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Sample records for breastfeeding women content

  1. GPs' decision-making when prescribing medicines for breastfeeding women: Content analysis of a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many breastfeeding women seek medical care from general practitioners (GPs for various health problems and GPs may consider prescribing medicines in these consultations. Prescribing medicines to a breastfeeding mother may lead to untimely cessation of breastfeeding or a breastfeeding mother may be denied medicines due to the possible risk to her infant, both of which may lead to unwanted consequences. Information on factors governing GPs' decision-making and their views in such situations is limited. Methods GPs providing shared maternity care at the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne were surveyed using an anonymous postal survey to determine their knowledge, attitudes and practices on medicines and breastfeeding, in 2007/2008 (n = 640. Content analysis of their response to a question concerning decision-making about the use of medicine for a breastfeeding woman was conducted. A thematic network was constructed with basic, organising and global themes. Results 335 (52% GPs responded to the survey, and 253 (76% provided information on the last time they had to decide about the use of medicine for a breastfeeding woman. Conditions reported were mastitis (24%, other infections (24% and depressive disorders (21%. The global theme that emerged was "complexity of managing risk in prescribing for breastfeeding women". The organising themes were: certainty around decision-making; uncertainty around decision-making; need for drug information to be available, consistent and reliable; joint decision-making; the vulnerable "third party" and infant feeding decision. Decision-making is a spectrum from a straight forward decision, such as treatment of mastitis, to a complicated one requiring multiple inputs and consideration. GPs use more information seeking and collaboration in decision-making when they perceive the problem to be more complex, for example, in postnatal depression. Conclusion GPs feel that prescribing medicines for

  2. Promoting nutrition in breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patty R; Pugh, Linda C

    2005-01-01

    Nurses have a vital role in providing nutritional education to breastfeeding women. In this article, the authors discuss the nutritional requirements for breast-feeding women in terms of micronutrients, macronutrients, and minerals. They provide recommendations for women with vegetarian diets and low-income women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children program who may have dietary deficiencies, and they present a directed case study to provide an example of how to perform a dietary assessment and the educational support that may be offered by nurses to breastfeeding women.

  3. Facilitators for Empowering Women in Breastfeeding: a Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Kohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background  Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeeding. Material and Methods This study conducted by content analysis method. Thirty-four semi-structured individual interviews with 20 mothers having breastfeeding experience, 4 key family members, and 10 personnel involved in breastfeeding services were carried out. Data analysis was simultaneously performed with data collection. Results Three main categories of "Health system factors", "Family and personal factors" and "Social and cultural factors" were extracted from the participants' explanations, indicating the dimensions of facilitators for empowering women in breastfeeding. Conclusion Participants regarded the acquisition of breastfeeding skills in hospitals and breastfeeding counseling in health centers as important factors in facilitating their empowerment to early initiation of breastfeeding and its continuity. Further analysis showed "a mother's decision to breastfeed" along with her understanding of "positive attitude and her husband and family's participation in breastfeeding" boosts the breastfeeding ability and the support of the community through "positive cultural belief in breastfeeding" and" public education and information" provides an appropriate ground for the continuity of breastfeeding. In order to improve breastfeeding, a comprehensive planning with regard to women's empowerment in breastfeeding should be considered.

  4. Women's Decisions about Breastfeeding and Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein

    1996-01-01

    Extends the concept of role incompatibility to examine potential incompatibilities between breastfeeding and maternal employment. Hypothesizes women may face both structural and attitudinal conflicts between these behaviors. Found significantly more women employed part-time are likely to breastfeed and for longer durations than women employed…

  5. It takes a mother to practise breastfeeding : Women's perceptions of breastfeeding during the period of intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhoff, Alberta; Hutter, Inge; Haisma, Hinke

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, 81% of mothers initiate breastfeeding. After one month the percentage of mothers still breastfeeding drops, despite positive intentions. Little is known about women's perceptions of breastfeeding during the period of intention. Aim: This qualitative study aimed to gai

  6. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  7. Increased breastfeeding rates in black women after a treatment intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Margaret G; Endicott, Jean; Goetz, Raymond R

    2013-12-01

    There has been a considerable increase in rates of breastfeeding in the United States. Despite these trends, black women continue to fall below medical recommendations. Impoverished and poorly educated women also have a comparatively lower rate of breastfeeding. Provider encouragement and supportive interventions increase breastfeeding initiation among women of all backgrounds. The data presented come from a three-site randomized controlled bilingual depression treatment trial from 2005 to 2011 that examined the comparative effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy and a parenting education program. Breastfeeding education and support were provided for the majority of participants in each intervention. Breastfeeding status was queried at postpartum week 4. We found higher rates of breastfeeding in black women compared with those reported in national surveys. The black breastfeeding rate did not significantly differ from that of white or Hispanic women. American-born black women were just as likely to breastfeed as American-born white women, both at significantly greater rates than American-born Hispanic women. We also found no differences in breastfeeding rate in poorly educated and impoverished women. These data must be seen against the backdrop of a significant intervention to treat depression. Because breastfeeding interventions have been shown to increase breastfeeding rates, the support provided in our study likely increased rates in groups that lag behind. PMID:23971683

  8. Factors affecting breastfeeding practices in working women of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Soomro, Jamil Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background, rationale and aim of the study Breastfeeding is considered to be an important measure to secure child s optimal health and survival. In urban areas of Pakistan most of the women can t afford to live at home longer because they serve as an important contributor of their family income. A woman's return to work has frequently been found to be a main contributor to the early termination of breastfeeding. Most workplaces do not have the supportive environment for breastfeeding...

  9. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Audience / Adults Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Feb 2, 2016 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  10. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended.

  11. Breastfeeding practices that support women with diabetes to breastfeed.

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    Fallon, Anne; Dunne, Fidelma

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this literature review was to identify breastfeeding practices that support women with diabetes to breastfeed. A search was undertaken of CINAHL and Medline databases to identify studies that inform breastfeeding practice for women with diabetes. This resulted in 14 studies (19 records). Most studies focused on women with GDM and T1D with some consideration of T2D. The review has been organised using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, to enable a clear focus on the needs of women while identifying supportive practices. The key findings of this review are that breastfeeding as the first feed and exclusive breastfeeding are beneficial to meeting physiological needs. Preparations such as having food nearby and having someone to call on can help meet the woman's safety and security needs. A sense of love and belonging is supported by the practice of an early first breastfeed, but antenatal breast milk expression is currently not recommended. The woman's self-esteem can be enhanced through informed multidisciplinary support. Finally, self-actualisation or success with breastfeeding has been achieved by women with diabetes. Common breastfeeding concerns rather than diabetes have been identified as reasons for cessation of breastfeeding. Practices that support women deal with these concerns are recommended.

  12. Breastfeeding women under medication treatment in the public health network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Muniz da Silva Fragoso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the medications used by breastfeeding women treated in the public health network, and correlated actions. Methods: Cross-sectional, quantitative and descriptive study carried out with 100 breastfeeding women, recruited through nonprobabilistic convenience sampling, at the Municipal Hospital of Duque de Caxias, RJ, in 2012. A questionnaire was applied containing the following variables: prescribed medications, unwanted effects in nursing infants, and professionals involved in guidance on the edication. The data was analysed through descriptive statistics, based on absolute and relative frequencies. Results: It was found that 46% (n=46 of the breastfeeding women were aged 21 to 30 years, 54% (n=54 were primiparae, 52% (n=52 had complete fundamental level, and 72% (n=72 received prenatal care. It was verified that 78% (n = 78 of the sample were receiving some type of medicine and, among these, a significant percentage of nonsteroidal analgesic/anti-inflammatory medication, with 61.54% (n=48 of the breastfeeding women. All the prescribed medicines were in the category of compatible use with breastfeeding. The incidence of some unwanted symptoms was evidenced in 19.2% (n=15 of the breastfeeding women. Among the women undergoing medication therapy, 76.92% (n=60 received guidance during treatment, 55% (n=33 by doctors and 45% (n=27 by nurses. In this research, 100% of the breastfeeding women were satisfied with the acquired knowledge. Conclusion: It was noted a high percentage of breastfeeding women in the sample taking medicines, all compatible with breastfeeding. It stands out the limited engagement of the multidisciplinary team in the orientations. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p283

  13. Management of mastitis in breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jeanne P

    2008-09-15

    Mastitis occurs in approximately 10 percent of U.S. mothers who are breastfeeding, and it can lead to the cessation of breastfeeding. The risk of mastitis can be reduced by frequent, complete emptying of the breast and by optimizing breastfeeding technique. Sore nipples can precipitate mastitis. The differential diagnosis of sore nipples includes mechanical irritation from a poor latch or infant mouth anomalies, such as cleft palate or bacterial or yeast infection. The diagnosis of mastitis is usually clinical, with patients presenting with focal tenderness in one breast accompanied by fever and malaise. Treatment includes changing breastfeeding technique, often with the assistance of a lactation consultant. When antibiotics are needed, those effective against Staphylococcus aureus (e.g., dicloxacillin, cephalexin) are preferred. As methicillin-resistant S. aureus becomes more common, it is likely to be a more common cause of mastitis, and antibiotics that are effective against this organism may become preferred. Continued breastfeeding should be encouraged in the presence of mastitis and generally does not pose a risk to the infant. Breast abscess is the most common complication of mastitis. It can be prevented by early treatment of mastitis and continued breastfeeding. Once an abscess occurs, surgical drainage or needle aspiration is needed. Breastfeeding can usually continue in the presence of a treated abscess. PMID:18819238

  14. Long-term breast-feeding in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, E; Nørgård, Hanne; Damm, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated.......Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated....

  15. The influence of culture on breast-feeding decisions by African American and white women.

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    Street, Darlene Joyner; Lewallen, Lynne Porter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how culture influenced breast-feeding decisions in African American and white women, using the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality as a framework. One hundred eighty-six participants responded to the following: The word culture means beliefs and traditions passed down by your family and friends. How has culture affected how you plan to feed your baby? Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories of responses were identified: influences of family, known benefits of breast-feeding, influences of friends, and personal choice. The findings suggest that race alone may not be as influential in infant feeding decisions as other factors. Although some women acknowledged the effect of their cultural background and experiences, most women reported that their culture did not affect their infant feeding decision. In this population, breast-feeding decisions were based on the influences of family, friends, self, and the perceived knowledge of breast-feeding benefits. Although breast-feeding statistics are commonly reported by race, cultural influences on infant feeding decisions may transcend race and include the influence of family and friends, learned information from impersonal sources, and information that is shared and observed from other people.

  16. Breastfeeding, pregnant, and non-breastfeeding nor pregnant women's food consumption: A matched within-household analysis in India

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderjohann, J; Vellakkal, S; Stuckler, D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Promoting breastfeeding is major maternal and child health goal in India. It is unclear whether mothers receive additional food needed to support healthy breastfeeding. Methods: Using the latest National Family and Health Survey (2005-2006), we applied multilevel linear regression models to document correlates of nutrition for (n=20,764) breastfeeding women. We then compared consumption of pulses, eggs, meat, fish, dairy, fruit, and vegetables across a sample of brea...

  17. Women's perceptions, knowledge and breastfeeding decision-making: Linking theory to qualitative empirical data

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterhoff, Alberta Tonnise

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, many women who start breastfeeding stop doing so in the first month after birth. Campaigns aiming to increase breastfeeding rates, focus on initiation as well as on continuation of breastfeeding, preferably until six months after birth. Little is known about women’s underlying motives to stop or continue breastfeeding in the first month after birth. In this research, we conducted 26 in-depth interviews at two time points (before and after delivery) among 13 women who had t...

  18. [Vegetarian diets in the nutrition of pregnant and breastfeeding women].

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    Brzezińska, Małgorzata; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Pregnant and breastfeeding women who eat vegetarian are a source of much controversy. This is the result of concern that eliminating some or all animal produce may lead to nutritional deficiencies and thus adversely affect the mother's and child's health. The American Dietetic Association's position is that appropriately planned vegan, lacto-vegetarian and lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets ensure a normal course of pregnancy and lactation. However, in practice the balancing of such a diet can pose certain difficulties, especially for individuals without the necessary experience or knowledge about nutrition. Nutrients to which particular attention needs to be paid to ensure their sufficient supply include: protein (essential amino acids), Omega-3 essential fatty acids, iron and calcium as well as vitamins D and B(12). The proper adherence to recommendations can be attained with a varied diet containing suitable plant products compensating for the nutritional value of the eliminated animal products. Supplementation with vitamin D and vitamin B(12) is also necessary. Research shows that infants born to vegetarian mothers are born at term and have normal birth weight. There is an increased risk of hypospadias in boys. The main difference in the composition of vegetarian mothers' milk compared to non-vegetarians' is lower content of docosahexaenoic acid and higher content of Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid. PMID:27137830

  19. Low prevalence of long-term breastfeeding among women with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Camilla W; Stage, Edna; Barfred, Charlotte;

    2016-01-01

    2 diabetes showed significantly lower prevalence of breastfeeding than the 105 women with type 1 diabetes (34% versus 61%, p pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and smoking were independent negative......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of long-term breastfeeding among women with type 2 diabetes compared to women with type 1 diabetes and to identify predictors of long-term breastfeeding for women with pre-gestational diabetes. METHODS: In total, 149 women with diabetes were interviewed...... about long-term breastfeeding, defined as any breastfeeding 4 months postpartum. RESULTS: Ninety-eight percent of the women aimed to breastfeed. At time of discharge, any breastfeeding was frequent for both groups of women (86% versus 93%, p = 0.17). However, 4 months postpartum, the 44 women with type...

