WorldWideScience

Sample records for breasts

  1. Breast lump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... removed with surgery. Breast infections are treated with antibiotics. If you are diagnosed with breast cancer , you will discuss your options carefully and thoroughly with your provider. Alternative Names Breast mass Images Female breast Breast lumps ...

  2. Breast lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastopexy; Breast lift with reduction; Breast lift with augmentation ... enlargement with implants) when they have a breast lift. ... it for medical reasons. Women usually have breast lifts to lift sagging, loose breasts. Pregnancy, breastfeeding, and ...

  3. Breast Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... result in the development of breast cysts. Breast trauma, prior breast surgery or other factors localized to the breast can lead to breast pain. Breast pain may also start outside the breast — in the chest wall, muscles, joints or heart, for example — and ...

  4. Fibroadenoma - breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fibroadenoma; Breast lump - noncancerous; Breast lump - benign References Hacker NF, Friedlander ML. Breast disease: a gynecologic perspective. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and ...

  5. Breast Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most women experience breast changes at some time. Your age, hormone levels, and medicines you take may cause lumps, bumps, and discharges (fluids that are not breast milk). If you have a breast lump, pain, ...

  6. Breast pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the level of of hormones during menstruation or pregnancy often cause breast pain. Some swelling and tenderness just before your period is normal. Some women who have pain in one or both breasts may fear breast cancer . However, breast pain is not a common symptom ...

  7. Breast Gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husasin Irfan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast gangrene is rare in surgical practice. Gangrene of breast can be idiopathic or secondary to some causative factor. Antibiotics and debridement are used for management. Acute inflammatory infiltrate, severe necrosis of breast tissue, necrotizing arteritis, and venous thrombosis is observed on histopathology. The aim of was to study patients who had breast gangrene. Methods A prospective study of 10 patients who had breast gangrene over a period of 6 years were analyzed Results All the patients in the study group were female. Total of 10 patients were encountered who had breast gangrene. Six patients presented with breast gangrene on the right breast whereas four had on left breast. Out of 10 patients, three had breast abscess after teeth bite followed by gangrene, one had iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of erythematous area of breast under septic conditions. Four had history of application of belladonna on cutaneous breast abscess and had then gangrene. All were lactating female. Amongst the rest two were elderly, one of which was a diabetic who had gangrene of breast and had no application of belladonna. All except one had debridement under cover of broad spectrum antibiotics. Three patients had grafting to cover the raw area. Conclusion Breast gangrene occurs rarely. Etiology is variable and mutifactorial. Teeth bite while lactation and the iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of breast abscess under unsterlised conditions could be causative. Uncontrolled diabetes can be one more causative factor for the breast gangrene. Belladonna application as a topical agent could be inciting factor. Sometimes gangrene of breast can be idiopathic. Treatment is antibiotics and debridement.

  8. Breast Tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancers when they are most curable and breast-conservation therapies are available. See the Mammography page for ... special platform and gradually compressed with a clear plastic paddle. Breast compression is necessary during tomosynthesis imaging ...

  9. Breast Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 210:314. Mac Bride MB, et al. The evolution of the breast self-examination to breast awareness. ... of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. "Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "MayoClinic.org," "Mayo ...

  10. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help you not feel alone. Outlook (Prognosis) New, improved treatments are helping people with breast cancer live ... carcinoma in situ Patient Instructions Breast radiation - discharge Chemotherapy - what to ask your doctor Lymphedema - self-care ...

  11. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  12. Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy On This Page What is breast reconstruction? How ... are some new developments in breast reconstruction after mastectomy? What is breast reconstruction? Many women who have ...

  13. Breast reconstruction - implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast implants surgery; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with implants; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with implants ... to make reconstruction easier. If you will have breast reconstruction later, your surgeon will remove enough skin ...

  14. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  15. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  16. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  17. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  18. Breast Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  19. Breast lymphoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    outside the breast. Histological diagnoses of the so-called primary breast lymphomas included 1 case of Hodgkin's disease and 6 of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (inclUding 2 with T-cell phenotypes). ... adequate specimens; (iI) mammary tissue and lymphomatous infiltrate ... All the patients were female. Their ages ranged from ...

  20. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt, D; Lancaster, GA; Manning, JT

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...

  1. Breast MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    MRI - breast; Magnetic resonance imaging - breast; Breast cancer - MRI; Breast cancer screening - MRI ... radiologist) see some areas more clearly. During the MRI, the person who operates the machine will watch ...

  2. MRI of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Breast Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast ... limitations of MRI of the Breast? What is MRI of the Breast? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  3. Premenstrual breast changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premenstrual tenderness and swelling of the breasts; Breast tenderness - premenstrual; Breast swelling - premenstrual ... Symptoms of premenstrual breast tenderness may range from mild to ... most severe just before each menstrual period Improve during ...

  4. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... muscle flap; TRAM; Latissimus muscle flap with a breast implant; DIEP flap; DIEAP flap; Gluteal free flap; Transverse upper gracilis flap; TUG; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with natural tissue; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction ...

  5. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... as possible. Learn more about palliative care . Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  6. Breast pain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast pain is from hormonal fluctuations from menstruation, pregnancy, puberty, menopause, and breastfeeding. Breast pain can also be associated with fibrocystic breast disease, but it is a very unusual symptom of breast cancer.

  7. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    南, 優子; ミナミ, ユウコ; MINAMI, Yuko

    2007-01-01

    During recent decades, breast cancer incidence has been increasing in Japan. Epidemiological studies have clarified the trend in breast cancer incidence and identified risk factors for breast cancer. Established risk factors for breast cancer include early age at menarche, late age at first birth, low parity, postmenopausal obesity, family history of breast cancer, and history of benign breast disease. Breast-feeding and physical activity may also be associated with breast cancer risk. Detail...

  8. Ectopic breasts: familial functional axillary breasts and breast cancer arising in an axillary breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osswald, Sandra S; Osswald, Michael B; Elston, Dirk M

    2011-06-01

    Supernumerary breasts and nipples are not uncommon and have familial and syndrome associations. Although usually of only cosmetic concern, hormonal changes and inflammatory or neoplastic conditions that affect primary breast tissue also may occur in areas of ectopic breast tissue. We describe cases of familial functional axillary breasts and primary carcinoma of the breast arising in ectopic axillary breast tissue.

  9. Breast Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes/rash-in-adults. Accessed Dec. 29, 2016. Papadakis MA, et al., eds. Breast disorders. In: Current ... http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed Dec. 28, 2016. Papadakis MA, et al., eds. Dermatologic disorders. In: Current ...

  10. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced risk of breast cancer. The Mediterranean diet focuses mostly on plant-based foods, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts. People who follow the Mediterranean diet choose healthy fats, such as olive oil, over ...

  11. Breast reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficulty finding clothes that fit, and low self-confidence. Chronic rashes under your breasts. Unwelcome attention that is making you feel awkward. Inability to participate in sports. Some women may benefit from non-surgical treatments, such as: ...

  12. Dense Breasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also appear white on mammography, they can be hidden by or within dense breast tissue. Other imaging ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  13. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease. It’s estimated that about 10% of breast cancer cases are hereditary (run in the family). In many of these cases, you inherited a gene from your parents that has mutated (changed from ...

  14. Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  15. Stereotactic (Mammographically Guided) Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Stereotactic breast biopsy uses mammography – a specific type ... Breast Biopsy? What is Stereotactic (Mammographically Guided) Breast Biopsy? Lumps or abnormalities in the breast are often ...

  16. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease ...

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  18. General Information about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  19. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  20. Breast Calcifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and require no further testing or follow-up. Microcalcifications. These show up as fine, white specks, similar to grains of salt. They're usually noncancerous, but certain patterns can be an early sign of cancer. If breast calcifications appear suspicious on your initial mammogram, you ...

  1. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Mediterranean diet choose healthy fats, such as olive oil, over butter and fish instead of red meat. Breast cancer risk reduction for women with a high risk If your doctor has assessed your family history and determined that you have other factors, such ...

  2. Breast lift (mastopexy) - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100188.htm Breast lift (mastopexy) - series—Incisions To use the sharing features ... to slide 3 out of 3 Overview Breast lift (mastopexy) is usually performed for drooping breasts, which ...

  3. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  4. Breast radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - breast - discharge ... You may notice changes in the way your breast looks or feels (if you are getting radiation ... after treatment is over. The skin on your breast may become more sensitive or numb. Skin and ...

  5. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  6. Types of Breast Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Breast Pumps Types of Breast Pumps Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... a nipple and used for feeding a baby. Types of Breast Pumps There are three basic types ...

  7. Breast Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011 Funding: Increasing Awareness and Support Among Young Women with Breast Cancer Funding: Young Breast Cancer Survivors Funding: Breast Cancer Genomics Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State ...

  8. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer correctly. Their recommendations are summarized below. Minimum criteria for a diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer ... Initial biopsy samples from the affected breast show invasive carcinoma. Further examination of tissue from the affected ...

  9. Breast cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Breast reconstruction after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletti, Joseph M; Fosnot, Joshua; Nelson, Jonas A; Disa, Joseph J; Bucky, Louis P

    2011-06-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the mental, emotional, and physical benefits of reconstruction in breast cancer patients. 2. Compare the most common techniques of reconstruction in patients and detail benefits and risks associated with each. 3. Outline different methods of reconstruction and identify the method considered best for the patient based on timing of the procedures, body type, adjuvant therapies, and other coexisting conditions. 4. Distinguish between some of the different flaps that can be considered for autologous reconstruction. Breast cancer is unfortunately a common disease affecting millions of women, often at a relatively young age. Reconstruction following mastectomy offers women an opportunity to mollify some of the emotional and aesthetic effects of this devastating disease. Although varying techniques of alloplastic and autologous techniques are available, all strive to achieve the same goal: the satisfactory reformation of a breast mound that appears as natural as possible without clothing and at the very least is normal in appearance under clothing. This article summarizes the various approaches to breast reconstruction and offers a balanced view of the risks and benefits of each, all of which in the end offer the opportunity for excellent and predictable results with a high degree of patient satisfaction.

  11. Imaging Guided Breast Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masroor, Imrana; Afzal, Shaista; Sufian, Saira Naz

    2016-06-01

    Breast imaging is a developing field, with new and upcoming innovations, decreasing the morbidity and mortality related to breast pathologies with main emphasis on breast cancer. Breast imaging has an essential role in the detection and management of breast disease. It includes a multimodality approach, i.e. mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine techniques and interventional procedures, done for the diagnosis and definitive management of breast abnormalities. The range of methods to perform biopsy of a suspicious breast lesion found on imaging has also increased markedly from the 1990s with hi-technological progress in surgical as well as percutaneous breast biopsy methods. The image guided percutaneous breast biopsy procedures cause minimal breast scarring, save time, and relieve the patient of the anxiety of going to the operation theatre. The aim of this review was to describe and discuss the different image guided breast biopsy techniques presently employed along with the indications, contraindication, merits and demerits of each method.

  12. [Fibrocystic breast disease--breast cancer sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habor, V; Habor, A; Copotoiu, C; Panţîru, A

    2010-01-01

    Fibrocystic breast disease has developed a major issue: the breast cancer sequence. Its involvement regarding the increse of breast cancer risk has 2 aspects: it may be either the marker of a prone tissue or a premalignant hystological deffect. Difficult differential diagnosis of benign proliferative breast lession and carcinoma led to the idea of sequency between the two: cancer does not initiate on normal mammary epithelia; it takes several proliferative stages for it to occur. In our series we analized a number of 677 breast surgical procedures where the pathologic examination reveals 115 cases (17%) of coexistence between cancer and fibrocystic breast disease. This aspect has proved to be related to earlier debut of breast cancer, suggesting that epithelial hyperplasia is a risk factor for breast cancer.

  13. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  14. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  15. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  16. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  17. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  18. Breast development and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Sonali; Moore, Richard G

    2011-03-01

    In this article, the development of the female breast, as well as the functional anatomy, blood supply, innervation and lymphatic drainage are described. A thorough understanding of the breast anatomy is an important adjunct to a meticulous clinical breast examination. Breast examination is a complex skill involving key maneuvers, including careful inspection and palpation. Clinical breast examination can provide an opportunity for the clinician to educate patients about their breast and about breast cancer, its symptoms, risk factors, early detection, and normal breast composition, and specifically variability. Clinical breast examination can help to detect some cancers not found by mammography, and clinicians should not override their examination findings if imaging is not supportive of the physical findings.

  19. Breast development gives insights into breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osin, P P; Anbazhagan, R; Bartkova, J; Nathan, B; Gusterson, B A

    1998-09-01

    Studies of developing human breasts are essential for understanding the organogenesis as well as molecular pathogenesis of benign and malignant breast diseases. In this study we have examined the distribution of TGF-alpha, TGF-beta 1, tenascin-C and collagen type IV with the aim of starting to build a picture of the profile of molecules that may be involved in the development of the human breast. Ten fetal breasts (16 to 23 weeks of gestation) and 45 infant breasts, ranging in age from newborn to 2 years, were used in this study. Paraffin sections from these samples were immunostained with antibodies for these proteins and for Ki67 to elucidate the level of proliferative activity in different stages of breast development. TGF-alpha immunoreactivity was observed both in the stromal and the epithelial cells within fetal and infant breasts up to 25 days. TGF-beta 1 immunoreactivity was localized in the extracellular matrix. Tenascin-C was found around the neck of the developing breast bud and in the extracellular matrix of the infant with peaks in the newborn at 6-12 weeks. The immunoreactivity for type IV collagen was more intense in the region of the breast bud neck in the fetal breasts and reduced around the tips of lobular and terminal-end buds within the infant breasts. The distribution of the growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins within the developing human breast indicates that they play a significant role in different cellular compartments during morphogenesis and provides insights into breast disease.

  20. Screening for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niell, Bethany L; Freer, Phoebe E; Weinfurtner, Robert Jared; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan; Drukteinis, Jennifer S

    2017-11-01

    The goal of screening is to detect breast cancers when still curable to decrease breast cancer-specific mortality. Breast cancer screening in the United States is routinely performed with mammography, supplemental digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, and/or MR imaging. This article aims to review the most commonly used breast imaging modalities for screening, discuss how often and when to begin screening with specific imaging modalities, and examine the pros and cons of screening. By the article's end, the reader will be better equipped to have informed discussions with patients and medical professionals regarding the benefits and disadvantages of breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  2. Optical Imaging of the Breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    As the increased prevalence of breast cancer and the advances in breast evaluation awareness have resulted in an increased number of breast examinations and benign breast biopsies, several investigations have been performed to improve the diagnostic accuracy for breast lesions. Optical imaging of the breast that uses nearinfrared light to assess the optical properties of breast tissue is a novel non-invasive imaging technique to characterize breast lesions in clinical practice. This review provides a summary of the current state of optical breast imaging and it describes the basic concepts of optical imaging, the potential clinical applications for breast cancer imaging and its potential incorporation with other imaging modalities

  3. Risks of Breast Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tissue Disease The FDA has not detected any association between silicone gel-filled breast implants and connective tissue disease, breast cancer, or reproductive problems. In order to rule out ...

  4. Breast ultrasound: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Rosalind P; Hwang, Lindsay; Bouchard, Richard R; Whitman, Gary J

    2013-06-01

    Breast ultrasound plays a major role in the identification, diagnosis, and staging of breast cancer. Gray-scale (brightness mode) is the most common form of ultrasound used in breast imaging (BI); newer techniques such as harmonic imaging, Doppler imaging, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound, and elasticity imaging have also been employed. Breast lesions that are initially identified on mammography and magnetic resonance imaging can be further characterized with ultrasound. Breast ultrasound can differentiate solid from cystic masses, suspicious from benign lesions, and abnormal from normal lymph nodes. Ultrasound can guide needle biopsy of suspicious breast lesions and lymph nodes. Breast ultrasound can also be valuable when staging breast cancer and can help to determine if there is multifocal or multicentric disease, and also if there is associated regional lymphadenopathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Leiomyosarcoma of the breast

    OpenAIRE

    Oktay, Y; Fikret, A

    2011-01-01

    Leiomyosarcomas of the breast are rare tumors. Less than 16 such cases have been reported in the literature so far. We present a case of a 44 year female patient who was found to have primary leiomyosarcoma of the breast.

  6. Breast Reduction Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to achieve a breast size proportionate to your body. Breast reduction surgery might also help improve your self-image and self-confidence and your ability to participate in physical activities. ...

  7. The tuberous male breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S; Gault, D

    2003-04-01

    Whilst tuberous female breasts are well described, the tuberous male breast is a very unusual variant of gynaecomastia. Two cases are presented, the development of the condition is considered and the surgical management is discussed.

  8. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  9. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  10. Whole breast radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11, 2016. www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp/breast-treatment-pdq . Accessed September 13, 2016. National Cancer Institute. Radiation therapy and you: support for people who have cancer. Cancer.gov Web ...

  11. Partial breast brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11, 2016. www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp/breast-treatment-pdq . Accessed September 13, 2016. National Cancer Institute. Radiation therapy and you: support for people who have cancer. Cancer.gov Web ...

  12. Breast infection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most breast infections occur in breastfeeding women when bacteria enters the breast through cracks in the nipple. In severe infections, abscesses may occur. Antibiotics may be indicated for treatment.

  13. HEREDITARY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bit-Sava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary breast cancer occurs in 5–20 % of cases and it is associated with inherited mutations in particular genes, such as BRCA1 и BRCA2 in most cases. The CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, RAD51, BLM, PALB2, Nbs genes are associated with low and median risks ofdeveloping breast cancer. Molecular genetic studies identify germinal mutations underlying hereditary breast cancer. In most cases hereditary breast cancer refers to triple-negative phenotype, which is the most aggressive type of breast cancer, that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. The review presents the diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer. Clinical-morphological aspects allow the new diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer to be identified. Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors demonstrate the potential for effective treatment of BRCA-associated breast cancer.

  14. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  15. [Breast cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Georges; Berclaz, Gilles; Langer, Igor; Pittet-Cuenod, Brigitte; Delaloye, Jean-François

    2007-10-24

    Breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy is the treatment of choice for early breast cancer. For patients who choice or need a mastectomy, breast reconstruction provides an acceptable alternative. Breast cancer surgery has been evolving through minimally invasive approaches. Sentinel node biopsy has already remplaced axillary lymph node dissection in the evaluation of the axilla. Local ablation of the tumor may be a valuable alternative to surgery in the future.

  16. Tamoxifen for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Karn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the common cancers. Hormonal therapy along with surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy are vital modalities for the management of breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been the most widely used hormonal therapy for more than two decades. In this article we review the benefits, dose, duration and timing of Tamoxifen therapy in patients with breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, hormonal therapy, tamoxifen.

  17. Breast Cancer and Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guluzar Arzu Turan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and may accompany infertility. The relationship between infertility treatment and breast cancer has not yet been proven. However, estrogen exposure is well known to cause breast cancer. Recent advances in treatment options have provided young patients with breast cancer a chance of being mother [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 317-323

  18. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  19. [Tuberous breast: Current concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellart, J; Chaput, B; Grolleau, J-L

    2016-10-01

    Tuberous breast deformity is a congenital breast anomaly with different clinical signs. The most consistent sign is the constricting ring at the base of the breast. There is deficiency in the horizontal and/or vertical dimensions of the breast and often herniation of breast parenchyma toward the nipple-areola complex with areola enlargement. Breast asymmetry is frequently associated. This anomaly occurs only in females, during breast development at puberty. The incidence is unknown because of minor forms more difficult to diagnose. This deformity produces psychological morbidity and encourages the patients to consult. In 1999, Grolleau publishes a classification with three types of tuberous breast deformity. The goals of the surgical treatment are the expansion of the constricted base, the redistribution of volume, the correction of areolar size and of herniated subareolar breast tissue. In type II and III, the simple use of breast implant involves the "memory" of the previous inframammary fold line. To avoid this complication, it is necessary to make a glandular rearrangement with parenchymal flaps like Puckett and Ribeiro. It is a real challenge for the plastic surgeon who must reshape the breast and obtain a symmetry of volume. It would be delusive to think all types of tuberous breast can be corrected with the same one-step technique. It is often necessary to plan several surgeries and patient must always be informed about the strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Optical breast imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, S.M.W.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Optical breast imaging uses near-infrared light to assess the optical properties of breast tissue. It can be performed relying on intrinsic breast tissue contrast alone or with the use of exogenous imaging agents that accumulate at the tumor site. Different tissue components have unique scattering

  1. Beating Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Beating Breast Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2017 Table of Contents Melanie ... Her mother had died at age 49 of breast cancer after three battles with the disease. Ovarian cancer ...

  2. breast cancer screening in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is Breast transillumination a viable option for breast cancer screening in limited resource settings? Authors: Elobu EA M.Med, Galukande M M M.Med, MSc, FCS, Namuguzi D M.Med, Muyinda Z M.Med. Affiliations: breast cancer screening in limited resource settings? Authors: Elobu EA1 M.Med, Galukande M1 M M.Med, ...

  3. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breast Cancer KidsHealth / For Kids / Breast Cancer What's in this ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  4. Breast sarcomas. Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Ryabchikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the literature about breast sarcomas (nonepithelial malignances. Primary sarcomas are extremely rare, with less than 1 % of all malignant tumors of the breast. Breast carcinomas cause an increased interest of the scientists due to their unique clinical and pathological features and unpredictable prognosis.

  5. Inflammatory breast cancer in accessory abdominal breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy C. Miles, MD, MPH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accessory breast tissue results from failure of the embryologic mammary ridge, also known as the milk line, to involute. As a result, ectopic breast tissue can develop anywhere along this ridge, which extends from the axilla—the most common location—to the groin. Primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue is uncommon but has been reported in multiple prior studies. We present a rare case of inflammatory breast cancer presenting in upper abdominal accessory breast tissue in women with a personal history of ipsilateral breast cancer, and highlight the challenges of both diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in accessory breast tissue.

  6. [Breast-conserving therapy in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcollet, Anne; Doridot, Virginie; Nos, Claude

    2004-04-30

    The combination of lumpectomy, axillary node treatment and radiotherapy of the breast is the base of breast-conserving therapy. This combination of surgery and radiotherapy is now accepted as a standard treatment option for unifocal, non inflammatory lesion less than 3 cm. The widespread use of mammography to detect infraclinic breast carcinoma leads to a significant increase in the proportion of breast conserving treatment. Neoadjuvant therapeutics (chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonotherapy) can extend the standard indication to breast carcinoma larger than 3 cm. The standard definition is also modified by sentinel node biopsy, oncoplastic techniques and stereotactic surgery with satisfactory cosmetic results. The risk of local recurrence, particularly the margins, must be evaluated whatever the surgical treatment optimizing oncologic management.

  7. Breast-feeding and benign breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, S; Londero, A P; Bertozzi, S; Driul, L; Marchesoni, D; Petri, R

    2012-01-01

    Benign breast disease (BBD) is very common among women in their fertile age, but its correlation with breast reproductive function remains unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the relation between BBD and breast-feeding. We collected data on 105 women with BBD and 98 controls, focusing on their reproductive history and breast-feeding. We analysed data by R (version 2.12.1) considering p feeding was not significantly different between controls and BBD types (p = NS). Selecting women with fibroadenoma breast-feeding duration directly correlated with the number of benign lesions (p feeding among BBDs types, but lactation may influence the number of fibroadenomas. Moreover, prospective studies would better define the correlation between lactation and BBDs.

  8. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    one or both breasts were affected. Family Member (e.g. grandmother, aunt) Paternal or Maternal Type or Location of Cancer (e.g. breast ...Local recurrences and distant metastases after breast -conserving surgery and radiation therapy for early breast cancer . Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys...AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: DAMD17-03-1-0454 TITLE: Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance

  9. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  10. Breast Tissue Composition and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa J.; Bronskill, Michael; Yaffe, Martin J.; Duric, Neb; Minkin, Salomon

    2010-01-01

    Breast density, as assessed by mammography, reflects breast tissue composition. Breast epithelium and stroma attenuate x-rays more than fat and thus appear light on mammograms while fat appears dark. In this review, we provide an overview of selected areas of current knowledge about the relationship between breast density and susceptibility to breast cancer. We review the evidence that breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the histological and other risk factors that are associated with variations in breast density, and the biological plausibility of the associations with risk of breast cancer. We also discuss the potential for improved risk prediction that might be achieved by using alternative breast imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound. After adjustment for other risk factors, breast density is consistently associated with breast cancer risk, more strongly than most other risk factors for this disease, and extensive breast density may account for a substantial fraction of breast cancer. Breast density is associated with risk of all of the proliferative lesions that are thought to be precursors of breast cancer. Studies of twins have shown that breast density is a highly heritable quantitative trait. Associations between breast density and variations in breast histology, risk of proliferative breast lesions, and risk of breast cancer may be the result of exposures of breast tissue to both mitogens and mutagens. Characterization of breast density by mammography has several limitations, and the uses of breast density in risk prediction and breast cancer prevention may be improved by other methods of imaging, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound tomography. PMID:20616353

  11. [Complications of breast reduction about 715 breasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, G; Duhamel, A; Alet, J-M; Pelissier, P; Pinsolle, V

    2014-04-01

    Breast reduction is one of the most frequent operations in elective plastic surgery. The main objective of this study was to describe complications due to breast reduction, and to determine the risk factors. Our comparative retrospective study reviewed the medical files of 715 operated breasts between 2004 and 2009. Statistical analyses were performed with bivariate analyses and multivariable analysis. Smoking, resected mammary gland mass and stretch marks were the three risk factors associated with complications after breast reduction. Smoking was also associated with a high risk of hypertrophics carring. Body-mass index was not associated with a risk of general complications but with a risk of wound dehiscence. The superior pedicle and free nipple graft surgical techniques presented a higher complication rate than the postero-superior and postero-inferior pedicle techniques. These results incite us to postpone and even contraindicate breast reduction surgery in obese and smoking patients. These results also incite us to prefer surgical techniques with optimum security in terms of vascular supply. Complications of breast reduction about 715 breasts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Do fatty breasts increase or decrease breast cancer risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, John A; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2012-01-25

    Few studies have investigated the association of non-dense area or fatty breasts in conjunction with breast density and breast cancer risk. Two articles in a recent issue of Breast Cancer Research investigate the role of absolute non-dense breast area measured on mammograms and find conflicting results: one article finds that non-dense breast area has a modest positive association with breast cancer risk, whereas the other finds that non-dense breast area has a strong protective effect to reduce breast cancer risk. Understanding the interplay of body mass index, menopause status, and measurement of non-dense breast area would help to clarify the contribution of non-dense breast area to breast cancer risk.

  13. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  14. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first 3 months of pregnancy . Other Information About Pregnancy and Breast Cancer Key Points Lactation (breast milk production) and breast- ... has had breast cancer. To Learn More About Breast Cancer and Pregnancy For more information from the National Cancer Institute ...

  15. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first 3 months of pregnancy . Other Information About Pregnancy and Breast Cancer Key Points Lactation (breast milk production) and breast- ... has had breast cancer. To Learn More About Breast Cancer and Pregnancy For more information from the National Cancer Institute ...

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  17. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  19. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Breast cancer Breast cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  1. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnink, T. H. Oude; Nagengast, W. B.; Brouwers, A. H.; Schroder, C. P.; Hospers, G. A.; Lub-de Hooge, M. N.; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P. J.; de Vries, E. G. E.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging of breast cancer can potentially be used for breast cancer screening, staging, restaging, response evaluation and guiding therapies. Techniques for molecular breast cancer imaging include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, and radionuclide imaging with positron

  2. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  3. Breast prothesis leakage and malignant changes of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lawati, Taha; Kutty, Rajyashree

    2009-04-01

    A breast implant is a prosthesis used to enhance the size of a woman's breasts. Silicon implants are most commonly used, but as with all surgical implants it has some complications. The question is whether it can induce breast cancer? During the last year, a case of reconstructed breast with prosthesis which leaked was presented. The aim of this report is to review current literature to evaluate whether there are reported correlations between breast cancer and breast implants. The conclusion derived from this report is that there is no available evidence directly correlating breast cancer to breast implants.

  4. The tuberous breast revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, Marc D; Kang, Norbert V

    2007-01-01

    The tuberous breast presents a problem for which many surgical solutions have been described. Current teaching describes how the tuberous breast deformity is the result of skin shortage as well as herniation of breast tissue through the nipple-areola complex. However, through careful clinical observation we now believe that the only abnormality present is herniation of breast tissue through the nipple-areola complex. Using this principle, we have refined a one-stage surgical procedure that can be used to correct any type of tuberous breast deformity. Since 2001 we have performed our technique on a series of 13 tuberous breasts of widely varying appearances in eight patients (age 17-24 years) with a follow up varying between 3 and 56 months. Our new understanding of the tuberous breast deformity has also made it possible to develop an objective, reproducible method for defining the tuberous breast based on the degree of areola herniation. All patients reported high levels of satisfaction with the procedure. Assessment of the results by an independent panel of attending surgeons showed all results to be good/excellent. Moreover, the results have improved with time and no revisions have been needed. Our method of defining the tuberous breast (based on the ratio of areola herniation:areola diameter) enabled us to identify a cut-off to decide (objectively) when a breast was tuberous. This allowed us to anticipate when an areola reduction/tightening procedure would be necessary to avoid a 'double-bubble' deformity. We propose a one-stage surgical procedure which is applicable to all degrees of tuberous breast deformity. The results appear to confirm our theory that the only abnormality present in the tuberous breast is herniation of breast tissue through the nipple-areola complex. In patients with small breasts and a tuberous deformity, correction of the herniation changes the tuberous breast into a simple hypoplastic breast. The volume deficit can then be corrected by

  5. Oxalate induces breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellaro, Andrés M; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L; Pucci, Oscar A; Gil, German A

    2015-10-22

    Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still largely unknown but breast cancers presenting microcalcifications are more often associated with a poorer prognosis. We combined Capillary Electrochromatography, histology, and gene expression (qRT-PCR) to analyze patient-matched normal breast tissue vs. breast tumor. Potential carcinogenicity of oxalate was tested by its inoculation into mice. All data were subjected to statistical analysis. To study the biological significance of oxalates within the breast tumor microenvironment, we measured oxalate concentration in both human breast tumor tissues and adjoining non-pathological breast tissues. We found that all tested breast tumor tissues contain a higher concentration of oxalates than their counterpart non-pathological breast tissue. Moreover, it was established that oxalate induces proliferation of breast cells and stimulates the expression of a pro-tumorigenic gene c-fos. Furthermore, oxalate generates highly malignant and undifferentiated tumors when it was injected into the mammary fatpad in female mice, but not when injected into their back, indicating that oxalate does not induce cancer formation in all types of tissues. Moreover, neither human kidney-epithelial cells nor mouse fibroblast cells proliferate when are treated with oxalate. We found that the chronic exposure of breast epithelial cells to oxalate promotes the transformation of breast cells from normal to tumor cells, inducing the expression of a proto-oncogen as c-fos and proliferation in breast cancer cells

  6. Neuroendocrine breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Susana; Esteves, Joana; Costa, Sílvia; Vale, Sílvio; Maciel, Jorge

    2012-08-13

    Neuroendocrine breast cancer is thought to account for about 1% of all breast cancers. This rare type of breast malignancy is more common in older women and presents as a low-grade, slow-growing cancer. The most definitive markers that indicate neuroendocrine carcinoma are the presence of chromogranin, synaptophysin or neuron-specific enolase, in at least 50% of malignant tumour cells. The authors present a case report of an 83-year-old woman, admitted to their institution with right breast lump. Physical examination, mammography and ultrasonography showed a 2.4 cm nodule, probably a benign lesion (BI-RADS 3). A fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed and revealed proliferative epithelial papillary lesion. She was submitted to excisional biopsy and histology showed endocrine breast cancer well differentiated (G1). Immunohistochemically, tumour cells were positive for synaptophysin. These breast cancers are characterised for their excellent prognosis and conservative treatment is almost always enough to obtain patient cure.

