to clinical outcomes, including death, heart failure, myocardial infarction and unstable angina.There is a high prevalence of previously undiagnosed SDB among patients with AMI. SDB in the setting of AMI is associated with higher pulmonary artery systolic pressure. SDB was not associated with adverse clinical outcomes.

  10. Collagen fragment biomarkers as serological biomarkers of lean body mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, A.; Dalgas, U.; Primdahl, H.

    2015-01-01

    ) or change therein in head and neck cancer patients in the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group(DAHANCA) 25B cohort subjected to resistance training as well as in an age-matched and gender-matched control group. Methods Blood samples and dual X-ray absorptiometry data were measured at baseline, after 12 and 24...... derived from the dual X-ray absorptiometry scans. Results We were not able to show any correlation between biomarkers and LBM or C6M and anabolic response to exercise in recovering head and neck cancer patients. However, we did find that the biomarkers IC6, IC6/C6M, and ProC3 are biomarkers of LBM...... weeks in 41 HNSCC subjects of the DAHANCA 25B cohort of subjects recovering from neck and head cancer (stages provided in Table 1), and at baseline only in 21 healthy age-matched and gender-matched controls. Serum from blood was analyzed for the ProC3, IC6, and C6M peptide biomarkers and LBM were...

  11. Biomarker Detection using PS2-Thioaptamers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) will develop a system to detect and quantify bone demineralization biomarkers as outlined in SBIR Topic "Technologies to Detect Biomarkers"....

  12. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Estabrooks, Paul A; Savla, Jyoti; Serrano, Elena; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    ...) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research...

  13. Bringing the next Generation of Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers to the Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesano, Alessandra; Warren, Sarah

    2018-02-02

    The recent successes in the use of immunotherapy to treat cancer have led to a multiplicity of new compounds in development. Novel clinical-grade biomarkers are needed to guide the choice of these agents to obtain the maximal likelihood of patient benefit. Predictive biomarkers for immunotherapy differ from the traditional biomarkers used for targeted therapies: the complexity of the immune response and tumour biology requires a more holistic approach than the use of a single analyte biomarker. This paper reviews novel biomarker approaches for the effective development of immune-oncology therapies, highlighting the promise of the advances in next-generation gene expression profiling that allow biologic information to be efficiently organized and interpreted for a maximum predictive value at the individual patient level.

  14. Bringing the next Generation of Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers to the Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cesano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent successes in the use of immunotherapy to treat cancer have led to a multiplicity of new compounds in development. Novel clinical-grade biomarkers are needed to guide the choice of these agents to obtain the maximal likelihood of patient benefit. Predictive biomarkers for immunotherapy differ from the traditional biomarkers used for targeted therapies: the complexity of the immune response and tumour biology requires a more holistic approach than the use of a single analyte biomarker. This paper reviews novel biomarker approaches for the effective development of immune-oncology therapies, highlighting the promise of the advances in next-generation gene expression profiling that allow biologic information to be efficiently organized and interpreted for a maximum predictive value at the individual patient level.

  15. Biomarkers for differentiation of causes of respiratory distress in dogs and cats: Part 2--Lower airway, thromboembolic, and inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine F; Quinn, Rebecca L; Rahilly, Louisa J

    2015-01-01

    To review the current veterinary and relevant human literature regarding biomarkers of respiratory diseases leading to dyspnea and to summarize the availability, feasibility, and practicality of using respiratory biomarkers in the veterinary setting. Veterinary and human medical literature: original research articles, scientific reviews, consensus statements, and recent textbooks. Numerous biomarkers have been evaluated in people for discriminating respiratory disease processes with varying degrees of success. Although biomarkers should not dictate clinical decisions in lieu of gold standard diagnostics, their use may be useful in directing care in the stabilization process. Serum immunoglobulins have shown promise as an indicator of asthma in cats. A group of biomarkers has also been evaluated in exhaled breath. Of these, hydrogen peroxide has shown the most potential as a marker of inflammation in asthma and potentially aspiration pneumonia, but methods for measurement are not standardized. D-dimers may be useful in screening for thromboembolic disease in dogs. There are a variety of markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, which are being evaluated for their ability to assess the severity and type of underlying disease process. Of these, amino terminal pro-C-type natriuretic peptide may be the most useful in determining if antibiotic therapy is warranted. Although critically evaluated for their use in respiratory disorders, many of the biomarkers which have been evaluated have been found to be affected by more than one type of respiratory or systemic disease. At this time, there are point-of-care biomarkers that have been shown to reliably differentiate between causes of dyspnea in dogs and cats. Future clinical research is warranted to understand of how various diseases affect the biomarkers and more bedside tests for their utilization. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  16. Molecular and phenotypic biomarkers of aging