  20. Cross Cultural Adaptation, Validity, and Reliability of the Farsi Breastfeeding Attrition Prediction Tools in Iranian Pregnant Women

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    Mortazavi, Forough; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Janke, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Iran is decreasing. The breastfeeding attrition prediction tools (BAPT) have been validated and used in predicting premature weaning. Objectives: We aimed to translate the BAPT into Farsi, assess its content validity, and examine its reliability and validity to identify exclusive breastfeeding discontinuation in Iran. Materials and Methods: The BAPT was translated into Farsi and the content validity of the Farsi version of the BAPT was assessed. It was administered to 356 pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy, who were residents of a city in northeast of Iran. The structural integrity of the four-factor model was assessed in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and item-subscale correlations. Validity was assessed using the known-group comparison (128 with vs. 228 without breastfeeding experience) and predictive validity (80 successes vs. 265 failures in exclusive breastfeeding). Results: The internal consistency of the whole instrument (49 items) was 0.775. CFA provided an acceptable fit to the a priori four-factor model (Chi-square/df = 1.8, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.049, Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) = 0.064, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.911). The difference in means of breastfeeding control (BFC) between the participants with and without breastfeeding experience was significant (P BFC) subscale were higher in women who were on exclusive breastfeeding than women who were not, at four months postpartum (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study validated the Farsi version of BAPT. It is useful for researchers who want to use it in Iran to identify women at higher risks of Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF) discontinuation. PMID:26019910

  1. Women's perceptions, knowledge and breastfeeding decision-making : Linking theory to qualitative empirical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhoff, Alberta Tonnise

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, many women who start breastfeeding stop doing so in the first month after birth. Campaigns aiming to increase breastfeeding rates, focus on initiation as well as on continuation of breastfeeding, preferably until six months after birth. Little is known about women’s underlying mo

  2. "Is it just so my right?" Women repossessing breastfeeding.

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    Smith, Paige Hall

    2008-08-04

    Infant feeding occurs in the context of continued gender inequities and in the context of a feminist movement that left women vulnerable to a system that defined the male body and mind as the norm. This paper draws from a qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with women artists at the 2005 Mamapalooza music festival in New York City, and conference participants at the 2005 La Leche League International and International Lactation Consultant Association Conferences and at the 2007 Reproductive Freedom Conference to understand our collective alienation from breastfeeding and to outline a process for how we might repossess breastfeeding as a positive function in women's lives. These women find power in honoring and validating their own experiences, in claiming those experiences as legitimate feminist actions, and then drawing on these experiences to seek new meanings, customs and norms that similarly honor, value and support their rights to those experiences. They argue that we need a feminist movement that fully incorporates women's needs as biological and reproductive social beings, alongside their needs as productive beings, and a movement that defines the female body and mind as the norm.

  3. [The practice of breastfeeding in a group of Brazilian women: a movement of accommodation and resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, A M; Mamede, M V

    1999-07-01

    Actions to stimulate breastfeeding are directed to assist children's needs and do not contemplate woman in her specificities. The present study aimed at understanding the meanings women give to their experiences and demands in the practice of breastfeeding. 20 women that were experiencing breastfeeding for the first time were interviewed. Data analysis were based on the feminist theory. Authors found breast feeding as a feminine process socially determined. Women showed accommodation as they felt the act of breast feeding as donation, a sacrifice and dedication as well as resistance when they justified weaning affirming the lack of physiological capacity for breastfeeding.

  4. Predictors of breastfeeding duration among women in Kuwait: results of a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Manal Dashti; Scott, Jane A.; Edwards, Christine A.; Mona Al-Sughayer

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to report the prevalence of breastfeeding to six months among women in Kuwait and to determine the factors that are associated with the duration of breastfeeding. A cohort of 373 women recruited from maternity wards in four hospitals in Kuwait city were followed from birth to 26 weeks postpartum. The association of any and full breastfeeding duration and predictor variables were explored using multivariate Cox’s proportional hazards models. At six months, 39% o...

  5. Parents’ Health Beliefs Influence Breastfeeding Patterns among Iranian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Parsa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine factors related to breastfeeding and its perceived health benefits among Iranian mothers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using 240 postpartum women who were selected randomly from eight public health care centers in Hamadan, Iran, in 2012. Mothers who breastfed (BF and mothers who never breastfed (NBF were given a structured questionnaire to collect their demographic data and information regarding their health beliefs and attitude towards child-rearing. Descriptive and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: The mean length of breastfeeding was 11.6 (standard deviation=12.5 weeks. There was no difference in demographic variables, such as age, type of medical insurance, number of living children, employment, education, and household income (p>0.050, between mothers that breastfed and those that did not. Mothers’ perception of the severity of child illness was higher in those who breastfed than those who never breastfed (p=0.050. In contrast, BF mothers had higher perceived confidence of medical care to prevent diseases (p<0.050 and a higher perception of reverse parent-child roles than NBF mothers (p<0.050. Conclusion: Mothers’ health beliefs and attitude to parenting has a significant role in choosing to breastfeed. Physicians and healthcare providers may provide supportive information that influence a mother’s breastfeeding behavior.

  6. Associations between perceived value of exclusive breastfeeding among pregnant women in the United States and exclusive breastfeeding to three and six months postpartum: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Nnebe-Agumadu, Uche H.; Racine, Elizabeth F.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Coffman, Maren J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Successful breastfeeding often starts with prenatally established intention. Yet, few mothers with the intention to exclusively breastfeed achieve their intended breastfeeding duration goal. This study examined the degree to which having a strong value of exclusive breastfeeding is associated with exclusive breastfeeding duration for at least 3 and 6 months postpartum among women who reported prenatal intention to exclusively breastfeed. Methods Data were from the Infant Feeding Pr...

  7. At What Cost? Women's Multiple Roles and the Management of Breastfeeding. Research Report No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Rama

    This study examined the relationship between Indian women's work and breastfeeding, focusing on the constraints imposed by combining work with breastfeeding, the strategies women used, and the support they received. A non-probability convenience sample of 969 mothers of infants 1 year or younger (34 percent from rural areas) was used. Four areas…

  8. Breastfeeding Practices in Relation to Country of Origin Among Women Living in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck-Rasmussen, Marianne; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Norsker, Filippa Nyboe;

    2014-01-01

    , suggesting that acculturation did not favor breastfeeding. For all but the group of women who had migrated from Pakistan, adjustment for socio-demographic indicators (age, parity, education, attachment to labour market, and income) eliminated the increased risk of suboptimal breastfeeding...

  9. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding myths Finding support Fitting it into your life My breastfeeding ... knew before they started breastfeeding and how to work through those new-to-breastfeeding jitters. Content last ...

  10. Predictors of Breastfeeding Duration among Women in Kuwait: Results of a Prospective Cohort Study

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    Manal Dashti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this paper are to report the prevalence of breastfeeding to six months among women in Kuwait and to determine the factors that are associated with the duration of breastfeeding. A cohort of 373 women recruited from maternity wards in four hospitals in Kuwait city were followed from birth to 26 weeks postpartum. The association of any and full breastfeeding duration and predictor variables were explored using multivariate Cox’s proportional hazards models. At six months, 39% of all infants were receiving some breast milk and only 2% of infants had been fully breastfed to 26 weeks. Women born in other Arab countries were less likely to discontinue breastfeeding than women born in Kuwait. Other factors positively associated with breastfeeding duration were level of maternal education, higher parity, infant being demand fed in hospital and a preference for breastfeeding on the part of the infant’s father and maternal grandmother. The introduction of a pacifier before four weeks of age and the mother intending to return to work by six months were negatively associated with duration. These findings present a number of opportunities for prolonging breastfeeding duration in Kuwait.

  11. Breastfeeding practices in relation to country of origin among women living in Denmark: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busck-Rasmussen, Marianne; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Mortensen, Laust; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe breastfeeding practices and to compare the risk of suboptimal breastfeeding of women living in Denmark according to country of origin, and further to examine how socio-economic position and duration of stay in the country affected this risk. Information on breastfeeding of 42,420 infants born 2002-2009 and living in eighteen selected Danish municipalities was collected from the Danish Health Visitor's Child Health Database. The data was linked with data on maternal socio-demographic information from Danish population-covering registries. Suboptimal breastfeeding was defined as country of origin, and taking maternal age and parity, and a variety of parental socio-economic measures into account. Suboptimal breastfeeding was more frequent among non-Western migrant women than among women of Danish origin. Women who were descendants of Turkish and Pakistani immigrants had a higher risk of suboptimal breastfeeding as compared to the group of women who had migrated from the same countries, suggesting that acculturation did not favor breastfeeding. For all but the group of women who had migrated from Pakistan, adjustment for socio-demographic indicators (age, parity, education, attachment to labour market, and income) eliminated the increased risk of suboptimal breastfeeding. There was no evidence for differences in the breastfeeding support provided at hospital level according to migrant status. Suboptimal breastfeeding was more frequent among women who were non-Nordic migrants and descendants of migrants than among women with Danish origin.

  12. New evidence on breastfeeding and postpartum depression: the importance of understanding women's intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Cristina; Iacovou, Maria; Sevilla, Almudena

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to identify the causal effect of breastfeeding on postpartum depression (PPD), using data on mothers from a British survey, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were performed to investigate the effects of breastfeeding on mothers' mental health measured at 8 weeks, 8, 21 and 32 months postpartum. The estimated effect of breastfeeding on PPD differed according to whether women had planned to breastfeed their babies, and by whether they had shown signs of depression during pregnancy. For mothers who were not depressed during pregnancy, the lowest risk of PPD was found among women who had planned to breastfeed, and who had actually breastfed their babies, while the highest risk was found among women who had planned to breastfeed and had not gone on to breastfeed. We conclude that the effect of breastfeeding on maternal depression is extremely heterogeneous, being mediated both by breastfeeding intentions during pregnancy and by mothers' mental health during pregnancy. Our results underline the importance of providing expert breastfeeding support to women who want to breastfeed; but also, of providing compassionate support for women who had intended to breastfeed, but who find themselves unable to. PMID:25138629

  13. Shaken but not broken: Supporting breastfeeding women after the 2011 Christchurch New Zealand earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargest-Slade, Anna Claire; Gribble, Karleen D

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Christchurch New Zealand earthquake adversely affected large numbers of people and resulted in many mothers and infants evacuating the city. In the town of Timaru, an emergency day-stay breastfeeding service assisted evacuee women. The service was established after media messaging alerted mothers to the importance of breastfeeding and the location of breastfeeding assistance. The local hospital provided rooms for the breastfeeding support service, which delivered counselling to mothers experiencing breastfeeding challenges. The vulnerability of infants in emergencies demands that governments and aid organisations plan to support their wellbeing and access to safe food and liquid. Plans should be developed in accordance with the Emergency Nutrition Network's Operationalguidance on infant and young child feeding in emergencies and include breastfed and formula-fed infants. Many countries have existing health resources and personnel with the expertise to support infant feeding in emergencies. However, only comprehensive pre-emergency planning can ensure that infants are protected. PMID:27183769

  14. Independent predictors of breastfeeding intention in a disadvantaged population of pregnant women

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    Stone David H

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding rates in Scotland are very low, particularly in the more disadvantaged areas. Despite a number of interventions to promote breastfeeding very few women actually intend to breastfeed their baby. The aim of this study was to identify personal and social factors independently associated with intention to breastfeed. Methods Nine hundred and ninety seven women from two socio-economically disadvantaged housing estates located on the outskirts of Glasgow participated in a study that aimed to increase the prevalence of breastfeeding. Self-administered questionnaires completed by each participant collected information in early pregnancy, prior to exposure to the study intervention, on feeding intention, previous feeding experience and socio-demographic data. Results Five factors were independently predictive of breastfeeding intention. These were previous breastfeeding experience, living with a partner, smoking, parity and maternal age. After adjusting for these five factors, neither deprivation nor receipt of milk tokens provided useful additional predictive information. Conclusion In this population of socially disadvantaged pregnant women we identified five variables that were independently predictive of breastfeeding intention. These variables could be useful in identifying women at greatest risk of choosing not to breastfeed. Appropriate promotional efforts could then be designed to give due consideration to individual circumstances.