  7. Breast cancer predisposition syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemel, Deborah; Domchek, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    A small, but important, percentage of breast cancer cases is caused by the inheritance of a single copy of a mutated gene. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the genes most commonly associated with inherited breast cancer; however, mutations in TP53 and PTEN cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Cowden syndrome, respectively, both of which are associated with high lifetime risks of breast cancer. Advances in the field of breast cancer genetics have led to an improved understanding of detection and prevention strategies. More recently, strategies to target the underlying genetic defects in BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast and ovarian cancers are emerging and may have implications for certain types of sporadic breast cancer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Breast skin and nipple changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inverted nipple; Nipple discharge; Breast feeding - nipple changes; Breastfeeding - nipple changes ... treatment. WARM TO THE TOUCH, RED, OR PAINFUL BREAST This is almost always caused by an infection ...

  9. Metaplastic Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    T?rkan, Halil; G?kg?z, M. ?ehsuvar; Parlak, N. Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Metaplastic Breast Cancer (MBC) is a term referring to a heterogeneous group with malignant epithelial and mesenchymal tissue components. MBC is a rare disease, accounting for 0.2% of all breast cancers. Most MBC are triple negative cancers with poor prognosis and an aggressive clinical course. Herein, we aimed to present a 74-year-old patient with metaplastic breast cancer along with clinical, radiologic and pathologic properties.

  10. Breast disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greydanus, Donald E; Matytsina, Lyubov; Gains, Michelé

    2006-06-01

    Concerns about problems of the breast are often noted in adolescents and their parents. This review discusses issues and disorders of the breast in children and adolescents, starting with basic principles of embryology and adolescent breast development. Concepts that are covered include congenital breast disorders, abnormal timing of breast development, breast asymmetry, underdeveloped breasts, breast atrophy, tuberous breasts, mammary hyperplasia, fibroadenoma, giant fibroadenoma, cystosarcoma phyllodes, intra-ductal breast papilloma, adenocarcinoma, mastitis, traumatic breast disorders, benign breast disease, fibrocystic change, mastalgia, gynecomastia, and galactorrhea. A number of figures are provided illustrating breast pathologic findings. Clinicians caring for children and adolescents are encouraged to provide careful assessments of this important organ.

  11. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer. PMID:24319497

  12. Breast cancer statistics, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Ma, Jiemin; Bryan, Leah; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 232,340 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,620 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2013. One in 8 women in the United States will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. Breast cancer incidence rates increased slightly among African American women; decreased among Hispanic women; and were stable among whites, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives from 2006 to 2010. Historically, white women have had the highest breast cancer incidence rates among women aged 40 years and older; however, incidence rates are converging among white and African American women, particularly among women aged 50 years to 59 years. Incidence rates increased for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers in the youngest white women, Hispanic women aged 60 years to 69 years, and all but the oldest African American women. In contrast, estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers declined among most age and racial/ethnic groups. These divergent trends may reflect etiologic heterogeneity and the differing effects of some factors, such as obesity and parity, on risk by tumor subtype. Since 1990, breast cancer death rates have dropped by 34% and this decrease was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. Nevertheless, survival disparities persist by race/ethnicity, with African American women having the poorest breast cancer survival of any racial/ethnic group. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population. © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  13. Girls' Attitudes toward Breast Care and Breast Self-Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadranyi, B. T.

    A study explored girls' emerging attitudes toward breast care and breast self-exam (BSE) and the extent to which girls had given thought to these issues. Analyses focused specifically on individual differences related to age, stage of breast development, perceived normalcy of breast development, and body image. The sample consisted of 43 white,…

  14. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  15. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Breast Self Examination Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy affecting women in Nigeria. Regular breast self examination reduces morbidity and mortality from this disease. Objective: To assess the knowledge of breast cancer, breast self examination and practice amongst secondary school teachers in Enugu , Nigeria.

  16. Breast edema in breast cancer patients following breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbelen, Hanne; Gebruers, Nick; Beyers, Tinne; De Monie, Anne-Caroline; Tjalma, Wiebren

    2014-10-01

    Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is commonly used in breast cancer treatment. Despite its benefits, some women will be troubled by breast edema. Breast edema may cause an unsatisfactory cosmetic result, influencing the quality of life. The purpose of this systematic review is to investigate the incidence of breast edema and to identify risk factors of breast edema in breast cancer patients following BCS and radiotherapy. A systematic literature search was performed using different electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, Embase) until June 2014. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) research studies that included female breast cancer patients who were treated with BCS and radiotherapy and (2) studies that investigated the incidence of breast edema and/or risk factors of breast edema. Exclusion criteria were (1) reviews or case studies and (2) studies published before 1995. We identified in total 28 papers which represented 4,011 patients. There was a great variation in the incidence of breast edema (0-90.4 %). We identified several possible risk factors for breast edema namely increasing irradiated breast volume, increasing boost volume, the use of a photon boost, increasing breast separation, a higher density of the breast tissue, a large tumor, a higher specimen weight, postoperative infection, acute postoperative toxicity, and diabetes mellitus. However, their prognostic value remains uncertain. Breast edema is a common complaint after BCS and radiotherapy. A number of possible risk factors associated with breast edema were identified, but further research is warranted.

  17. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  18. Primary Breast Leiomyosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Amaadour, L.; Benbrahim, Z.; Moumna, K.; Boudahna, L.; Amarti, A.; Arifi, S.; N. Mellas; El Mesbahi, O.

    2013-01-01

    Primary leiomyosarcoma of the breast is an extremely rare neoplasm. Only few cases have been reported in the literature. We report here a case of breast leiomyosarcoma in a 44-years-old female and we discuss the data of the existing literature.

  19. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Studies of complications following reconstructive surgery with implants among women with breast cancer are needed. As the, to our knowledge, first prospective long-term study we evaluated the occurrence of complications following delayed breast reconstruction separately for one- and two-stage pro......Studies of complications following reconstructive surgery with implants among women with breast cancer are needed. As the, to our knowledge, first prospective long-term study we evaluated the occurrence of complications following delayed breast reconstruction separately for one- and two......-stage procedures. From the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast, which has prospectively registered data for women undergoing breast implantations since 1999, we identified 559 women without a history of radiation therapy undergoing 592 delayed breast reconstructions following breast cancer during...... the period 1999 to 2006; 239 one-stage procedures and 353 two-stage procedures. The postoperative course through November 2009 was evaluated by cumulative incidence adjusting for competing risks for the selected outcomes; hematoma, infection, seroma, implant rupture, severe capsular contracture (modified...

  20. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  1. Digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis is an emerging technology intended to screen for and diagnose breast cancer. We believe it will begin moving into the commercial arena within the next couple of years. Find out what we predict for its clinical and business impact.

  2. Male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980–2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  3. Adenomyoepithelioma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ying; Sheen-Chen, Shyr-Ming; Eng, Hock-Liew; Ko, Sheung-Fat

    2007-01-01

    Adenomyoepithelioma of the breast is an uncommon tumor characterized by the presence of both epithelial and myoepithelial cells; its first full description was published in 1970 by Hamperl. A 45-year-old woman presented a left breast lump that had been palpable for 4 weeks. There was no family history of breast cancer. Neither axillary nor supraclavicular lymph nodes were palpable. Craniocaudal mammography showed a 1.6 cm, well-defined nodule with several punctate intranodular calcifications in the subareolar region of the left breast. Color Doppler sonogram showed an ovoid, well-defined, homogeneous hypoechoic subareolar nodule with prominent peripheral vessels in the 6 o'clock position of the left breast. Operation was arranged and intraoperative frozen section examination revealed proliferation of round, oval or tubular glandular elements with intervening islands and bands of polygonal myoepithelial cells. Adenomyoepithelioma of the breast was the impression. Wide excision with adequate removal of the tumor and preservation of the left breast contour was successfully achieved. The diagnosis of adenomyoepithelioma of the breast was confirmed by immunohistochemical studies.

  4. Breast Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflamma- tory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen or aspirin reduces this inflammatory response and, possibly, postpartum breast...involution with systemic ibuprofen or aspirin did not interrupt mammary epithelial cell regression that normally occurs during this period These data... children of immigrant stress, and social desirability bias. Preliminary data suggest that breast cancer survivors, notably racial/ethnic minorities

  5. Breast-feeding multiples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flidel-Rimon, O; Shinwell, E S

    2002-06-01

    Human breast milk is the best nutrition for human infants. Its advantages over the milk of other species, such as cows, include both a reduced risk for infections, allergies and chronic diseases, together with the full nutritional requirements for growth and development. Breast-feeding is as important for multiples as for singletons. Despite the advantages, multiples receive less breast-feeding than singletons. Common reasons for not breast-feeding multiples include the fear of not fulfilling the infants' needs and the difficulty of coping with the demands on the mother's time. In addition, many multiples are delivered prematurely and by Caesarean section. Maternal pain and discomfort together with anxiety over the infants' condition are not conducive to successful breast-feeding. During lactation, the mother needs to add calories to her daily diet. It has been recommended to add approximately 500-600 kcal/day for each infant. Thus, between eating, nursing and sleeping, life is very busy for the mother of multiples. However, there is evidence that, with appropriate nutrition, one mother can nourish more than one infant. Also, simultaneous breast-feeding can save much time. Combined efforts of parents, close family, friends and the medical team can help to make either full or partial breast-feeding of multiples possible. However, when breast-feeding is not possible, health care workers need to carefully avoid judgmental approaches that may induce feelings of guilt.

  6. Bexarotene in Preventing Breast Cancer in Patients at High Risk for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Atypical Ductal Breast Hyperplasia; Atypical Lobular Breast Hyperplasia; BRCA1 Gene Mutation; BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; No Evidence of Disease

  7. Gossypiboma after Breast Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Lundin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 39-year-old woman was referred for removal of cosmetic breast implants and related siliconoma. After an exchange of breast implants at a private clinic a year previously, she had asymmetry of the right breast, persistent pain, and a generally unacceptable cosmetic result. An MRI had shown a well-defined area with spots of silicone-like material at the upper pole of the right breast. Surgical removal of presumed silicone-imbibed breast tissue was undertaken, and surprisingly a gossypiboma was found in its place, which had not been identified on the MRI. Gossypiboma is the condition of an accidentally retained surgical sponge. This complication is also known as a textiloma, gauzoma, or muslinoma and is well described in other surgical specialties. However, it is extremely rare after plastic surgery, and this case illustrates the need for continued attention to the surgical count of sponges and instruments.

  8. Adenoid cystic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenathan, James H; de la Roza, Gustavo

    2002-06-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare type of breast cancer that is generally reported in individual case reports or as series from major referral centers. To characterize early diagnostic criteria for adenoid cystic carcinoma and to determine whether breast-preserving surgery with radiotherapy is as effective as mastectomy for eradicating the disease, we reviewed clinical records of a large series of patients treated for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast at a large health maintenance organization (HMO) that includes primary care facilities and referral centers. Using the data bank of the Northern California Cancer Registry of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Region (KPNCR), we retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients treated for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast. Follow-up also was done for these patients. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast was diagnosed in 22 of 27,970 patients treated for breast cancer at KPNCR from 1960 through 2000. All 22 patients were female and were available for follow-up. Mean age of patients at diagnosis was 61 years (range, 37 to 94 years). In 17 (77%) of the women, a lump in the breast led to initial suspicion of a tumor; in 4 (23%) of the 22 patients, mammography led to suspicion of a tumor. Median tumor size was 20 mm. Pain was a prominent symptom. Surgical management evolved from radical and modified radical mastectomy to simple mastectomy or lumpectomy during the study period, during which time 1 patient died of previous ordinary ductal carcinoma of the contralateral breast, and 7 died of unrelated disease. At follow-up, 12 of the 13 remaining patients were free of disease; 1 patient died of the disease; and 1 patient remained alive despite late occurrence of lymph node and pulmonary metastases. Whether breast-preserving surgery with radiotherapy is as effective as mastectomy for treating adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast has not been determined.

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  10. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage 0-IIB Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-05

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  11. Oncoplastic breast surgery in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Anders; Henriksen, Trine Foged; Siersen, Hans Erik

    2014-01-01

    With improved survival rates after breast cancer treatment, more attention is drawn to improve the cosmetic outcome after surgical treatment of breast cancer. In this process the oncoplastic breast surgery was conceived. It supplements the traditional surgical treatments (mastectomy and breast...... conserving surgery) with increased focus on individualized therapy. The ambition is to obtain the best possible cosmetic outcome without compromising recurrence rates and survival. This article provides an overview of the current oncoplastic breast surgery treatment offered in Denmark....

  12. Developmental breast asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, WoanYi; Mathur, Bhagwat; Slade-Sharman, Diana; Ramakrishnan, Venkat

    2011-01-01

    Developmental breast asymmetry (DBA) can affect psychosocial well-being in the young female. Correction of breast asymmetry may present a reconstructive challenge, especially in tuberous breasts. Fifty-two cases of DBA treated between January 2002 and January 2006 were reviewed. Preoperative clinical assessment of the specific anatomical deformity, subsequent surgical treatment modalities, esthetic outcome, and patient's satisfaction were evaluated. Surgical modalities used in our series include augmentation mammaplasty with or without tissue expansion, parenchymal scoring, nipple areola complex reduction, glanduloplasty techniques, mastopexy and reduction mammaplasty. The mean age of DBA presentation was 21 years; 69% (36/52) patients had tuberous breasts, of which 67% (24/36) were unilateral and 33% (12/36) were bilateral deformities. Patients with tuberous breast deformity presented consistently under the age of 25 years. Esthetic outcome was rated "good" in 75% (39/52), and symmetry rated as "good" in 58% (30/52) by professional evaluation. Surgical treatment is tailored to the affected esthetic units of the individual breast. In our experience, symmetry is the hardest parameter to achieve, particularly in tuberous breasts. Operative treatment is of great value to the psychosocial well-being of the patient. A conceptual approach in the assessment and treatment of DBA is emphasized by this series. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Herpesviruses and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasanta, C; Ghirardi, B; Manca, M F; Uccella, S; Gualdi, C; Tota, E; Pugni, L; Mosca, F

    2014-06-30

    Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  14. Herpesviruses and breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pietrasanta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV and cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  15. [Breast reconstruction after mastectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Quoc, C; Delay, E

    2013-02-01

    The mutilating surgery for breast cancer causes deep somatic and psychological sequelae. Breast reconstruction can mitigate these effects and permit the patient to help rebuild their lives. The purpose of this paper is to focus on breast reconstruction techniques and on factors involved in breast reconstruction. The methods of breast reconstruction are presented: objectives, indications, different techniques, operative risks, and long-term monitoring. Many different techniques can now allow breast reconstruction in most patients. Clinical cases are also presented in order to understand the results we expect from a breast reconstruction. Breast reconstruction provides many benefits for patients in terms of rehabilitation, wellness, and quality of life. In our mind, breast reconstruction should be considered more as an opportunity and a positive choice (the patient can decide to do it), than as an obligation (that the patient would suffer). The consultation with the surgeon who will perform the reconstruction is an important step to give all necessary informations. It is really important that the patient could speak again with him before undergoing reconstruction, if she has any doubt. The quality of information given by medical doctors is essential to the success of psychological intervention. This article was written in a simple, and understandable way to help gynecologists giving the best information to their patients. It is maybe also possible to let them a copy of this article, which would enable them to have a written support and would facilitate future consultation with the surgeon who will perform the reconstruction. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  17. Facts for Life: Benign Breast Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Benign breast conditions (also known as benign breast diseases) are noncancerous disorders that affect the breast. Your doctor may use the term “fibrocystic change” to describe a range of benign breast ...

  18. Risk-based Breast Cancer Screening: Implications of Breast Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christoph I; Chen, Linda E; Elmore, Joann G

    2017-07-01

    The approach to breast cancer screening has changed over time from a general approach to a more personalized, risk-based approach. Women with dense breasts, one of the most prevalent risk factors, are now being informed that they are at increased risk of developing breast cancer and should consider supplemental screening beyond mammography. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the impact of breast density relative to other known risk factors, the evidence regarding supplemental screening for women with dense breasts, supplemental screening options, and recommendations for physicians having shared decision-making discussions with women who have dense breasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-08

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma

  20. Lymphatics and the breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nodes are distributed at specific locations throughout the body. There is also an extensive network of lymphatic vessels in every woman's breast tissue, which is important in regulating the local fluid balance as well as in filtering out harmful substances. ...

  1. Breast milk jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... babies who show signs of hunger are given pacifiers. Breast milk jaundice may run in families. It ... look at blood cell shapes and sizes Blood type Complete blood count Reticulocyte count (number of slightly ...

  2. Lymphedema after breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brahmi, Sami Aziz; Ziani, Fatima Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Image in medicine Lymphedema is one of the most significant survivorship issues after the surgical treatment of breast cancer and in this population it has been documented to have significant quality...

  3. Breast Lift (Mastopexy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2005:167. Breast lift About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  4. TMIST Breast Screening Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    TMIST is a randomized breast screening trial that compares two Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved types of digital mammography, standard digital mammography (2-D) with a newer technology called tomosynthesis mammography (3-D).

  5. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Breast Cancer Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  6. Breast augmentation - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a system of glands and ducts that produce milk. Fat makes up the majority of the breast tissue. Behind the ... in cosmetic and reconstructive plastic surgery, Palm Beach Gardens, FL. Review provided by ...

  7. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Owens

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  8. Diseases of the breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, Jay R

    2010-01-01

    ... and Dudley Sharp Chair of Oncology Professor of Medicine and Molecular and Cellular Biology Director, Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center Director, Lester and Sue Smith Breast Center Baylor College of Me...

  9. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...

  10. Breast Diseases - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breast Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breastdiseases.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  11. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared......, and in women giving birth to boys. These findings, however, did not reach statistical significance. Finally, risk reduction was slightly greater following milder forms of preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: Our data is compatible with an approximately 20% reduction in risk of developing breast cancer following...

  12. Phantom breast syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phantom breast syndrome is a type of condition in which patients have a sensation of residual breast tissue and can include both non-painful sensations as well as phantom breast pain. The incidence varies in different studies, ranging from approximately 30% to as high as 80% of patients after mastectomy. It seriously affects quality of life through the combined impact of physical disability and emotional distress. The breast cancer incidence rate in India as well as Western countries has risen in recent years while survival rates have improved; this has effectively increased the number of women for whom post-treatment quality of life is important. In this context, chronic pain following treatment for breast cancer surgery is a significantly under-recognized and under-treated problem. Various types of chronic neuropathic pain may arise following breast cancer surgery due to surgical trauma. The cause of these syndromes is damage to various nerves during surgery. There are a number of assumed factors causing or perpetuating persistent neuropathic pain after breast cancer surgery. Most well-established risk factors for developing phantom breast pain and other related neuropathic pain syndromes are severe acute postoperative pain and greater postoperative use of analgesics. Based upon current evidence, the goals of prophylactic strategies could first target optimal peri-operative pain control and minimizing damage to nerves during surgery. There is some evidence that chronic pain and sensory abnormalities do decrease over time. The main group of oral medications studied includes anti-depressants, anticonvulsants, opioids, N-methyl-D-asparate receptor antagonists, mexilitine, topical lidocaine, cannabinoids, topical capsaicin and glysine antagonists. Neuromodulation techniques such as motor cortex stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, and intrathecal drug therapies have been used to treat various neuropathic pain syndromes.

  13. Breast cancer: equal rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fátima Carvalho Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is not any statistics related to encouraging breast cancer along the past century, and there has not been any in present century. It has been published in the scientific and lay press information on the crescent number of women attacked by breast cancer. How to spare women and family members of such pain when they experience this disease? Which rights provide assistance to the women with cancer?

  14. Breast nocardiosis: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Sun Mi; Park, Jeong Mi [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-11-01

    Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection occurring in immunocompromised patients. Worldwidely, about four cases of nocardiosis of the breast have been previously reported, but none of these were in Korea. We describe a case of breast nocardiosis associated with pulmonary infection in a patient with Cushing's disease. In our patient, multiple, well-defined, conglomerated, tubular-shaped, isodense mass was revealed at mammography, and an irregular-shaped, ill-defined, heterogeneous echoic mass with movable debris at ultrasonography.

  15. [Pregnancy and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Torres, Nicolás; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino

    2013-01-01

    association of breast cancer and pregnancy is not common. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the pregnancy, young age, stage, treatment, prognosis and mortality of women with breast cancer during pregnancy. retrospective analysis from March 1992 to February 2009, 16 patients were included with breast cancer and pregnancy. They were analized: histological characteristic of tumor, therapeutic response of the oncological treatment, evolution of the pregnancy. From of baby born: Apgar and weight. The woman's mortality with breast cancer during pregnancy was evaluated for age group and for interval of time between late pregnancy and diagnosis posterior of breast cancer and pregnancy. characteristic predominant clinicohistological: stage III (81.2%), T3-T4 (75%), N+ 93.7%, invasive ductal carcinoma (87.5%), histological grade 2-3 (93.7%), receptor estrogeno positive (43.7%); RPpositive (25%); HER-2/neu positive (31.2%). 27 chemotherapy cycles were applied with 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide during the second or third trimester of the pregnancy, there were not severe adverse effects for the mothers and the baby born exposed to chemotherapy. The mean time to disease recurrence was 18.8 months (range, 6-62 months). The rate of mortality for specific age (breast cancer and pregnancy.

  16. Aluminium and the human breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2016-06-01

    The human population is exposed to aluminium (Al) from diet, antacids and vaccine adjuvants, but frequent application of Al-based salts to the underarm as antiperspirant adds a high additional exposure directly to the local area of the human breast. Coincidentally the upper outer quadrant of the breast is where there is also a disproportionately high incidence of breast cysts and breast cancer. Al has been measured in human breast tissues/fluids at higher levels than in blood, and experimental evidence suggests that at physiologically relevant concentrations, Al can adversely impact on human breast epithelial cell biology. Gross cystic breast disease is the most common benign disorder of the breast and evidence is presented that Al may be a causative factor in formation of breast cysts. Evidence is also reviewed that Al can enable the development of multiple hallmarks associated with cancer in breast cells, in particular that it can cause genomic instability and inappropriate proliferation in human breast epithelial cells, and can increase migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells. In addition, Al is a metalloestrogen and oestrogen is a risk factor for breast cancer known to influence multiple hallmarks. The microenvironment is established as another determinant of breast cancer development and Al has been shown to cause adverse alterations to the breast microenvironment. If current usage patterns of Al-based antiperspirant salts contribute to causation of breast cysts and breast cancer, then reduction in exposure would offer a strategy for prevention, and regulatory review is now justified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypoplastic Breast Anomalies in the Female Adolescent Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Winocour, Sebastian; Lemaine, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Hypoplastic breast anomalies remain a reconstructive challenge. In this article, the authors review the spectrum of nonsyndromic breast hypoplasia in the adolescent girl, namely idiopathic breast hypoplasia and tuberous breast deformity. Challenges specific to this population include (1) identifying the ideal timing for surgery, (2) choosing the optimal reconstructive method while taking into consideration ongoing changes in the female body (e.g., future pregnancy), and (3) considering the us...

  18. Benign Breast Disease: Toward Molecular Prediction of Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    at the initial biopsy, the strength of the family history, meno- pausal status, and histologic findings of the biop- sy, as compared with expected...breast cancers for 646/758 (85%) of the cases. We assessed the significance of benign histology in predicting risk of future breast cancer, examining...TERMS Benign Breast Disease, Biomarkers, Histology , Breast Cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF

  19. Dutch digital breast cancer screening: implications for breast cancer care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Johanna M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Adang, Eddy M.; Otten, Johannes D.; Verbeek, André L.; Broeders, Mireille J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In comparison to other European population-based breast cancer screening programmes, the Dutch programme has a low referral rate, similar breast cancer detection and a high breast cancer mortality reduction. The referral rate in the Netherlands has increased over time and is expected to

  20. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in globally and in Nigeria. In Nigeria, cases of breast cancer cases have been prevalent for three decades and more than 90% of cases can be detected by women themselves through breast self – examination. The objective of this study ...

  1. Expression of the breast cancer resistance protein in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faneyte, Ian F.; Kristel, Petra M. P.; Maliepaard, Marc; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is involved in in vitro multidrug resistance and was first identified in the breast cancer cell line MCF7/AdrVp. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BCRP in resistance of breast cancer to anthracycline treatment. EXPERIMENTAL

  2. Multiparametric Breast MRI of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Habib; Partridge, Savannah C.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Breast MRI has increased in popularity over the past two decades due to evidence for its high sensitivity for cancer detection. Current clinical MRI approaches rely on the use of a dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE-MRI) acquisition that facilitates morphologic and semi-quantitative kinetic assessments of breast lesions. The use of more functional and quantitative parameters, such as pharmacokinetic features from high temporal resolution DCE-MRI, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) on diffusion weighted MRI, and choline concentrations on MR spectroscopy, hold promise to broaden the utility of MRI and improve its specificity. However, due to wide variations in approach among centers for measuring these parameters and the considerable technical challenges, robust multicenter data supporting their routine use is not yet available, limiting current applications of many of these tools to research purposes. PMID:26613883

  3. [Reconstruction of the tuberous breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroz, J; Pelay, M J; Escudero, F J

    2005-01-01

    The tuberous breast is a malformation that affects adolescent women uni- or bilaterally, becoming apparent at puberty with the growth of the breast. It is characterised by an alteration of the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the breast, which is translated into a lack of development of the breast and into the herniation of the glandular tissue within the areola with hypertrophy of the latter. Numerous terms have been employed to describe this deformity, besides that of tuberous breast: tubular breast, caprine breast, areolar hernia, hypoplasia of the lower pole or constricted breast. At its most developed degree it is a serious deformity, which affects the emotional stability of the patient in an important way, altering their relational life. Surgical treatment varies depending on the degree and severity of the deformity and includes procedures such as: glandular remodelling, augmentation mammoplasty, mastopexy or a combination of both.

  4. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  5. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Keoxifene (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Nolvadex (Tamoxifen ...

  6. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaign Initiatives Participation in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah’s family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  7. PET scan for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  8. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk with your doctor. Getting the support and ...

  9. Progress in breast cancer: overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-01-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer...

  10. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden, D.J. van; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Westenberg, A.H.; Wilt, J.H. de; Blanken-Peeters, C.F.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This

  11. Breast cancer and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabben, Laura; Mueller, Michel D

    2017-08-29

    Background In the past decades the incidence of pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) increased. Possible explanations are the trend to postpone childbearing and the general increase in the incidence of breast cancer. Materials and methods A sytematic review of the literature was performed with the aim to report on incidence, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of breast cancer during pregnancy. We also cover the issue of pregnancy following a diagnosis of breast cancer including fertility preservation and prognosis. Results Ultrasound is the imaging method of choice in pregnancy, but mammography can also be performed as the fetal irradiation dose is low. To avoid a delay in diagnosis every sonographic mass in pregnant women which does not clearly correspond to a cyst needs further investigation by biopsy. Treatment should follow as close as possible the guidelines for non-pregnant patients. Administration of chemotherapy is possible after the first trimester. There is a large body of evidence for the use of anthracyclines. In contrast radiotherapy, trastuzumab and antihormonal treatment by tamoxifen are contraindicated during pregnancy. Pregnancy does not seem to influence prognosis. Most adverse obstetric outcomes are related to preterm delivery, which should therefore, whenever possible, be avoided. Young patients with breast cancer and incomplete family planning should be referred for counseling about fertility preservation options before the initiation of adjuvant treatment. A pregnancy following breast cancer does not have a negative impact on prognosis. Conclusion Multidisciplinary management of women with breast cancer in pregnancy is mandatory and data should be collected to allow further improvement in management.

  12. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Jennrich; Claus Schulte-Uebbing

    2016-01-01

    Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includ...

  13. Kindness Interventions in Enhancing Well-Being in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-05

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  14. Cardiac Rehabilitation Program in Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-17

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. Immunophenotyping of hereditary breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Groep, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304810789

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several family members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 which account for about 5% of all breast cancers. However, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 may

  16. Clinical proteomics in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gast, M.C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer imposes a significant healthcare burden on women worldwide. Early detection is of paramount importance in reducing mortality, yet the diagnosis of breast cancer is hampered by a lack of adequate detection methods. In addition, better breast cancer prognostication may improve selection

  17. Breast cancer in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breast cancer at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Of these, 27. (25.2%) were aged 60 years ... and physician vigilance are keys to early detection and treatment of breast cancer in the elderly. INTRODUCTION ..... Law TM, Hesketli PJ, Porter KA, Lawn-Tsao L,. McAxiaw R and Lopez MJ. Breast cancer in eld ...

  18. Benign breast lesions in Kano

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The breast in: Robbins pathologic basis of diseases. Saunders, Phil~ adelphia. 1994; 1093. Mann CV, Russell RCG. Williams. NS. The breast. in: Bailey and. Love's short practice of surgery. Arnold, London, 1999; 5495521. Templeton AC Tumours of the breast in Uganda; An extract of information from the cancer registry.

  19. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  20. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and radiotherapy after delivery. Even though early stage breast cancers have similar prognosis, advanced stage breast cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation have poorer prognosis than similar stage breast cancers diagnosed in non-pregnant women. Women who desire to become pregnant after treatment of breast cancer will have many conflicts. Although the most common concern is recurrence of breast cancer due to pregnancy, the studies conducted showed that pregnancy has no negative effect on breast cancer prognosis. In this review we search for the frequency of breast cancer during pregnancy, the histopathological findings, risk factor, diagnostic and treatment modalities. We reviewed the literature for evidence based findings to help consult the patients on the outcome of breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation, and also inform the patients who desire to become pregnant after breast cancer according to current evidences. PMID:24592003

  1. Tuberous breast and predisposition to breast deformity in consanguineous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessy, Luca Andrea; De Santo, Liliana; Onesti, Maria Giuseppina; Fallico, Nefer; Mazzocchi, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Tuberous breast deformity is a pathologic condition of the breast consisting of a constricting ring at the breast base, reduction in the volume of the breast parenchyma, and herniation of breast tissue through the nipple-areola complex with areola enlargement. This pathology is generally congenital and has an unknown etiopathogenesis. We report the first observation of tuberous breast deformity in consanguineous. This report suggests the potential role of a genetic base in the development of this deformity. Between May 2008 and March 2011, we observed six female patients from two different families, aged between 18 and 55 years, affected by tuberous breast deformity. The breast deformity was characterized by breast asymmetry in all six cases. Four patients underwent surgery to correct the deformity. Standardized objective measurements of breast and chest were taken. A Visual Analog Scale was used to evaluate patients' and physicians' satisfaction. The first three patients were consanguineous; two were first cousins, and the third was second cousin with one of the above. The other three patients were also from the same family: two sisters and their mother. According to Von Heimburg's classification, the patients presented different degrees of breast deformity. In all operated cases, a good esthetic result with a high satisfaction (average visual analog scale score 9) was achieved. The results remained stable over time and no revisions were needed after the 1-year follow-up. The possibility of a parental consanguinity for breast deformities such tuberous breast has never been described in the literature. This report suggests the possible genetic role in the development of tuberous breast deformity. Further studies and genetic tests are required to prove this hypothesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Breast deformities and mastopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahabedian, Maurice Y

    2011-04-01

    LEARNING OBJECTIONS: After reviewing this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Appreciate the diversity of approaches for the correction of breast deformities and mastopexy. 2. Review the salient literature. 3. Understand patient selection criteria and indications. Breast deformities and mastopexy continue to challenge plastic surgeons. Deformities such as Poland syndrome, tuberous breast, gynecomastia, and other congenital conditions are uncommon; therefore, management experience is often limited. Various techniques have been described, with no general consensus regarding optimal management. Mastopexy has become more common and is performed both with and without augmentation mammaplasty. However, a variety of techniques are available, and a thorough understanding of the indications, patient selection criteria, and techniques is important to optimize outcomes. This article will review these and other conditions to provide a better understanding of the current available data and evidence for these operations.