    OpenAIRE

    Xian Xia; Weiyang Chen; Joseph McDermott; Jing-Dong Jackie Han

    2017-01-01

    Individuals of the same age may not age at the same rate. Quantitative biomarkers of aging are valuable tools to measure physiological age, assess the extent of ‘healthy aging’, and potentially predict health span and life span for an individual. Given the complex nature of the aging process, the biomarkers of aging are multilayered and multifaceted. Here, we review the phenotypic and molecular biomarkers of aging. Identifying and using biomarkers of aging to improve human health, prevent age...

  17. Endogenous CO dynamics monitoring in breath by tunable diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouznetsov, Andrian I.; Stepanov, Eugene V.; Shulagin, Yurii A.; Skrupskii, Vladimir A.

    1996-04-01

    High sensitive CO gas analyzer based on tunable diode laser (TDL) was used as a real time monitor of endogenous carbon monoxide in a set of breath physiology experiments. The measurements of the CO content dynamics in exhaled air with 10 ppb sensitivity were attended with detection of carbon dioxide and O2 in breath, lung ventilation parameters, heart rate and blood analysis using conventional techniques. Variations of endogenous CO in human breath caused by hyperoxia, hypoxia, hyperventilation as well as sport loading were studied in real time. Scattering of the CO variation time constants was observed for different tested persons. Possible reasons for this scattering related with the organisms' physiology peculiarities are discussed.

  18. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    This review considers in detail the background, principles, techniques, limitations and advantages of the hydrogen and methane breath tests. Resistant food carbohydrates, defined as dietary carbohydrates partly or totally escaping small intestinal assimilation, are fermented in the human colon....... This results in production of H2, CH4 and volatile fatty acids. Increased colonic H2 production is a sensitive index of increased carbohydrate fermentation, and a rather constant fraction of the colonic H2 production is excreted by the lungs. It is therefore possible to assess mouth-to-caecum transit times...... as well as to estimate absorption capacities for several types of resistant carbohydrates by means of H2 breath tests. A prerequisite for correct interpretation is that procedures for determination of H2 concentrations and for breath sampling and storage are carefully validated and standardized. Due...

  19. Temperamental traits of breath holding children: A case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarayan, A.; Ganesan, B.; Anbumani; Jayanthini

    2008-01-01

    Background: Clinical observation and few anecdotal reports suggest that the children with breath holding spells (BHS) have certain temperamental traits, which predispose them to behave in certain way. They seem to have low frustration tolerance, which leads to adamant behavior. Vigorous crying, through various mechanisms, precipitates BHS. Materials and Methods: We assessed the temperamental traits of 30 children with BHS and compared them with 30 normal children after matching for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Temperament was measured using ‘Temperament measurement Schedule’. Results: The data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. The following temperamental traits, threshold of responsiveness (Pbreath holders. Conclusions: Significantly differing temperamental traits in breath holders suggests that these could influence the behavioral pattern exhibited by them. Breath holding spells can act as an easy marker for difficult temperamental traits, which gives an early opportunity to shape their difficult behavior. PMID:19742234

  20. Slower rise of exhaled breath temperature in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Geetanjali; Gupta, Sumita; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Talwar, Anjana

    2015-02-01

    To measure exhaled breath temperature in patients with cystic fibrosis. 17 patients (6-18 years) with cystic fibrosis and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in this cross sectional study. Exhaled breath temperature was measured in subjects recruited in both the groups with a device X-halo and analyzed as plateau temperature achieved and rate of temperature rise. Patients with cystic fibrosis showed no significant difference in plateau temperature [34.4(32.3-34.6) versus 33.9 (33.0-34.4)oC; P=0.35] while mean (SEM.) rate of temperature rise was significantly less in patients [0.09 (0.01) versus 0.14 (0.02) ƼC/s ; P=0.04] as compared to controls. There was a slower rise of exhaled breath temperature in patients with cystic fibrosis whereas plateau temperature was not significantly different from controls.