  15. Factors associated with breastfeeding at six months postpartum in a group of Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLachlan Helen L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite high levels of breastfeeding initiation in Australia, only 47 percent of women are breastfeeding (exclusively or partially six months later, with marked differences between social groups. It is important to identify women who are at increased risk of early cessation of breastfeeding. Methods Data from the three arms of a randomised controlled trial were pooled and analysed as a cohort using logistic regression to identify which factors predicted women continuing to feed any breast milk at six months postpartum. The original trial included 981 primiparous women attending a public, tertiary, women's hospital in Melbourne, Australia in 1999–2001. The trial evaluated the effect of two mid-pregnancy educational interventions on breastfeeding initiation and duration. In the 889 women with six month outcomes available, neither intervention increased breastfeeding initiation nor duration compared to standard care. Independent variables were included in the predictive model based on the literature and discussion with peers and were each tested individually against the dependent variable (any breastfeeding at six months. Results Thirty-three independent variables of interest were identified, of which 25 qualified for inclusion in the preliminary regression model; 764 observations had complete data available. Factors remaining in the final model that were positively associated with breastfeeding any breast milk at six months were: a very strong desire to breastfeed; having been breastfed oneself as a baby; being born in an Asian country; and older maternal age. There was an increasing association with increasing age. Factors negatively associated with feeding any breast milk at six months were: a woman having no intention to breastfeed six months or more; smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day pre-pregnancy; not attending childbirth education; maternal obesity; having self-reported depression in the six months after birth; and

  16. Practices and beliefs about exclusive breastfeeding by women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzmila Hernández

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the practices and beliefs about breastfeeding during the first 6 months after delivery, a study was completed with women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia. Methods: The methodology used for the study was ethno nursing, which facilitated inquiring about the emic perspective and identifying beneficial and risk-laden practices for the child´s health regarding feeding. Fifteen women were the key informants; this sample was determined by data saturation criteria. Findings: Findings are presented in two parts: practices and beliefs in favor of exclusive breastfeeding and practices and beliefs that do not support exclusive breastfeeding. The prominent practices and beliefs in favor of exclusive breastfeeding are related to the mother´s bond with the child, preparation for breastfeeding during pregnancy, and family support. Among the practices and beliefs not supporting maternal breastfeeding, we must highlight the mother´s lack of confidence in her breast milk production. Conclusions: Knowledge generated by this study may facilitate nursing care of women during pregnancy and postpartum that is congruent with their culture. To accomplish this, we identified cultural practices that should be kept and others needing modification or restructuring.

  17. Practices and beliefs about exclusive breastfeeding by women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzmila Hernández

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the practices and beliefs about breastfeeding during the first 6 months after delivery, a study was completed with women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia.Methods: The methodology used for the study was ethno nursing, which facilitated inquiring about the emic perspective and identifying beneficial and risk-laden practices for the child´s health regarding feeding. Fifteen women were the key informants; this sample was determined by data saturation criteria.Findings: Findings are presented in two parts: practices and beliefs in favor of exclusive breastfeeding and practices and beliefs that do not support exclusive breastfeeding. The prominent practices and beliefs in favor of exclusive breastfeeding are related to the mother´s bond with the child, preparation for breastfeeding during pregnancy, and family support. Among the practices and beliefs not supporting maternal breastfeeding, we must highlight the mother´s lack of confidence in her breast milk production.Conclusions: Knowledge generated by this study may facilitate nursing care of women during pregnancy and postpartum that is congruent with their culture. To accomplish this, we identified cultural practices that should be kept and others needing modification or restructuring.

  18. Awareness and Attitude towards Breastfeeding among Two Generations of Indian Women: A Comparative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha Pandey

    Full Text Available Present study was aimed to analyze the impact of education, employment and financial independence in breastfeeding practices among Indian women.Present explorative questionnaire based survey included 256 women (128 pairs in the final analysis. A pair means--a pregnant lady (in her third trimester representing younger generation and b her mother/mother in law representing the elder generation.We found that the overall awareness regarding 'breast milk' being the best food for baby was excellent (overall 97.3%; younger generation: 96.9%; elder generation: 97.7%. Overall knowledge regarding the correct technique (28.9% younger generation and 21.9% elder generation and frequency of breastfeeding (20.3% of younger generation and 34.4% of elder generation was very poor. Less than 60% (younger generation: 57.8%; elder generation: 58.6% were aware that the only major contraindication for breastfeeding is a mother infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. On comparing responses obtained from the two generations of women, difference was not statistically significant among most of the issues related to breastfeeding. With regards to the attitude, despite better awareness, only 94.5% women in younger generation and 89.1% women in elder generation were planning to give mother's milk as the first feed to the newborn. Similarly, less than 75% of women were ready to breast-feed the newborn immediately after birth. This was contradictory to the fact that 86% of pregnant women were aware that the baby should be breast-fed within an hour of birth.Awareness with regards to breastfeeding issues had not changed significantly with the educational progress of Indian women. Despite the good level of awareness in the society regarding breastfeeding, attitude to practice the same is lacking.

  19. Recommendations on Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Work with Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In facilities where workers are exposed to ionizing radiation, a system of radiation protection is implemented which is ultimately based on a balancing of the risks and benefits to the uses of radiation involved. More restrictive dose limits are set for members of the public than for workers and these have been applied also to conceptus.There are many different industries and practices that involve the use of ionizing radiation and the potential exposure of female workers at fertility age. The radiation sources and levels of exposure may vary significantly in different industries, such as those associated with the nuclear fuel cycle (where the workforce is mostly male), industrial radiography, diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications (where the number of female workers may be greater than males) and others.The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) in its Basic Safety Standards (BSS) recommend to regard the conceptus as a member of the public when considering the protection of female workers who are pregnant. There is a requirement that women should be informed of the importance of early notification of pregnancy.In 2001, the ICRP in its Publication 88 published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to the conceptus from intakes by the mother. Several internal scenarios were considered, which include acute and chronic intakes by inhalation and ingestion for female workers and members of the public. For acute exposures, intakes were taken to occur at 2.5 years and 6 months before conception, at the time of conception, and at the end of weeks 5, 10, 15, 25 and 35 of the pregnancy.In 2005, the ICRP in its Publication 95 published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to the infant from intakes by the breasfeeding mother.This work examines the significance of pregnant and breastfeeding women work with radioactive materials on the potential

  20. Reducing Postpartum Weight Retention and Improving Breastfeeding Outcomes in Overweight Women: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Martin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity is prevalent among women of reproductive age (42% BMI > 25 kg/m2 and parity is associated with risk of weight gain. Weight gain greater than that recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM is also associated with lower rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration in women. The aim of this pilot randomised controlled trial is to examine the feasibility of recruiting and maintaining a cohort of pregnant women with the view of reducing postpartum weight retention and improving breastfeeding outcomes. Women (BMI of 25–35 kg/m2 (n = 36 were recruited from the John Hunter Hospital antenatal clinic in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were stratified by BMI and randomised to one of three groups with follow-up to six months postpartum. Women received a dietary intervention with or without breastfeeding support from a lactation consultant, or were assigned to a wait-list control group where the dietary intervention was issued at three months postpartum. Feasibility and acceptability was assessed by participation rates and questionnaire. Analysis of variance and covariance was conducted to determine any differences between groups. Sixty-nine per cent of the participants were still enrolled at six months postpartum. This pilot demonstrated some difficulties in recruiting women from antenatal clinics and retaining them in the trial. Although underpowered; the results on weight; biomarkers and breastfeeding outcomes indicated improved metabolic health.

  1. Breastfeeding: What are the Barriers? Why Women Struggle to Achieve Their Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Natasha K; Kellams, Ann

    2016-07-01

    Despite recognized health benefits for both mothers and infants, significant disparities still exist in the rates of breastfeeding in the United States. Major organizations representing the health of women and children (including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP], American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology [ACOG], American Academy of Family Physicians [AAFP], United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), the World Health Organization [WHO], and the United States Public Health Service [PHS]) recommend exclusive breastfeeding, but statistics show that although many women initiate breastfeeding, few meet the recommended goals for duration and exclusivity. This article reviews the evidence related to barriers (prenatal, medical, societal, hospital, and sociocultural) that many mothers face, and explore the known barriers and the impact they have on a woman's ability to breastfeed her infant. Strategies will be discussed to address (and potentially overcome) some of the most common barriers women face along with a list of resources that can be useful in this effort. Gaps in care and areas that need further research will be noted. This article is targeted toward physicians and other healthcare providers who work with women and who can assist with and advocate for the removal of barriers and thereby improve the health of women and children by increasing the rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity in the United States. PMID:27111125

  2. Breastfeeding Practices in Relation to Country of Origin Among Women Living in Denmark: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Busck-Rasmussen, Marianne; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Mortensen, Laust; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe breastfeeding practices and to compare the risk of suboptimal breastfeeding of women living in Denmark according to country of origin, and further to examine how socio-economic position and duration of stay in the country affected this risk. Information on breastfeeding of 42,420 infants born 2002–2009 and living in eighteen selected Danish municipalities was collected from the Danish Health Visitor’s Child Health Database. The data was linked with ...

  3. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called nursing, is the ...

  4. An Interactive, Bilingual Touch Screen Program to Promote Breastfeeding Among Hispanic Rural Women: Usability Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Ashish; Wilhelm, Susan; Aguirre, Trina; Trout, Kate; Amadi, Chioma

    2013-01-01

    Background Computer technology can be effectively used to educate patients and improve knowledge and attitudes, leading to healthier behavior. Among rural women, breastfeeding outcomes seem to be worst compared to women living in urban areas. The implementation of a bilingual computer mediated health education program to disseminate information and improve outcomes among users with low literacy levels has proven to be successful. Objective The objective of this pilot study was to examine the ...

  5. The risk of postpartum maternal hyperglycaemia in women with gestational diabetes is reduced by breastfeeding

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, MW

    2011-09-01

    Background and aims: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with adverse fetal and maternal outcomes. It identifies women at risk of pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular risk in later life. Recent studies have suggested that breastfeeding may confer a beneficial effect on postpartum maternal glucose tolerance in both women with GDM and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy.\\r\

  6. High prepregnant body mass index is associated with early termination of full and any breastfeeding in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Michaelsen, Kim F; Sørensen, Thorkild I A;

    2007-01-01

    maternal obesity, was modified by gestational weight gain, and still existed when there was greater social support for breastfeeding. DESIGN: Study participants (37 459 women) were drawn from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The association of prepregnant BMI and gestational weight gain...... was evident in a more supportive social context for breastfeeding, these findings suggest a biological basis for the association....

  7. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top ... to-breastfeeding jitters. Content last updated: January 20, 2013. Print Return to top Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | ...

  8. Predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women: a comparison of two theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeblen, A S; Thompson, N J; Miner, K R

    1999-10-01

    This study examined the applicability of the transtheoretical model and a model derived from the theory of reasoned action for predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women. Participants completed a 70-item self-report questionnaire assessing their breast-feeding attitudes, intentions, and support. A positive correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of Processes of Change used by respondents. A negative correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of negative breast-feeding beliefs held by respondents. Furthermore, women's normative beliefs and outcome beliefs were significantly correlated with breast-feeding intention in manners consistent with the model developed from the theory of reasoned action. After accounting for significant sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, the Processes of Change and outcome beliefs remained independently correlated with breast-feeding intention. These models are capable of predicting the intention to breast-feed and might offer an innovative approach for further breast-feeding research and intervention development.

  9. Predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women: a comparison of two theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeblen, A S; Thompson, N J; Miner, K R

    1999-10-01

    This study examined the applicability of the transtheoretical model and a model derived from the theory of reasoned action for predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women. Participants completed a 70-item self-report questionnaire assessing their breast-feeding attitudes, intentions, and support. A positive correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of Processes of Change used by respondents. A negative correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of negative breast-feeding beliefs held by respondents. Furthermore, women's normative beliefs and outcome beliefs were significantly correlated with breast-feeding intention in manners consistent with the model developed from the theory of reasoned action. After accounting for significant sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, the Processes of Change and outcome beliefs remained independently correlated with breast-feeding intention. These models are capable of predicting the intention to breast-feed and might offer an innovative approach for further breast-feeding research and intervention development. PMID:10533172

  10. Early cessation of breastfeeding amongst women in South Africa: an area needing urgent attention to improve child health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doherty Tanya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a critical component of interventions to reduce child mortality. Exclusive breastfeeding practice is extremely low in South Africa and there has been no improvement in this over the past ten years largely due to fears of HIV transmission. Early cessation of breastfeeding has been found to have negative effects on child morbidity and survival in several studies in Africa. This paper reports on determinants of early breastfeeding cessation among women in South Africa. Methods This is a sub group analysis of a community-based cluster-randomized trial (PROMISE EBF promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three South African sites (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal between 2006 and 2008 (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150. Infant feeding recall of 22 food and fluid items was collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks postpartum. Women’s experiences of breast health problems were also collected at the same time points. 999 women who ever breastfed were included in the analysis. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for site, arm and cluster, was performed to determine predictors of stopping breastfeeding by 12 weeks postpartum. Results By 12 weeks postpartum, 20% of HIV-negative women and 40% of HIV-positive women had stopped all breastfeeding. About a third of women introduced other fluids, most commonly formula milk, within the first 3 days after birth. Antenatal intention not to breastfeed and being undecided about how to feed were most strongly associated with stopping breastfeeding by 12 weeks (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR 5.6, 95% CI 3.4 – 9.5 and AOR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6 – 10.8, respectively. Also important was self-reported breast health problems associated with a 3-fold risk of stopping breastfeeding (AOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.7 – 5.7 and the mother having her own income doubled the risk of stopping breastfeeding (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3 – 2

  11. Breastfeeding offers protection against obesity in children of recently immigrated Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, Sofia G; Heyman, Melvin B; Wojcicki, Janet M