  3. Pediatric breast deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Kerry; Fernandez, Sarah; Iteld, Larry; Panthaki, Zubin; Armstrong, Milton B; Thaller, Seth

    2006-05-01

    Congenital breast anomalies represent a relatively common set of disorders encountered by pediatric plastic surgeons with a spectrum of severity that ranges widely from the relatively benign polythelia to the very complex disorders such as Poland's syndrome and tuberous breast deformities. While the former can be treated in a single surgical setting with minimal morbidity, the more complicated disorders often require a staged reconstructive algorithm. Some disorders also require a multidisciplinary management for both workup and management. Although rarely a source of functional morbidity, these physical deformities are often a significant source of psychological stress for the adolescent male or female who feels alienated from their peers. The purpose of this article is to review the most common congenital breast disorders including the diagnosis, workup, and management especially the timing of surgical intervention as guided by normal developmental milestones.

  4. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  5. Pathology of hereditary breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    van der Groep, Petra; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 accounting for about 5% of all breast cancers. Other genes that include CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, STK11/LKB1, CDH1, NBS1, RAD50, BRIP1 and PALB2 have been described to be high or moderate penetrance breast cancer susceptibility genes, all contributing to the hereditary breast cancer spe...

  6. Pregnancy-associated Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Ashley S

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting pregnancy. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer refers to breast cancer that is diagnosed during pregnancy or within the first postpartum year. The incidence is increasing as more women delay childbearing. Breast cancer can be safely diagnosed, staged, and treated during pregnancy while protecting the fetus and mother with excellent outcomes for both. Avoiding diagnostic delays is vital to prognosis. This article provides an overview of the diagnosis, staging, management, and prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Relevant current literature is reviewed.

  7. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt with, as well as various pregnancy-associated factors, events, and perinatal outcomes. Finally, the contribution of breast feeding to a reduced breast cancer risk is discussed. PMID:25759622

  8. [Phyllodes breast tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedníková, I; Černá, M; Hlaváčková, M; Hes, O

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumour is a breast tumour occurring very rarely. It accounts for only in 1% of all cases of breast tumour. The diagnosis of phyllodes tumours can be difficult in consideration of the small number of cases. Treatment of phyllodes tumours is always surgical. In 2004-2013, we operated on twelve female patients with phyllodes tumours out of the total number of 1564 surgeries for breast tumours (0.8%) at the Department of Surgery at Teaching Hospital in Pilsen. We evaluated the age, the biological behaviour of the tumour depending on the tumour size and duration, the distant metastases, therapy and survival. The average age at the time of surgery was fifty years (2684), the duration of disease to the surgical solution ranged from one month to ten years. Tumour size was in the range of two to twenty-nine centimetres, tumours measuring less than five centimetres were always benign. Tumour excision for benign phyllodes tumour was performed seven times. Malignant phyllodes tumour was diagnosed five times with mastectomy performed in each case, and the axilla was exenterated in three cases where nodes were benign in each of them. In one case, mastectomy was followed by radiotherapy because the tumour reached the edge of the resected part; the other patients were only monitored. In two patients, tumour spreading into the lungs was diagnosed at five to ten months after breast surgery. One patient with generalized disease died, the other ones live with no local recurrence of this disease. Median survival is fifty-two months; the disease-free interval is fifty months. The results show that if phyllodes tumour is diagnosed in time, it is almost exclusively benign. If the case history is longer and the tumour is growing, the likelihood of malignancy increases. Surgical treatment is also sufficient in the case of malignant forms. The breast surgery does not need to be supplemented with exenteration of axilla.Key words: breast - phyllodes tumour.

  9. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  10. Breast cancer in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, S.; Ramsey-Goldman, R.; Petri, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective There is a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) versus the general population. We assessed a large sample of SLE patients, evaluating demographic and clinical characteristics and breast cancer risk. Methods We performed case-cohort analyses within a multi......-center international SLE sample. We calculated the breast cancer hazard ratio (HR) in female SLE patients, relative to demographics, reproductive history, family history of breast cancer, and time-dependent measures of anti-dsDNA positivity, cumulative disease activity, and drugs, adjusted for SLE duration. Results...... There were 86 SLE breast cancers and 4498 female SLE cancer-free controls. Patients were followed on average for 7.6 years. Versus controls, SLE breast cancer cases tended to be white and older. Breast cancer cases were similar to controls regarding anti-dsDNA positivity, disease activity, and most drug...

  11. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmich, L.R.; During, M.; Henriksen, T.F.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  12. Mammography: interobserver variability in breast density assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, E. A.; Zonderland, H. M.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; Kriege, M.; Mahdavian Delavary, B.; Burger, C. W.; Ansink, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the interobserver variability of breast density assessment according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) and to examine potential associations between breast density and risk factors for breast cancer. Four experienced breast radiologists received

  13. PECULIARITIES OF BREAST FEEDING OF PREMATURE CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    V.К. Kotlukov; L.G. Kuzmenko; N.V. Antipova; М.V. Polyakov

    2011-01-01

    The article presents main strategies of breast feeding of prematurely born infants support, such as use of Philips AVENT breast pumpfor lactation formation and feeding of the infant with native breast milk.Key words: premature infants, nursing mother, breast feeding support, modern accessories for breast feeding support. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (6): 170–175)

  14. Alternative screening for women with dense breasts: breast-specific gamma imaging (molecular breast imaging).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Anna; Newel, Mary S

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. Given mammography's limitations in evaluating dense breasts, examination with breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI)-also called molecular breast imaging (MBI)-has been proposed. We review the literature pertinent to the performance of BSGI in patients with dense breasts. CONCLUSION. Many studies have reported the sensitivity of BSGI in finding cancers even in dense breasts. However, BSGI has not yet been validated as an effective screening tool in large prospective studies. In addition, whole-body dose remains a significant concern.

  15. Affluence and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2016-09-01

    High income, high socioeconomic status, and affluence increase breast cancer incidence. Socioeconomic status in USA breast cancer studies has been assessed by block-group socioeconomic measures. A block group is a portion of a census tract with boundaries that segregate, as far as possible, socioeconomic groups. In this study, we used US Census income data instead of block groups to gauge socioeconomic status of breast cancer patients in relationship with incidence, prognostic markers, and survival. US state breast cancer incidence and mortality data are from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2011. Three-Year-Average Median Household Income by State, 2010 to 2012, is from the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 to 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. County incomes are from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau. The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population yearly. Its purpose is to provide communities the information they need to plan investments and services. Breast cancer county incidence and survival data are from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data base. We analyzed SEER data from 198 counties in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington. SEER uses the Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System. We have retained the SEER CS variables. There was a significant relationship of income with breast cancer incidence in 50 USA states and the District of Columbia in White women (r = 0.623, p breast cancer. Income was not correlated with 5-year survival of Black race (p = 0.364) or other races (p = 0.624). The multivariate general linear model with income as covariate, 5-year survival by race as a dependent variable, showed a significant effect of income and White race on 5-year survival (p breast cancer

  16. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  17. Malignant phyllodes breast tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa R. Shah-Patel, MD

    2017-01-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare tumor of the breast occurring in females usually between the ages of 35 and 55 years. It is often difficult to distinguish benign from malignant phyllodes tumors from other benign entities such as fibroadenomas. This case presentation demonstrates a woman with malignant phyllodes tumor treated with mastectomy with abdominal skin flap reconstruction.

  18. Malignant phyllodes breast tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Shah-Patel, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare tumor of the breast occurring in females usually between the ages of 35 and 55 years. It is often difficult to distinguish benign from malignant phyllodes tumors from other benign entities such as fibroadenomas. This case presentation demonstrates a woman with malignant phyllodes tumor treated with mastectomy with abdominal skin flap reconstruction.

  19. Breast biopsy - stereotactic

    Science.gov (United States)

    The provider will ask about your medical history. A breast exam may be done. If you take medicines (including aspirin, supplements, or herbs), ask your doctor whether you need to stop taking these before the biopsy. Tell your doctor if you may be ...

  20. Idiopathic benign breast calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Alissa M; Svensson, William E; Shousha, Sami

    2004-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman who came in for screening mammography was found to have extensive unilateral calcification of her left breast which had developed since her previous screening mammogram. The calcification had a ductal and lobular appearance. Possible known etiologies are discussed, but these do not explain the appearance in this case, implying that the cause is idiopathic.

  1. Benign breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, H; Fentiman, I S

    2001-09-01

    Benign breast disorders (BBD), classified by the ANDI system (aberrations of normal development and involution), constitute the major workload in breast clinics. Breast pain (mastalgia) is classified as cyclical, and non-cyclical extramammary causes such as ribircage pain have to be identified. Most patients need reassurance alone but those with moderate/severe pain present for > 6 months may need treatment: randomised trials have shown danazol, bromocriptine and tamoxifen to be effective. Fibroadenoma is the commonest benign solid lump in women aged 15-30 years. The diagnosis must be confirmed by triple assessment. Cysts occur usually in women of middle to late reproductive life. After ultrasound has confirmed the lump as cystic, it can be aspirated. Nipple discharge should be tested for the presence of haemoglobin (Hb). Those with HB+ discharge may require microdochectomy for treatment and diagnosis, common causes being duct papilloma and duct ectasia. Breast abscesses may occur during lactation or in women with duct ectasia and are treated by incision or aspiration together with antibiotics.

  2. BREAST: A CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Background: Primary papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare occurrence worldwide and few cases ever have been reported. It may be mistaken for the benign intraductal papillary lesions or papillary adnexal neoplasms. Case Report: A 66 year old woman who presented with a recurrent right ...

  3. Lymphosarcoma of the Breast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-09

    Mar 9, 1974 ... Lymphoma of the female breast is rarely a primary lesion. It may be found without manifestations of the disease elsewhere in the body. The types include the reticular cell, the histiocytic, the mixed and the follicular type of lesion. Usually the disease disseminates to the other parts of the body, but should it be ...

  4. Family History of Breast Cancer, Breast Density, and Breast Cancer Risk in a U.S. Breast Cancer Screening Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Sprague, Brian L; Bissell, Michael C S; Miglioretti, Diana L; Buist, Diana S M; Braithwaite, Dejana; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2017-06-01

    Background: The utility of incorporating detailed family history into breast cancer risk prediction hinges on its independent contribution to breast cancer risk. We evaluated associations between detailed family history and breast cancer risk while accounting for breast density.Methods: We followed 222,019 participants ages 35 to 74 in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, of whom 2,456 developed invasive breast cancer. We calculated standardized breast cancer risks within joint strata of breast density and simple (1st-degree female relative) or detailed (first-degree, second-degree, or first- and second-degree female relative) breast cancer family history. We fit log-binomial models to estimate age-specific breast cancer associations for simple and detailed family history, accounting for breast density.Results: Simple first-degree family history was associated with increased breast cancer risk compared with no first-degree history [Risk ratio (RR), 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-2.1 at age 40; RR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.7 at age 50; RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6 at age 60; RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5 at age 70). Breast cancer associations with detailed family history were strongest for women with first- and second-degree family history compared with no history (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2 at age 40); this association weakened in higher age groups (RR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.88-1.5 at age 70). Associations did not change substantially when adjusted for breast density.Conclusions: Even with adjustment for breast density, a history of breast cancer in both first- and second-degree relatives is more strongly associated with breast cancer than simple first-degree family history.Impact: Future efforts to improve breast cancer risk prediction models should evaluate detailed family history as a risk factor. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 938-44. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Breast milk jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szczepańska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jaundice is the most common clinical symptom in the neonatal period. Free serum bilirubin levels during the first days after birth are higher than at any point later in life. Breastfeeding is associated with both increased risk and severity of jaundice. Early-onset breastfeeding jaundice is primarily a result of insufficient caloric supply and resolves gradually with the normalisation of lactation. Late-onset type, i.e. breast milk jaundice, develops after 4–7 days of life in otherwise healthy neonates and is mainly associated with the presence of an unknown factor in breast milk, which increases the enterohepatic reabsorption of bilirubin. Breast milk (late-onset jaundice is the most common cause of persistent jaundice due to increased unconjugated bilirubin. Elevated conjugated bilirubin always indicates a pathological process and requires urgent diagnosis extension. It was believed until recently that breast milk jaundice is a mild condition, which never leads to central nervous system damage. This, however, is not entirely certain in the light of currently available scientific research; therefore it is necessary to monitor bilirubin levels. Since breast milk jaundice is a diagnosis of exclusion, it is usually preceded by differential diagnosis. In the case of breast milk jaundice, serum bilirubin levels will return to normal by 12–14 weeks of life. In the case of newborns/infants in good condition, who develop properly and gain weight systematically, supporting parents in effective breastfeeding, monitoring and regular check-ups of the child are recommended. Breast milk jaundice is not a contraindication to prophylactic vaccination.

  6. Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wendy K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer. We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast milk. Methods We conducted a prospective review of 100 consecutive births of infants in the same centre to determine the proportion of newborn infants who were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk, as distinct from being fully breast fed. We also report a review of the breastfeeding practices of mothers of over 87,000 newborn infants in the Australian State of New South Wales. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia. Approval 05063, 29 September 2005. Results Virtually all (97 of 100 newborn infants in this centre were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk whether or not they were fully breast fed. Between 82.2% to 98.7% of 87,000 newborn infants were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk. Conclusion In some Western communities there is near universal exposure of new born infants to colostrum and breast milk. Accordingly it is possible for the transmission of human milk borne viruses. This is contrary to the widespread assumption that human milk borne viruses cannot be associated with breast cancer.

  7. Breast feeding practices in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayyali, M M; Al-tawil, K

    1989-01-01

    Medical staff at the neonatal outpatient clinic of the Women's Hospital in Doha, Qatar randomly distributed a questionnaire about breast feeding and socioeconomic characteristics to 340 women (53.5% Qataris and 46.5% other Arabic speaking women) from February-August 1988. Only 32% of the mothers exclusively breast fed at birth. This low incidence could be due to excessive advertising by formula manufacturers and the increasing purchasing power of the Qataris. 5l5% used both breast milk and formula. 13% only bottle fed their infants. 50% of the mothers from the below average income group (5000 Qatar Riyals) breast fed their infants, while only 12% of those from the high income group (10,000 Qatar Riyals) did. Further, 55% of the mothers with less than secondary school education exclusively breast fed whereas 25% of those with secondary school and above breast fed. This result confirmed the downward trend for breast feeding in Qatar as identified in the early 1980s. Even though most mothers decided themselves not to breast feed, 31% reported that their physician suggested feeding formula to their infants. The longer infants stayed in the neonatal intensive care unit the less likely their mothers would breast feed them. For example, 72% were breast fed if discharged 1 week after admission while none were breast fed if discharged 3 weeks after admission. The leading reasons for bottle feeding included that the infant was still hungry (634%), night feeding (12%), mother worked (11%), and maternal diseases (5%). Regardless of the reasons for the downward trend in breast feeding in Qatar, public health professionals and health practitioners must begin direct and specific health education efforts about the benefits of breast feeding.

  8. Nodular Fasciitis of the Breast Mimicking Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamamoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodular fasciitis is a benign proliferative lesion that is usually found in the soft tissue of the upper extremity and trunk in young to middle-aged persons. It has rarely been described in the breast. A 35-year-old woman had noticed a mass in her left breast. It was elastic-hard, 13 mm in size, and located mainly in the upper inner quadrant of the left breast. Mammography did not detect the mass. Ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic lesion with an irregular margin. Neither fine-needle aspiration cytology nor core needle biopsy established a definitive diagnosis. Excisional biopsy was therefore performed. Histologically, the excised tumor tissue results were consistent with a diagnosis of nodular fasciitis of the breast. We report a case of nodular fasciitis of the breast, a rare histological type of breast tumor.

  9. Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Breast Implants Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Description: Silicone gel-filled breast implants have a silicone outer shell ...

  10. Choosing a Breast Prosthesis: A Survivor's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Request Permissions Choosing a Breast Prosthesis: A Survivor’s Perspective Andrea Zinn June 16, 2015 · Amber Bauer, ASCO ... body image breast cancer coping decision making patient perspective survivorship tips Related Resources: Breast Cancer - Introduction Talking ...

  11. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  12. Scintimammography (Breast Specific Gamma Imaging-BSGI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is scintimammography? Scintimammography, also known as nuclear medicine breast imaging, is an examination that may be used to ... as Breast Specific Gamma Imaging (BSGI) or Molecular Breast Imaging (MBI). Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  13. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast-feed more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring an adequate milk supply to combining breast-feeding and formula-feeding. By Mayo Clinic Staff If ...

  14. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nodes . The axillary nodes are the first place breast cancer is likely to spread. During breast surgery, some ... if cancer cells are present. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. So, it is more ...

  15. Low penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with specific breast tumor subtypes: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broeks, A; Schmidt, M.K; Sherman, M.E; Couch, F.J; Hopper, J.L; Dite, G.S; Apicella, C; Smith, L.D; Hammet, F; Southey, M.C; Veer, L.J. van 't; Groot, R. de; Smit, V.T; Fasching, P.A; Beckmann, M.W; Jud, S; Ekici, A.B; Hartmann, A; Hein, A; Schulz-Wendtland, R; Burwinkel, B; Marme, F; Schneeweiss, A; Sinn, H.P; Sohn, C; Tchatchou, S; Bojesen, S.E; Nordestgaard, B.G; Flyger, H; Orsted, D.D; Kaur-Knudsen, D; Milne, R.L; Perez, J.I; Zamora, P; Roiguez, P.M; Benitez, J; Brauch, H; Justenhoven, C; Ko, Y.D; Hamann, U; Fischer, H.P; Bruning, T; Pesch, B; Chang-Claude, J; Wang-Gohrke, S; Bremer, M; Karstens, J.H; Hillemanns, P; Dork, T; Nevanlinna, H.A; Heikkinen, T; Heikkila, P; Blomqvist, C; Aittomaki, K; Aaltonen, K; Lindblom, A; Margolin, S; Mannermaa, A; Kosma, V.M; Kauppinen, J.M; Kataja, V; Auvinen, P; Eskelinen, M; Soini, Y; Chenevix-Trench, G; Spurdle, A.B; Beesley, J; Chen, X; Holland, H; Lambrechts, D; Claes, B; Vandorpe, T; Neven, P; Wildiers, H; Flesch-Janys, D; Hein, R; Loning, T; Kosel, M; Fredericksen, Z.S; Wang, X; Giles, G.G; Baglietto, L; Severi, G; McLean, C; Haiman, C.A; Henderson, B.E; Marchand, L. le; Kolonel, L.N; Alnaes, G.G; Kristensen, V; Borresen-Dale, A.L; Hunter, D.J; Hankinson, S.E; Anulis, I.L; Mulligan, A.M; O'Malley, F.P; Devilee, P; Huijts, P.E; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M; Asperen, C.J. van

    2011-01-01

    .... We investigated breast cancer risk associations of eight susceptibility loci identified in GWAS and two putative susceptibility loci in candidate genes in relation to specific breast tumor subtypes...

  16. Concurrent breast stroma sarcoma and breast carcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Teresa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is one of the most important health problems in the world and affects a great number of women over the entire globe. This group of tumors rarely presents as bilateral disease and, when it does happen, normally occurs within the same histological type. We report a rare case of concurrent bilateral breast cancer with two different histology types, a breast carcinoma and a breast sarcoma, in a 42-year-old woman referred to our hospital. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian woman admitted to our institute in August 1999, presented with a nodule in the left breast of 3.0 × 2.5 cm, and, in the right breast, one of 1.0 cm, suspected of malignancy and with a clinically negative armpit. Biopsies had revealed invasive mammary carcinoma (right breast and sarcoma (left breast. She was submitted to bilateral modified radical mastectomy. A histological study showed an invasive mammary carcinoma degree II lobular pleomorphic type with invasion of seven of the 19 excised axillary nodes in the right breast and, in the left breast, a sarcoma of the mammary stroma, for which the immunohistochemistry study was negative for epithelial biomarkers and positive for vimentin. Later, she was submitted for chemotherapy (six cycles of 75 mg/m2 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by radiotherapy of the thoracic wall and axillary nodes on the left. Hormone receptors were positive in the tumor of the right breast, and tamoxifen, 20 mg, was prescribed on a daily basis (five years followed by letrozole, 2.5 mg, also daily (five years. She presented no sign of negative evolution in the last consultation. Conclusion The risk of development of bilateral breast cancer is about 1% each year within a similar histological type, but it is higher in tumors with lobular histology. In this case, the patient presented, simultaneously, two histologically distinct tumors, thus evidencing a rare situation.

  17. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    500 or secretions due to pathological activity and can be precursors to breast cancers such as ductal carcinoma22, 23. Breast microcalcifications ... Breast Cancer Screening. Am J Med, in press. 650 2Gilles R, Meunier M, Lucidarme O, et al. (1996) Clustered breast microcalcifications : Evaluation... Breast Cancer , contrast-enhanced imaging, digital breast tomosynthesis, dynamic imaging, x-ray imaging 15. Number of Pages (count all pages

  18. Association between breast cancer, breast density, and body adiposity evaluated by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenlian; Huang, Peng; Macura, Katarzyna J; Artemov, Dmitri

    2016-07-01

    Despite the lack of reliable methods with which to measure breast density from 2D mammograms, numerous studies have demonstrated a positive association between breast cancer and breast density. The goal of this study was to study the association between breast cancer and body adiposity, as well as breast density quantitatively assessed from 3D MRI breast images. Breast density was calculated from 3D T1-weighted MRI images. The thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer was used as a surrogate marker for body adiposity. We evaluated the correlation between breast density, age, body adiposity, and breast cancer. Breast density was calculated for 410 patients with unilateral invasive breast cancer, 73 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and 361 controls without breast cancer. Breast density was inversely related to age and the thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer. Breast cancer was only positively associated with body adiposity and age. Age and body adiposity are predictive of breast density. Breast cancer was not associated with breast density; however, it was associated with the thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer, a surrogate marker for body adiposity. Our results based on a limited number of patients warrant further investigations. • MRI breast density is negatively associated with body adiposity. • MRI breast density is negatively associated with age. • Breast cancer is positively associated with body adiposity. • Breast Cancer is not associated with MRI breast density.

  19. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  20. Hypoplastic breast anomalies in the female adolescent breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocour, Sebastian; Lemaine, Valerie

    2013-02-01

    Hypoplastic breast anomalies remain a reconstructive challenge. In this article, the authors review the spectrum of nonsyndromic breast hypoplasia in the adolescent girl, namely idiopathic breast hypoplasia and tuberous breast deformity. Challenges specific to this population include (1) identifying the ideal timing for surgery, (2) choosing the optimal reconstructive method while taking into consideration ongoing changes in the female body (e.g., future pregnancy), and (3) considering the use of a two-stage reconstructive approach to gradually expand the skin envelope. A comprehensive review of surgical techniques that address these conditions is provided, taking into account the evolution and the most recent advances in surgical techniques.

  1. Breast Imaging after Breast Augmentation with Autologous Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyu Won; Seo, Bo Kyung; Shim, Eddeum; Song, Sung Eun; Cho, Kyu Ran [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Eul Sik [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Ok Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The use of autologous tissue transfer for breast augmentation is an alternative to using foreign implant materials. The benefits of this method are the removal of unwanted fat from other body parts, no risk of implant rupture, and the same feel as real breast tissue. However, sometimes there is a dilemma about whether or not to biopsy for calcifications or masses detected after the procedure is completed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the procedures of breast augmentation with autologous tissues, the imaging features of various complications, and the role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of complications and hidden breast diseases.

  2. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  3. Breast Recurrent Hydatid Cyst Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Ayetullah; Albayrak, Yavuz; Akalp, Sevilay Özmen; Yalçın, Ahmet; Albayrak, Ayşe

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hydatid cyst is a zoonotic disease seen in endemic areas. It is an important health problem in our country and especially in our Eastern and South-eastern Anatolia Region. Involvement of isolated breast tissue is very rare in hydatid cystdisease. As far as we know, isolated recurrent breast cyst hydatidosis has not been found in the literature. We aimed to present the case of a patient who was diagnosed with recurrent isolated cyst hydatid in the same breast, operated on because of hydatid cyst in the right breast 9 years ago. A hydatid cyst should be considered, particularly in endemic regions, in the differential diagnosis of cystic masses of the breast. If the patient has previously undergone surgery for breast cyst hydatid disease, recurrent cyst hydatid disease should be considered at the differential diagnosis. Celsius.

  4. Breast PET/MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsaether, Amy; Moy, Linda

    2017-05-01

    Breast and whole-body PET/MR imaging is being used to detect local and metastatic disease and is being investigated for potential imaging biomarkers, which may eventually help personalize treatments and prognoses. This article provides an overview of breast and whole-body PET/MR exam techniques, summarizes PET and MR breast imaging for lesion detection, outlines investigations into multi-parametric breast PET/MR, looks at breast PET/MR in the setting of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, and reviews the pros and cons of whole-body PET/MR in the setting of metastatic or suspected metastatic breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  6. Breast Abscess: A Brief Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradipta Das

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast infections commonly affect women aged between 18 and 50 years and are categorized as lactational and non-lactational infections. The infection can affect the skin overlying the breast when it can be a primary event or, it may occur secondary to mastitis and/or, secondary to a lesion in the skin. The commoner clinical findings consist of a tender, hard breast mass with erythema of the overlying skin. Needle aspiration yields pus cultures of which yield the infecting microorganisms. In practice, treatment is usually empiric consisting of bed rest, frequent nursing, fluids, Acetaminophen for pain and fever and a course of antibiotics. The other common line of treatment for breast abscess consists of incision and drainage with primary and/or, secondary closure. This brief communication on breast abscess gives an overview of the possible etiologies, clinical signs and symptoms and the treatment lines for breast abscess.

  7. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  8. Extreme oncoplastic breast surgery: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bordoni

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The surgical treatment for multicentric breast cancers remains controversial even though emerging evidences show good oncological and aesthetic outcomes following oncoplastic conserving breast surgery.

  9. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  10. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  11. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  12. Cytokines, Neovascularization and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Rationale Angiogenesis is important in the growth and metastases of human breast cancer . We hypothesize that this process is under the control of...staining patern seen in invasive cancer , in situ cancer , and benign breast tissue. Note that staining was graded as the most intensly staining area. The...blocked, tumors do not grow or metastasize . The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that breast cancer cells are capable of participating in this

  13. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer.

  14. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  15. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  16. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  17. Augmented reality for breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancati, Alberto; Angrigiani, Claudio; Nava, Maurizio B; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Rocco, Nicola; Ventrice, Fernando; Dorr, Julio

    2018-02-21

    Augmented reality (AR) enables the superimposition of virtual reality reconstructions onto clinical images of a real patient, in real time. This allows visualization of internal structures through overlying tissues, thereby providing a virtual transparency vision of surgical anatomy. AR has been applied to neurosurgery, which utilizes a relatively fixed space, frames, and bony references; the application of AR facilitates the relationship between virtual and real data. Augmented Breast imaging (ABI) is described. Breast MRI studies for breast implant patients with seroma were performed using a Siemens 3T system with a body coil and a four-channel bilateral phased-array breast coil as the transmitter and receiver, respectively. The contrast agent used was (CA) gadolinium (Gd) injection (0.1 mmol/kg at 2 ml/s) by a programmable power injector. Dicom formated images data from 10 MRI cases of breast implant seroma and 10 MRI cases with T1-2 N0 M0 breast cancer, were imported and transformed into Augmented reality images. Augmented breast imaging (ABI) demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence, 3D cursor use, and joystick fly-through. Augmented breast imaging (ABI) to the breast can improve clinical outcomes, giving an enhanced view of the structures to work on. It should be further studied to determine its utility in clinical practice.

  18. Histomorphological spetrum of breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, S; Koirala, U; Khatri, R; Acharya, L; Suwal, A

    2011-04-01

    Cancer of the breast is the second most common cause of cancer in women. Mass in the breast, whether benign or malignant is a cause of anxiety to the patients and the family members. All breast lumps are considered to be carcinomas until proved otherwise and are the causes of concern both for the patient and surgeon. This is a retrospective study conducted in Kathmandu Model Hospital for a total duration of three years from August 2007 to August 2010. 114 sample of breast tissue sent for histopathology were studied. Peak incidence of benign lesion was in between 21-30 years and malignant lesions in between 31-50 years. No breast lesions were seen in the first decade of life. Cancer of the breast was seen in 12.28% of cases. Fibroadenoma and fibrocystic disease were the commonest benign lesion and infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest malignant lesion. Specimens from 10 male breasts were received. Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion encountered in males. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was seen in a 70 year old male. Breast cancer is one of the commonest causes of breast lump particularly in women and is growing public health problem in Nepal.

  19. Using mastectomy specimens to develop breast models for breast tomosynthesis and CT breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, J. Michael; Das, Mini; Didier, Clay; Mah'D, Mufeed; Glick, Stephen J.

    2008-03-01

    Dedicated x-ray computed tomography (CT) of the breast using a cone-beam flat-panel detector system is a modality under investigation by a number of research teams. As previously reported, we have fabricated a prototype, bench-top flat-panel CT breast imaging (CTBI) system and developed computer simulation software to model such a system. We are developing a methodology to use high resolution, low noise CT reconstructions of fresh mastectomy specimens for generating an ensemble of 3D digital breast phantoms that realistically model 3D compressed and uncompressed breast anatomy. These breast models can be used to simulate realistic projection data for both breast tomosynthesis (BT) and CT systems thereby providing a powerful evaluation and optimization mechanism.

  20. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  1. Primary breast lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julen, Olivier; Dellacasa, Ilaria; Pelte, Marie-Françoise; Borish, Bettina; Bouchardy, Christine; Capanna, Federica; Vlastos, Georges; Dubuisson, Jean-Bernard; Vlastos, Anne-Thérèse

    2009-07-22

    The diagnosis, prognostic factors, and optimal management of primary breast lymphomas (PBL) is difficult. Seven patients recorded at the Geneva Cancer Registry between 1973-1998 were reviewed. Five patient had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, one a follicular lymphoma and one a MALT-lymphoma. All patients had clinical and radiological findings consistent with breast cancer and underwent mastectomy, which is not indicated in PBL. Diagnosis should be established prior to operative interventions, as fine needle aspiration missed the diagnosis for one patient and intra-operative frozen sections for 3 patients in our study. Five-year and 10-year overall survivals were 57% and 15%, respectively. Of the 3 patients who died from PBL, 2 had tumors that were Bcl-2 positive but Bcl-6 negative. All 3 surviving patients have positive Bcl-2 and Bcl-6 immunostaining, which could be important prognostic factors if confirmed by a larger study.

  2. Primary breast lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Thérèse Vlastos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis, prognostic factors, and optimal management of primary breast lymphomas (PBL is difficult. Seven patients recorded at the Geneva Cancer Registry between 1973-1998 were reviewed. Five patient had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, one a follicular lymphoma and one a MALT-lymphoma. All patients had clinical and radiological findings consistent with breast cancer and underwent mastectomy, which is not indicated in PBL. Diagnosis should be established prior to operative interventions, as fine needle aspiration missed the diagnosis for one patient and intra-operative frozen sections for 3 patients in our study. Five-year and 10-year overall survivals were 57% and 15%, respectively. Of the 3 patients who died from PBL, 2 had tumors that were Bcl-2 positive but Bcl-6 negative. All 3 surviving patients have positive Bcl-2 and Bcl-6 immunostaining, which could be important prognostic factors if confirmed by a larger study.

  3. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  4. Today in breast augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Calderón

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Breast augmentation is one of the most commonly performed procedures worldwide among aesthetic reconstructive surgeries. Among the indications for performing the procedure are primary and secondary alterations related to breasts shape and volume. During the initial assessment, emphasis should be placed in the anamnesis and physical examination, allowing to define target sizing and realistic expectations to prospectively determine the possible postoperative satisfaction rates. There are several methods used to select the appropriate implants that have become more accurate with time and with the use of technology. Although there are multiple materials developed, to this moment silicone implants continue to be the ones most used worldwide with low complication rates depending on each patient and on the technique used. It is considered as one of the aesthetic reconstructive surgeries with the highest degree of acceptance among the general population who undergo this type of procedures.