    2014-06-01

    Breastfeeding has been found to have a protective effect on subsequent development of obesity in childhood, particularly in white, non-Hispanic populations. The protective effect of nursing for more than 12 months in children of Latina women is less clear, which may be due to differences in levels of acculturation in previously studied populations. We evaluated the association between breastfeeding for 12 months or more and risk for obesity in a cohort of children of recently immigrated relatively unacculturated Latina mothers. Maternal characteristics at birth, including length of stay in the United States, breastfeeding habits at 4-6 weeks of age, 6 months, and 1 year, and anthropometric measurements were obtained for a cohort of 196 children participating in a prospective study. At 1 year of age 39.0% of infants were being breastfed. Being breastfed at 1 year of age was associated with a decreased risk of obesity in both univariate (odds ratio (OR) 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.83) and multivariate models (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.02-0.93) adjusting for maternal BMI, marital status, education level, country of origin, age, years of living in the United States, and child's birth weight at 3 years of age, regardless of mother's acculturation status using length of stay in the United States as a proxy for acculturation. The association with breastfeeding persisted at 4 years of age as a protective factor for obesity (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.80). Breastfeeding for longer than 12 months provides a significant protective effect on the development of obesity in early childhood in a cohort of children of high-risk recently immigrated Latina women in San Francisco who were relatively unacculturated to the United States. PMID:24249439

  12. Effects of menthol essence and breast milk on the improvement of nipple fissures in breastfeeding women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Amir Ali Akbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nipple fissure is a common disorder during breastfeeding. With high prevalence of nipple fissures and its impacts on breastfeeding, as well as the existence of evidence in favor of the application of peppermint as an antiinflammatory and antiinfection herb, the purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Menthol essence on improving nipple fissures in the primiparous breastfeeding women. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted using a clinical trial method. Samples were divided randomly into two groups of 55 women. The women in the peppermint group applied four drops of Menthol essence on their nipple and areola after each feeding. The control group applied four drops of their own milk on the nipple and areola after each feeding. Then, the two groups were studied on days 10 and 14 postpartum. For intensity of pain, the visual analog scale (0-10 cm and to measure the severity of damage, Amir scale (1-10 cm were applied and the existence or lack of nipple discharge was also recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS 17 software. Results: The mean intensity of pain and nipple fissure before treatment (8.55 ± 1.74 and day 10 after delivery (4.26 ± 1.57 and before treatment and day 14 after delivery in the case group (1.32 ± 1.02 had a significant difference (P < 0.001. Nipple discharge between the two groups, before treatment (%75.2 and day 10 after delivery (%31.6 and before treatment and day 14 after delivery (%15.7, the case group had a significant difference (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Menthol essence can improve nipple fissures in the primiparous breastfeeding women.

  13. Breastfeeding practices in relation to country of origin among women living in Denmark: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busck-Rasmussen, Marianne; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Mortensen, Laust; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe breastfeeding practices and to compare the risk of suboptimal breastfeeding of women living in Denmark according to country of origin, and further to examine how socio-economic position and duration of stay in the country affected this risk. Information on breastfeeding of 42,420 infants born 2002-2009 and living in eighteen selected Danish municipalities was collected from the Danish Health Visitor's Child Health Database. The data was linked with data on maternal socio-demographic information from Danish population-covering registries. Suboptimal breastfeeding was defined as Pakistan, adjustment for socio-demographic indicators (age, parity, education, attachment to labour market, and income) eliminated the increased risk of suboptimal breastfeeding. There was no evidence for differences in the breastfeeding support provided at hospital level according to migrant status. Suboptimal breastfeeding was more frequent among women who were non-Nordic migrants and descendants of migrants than among women with Danish origin. PMID:24748214

  14. Efficacy of e-technologies in improving breastfeeding outcomes among perinatal women: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Htun, Tha P; Tam, Wai S W; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee

    2016-07-01

    A growing line of research has highlighted that e-technologies may play a promising role in improving breastfeeding outcomes. The objective of this review was to synthesise the best of available evidence by conducting a meta-analysis to evaluate whether e-technologies have had any effect in improving breastfeeding outcomes among perinatal women. The review was conducted using nine electronic databases to search for English-language research studies from 2007 to 2014. A 'risk of bias' table was used to assess methodological quality. Meta-analysis was performed with the RevMan software. The Q test and I(2) test was used to assess the heterogeneity. The test of overall effect was assessed using z-statistics at P attitude (z = 3.01, P = 0.003) and breastfeeding knowledge (z = 4.54, P = < 0.00001) in subgroup analyses. This review provides support for the development of web-based, texting messaging, compact disc read-only memory, electronic prompts and interactive computer agent interventions for promoting and supporting breastfeeding. PMID:26194599

  15. Influence of intimate partner violence during pregnancy and early postpartum depressive symptoms on breastfeeding among chinese women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Chan, Kin Sin

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies show that breastfeeding is beneficial to both mothers and babies. This study explores two understudied correlates that may influence breastfeeding initiation: intimate partner violence during pregnancy and early postnatal depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional comparative study design investigated the correlates of feeding modes of 1200 Chinese mother and infant pairs in a university-affiliated regional hospital in Hong Kong. The prevalence rates of breastfeeding and mixed feeding were 42.25% and 26.25%, respectively. Women who had no experience of intimate partner violence during pregnancy were significantly more likely to initiate breastfeeding (adjusted odds ratio = 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.91) after adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, and obstetric variables. Early postnatal depressive symptoms were not significantly associated with feeding modes in a multinomial logistic regression model. Midwives are in a key position to identify and intervene to encourage more successful breastfeeding practice. PMID:17336812

  16. Rapid Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation for Women in an HIV-1 Prevention Clinical Trial Experiencing Primary HIV-1 Infection during Pregnancy or Breastfeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Morrison

    Full Text Available During an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial in East Africa, we observed 16 cases of primary HIV-1 infection in women coincident with pregnancy or breastfeeding. Nine of eleven pregnant women initiated rapid combination antiretroviral therapy (ART, despite having CD4 counts exceeding national criteria for ART initiation; breastfeeding women initiated ART or replacement feeding. Rapid ART initiation during primary HIV-1 infection during pregnancy and breastfeeding is feasible in this setting.

  17. Rapid Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation for Women in an HIV-1 Prevention Clinical Trial Experiencing Primary HIV-1 Infection during Pregnancy or Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Morrison; Grace John-Stewart; John J Egessa; Sezi Mubezi; Sylvia Kusemererwa; Dennis K Bii; Nulu Bulya; Francis Mugume; Campbell, James D.; Jonathan Wangisi; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Connie Celum; Baeten, Jared M.

    2015-01-01

    During an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial in East Africa, we observed 16 cases of primary HIV-1 infection in women coincident with pregnancy or breastfeeding. Nine of eleven pregnant women initiated rapid combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), despite having CD4 counts exceeding national criteria for ART initiation; breastfeeding women initiated ART or replacement feeding. Rapid ART initiation during primary HIV-1 infection during pregnancy and breastfeeding is feasible in this setting.

  18. Low breastfeeding rates and body mass index in Danish children of women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger-Grøn, Jesper; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Blunck, Charlotte Holst;

    2015-01-01

    Background Offspring from women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at risk for later overweight, and the aim of treatment regimens is to normalize their prognosis. While the general concept is that breastfeeding is protective and should be promoted, some studies report increased levels...... of insulin and glucose in breast milk of women with diabetes, possibly increasing risks to the children. Previous studies may have low retention rates or mix GDM and pre-GDM, and often knowledge of confounders like maternal body mass index (BMI), level of hyperglycemia and feeding patterns is lacking. Data...

  19. Industry Perspective of Drug Development for Pregnant/Breastfeeding Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth-Bradley, J M

    2016-07-01

    As part of drug development, drug companies conduct experiments to gather data about the potential toxicity of medications in pregnant and lactating animals. Increasingly, physiologically based pharmacokinetic models are developed to simulate drug concentrations in pregnant and lactating women. As these women are not usually included in clinical trials, targeted postapproval safety monitoring, registries, or clinical studies may be performed to gather safety and efficacy information about drug use in these special populations. PMID:27082822

  20. A qualitative study of Western Australian women's perceptions of using a Snoezelen room for breastfeeding during their postpartum hospital stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Ellie

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence on the use of the Snoezelen concept for maternity clients. Snoezelen, a Dutch concept, initiated in the 1970s as a leisure activity for severely disabled people, involves creating an indoor environment using controllable stimuli to enhance comfort and relaxation. These specially designed rooms expose the user to multiple sensory stimulations combining vision, touch, sounds and aromas. The aim of this study was to provide insight into breastfeeding women's experience of using a Snoezelen room during hospitalisation. Methods A qualitative exploratory design was chosen to reveal women's perceptions of using the Snoezelen room. Osborne Park Hospital, the study setting is the second largest public provider of obstetric services in Western Australia. A purposive sample was drawn from breastfeeding women who used the Snoezelen room during their postpartum stay from March 2006 to March 2007. Saturation was achieved after eleven breastfeeding women were interviewed six weeks post discharge. Data analysis involved the constant comparison method. Results Participants entered the room feeling tired and emotional with an unsettled baby and breastfeeding issues aggravated by maternal stress and anxiety. All women indicated they were able to achieve relaxation while in the room and would recommend its use to other breastfeeding mothers. Two key themes revealed how the Snoezelen room facilitated maternal relaxation, which ultimately enhanced the breastfeeding experience. The first theme, "Finding Relaxation for the Breastfeeding Mother" incorporates three subthemes: 'Time out' for mother; Control in own personal space; and a Quiet/calm environment with homelike atmosphere. The second theme, "Enabling Focus on Breastfeeding", occurred after relaxation was achieved and involved four subthemes: Able to get one-on-one attention; Not physically exposed to others; Away from prying, judgemental eyes and Able to safely

  1. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation ... Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Making the decision to breastfeed Secrets to ...

  2. The extended Theory of Planned Behavior in explaining exclusive breastfeeding intention and behavior among women in Kelantan, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tengku Ismail, Tengku Alina; Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan; Bakar, Mohd Isa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to utilize an extended Theory of Planned Behavior in identifying predictors of exclusive breastfeeding intention and behavior among women in Kelantan, Malaysia. SUBJECTS/METHODS A prospective cohort study was conducted, recruiting pregnant womenthrough two-stage cluster sampling. Their exclusive breastfeeding intention, attitude, perceived norm, perceived behavioral control and past behavior were obtained at baseline through interviewer-guide...

  3. Adherence to medical treatment in relation to pregnancy, birth outcome & breastfeeding behavior among women with Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julsgaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    pregnancy outcomes, little is known about predictors for these outcomes in women with CD. In addition, the impact of breastfeeding on disease activity remains controversial. AIMS: The aims of this PhD thesis were to determine adherence to treatment and to investigate predictors for and prevalence rates...... of non-adherence to maintenance medical treatment among women with CD prior to, during, and after pregnancy; to assess pregnancy outcomes among women with CD, taking medical treatment, smoking status, and disease activity into account; to assess breastfeeding rates and the impact of breastfeeding...... on the risk of relapse. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prevalence study including 154 women with CD who had given birth within a six-year period. We combined questionnaire data, data from medical records, and medical register data. RESULTS: Among 105 (80%) respondents, more than half reported taking...

  4. [Vegetarian diets of breastfeeding women in the light of dietary recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strucińska, Małgorzata

    2002-01-01

    The literature review concerning selected nutritional and health aspects of applying different vegetarian diets by breastfeeding women was presented. The only two types of vegetarian diets: lactoovo- and semi-vegetarian, when properly composed, seem to be relatively safe for mother and her child. The most threatening vegetarian diets for lactating women are those including exclusively products of plant origin (so called restricted diets: vegan or macrobiotic). The results of studies performed on mothers consuming these vegetarian diets showed deficiencies in: vitamin B12 and vitamin D (in mothers and their infants) and calcium (only in lactating women). The low intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was also characteristic in this group. Additionally the endogenous metabolism of DHA is inhibited due to high proportion of linoleic vs. linolenic acid intake. It considered that lactating women on vegetarian diet should have a greater nutritional knowledge in order to avoid deficiencies which would adversely affect mother's and her child's health.

  5. Avoiding risk at what cost? Putting use of medicines for breastfeeding women into perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breastfeeding women often need to take medicines, and therefore health professionals need to consider the effects of medication on lactation and the breastfed infant, and any associated risks. This commentary discusses the tragic case of a young woman with a history of mental illness who committed suicide in the postpartum period. She was determined to be a 'good mother' and breastfeed, and to avoid any potential adverse effects of medication on her breastfed infant. The final outcome was fatal for both mother and child. We argue that if women require medication during lactation, all risks need to be considered – the risk of not treating the maternal medical condition may greatly outweigh the potential risk to the breastfed infant.

  6. Sexual Function in Breastfeeding Women in Family Health Centers of Tabriz, Iran, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamileh Malakoti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:There are conflicting evidences about the effects of breastfeeding on postpartum maternal sexual functioning. With regard to the methodological weaknesses of previous studies and cultural differences affecting their issue, the present study aims to evaluate sexual functions of lactating women and its components. Methods:This is a descriptive study in which 200 eligible postpartum women were selected from eight health centers of Tabriz (25 from each center. The eligible women were called and invited to attend the health center. The evaluation was performed using the Persian version of normalized questionnaire of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. The participants’ sexual function scores above 28 were considered desirable (regarding the cut-off point mentioned in the Persian version of the questionnaire. Results:Almost all of the lactating women suffered from sexual dysfunctions. Regarding the sexual performance’s components the lowest scores were for libido and sexual arousal. Conclusion:According to the findings of the studies, in order to prevent the effects of sexual dysfunction on lactating women and their family members it is necessary to develop sexual health programs in health centers.