  5. Transaxillary Endoscopic Breast Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Bo Sim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The axillary technique is the most popular approach to breast augmentation among Korean women. Transaxillary breast augmentation is now conducted with sharp electrocautery dissection under direct endoscopic vision throughout the entire process. The aims of this method are clear: both a bloodless pocket and a sharp non-traumatic dissection. Round textured or anatomical cohesive gel implants have been used to make predictable well-defined inframammary creases because textured surface implants demonstrated a better stability attributable to tissue adherence compared with smooth surface implants. The axillary endoscopic technique has greatly evolved, and now the surgical results are comparable to those with the inframammary approach. The author feels that this technique is an excellent choice for young patients with an indistinct or absent inframammary fold, who do not want a scar in the aesthetic unit of their chest.

  6. Primary breast lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julen, Olivier; Dellacasa, Ilaria; Pelte, Marie-Françoise; Borish, Bettina; Bouchardy, Christine; Capanna, Federica; Vlastos, Georges; Dubuisson, Jean-Bernard; Vlastos, Anne-Thérèse

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis, prognostic factors, and optimal management of primary breast lymphomas (PBL) is difficult. Seven patients recorded at the Geneva Cancer Registry between 1973–1998 were reviewed. Five patient had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, one a follicular lymphoma and one a MALT-lymphoma. All patients had clinical and radiological findings consistent with breast cancer and underwent mastectomy, which is not indicated in PBL. Diagnosis should be established prior to operative interventions, as fine needle aspiration missed the diagnosis for one patient and intra-operative frozen sections for 3 patients in our study. Five-year and 10-year overall survivals were 57% and 15%, respectively. Of the 3 patients who died from PBL, 2 had tumors that were Bcl-2 positive but Bcl-6 negative. All 3 surviving patients have positive Bcl-2 and Bcl-6 immunostaining, which could be important prognostic factors if confirmed by a larger study. PMID:21139885

  7. The evolving breast reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this editorial is to give an update on the use of the propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator flap (TAP/TDAP-flap) within the field of breast reconstruction. The TAP-flap can be dissected by a combined use of a monopolar cautery and a scalpel. Microsurgical instruments are generally...... not needed. The propeller TAP-flap can be designed in different ways, three of these have been published: (I) an oblique upwards design; (II) a horizontal design; (III) an oblique downward design. The latissimus dorsi-flap is a good and reliable option for breast reconstruction, but has been criticized...... for morbidity and complications. The TAP-flap does not seem to impair the function of the shoulder or arm and the morbidity appears to be scarce. However, an implant is often needed in combination with the TAP-flap, which results in implant related morbidity over time. The TAP-flap seems to be a promising tool...

  8. Silicone breast implants: complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwuagwu, F C; Frame, J D

    1997-12-01

    Silicone breast implants have been used for augmentation mammoplasty for cosmetic purposes as well as for breast reconstruction following mastectomy for more than three decades. Though the use of the silicone gel filled variety has been banned in the USA except for special cases, they continue to be available elsewhere in the world including the UK. Despite the immense benefit they provide, their usage is associated with some complications. Most of these are related to the surgery and can be reduced by good surgical management. The major complications associated with their use is adverse capsular contracture, an outcome which can be very frustrating to manage. This article reviews the commonly reported complications and suggested management alternatives.

  9. Bisphosphonates for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakis, N; Schmidt, Rl; Stockler, M

    2005-07-20

    Bone is the most common site of metastatic disease associated with breast cancer affecting more than half of women during the course of their disease. Bone metastases are a significant cause of morbidity due to pain, pathological fractures, hypercalcaemia and spinal cord compression, and contribute to mortality. Bisphosphonates, which inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, are standard care for tumour-associated hypercalcaemia, and have been shown to reduce bone pain, improve quality of life, and to delay skeletal events and reduce their number in patients with multiple myeloma. Several randomized controlled trials have evaluated the role of bisphosphonates in breast cancer. To assess the effect of bisphosphonates on skeletal events, bone pain, quality of life and survival in women with early and advanced breast cancer. Randomized controlled trials were identified using the specialized register maintained by the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group (the search was applied to the databases Medline, Central/CCTR, Embase, CancerLit, and included handsearches from a number of other relevant sources). See: Cochrane Collaboration Collaborative Review Group in Breast Cancer search strategy. Randomized controlled trials evaluating skeletal events in women with metastatic breast cancer and early breast cancer comparing: 1. treatment with a bisphosphonate with the same treatment without a bisphosphonate 2. treatment with one bisphosphonate with treatment with a different bisphosphonate. Studies were selected by two independent reviewers. Studies fulfilling the eligibility criteria were evaluated for quality, particularly concealment of allocation to randomized groups. Data were extracted from the published papers or abstracts independently by the two primary reviewers for each of the specified endpoints (skeletal events, bone pain, quality of life and survival). Data on skeletal events and survival were presented as numbers of events, risk ratios and ratios of event rates

  10. Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Natascia; Woditschka, Stephan; Reed, L. Tiffany; Nakayama, Joji; Mayer, Musa; Wetzel, Maria; Steeg, Patricia S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite important progress in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies, metastatic disease often develops in breast cancer patients and remains the leading cause of their deaths. For patients with established metastatic disease, therapy is palliative, with few breaks and with mounting adverse effects. Many have hypothesized that a personalized or precision approach (the terms are used interchangeably) to cancer therapy, in which treatment is based on the individual characteristics of each patient, will provide better outcomes. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of breast cancer metastasis and the challenges in personalization of treatment. The instability of metastatic tumors remains a leading obstacle to personalization, because information from a patient’s primary tumor may not accurately reflect the metastasis, and one metastasis may vary from another. Furthermore, the variable presence of tumor subpopulations, such as stem cells and dormant cells, may increase the complexity of the targeted treatments needed. Although molecular signatures and circulating biomarkers have been identified in breast cancer, there is lack of validated predictive molecular markers to optimize treatment choices for either prevention or treatment of metastatic disease. Finally, to maximize the information that can be obtained, increased attention to clinical trial design in the metastasis preventive setting is needed. PMID:23895915

  11. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  12. Breast transillumination a viable option for breast cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mammography is an established screening tool for breast cancer in high-income countries but may not be feasible for most resource poor nations. Alternative modalities are needed to mitigate the impact of the increasing incidence and mortality due to breast cancer. This may require the development of new ...

  13. A new look at breast density and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haars, G.

    2008-01-01

    Breast density, as visible on mammograms, comprises connective and epithelial tissue and can be seen to represent the glandular target tissue for breast cancer, whereas the non-dense tissue mainly comprises fat. High percentages of density are established to be one of the strongest risk factors of

  14. The Relationship between Breast Size and Breast Milk Volume of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of study was to determine if there is any relationship between breast size and the quantity of milk produced during sucking in 57 primiparas who practiced exclusive breast –feeding. The infants' ages range between 6 and 24 weeks with a mean age of 8.13 (5.2) weeks. There were 31 male and 26 female infants.

  15. Conservative breast management of breast cancer in the Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Conservative breast management (CBM) has become the standard of care for early breast cancer especially in developed countries. However it's utilization in Nigeria, a developing country is greatly limited even in early cases despite international clinical trials confirming equivalent survivals for CBM and ...

  16. Breast self examination and breast cancer: Knowledge and practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medical students play an important role in creating a supportive environment within their communities for screening behaviours in health promotion. Medical students must possess the appropriate knowledge concerning breast self examination. (BSE) and breast cancer to be effective health educators.

  17. Breast self examination and breast cancer: Knowledge and practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medical students play an important role in creating a supportive environment within their communities for screening behaviours in health promotion. Medical students must possess the appropriate knowledge concerning breast self examination (BSE) and breast cancer to be effective health educators.

  18. Breast MRI in pregnancy-associated breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Jung; Shin, Sang Soo [Dept. of of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyo Soon; Baek, Jang Mi; Seon, Hyun Ju; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Park, Min Ho [Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging and to describe the MR imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. From 2006 to 2013, MR images of 23 patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated. MR images were reviewed to evaluate lesion detection and imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. MR images were analyzed by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System and an additional MR-detected lesion with no mammographic or sonographic abnormality was determined. MR imaging depicted breast cancer in all patients, even in marked background parenchymal enhancement. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was seen as a mass in 20 patients and as non-mass enhancement with segmental distribution in 3 patients. The most common features of the masses were irregular shape (85%), non-circumscribed margin (85%), and heterogeneous enhancement (60%). An additional site of cancer was detected with MR imaging in 5 patients (21.7%) and the type of surgery was changed. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was usually seen as an irregular mass with heterogeneous enhancement on MR images. Although these findings were not specific, MR imaging was useful in evaluating the disease extent of pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

  19. Cutaneous Silicone Granuloma Mimicking Breast Cancer after Ruptured Breast Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Asim Ghulam El-Charnoubi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous manifestations due to migration of silicone from ruptured implants are rare. Migrated silicone with cutaneous involvement has been found in the chest wall, abdominal wall, and lower extremities. We describe a case of cutaneous silicone granuloma in the breast exhibiting unusual growth mimicking breast cancer after a ruptured implant.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical breast examination for breast cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, false positive and false negative rates of clinical breast examination for palpable breast masses at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria. Methodology: This is a one-year prospective study from February 2009 to ...

  1. Correlation of centroid-based breast size, surface-based breast volume, and asymmetry-score-based breast symmetry in three-dimensional breast shape analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henseler, Helga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate correlations among the size, volume, and symmetry of the female breast after reconstruction based on previously published data. Methods: The centroid, namely the geometric center of a three-dimensional (3D breast-landmark-based configuration, was used to calculate the size of the breast. The surface data of the 3D breast images were used to measure the volume. Breast symmetry was assessed by the Procrustes analysis method, which is based on the 3D coordinates of the breast landmarks to produce an asymmetry score. The relationship among the three measurements was investigated. For this purpose, the data of 44 patients who underwent unilateral breast reconstruction with an extended latissimus dorsi flap were analyzed. The breast was captured by a validated 3D imaging system using multiple cameras. Four landmarks on each breast and two landmarks marking the midline were used.Results: There was a significant positive correlation between the centroid-based breast size of the unreconstructed breast and the measured asymmetry (p=0.024; correlation coefficient, 0.34. There was also a significant relationship between the surface-based breast volume of the unaffected side and the overall asymmetry score (p<0.001; correlation coefficient, 0.556. An increase in size and especially in volume of the unreconstructed breast correlated positively with an increase in breast asymmetry in a linear relationship.Conclusions: In breast shape analysis, the use of more detailed surface-based data should be preferred to centroid-based size data. As the breast size increases, the latissimus dorsi flap for unilateral breast reconstruction increasingly falls short in terms of matching the healthy breast in a linear relationship. Other reconstructive options should be considered for larger breasts. Generally plastic surgeons should view the two breasts as a single unit when assessing breast aesthetics and not view each

  2. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Assessing Affect Reactivity and Regulation in Patients With Stage 0-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-27

    Healthy Subject; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  3. [Breast tomosynthesis: a new tool for diagnosing breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Miravete, P; Etxano, J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to be the most common malignant tumor in women in occidental countries. Mammography is currently the technique of choice for screening programs; however, although it has been widely validated, mammography has its limitations, especially in dense breasts. Breast tomosynthesis is a revolutionary advance in the diagnosis of breast cancer. It makes it possible to define lesions that are occult in the glandular tissue and therefore to detect breast tumors that are impossible to see on conventional mammograms. In considering the combined use of mammography and tomosynthesis, many factors must be taken into account apart from cancer detection; these include additional radiation, the recall rate, and the time necessary to carry out and interpret the two tests. In this article, we review the technical principles of tomosynthesis, it main uses, and the future perspective for this imaging technique. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Breast Segmentation and Density Estimation in Breast MRI: A Fully Automatic Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubern Merida, A.; Kallenberg, M.G.; Mann, R.M.; Marti, R.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2015-01-01

    Breast density measurement is an important aspect in breast cancer diagnosis as dense tissue has been related to the risk of breast cancer development. The purpose of this study is to develop a method to automatically compute breast density in breast MRI. The framework is a combination of image

  5. Breast cancer screening effect across breast density strata: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, D. van der; Ripping, T.M.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Broeders, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer screening is known to reduce breast cancer mortality. A high breast density may affect this reduction. We assessed the effect of screening on breast cancer mortality in women with dense and fatty breasts separately. Analyses were performed within the Nijmegen (Dutch) screening

  6. Immediate breast reconstruction with expander in pregnant breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsiriwat, Visnu; Peccatori, Fedro Alessandro; Martella, Stefano; Azim, Hatem A; Sarno, Maria Anna; Galimberti, Viviana; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Intra, Mattia; Sangalli, Claudia; Rotmensz, Nicole; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Renne, Giuseppe; Schorr, Mario Casales; Nevola Teixeira, Luiz Felipe; Rietjens, Mario; Giroda, Massimo; Gentilini, Oreste

    2013-10-01

    Breast reconstruction after mastectomy is currently considered an essential component in managing breast cancer patients, particularly those diagnosed at a young age. However, no studies have been published on the feasibility of immediate breast reconstruction in patients diagnosed and operated during the course of gestation. We retrospectively identified all breast cancer patients who were subjected to mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction during pregnancy at the European Institute of Oncology between 2002 and 2012. Patient demographics, gestational age at surgery, tumor stage, adjuvant treatment, details of the surgical procedures, surgical outcomes and fetal outcomes were analyzed. A total of 78 patients with breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy were subjected to a surgical procedure during the course of gestation. Twenty-two patients had mastectomy; of whom 13 were subjected to immediate breast reconstruction. Twelve out of 13 patients had a two-stage procedure with tissue expander insertion. Median gestational age at surgery was 16 weeks. No major surgical complications were encountered. Only one patient elected to have an abortion, otherwise, no spontaneous abortions or pregnancy complications were reported. Median gestational age at delivery was 35 weeks (range: 32-40 weeks). No major congenital malformations were reported. At a median follow-up of 32 months, all patients are alive with no long-term surgical complications. This is the first study of immediate breast reconstruction in pregnant breast cancer patients. Tissue expander insertion appears to ensure a short operative time, and does not seem to be associated with considerable morbidity to the patient or the fetus. Hence, it could be considered in the multidisciplinary management of women diagnosed with breast cancer during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mammographic phenotypes of breast cancer risk driven by breast anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastounioti, Aimilia; Oustimov, Andrew; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Pantalone, Lauren; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2017-03-01

    Image-derived features of breast parenchymal texture patterns have emerged as promising risk factors for breast cancer, paving the way towards personalized recommendations regarding women's cancer risk evaluation and screening. The main steps to extract texture features of the breast parenchyma are the selection of regions of interest (ROIs) where texture analysis is performed, the texture feature calculation and the texture feature summarization in case of multiple ROIs. In this study, we incorporate breast anatomy in these three key steps by (a) introducing breast anatomical sampling for the definition of ROIs, (b) texture feature calculation aligned with the structure of the breast and (c) weighted texture feature summarization considering the spatial position and the underlying tissue composition of each ROI. We systematically optimize this novel framework for parenchymal tissue characterization in a case-control study with digital mammograms from 424 women. We also compare the proposed approach with a conventional methodology, not considering breast anatomy, recently shown to enhance the case-control discriminatory capacity of parenchymal texture analysis. The case-control classification performance is assessed using elastic-net regression with 5-fold cross validation, where the evaluation measure is the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. Upon optimization, the proposed breast-anatomy-driven approach demonstrated a promising case-control classification performance (AUC=0.87). In the same dataset, the performance of conventional texture characterization was found to be significantly lower (AUC=0.80, DeLong's test p-valuebreast anatomy may further leverage the associations of parenchymal texture features with breast cancer, and may therefore be a valuable addition in pipelines aiming to elucidate quantitative mammographic phenotypes of breast cancer risk.

  8. Miscellaneous syndromes and their management: occult breast cancer, breast cancer in pregnancy, male breast cancer, surgery in stage IV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colfry, Alfred John

    2013-04-01

    Surgical therapy for occult breast cancer has traditionally centered on mastectomy; however, breast conservation with whole breast radiotherapy followed by axillary lymph node dissection has shown equivalent results. Patients with breast cancer in pregnancy can be safely and effectively treated; given a patient's pregnancy trimester and stage of breast cancer, a clinician must be able to guide therapy accordingly. Male breast cancer risk factors show strong association with BRCA2 mutations, as well as Klinefelter syndrome. Several retrospective trials of surgical therapy in stage IV breast cancer have associated a survival advantage with primary site tumor extirpation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before age 12) or reached menopause late (after age 55). Breast cancer is more common among women who • Are older • ... 40. If you are at high risk for breast cancer, you should get an annual mammogram beginning at age 40. Talk with your provider about other screening ...

  10. [The tuberous breast: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoël, C; Soubirac, L; Lopez, R; Grolleau, J L; Chavoin, J P

    2002-10-01

    The tuberous breast is one of the most challenging problem in breast surgery. Pediatricians, gynaecologists and plastic surgeons are particularly concerned with the treatment of these young patients. A good assessment of the pathology and a precise knowledge of the surgical procedures are keypoints for a successful treatment. A case report will precede a literature overview of this very complex problem.

  11. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  12. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...

  13. [Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlauf, M; Neumann, M; Bomberg, S; Luczak, K; Heikaus, S; Gustmann, C; Antke, C; Ezziddin, S; Fottner, C; Pavel, M; Pape, U-F; Rinke, A; Lahner, H; Schott, M; Cremer, B; Hörsch, D; Baum, R P; Groh, U; Alkatout, I; Rudlowski, C; Scheler, P; Zirbes, T K; Hoffmann, J; Fehm, T; Gabbert, H E; Baldus, S E

    2015-05-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) of the breast are specific tumor entities. According to the literature up to 5% of breast neoplasms are malignant epithelial neoplasms of the breast. They are defined by a neuroendocrine (NE) architecture and cytology combined with an expression of the neuroendocrine vesicle markers chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin. The diagnosis is supplemented by the receptor status and the proliferative activity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of 2012 the following groups of NEN are distinguished: (1) invasive breast carcinoma with NE differentiation, (2) well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and (3) poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma (NEC). This review article focuses on (1) the definition and basic principles of diagnostics, (2) the history, nomenclature and WHO classification from 2003 and 2012, (3) the frequency of breast NEN, (4) the hereditary background and functional activity, (5) the expression of receptors and (6) the possible clinical implications. In addition, the first results of a retrospective single center study (n = 465 patients with breast cancer over a time period of 4 years) on the frequency of NEN of the breast at the Breast Center of the University Hospital Düsseldorf are presented. In this study a frequency of 4.5% of NEN was found based on a diagnostic cut-off of > 50% Chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin positive tumor cells.

  14. Having children after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, K H

    1994-01-01

    Having children after breast cancer is an important clinical issue. Evidence from clinical studies on pregnancy subsequent to breast cancer has not shown a survival disadvantage. Clinical experience suggests that desire for children, support from family, and quality of life issues are also important factors in decisions about pregnancy. This qualitative study was done (1) to identify reasons why young women decide to become pregnant after breast cancer; (2) to describe concerns about subsequent pregnancy; (3) to describe helpful behaviors in decision making; and (4) to explore the meaning of having children after breast cancer. Twenty-three women were identified who had early-stage breast cancer and became pregnant after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Sixteen women participated in a semi-structured interview. Qualitative data were analyzed for content. Results indicate that pregnancy subsequent to breast cancer is a powerful stimulus for young women to "get well" again. Reasons for subsequent pregnancy were related to the women's developmental age. Young women expressed concerns about the potential for future disease recurrence, about breast self-examination and mammography during pregnancy, and about surviving to see their children grow up. Perceived helpful behaviors included developing a realistic perspective, living with uncertainty, love and support of spouse, and delineating differences between personal and medical decision making.

  15. Benign Breast Problems and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nipple is a common benign breast symptom. During pregnancy, nipple discharge is normal as the breasts get ready to produce milk. In women who are not pregnant, it can be caused by hormonal changes. Some medications can cause nipple discharge. Nipple discharge ...

  16. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing

  17. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...

  18. Breast cancer statistics and markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika Siva Donepudi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the familiar diseases in women. Incidence and mortality due to cancer, particularly breast cancer has been increasing for last 50 years, even though there is a lacuna in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages. According to World Health Organization (WHO 2012 reports, breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, accounting 23% of all cancer deaths. In Asia, one in every three women faces the risk of breast cancer in their lifetime as per reports of WHO 2012. Here, the review is been focused on different breast cancer markers, that is, tissue markers (hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor-2, urokinase plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, p53 and cathepsin D, genetic markers (BRAC1 and 2 and gene expression microarray technique, etc., and serum markers (CA 15.3, BR 27.29, MCA, CA 549, carcinoembryonic antigen, oncoproteins, and cytokeratins used in present diagnosis, but none of the mentioned markers can diagnose breast cancer at an early stage. There is a disquieting need for the identification of best diagnosing marker, which can be able to diagnose even in early stage of breast carcinogenesis.

  19. Histopathological Types of Breast Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morin”. On the average it represents the prevalence of breast cancer in southern part of Nigeria. The mean age of diagnosis of breast cancer in females in our series was 45.7 years. This age compares favourably With the mean age in other parts of Nigeria. In Calabar, South — South. Nigeria the mean age was found to be ...

  20. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women who • Are older • Have no children • Delayed pregnancy until after age 30 • Have used combination hormone therapy (estrogen plus progestin) for more than five years • Have a mother, sister, or daughter who has had breast cancer Did you know? Breast pain alone is not ...

  1. Post-radiation fibrosarcoma of the breast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Lemson (M.); H.J. Mud; A. Wijnmaalen (Arendjan); R.W.M. Giard (Raimond)

    1996-01-01

    markdownabstractWe report the first case of fibrosarcoma of stromal breast tissue occurring 11 years after breast-conserving therapy for breast cancer. A review of six cases of stromal malignant fibrous histiocytoma is presented, developing between 5 years and 11 years after breast radiation. Since

  2. Implementation of Whole-Breast Screening Ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Melissa A; Hooley, Regina J

    2017-05-01

    Whole-breast screening ultrasonography is being increasingly implemented in breast imaging centers because numerous studies have shown the benefit of supplemental screening for women with dense breasts and breast density notification laws are becoming more widespread. This article reviews the numerous considerations involved in integrating a screening ultrasonography program into a busy practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...... who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...

  4. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  5. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  6. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  7. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855

  8. Single lump breast surface stress assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairavan, R.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Kirtsaeng, S.; Sakuntasathien, S.; Paitong, P.; Alcain, J. B.; Lai, S. L.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer is one of the commonest cancers diagnosed among women around the world. Simulation approach has been utilized to study, characterize and improvise detection methods for breast cancer. However, minimal simulation work has been done to evaluate the surface stress of the breast with lumps. Thus, in this work, simulation analysis was utilized to evaluate and assess the breast surface stress due to the presence of a lump within the internal structure of the breast. The simulation was conducted using the Elmer software. Simulation results have confirmed that the presence of a lump within the breast causes stress on the skin surface of the breast.

  9. Recurrent breast sparganosis: Clinical and radiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Yoon; Woo, Ok Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyu Ran; Seo, Bo Kyoung [Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    We report a case of recurrent sparganosis of the breast within 6 months following surgical removal of worms from the breast. The patient was referred to our hospital with a palpable mass in the right breast. On admission, breast ultrasonography revealed a tortuous tubular hypoechoic lesion with indistinct margins within a surrounding hyperechoic area, which strongly suggested sparganosis. We performed surgical excision and confirmed sparganosis. After 6 months, the patient detected a new mass in her right breast and visited our hospital. Breast ultrasonography revealed similar features in a different area of the same breast. We confirmed recurrent sparganosis surgically.

  10. Combining quantitative and qualitative breast density measures to assess breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlikowske, Karla; Ma, Lin; Scott, Christopher G; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir P; Jensen, Matthew R; Sprague, Brian L; Henderson, Louise M; Pankratz, V Shane; Cummings, Steven R; Miglioretti, Diana L; Vachon, Celine M; Shepherd, John A

    2017-08-22

    Accurately identifying women with dense breasts (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System [BI-RADS] heterogeneously or extremely dense) who are at high breast cancer risk will facilitate discussions of supplemental imaging and primary prevention. We examined the independent contribution of dense breast volume and BI-RADS breast density to predict invasive breast cancer and whether dense breast volume combined with Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) risk model factors (age, race/ethnicity, family history of breast cancer, history of breast biopsy, and BI-RADS breast density) improves identifying women with dense breasts at high breast cancer risk. We conducted a case-control study of 1720 women with invasive cancer and 3686 control subjects. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs for the effect of BI-RADS breast density and Volpara™ automated dense breast volume on invasive cancer risk, adjusting for other BCSC risk model factors plus body mass index (BMI), and we compared C-statistics between models. We calculated BCSC 5-year breast cancer risk, incorporating the adjusted ORs associated with dense breast volume. Compared with women with BI-RADS scattered fibroglandular densities and second-quartile dense breast volume, women with BI-RADS extremely dense breasts and third- or fourth-quartile dense breast volume (75% of women with extremely dense breasts) had high breast cancer risk (OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.84-4.47, and OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.87-3.52, respectively), whereas women with extremely dense breasts and first- or second-quartile dense breast volume were not at significantly increased breast cancer risk (OR 1.53, 95% CI 0.75-3.09, and OR 1.50, 95% CI 0.82-2.73, respectively). Adding continuous dense breast volume to a model with BCSC risk model factors and BMI increased discriminatory accuracy compared with a model with only BCSC risk model factors (C-statistic 0.639, 95% CI 0.623-0.654, vs. C-statistic 0.614, 95% CI 0.598-0.630, respectively; P breasts and fourth

  11. Genetic risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, A; Shackelford, R E; Anwar, F; Yeatman, T J

    2009-12-01

    Several cutting-edge strategies are being used to evaluate candidate genetic risk factors for breast cancer. These include linkage analysis for mapping out BRCA1 and BRCA2, mutational screening of candidate risk genes like CHEK2, ATM, BRIP1 and PALB2, which are associated with an intermediate level of breast cancer risk. Genome-wide association studies have revealed several low-penetrance breast cancer risk alleles. The predisposition factors are associated with different levels of breast cancer risk. Relative to control population, the risk in patients harboring high-risk BRCA1 and 2 mutations is over 10-fold, with intermediate penetrance genes 2 to 4-fold and with low penetrance alleles less than 1.5-fold. Overall, these factors account for about 25% of the genetic risk for breast cancer. In the remainder, genetic factors to contribute to the risk of breast cancer remain unknown and are a subject of current investigation. With discovery and validation of newer and clinically relevant predisposition factors, additional breast cancer risk categories may be recognized. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing allows identification of individuals at increased risk of breast cancer who are offered risk-reducing interventions. Targeted therapies are being developed that may refine management of patients with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Further genome-wide studies are required to identify clinically relevant molecular factors that will allow more accurate and widely applicable genetic risk stratification. Current efforts in discovery, validation and qualification of molecular markers of breast cancer risk offer considerable promise in the future to develop more accurate breast cancer risk assessment along with development of more effective chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies.

  12. Exercise in Targeting Metabolic Dysregulation in Stage I-III Breast or Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Cancer Survivor; No Evidence of Disease; Obesity; Overweight; Prostate Carcinoma; Sedentary Lifestyle; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  13. Exercise Intervention in Targeting Adiposity and Inflammation With Movement to Improve Prognosis in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-18

    Cancer Survivor; Central Obesity; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  14. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  15. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Filgrastim Followed By Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  16. Prevention of breast cancer in the context of a national breast screening programme

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howell, A; Astley, S; Warwick, J; Stavrinos, P; Sahin, S; Ingham, S; McBurney, H; Eckersley, B; Harvie, M; Wilson, M; Beetles, U; Warren, R; Hufton, A; Sergeant, J; Newman, W; Buchan, I; Cuzick, J; Evans, D. G

    2012-01-01

    ...; and Cambridge Breast Unit, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge; UK). Prevention of breast cancer in the context of a national breast screening programme (Review). J Intern Med 2012; 271 : 321–330...

  17. Epidemiology of breast cancer subtypes in two prospective cohort studies of breast cancer survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwan, Marilyn L; Kushi, Lawrence H; Weltzien, Erin; Maring, Benjamin; Kutner, Susan E; Fulton, Regan S; Lee, Marion M; Ambrosone, Christine B; Caan, Bette J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe breast tumor subtypes by common breast cancer risk factors and to determine correlates of subtypes using baseline data from two pooled prospective breast cancer...

  18. Intracystic breast carcinoma: case study and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Sadaf; Mood, Narges Izadi

    2010-12-01

    Breast carcinoma is the most common cancer in women, the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women, and the leading cause of death from cancer in women between the ages of 40 and 44. While cystic breast disease is the most frequent cause of benign breast masses, intracystic breast cancers are rare. We present a case of a postmenopausal woman with a large cystic breast carcinoma with its interesting radiologic and cytopathologic findings and review the literature.

  19. [Diagnosing and treating tuberous breast deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lea Juul; Jensen, Lisa Toft

    2017-01-23

    Tuberous breast deformity is a relatively rare breast anomaly, manifesting during puberty. Patients usually complain of small breasts, asymmetry or dissatisfaction with the shape of the breast. Objectively, patients present with reduced breast base, displaced inframammary fold, hypoplasia, asymmetry, ptosis and areola herniation. The surgical options are multiple, and either one- or two-stage procedures can be planned, using expanders, implants, "unfurling", lipografting or a combination of these. Surgical treatment leads to a high degree of patient satisfaction and low complication rates.

  20. Tuberous breast deformity: principles and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, J G; Kolker, A; Bartlett, G; Theile, R; Mutimer, K; Holmes, A D

    2000-12-01

    The tuberous breast deformity is one of the most challenging congenital breast anomalies. The nomenclature, classification, and treatment of this pathological condition have varied considerably. In this study, 16 patients with 23 tuberous breast deformities are evaluated. The breast deformities are classified according to the three-tier classification system used at the authors' institution. The treatment pattern is evaluated and a flexible algorithm is discussed for the treatment of the tuberous breast deformity.

  1. PECULIARITIES OF BREAST FEEDING OF PREMATURE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Kotlukov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents main strategies of breast feeding of prematurely born infants support, such as use of Philips AVENT breast pumpfor lactation formation and feeding of the infant with native breast milk.Key words: premature infants, nursing mother, breast feeding support, modern accessories for breast feeding support. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (6: 170–175

  2. Reconstruction for breast cancer in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is a disease many will experience. Depending on the size of the cancer, the size of the host breast, and whether it is multi-focal, a mastectomy may be recommended as part of the treatment. If this is the case, an immediate breast reconstruction may be offered. This article will describe the three main types of breast reconstruction and discuss pertinent issues regarding this, including complications, surgery to the other (contraleteral) breast and potential psychological implications of this surgery.