  7. Postpartum weight retention and breastfeeding among obese women from the randomized controlled Lifestyle in Pregnancy (LiP) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Christina Anne; Jensen, Dorte Møller; Ovesen, Per Glud;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of lifestyle intervention in pregnancy on weight retention 6 months postpartum among obese women from the "Lifestyle in Pregnancy" (LiP) study, and to determine associations between breastfeeding with postpartum maternal weight. DESIGN: Six months postpartum follow...... of breastfeeding mothers was higher among women with postpartum weight retention ≤5 kg compared with those with weight retention > 5 kg (94% vs. 85%, p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: We could not detect sustained weight control at 6 months postpartum despite a lower gestational weight gain for obese women during pregnancy...... up after a randomized controlled intervention trial. SETTING: Two university hospitals in Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 360 women with pregestational body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) . METHODS: The intervention involved lifestyle changes (diet and exercise) during pregnancy. The control group received...

  8. Breastfeeding and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Esterik, P

    1994-12-01

    Breastfeeding empowers women and contributes to gender equality; therefore, it is an important feminist, human rights, and women's issue. Although seldom addressed as a feminist issue, breastfeeding is paradigmatically one because it requires rethinking basic issues such as the sexual division of labor, the fit between women's productive and reproductive lives, and the role of physiological processes in defining gender ideology. The conceptual problems which emerge in the fit between breastfeeding promotion and feminist theory include the place of motherhood; technology versus liberation; fear of biological determinism; breasts and sexuality; locating guilt; personal choice; romanticizing breastfeeding; and conceptualizing women's work. Feminist theorists who take up breastfeeding as an issue and medical researchers who address questions raised by feminist theory have the occasion to produce a non-dualistic feminist problematic that would draw together a wide range of theories and practices that go beyond breastfeeding and mothering. The failure to develop this analysis could have serious consequences. PMID:7713306

  9. Social Analysis of the Benefit of Exclusive Breastfeeding among Muslim Women in Selected Communities in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenkhe Odianonsen Augustine

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Food has always been a means of survival as its nutrient function for the survival of the body system, especially infant that need a proper building of their body system. The first, the best and the most complete nutrient a baby needs is the Breast milk. The act and practice of exclusive Breastfeeding have an advance impact on the child, the mother and the society at large, as the study examines the social analysis of the benefit and hindrances of exclusive breastfeeding among the Muslims in selected communities in Edo State, Nigeria. Social Action theory was used to buttress the benefit of exclusive breastfeeding, 150 Muslim women were interviewed with the aid of a structured questionnaire and an in-depth interview administered face-to face to the respondents. A cluster and purposive sampling technique was utilized and the findings analyzed with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0 version. It was discovered that one of the hindrances to exclusive breastfeeding is caused by the health condition f the mother among others, inversely the benefit too numerous one off which is making the children/infant brilliant and healthy. Hence it is recommended that Exclusive Breastfeeding should be encouraged because of its medical/health benefit to both mother and child in both the national and international level for the realization of the Millennium Development Goal strategy by 2015.

  10. Sexual functioning and commitment to their current relationship among breastfeeding and regularly cycling women in Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escasa-Dorne, Michelle J

    2015-03-01

    This project investigates the relationship between lactation and female sexual functioning and relationship commitment among partnered women in urban Manila. Previous literature suggests that the time after giving birth is often rife with lower sexual functioning and relationship dissatisfaction. Given the important role of caregiving by multiple individuals in humans, the current cross-sectional study suggests that female sexuality may decline immediately after giving birth but then may increase afterwards. Non-cycling, breastfeeding (n = 86); cycling, breastfeeding (n = 48); and nulliparous, regularly cycling (n = 105) women were recruited from neighborhood health centers in Manila to complete questionnaires that assessed sexual functioning and relationship satisfaction, along with demographic variables. Cycling, breastfeeding women report the highest sexual functioning scores and commitment scores. Females undergoing life history trade-offs between mating effort and parenting effort during the postpartum phase may employ a strategy in which they continue investment both in their offspring and in a romantic relationship. Variations in self-reported sexual functioning, level of commitment in a relationship, and love toward her current partner may indicate that breastfeeding women engage in sexual activities as part of a relationship maintenance strategy. Cultural and life history factors will serve as a framework for the findings. The current findings suggest women in Manila may experience a post-birth increase in sexual functioning that may be higher than pre-pregnancy levels. Future studies should incorporate a longitudinal component or a memory recall on pre-pregnancy and post-birth sexual functioning levels. PMID:25847056

  11. Integrating group counseling, cell phone messaging, and participant-generated songs and dramas into a microcredit program increases Nigerian women's adherence to international breastfeeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2014-07-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5-7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely

  12. Breastfeeding and Antidepressants

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Although a large literature supports the benefits of breastfeeding, this review suggests that breastfeeding is less common among postpartum depressed women, even though their infants benefit from the breastfeeding. Depressed mothers, in part, do not breastfeed because of their concern about potentially negative effects of antidepressants on their infants. Although sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxol) concentrations are not detectable in infants’ sera, fluoxetine (Prozac) and citalopram ...

  13. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top ... breastfeeding myths Finding support Fitting it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe to It's ...

  14. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top ... breastfeeding myths Finding support Fitting it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe to It's ...

  15. Breastfeeding counsel against cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prameela Kannan Kutty

    2016-01-01

    The anticancer potential by breastfeeding is not fully tapped in the light of the present knowledge of the subject. Literature indicates that breastmilk has anticancer action but may underestimate its full capacity. The protective spectrum within breastmilk hints on the need for a more comprehensive understanding of it as an anticancer tool. Exclusive breastfeeding could confer protection from carcinogenesis with a greater impact than realised. A literature review was conducted using four electronic databases. Selected areas were extracted after thorough perusal of the articles. The uninitiated would take exclusive breastfeeding seriously if actively counselled as an anticancer tool. Advice on details of the breastfeeding process and holistic information on breastfeeding may endow a greater impact among the skeptics. Counselling the breastfeeding mother on information sometimes not imparted, such as on maternal nutrition, details of the process of breast-feeding, benefits of direct breastfeeding versus milk expression and her psychosocial well being may make a difference in optimising anticancer action that exists in breastmilk. Additionally, its anticancer potential provides a platform to universally improve physical and psychosocial well being of women who breastfeed. Statistics of protection by breastfeeding in some maternal and childhood cancers are evident. “Bio-geno-immuno-nutrition” of breastmilk may shield the mother and infant from carcinogenesis in more ways than appreciated. The molecular basis of mother-to-infant signals and their “en-ergies” need to be researched. Breastfeeding as a modifiable behaviour provides cost effective nutrition with potential for both cancer immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy.

  16. Survey of patient satisfaction with the Breastfeeding Education and Support Services of The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Breastfeeding Education and Support Services (BESS is a unit of The Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia, staffed by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs, providing day/short-stay and an outpatient clinic for mothers and infants with breastfeeding problems. It is important to measure women's experience of visiting the service as part of quality assurance. The aim of this project was to conduct an anonymous postal survey of clients' satisfaction with BESS. Methods An anonymous survey was posted on 16 November 2005 and again on 31 January 2006, to all women who had attended BESS in September 2005. Results The response rate was 60.5% (78/129. Eighty percent (62/78 of respondents attended day-stay, 33% (26/78 attended short-stay and 15% (12/78 attended the outpatient clinic. The percentage of women who responded "strongly agree" to the statement "Overall, I am satisfied with the services" was 49% (35/72 and 50% (6/12 for those who went to day/short-stay and the outpatient clinic respectively. Overall, 56% of all respondents responded that the quality of BESS was "better than expected". The most common breastfeeding problem reported was difficulty attaching the baby to the breast, followed by nipple damage, low milk supply and painful feeding. Conclusion BESS seems to have provided a satisfactory service to most clients. Most respondents were clearly satisfied with the support given by the IBCLCs and have also responded that the staff were professional and knowledgeable in their field of work.

  17. Breastfeeding - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - breastfeeding ... The following organizations are good resources for information on breastfeeding and breastfeeding problems : La Leche League International Inc. -- www.lalecheleague.org March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  18. Advice given to women in Argentina about breast-feeding and the use of alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, M. Yanina; Mennella, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the types of advice that women in Argentina received from health professionals, family members, and friends about drinking alcoholic beverages and about alcohol usage during pregnancy and lactation. Methods In December 2001 and December 2002, structured interviews were conducted with a total of 167 women who were then breast-feeding or who had recently breast-fed their infant. Mothers were asked about the type of advice, if any, that they had received about the use of alcohol from health professionals and from family members and friends. Also included were questions related to the usage of the traditional Argentine beverage “mate” (an infusion widely consumed in South America that is prepared from the leaves of the Ilex paraguayensis plant) and the types of advice the women had received about breast-feeding and neonatal care in general. Results Of the 167 women studied, 96.4% of them reported that their physician had advised them to breast-feed their infant. In addition, 93.4% of the women said they had treated their infant’s umbilical cord stump with alcohol. Fewer than half of the women (46.7%) reported that their physician had advised them about drinking alcoholic beverages during pregnancy, and even fewer (25.7%) received such advice during lactation. Family and friends were about equally likely to give advice about the consumption of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy (42.6%) and during lactation (47.9%). However, the type of advice changed, with the family and friends being significantly more likely to encourage drinking when the women were lactating than when they were pregnant (P lactancia. Métodos En diciembre de 2001 y diciembre de 2002 se llevaron a cabo entrevistas estructuradas con un total de 167 mujeres que estaban amamantando o que habían amamantado recientemente. A las madres se les preguntó qué tipo de consejos, en caso de haberlos, les dieron los profesionales de la salud y sus parientes y amistades acerca del

  19. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ePublications News About Us ... Only Natural email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural > Overcoming challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges ...

  20. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation ... challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges Dealing with lack of family support Is my baby getting enough ...

  1. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... positions include the side-lying position and the football hold. (See the Breastfeeding holds section for illustrations of these positions.) Some women have a strong milk ejection reflex or let- ...

  2. Association of Bisphenol A Exposure with Breastfeeding and Perceived Insufficient Milk Supply in Mexican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Nicole; Peterson, Karen E; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Ferguson, Kelly K; Sánchez, Brisa N; Cantoral, Alejandra; Meeker, John D; Téllez-Rojo, Maria M; Pawlowski, Carolyn M; Ettinger, Adrienne S

    2016-08-01

    Introduction Estrogen inhibits lactation and bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production environmental estrogen. We hypothesize an inhibitory effect of BPA on lactation and aim to analyze the association between third trimester pregnancy urinary BPA and breastfeeding rates 1 month postpartum. Methods Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of breastfeeding and perceived insufficient milk supply (PIM) in relation to maternal peripartum urinary BPA concentrations were calculated in 216 mothers. Results 97.2 % of mothers in the lowest BPA tertile were breastfeeding at 1 month postpartum, compared to 89.9 % in highest (p = 0.01). Adjusted ORs (95 % CI) for not breastfeeding at 1 month were 1.9 (0.3, 10.7) and 4.3 (0.8, 21.6) for second and third BPA tertiles, respectively, compared to the lowest (p = 0.06, trend). 4.2 % reported PIM in the lowest BPA tertile, compared to 8.7 % in the highest (p = 0.03). Adjusted ORs (95 % CI) for PIM were 1.8 (0.4, 7.7) and 2.2 (0.5, 9.5), for the second and third BPA tertiles, respectively, compared to the lowest (p = 0.29, trend). Discussion These results suggest an association between maternal BPA exposure and decreased breastfeeding. PMID:27150949

  3. Maternal perceptions of partner support during breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Mannion, Cynthia A; Hobbs, Amy J; Sheila W McDonald; Tough, Suzanne C

    2013-01-01

    Background Many women find breastfeeding challenging to sustain beyond the first three postpartum months. Women rely on a variety of resources to aid and encourage breastfeeding, including ‘partner support’. Women’s perception of partner support during breastfeeding may influence maternal satisfaction and confidence but it remains understudied. We asked women about their perceptions of partner support during breastfeeding and measured the effect on maternal confidence, commitment, and satisfa...

  4. Efficacy of Low-Level Laser Therapy in Relieving Nipple Pain in Breastfeeding Women: A Triple-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca, Kelly Pereira; Marcacine, Karla Oliveira; Gamba, Mônica Antar; Corrêa, Luciana; Aranha, Ana Cecília Corrêa; Abrão, Ana Cristina Freitas de Vilhena

    2016-08-01

    Pain accruing from nipple lesions caused by inadequate latching by the baby is a common complaint among breastfeeding women and an important obstacle to successful breastfeeding. Nipple pain occurs during the first days after delivery and is considered one of the main causes for early weaning. To investigate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy as a treatment for nipple pain due to breastfeeding. A triple-blind, randomized, clinical study. A university-affiliated hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Fifty-nine women with nipple lesions at the time of their admission. Thirty women (intervention group) received three sessions of laser therapy (InGaAIP laser, 660 nanometer, 40 milliwatts of power, 5 Joules per square centimeter of energy density for 5 seconds each, total energy = 0.6 Joules) in the region of the nipples at three different points in time (0 hour, 24 hours, and 48 hours after diagnosis of nipple lesion). Twenty-nine women with similar clinical conditions were randomly assigned to the control group. Self-reported pain was recorded before and after laser therapy using a visual analogue scale. The intervention group experienced a decrease of 2.0 centimeters in intensity of pain (p = .016) 24 hours after the first intervention and also presented lower levels of pain compared with the control group. Low-level laser therapy was considered effective for treating nipple lesions in breastfeeding women with pain, providing relief and prolonging exclusive breastfeeding. More clinical trials with different laser dosimetry and parameters are necessary to optimize laser therapy protocols for breastfeeding women. PMID:27363734

  5. Scintigraphic examinations during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women: a survey of nuclear medicine physician's attitudes in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The present survey was undertaken to approach the practices of Belgian nuclear medicine physicians towards performing diagnostic tests during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire (see infra) was sent to all (201) Belgian Nuclear Physicians. Results: 78 answers (39 %) were received. During pregnancy, do you accept to perform Tc-99m lung perfusion scan ? First 3 months pregnancy: Yes, using standard protocol: 16%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 51%; No: 33%. After 3 months pregnancy: Yes, using standard protocol: 24% ; Yes, using a reduced dose: 52% ; No: 24%. Tc-99m ventilation scan? First 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 10%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 11%; No: 79%. After 3 months : Yes, using standard protocol: 15%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 19%; No: 66%. Other diagnostic tests using Tc-99m? First 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 4%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 12%; No: 84%. After 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 4% ; Yes, using a reduced dose: 17%; No: 79%. Other diagnostic tests using other radioisotopes? First 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 3%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 0%; No: 97%. After 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 3% ; Yes, using a reduced dose: 0%; No: 97%. In breast-feeding women do you accept to perform Tc-99m diagnostic tests? No: 11%. Yes, using standard protocol: 0%. Yes, provided a breast-feeding break: 89%. In those situations is an informed consent necessary? Yes: 42% ; No: 58%. Conclusion: These results are quite similar to those obtained in other countries; given the diversity of the opinions expressed, practical guidelines defining a standardized attitude would be helpful

  6. Breastfeeding Outcome Comparison by Parity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Eric W.; Beiler, Jessica S.; Rose, Chelsea M.; Paul, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Anecdotally, breastfeeding experiences differ between those who have previously nursed an infant and those who are primiparous. This analysis contrasted breastfeeding outcomes between primiparous women and those with previous experience spanning from maternity stay through 6 months postpartum. Study Design: A secondary analysis was conducted of data collected in a randomized, controlled trial with mothers and “well” newborns ≥34 weeks of gestation comparing two post–hospital discharge care models. Mothers completed an in-person interview during the postpartum stay and phone surveys at 2 weeks, 2 months, and 6 months where questionnaires related to breastfeeding were completed. All participants intended to breastfeed. Chi-squared and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to test for differences between parity groups. Breastfeeding duration by parity group was compared using a Kaplan–Meier plot and a logrank test. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the relationship between breastfeeding duration and parity after adjusting for covariates. Results: Among 1,099 mothers available for analysis, 542 (49%) were primiparous. Multiparous mothers had a longer intended breastfeeding duration (median, 9 vs. 6 months; phazard of stopping breastfeeding (hazard ratio=0.66; p=0.03) than primiparous mothers. Conclusions: Women who have breastfed previously have significantly different breastfeeding experiences than primiparous women. Pre- and postdelivery breastfeeding support should differentially target primiparous women to improve breastfeeding outcomes. PMID:25549051

  7. Exclusive breast-feeding of newborns among married women in the United States: the National Natality Surveys of 1969 and 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M R; Fetterly, K; Graubard, B I; Wooton, K G

    1985-11-01

    Questions about infant feeding practices after birth were included in 1969 and 1980 National Natality Surveys (NNS). At 3-6 mo postpartum, NNS questionnaires were mailed to mothers of live infants born in wedlock, and responses were weighted to permit national estimates. Based on the NNS, the proportion of women who were exclusively breast-feeding newborns in the United States was significantly lower in 1969 (19% of white women, 9% of black women) compared with 1980 (51% of white women, 25% of black women). In 1969, the highest percentages of exclusive breast-feeding were observed among white women less than or equal to 34 yr, of parity less than or equal to 3 and greater than 7, and of higher than lower socioeconomic groups; and among black women greater than or equal to 30 yr, of parity greater than or equal to 4, and of lower than higher socioeconomic groups. Among women in both races in 1980, more primiparae than multiparae and the more highly educated were breast-feeding. More white than black women exclusively breast-fed within each birthweight and each sociodemographic characteristic in 1980; therefore, the racial differences remained across these factors. These findings are compared with results of the Ross Laboratories surveys of infant feeding.

  8. Breastfeeding Practices Among First-Time Mothers and Across Multiple Pregnancies

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherland, Tori; Pierce, Christopher B.; Blomquist, Joan L.; Handa, Victoria L.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate maternal characteristics associated with breastfeeding initiation and success. Women enrolled in the Mothers Outcomes After Delivery study reported breastfeeding practices 5–10 years after a first delivery. Women were classified as successful breastfeeding initiators, unsuccessful initiators, or non-initiators. For the first birth, demographic and obstetrical characteristics were compared across these three breastfeeding groups. For multiparous women, agreement in breastfeeding...

  9. Trio of terror (pregnancy, menstruation, and breastfeeding): an existential function of literal self-objectification among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kasey Lynn; Goldenberg, Jamie L; Heflick, Nathan A

    2014-07-01

    Research and theorizing suggest that objectification entails perceiving a person not as a human being but, quite literally, as an object. However, the motive to regard the self as an object is not well understood. The current research tested the hypothesis that literal self-objectification can serve a terror management function. From this perspective, the female body poses a unique existential threat on account of its role in reproduction, and regarding the self as an object is posited to shield women from this threat because objects, in contrast to humans, are not mortal. Across 5 studies, 3 operationalizations of literal self-objectification were employed (a denial of essentially human traits to the self, overlap in the explicit assignment of traits to the self and objects, and implicit associations between self and objects using an implicit association test) in response to 3 aspects of women's bodies involved in reproduction (pregnancy, menstruation, and breastfeeding). In each study, priming mortality led women (but not men, included in Studies 1, 3, 4, and 5) to literally self-objectify in conditions where women's reproductive features were salient. In addition, literal self-objectification was found to mediate subsequent responsiveness to death-related stimuli (Study 4). Together, these findings are the first to demonstrate a direct link between mortality salience, women's role in reproduction, and their self-objectification, supporting an existential function of self-objectification in women.

  10. Trio of terror (pregnancy, menstruation, and breastfeeding): an existential function of literal self-objectification among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kasey Lynn; Goldenberg, Jamie L; Heflick, Nathan A

    2014-07-01

    Research and theorizing suggest that objectification entails perceiving a person not as a human being but, quite literally, as an object. However, the motive to regard the self as an object is not well understood. The current research tested the hypothesis that literal self-objectification can serve a terror management function. From this perspective, the female body poses a unique existential threat on account of its role in reproduction, and regarding the self as an object is posited to shield women from this threat because objects, in contrast to humans, are not mortal. Across 5 studies, 3 operationalizations of literal self-objectification were employed (a denial of essentially human traits to the self, overlap in the explicit assignment of traits to the self and objects, and implicit associations between self and objects using an implicit association test) in response to 3 aspects of women's bodies involved in reproduction (pregnancy, menstruation, and breastfeeding). In each study, priming mortality led women (but not men, included in Studies 1, 3, 4, and 5) to literally self-objectify in conditions where women's reproductive features were salient. In addition, literal self-objectification was found to mediate subsequent responsiveness to death-related stimuli (Study 4). Together, these findings are the first to demonstrate a direct link between mortality salience, women's role in reproduction, and their self-objectification, supporting an existential function of self-objectification in women. PMID:24956319

  11. A Qualitative Study to Understand Nativity Differences in Breastfeeding Behaviors Among Middle-Class African American and African-Born Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiyi, Camille; Peacock, Nadine; Hebert-Beirne, Jennifer; Handler, Arden

    2016-10-01

    Objective To explore nativity differences and the role of attitudes, social norms, and behavioral control perceptions surrounding breastfeeding initiation and duration among middle-class African-American (AA) and African-born (AB) mothers in the US. Methods Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 20 middle-class AA and AB mothers in central Ohio from December 2012 to February 2013. Interview questions were developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Interviews were analyzed for salient themes by TPB constructs. Differences in themes were examined by nativity status. Results All study participants had initiated breastfeeding or bottle-feeding with expressed breast milk, noting the benefits it conferred as well as the persuasive encouragement they received from others. Persistent encouragement was often cited as a factor for sustaining breastfeeding. More AA mothers had discontinued breastfeeding by the time of the interview, which was often attributed to health, lactation, and work challenges. Inconsistent support from health providers, dissuasive remarks from others, ambivalent breastfeeding attitudes, and diminished family support led some mothers to begin formula supplementation. Analysis of maternal narratives revealed nativity differences across sources of encouragement. Specifically, important sources of encouragement were health providers for AA mothers and family, friends, partners and culture for AB mothers. Only AB mothers expressed concerns about difficulty they encountered with breastfeeding due to the lack of proximal family support. Conclusions Findings reveal that both groups of mothers may be susceptible to unsupportive breastfeeding norms in the US and also highlight the need for intervention in health care settings and workplaces to improve AA women's breastfeeding rates. PMID:27334637

  12. Breastfeeding the preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Corvaglia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its peculiar nutritional and non-nutritional contents, which include long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids (LC-PUFA, prebiotics, immunological factors, hormones and growth factors, breast milk shows significant advantages over infant formulas in nourishing preterm infants. Better neurocognitive outcomes, which are reported to persist far beyond the early childhood, have been largely observed in breastfed preterm infants; a role of LC-PUFA in promoting neural and retinal development is assumed. As far as the gastrointestinal tract is concerned, several evidences have reported a dose-related reduction in NEC incidence among preterm infants fed on human milk. Moreover, the higher amount of immunological factors as secretory IgA within preterm breast milk might play a remarkable role in reducing the overall infections. Despite breastfeeding in preterm infants is generally linked with lowered growth rates which might potentially affect neurocognitive outcomes, the beneficial effects of human milk on neurodevelopment prevail. Fortified human milk might better fulfill the particular nutritional needs of preterm infants. However, as breast milk fortification is difficult to carry out after the achievement of full oral feeding, some concerns on the nutritional adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding during hospitalization as well as after discharge have been raised. Finally, breastfeeding also entails maternal psychological beneficial effects, as promoting the motherhood process and the mother-child relationship, which could be undermined in those women experiencing preterm delivery. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  13. Evaluation of breastfeeding promotion, support, and knowledge of benefits on breastfeeding outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kornides, Melanie; Kitsantas, Panagiota

    2013-01-01

    We examined how prenatal exposure to breastfeeding information from various media sources, maternal knowledge of benefits, family and clinician support, and peer practices influence breastfeeding outcomes in early infancy. Initiation of breastfeeding, any breastfeeding at two months, and exclusivity of breastfeeding at two months were examined in a cohort of US women using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II. Descriptive statistics, chi-square analyses and logistic regression were...

  14. The prevalence and determinants of breast-feeding initiation and duration in a sample of women in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2010-06-01

    To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers.

  15. Breastfeeding successfully

    OpenAIRE

    Malta. Health Promotion & Disease Prevention Directorate; Malta. Breastfeeding Working Group

    2012-01-01

    This leaflet issued by the Health Promotion & Disease Directorate and the Breastfeeding Working Group provides a better understanding of the breast, milk production as well as tips on successful breastfeeding.

  16. Characteristics of overweight and obesity at age two and the association with breastfeeding in Hawai'i Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Johanna; Hayes, Donald; Chock, Linda

    2014-12-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with many adverse health effects during childhood and is linked to an increased risk for obesity in adulthood. The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics of early childhood overweight and obesity and assess the impact of breastfeeding. Data from Hawai'i's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) were analyzed for children 2 years of age born between 2005 and 2009 and their mothers. Childhood overweight and obesity was examined using a log-binomial regression model to estimate prevalence ratios. In the sample population, 12.5 % of children were overweight and 8.5 % of children were obese. Significant differences in childhood overweight and obesity were seen between breastfeeding duration and other socio-demographic groups. Children who were breastfed for 6 months or more had a lower risk of childhood obesity at age two compared to those who were never breastfed (APR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.69-0.91) with adjustment for child race/ethnicity, maternal age, trimester of prenatal care entry, maternal smoking status, and child birth weight. The prevalence of early childhood overweight and obesity is associated with shorter durations of breastfeeding. Early and continued breastfeeding support and education for mothers in the WIC program that improves duration of breastfeeding may help reduce the risk of early childhood obesity.

  17. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding...... duration is long. DESIGN: We selected women from the Danish National Birth Cohort who ever breastfed (>98%), and we conducted the interviews at 6 (n = 36 030) and 18 (n = 26 846) mo postpartum. We used regression analyses to investigate whether breastfeeding (scored to account for duration and intensity......) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: GWG was positively (P Breastfeeding was negatively associated with PPWR in all women but those...

  18. Maternal Vitamin D Status: Effect on Milk Vitamin D Content and Vitamin D Status of Breastfeeding Infants123

    OpenAIRE

    Dawodu, Adekunle; Tsang, Reginald C.

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing reports of rickets and vitamin D deficiency worldwide. Breastfeeding without adequate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation are the major risk factors. In view of the drive to promote and increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding, the relationship among maternal vitamin D status, vitamin D concentration of human milk, and hence vitamin D status of breastfeeding infants deserves reassessment. This review provides current information on the interrelationship be...