  3. Male breast carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguerditchian, Ari-Nareg; Falardeau, Maurice; Martin, Ginette

    2002-01-01

    Objective To review the epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis, molecular genetics, treatment and prognosis of male breast cancer. Data sources Articles, written in English or French, selected from the Medline database (1966 to January 2001), corresponding to the key words “male breast cancer,” according to the following criteria: covering institutional experience or comparing diagnostic and treatment modalities, and epidemiologic or general reviews. Study selection Of 198 articles found 50 fulfilled the review criteria. Data synthesis Risk factors included advanced age, a positive family history, Jewish origin, black race, excess exposure to female hormones (Klinefelter’s syndrome), environmental exposure (irradiation), alcohol, obesity, higher socioeconomic or higher educational status and childlessness. Gynecomastia remains a controversial factor, this term being used for both a histologic reality and a physical finding. Advanced disease is characterized by pain, bloody discharge and skin ulceration. There is no definitive diagnostic algorithm. Experience with male breast mammography is limited, and imaging is less informative for patients under 50 years of age. Fine-needle aspiration tends to overestimate the rate of malignancy. The commonest histologic finding is infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma. Treatment includes modified radical mastectomy, followed by cyclophosphamide–methotrexate–5-fluo-rouracil or 5-fluorouracil–Adriamycin–cyclophosphamide chemotherapy for disease of stage II or greater. Radiotherapy does not seem to add any benefit. The disease is highly receptor-positive; however, many patients discontinue tamoxifen due to side effects. The most important prognostic factors are tumour size, lymphatic invasion and axillary node status. Conclusions Because of the low incidence of male breast cancer, advances will be obtained mainly with the rapid transfer of newly gained knowledge in female mammary neoplasia. The increased use of adjuvant

  4. Breast feeding and allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. O. Kulia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Prevalence of allergy in children is increasing. Influence of feeding on the risk of development of allergy in infants was studied in 140 infants. Methods and results. Along with general clinical evaluation methods immunological parameters assessment was used. It was showed that great care must be given to the pregnant woman treatment, especially with antibiotics, vitamins. Conclusion. As secondary preventive measures suggest: early (in the first 30 minutes application of the newborn babies on the breast, exclusively breastfeeding, careful and minimal medicines prescription, rational feeding.

  5. Innovative combination of therapeutic mammoplasty and expandable-implant breast augmentation for immediate partial breast reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.H. Choo

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: A “novel” oncoplastic technique herein termed “augmentation-therapeutic mastopexy” is described for partial breast reconstruction during the treatment of a patient with bilateral breast cancer. It enabled adequate treatment of her cancer while reshaping the breast and achieving the desired larger breast size. It should be considered in selected breast-conservation patients who wish to maintain or increase their breast size.

  6. Breast-conservation treatment of breast cancer in elderly women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Nishioka, Akihito; Inomata, Taisuke (Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan)) (and others)

    1993-10-01

    In the recent 3 years, 8 elderly women with breast cancer of various stages were treated with breast-conservation treatment (BCT) combined with endocrine therapy and/or systemic chemotherapy mainly based on patients' obvious desire. Until now, one out of these 8 patients had died of heart failure with no evidence of breast cancer progression, and the other 7 patients are alive with no evidence of disease. As for side effects of the therapy, no severe sequelae have been experienced so far. Cosmetic results of the therapy were considerably sufficient. (author).

  7. Oncoplastic Approaches to Breast Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis R. Holmes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer many aspects of her physical, emotional, and sexual wholeness are threatened. The quickly expanding field of oncoplastic breast surgery aims to enhance the physician commitment to restore the patient's image and self-assurance. By combining a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment with oncoplastic surgery, successful results in the eyes of the patient and physician are significantly more likely to occur. As a way to aid oncoplastic teams in determining which approach is most suitable for their patient's tumor size, tumor location, body habitus, and desired cosmetic outcome we present a review of several oncoplastic surgical approaches. For resections located anywhere in the breast, the radial ellipse segmentectomy incision and circumareolar approach for segmental resection are discussed. For resections in the upper or central breast, crescent mastopexy, the batwing incision, the hemibatwing incision, donut mastopexy, B-flap resection, and the central quadrantectomy are reviewed. For lesions of the lower breast, the triangle incision, inframammary incision, and reduction mastopexy are discussed. Surgeons who are interested in adding oncoplastic breast conserving therapies to their skill sets are encouraged to implement these surgical techniques where applicable and to seek out breast fellowships or enhanced training when appropriate.

  8. Breast-feeding after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Serban; Pai, Akshta; Coscia, Lisa A; Davison, John M; Moritz, Michael J; Armenti, Vincent T

    2014-11-01

    Transplantation affords recipients the potential for a full life and, for some, parenthood. Female transplant recipients must continue to take immunosuppression during pregnancy and breast-feeding. This article reviews case and series reports regarding breast-feeding in those taking transplant medications. Avoidance of breast-feeding has been the customary advice because of the potential adverse effects of immunosuppressive exposure on the infant. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that not all medication exposure translates to risk for the infant, that the exposure in utero is greater than via breast milk and that no lingering effects due to breast-feeding have been found to date in infants who were breast-fed while their mothers were taking prednisone, azathioprine, cyclosporine, and/or tacrolimus. Thus, except for those medications where clinical information is inadequate (mycophenolic acid products, sirolimus, everolimus, and belatacept), the recommendation for transplant recipients regarding breast-feeding has evolved into one that is cautiously optimistic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Imaging Management of Breast Density, a Controversial Risk Factor for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon, Shannon; Williams, Angela; Weinfurtner, Jared; Drukteinis, Jennifer S

    2017-04-01

    Breast density is well recognized as an independent risk factor for the development of breast cancer. However, the magnitude of risk is controversial. As the public becomes increasingly aware of breast density as a risk factor, legislation and notification laws in relation to breast density have become common throughout the United States. Awareness of breast density as a risk factor for breast cancer presents new challenges for the clinician in the approach to the management and screening of women with dense breasts. The evidence and controversy surrounding breast density as a risk factor for the development of breast cancer are discussed. Common supplemental screening modalities for breast cancer are also discussed, including tomosynthesis, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. A management strategy for screening women with dense breasts is also presented. The American College of Radiology recognizes breast density as a controversial risk factor for breast cancer, whereas the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recognizes breast density as a modest risk factor. Neither organization recommends the routine use of supplemental screening in women with dense breasts without considering additional patient-related risk factors. Breast density is a poorly understood and controversial risk factor for the development of breast cancer. Mammography is a screening modality proven to reduce breast cancer-related mortality rates and is the single most appropriate tool for population-based screening. Use of supplemental screening modalities should be tailored to individual risk assessment.

  10. Immunology of breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Palmeira

    Full Text Available Summary In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Colostrum is the most potent natural immune booster known to science. Breastfeeding protects infants against infections mainly via secretory IgA (SIgA antibodies, but also via other various bioactive factors. It is striking that the defense factors of human milk function without causing inflammation; some components are even anti-inflammatory. Protection against infections has been well evidenced during lactation against, e.g., acute and prolonged diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, including otitis media, urinary tract infection, neonatal septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The milk’s immunity content changes over time. In the early stages of lactation, IgA, anti-inflammatory factors and, more likely, immunologically active cells provide additional support for the immature immune system of the neonate. After this period, breast milk continues to adapt extraordinarily to the infant’s ontogeny and needs regarding immune protection and nutrition. The need to encourage breastfeeding is therefore justifiable, at least during the first 6 months of life, when the infant’s secretory IgA production is insignificant.

  11. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  12. Overdiagnosis in breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andy; Vinnicombe, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    The main harm of overdiagnosis is overtreatment. However a form of overdiagnosis also occurs when foci of cancer are found by imaging in addition to the symptomatic lesion when this leads to additional treatment which does not benefit the patient. Even if overtreatment is avoided, knowledge of the diagnosis can still cause psychological harm. Overdiagnosis is an inevitable effect of mammographic screening as the benefit comes from diagnosing breast cancer prior to clinical detectability. Estimates of the rate of overdiagnosis at screening are around 10%. DCIS represents 20% of cancers detected by screening and is the main focus in the overdiagnosis debate. Detection and treatment of low grade DCIS and invasive tubular cancer would appear to represent overdiagnosis in most cases. Supplementary screening with tomosynthesis or US are both likely to increase overdiagnosis as both modalities detect predominantly low grade invasive cancers. MRI causes overdiagnosis because it is so sensitive that it detects real tumour foci which after radiotherapy and systemic therapy do not, in many cases go on and cause local recurrence if the women had had no MRI and undergone breast conservation and adjuvant therapy with these small foci left in situ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Breast milk: immunosurveillance in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachita Nanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk is unique and a natural source of nutrition. However, it also helps to protect against various types of disease, not only infective but also immunological diseases. The wide variety of molecules in milk is responsible for its varied role for the newborn infant. Various breast milk proteins, contribute for its immunological, nutritional as well as its antimicrobial role. The naive immune system, intestinal mucosa and other organs of the neonate are also developed by various cellular factors. Breast milk protects not only during the neonatal period but also beyond it. By educating the neonatal immune system it also protects against the development of diseases later in life.

  14. Progress in breast cancer: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-12-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer. These topics represent areas of breast cancer research where significant progress has occurred but also where very important challenges remain. The papers in this CCR Focus section are contributed by experts in the respective areas of investigation. Herein, key aspects of these contributions and the research directions they propose are reviewed. ©2013 AACR.

  15. Breast Reconstruction Affects Coping Mechanisms in Breast Cancer Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blossom Lake; Heidi R Fuller; Sarah Rastall; Tamoor Usman

    2017-01-01

    .... Whilst it is clear that factors such as age at diagnosis, social support and ethnicity can influence coping mechanisms, there is currently no information about whether breast reconstruction changes...

  16. Primary glandular melanoma of male breast with nodal metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Jayabal Pandiaraja

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a malignancy that develops from melanocytes. Breast is an uncommon site for malignant melanoma. Melanoma of the breast occurs in various situations such as primary melanoma of breast skin, metastatic melanoma of breast, in-transit metastasis to the breast, and primary glandular breast melanoma. Most of the melanoma breast either cutaneous melanoma or metastatic melanoma. Primary glandular melanoma of male breast with nodal involvement is rarely reported compared to prima...

  17. Value of Additional Digital Breast Tomosynthesis for Preoperative Staging of Breast Cancer in Dense Breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, Julia; Stepniewski, Kathrin; Kaiser, Clemens G; Brade, Joachim; Riffel, Philipp; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Wasser, Klaus

    2017-09-01

    This retrospective study was initiated to determine the diagnostic value of additional preoperative breast tomosynthesis (DBT) for breast cancer staging in dense breasts. Sixty-six patients (69 breasts) with findings of American College of Radiology category 3 or 4 with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 5, 6 or 0 were included. All patients underwent digital mammography and additional DBT. A total of 40/69 (58%) cancers were detected on both mammography and DBT, 23 (33.3%) were only seen on DBT (p=0.0001); 6/69 (8.7%) carcinomas were not detected by either method, of which three were invasive lobular carcinomas. Sensitivity for multifocal/multicentric disease was significantly higher on DBT (12/19, 63.2%) compared to mammography (4/19, 21.1%) (p=0.02), specificity was comparable (96.0% vs. 90.0%). Multifocal/multicentric disease was not detected on mammography nor DBT in 7/19 (36.8%) patients, including three invasive lobular carcinomas. DBT may significantly improve preoperative breast cancer staging in patients with dense breasts compared to conventional mammography alone. Nevertheless, limitations have to be expected in the case of invasive lobular carcinoma. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  18. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  19. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mehwish; Daniyal, Muhammad; Khan, Asmat Ullah

    2017-10-02

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.

  20. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Chris

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of ‘natural’ breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m, yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises.

  1. Breast feeding as seen by Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawwas, A W

    1988-01-01

    Islamic law requires mothers to breast feed their children for 2 years. the father must assist the mother in breast feeding the children by providing her with food and clothing. If the father dies or does not live at home, the heir must support the mother thereby allowing her to breast feed her infants. A wet nurse can feed a child only if the mother's milk is not available. Allah recognizes that breast milk is the most wholesome food source for infants. It is made daily based on the infant's needs for growing and nourishment, while other milks and/or formulas remain the same regardless of the infant's daily requirements. For example, the 1st milk, a small amount of yellowish colostrum, contains protein, minerals, and antibodies. Colostrum also acts as a laxative. Breast milk is also comprised of enzymes which make breast milk easy to digest. These digestive enzymes also destroy any microorganisms in the stomach that may have entered thereby providing extra protection against disease. Further, breast milk is sterile. Infant mortality rates (IMRs) among breast fed infants are 4 time lower than IMRs of artificially fed infants. In addition, breast feeding establishes a strong bond between mother and child in which the child feels happiness and security. Breast feeding also benefits the mother. The uterus of a breast feeding mother fully contracts to its original size, while the uterus of a mother who does not breast feed does not. Further, breast feeding women are less prone to breast cancer than those women who have never breast fed. In addition, the more a women breast feeds the less likely she is to get breast cancer. Breast feeding also acts to a certain degree as a contraceptive.

  2. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  3. Aging changes in the breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003999.htm Aging changes in the breast To use the sharing ... chap 198. Walston JD. Common clinical sequelae of aging. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  4. Dermatologic radiotherapy and breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, H.; Gorson, R.O.; Lassen, M.

    1982-03-01

    This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures.

  5. Hormone therapy for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of benefits: Taking Tamoxifen for 5 years after breast cancer surgery cuts the chance of cancer coming back by half. Some studies show that taking it for 10 years may work even better. It reduces the risk that cancer ...

  6. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BRCA2, and others increase your risk. Gene mutations account for about 10% of all breast cancer cases. ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  7. Microbiota of human breast tissue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urbaniak, Camilla; Cummins, Joanne; Brackstone, Muriel; Macklaim, Jean M; Gloor, Gregory B; Baban, Chwanrow K; Scott, Leslie; O'Hanlon, Deidre M; Burton, Jeremy P; Francis, Kevin P; Tangney, Mark; Reid, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    .... We decided to investigate whether there is a microbiome within the mammary tissue. Using 16S rRNA sequencing and culture, we analyzed breast tissue from 81 women with and without cancer in Canada and Ireland...

  8. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  9. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: From 1977 through...... 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree...

  10. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  11. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jennrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includes various well-documented pathomechanisms. In the sense of primary and secondary prevention, the cancer-triggering potential of aluminium and its use in anti-perspirant deodorants must be re-evaluated. For the same reason the access to a targeted diagnosis and treatment of aluminium loading must be facilitated.

  12. Melatonin, Aging and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Steven

    2001-01-01

    ... conditions for tumor induction, promotion and progression. The pineal gland, via its hormone melatonin, has been shown by numerous laboratories to inhibit the proliferation of both human and animal models of breast cancer...

  13. Breast Cancer: A preventable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Tahergorabi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With regard to high cancer incidence, as one of the major mortality causes worldwide, following human societies industrialization in recent years breast cancer, dealt with in the present article, has got a particular impact on women who possess a pivotal role in family and society. Thus, adoption of effective diagnostic procedures in the early stages of the disease is very important, which must be considered as a substantial component of the strategies aimed at women’s health promotion and decreasing of breast cancer mortality rate. Meanwhile, women’s education and their awareness promotion and advising them to carry out different methods of breast cancer screening in the early stages of the symptoms, as preventive measures, play important roles. The present review article attempts to study prevalence and epidemiology of breast cancer, its risk factors and its different stages of prevention.

  14. Paget Disease of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Review & Outcomes Award Issuance Manage Your Award Grants Management ... understand what causes Paget disease of the breast. The most widely accepted theory is that cancer cells from a tumor inside ...

  15. Hypofractionated Image Guided Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IV Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-26

    Central Nervous System Metastases; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma With Predominant in Situ Component; Liver Metastases; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lung Metastases; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Tumors Metastatic to Brain

  16. Breast conservation surgery: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jonathan; Achuthan, Raj; Turton, Philip; Lansdown, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Breast conservation surgery is available to the vast majority of women with breast cancer. The combination of neoadjuvant therapies and oncoplastic surgical techniques allows even large tumours to be managed with a breast-conserving approach. The relationship between breast size and the volume of tissue to be excised determines the need for volume displacement or replacement. Such an approach can also be used in the management of carefully selected cases of multifocal or multicentric breast cancer. The role of novel techniques, such as endoscopic breast surgery and radiofrequency ablation, is yet to be precisely defined.

  17. Mucinous carcinoma occurring in the male breast

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Mitsuaki; UMEDA, TOMOKO; KAWAI, YUKI; MORI, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Yoshihiro; ABE, Hajime; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Tani, Tohru; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2013-01-01

    Male breast carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm, accounting for 0.6% of all breast carcinomas. Invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type is the most common type of male breast carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma occurring in the male breast is extremely rare. In the present study, we report a case of mucinous carcinoma of the male breast and discuss the clinicopathological features of this type of tumor. A 63-year-old Japanese male presented with a gradually enlarged nodule in the right breast...

  18. Prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guek Eng; Mayer, Erica L; Partridge, Ann

    2017-06-01

    Conventionally, breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and within the years following have been referred to collectively as pregnancy-associated breast cancer. However, increasing evidence suggests that breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy is a different entity from that diagnosed postpartum, both in terms of prognosis and biology. Given the increasing number of women who find themselves diagnosed with breast cancer during or following a pregnancy, future research and discussion should separate these two into distinct groups: breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and breast cancer diagnosed postpartum in an effort to enhance our understanding to inform and improve clinical management and counseling.

  19. BREAST CANCER, DERMATOFIBROMAS AND ARSENIC

    OpenAIRE

    Dantzig Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Materials and Methods: Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups) had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for...

  20. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiansen P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer Christiansen,1 Bent Ejlertsen,2,3 Maj-Britt Jensen,3 Henning Mouridsen3 1Department of Surgery P, Breast Surgery Unit, Aarhus University Hospital/Randers Regional Hospital, Aarhus C, 2Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, 3DBCG-secretariat, Department 2501, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark Aim of database: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG, with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. Descriptive data: From 1977 through 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. Conclusion: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been an instrumental resource in the improvement of management and prognosis of breast cancer in Denmark. Thus, since the establishment of DBCG, the prognosis in breast cancer has continuously improved with a decrease in 5-year mortality from ~37% to 15%. Keywords: breast cancer, database, guidelines, quality control, research

  1. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Rebecca; Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2012-07-01

    Data on international variation in breast cancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breast cancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia's breast cancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57 %, respectively). The increase in breast cancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Mongolia's low breast cancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breast cancer rate differences.

  2. [Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, S F

    2017-05-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian carcinomas are frequently caused by germline mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (BRCA1/2 syndromes) and are often less associated with other hereditary syndromes such as Li-Fraumeni and Peutz-Jeghers. The BRCA1/2 proteins have a special role in DNA repair. Therefore, loss of function due to mutation causes an accumulation of mutations in other genes and subsequent tumorigenesis at an early age. BRCA1/2 mutations are irregularly distributed over the length of the genes without hot spots, although special mutations are known. Breast and ovarian cancer occur far more frequently in women with BRCA1/2 germline mutations compared with the general population. Breast cancer occurs increasingly from the age of 30, ovarian cancer in BRCA1 syndrome from the age of 40 and BRCA2 from the age of 50. Suspicion of a BRCA syndrome should be prompted in the case of clustering of breast cancer in 1st degree relatives, in particular at a young age, if breast and ovarian cancer have occurred, and if cases of male breast cancer are known. Breast carcinomas with medullary differentiation seem to predominate in BRCA syndromes, but other carcinoma types may also occur. BRCA germline mutations seem to occur frequently in triple-negative breast carcinomas, whereas an association with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is rare. Ovarian carcinomas in BRCA syndromes are usually high-grade serous, mucinous carcinomas and borderline tumors are unusual. Pathology plays a special role within the multidisciplinary team in the recognition of patients with hereditary cancer syndromes.

  3. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Estrogen Receptor Status; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Status; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  4. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N; Ziegler, Regina G; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Giles, Graham G; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J; Joshi, Amit D; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I-Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L; Southey, Melissa C; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María-José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-12-15

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that alleles influencing breast cancer risk might also be associated with breast cancer survival. We examined the associations between 35 breast cancer susceptibility loci and the disease over-all survival (OS) in 10,255 breast cancer patients from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) of which 1,379 died, including 754 of breast cancer. We also conducted a meta-analysis of almost 35,000 patients and 5,000 deaths, combining results from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and performed in silico analyses of SNPs with significant associations. In BPC3, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was significantly associated with improved OS (HRper-allele =0.70; 95% CI: 0.58-0.85; ptrend  = 2.84 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55-0.92; HRhomozygotes  = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.76; p2DF  = 1.45 × 10(-3) ). In silico, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was predicted to increase expression of the tumor suppressor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C). In the meta-analysis, TNRC9-rs3803662 was significantly associated with increased death hazard (HRMETA =1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15; ptrend  = 6.6 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.96 95% CI: 0.90-1.03; HRhomozygotes  = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35; p2DF =1.25 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, we show that there is little overlap between the breast cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified so far and the SNPs associated with breast cancer prognosis, with the possible exceptions of LSP1-rs3817198 and TNRC9-rs3803662. © 2015 UICC.

  5. CYTOPATHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BREAST CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Dakovic

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Continual increasing of breast cancer in young women, its rare discovery in the early stage (stage I, as well as high mortality from this disease, are the facts that explain why the breast cancer is a target for many scientists. Thanks to the Greek scientist Papanicolaou and his report (l928, a successful battle with the most frequent carcinoma in women - PVU carcinoma, has begun.With the development of exfoliative, brushing and fine needle aspiration cytological methods, the impressive results have been achieved. While cytologic methods are used more and more in the breast oncopathology worldwide, up to this moment their applications have been rare in our country, which is one more reason for this study reason more for this study.By using the exfoliative and fine needle aspiration cytology, 50 patients were examined. The following cells were discovered: foamy macrophages, lipoprotein background, mastitis, eritrocytes, ductal tumorous papilles, apocrine metaplasia and ductal carcinomas. Furthermore, cytological caracteristics of the breast cancers and both advantages and limitations of the cytologic methods were pointed out. It was concluded that, using cytological methods, discovery of both precancerous breast lesions and breast cancer was possible in the earli stage. Also, sufficient knowledge of histopathology was necessary for correct interpretation of cytological results because of frequent mimicry in oncologic pathology.

  6. Breast cancer, dermatofibromas and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzig, Paul I

    2009-01-01

    Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups) had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for the presence of dermatofibromas. The dermatofibromas were found to have an arsenic concentration of 0.171 micrograms/gram, compared with 0.06 and 0.07 micrograms/gram of the two control groups. Forty-three out of 50 patients with breast cancer had dermatofibromas and 32/50 patients with breast cancer had multiple dermatofibromas, compared to 10/50 control patients with dermatofibromas and only 1/50 with multiple dermatofibromas. Arsenic is important in the development of dermatofibromas and dermatofibromas represent a reservoir and important sign of chronic arsenic exposure. Dermatofibromas represent an important sign for women at risk for breast cancer, and arsenic may represent the cause of the majority of cases of breast cancer.

  7. Breast cancer, dermatofibromas and arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantzig Paul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Materials and Methods: Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for the presence of dermatofibromas. Results: The dermatofibromas were found to have an arsenic concentration of 0.171 micrograms/gram, compared with 0.06 and 0.07 micrograms/gram of the two control groups. Forty-three out of 50 patients with breast cancer had dermatofibromas and 32/50 patients with breast cancer had multiple dermatofibromas, compared to 10/50 control patients with dermatofibromas and only 1/50 with multiple dermatofibromas. Conclusions: Arsenic is important in the development of dermatofibromas and dermatofibromas represent a reservoir and important sign of chronic arsenic exposure. Dermatofibromas represent an important sign for women at risk for breast cancer, and arsenic may represent the cause of the majority of cases of breast cancer.

  8. How to optimize breast ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanasiou, Alexandra [Department of Radiology, Curie Institute, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France)], E-mail: alexandra.athanasiou@curie.net; Tardivon, Anne; Ollivier, Lilliane; Thibault, Fabienne; El Khoury, Carl; Neuenschwander, Sylvia [Department of Radiology, Curie Institute, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France)

    2009-01-15

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer, and the second cause of cancer-related mortality of women in our society. Mammography is the gold-standard method of breast imaging. However it is not an optimal screening tool, especially in cases of dense breast parenchyma. Even when optimally performed, its sensitivity ranges between 69 and 90%. Ultrasound represents an additional diagnostic tool that raises the detection rate of benign and malignant breast lesions. It is the method of choice for differentiating solid from cystic lesions, for further characterizing mammographic findings and better appreciating palpable breast lesions. B-mode ultrasonography is used in every day practice. Harmonic imaging and compound imaging can be used to ameliorate the image contrast and resolution. Colour Doppler is used for studying lesion vascularization however there is no consensus as to whether it really permits to differentiate malignancies from benign lesions. New technical developments such as breast elastography, 3D ultrasound and dedicated ultrasound computed aided diagnosis (CAD) are promising methods for the future.

  9. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-28

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  10. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  11. Fulvestrant and Palbociclib in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Breast Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    Estrogen Receptor and/or Progesterone Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  12. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  13. The tuberous breast syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panettiere, P; Del Gaudio, G A; Marchetti, L; Accorsi, D; Del Gaudio, A

    2000-01-01

    The tuberous breast syndrome is the result of a complex series of defects with various degrees of expression. However, much confusion has been generated in the literature by the use of often inadequate terminology, which is partly the cause of multiplicity of managements being proposed that mainly aim to correct the major defect and not the entire syndrome. The surgical approach adopted by our group stems from the improvement of classic techniques, consisting essentially of a combination of periareolar mastopexis, additive mastoplasty, and gland base enlargement by cross incision. Our results were fully satisfying both aesthetically and functionally. We achieved a correct shape, resolved ptosys and reduced areolas with no double-fold effect, and attained good symmetry in more complex unilateral cases.

  14. [From tube to breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzati, F

    2010-06-01

    WHO suggests exclusive maternal milk up to six months of life. This clue is much more important refer to premature newborn. Everybody knows the several advantages of human milk versus formula milk. We can also say that supporting maternal feeding in NICU helps woman that probably lives a complicated relationship with her "being mother" and with her baby. We can help the couple mother-newborn and their family to build strong basement for their future relationship, whatever it will be. The main aspects are: precocious and frequent stimulation of the breast; counseling; NIDCAP; kangaroo mother care; 24 hours open NICU; feeding consultant; teamwork In presence of these elements in NICU will be easier involve the mother and propose her some practices that could help her and her baby in breastfeeding.

  15. Palbociclib in Combination With Tamoxifen as First Line Therapy for Metastatic Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-23

    Hormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  16. Pembrolizumab and Ruxolitinib Phosphate in Treating Patients With Metastatic Stage IV Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-28

    Breast Carcinoma Metastatic in the Bone; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  17. Breast compression in mammography: pressure distribution patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dustler, Magnus; Froejd, Patrik; Mattsson, Soeren; Tingberg, Anders; Foernvik, Daniel [Medical Radiation Physics, Lund Univ., Skaane Univ. Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden)], E-mail: Magnus.Dustler@med.lu.se; Andersson, Ingvar; Zackrisson, Sophia [Diagnostic Centre of Imaging and Functional Medicine, Lund Univ., Skaane Univ. Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden); Brorson, Haakan [Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Dept. of Clinical Sciences Malmoe, Lund Univ., Skaane Univ. Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2012-11-15

    Background Breast compression is important in mammography in order to improve image quality, better separate tissue components, and reduce absorbed dose to the breast. In this study we use a method to measure and visualize the distribution of pressure over a compressed breast in mammography. Purpose To measure and describe the pressure distribution over the breast as a result of applied breast compression in mammography. Material and Methods One hundred and three women aged 40.7-74.3 years (median, 48.9 years) invited for mammographic screening consented to take part in this study. They were subjected to two additional breast compressions of the left breast (standard force and approximately 50% reduction). Pressure images of the compressed breast were obtained using force sensing resistor (FSR) sensors placed underneath the compression plate. Subjects rated their experience of pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results Four pressure patterns were identified, fitting 81 of the 103 breasts, which were grouped accordingly. The remaining 22 breasts were found to correspond to a combination of any two patterns. Two groups (43 breasts) showed pressure mainly over the juxtathoracic part of the breast, had significantly greater breast thickness (P = 0.003) and had a lower mean pressure over dense tissue (P < 0.0001) than those with more evenly distributed pressure. Reducing compression force increased average breast thickness by 1.8 mm (P < 0.0001). Conclusion The distribution of pressure differed greatly between breasts. In a large proportion of breasts the compression plate did not provide optimal compression of the breast, the compression force being absorbed in juxtathoracic structures.

  18. Dutch digital breast cancer screening: implications for breast cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Johanna M; den Heeten, Gerard J; Adang, Eddy M; Otten, Johannes D; Verbeek, André L; Broeders, Mireille J

    2012-12-01

    In comparison to other European population-based breast cancer screening programmes, the Dutch programme has a low referral rate, similar breast cancer detection and a high breast cancer mortality reduction. The referral rate in the Netherlands has increased over time and is expected to rise further, mainly following nationwide introduction of digital mammography, completed in 2010. This study explores the consequences of the introduction of digital mammography on the balance between referral rate, detection of breast cancer, diagnostic work-up and associated costs. Detailed information on diagnostic work-up (chart review) was obtained from referred women (n = 988) in 2000-06 (100% analogue mammography) and 2007 (75% digital mammography) in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The average referral rate increased from 15 (2000-06) to 34 (2007) per 1000 women screened. The number of breast cancers detected increased from 5.5 to 7.8 per 1000 screens, whereas the positive predictive value fell from 37% to 23%. A sharp rise in diagnostic work-up procedures and total diagnostic costs was seen. On the other hand, costs of a single work-up slightly decreased, as less surgical biopsies were performed. Our study shows that a low referral rate in combination with the introduction of digital mammography affects the balance between referral rate and detection rate and can substantially influence breast cancer care and associated costs. Referral rates in the Netherlands are now more comparable to other countries. This effect is therefore of value in countries where implementation of digital breast cancer screening has just started or is still under discussion.

  19. Breast implants and the risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noels, Eline C.; Lapid, Oren; Lindeman, Jan H. N.; Bastiaannet, Esther

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of cosmetic breast augmentation and the incidence of breast cancer have been increasing worldwide. It has been hypothesized that the risk of breast cancer may be greater among patients who have undergone cosmetic breast implantation. The authors performed a meta-analysis of the

  20. The clinical course of immediate breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Friis, Søren; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    The number of women suitable for breast conserving treatment as well as immediate reconstruction after breast cancer has been increasing, and studies of complications hereafter are needed.......The number of women suitable for breast conserving treatment as well as immediate reconstruction after breast cancer has been increasing, and studies of complications hereafter are needed....

  1. Automatically assessed volumetric breast density and breast cancer risk : The era of digital screening mammography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, J.O.P .

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among females worldwide. As the burden of breast cancer is high, many countries have introduced a breast cancer screening program with the aim to find and treat breast cancers in an early stage. In the Netherlands, women between the ages of 50

  2. Breast-conserving therapy in breast cancer patients - a 12-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast-conserving therapy in breast cancer patients - a 12-year experience. ... conservative breast surgery plus radiation with radical mastectomy in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. ... This was achieved irrespective of ductal carcinoma in situ alone or surrounding the cancer in 62% of cases. ... 43(2) 2005: 28-32 ...

  3. Breast cancer detection using sonography in women with mammographically dense breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Jimmy; Kisembo, Harriet; Bugeza, Sam; Galukande, Moses

    2014-12-30

    Mammography, the gold standard for breast cancer screening misses some cancers, especially in women with dense breasts. Breast ultrasonography as a supplementary imaging tool for further evaluation of symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts may improve the detection of mass lesions otherwise missed at mammography. The purpose of this study was to determine the incremental breast cancer detection rate using US scanning in symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts in a resource poor environment. A cross sectional descriptive study. Women referred for mammography underwent bilateral breast ultrasound, and mammography for symptom evaluation. The lesions seen by both modalities were described using sonographic BI-RADS lexicon and categorized. Ultrasound guided core biopsies were performed. IRB approval was obtained and all participants provided informed written consent. In total 148 women with mammographically dense breasts were recruited over six months. The prevalence of breast cancer in symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts was 22/148 (15%). Mammography detected 16/22 (73%) of these cases and missed 6/22 (27%). The six breast cancer cases missed were correctly diagnosed on breast ultrasonography. Sonographic features typical of breast malignancy were irregular shape, non-parallel orientation, non circumscribed margin, echogenic halo, and increased lesion vascularity (p values Breast ultrasound scan as a supplementary imaging tool detected 27% more malignant mass lesions otherwise missed by mammography among these symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts. We recommend that ultra sound scanning in routine evaluation of symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts.