  19. Do Maternal Quality of Life and Breastfeeding Difficulties Influence the Continuation of Exclusive Breastfeeding?

    OpenAIRE

    Forough Mortazavi; Seyed Abbas Mousavi; Reza Chaman; Ahmad Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study was conducted to determine whether maternal quality of life (QOL) and breastfeeding difficulties influence the continuation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Methods. In a survey, 358 consecutive pregnant women filled out a quality of life questionnaire in the third trimester of pregnancy and the breastfeeding experience scale at 4 weeks postpartum. We assessed breastfeeding practices every month up to 6 months postpartum. Results. Only 11.8% of women continued EBF at s...

  20. Aleitamento materno exclusivo entre trabalhadoras com creche no local de trabalho Exclusive breastfeeding among working women with free daycare available at workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Duarte Osis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os fatores relacionados à decisão das mulheres em amamentar e a duração planejada e, de fato observada, do aleitamento exclusivo entre trabalhadoras que dispõem de creche na empresa. MÉTODOS: Estudo qualitativo no qual se comparou um grupo de 15 trabalhadoras cujos bebês estavam sendo alimentados apenas com leite materno quando começaram a freqüentar a creche da empresa com outro similar que incluía mulheres cujos bebês que, ao ingressar, já estavam recebendo, além do leite materno, outros alimentos. Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas e grupos focais. RESULTADOS: Evidenciaram-se como fatores relacionados à decisão de iniciar a amamentação e mantê-la ao retornar ao trabalho: o desejo de amamentar, embasado no valor que as mulheres dos dois grupos atribuíam ao aleitamento materno, bem como seus maridos e outras pessoas significativas (por exemplo: mãe, irmã, amigas. A duração do aleitamento exclusivo relacionou-se principalmente à orientação do pediatra que cuidava do bebê, que foi distinta em cada um dos grupos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: A existência da creche no local de trabalho aparece como elemento relevante para a manutenção do aleitamento após a licença de maternidade, especialmente o materno exclusivo. A decisão sobre quanto tempo amamentar de forma exclusiva esteve relacionada às informações recebidas acerca do assunto antes e durante a gestação, e no pós-parto. A diferença entre os dois grupos estudados foi que as mulheres que mantiveram o aleitamento exclusivo por quase seis meses acreditavam que quanto mais tempo dessem somente o leite materno, mais benefícios o bebê teria, enquanto as mulheres do outro grupo acreditavam que três meses de aleitamento exclusivo eram suficientes.OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors related to the decision of exclusive breastfeeding, and the planned and the actual duration among working women with free daycare available at workplace

  1. Cultural Norms in Conflict: Breastfeeding Among Hispanic Immigrants in Rural Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohl, Sarah; Thompson, Beti; Escareño, Monica; Duggan, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Objectives To examine perceptions, experiences, and attitudes towards breastfeeding among Hispanic women living in rural Washington State. Methods Twenty parous Hispanic women of low acculturation, aged 25-48 years and residents in rural Washington State participated in an exploratory, face-to-face interview. Interviews were audio-recorded, translated and transcribed, and analyzed using a thematic content analysis approach. Results Nine emergent themes were grouped into three overarching categories: (1) Breast is best; (2) Hispanic cultural and familial expectations to breastfeed; and (3) Adapting to life in the United States: cultural norms in conflict. Women said they were motivated to breastfeed because of their knowledge and observations of its health benefits for mother and child. They said breastfeeding is ingrained in their Hispanic cultural heritage, and infant feeding choices of female family members were particularly influential in women's own decision to breastfeed. Women said they experienced embarrassment about breastfeeding in the United States and as a result, often chose to initiate formula feeding as a complement so as to avoid feelings of shame. Additionally, they faced economic pressure to work, key barriers for continued breastfeeding among Hispanics in the United States. Conclusions for Practice Knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child and longstanding cultural practices of breastfeeding are not enough to encourage exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months among this rural Hispanic population. Continued support through family-level interventions as well as work place policies that encourage breastfeeding are needed for rural Hispanics to reach optimal breastfeeding rates. PMID:27021068

  2. Prevalence of abuse reported by pregnant women - impact on postpartum depression and breastfeeding: A prospective population-based analysis in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sørbø, Marie Flem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abuse of women is a violation of human rights, and has adverse impact on physical, mental and reproductive health. Yet, there is limited population based knowledge about the effect on postpartum health and breastfeeding. There is also need for increased understanding about the impact of abuse from different perpetrators. Large scale, population based, prospective studies are requested to assess the public health impact of abuse. Aims: To investigate the prevalence o...

  3. 孕妇对母乳喂养知识需求的调查分析%A SURVEY ON BREASTFEEDING KNOWLEDGE DEMAND IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗永伟; 贾红光; 赵芳菲; 张淑贞

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解孕妇对母乳喂养知识的需求,以便按其需求给予有针对性的健康教育,提高母乳喂养率。方法随机抽取该院产科门诊建册产检的孕妇作为调查对象,按照不同年龄、不同文化程度对孕妇进行分组,并对调查结果进行统计学分析。结果本科及以上学历孕妇对母乳喂养知识的需求率为97.6%,高于其他学历的孕妇。30岁以下的孕妇对母乳喂养知识的需求率为92.73%,高于其他年龄组孕妇的需求,不同学历、不同年龄组孕妇间需求率比较差异具有统计学意义。结论孕妇对母乳喂养知识宣教的需求量大,孕妇最希望得到的教育方式是医护人员面授。医护人员应通过多种方式开展母乳喂养知识的宣传教育,以提高纯母乳喂养率。%Objective To understand the demand of pregnant women for breastfeeding knowledge so that according to the requirements to give targeted health education,and increase the rate of breastfeeding. Methods Prenatal pregnant women were selected as the subjects of investigation who randomly chosen from January to October 2014 in author's hospital obstetrics outpatient,they were divided into different groups according to the different age,different cultural level grouping for pregnant women,and then the survey results were analyzed.Results The demand rate for breastfeeding knowledge at bachelor degree or above in pregnant women was of 97.6%,higher than the other degree of pregnant women.Pregnant women under the age of 30,the demand for breastfeeding knowledge was at a rate of 92.73%,higher than other age groups of a pregnant woman needs,so,different degree,and different age groups among preg-nant women demand rate was statistically significant.Conclusions It is big the demand of breastfeeding knowledge education of pregnant women.Pregnant women most want to get a way of education in medical staff face- to - face.Medical staff should be through a variety of

  4. Associations of maternal obesity and psychosocial factors with breastfeeding intention, initiation, and duration1234

    OpenAIRE

    Hauff, Laura E; Leonard, Stephanie A.; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psychosocial factors influence breastfeeding outcomes, but little is known about these characteristics and how they influence breastfeeding behavior of obese women, who are a group that experiences poor breastfeeding outcomes.

  5. A descriptive study of Swedish women with symptoms of breast inflammation during lactation and their perceptions of the quality of care given at a breastfeeding clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall- Lord Marie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women's perceptions of quality of care during episodes of breast inflammation have been scantily explored. It was the objective of the present study to describe a cohort of breastfeeding women with inflammatory symptoms of the breast during lactation regarding demographical variables, illness history and symptoms at first contact with a breastfeeding clinic and to explore their physical health status, psychological well-being and perceptions of quality of care received, at a six-week postal follow-up. Methods This is a descriptive study set at a midwife-led breastfeeding clinic in Sweden, which included a cohort of women with 210 episodes of breast inflammation. The women had taken part in a RCT of acupuncture and care interventions and were recruited between 2002 and 2004. Of the total cohort, 176 (84 % responded to a postal questionnaire, six weeks after recovery. Results Of the 154 women for whom body temperature was recorded at the first visit, 80 (52% had fever ranging from 38.1°C to 40.7°C. There was no significant difference between those with favourable outcomes (5 or less contact days and those with less favourable outcomes (6 or more contact days for having fever or no fever at first contact. Thirty-six percent of women had damaged nipples. Significantly more women with a less favourable outcome (6 or more contact days had damaged nipples. Most women recovered well from the episode of breast inflammation and 96% considered their physical health and 97% their psychological well-being, to be good, six weeks after the episode. Those whose illness lasted 6 days or more showed less confidence in the midwives and in the care given to them. Twenty-one (12% women contacted health care services because of recurring symptoms and eight of the 176 responders (4.5% were prescribed antibiotics for these recurring symptoms. A further 46 women (26% of the responders reported recurring symptoms that they managed without recourse

  6. Mathematical Model for the Secretion of Oxytocin after Vaginal Delivery or Caesarean in Breastfeeding Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. S. Lakshmi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin, which is produced in the supraoptic (SON and paraventricular (PVN nuclei of the hypothalamus, is released in to circulation from magnocellular neurons which extend down to the posterior pituitary. In addition, oxytocin is produced and released from parvocellular neurons in the PVN, which project to many areas within the brain such as other parts of the hypothalamus, the amygdala , the striatum, the raphenuclei, the LC, the vagal motor and sensory nuclei, the dorsal horn of the spinal cord as well as the preganglionic sympathetic neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord . The structure of the nonapeptide oxytocin differs by only two amino acids from that of vasopressin, which is produced in separate neurons of the PVN and SON. Only one oxytocin receptor, i.e. the uterine type of receptor, has been identified. This type of receptor also has been demonstrated in the central nervous system. Oxytocin release into the nervous system during the early postpartum period may strengthen the expression of maternal behaviors and prolong breastfeeding. Comparisons between woman following vaginal delivery (VD versus caesarean section (CS suggest that exposure to oxytocin during labor and in the postpartal period can influence the subsequent function of oxytocin-producing neurons during the lactation period. In the Mathematical model, both the cases are compared by finding the Renewal density and Failure Density functions. Renewal density is higher if we compare the caesarean case with vaginal delivery during the labor and in the early post partum period. In a similar manner, we obtain the bounds of the failure density functions in both the cases. MATHEMATICAL SUBJECT CLASSIFICATION: 60GXX, 60E05.

  7. Managing the dynamics of shame in breastfeeding support

    OpenAIRE

    Leeming, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding promotion has long grappled with the issue of maternal guilt. However, recently attention has turned instead to shame, as a related but more problematic emotional response. Although women may talk about feeling shamed for breastfeeding in front of others, some also talk about shame-related feelings as a consequence of not breastfeeding or struggling to establish breastfeeding. Research suggests that cultural representations of breastfeeding can be taken up as if they imply th...

  8. Cannabis and Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélia Garry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC. Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breastfeeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breastfeeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  9. Increasing loyalty to breastfeeding: investigating a product development strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Joy; Russell-Bennett, Rebekah; Previte, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    This article demonstrates how social marketing insights were used to influence women's loyalty to breastfeeding. The article reports on a social marketing campaign undertaken by the Australian Breastfeeding Association and a government health department, which used a product development strategy in order to increase breastfeeding loyalty. Seeking new approaches to support breastfeeding behaviors is critical and timely, because while initiation rates of breastfeeding are high in developed countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and the United States, duration rates are significantly lower. Results indicate that a product- focused strategy influences pregnant women's loyalty to exclusively breastfeeding.

  10. Parity and breastfeeding are protective against breast cancer in Nigerian women

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, D.; ADEBAMOWO, C. A.; Ogundiran, T O; Akang, E E; O. Campbell; Adenipekun, A; Cummings, S.; Fackenthal, J; Ademuyiwa, F.; Ahsan, H; Olopade, O.I.

    2008-01-01

    As the relation between reproductive factors and breast cancer risk has not been systematically studied in indigenous women of sub-Saharan Africa, we examined this in a case–control study in Nigeria. In-person interviews were conducted using structured questionnaires to collect detailed reproductive history in 819 breast cancer cases and 569 community controls between 1998 and 2006. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared with wom...

  11. 健康教育对流动孕产妇母乳喂养的影响%Effect of Health Education on Breastfeeding in Pregnant Immigrant Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦立梁; 华建芳; 秦立强

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide a useful and suitable health education method for pregnant immigrant women to selectbreastfeeding.Methods Total 156 pregnant immigrant women who accepted whole course health education was selected as education group,and 152 pregnant immigrant women who did not accept education were as control group.The knowledge of breastfeeding,self-confidence for breastfeeding and selected feeding method were compared between the two groups.The effectiveness was finally evaluated.Results The knowledge of breastfeeding,self-confidence for breastfeeding and breastfeeding percentage were significantly higher in the education group (90.54 ± 3.48,10.54 ± 17.42 and 71.8 %) than those (86.54 ± 4.48,101.52 ± 15.68,64.7%) in the control group(P <0.01).In the education group,the indexes mentioned above were significantly higher in the subgroup where husbands participated.Conclusion Health education about the breastfeeding in local community health station,participation of husband,the follow-up after the birth can increase the breastfeeding rate in pregnant immigrant women.%目的 探索一种有效的流动孕产妇母乳喂养的健康教育方法.方法 把156例自愿接受全程母乳喂养健康教育的流动孕产妇作为实验组,152例不愿参加本研究健康教育的流动孕产妇作为对照组,分析两组孕产妇的母乳喂养知识掌握情况、母乳喂养自信心、喂养方式的选择,评价健康教育的效果.结果 经过健康教育后,实验组的母乳喂养知识(90.54±3.48)、母乳喂养自信心(110.54±17.42)、纯母乳喂养率(71.8%)显著高于对照组的82.45±7.26、90.88±16.26、42.8% (P<0.01).实验组丈夫参与健康教育的孕妇母乳喂养知识得分(93.42±3.56)、母乳喂养自信心(123.46±12.38)、纯母乳喂养率(77.3%)显著高于丈夫没参与健康教育的孕妇(分别为86.54±4.48、101.52±15.68、64.7%)(P<0.01).结论 以社区卫生服务站为依托,组织流动孕产

  12. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Breastfeeding 411 What breastfeeding means to me Staying healthy and eating well Overcoming challenges Addressing breastfeeding myths Finding support Fitting it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe to It's ...