  4. Automated Volumetric Mammographic Breast Density Measurements May Underestimate Percent Breast Density for High-density Breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Kareem; Gubern-Merida, Albert; Patrie, James T; Harvey, Jennifer A

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate discrepancy in breast composition measurements obtained from mammograms using two commercially available software methods for systematic trends in overestimation or underestimation compared to magnetic resonance-derived measurements. An institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study was performed to calculate percent breast density (PBD) by quantifying fibroglandular volume and total breast volume derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation and mammograms using two commercially available software programs (Volpara and Quantra). Consecutive screening MRI exams from a 6-month period with negative or benign findings were used. The most recent mammogram within 9 months was used to derive mean density values from "for processing" images at the per breast level. Bland-Altman statistical analyses were performed to determine the mean discrepancy and the limits of agreement. A total of 110 women with 220 breasts met the study criteria. Overall, PBD was not different between MRI (mean 10%, range 1%-41%) and Volpara (mean 10%, range 3%-29%); a small but significant difference was present in the discrepancy between MRI and Quantra (4.0%, 95% CI: 2.9 to 5.0, P breast densities, with Volpara slightly underestimating and Quantra slightly overestimating PBD compared to MRI. The mean discrepancy for both Volpara and Quantra for total breast volume was not significantly different from MRI (p = 0.89, 0.35, respectively). Volpara tended to underestimate, whereas Quantra tended to overestimate fibroglandular volume, with the highest discrepancy at higher breast volumes. Both Volpara and Quantra tend to underestimate PBD, which is most pronounced at higher densities. PBD can be accurately measured using automated volumetric software programs, but values should not be used interchangeably between vendors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Effects of breast density and compression on normal breast tissue hemodynamics through breast tomosynthesis guided near-infrared spectral tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelsen, Kelly E.; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Shi, Linxi; Vedantham, Srinivasan; Karellas, Andrew; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Poplack, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Optically derived tissue properties across a range of breast densities and the effects of breast compression on estimates of hemoglobin, oxygen metabolism, and water and lipid concentrations were obtained from a coregistered imaging system that integrates near-infrared spectral tomography (NIRST) with digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Image data were analyzed from 27 women who underwent four IRB approved NIRST/DBT exams that included fully and mildly compressed breast acquisitions in two pr...

  6. Breast cancer epigenetics: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abbasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stable molecular changes during cell division without any change in the sequence of DNA molecules is known as epigenetic. Molecular mechanisms involved in this process, including histone modifications, methylation of DNA, protein complex and RNA antisense. Cancer genome changes happen through a combination of DNA hypermethylation, long-term epigenetic silencing with heterozygosis loss and genomic regions loss. Different combinations of N-terminal’s changes cooperate with histone variants with a specific role in gene regulation. It have led to load a setting histone that determine transcription potential of a particular gene or genomic regions. DNA methylation analysis in genome region using methylation-specific digital karyotyping of normal breast tissue detect gene expression patterns and DNA specific methylation can be found in breast carcinoma too more than 100 genes in breast tumors or cell lines of breast cancer are reported hypermethylated. Important of DNA methylation on cancer has been concentrated CpG islands hypermethylation. Most of the techniques are able to identify hypermethylated areas. Often, methylated genes play important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, metastasis and tissue invasion, angiogenesis and hormonal signaling. Cyclin D2 (CCND2 gene is an important regulator of cell cycle and increased of expression inhibits the transition from G1 to S cell cycle. This gene is frequently methylated in breast cancer and has been proposed as the first event. Other cell cycle regulator is p16ink4A / CDKN2A that methylated in a large number of human cancers, including breast cancer. Another regulator of the proliferation of breast cancer that methylated is tumor suppressor RAR-β cancer that has been found in lobular and ductal carcinoma. Recent studies have showed the role of epigenetic silencing in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in which tumor suppressor genes have been changed by acetylation and DNA deacetylation

  7. Cystic disease and fibroadenoma of the breast: natural history and relation to breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, J M

    1991-04-01

    Approximately 25% of all 'discrete' breast lesions are fibroadenomas or breast cysts and they more commonly cause a breast lump than breast cancer. Despite their frequency, their natural history and relationship to subsequent breast cancer have not been clearly defined, although it would appear that palpable breast cysts, but not fibroadenomas, are associated with some increased risk of breast cancer. The diagnosis of these two entities is now possible by fine needle aspiration and excision of these lesions is only indicated in certain circumstances.

  8. Breast-feeding Coparenting Framework: A New Framework to Improve Breast-feeding Duration and Exclusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbass-Dick, Jennifer; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    Targeting mothers and fathers in breast-feeding promotion programs is recommended as research has found that father's support positively impacts breast-feeding duration and exclusivity. Breast-feeding coparenting refers to the manner in which parents work together to achieve their breast-feeding goals. The Breast-feeding Coparenting Framework was developed on the basis of diverse coparenting models and research related to father's involvement with breast-feeding. This framework consists of 5 components: joint breast-feeding goal setting, shared breast-feeding responsibility, proactive breast-feeding support, father's/partner's parental-child interactions, and productive communication and problem solving. This framework may be of value to policy makers and program providers working to improve breast-feeding outcomes.

  9. Normal breast physiology: the reasons hormonal contraceptives and induced abortion increase breast-cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, Angela

    2014-01-01

    A woman gains protection from breast cancer by completing a full-term pregnancy. In utero, her offspring produce hormones that mature 85 percent of the mother's breast tissue into cancer-resistant breast tissue. If the pregnancy ends through an induced abortion or a premature birth before thirty-two weeks, the mother's breasts will have only partially matured, retaining even more cancer-susceptible breast tissue than when the pregnancy began. This increased amount of immature breast tissue will leave the mother with more sites for cancer initiation, thereby increasing her risk of breast cancer. Hormonal contraceptives increase breast-cancer risk by their proliferative effect on breast tissue and their direct carcinogenic effects on DNA. Hormonal contraceptives include estrogen-progestin combination drugs prescribed in any manner of delivery: orally, transdermally, vaginally, or intrauterine. This article provides the detailed physiology and data that elucidate the mechanisms through which induced abortion and hormonal contraceptives increase breast-cancer risk.

  10. Retinoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in breast adipose tissue and serum of benign breast disease and breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various retinoic acid (RA) isomers (all-trans, 13-cis, 11-cis, and 9-cis) as well as retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherol concentrations were determined in both serum and breast adipose tissue of 22 benign breast disease patients and 52 breast cancer patients categorized into 4 stages by malignancy....

  11. Imaging features of breast cancers on digital breast tomosynthesis according to molecular subtype: association with breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyun; Chang, Jung Min; Shin, Sung Ui; Chu, A Jung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate imaging features of breast cancers on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) according to molecular subtype and to determine whether the molecular subtype affects breast cancer detection on DBT. This was an institutional review board--approved study with a waiver of informed consent. DBT findings of 288 invasive breast cancers were reviewed according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. Detectability of breast cancer was quantified by the number of readers (0-3) who correctly detected the cancer in an independent blinded review. DBT features and the cancer detectability score according to molecular subtype were compared using Fisher's exact test and analysis of variance. Of 288 invasive cancers, 194 were hormone receptor (HR)-positive, 48 were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive and 46 were triple negative breast cancers. The most common DBT findings were irregular spiculated masses for HR-positive cancer, fine pleomorphic or linear branching calcifications for HER2 positive cancer and irregular masses with circumscribed margins for triple negative breast cancers (p Cancer detectability on DBT was not significantly different according to molecular subtype (p = 0.213) but rather affected by tumour size, breast density and presence of mass or calcifications. Breast cancers showed different imaging features according to molecular subtype; however, it did not affect the cancer detectability on DBT. Advances in knowledge: DBT showed characteristic imaging features of breast cancers according to molecular subtype. However, cancer detectability on DBT was not affected by molecular subtype of breast cancers.

  12. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... Mammogram During the Past Two Years 1 Breast Cancer Screening Recommendations 2 If you are between the ages ...

  13. Avoiding risk information about breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Darya; Shepperd, James A

    2012-10-01

    Learning about personal risk can provide numerous benefits yet people sometimes opt to remain ignorant. Two studies examined the role of perceived control, coping resources, and anticipated regret in women's decision to avoid breast cancer risk information. Women completed a health inventory and then read a brochure about either controllable or uncontrollable predictors of breast cancer, or received no brochure. Participants then received an opportunity to learn their lifetime risk for breast cancer based on their inventory responses. Reading about controllable predictors of breast cancer reduced avoidance of risk information compared with reading about uncontrollable predictors or receiving no information. In addition, fewer coping resources, anticipated greater regret over seeking breast cancer risk information, and less regret over avoiding breast cancer risk information predicted information avoidance. Reading about controllable predictors of breast cancer reduces avoidance of breast cancer risk information.

  14. Murine model of hepatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikhi, Rishi; Wilson, Elizabeth M; Deas, Olivier; Svalina, Matthew N; Bial, John; Mansoor, Atiya; Cairo, Stefano; Keller, Charles

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in this population. Breast cancer related deaths have declined due to screening and adjuvant therapies, yet a driving clinical need exists to better understand the cause of the deadliest aspect of breast cancer, metastatic disease. Breast cancer metastasizes to several distant organs, the liver being the third most common site. To date, very few murine models of hepatic breast cancer exist. In this study, a novel murine model of liver breast cancer using the MDA-MB-231 cell line is introduced as an experimental (preclinical) model. Histological typing revealed consistent hepatic breast cancer tumor foci. Common features of the murine model were vascular invasion, lung metastasis and peritoneal seeding. The novel murine model of hepatic breast cancer established in this study provides a tool to be used to investigate mechanisms of hepatic metastasis and to test potential therapeutic interventions.

  15. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...

  16. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , ... Disclosures Footnotes Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Introduction Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ikeda, Debra

    2000-01-01

    .... The scope of work includes identifying abnormal breast lesions on contrast-enhanced breast MRI, performing in vivo MRS to detect choline in the abnormal lesion, and obtaining cells from the tumor...

  18. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the breast are also shown. A family history of breast cancer and other factors can increase ... and organs. This is called metastatic cancer. This animation shows how cancer cells travel from the place ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the breast are also shown. A family history of breast cancer and other factors can increase ... and organs. This is called metastatic cancer. This animation shows how cancer cells travel from the place ...

  20. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  1. Partial breast radiation therapy - external beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11, 2016. www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp/breast-treatment-pdq . Accessed September 13, 2016. National Cancer Institute. Radiation therapy and you: support for people who have cancer. Cancer.gov Web ...

  2. Research Training in Biopsychosocial Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrykowski, Michael

    2004-01-01

    ...) in biopsychosocial breast cancer (BC) research. During the 5-year project period, 6 predoctoral and 2 postdoctoral trainees were appointed to the training program and received training in biopsychosocial breast cancer research...

  3. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  4. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    ... projects addressed the effects of omega-3 lipids upon breast cancer cells. 0mega-3 lipids were found to decrease breast cancer-induced muscle cell proteolysis and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells...

  5. Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer ( 5 ). Some research has focused on parabens, which are preservatives used in some deodorants and ... body’s cells ( 6 ). It has been reported that parabens are found in breast tumors, but there is ...

  6. Fibroadenoma in axillary supernumerary breast: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Délio Marques Conde

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Supernumerary breast tissue may be affected by the same diseases and alterations that compromise topical breast tissue. Nevertheless, reports of fibroadenoma in supernumerary breast tissue in the axillae are rare. OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of fibroadenoma in an axillary supernumerary breast. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old woman was referred to the gynecology and obstetrics outpatient clinic at Hospital Estadual Sumaré, complaining of bilateral axillary masses. The patient reported cosmetic problems and local pain and discomfort. On physical examination, alterations compatible with bilateral axillary accessory breasts, without palpable nodules, were observed. Supplementary examinations (mammography and ultrasonography revealed a 1.1 cm mass in the right axillary breast. The patient underwent resection of the supernumerary breasts and histopathological examination revealed fibroadenoma of the right axillary breast tissue.

  7. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazario, Cruz M; Freudenheim, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This project has two mayor goals: to design and conduct a pilot case-control breast cancer study among Puerto Rican women, and to train and develop researchers in breast cancer at the University of Puerto Rico...

  8. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittas Christos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non

  9. Breast pain in lactating mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S Sf

    2016-08-01

    The number of new mothers who breastfeed has increased dramatically over the last three decades. There is a concern that the present related medical service may be inadequate. Breast pain is the most common complaint among lactating mothers who seek medical help. This study aimed to investigate this problem. Medical records of women who presented with breast pain to a private clinic run by a doctor who was trained as an International Lactation Consultant were reviewed over a period of 6 months in 2015. Most patients were self-referred after chatting online. Assessment included characteristics and duration of pain, treatment prior to consultation, feeding practices, mother's diet, and breast examination. Any site of blockage was identified and relieved. Those with persistent pain were given antibiotics. When there were signs of abscess or abscess that could not be drained, they were referred to a breast surgeon. A total of 69 patients were seen of whom 45 had been breastfeeding for more than 1 month. Pain was experienced for longer than 7 days in 22 women. Antifungal or antibacterial treatment had been unsuccessful in 31 women prior to consultation. The diagnoses were engorgement in five women, blocked duct in 35, mastitis in 13, breast abscess in six, poor positioning and latch in seven, nipple cracks in two, and skin infection in one. Oral antibiotics were prescribed to 21 patients and local antifungal treatment was given to one patient only. Blocked duct was the most common cause of breast pain in lactating mothers. Without prompt relief it is possible that it will progress to mastitis/breast abscess or the mother may discontinue breastfeeding. This may be a suitable time for Hong Kong to set up one or more public full-time breastfeeding clinics to provide a better service to lactating mothers and to facilitate professional training and research.

  10. Pink Breast Milk: Serratia marcescens Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Cipatli Ayuzo del Valle; Emilio Treviño Salinas

    2014-01-01

    Background - Breast milk can turn pink with Serratia marcescens colonization, this bacterium has been associated with several diseases and even death. It is seen most commonly in the intensive care settings. Discoloration of the breast milk can lead to premature termination of nursing. We describe two cases of pink-colored breast milk in which S. marsescens was isolated from both the expressed breast milk. Antimicrobial treatment was administered to the mothers. Return to breastfeeding was su...

  11. Advocacy groups for breast cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, M.; Batt, S

    1995-01-01

    Breast cancer patient advocacy groups emerged in the 1990s to support and empower women with breast cancer. Women with cancer and oncologists tend to have divergent perspectives on how breast cancer prevention should be defined and what the priorities for research should be. As their American counterparts have done, breast cancer patient advocates in Canada are seeking greater participation in decision making with respect to research. To date they have had more input into research policy deci...

  12. Computed tomography of the breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Jong Sup; Lee, Ki Chu [Hallym University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    The indication of computed tomography for the breast lesion are 1) Unusually extensive or small breast caused technical difficulties in performing mammograms. 2) Questionable mammographic findings, especially in dense proliferative breast parenchyme. 3) Microcancer. 4) Suspicious regional lymph node enlargement or invasive of the chest wall by breast cancer. The diagnosis of breast CT in breast cancer is based on pathologic anatomic changes and characteristic increase of mean CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement. Authors analysed CT of the 34 patients who were clinically suspected breast cancer, and compared with mammography. The results are as follows: 1. Pathological diagnosis of 34 cases were 27 cases of breast cancer, 4 cases of fibrocystic disease, 2 cases of fibroadenoma, and 1 case of intraductal papilloma. The diagnostic accuracy of CT in 27 breast cancer was 93% (25 cases) and mammography 71% (19 case). 2. Correct diagnosis of CT in 7 benign breast disease is in 5 cases and mammography in 5 cases. 3. The most important finding of CT in breast cancer is characteristic increase of CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement (200 ml, 65%): over average 50 HU in 19 cases of 27 breast cancers, 30-50 HU in a 6 cases, 20-30 HU in 2 cases with tumor necrosis. 4. Computed with mammography, other more valuable CT findings of breast cancer are axillary lymph node enlargement and adjacentic pectoral muscle invasion. 5. In conclusion, breast CT is considered as valuable diagnostic tool in evaluation of breast cancer, but not of benign breast disease.

  13. Nanoparticle-based Paclitaxel vs Solvent-based Paclitaxel as Part of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer (GeparSepto)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-11

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of breast prostheses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G5

    by silicone gel and when the silicone gel separates the elastomer shell from the sur- rounding fibrous breast capsule. Introduction. Breast implantation using prostheses is becoming a common plastic surgical proce- dure in this country. In the USA between 1 and 2 million women have had breast implantation procedures.1.

  15. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fenga, Concettina

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic...

  16. Progesterone Receptor Scaffolding Function in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    response. PR are expressed in multiple human tissues including the uterus, mammary gland , brain, pancreas, thymus , bone, ovary, testes, and in the...ABSTRACT Progesterone receptors (PR) are critical mediators of mammary gland development and contribute to breast cancer progression. Progestin...receptors (PR) are critical for massive breast epithelial cell expansion during mammary gland development and contribute to breast cancer progression

  17. Breast Evaluation Findings in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonia Ikpeme

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Patients presenting for breast evaluation in Calabar do so for screening mainly. Patients below 38 are nearly equally affected by malignant breast disease as their older counterparts. The commonest breast pattern was fatty replaced. Digital mammography should be available in all tertiary institutions.

  18. Knowledge, awareness, and practices concerning breast cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is by far the most frequent cancer of women. However the preventive measures for such problem are probably less than expected. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess the breast cancer knowledge and awareness and factors associated with the practice of breast self examination ...

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of invasive breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G5

    graphic findings, and screening for breast cancer in younger women with familial breast cancer. Interpretation of MR images requires a meticulous imaging technique including the use of contrast enhancement and fat suppression MR sequences using a good breast coil. Introduction. The role of MR imaging in the diagno-.

  20. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is

  1. Tuberculosis of breast (study of 7 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma P

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven cases of tuberculosis of breast are presented. The clinical features were multiple discharging sinuses, lump, ulcer and recurring abscess of breast. Diagnosis relied on histological appearance. Acid fast bacilli being present in only one specimen and positive culture obtained in one patient. Successful treatment combines antituberculous drug therapy with removal of infected breast tissue.

  2. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  3. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast Cancer Risk and Environmental Factors For millions of women whose lives have been affected by breast cancer, the 1994 discovery of the first breast ... gene by researchers from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and their collaborators, was a ...

  4. Quality Assurance of Ultrasonic Diagnosis in Breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young; Kim, Hong Dae [Hallym University, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Sonography is a subjective diagnostic method which is highly dependent on the experience of the operator and the equipment quality which requires real-time adjustments. Breast screening examination currently consists of clinical examination and mammography. Breast sonography, either supplementary to mammography or independently, is indicated for the dense breast, especially in younger women. Breast sonography is especially applicable for Korean women because of the denser breast parenchyma and the approximately 10-year younger incidence rate of breast cancer of Korean women compared to western women. To avoid unnecessary breast biopsy because of the high rate of false positive lesions in breast parenchyma, which is different from other body organs such as the liver or the kidney, a quality assurance program for breast sonography is essential. The quality assurance of breast ultrasound involves quality assurance of the equipment, imaging display and acquisition of clinical images, personnel qualifications and other aspects such as unification of lexicon, guideline of diagnostic examination and reporting system; US BI-RAD reporting system, assessment items and organization, education program, medical audit, certification issues, and medicolegal issues. A breast sonographic quality assurance system should be established before a scheme to initiate governmental medical insurance for breast sonography

  5. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.

  6. Pregnancy and abortion in breast cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast cancer in pregnancy is by itself not an indication for abortion. We document the case histories of 2 patients with breast cancer (recurrent or advanced) who elected to carry pregnancies to term. Pregnancy concurrent with or subsequent to breast cancer is not associated with a worse prognosis than would be observed ...

  7. Morphea on the breast and pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... breast implants, trauma, and external beam radiation for the treatment of breast cancer. None of these factors was found in our patient. To our knowledge, the pregnancy has never been reported as predisposing factor of the localization of morphea on the breast. The underlying etiology of morphea is ...

  8. Breast Density and Benign Breast Disease: Risk Assessment to Identify Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jeffrey A; Miglioretti, Diana L; Li, Chin-Shang; Vachon, Celine M; Gard, Charlotte C; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2015-10-01

    Women with proliferative breast lesions are candidates for primary prevention, but few risk models incorporate benign findings to assess breast cancer risk. We incorporated benign breast disease (BBD) diagnoses into the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) risk model, the only breast cancer risk assessment tool that uses breast density. We developed and validated a competing-risk model using 2000 to 2010 SEER data for breast cancer incidence and 2010 vital statistics to adjust for the competing risk of death. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the relative hazards for age, race/ethnicity, family history of breast cancer, history of breast biopsy, BBD diagnoses, and breast density in the BCSC. We included 1,135,977 women age 35 to 74 years undergoing mammography with no history of breast cancer; 17% of the women had a prior breast biopsy. During a mean follow-up of 6.9 years, 17,908 women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. The BCSC BBD model slightly overpredicted risk (expected-to-observed ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.06) and had modest discriminatory accuracy (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, 0.665). Among women with proliferative findings, adding BBD to the model increased the proportion of women with an estimated 5-year risk of 3% or higher from 9.3% to 27.8% (Pwomen's risk for breast cancer using breast density and BBD diagnoses. Greater numbers of high-risk women eligible for primary prevention after BBD diagnosis are identified using the BCSC BBD model. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. Breast Cancer Biology: Clinical Implications for Breast Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Janet K; Jagsi, Reshma; Woodward, Wendy A; Ho, Alice

    2018-01-01

    Historically, prognosis and treatment decision making for breast cancer patients have been dictated by the anatomic extent of tumor spread. However, in recent years, "breast cancer" has proven to be a collection of unique phenotypes with distinct prognoses, patterns of failure, and treatment responses. Recent advances in biologically based assays and targeted therapies designed to exploit these unique phenotypes have profoundly altered systemic therapy practice patterns and treatment outcomes. Data associating locoregional outcomes with tumor biology are emerging. However, the likelihood of obtaining level I evidence for fundamental radiation therapy questions within each of the specific subtypes in the immediate future is low. As such, this review aims to summarize the existing data and provide practical context for the incorporation of breast tumor biology into clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic susceptibility to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavaddat, Nasim; Antoniou, Antonis C; Easton, Douglas F; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2010-06-01

    Genetic and lifestyle/environmental factors are implicated in the aetiology of breast cancer. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on rare high penetrance mutations, as well as moderate and low-penetrance genetic variants implicated in breast cancer aetiology. We summarize recent discoveries from large collaborative efforts to combine data from candidate gene studies, and to conduct genome-wide association studies (GWAS), primarily in breast cancers in the general population. These findings are compared with results from collaborative efforts aiming to identify genetic modifiers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and tumours from BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers display distinct pathological characteristics when compared with tumours unselected for family history. The relationship between genetic variants and pathological subtypes of breast cancer, and the implication of discoveries of novel genetic variants to risk prediction in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and in populations unselected for mutation carrier status, are discussed. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Surgical reconstruction of tuberous breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foustanos, Andreas; Zavrides, Harris

    2006-01-01

    Tuberous breast deformity is a rare entity affecting young women bilaterally or unilaterally. It requires surgical correction, depending on the severity of the clinical expression, because of its aesthetic appearance. Since the presentation of the malformation by Rees and Aston in 1976, many surgical procedures have been developed, but the deformity still is one of the most challenging congenital breast anomalies. Between September 1999 and September 2005, eight patients with tuberous breast deformity underwent surgery in our department. A two-stage approach was used to manage 14 tuberous breasts. We used a combination of anatomic textured tissue expanders with magnetic injection sites and silicone gel implants. Other reconstructive procedures such as mastopexy, breast reduction, and areolar reduction can be considered. Our long-term results, with a maximum follow-up of 6 years, were satisfying. They have been uniformly good and compare favorably with those presented in the literature when the use of other methods. This two-stage approach is a relatively simple, safe, and technically easy procedure that is easy to learn. The results achieved with this approach seem to be reliable and gratifying.

  12. Tumor Heterogeneity in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turashvili, Gulisa; Brogi, Edi

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and differs greatly among different patients (intertumor heterogeneity) and even within each individual tumor (intratumor heterogeneity). Clinical and morphologic intertumor heterogeneity is reflected by staging systems and histopathologic classification of breast cancer. Heterogeneity in the expression of established prognostic and predictive biomarkers, hormone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 oncoprotein is the basis for targeted treatment. Molecular classifications are indicators of genetic tumor heterogeneity, which is probed with multigene assays and can lead to improved stratification into low- and high-risk groups for personalized therapy. Intratumor heterogeneity occurs at the morphologic, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic levels, creating diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumor heterogeneity that are relevant to the development of treatment resistance is a major area of research. Despite the improved knowledge of the complex genetic and phenotypic features underpinning tumor heterogeneity, there has been only limited advancement in diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive strategies for breast cancer. The current guidelines for reporting of biomarkers aim to maximize patient eligibility for targeted therapy, but do not take into account intratumor heterogeneity. The molecular classification of breast cancer is not implemented in routine clinical practice. Additional studies and in-depth analysis are required to understand the clinical significance of rapidly accumulating data. This review highlights inter- and intratumor heterogeneity of breast carcinoma with special emphasis on pathologic findings, and provides insights into the clinical significance of molecular and cellular mechanisms of heterogeneity. PMID:29276709

  13. Mechanical imaging of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Vladimir; Sarvazyan, Armen P

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze the physical basis for elasticity imaging of the breast by measuring breast skin stress patterns that result from a force sensor array pressed against the breast tissue. Temporal and spatial changes in the stress pattern allow detection of internal structures with different elastic properties and assessment of geometrical and mechanical parameters of these structures. The method entitled mechanical imaging is implemented in the breast mechanical imager (BMI), a compact device consisting of a hand held probe equipped with a pressure sensor array, a compact electronic unit, and a touchscreen laptop computer. Data acquired by the BMI allows calculation of size, shape, consistency/hardness, and mobility of detected lesions. The BMI prototype has been validated in laboratory experiments on tissue models and in an ongoing clinical study. The obtained results prove that the BMI has potential to become a screening and diagnostic tool that could largely supplant clinical breast examination through its higher sensitivity, quantitative record storage, ease-of-use, and inherent low cost.

  14. Computerized detection of breast cancer on automated breast ultrasound imaging of women with dense breasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drukker, Karen, E-mail: kdrukker@uchicago.edu; Sennett, Charlene A.; Giger, Maryellen L. [Department of Radiology, MC2026, The University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection method and investigate its feasibility for detection of breast cancer in automated 3D ultrasound images of women with dense breasts. Methods: The HIPAA compliant study involved a dataset of volumetric ultrasound image data, “views,” acquired with an automated U-Systems Somo•V{sup ®} ABUS system for 185 asymptomatic women with dense breasts (BI-RADS Composition/Density 3 or 4). For each patient, three whole-breast views (3D image volumes) per breast were acquired. A total of 52 patients had breast cancer (61 cancers), diagnosed through any follow-up at most 365 days after the original screening mammogram. Thirty-one of these patients (32 cancers) had a screening-mammogram with a clinically assigned BI-RADS Assessment Category 1 or 2, i.e., were mammographically negative. All software used for analysis was developed in-house and involved 3 steps: (1) detection of initial tumor candidates, (2) characterization of candidates, and (3) elimination of false-positive candidates. Performance was assessed by calculating the cancer detection sensitivity as a function of the number of “marks” (detections) per view. Results: At a single mark per view, i.e., six marks per patient, the median detection sensitivity by cancer was 50.0% (16/32) ± 6% for patients with a screening mammogram-assigned BI-RADS category 1 or 2—similar to radiologists’ performance sensitivity (49.9%) for this dataset from a prior reader study—and 45.9% (28/61) ± 4% for all patients. Conclusions: Promising detection sensitivity was obtained for the computer on a 3D ultrasound dataset of women with dense breasts at a rate of false-positive detections that may be acceptable for clinical implementation.

  15. Neutrosophic segmentation of breast lesions for dedicated breast CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juhun; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Reiser, Ingrid; Boone, John M.

    2017-03-01

    We proposed the neutrosophic approach for segmenting breast lesions in breast Computer Tomography (bCT) images. The neutrosophic set (NS) considers the nature and properties of neutrality (or indeterminacy), which is neither true nor false. We considered the image noise as an indeterminate component, while treating the breast lesion and other breast areas as true and false components. We first transformed the image into the NS domain. Each voxel in the image can be described as its membership in True, Indeterminate, and False sets. Operations α-mean, β-enhancement, and γ-plateau iteratively smooth and contrast-enhance the image to reduce the noise level of the true set. Once the true image no longer changes, we applied one existing algorithm for bCT images, the RGI segmentation, on the resulting image to segment the breast lesions. We compared the segmentation performance of the proposed method (named as NS-RGI) to that of the regular RGI segmentation. We used a total of 122 breast lesions (44 benign, 78 malignant) of 123 non-contrasted bCT cases. We measured the segmentation performances of the NS-RGI and the RGI using the DICE coefficient. The average DICE value of the NS-RGI was 0.82 (STD: 0.09), while that of the RGI was 0.8 (STD: 0.12). The difference between the two DICE values was statistically significant (paired t test, p-value = 0.0007). We conducted a subsequent feature analysis on the resulting segmentations. The classifier performance for the NS-RGI (AUC = 0.8) improved over that of the RGI (AUC = 0.69, p-value = 0.006).

  16. Evidence that breast tissue stiffness is associated with risk of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman F Boyd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from animal models shows that tissue stiffness increases the invasion and progression of cancers, including mammary cancer. We here use measurements of the volume and the projected area of the compressed breast during mammography to derive estimates of breast tissue stiffness and examine the relationship of stiffness to risk of breast cancer. METHODS: Mammograms were used to measure the volume and projected areas of total and radiologically dense breast tissue in the unaffected breasts of 362 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (cases and 656 women of the same age who did not have breast cancer (controls. Measures of breast tissue volume and the projected area of the compressed breast during mammography were used to calculate the deformation of the breast during compression and, with the recorded compression force, to estimate the stiffness of breast tissue. Stiffness was compared in cases and controls, and associations with breast cancer risk examined after adjustment for other risk factors. RESULTS: After adjustment for percent mammographic density by area measurements, and other risk factors, our estimate of breast tissue stiffness was significantly associated with breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1.43, p = 0.02 and improved breast cancer risk prediction in models with percent mammographic density, by both area and volume measurements. CONCLUSION: An estimate of breast tissue stiffness was associated with breast cancer risk and improved risk prediction based on mammographic measures and other risk factors. Stiffness may provide an additional mechanism by which breast tissue composition is associated with risk of breast cancer and merits examination using more direct methods of measurement.

  17. Evidence that breast tissue stiffness is associated with risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Norman F; Li, Qing; Melnichouk, Olga; Huszti, Ella; Martin, Lisa J; Gunasekara, Anoma; Mawdsley, Gord; Yaffe, Martin J; Minkin, Salomon

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from animal models shows that tissue stiffness increases the invasion and progression of cancers, including mammary cancer. We here use measurements of the volume and the projected area of the compressed breast during mammography to derive estimates of breast tissue stiffness and examine the relationship of stiffness to risk of breast cancer. Mammograms were used to measure the volume and projected areas of total and radiologically dense breast tissue in the unaffected breasts of 362 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (cases) and 656 women of the same age who did not have breast cancer (controls). Measures of breast tissue volume and the projected area of the compressed breast during mammography were used to calculate the deformation of the breast during compression and, with the recorded compression force, to estimate the stiffness of breast tissue. Stiffness was compared in cases and controls, and associations with breast cancer risk examined after adjustment for other risk factors. After adjustment for percent mammographic density by area measurements, and other risk factors, our estimate of breast tissue stiffness was significantly associated with breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1.43, p = 0.02) and improved breast cancer risk prediction in models with percent mammographic density, by both area and volume measurements. An estimate of breast tissue stiffness was associated with breast cancer risk and improved risk prediction based on mammographic measures and other risk factors. Stiffness may provide an additional mechanism by which breast tissue composition is associated with risk of breast cancer and merits examination using more direct methods of measurement.

  18. Evidence That Breast Tissue Stiffness Is Associated with Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Norman F.; Li, Qing; Melnichouk, Olga; Huszti, Ella; Martin, Lisa J.; Gunasekara, Anoma; Mawdsley, Gord; Yaffe, Martin J.; Minkin, Salomon

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence from animal models shows that tissue stiffness increases the invasion and progression of cancers, including mammary cancer. We here use measurements of the volume and the projected area of the compressed breast during mammography to derive estimates of breast tissue stiffness and examine the relationship of stiffness to risk of breast cancer. Methods Mammograms were used to measure the volume and projected areas of total and radiologically dense breast tissue in the unaffected breasts of 362 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (cases) and 656 women of the same age who did not have breast cancer (controls). Measures of breast tissue volume and the projected area of the compressed breast during mammography were used to calculate the deformation of the breast during compression and, with the recorded compression force, to estimate the stiffness of breast tissue. Stiffness was compared in cases and controls, and associations with breast cancer risk examined after adjustment for other risk factors. Results After adjustment for percent mammographic density by area measurements, and other risk factors, our estimate of breast tissue stiffness was significantly associated with breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1.43, p = 0.02) and improved breast cancer risk prediction in models with percent mammographic density, by both area and volume measurements. Conclusion An estimate of breast tissue stiffness was associated with breast cancer risk and improved risk prediction based on mammographic measures and other risk factors. Stiffness may provide an additional mechanism by which breast tissue composition is associated with risk of breast cancer and merits examination using more direct methods of measurement. PMID:25010427

  19. Breast MR Imaging in Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Dipti; Billadello, Laura

    2017-05-01

    The role of breast MR imaging in preoperative evaluation of disease extent remains controversial. MR imaging increases detection of mammographically occult ipsilateral and contralateral disease, but the clinical impact of these incidental cancers in unknown. There are no randomized trials of recurrence or mortality as the primary end point. This missing evidence is needed before the role of extent of disease MR imaging can be outlined. There are specific clinical scenarios in which breast MR imaging plays a clear role. In most cases, the decision to obtain MR imaging depends on physician practice style and patient preference. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lobulitis in nonneoplastic breast tissue from breast cancer patients: association with phenotypes that are common in hereditary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahce, H Evin; Vanderwerf, Steve; Blair, Cindy; Sweeney, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Lobular inflammation (lobulitis) has been demonstrated in benign breast tissue adjacent to in situ and invasive breast cancers and, more recently, in nonneoplastic tissue from prophylactic mastectomy specimens for hereditary high-risk breast carcinoma. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of lobulitis in benign breast tissue of patients with breast cancer and associated clinicopathologic features. We reviewed nonneoplastic breast tissue sections from 334 patients with invasive breast carcinoma to study lobulitis in normal breast tissue and to correlate its presence with clinicopathologic features of the associated tumor. Clinical information (age, menopausal status, and follow-up), tumor characteristics (type, grade, size, lymph node status, stage, estrogen and progesterone receptor, HER2), and survival were recorded. Characteristics of women with and without lobulitis were cross-classified with categories of clinical, pathologic, and histologic characteristics, and differences in distributions were tested in univariate and multivariate analysis. Lobulitis was found in 26 (8%) of 334 patients. The lymphocytic infiltrate was predominantly T-cell type. In a multivariate model, lobulitis in patients with breast cancer was significantly associated with younger age, triple (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2)-negative cancers, and medullary phenotypes. Lobulitis in nonneoplastic breast tissue, away from tumor, is associated with clinicopathologic features more commonly seen in hereditary breast cancer. © 2013.

  1. Non-microsurgical breast reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Sheel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast reconstruction after mastectomy should aim at resulting in an aesthetic outcome that matches the patient′s expectations and without interfering in the oncologic treatment. Whether the reconstruction is performed immediately or in a delayed fashion depends on various factors, which needs detailed attention. Autologous tissue, implants or both are used in the reconstruction. This article reviews the current concepts in these, with emphasis on non-microsurgical methods of using the autologous tissue for reconstruction. Breast conservation has become an accepted practice of treatment. Reconstruction in these situations as well as in an occasion when the surgery is done for failed breast conservation is discussed in detail. The article also reviews the various methods for nipple reconstruction available.

  2. Tuberous breast: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, L; Canzi, W; Buss, A; Accorsi, A

    1998-01-01

    The authors make a historical summary of the pathologic condition of tuberous breast and describe a new procedure for its correction. The method involves a periareolar approach, dividing the breast in two portions to disrupt the constricting ring, and making an inferiorly based flap or pedicle, as described and used by the senior author since 1969, with publication in 1973. The main goal is to correct the deformity at a one-stage operation, resulting in a periareolar scar only, without the use of alloplastic elements such as prostheses, mesh, or tissue expanders. The authors emphasize that Brazilian patients prefer having small breasts rather than large ones, even though the procedure allows the implantation of pre- or retromuscular implants through the periareolar incision.

  3. [Breast cancer: new therapeutic strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espie, M

    1998-12-12

    NEED FOR NEW CHEMOTHERAPY AGENTS: Metastasic breast cancer is an excellent model for studying anticancer agents: chemotherapy or hormonotherapy or compounds modifying the organism's response. If no adjuvant treatment is given after locoregional treatment of breast cancer, metastasis will develop within 10 years in 30% of the patients free of initial nodal invasion and within 5 years in 50% of the patients with initial nodal invasion. ADJUVANT TREATMENTS: Hormonotherapy and chemotherapy reduce mortality due to breast cancer by 10%. New adjuvant agents have been recently introduced. Taxans (docetaxel, paclitaxel) are the most active molecules since antracyclines. New aromataase inhibitors include letrozole and anastrozole. Their efficacy has been demonstrated in phase II and phase III trials, allowing their experimentation as adjuvant treatments.

  4. Breast conserving surgery versus mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Carstensen, Stina Lyck; Ejlertsen, Bent

    2018-01-01

    included patients registered after primary surgery for early invasive breast cancer in the database of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group, in the period 1995–2012. The cohort was divided into three groups: (i) patients who primarily had a mastectomy, (ii) patients treated by BCS, and (iii) patients...... significant interactions were not observed for age, period of treatment, and nodal status, but patients with Charlson’s Comorbidity Index (CCI) score 2+ had no increased mortality after mastectomy, as opposed to patients with CCI 0–1. Loco-regional radiation therapy (RT) in node positive patients did......Background: Observational studies have pointed at a better survival after breast conserving surgery (BCS) compared with mastectomy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether this remains true when more extensive tumor characteristics and treatment data were included. Methods: The cohort...

  5. Breast cancer: demands of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveys, B J; Klaich, K

    1991-01-01

    This study explores the qualitative experience of illness demands from the woman's own perspective by asking, "What is the impact of breast cancer on the daily lives of women of childbearing age?" Semistructured interviews with 79 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer were transcribed and analyzed to discern illness demands. Content analysis yielded 14 domains of illness demands: treatment issues, change in life context or perspective, acceptance of the illness, social interaction or support, physical changes, reconstructing the self, uncertainty, loss, making comparisons, acquiring new knowledge, making choices, mortality issues, financial or occupational concerns, and making a contribution. Illness demands are experienced in every aspect of a woman's life, including her identity, daily routines, family and social experience, and her perception of the past, present, and future. This study details in the women's own language the considerable adjustments brought on by a diagnosis of breast cancer.

  6. Breast Cancer Screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Kalager, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background: Effective breast cancer screening should detect early-stage cancer and prevent advanced disease. Objective: To assess the association between screening and the size of detected tumors and to estimate overdiagnosis (detection of tumors that would not become clinically relevant). Design......) and nonadvanced (≤20 mm) breast cancer tumors in screened and nonscreened women were measured. Two approaches were used to estimate the amount of overdiagnosis: comparing the incidence of advanced and nonadvanced tumors among women aged 50 to 84 years in screening and nonscreening areas; and comparing...... rate ratio, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.43 to 1.54]). The first estimation approach found that 271 invasive breast cancer tumors and 179 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions were overdiagnosed in 2010 (overdiagnosis rate of 24.4% [including DCIS] and 14.7% [excluding DCIS]). The second approach, which accounted...

  7. Contrast media in breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Luis F; Morrell, Brooke; Mai, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    Although mammography is the standard imaging modality for detection of breast cancer, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a valuable adjunct and, in certain cases, is the imaging of choice. Contrast-enhanced breast MR imaging provides a noninvasive means of staging disease, assessing posttreatment response, and screening of high-risk patients with genetic predispositions. Additional indications for MR mammography include lesion characterization, contralateral breast evaluation in patients with proved malignancy, and identifying primary malignancy in patients with axillary nodal disease. There are several competing factors that influence the quality of the study. Finding the right balance is the key to providing high-quality images that can be accurately interpreted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Breast cancer circulating tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Joao Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastasization of breast cancer involves various mechanisms responsible for progression from invasive lesion to dissemination in distant organs. Regional lymph node metastasization was considered an initial step in this process, but it is now recognized that hematogenous dissemination is a deviation from lymphatic circulation. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC is an aim in several oncology areas. For this purpose, several techniques have been used to detect CTC, including the use of antibodies and techniques with nucleic acids. This study reviews the published studies considering the detection of breast cancer CTC. There are focused the difficulties in identifying a CTC in a heterogeneous population, the handling of the sample, criteria of positivity, analytical techniques, and specific markers. There are systematized various specific markers of breast cancer cells also the problems with false positive results. Finally, we hypothesize clinical applications either as a prognostic marker or as a therapeutic response monitor.

  9. NONNUTRITIVE SWEETENERS IN BREAST MILK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvetsky, Allison C.; Gardner, Alexandra L.; Bauman, Viviana; Blau, Jenny E.; Garraffo, H. Martin; Walter, Peter J.; Rother, Kristina I.

    2017-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), including saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, and acesulfame-potassium, are commonly consumed in the general population, and all except for saccharin are considered safe for use during pregnancy and lactation. Sucralose (Splenda) currently holds the majority of the NNS market share and is often combined with acesulfame-potassium in a wide variety of foods and beverages. To date, saccharin is the only NNS reported to be found in human breast milk after maternal consumption, while there is no apparent information on the other NNS. Breast milk samples were collected from 20 lactating volunteers, irrespective of their habitual NNS intake. Saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame-potassium were present in 65% of participants’ milk samples, whereas aspartame was not detected. These data indicate that NNS are frequently ingested by nursing infants, and thus prospective clinical studies are necessary to determine whether early NNS exposure via breast milk may have clinical implications. PMID:26267522

  10. THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.

  11. Analytic modeling of breast elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H T; Sun, L Z; Wang, G; Vannier, M W

    2003-09-01

    The elastic moduli of tumors change during their pathological evolution. Elastographic imaging has potential for detecting and characterizing cancers by mapping the stiffness distribution in tissues. In this paper a micromechanics-based analytical method was developed to detect the location, size, and elastic modulus of a tumor mass embedded in a symmetric two-dimensional breast tissue. A closed-form solution for the strain elastograms (forward problem) was derived. A computational algorithm for the inverse problem was developed for the detection, localization, and characterization of a heterogeneous mass embedded in a breast tissue. Numerical examples were presented to evaluate the proposed method's performance. The detectability of a tumor mass was estimated with respect to lesion location, size, and modulus contrast ratio. It was shown that the micromechanics theory provides a powerful tool for the diagnosis of breast cancer.

  12. Genetic Susceptibility to Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Kristen N.; Vachon, Celine M.; Couch, Fergus J.

    2013-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC), defined by the absence of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 expression, account for 12-24% of all breast cancers. TNBC is associated with early recurrence of disease and poor outcome. Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes have been associated with up to 15% of TNBC, and TNBC accounts for 70% of breast tumors arising in BRCA1 mutation carriers and 16-23% of breast ...

  13. Pink Breast Milk: Serratia marcescens Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipatli Ayuzo del Valle

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background - Breast milk can turn pink with Serratia marcescens colonization, this bacterium has been associated with several diseases and even death. It is seen most commonly in the intensive care settings. Discoloration of the breast milk can lead to premature termination of nursing. We describe two cases of pink-colored breast milk in which S. marsescens was isolated from both the expressed breast milk. Antimicrobial treatment was administered to the mothers. Return to breastfeeding was successful in both the cases. Conclusions - Pink breast milk is caused by S. marsescens colonization. In such cases,early recognition and treatment before the development of infection is recommended to return to breastfeeding.

  14. Pink Breast Milk: Serratia marcescens Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Cipatli Ayuzo Del; Salinas, Emilio Treviño

    2014-11-01

    Background Breast milk can turn pink with Serratia marcescens colonization, this bacterium has been associated with several diseases and even death. It is seen most commonly in the intensive care settings. Discoloration of the breast milk can lead to premature termination of nursing. We describe two cases of pink-colored breast milk in which S. marsescens was isolated from both the expressed breast milk. Antimicrobial treatment was administered to the mothers. Return to breastfeeding was successful in both the cases. Conclusions Pink breast milk is caused by S. marsescens colonization. In such cases,early recognition and treatment before the development of infection is recommended to return to breastfeeding.

  15. An update on inflammatory breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Thapaliya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory breast cancer is one of the most aggressive forms of breast cancer. Once considered to be a uniformly fatal disease, treatment of this entity has evolved significantly over the last two decades. In this article, we review the epidemiology, pathology, biologic underpinnings, radiologic advances, and treatment modalities for inflammatory breast cancer. Updates in surgical therapy, medical oncologic therapy and radiation therapy are reviewed. Emphasis is on cutting edge information regarding inflammatory breast cancer. The management of inflammatory breast cancer is best served by a multidisciplinary team. Continued research into molecular pathways and potential targets is imperative. Future clinical trials should include evaluation of conventional therapy with targeted therapies.

  16. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  17. Management of tuberous breast deformity with anatomic cohesive silicone gel breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchapakesan, Vivek; Brown, Mitchell H

    2009-01-01

    Tuberous breast deformity is a rare congenital condition that often requires surgical correction. Numerous surgical techniques have been described, reflecting the reconstructive challenge of this deformity. The anatomic cohesive gel breast implant is a powerful tool in both aesthetic and reconstructive breast surgery. In the authors' experience, its use in treating tuberous breast deformity has provided the opportunity for a single-stage approach, with very good results. The senior author has managed more than 50 cases of single-stage reconstruction for tuberous breast deformity using anatomic cohesive gel breast implants. His surgical technique is described with suggestions for achieving optimal results. Representative case examples are provided. The anatomic cohesive silicone gel breast implant is an excellent device for treating tuberous breast deformity. It often can be used as a single-stage correction of the deformity with very good results. The authors strongly advocate consideration of its use in tuberous breast deformity reconstruction.

  18. Mammographic breast density: impact on breast cancer risk and implications for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Phoebe E

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic breast density is rapidly becoming a hot topic in both the medical literature and the lay press. In the United States, recent legislative changes in 19 states now require radiologists to notify patients regarding breast density as well as the possible need for supplemental screening. Federal legislation regarding breast density notification has been introduced, and its passage is likely on the horizon. An understanding of the context, scientific evidence, and controversies surrounding the topic of breast density as a risk factor for breast cancer is critical for radiologists. The current state of evidence is presented regarding supplemental screening for women with dense breasts, including the use of digital breast tomosynthesis, whole-breast ultrasonography, and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. A review of current practice guidelines and additional sources of information will improve radiologists' understanding of the relevant subject of breast density and enable them to respond appropriately to questions from patients, clinicians, and the media. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  19. Independent Association of Lobular Involution and Mammographic Breast Density With Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Celine M.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Vierkant, Robert A.; Anderson, Stephanie S.; Brandt, Kathleen R.; Visscher, Daniel W.; Reynolds, Carol; Frost, Marlene H.; Hartmann, Lynn C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lobular involution, or age-related atrophy of breast lobules, is inversely associated with breast cancer risk, and mammographic breast density (MBD) is positively associated with breast cancer risk. Methods To evaluate whether lobular involution and MBD are independently associated with breast cancer risk in women with benign breast disease, we performed a nested cohort study among women (n = 2666) with benign breast disease diagnosed at Mayo Clinic between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 1991 and a mammogram available within 6 months of the diagnosis. Women were followed up for an average of 13.3 years to document any breast cancer incidence. Lobular involution was categorized as none, partial, or complete; parenchymal pattern was classified using the Wolfe classification as N1 (nondense), P1, P2 (ductal prominence occupying 25% of the breast, respectively), or DY (extremely dense). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess associations of lobular involution and MBD with breast cancer risk were estimated using adjusted Cox proportional hazards model. All tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Results After adjustment for MBD, having no or partial lobular involution was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer than having complete involution (none: HR of breast cancer incidence = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.39 to 4.94; partial: HR of breast cancer incidence = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.53; Ptrend = .002). Similarly, after adjustment for involution, having dense breasts was associated with higher risk of breast cancer than having nondense breasts (for DY: HR of breast cancer incidence = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.73; for P2: HR of breast cancer incidence = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.20 to 3.21; for P1: HR of breast cancer incidence = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.67 to 2.26; Ptrend = .02). Having a combination of no involution and dense breasts was associated with higher risk of breast cancer than having complete involution and nondense breasts (HR of

  20. Adequacy of breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelliffe, D B; Jelliffe, E F

    1979-09-29

    There are 3 main errors in the paper by Professor Waterlow and Dr. Thomson on the subject of adequacy of breast feeding. The errors relate to the following: validity of recommended dietary allowances (RDA), balance between intake and requirements, and frequency of weight faltering. Far from being "generally accepted," the RDAs for early infancy (0-6 months) are highly tenuous. As Waterlow and Thomson indicate, they are largely based on S.J. Fomon's studies on intakes observed in North American infants fed various milks. Such studies only indicate the approximate use of energy and protein from these preparations when given by bottle. Their relevance to infants breast fed with fresh human milk on demand is conjectural. RDAs for early infancy among the breast fed will be very difficult, if not impossible, to determine. They are likely to be more variable than previously believed and extrapolation from older children, as Waterlow and Thomson have done, is inappropriate. Theoretical extrapolations lead Waterlow and Thomson to conclude that breast feeding alone after 3 months cannot be adequate mathematically, and, therefore that this must be so. Anyone with practical experience realizes from simple observation that this is an extraordinary conclusion. Pediatric texts have long recognized that breast feeding alone sustains infants well for 5-6 months (or more). Weight faltering is not "common at 3 months in developing countries." The growth of breast fed infants has been recognized as excellent for the first 6 months or so by the early "tropical pediatricians," and field surveys have confirmed this. The real danger in Waterlow and Thomson's paper is that it is tailor-made for the promotional campaigns of the formula companies.

  1. Detection of breast abnormalities on enhanced chest CT: Correlation with breast composition on mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eun Mi; Kang, Hee; Shin, Young Gyung; Yun, Jong Hyouk; Oh, Kyung Seung [Dept. of Radiology, Kosin University Gospel Hospital, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    To investigate the capability of enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) for detecting breast abnormalities and to assess the influence of breast composition on this detectability. From 2000 to 2013, 75 patients who underwent mammography, breast sonography, and enhanced chest CT within one month and had abnormalities on sonography were included. Detection rate of breast abnormality on enhanced chest CT was compared among 4 types of breast composition by the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. Contribution of breast composition, size and enhancement of target lesions to detectability of enhanced chest CT was assessed using logistic regression and chi-square test. Of the 75 target lesions, 34 (45.3%) were detected on enhanced chest CT, corresponding with those on breast sonography; there were no significantly different detection rates among the 4 types of breast composition (p = 0.078). Breast composition [odds ratio (OR) = 1.07, p = 0.206] and enhancement (OR = 21.49, p = 0.998) had no significant effect, but size (OR = 1.23, p = 0.004) was a significant contributing factor influencing the detectability of enhanced chest CT for breast lesions. About half of the cases (45.3%) demonstrated breast lesions on chest CT corresponding with target lesions on sonography. Breast composition defined on mammography did not affect the detectability of enhanced chest CT for breast lesions.

  2. A systematic review to establish the frequency of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in normal breast epithelium, ductal carcinoma in situ, microinvasive carcinoma of the breast and invasive breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Glover, J A; Hughes, C M; Cantwell, M M; Murray, L J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have suggested a protective effect of cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibiting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in breast cancer risk and disease progression. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the frequency of COX-2 expression in normal breast epithelium, ductal carcinoma in situ of breast (DCIS), DCIS-adjoining invasive breast cancer, microinvasive carcinoma of the breast (MICB) and invasive breast cancer. Methods: Literature searches were carried o...

  3. Brachytherapy in breast cancer: an effective alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicheł, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Breast conserving surgery (BCS) with following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) of the conserved breast has become widely accepted in the last decades for the treatment of early invasive breast cancer. The standard technique of EBRT after BCS is to treat the whole breast up to a total dose of 42.5 to 50 Gy. An additional dose is given to treated volume as a boost to a portion of the breast. In the early stage of breast cancer, research has shown that the area requiring radiation treatment to prevent the cancer from local recurrence is the breast tissue that surrounds the area where the initial cancer was removed. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an approach that treats only the lumpectomy bed plus a 1-2 cm margin rather than the whole breast and as a result allows accelerated delivery of the radiation dose in four to five days. There has been a growing interest for APBI and various approaches have been developed under phase I-III clinical studies; these include multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy, balloon catheter brachytherapy, conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-EBRT) and intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT). Balloon-based brachytherapy approaches include MammoSite, Axxent electronic brachytherapy, Contura, hybrid brachytherapy devices. Another indication for breast brachytherapy is reirradiation of local recurrence after mastectomy. Published results of brachytherapy are very promising. We discuss the current status, indications, and technical aspects of breast cancer brachytherapy. PMID:26327829

  4. Wooden Breast Problem in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tekeli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study is designed to attract attention to macroscobic and microscobic findings, causes and economic losses of wooden breast which is a significant muscle problem leading to visual and sensory differences in poultry breast meat quality. Wooden Breast is a crucial problem in poultry industry. It has started to seriously affect poultry production in European and other countries, and especially in United States of America. Woody breast formation is a situation characterized with completely hardened breast fillet or with swelling easily understood when touched. Surface of the fillet contains exudate with petechial bleeding or non-bleeding viscous gelatine. Woody structure called “wooden” can occur not only in breast meat but also in legs. Growth rate, gender, energy level of the feed, amino acid level, and selenium supplement are the factors affecting wooden breast-woody breast meat formation. Shaded colour, surface leak and abnormally hard tissue are seen in macroscopic image of woody breast. In microscopic findings, muscle fibers are less and round. Lesions don’t contain pathogenic micro-organisms, they are aseptic. Colour of the meat of woody breast is brighter and whiter, and (L* value This muscle problem affects muscles visually and sensorial; but it doesn’t have a negative effect on human health. The more white lines and woody structure in breast meat, the less they are accepted among European consumers.

  5. Genetic heterogeneity in breast cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, T I

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 20% of breast cancer patients have a family history of the disease, and in one-fourth of these cases breast cancer appears to be inherited as an autosomally dominant trait. Five genes and gene regions involved in breast cancer susceptibility have been uncovered. Germ-line mutations in the recently cloned BRCA1 gene at 17q21 is considered to be responsible for the disease in a majority of the breast-ovarian cancer families and in 40-45% of the site-specific breast cancer families, but appears not to be involved in families with both male and female breast cancer cases. The BRCA2 locus at 13q12-q13 appears to be involved in 40-45% of the site-specific breast cancer families, and in most of the families with affected males. The gene located in this region, however, does not seem to confer susceptibility to ovarian cancer. The TP53 gene is involved in breast cancer development in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Li-Fraumeni syndrom-like families, whereas germ-line mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene is present in a subset of male breast cancers. Furthermore, females who are obligate carriers of ataxia telangiectasia (AT) have a 4-12 times relative risk of developing breast cancer as compared with the general female population, indicating that germ-line mutations in AT also confer susceptibility to breast cancer.

  6. Vitronectin in human breast carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Mads; Offersen, Birgitte Vrou; Christensen, Anni

    2003-01-01

    We have analysed the occurrence of the extracellular glycoprotein vitronectin in carcinomas and normal tissue of human breast. Immunohistochemical analysis of carcinomas revealed a strong vitronectin accumulation in extracellular matrix (ECM) around some cancer cell clusters and in the subendothe......We have analysed the occurrence of the extracellular glycoprotein vitronectin in carcinomas and normal tissue of human breast. Immunohistochemical analysis of carcinomas revealed a strong vitronectin accumulation in extracellular matrix (ECM) around some cancer cell clusters...... of the role of vitronectin in tumour biology in interaction with the plasminogen activation system and integrins....

  7. Fibromatosis of breast mimicking sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silonie Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary mammary fibromatosis is a rare skin condition which can arise after trauma or previous surgery. The exact etiology is unknown. Very few cases have been reported in literature and the main emphasis is to differentiate this condition from breast carcinoma. We report here an unusual case of a 60 year old female who presented with skin lesion which clinically looked sarcoid with history suggestive of sarcoidosis, but on histopathology fibromatosis of breast was revealed. Complete work up ruled out any carcinomatous changes. Surgical excision of the lesion was done with no recurrence seen in one year follow up period.

  8. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard

    2010-01-01

    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria...

  9. Paclitaxel (Taxol) in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuck, S G; Dorr, A; Friedman, M A

    1994-02-01

    Paclitaxel (Taxol) is a diterpine plant compound that was isolated initially from the bark of the western yew tree, Taxus brevifolia, but can now be produced by semisynthesis from a renewable source. Paclitaxel is the first new agent in the past decade to have confirmed single agent activity in breast cancer in excess of 50%. A 28% response rate has been reported in doxorubicin-refractory patients. Ongoing studies include attempts to combine paclitaxel with other drugs used for breast cancer treatment and with radiation.

  10. Breast-feeding and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodwin, D W; Gabrielli, W F; Penick, E C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to determine whether early termination of breast-feeding contributes to later alcohol dependence, as proposed more than 200 years ago by the British physician Thomas Trotter. METHOD: In 1959-1961, a multiple-specialty group of physicians studied 9, 182 consecutive...... diagnosed as alcohol dependent at age 30, 13 (48%) came from the group weaned from the breast before the age of 3 weeks; only 33 (19%) of the 173 non-alcohol-dependent subjects came from the early weaning group. When challenged by other perinatal variables in a multiple regression analysis, early weaning...

  11. Quality indicators for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poortmans, Philip; Aznar, Marianne; Bartelink, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy for breast cancer has considerably changed over the years, from simple simulator-based 2-dimensional techniques to sophisticated image-guided individualized treatments, with maximally protected normal structures. This has led to a substantial improvement in the outcome of breast...... cancer patients in terms of disease control, survival, and quality of life. This progress is based on clinical research and paralleled by progress in delivering sophisticated radiation treatment. Clinical trials resulted in identifying patients groups who will benefit from radiation treatment. They also...

  12. Perspectives of Breast Cancer Thermotherapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphandéry, Edouard

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the use of different types of thermotherapies to treat breast cancer is reviewed. While hyperthermia is most commonly used as an adjuvant in combination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy or cryotherapy to enhance the therapeutic effect of these therapies, thermoablation is usually carried out alone to eradicate small breast tumors. A recently developed thermotherapy, called magnetic hyperthermia, which involves localized heating of nanoparticles under the application of an alternating magnetic field, is also presented. The advantages and drawbacks of these different thermotherapies are highlighted. PMID:24959300

  13. Integrins in breast cancer dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier, Stephanie M; Muller, William J

    2008-01-01

    Among breast cancer patients, 20% to 45% develop malignant lesions following their initial treatment. This relapse may occur after an apparent remission period that can range from years to several decades. Clinical observations suggest that breast-derived malignant cells have the ability to survive subclinically for a very long period of time before eventually resuming proliferation and forming detectable lesions. While the precise molecular events that correspond to this dormant phenotype remain poorly understood, data published during the last 10 years have underlined an important role of integrin proteins in the regulation of this phenomenon.

  14. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...... estimate of overdiagnosis. Screening affects cohorts of screened women. Danish registers allow very accurate mapping of the fate of every woman. We should be past the phase where studies of overdiagnosis are based on the fixed age groups from routine statistics....

  15. Microbial Biofilms and Breast Tissue Expanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Karau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously developed and validated a vortexing-sonication technique for detection of biofilm bacteria on the surface of explanted prosthetic joints. Herein, we evaluated this technique for diagnosis of infected breast tissue expanders and used it to assess colonization of breast tissue expanders. From April 2008 to December 2011, we studied 328 breast tissue expanders at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Of seven clinically infected breast tissue expanders, six (85.7% had positive cultures, one of which grew Propionibacterium species. Fifty-two of 321 breast tissue expanders (16.2%, 95% CI, 12.3–20.7% without clinical evidence of infection also had positive cultures, 45 growing Propionibacterium species and ten coagulase-negative staphylococci. While vortexing-sonication can detect clinically infected breast tissue expanders, 16 percent of breast tissue expanders appear to be asymptomatically colonized with normal skin flora, most commonly, Propionibacterium species.

  16. Alcohol and breast cancer: the mechanisms explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sader, Hassen; Abdul-Jabar, Hani; Allawi, Zahra; Haba, Yasser

    2009-08-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of death amongst women, several studies have shown significant association between alcohol consumption and breast cancer. The aim of this overview is to highlight some of the mechanisms by which alcohol consumption could increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Using online Medline search engine, article containing details about mechanisms which explain the link between alcohol and breast cancer were examined. A number of mechanisms were found by which alcohol could increase the risk of breast cancer, alcohol's interaction and effect on oestrogen secretion; number of oestrogen receptors; the generation of acetaldehyde and hydroxyl free radicals; cells migration and metastasis; secretion of IGF1 and interaction with HRT and folate metabolism. In conclusion, it is essential for clinicians to understand these mechanisms and inform patients of the link between alcohol and breast cancer. Breast cancer; Alcohol; Mechanisms.

  17. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, Fiona; Woodley, Laura N; Shousha, Sami; Moyes, Ashley; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Halliday, Alex N; Rehkämper, Mark; Coombes, R Charles

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn isotopic lightness in tumours suggests that sulphur rich metallothionein dominates the isotopic selectivity of a breast tissue cell, rather than Zn-specific proteins. This reveals a possible mechanism of Zn delivery to Zn-sequestering vesicles by metallothionein, and is supported by a similar signature observed in the copper isotopic compositions of one breast cancer patient. This change in intrinsic isotopic compositions due to cancer has the potential to provide a novel early biomarker for breast cancer.

  18. Mechanisms involved in breast cancer liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Feng, Yili; Lin, Shuang; Chen, Jiang; Lin, Hui; Liang, Xiao; Zheng, Heming; Cai, Xiujun

    2015-02-15

    Liver metastasis is a frequent occurrence in patients with breast cancer; however, the available treatments are limited and ineffective. While liver-specific homing of breast cancer cells is an important feature of metastasis, the formation of liver metastases is not random. Indeed, breast cancer cell factors contribute to the liver microenvironment. Major breakthroughs have been achieved recently in understanding breast cancer liver metastasis (BCLM). The process of liver metastasis consists of multiple steps and involves various factors from breast cancer cells and the liver microenvironment. A further understanding of the roles of breast cancer cells and the liver microenvironment is crucial to guide future work in clinical treatments. In this review we discuss the contribution of breast cancer cells and the liver microenvironment to liver metastasis, with the aim to improve therapeutic efficacy for patients with BCLM.

  19. Income, productivity, and satisfaction of breast surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendorf, David C; Helmer, Stephen D; Osland, Jacqueline S; Tenofsky, Patty L

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how the practice patterns of breast surgeons affect their income and job satisfaction. A 19-question survey regarding practice patterns and income and job satisfaction was mailed to all active US members of the American Society of Breast Surgeons. There were 772 responses. An increasing percentage of breast care was associated with lower incomes (P=.0001) and similar income satisfaction (P=.4517) but higher job satisfaction (P=.0001). The increasing proportion of breast care was also associated with fewer hours worked per week (P=.0001). Although incomes were lower in surgeons with a higher proportion of their practice in breast care, income satisfaction was not affected. Although cause and effect relationships between income and breast surgery are difficult to establish, several trends do emerge. Most significantly, we found that dedicated breast surgeons have higher job satisfaction ratings and similar income satisfaction despite lower incomes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Primary breast sarcoma: case report | Hassan | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary breast sarcoma is a rare entity occurring in 0.5% of women with breast malignancy. Like in breast carcinoma, delay in its diagnosis has important clinical and treatment implications. The subject of this report presented at our breast unit with advanced breast lesion months after she noticed a small lump in her right ...

  1. What You Need to Know about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Breast Cancer This booklet is about breast cancer. Learning about your cancer can help you take ... This booklet covers: Basics about breast anatomy and breast cancer Treatments for breast cancer, including taking part in ...

  2. Breast Microcalcification Detection Using Super-Resolution Ultrasound Image Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    imag- ing for breast microcalcification detection. Breast microcalcifications can be seen in malignant cancerous masses. We construct a numerical... cancers detected by mam- mography, and approximately 95% of all DCIS is diagnosed because of mammographically detected microcalcifications . Breast ...detection using numerical breast phantoms. Microcalcifications can be found in different breast tissues, such as cancerous masses or cysts. We build two

  3. Reconstructive breast implantation after mastectomy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Trine F; Fryzek, Jon P; Hölmich, Lisbet R

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical reports have raised concern about local complications following breast implantation used in reconstructive or cosmetic surgery, but there is a shortage of epidemiological studies in this area. OBJECTIVE: To assess in a prospective epidemiological manner the occurrence of shor...

  4. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-06

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. Breast Milk Iodine and Iodine Status of Breast-Fed Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Golam Morshed Molla; M Iqbal Arslan; Mafruha Tazkin Milky

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast milk is the only source of iodine for exclusively breast-fed infants. Iodine status of breast-fed infants depends on iodine in breast milk and also number of feeding in 24 hours. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess both have bad impact on infant’s health. Objective: To measure the iodine in breast milk and to evaluate iodine status of their breast-fed infants. Materials and method: This observational analytical study was carried out in the department of Bioch...

  6. Evaluation of clinical breast examination and breast ultrasonography among pregnant women in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeonu PO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu,1 Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1 Robinson Chukwudi Onoh,1 Osaheni Lucky Lawani,1 Vincent Chidi Enemuo,2 Uzoma MaryRose Agwu1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Surgery, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria Background: Breast cancer in pregnancy accounts for 2%–3% of all breast cancers. The increased vascularity and lymphatic drainage from the breast during pregnancy potentiate the metastatic spread of the cancer to the regional lymph nodes. However, the increased breast density in pregnancy makes it difficult to detect breast lesions early.Aim: To evaluate and compare the detection rate of breast lesions using clinical breast examination (CBE and breast ultrasonography among pregnant women. Methodology: A cross-sectional comparative study involving antenatal clinic attendees at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, was conducted between March 3, 2014, and December 31, 2014. CBE and breast ultrasonography were done in the participants at booking and repeated at 6 weeks postpartum. Fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology were done in women with suspicious breast lesions on CBE or breast ultrasonography or both. Data analysis was both descriptive and inferential at the 95% confidence level using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software version 17.0. Test of significance was done using chi-square test. A P-value of less than or equal to 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 320 pregnant women participated in the study. Of these, 267 (83.4% were aware of breast cancer. Although more lesions were detected with breast ultrasonography than by CBE, there was no statistically significant difference between them (25 versus 17; P=0.26.The histology of the lesions revealed 21 benign lesions and 4 normal breast tissues. The sensitivity of breast ultrasonography was 95.2%, while that of CBE was 66.7%. The specificity, positive predictive

  7. Impact of contra-lateral breast reshaping on mammographic surveillance in women undergoing breast reconstruction following mastectomy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Maurizio B; Rocco, Nicola; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Falco, Giuseppe; Capalbo, Emanuela; Marano, Luigi; Bordoni, Daniele; Spano, Andrea; Scaperrotta, Gianfranco

    2015-08-01

    The ultimate goal of breast reconstruction is to achieve symmetry with the contra-lateral breast. Contra-lateral procedures with wide parenchymal rearrangements are suspected to impair mammographic surveillance. This study aims to evaluate the impact on mammographic detection of mastopexies and breast reductions for contralateral adjustment in breast reconstruction. We retrospectively evaluated 105 women affected by uni-lateral breast cancer who underwent mastectomy and immediate two-stage reconstruction between 2002 and 2007. We considered three groups according to the contra-lateral reshaping technique: mastopexy or breast reduction with inferior dermoglandular flap (group 1); mastopexy or breast reduction without inferior dermoglandular flap (group 2); no contra-lateral reshaping (group 3). We assessed qualitative mammographic variations and breast density in the three groups. Statistically significant differences have been found when comparing reshaped groups with non reshaped groups regarding parenchymal distortions, skin thickening and stromal edema, but these differences did not affect cancer surveillance. The surveillance mammography diagnostic accuracy in contra-lateral cancer detection was not significantly different between the three groups (p = 0.56), such as the need for MRI for equivocal findings at mammographic contra-lateral breast (p = 0.77) and the need for core-biopsies to confirm mammographic suspect of contra-lateral breast cancer (p = 0.90). This study confirms previous reports regarding the safety of mastopexies and breast reductions when performed in the setting of contra-lateral breast reshaping after breast reconstruction. Mammographic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are not affected by the glandular re-arrangement. These results provide a further validation of the safety of current reconstructive paradigms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mammographic density and breast cancer risk in breast screening assessment cases and women with a family history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Stephen W; Morrish, Oliver W E; Allgood, Prue C; Black, Richard; Gillan, Maureen G C; Willsher, Paula; Cooke, Julie; Duncan, Karen A; Michell, Michael J; Dobson, Hilary M; Maroni, Roberta; Lim, Yit Y; Purushothaman, Hema N; Suaris, Tamara; Astley, Susan M; Young, Kenneth C; Tucker, Lorraine; Gilbert, Fiona J

    2018-01-01

    Mammographic density has been shown to be a strong independent predictor of breast cancer and a causative factor in reducing the sensitivity of mammography. There remain questions as to the use of mammographic density information in the context of screening and risk management, and of the association with cancer in populations known to be at increased risk of breast cancer. To assess the association of breast density with presence of cancer by measuring mammographic density visually as a percentage, and with two automated volumetric methods, Quantra™ and VolparaDensity™. The TOMosynthesis with digital MammographY (TOMMY) study of digital breast tomosynthesis in the Breast Screening Programme of the National Health Service (NHS) of the United Kingdom (UK) included 6020 breast screening assessment cases (of whom 1158 had breast cancer) and 1040 screened women with a family history of breast cancer (of whom two had breast cancer). We assessed the association of each measure with breast cancer risk in these populations at enhanced risk, using logistic regression adjusted for age and total breast volume as a surrogate for body mass index (BMI). All density measures showed a positive association with presence of cancer and all declined with age. The strongest effect was seen with Volpara absolute density, with a significant 3% (95% CI 1-5%) increase in risk per 10 cm 3 of dense tissue. The effect of Volpara volumetric density on risk was stronger for large and grade 3 tumours. Automated absolute breast density is a predictor of breast cancer risk in populations at enhanced risk due to either positive mammographic findings or family history. In the screening context, density could be a trigger for more intensive imaging. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Surgical leadership and standardization of multidisciplinary breast cancer care: the evolution of the National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensenhaver, Jessica; Winchester, David P

    2014-07-01

    Evidence has shown that multidisciplinary specialist team evaluation and management for cancer results in better patient outcomes. For breast cancer, breast centers are where this evaluation and management occurs. The National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers has helped standardize multidisciplinary breast cancer care by defining services and standards required of accredited breast centers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Signal enhancement ratio (SER) quantified from breast DCE-MRI and breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shandong; Kurland, Brenda F.; Berg, Wendie A.; Zuley, Margarita L.; Jankowitz, Rachel C.; Sumkin, Jules; Gur, David

    2015-03-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended as an adjunct to mammography for women who are considered at elevated risk of developing breast cancer. As a key component of breast MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) uses a contrast agent to provide high intensity contrast between breast tissues, making it sensitive to tissue composition and vascularity. Breast DCE-MRI characterizes certain physiologic properties of breast tissue that are potentially related to breast cancer risk. Studies have shown that increased background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), which is the contrast enhancement occurring in normal cancer-unaffected breast tissues in post-contrast sequences, predicts increased breast cancer risk. Signal enhancement ratio (SER) computed from pre-contrast and post-contrast sequences in DCE-MRI measures change in signal intensity due to contrast uptake over time and is a measure of contrast enhancement kinetics. SER quantified in breast tumor has been shown potential as a biomarker for characterizing tumor response to treatments. In this work we investigated the relationship between quantitative measures of SER and breast cancer risk. A pilot retrospective case-control study was performed using a cohort of 102 women, consisting of 51 women who had diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer and 51 matched controls (by age and MRI date) with a unilateral biopsy-proven benign lesion. SER was quantified using fully-automated computerized algorithms and three SER-derived quantitative volume measures were compared between the cancer cases and controls using logistic regression analysis. Our preliminary results showed that SER is associated with breast cancer risk, after adjustment for the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS)-based mammographic breast density measures. This pilot study indicated that SER has potential for use as a risk factor for breast cancer risk assessment in women at elevated risk of developing breast cancer.

  11. Genetic variants associated with breast size also influence breast cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Nicholas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While some factors of breast morphology, such as density, are directly implicated in breast cancer, the relationship between breast size and cancer is less clear. Breast size is moderately heritable, yet the genetic variants leading to differences in breast size have not been identified. Methods To investigate the genetic factors underlying breast size, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS of self-reported bra cup size, controlling for age, genetic ancestry, breast surgeries, pregnancy history and bra band size, in a cohort of 16,175 women of European ancestry. Results We identified seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs significantly associated with breast size (p−8: rs7816345 near ZNF703, rs4849887 and (independently rs17625845 flanking INHBB, rs12173570 near ESR1, rs7089814 in ZNF365, rs12371778 near PTHLH, and rs62314947 near AREG. Two of these seven SNPs are in linkage disequilibrium (LD with SNPs associated with breast cancer (those near ESR1 and PTHLH, and a third (ZNF365 is near, but not in LD with, a breast cancer SNP. The other three loci (ZNF703, INHBB, and AREG have strong links to breast cancer, estrogen regulation, and breast development. Conclusions These results provide insight into the genetic factors underlying normal breast development and show that some of these factors are shared with breast cancer. While these results do not directly support any possible epidemiological relationships between breast size and cancer, this study may contribute to a better understanding of the subtle interactions between breast morphology and breast cancer risk.

  12. Effect of aging on breast skin thickness and elasticity: implications for breast support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltman, C E; Steele, J R; McGhee, D E

    2017-08-01

    The skin overlying a woman's breast acts as an anatomical support structure to the breast. Although aging is known to affect the thickness and elasticity of human skin, limited research has examined age-related changes to skin covering the breast or related these changes to breast support requirements. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of age on female breast skin thickness and elasticity. The left breast of 339 women (18-84 years), classified into four age groups (18-24 years, 25-44 years, 45-64 years, and 65 + years), was divided into four quadrants. Skin thickness (dermal layer; 20 MHz ultrasound probe) and skin elasticity (Cutometer(®) MPA 580) were measured for each breast quadrant and then compared to determine whether there was any significant (P effect of aging on breast skin. Breast skin thickness significantly decreased from 45 years of age onwards. A significant decline in breast skin elasticity was evident from the mid 20's. Aging is associated with a significant decline in breast skin thickness and elasticity, which is likely to reduce anatomical breast support. Women might therefore benefit from increased external breast support (i.e. a more supportive bra) with increasing age. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Hodgkin's Lymphoma of the Breast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    with radiation therapy alone or with a combination of several chemotherapeutic ... diagnosed patients.10 chemotherapy commenced. .... Cancer.1992;69:725-735. 4. Ganjoo k, Advani R, Marriappan MR,. McMillan A, Horning S. Non-Hodgkins lymphoma of the Breast. Cancer. 2007;110:25-30. 5. Talwalker SS, Miranda RN ...

  14. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Penninger JM, Kroemer G. AIF and cyclophilin A coop- erate in apoptosis-associated chromatinolysis. Oncogene 2004; 23:1514–1521. Cardoso F, Durbecq V, Laes ...effects of estrogen and antie- strogen on in vitro clonogenic growth of human breast cancers in soft agar, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 82 (1990) 1146–1149

  15. Pathological Panorama of Breast Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Sankaye

    2014-06-01

    Results: Out of the 72 cases that were diagnosed to be cystic breast lesions clinically or on sonomammography, 64 were found to be benign and 08 were found to be malignant on FNAC. Retrospective imaging correlation of the 08 cystic cases revealed that they were of complex cystic nature and had either thick septae( 03, solid areas (04 or dense contents (01 within. This internal nature of cystic lesions that were found to be malignant on FNAC was not identifiable by clinical palpation alone. None of the lesions diagnosed as simple cystic lesion on sonomammography was found to be malignant on FNAC. Conclusions: FNAC is a satisfactory technique for the primary categorization of palpable cystic breast lumps into benign and malignant categories. Cystic breast lesions are more commonly benign than malignant. Palpation alone cannot identify the simple or complex nature of any palpable cystic lesion and hence sonomammography and ultrasound guided FNAC are indicated in complex cystic lesions of breast. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 458-463

  16. [Surgical manegement of breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, J F; Trede, M

    1975-12-18

    A survey of common operative methods in carcinoma of the breast is given. The own procedure in localized and generalized stages of the disease is presented. Simple mastectomy plus axillary dissection has according to our experience proven to be the method of choice.

  17. System delays in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa (SA), breast cancer is the 4th most common cause of death from all malignancies.[1] In SA, we notice a discrepancy in incidence rates between various ethnic/race groups. African women have rates similar to those in other developing countries. Caucasian women have rates that are comparable with ...

  18. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  19. Estrogen Metabolism and Breast Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pathway mediated by the generation and redox Cycling of reactive oxygen species through the metabolic effects of estrogen .... therapy. Several studies including the European. Organization for Research and Treatment of. Cancer ÇEORTC) trial,19 the ATAC (Arimidex, tamoxifen, alone or in combination) adjuvant breast.

  20. Breast Cancer by the Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The American Cancer Society estimates that 40,000 women will die from breast cancer this year. But thanks to steady progress in the war on cancer, millions of U.S. women with a history of the disease are alive today. Key statistics on survival rates, therapies in use, and treatment costs are provided.

  1. Genetic determinants of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Gonzalez-Zuloeta Ladd (Angela)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the Western world and it is estimated that women who survive to the age of 85 years will have a 1 in 9 lifetime probability of developing this type of neoplasia (1, 2). The degree of risk is not spread homogeneously across the

  2. Maxillofacial metastasis from breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namad, Tariq; Benbrahim, Zineb; Najib, Rajae; Mohammed, Afif; Baggar, Soufiane; Bouyahia, Nezar; Arifi, Samia; Mellas, Nawfel

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic tumors to paranasal sinuses are exclusively rare. In this paper, we report a case of breast carcinoma metastasizing to the right maxilla. The metastasis occurred 5 years after radical mastectomy and presented as a primary sinonasal mass. The diagnosis was confirmed with histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination however the patient died before starting any specific treatment because of tumor bleeding.

  3. Mystery of bilateral breast masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nausheen Khan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma (LMS is an uncommon malignant tumour of smooth muscle origin. It arises in the gastro intestinal tract, retroperitoneum, urinary bladder, uterus and soft tissue. Peritoneal leiomyosarcomatosis (PL is defined as a peritoneal dissemination of a primary sarcoma. We present a case of leiomyosarcomatosis with wide spread dissemination including involvement of both breasts.

  4. Breasts and Bras (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it: Run a tape measure just under your breasts, all the way around your back and ribcage. The tape measure should rest flat on your skin and lie straight across your back — not so tight that it digs in, but not so loose that it sags down in the back. Make a note of ...

  5. Untreated silicone breast implant rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse M; Conrad, Carsten; Sletting, Susanne; Høier-Madsen, Mimi; Fryzek, Jon P; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Kjøller, Kim; Wiik, Allan; Friis, Søren

    2004-07-01

    Implant rupture is a well-known complication of breast implant surgery that can pass unnoticed by both patient and physician. To date, no prospective study has addressed the possible health implications of silicone breast implant rupture. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether untreated ruptures are associated with changes over time in magnetic resonance imaging findings, serologic markers, or self-reported breast symptoms. A baseline magnetic resonance imaging examination was performed in 1999 on 271 women who were randomly chosen from a larger cohort of women having cosmetic breast implants for a median period of 12 years (range, 3 to 25 years). A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging examination was carried out in 2001, excluding women who underwent explantation in the period between the two magnetic resonance imaging examinations (n = 44). On the basis of these examinations, the authors identified 64 women who had at least one ruptured implant at the first magnetic resonance imaging examination and, for comparison, all women who had intact implants at both examinations (n = 98). Magnetic resonance images from the two examinations were compared and changes in rupture configuration were evaluated. Comparisons were also made for self-reported breast symptoms occurring during the study period and for changes in serum values of antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, and cardiolipin antibodies immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M. The majority of the women with implant rupture had no visible magnetic resonance imaging changes of their ruptured implants. For 11 implants (11 percent) in 10 women, the authors observed progression of silicone seepage, either as a conversion from intracapsular into extracapsular rupture (n = 7), as progression of extra-capsular silicone (n = 3), or as increasing herniation of the silicone within the fibrous capsule (n = 1); however, in most cases, these changes were minor. Some changes could be ascribed to trauma, but

  6. Nanotechnology for breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takemi; Decuzzi, Paolo; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Sakamoto, Jason H; Tasciotti, Ennio; Robertson, Fredika M; Ferrari, Mauro

    2009-02-01

    Breast cancer is the field of medicine with the greatest presence of nanotechnological therapeutic agents in the clinic. A pegylated form of liposomally encapsulated doxorubicin is routinely used for treatment against metastatic cancer, and albumin nanoparticulate chaperones of paclitaxel were approved for locally recurrent and metastatic disease in 2005. These drugs have yielded substantial clinical benefit, and are steadily gathering greater beneficial impact. Clinical trials currently employing these drugs in combination with chemo and biological therapeutics exceed 150 worldwide. Despite these advancements, breast cancer morbidity and mortality is unacceptably high. Nanotechnology offers potential solutions to the historical challenge that has rendered breast cancer so difficult to contain and eradicate: the extreme biological diversity of the disease presentation in the patient population and in the evolutionary changes of any individual disease, the multiple pathways that drive disease progression, the onset of 'resistance' to established therapeutic cocktails, and the gravity of the side effects to treatment, which result from generally very poor distribution of the injected therapeutic agents in the body. A fundamental requirement for success in the development of new therapeutic strategies is that breast cancer specialists-in the clinic, the pharmaceutical and the basic biological laboratory-and nanotechnologists-engineers, physicists, chemists and mathematicians-optimize their ability to work in close collaboration. This further requires a mutual openness across cultural and language barriers, academic reward systems, and many other 'environmental' divides. This paper is respectfully submitted to the community to help foster the mutual interactions of the breast cancer world with micro- and nano-technology, and in particular to encourage the latter community to direct ever increasing attention to breast cancer, where an extraordinary beneficial impact may

  7. Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor E. R. Harris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT for early stage breast cancer is a technique for partial breast irradiation. There are several technologies in clinical use to perform breast IORT. Regardless of technique, IORT generally refers to the delivery of a single dose of radiation to the periphery of the tumor bed in the immediate intraoperative time frame, although some protocols have performed IORT as a second procedure. There are two large prospective randomized trials establishing the safety and efficacy of breast IORT in early stage breast cancer patients with sufficient follow-up time on thousands of women. The advantages of IORT for partial breast irradiation include: direct visualization of the target tissue ensuring treatment of the high-risk tissue and eliminating the risk of marginal miss; the use of a single dose coordinated with the necessary surgical excision thereby reducing omission of radiation and the selection of mastectomy for women without access to a radiotherapy facility or unable to undergo several weeks of daily radiation; favorable toxicity profiles; patient convenience and cost savings; radiobiological and tumor microenvironment conditions which lead to enhanced tumor control. The main disadvantage of IORT is the lack of final pathologic information on the tumor size, histology, margins, and nodal status. When unexpected findings on final pathology such as positive margins or positive sentinel nodes predict a higher risk of local or regional recurrence, additional whole breast radiation may be indicated, thereby reducing some of the convenience and low-toxicity advantages of sole IORT. However, IORT as a tumor bed boost has also been studied and appears to be safe with acceptable toxicity. IORT has potential efficacy advantages related to overall survival related to reduced cardiopulmonary radiation doses. It may also be very useful in specific situations, such as prior to oncoplastic reconstruction to improve accuracy of

  8. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  9. The tuberous breast deformity: classification and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Heimburg, D; Exner, K; Kruft, S; Lemperle, G

    1996-09-01

    To date there are many descriptive terms for the tuberous breast deformity but there is no widely accepted nomenclature. A retrospective study was undertaken of 68 tuberous breasts and the operative corrections performed. The deformities were classified into four types. Type I (hypoplasia of the lower medial quadrant), type II (hypoplasia of the lower medial and lateral quadrants, sufficient skin in the subareolar region), type III (hypoplasia of the lower medial and lateral quadrants, deficiency of skin in the subareolar region) and type IV (severe breast constriction, minimal breast base). Areolar prolapse, usually regarded as a major symptom, was only found in 30 (44%) deformed breasts. Postoperative review of 51 breasts in 31 patients showed that type I cases treated by reduction mammaplasty of adequately sized breasts or augmentation of hypoplastic breasts had excellent results. These procedures with additional spreading of the breast tissue in type II deformities give good results. Severe cases (types III and IV) treated by augmentation and tissue spreading procedures have an unsatisfactory shape and have a 'second crease' deformity. For types III and IV, additional skin in the subareolar region by tissue expansion or flap procedures is necessary. There is no one method to correct 'the' tuberous breast but there are many procedures which should be used according to the type of deformity. The classification developed could end the confusion in nomenclature.

  10. Bilateral breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Jun, Hwang Yoon; Lee, Byung Chan; Lee, Kyong Sik; Lee, Yong Hee [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical features of bilateral breast cancer. We retrospectively reviewed clinical records(n=23) and mammograms (n=15) of 23 patients with bilateral breast cancer. Patients' age, location of the tumor and pathologic staging were determined from clinical records. Mammographic features were classified as spiculated mass, nonspiculated mass, mass with microcalcification, microcalcification only, asymmetric density, and normal. Of the 23 cases of bilateral breast cancer, 8(34.8%) were synchronous and 15(65.2%) were metachronous. Age at diagnosis of cancer in the first breast was between 27 and 59(mean 43) years ; there was no statistically significant difference in mean age between patients with synchronous and metachronous cancer. The mean interval between the diagnosis of each lesion of the metachronous pairs was 9.1 years. In 11 of 23 cases(48%), tumors were locaated in the same quadrant, and in the other 12 cases(52%), they were in different quadrant. At mammography, five of 15 metachronous cancers(33%) were similar in appearance and 10 pairs(67%) were different. In 4 of 23 cases(17%), cancer in the first breast was at stage 0 and stage 1, and in 13 of 23(57%), cancer in the second breast was at this same stage. In bilateral breast cancer, the two breasts frequently show different mammographic features. Cancer of the second breast was at an early stage; this suggest that regular examination and mammography are important and can allow early detection of contralateral breast cancer.

  11. The Changing World of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Christiane K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Compared with other fields of medicine, there is hardly an area that has seen such fast development as the world of breast cancer. Indeed, the way we treat breast cancer has changed fundamentally over the past decades. Breast imaging has always been an integral part of this change, and it undergoes constant adjustment to new ways of thinking. This relates not only to the technical tools we use for diagnosing breast cancer but also to the way diagnostic information is used to guide treatment. There is a constant change of concepts for and attitudes toward breast cancer, and a constant flux of new ideas, new treatment approaches, and new insights into the molecular and biological behavior of this disease. Clinical breast radiologists and even more so, clinician scientists, interested in breast imaging need to keep abreast with this rapidly changing world. Diagnostic or treatment approaches that are considered useful today may be abandoned tomorrow. Approaches that seem irrelevant or far too extravagant today may prove clinically useful and adequate next year. Radiologists must constantly question what they do, and align their clinical aims and research objectives with the changing needs of contemporary breast oncology. Moreover, knowledge about the past helps better understand present debates and controversies. Accordingly, in this article, we provide an overview on the evolution of breast imaging and breast cancer treatment, describe current areas of research, and offer an outlook regarding the years to come. PMID:26083829

  12. Mammography and breast sonography in transsexual women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyers, S., E-mail: steven.weyers@ugent.b [Department of Gynecology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Villeirs, G.; Vanherreweghe, E. [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Verstraelen, H. [Department of Gynecology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Monstrey, S. [Department of Plastic Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Van den Broecke, R.; Gerris, J. [Department of Gynecology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    Data on the necessity of performing screening mammographies in transsexual women are lacking. The main objective of this study was to assess the possibility to perform mammography and breast sonography in transsexual women. Fifty Dutch-speaking transsexual women were interviewed about the following: attitude towards mammography and breast sonography, importance attributed to and satisfaction with breast appearance, opinion about the necessity of breast check-up, expectations regarding discomfort during the exams and knowledge about the breast surgery. A fasting blood sample, clinical breast exam, mammography and breast sonography were performed. At mammography the following parameters were noted: density, technical quality, location of the prostheses, presence of any abnormalities and painfulness. At sonography the following parameters were recorded: density, presence of cysts, visualisation of retro-areolar ducts or any abnormalities. Twenty-three percent of patients are not aware of the type of breast implants and 79% do not know their position to the pectoral muscles. Patient satisfaction with the appearance of their breasts was rather high (7.94 on a scale of 0-10). Mean expected and experienced pain from mammography was low (4.37 and 2.00 respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in expected pain between those who already had mammography and those who did not. There was a significant positive correlation between the expected and the experienced pain. Mammography and breast sonography were technically feasible and no gross anomalies were detected. Since both exams were judged as nearly painless, 98% of transsexual women intended to come back if they would be invited. Since breast cancer risk in transsexual women is largely unknown and breast exams are very well accepted, breast screening habits in this population should not differ from those of biological women.

  13. Synthetic breast phantoms from patient based eigenbreasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Gregory M; Park, Subok; Segars, William Paul; Lo, Joseph Y

    2017-12-01

    The limited number of 3D patient-based breast phantoms available could be augmented by synthetic breast phantoms in order to facilitate virtual clinical trials (VCTs) using model observers for breast imaging optimization and evaluation. These synthetic breast phantoms were developed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to reduce the number of dimensions needed to describe a training set of images. PCA decomposed a training set of M breast CT volumes (with millions of voxels each) into an M-1-dimensional space of eigenvectors, which we call eigenbreasts. Each of the training breast phantoms was compactly represented by the mean image plus a weighted sum of eigenbreasts. The distribution of weights observed from training was then sampled to create new synthesized breast phantoms. The resulting synthesized breast phantoms demonstrated a high degree of realism, as supported by an observer study. Two out of three experienced physicist observers were unable to distinguish between the synthesized breast phantoms and the patient-based phantoms. The fibroglandular density and noise power law exponent of the synthesized breast phantoms agreed well with the training data. Our method extends our series of digital breast phantoms based on breast CT data, providing the capability to generate new, statistically varying ensembles consisting of tens of thousands of virtual subjects. This work represents an important step toward conducting future virtual trials for task-based assessment of breast imaging, where it is vital to have a large ensemble of realistic phantoms for statistical power as well as clinical relevance. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Mammography and breast sonography in transsexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, S; Villeirs, G; Vanherreweghe, E; Verstraelen, H; Monstrey, S; Van den Broecke, R; Gerris, J

    2010-06-01

    Data on the necessity of performing screening mammographies in transsexual women are lacking. The main objective of this study was to assess the possibility to perform mammography and breast sonography in transsexual women. Fifty Dutch-speaking transsexual women were interviewed about the following: attitude towards mammography and breast sonography, importance attributed to and satisfaction with breast appearance, opinion about the necessity of breast check-up, expectations regarding discomfort during the exams and knowledge about the breast surgery. A fasting blood sample, clinical breast exam, mammography and breast sonography were performed. At mammography the following parameters were noted: density, technical quality, location of the prostheses, presence of any abnormalities and painfulness. At sonography the following parameters were recorded: density, presence of cysts, visualisation of retro-areolar ducts or any abnormalities. Twenty-three percent of patients are not aware of the type of breast implants and 79% do not know their position to the pectoral muscles. Patient satisfaction with the appearance of their breasts was rather high (7.94 on a scale of 0-10). Mean expected and experienced pain from mammography was low (4.37 and 2.00 respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in expected pain between those who already had mammography and those who did not. There was a significant positive correlation between the expected and the experienced pain. Mammography and breast sonography were technically feasible and no gross anomalies were detected. Since both exams were judged as nearly painless, 98% of transsexual women intended to come back if they would be invited. Since breast cancer risk in transsexual women is largely unknown and breast exams are very well accepted, breast screening habits in this population should not differ from those of biological women. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quality control in breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubiak, R.R.; Messias, P.C.; Santos, M.F., E-mail: requi@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologia Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento Academico de Fisica; Urban, L.A.B.D., E-mail: lineiurban@hotmail.com [Diagnostico Avancado por Imagem, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil, breast cancer is the most common and the leading cause of death among women, with estimated 57,000 new cases in 2014. The mammography (2D) plays an important role in the early detection of breast cancer, but in some cases can be difficult to detect malignant lesions due overlap of breast tissues. The Digital Breasts Tomosynthesis (DBT: 3D) reduces the effects of overlap, providing improved characterization of mammographic findings. However, the dose may double as compared with mammography. This study presents results of Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) and image quality evaluation on Siemens mammography equipment Mammomat Inspiration with tomosynthesis. The CNR was determined with Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) layers of 20 to 70 mm thick and an aluminum foils of 0,2 mm thickness and area of 10 mm². Image quality was assessed with the ACR Breast Simulator. In the evaluation of image quality, the detectability of fibers and masses was identical in 2D and 3D systems. Displaying fibers were 4,5 and 4 mass in both modes. In 2D mode were identified 3,5 microcalcifications groups, and 3D showed 3 groups. The Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) for the simulator in 2D mode was 1,17 mGy and 2,35 mGy for the 3D mode. The result reinforces the importance of quality control in the process of obtaining the images and obtained in accordance CNR values, ensuring image quality and compatible dose in 2D and 3D processes. (author)

  16. GDC-0941 and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Androgen Receptor-Negative Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-22

    Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  17. KeraStat Skin Therapy in Treating Radiation Dermatitis in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage 0-IIIA Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Skin Reactions Secondary to Radiation Therapy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  18. 3D-CRT, Proton, or Brachytherapy APBI in Treating Patients With Invasive and Non-invasive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-29

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Grade 1 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Grade 2 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Grade 3 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal and Lobular Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  19. Metastatic leiomyosarcoma presenting as bilateral, multifocal breast masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, Neil; Saglam, Ozlen; Killelea, Brigid K

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe a case of metastatic leiomyosarcoma presenting as bilateral, multifocal breast masses. This case represents the convergence of three rare entities: leiomyosarcoma of unknown primary origin, metastases to the breast and bilateral, multicentric breast disease. PMID:23220834

  20. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.