  13. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  14. Health Professionals’ Attitudes and Beliefs About Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Radzyminski, Sharon; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate how health-care providers perceived their role in breastfeeding and maternal support. Data was collected via interviews of 53 health-care professionals that provided care to breastfeeding women. The emerging themes included (a) understanding the benefits of breastfeeding: often lacking current knowledge, (b) lacking consistency: gaps between knowledge of benefits and actual clinical practice, (c) not knowing how to help: lack of assessment ...

  15. Cannabis and Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Aurélia Garry; Virginie Rigourd; Ammar Amirouche; Valérie Fauroux; Sylvie Aubry; Raphaël Serreau

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at ...

  16. 孕妇母乳喂养自信心的影响因素调查分析%Analysis of the Influence Factors of Pregnant Women Breastfeeding Confi-dence Surveys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩烨玲

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究母乳喂养对婴儿健康的积极影响,研究母乳喂养自信心的影响因素并提出解决策略,提高母乳喂养率,促进婴儿健康成长.方法 通过对该院接收的50例孕产妇的分组指导和具体策略实施,得出母乳喂养自信心对于这种喂养方式形成的重要性. 结果母乳喂养受到多种因素的影响,临床上应致力于增强孕妇母乳喂养的自信心. 结论 应加强孕妇对母乳喂养的认识,提高其自信心. 通过医院护理、家庭支持等方式促进孕妇自信心的提高.%Objective To study the breastfeeding positive influence on the infant health, studies the influence factors of breastfeeding self-confidence and puts forward the strategy, increase the rate of breastfeeding, promote the healthy growth of babies. Methods Based on data received 50 cases of maternal group guidance and specific strategy implementation, it is concluded that breastfeeding confidence for this way of feeding the importance of form. Results Breastfeeding affected by many factors, self-confidence to enhance clinical pregnant women breastfeeding. Conclusion Pregnant women should be strengthened, the understanding of breastfeeding, improve their self-confidence. Hospital care and family support way im-prove pregnant woman of self-confidence.

  17. Intervention measures of breastfeeding for the women choosing hospitalized delivery%住院分娩母乳喂养干预措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘待霞; 李光源; 牛瑞潘

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨住院分娩者母乳喂养干预措施,提高纯母乳喂养率.方法:将2009年1月~2010年12月平顶山市妇幼保健院妇产科收治的3230例孕妇随机分为两组,干预组1960例孕妇,对照组1270例孕妇.干预组孕产妇由乳腺科医生到产科对其查房并进行干预;所有产妇出院后1月、2月分别进行母乳喂养状况随访调查.结果:干预前于预组孕妇乳房总异常率为9.29%,对照组为7.56%,差异无统计学意义(x2=2.92,P=0.09);干预后干预组和对照组母乳喂养有信心者分别为96.53%和77.64%,差异有统计学意义(X2=283.28,P<0.01);产后2组乳房不适率分别为15.97%和39.76%,差异有统计学意义(x2=230.72,P<0.01);干预组产妇泌乳时间明显短于对照组(P<0.01),泌乳量大于对照组(P<0.01);住院期间纯母乳喂养率干预组为95.20%,对照组为86.54%,产后1个月分别为93.67%和80.47%,产后2个月分别为91.58%和70.47%,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:母乳喂养干预措施可行,能显著提高母乳喂养率.%Objective: To explore the intervention measures of breastfeeding for the women choosing hospitalized delivery, increase the rate of pure breastfeeding Methods: 3 230 hospitalized pregnant women in obstetrical department of the hospital from January 2009 to December 2010 were divided into two groups randomly, 1 960 pregnant women in intervention group and 1 270 pregnant women in control group. The pregnant women in intervention group were intervened by doctors in department of mammary gland; the breastfeeding conditions of all the pregnant women were followed up at one and two months after leaving the hospital. Results: Before intervention, the total abnormal rates of breast in intervention group and control group were 9. 29% and 7. 56%, respectively, there was no significant difference between the two groups (x2 =2. 92, P =0. 09); after intervention, 96. 53% of the pregnant women in intervention group and 77. 64% of the

  18. Maternal and infant health is protected by antiretroviral drug strategies that preserve breastfeeding by HIV-positive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Kuhn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The South African Department of Health is justified in withdrawing support for free infant formula. By so doing, it recognises that any intervention that might detract from breast feeding poses a serious threat to infant survival. Since evidence is now strong that antiretroviral drugs used during lactation prevent transmission of infection from a seropositive mother, strategies that promote breastfeeding can now be recommended for enhancing the health of mothers and infants.

  19. Breastfeeding After Cesarean Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Breastfeeding After ...

  20. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work ... Enter email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural > Planning ahead The benefits of breastfeeding Learn the unique ...

  1. Effect of time of initiation and exclusivity of breastfeeding on postpartum weight retention of women who breastfeed at least 12 months

    OpenAIRE

    Hiestand, Kathleen Louise

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is a fundamental health promotion practice. Decades of research have documented mental, physical, and social benefits of breastfeeding for the child and the mother. However, the literature is inconclusive about one issue of great concern to many mothers and health care professionals: is there a significant relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum weight retention? Breastfeeding is a complex practice with many dimensions - timing of onset, duration, ...

  2. Breastfeeding promotion and support strategies based on Paulo Freire's epistemological categories

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Márcia Pereira Linhares; Cleide Maria Pontes; Mônica Maria Osório

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study identified strategies for promoting breastfeeding involving pregnant women, breastfeeding women and actors of the social support network for the breastfeeding process. METHODS: This qualitative study was guided by action research and the focal group technique to collect data. Focal Group 1 consisted of four pregnant and six breastfeeding women; Focal Group 2 consisted of six family members; and Focal Group 3 consisted of thirteen health professionals. The focal groups we...

  3. Impacto do incentivo ao aleitamento materno entre mulheres trabalhadoras formais The impact of breastfeeding promotion in women with formal employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alves Brasileiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigar se programas de incentivo ao aleitamento materno ajudam a prevenir o desmame precoce entre filhos de mães trabalhadoras. Foi realizado um estudo de intervenção não randomizado, por meio de inquérito entre mães que voltaram a trabalhar após o parto, participantes e não-participantes de um programa de incentivo ao aleitamento. A amostra consistiu de 200 mães de filhos com idades entre 6 e 10 meses. Para avaliar fatores associados ao desmame precoce, os resultados foram analisados por meio dos testes estatísticos de qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher e análise de regressão logística múltipla (α = 0,05. Os resultados mostraram que houve diferença estatística nas taxas de aleitamento materno exclusivo (p This study focused on programs to promote breastfeeding in order to prevent early weaning of working mothers' infant children. A non-randomized intervention study was conducted using a survey of mothers who had returned to work after childbirth, including both participants and non-participants in a program to promote breastfeeding. The sample consisted of 200 mothers of infants ranging from 6 to 10 months of age. Factors associated with early weaning were analyzed with the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests and multiple logistic regression (α = 0.05. The results showed statistical differences between the groups in relation to exclusive breastfeeding (p < 0.0001 and breastfeeding (p < 0.0001. There was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0056 between the groups in relation to time between childbirth and return to work. There was no difference between the end of maternity leave and weaning time. Mothers that were unable to nurse their infants during the work shift showed 4.98 times higher odds (95%CI: 1.27-19.61 of weaning them before the fourth month of age.

  4. Breastfeeding experiences of Taiwan nurses on rotational shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao-Hua; Kuo, Su-Chen; Lin, Hung-Ru

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of ten three-shift nurses, with particular focus on how they make arrangements regarding breastfeeding in relation to their workplaces and work breaks. Using a qualitative approach, data were obtained through semi-structured interviews with ten three-shift nurses who had breastfed for more than six months and who returned to work after childbirth. Snowball sampling was used to recruit participants, each of whom was interviewed for 1.5-2 hours. Content analysis was used to synthesize interview transcripts. The following three predominant themes and nine sub-themes were identified: (1) managing to express milk--finding appropriate times to express milk during day shifts, learning the timing to express milk during night shifts, and expressing all milk from the breasts during early morning 'graveyard' shifts; (2) dealing with the conflict between work and expressing milk--learning to both take care of patients and express milk, coming back to work on time after expressing milk, and finding "good" places to express milk; and (3) viewing breastfeeding as part of life--being with the baby at home more than being out, turning cars into mobile breastfeeding and milk-expressing "rooms", and breastfeeding as an accomplishment. These findings can help nurses and other healthcare professionals provide anticipatory guidance to women who plan to continue to breastfeed after returning to work. Study results can provide a reference for shift workers who continue to breastfeed after they return to work. PMID:19061176

  5. Maternal trait personality and breastfeeding duration: the importance of confidence and social support

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aim To explore associations among breastfeeding duration, maternal personality and maternal attitudes and experiences of breastfeeding. Background Understanding influences on breastfeeding initiation and duration is critical to increasing breastfeeding rates and supporting new mothers. Maternal characteristics such as self‐efficacy, knowledge and confidence are known to enable women to breastfeed, but little is known about the influence of maternal trait personality on breastfeeding....

  6. Drug use during breastfeeding. A survey from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Schwagermann, M.P.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To survey drug use by breastfeeding women, and to compare this with nonbreastfeeding women. In addition, we were interested whether drug use was of influence on the decision to give breastfeeding, and the other way around. Design and setting: During a 6-week period in 2002, a questionnair

  7. 'Supply' and 'demand': breastfeeding as labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Fiona

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents findings from a recent critical ethnographic study conducted in two maternity units in England, UK. The study explored the influences upon 61 women's experiences of breastfeeding within the postnatal ward setting. Participant observations of 97 encounters between midwives and postnatal women, 106 focused interviews with postnatal women and 37-guided conversations with midwives were conducted. Basic, organising and global themes were constructed utilising thematic networks analysis. The metaphor of the production line, with its notions of demand and efficient supply, illustrated the experiences of breastfeeding women. They conceptualised breastfeeding as a 'productive' project, yet expressed deep mistrust in the efficacy of their bodies. Their emphasis centred upon breast milk as nutrition rather than relationality and breastfeeding. Women referred to the demanding and unpredictable ways in which their baby breached their temporal and spatial boundaries. They sought strategies to cope with the uncertainty of this embodied experience in combination with their concerns regarding returning to a 'normal' and 'productive' life. The hospital setting and health worker practices played a contributing and reinforcing role. The paper discusses ways of re-establishing trust in women's bodies and breastfeeding, while respecting difference and diversity. It argues for embracing the concepts of embodiment and relationality whilst avoiding a return to essentialism. This requires collective efforts to erode deeply embedded cultural understandings of women's bodies centering upon disembodied and efficient production.

  8. Effectiveness of Topical Curcumin for Treatment of Mastitis in Breastfeeding Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raha Afshariani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the efficacy of topical curcumin in reducing breast inflammation in women suffering from lactational mastitis. Methods: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study including 63 breastfeeding women with lactational mastitis were randomly assigned to receive curcumin topical cream, one pump every 8 hours for 3 days (n=32 or topical moisturizer as placebo (n=31. Using an index for severity of breast inflammation, all of the patients had moderate breast inflammation before entering the study. The outcome of treatment was evaluated using the same index at 24, 48 and 72 hours of starting the treatment. Results: There was no significant difference between two study groups regarding the baseline characteristics such as age (p=0.361 and duration of lactation (p=0.551. After 72-hour of therapy, patients in curcumin groups had significantly lower rate of moderate (p=0.019 and mild (p=0.002 mastitis. Patients in curcumin group had significantly lower scores for tension (p<0.001, erythema (p<0.001 and pain (p<0.001, after 72-hour of treatment. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that topical preparation of curcumin successfully decrease the markers of lactational mastitis such as pain, breast tension and erythema within 72 hours of administration without side effects. Thus, topical preparation of curcumin could be safely administered for those suffering from lactational mastitis after excluding infectious etiologies.

  9. [Historical evolution of breastfeeding. Rights and family conciliation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Flores, Rafael

    2010-12-01

    Human milk has been and it is an important means of survival for the human being. The history of the breastfeeding has been linked to the woman's social and cultural situation and it has gone by different vicissitudes. During a long period the breastfeeding was considered as an unsightly unworthy practice and characteristic of low classes, women that had resources nurses used. In the XIX century artificial nursing appears that will be developed significantly starting from half-filled of the following century relegating, again, to a second plane to the natural nursing. With the beginning of the XX century the first rights of the workers appear and among them it is regulated the right for the first time to the permission for nursing. With the advance of the century diverse norms enlarge their content. Arriving to the current moment in which the right enjoys a wide legal recognition inside the norms that regulate the family reconciliation. PMID:21322188

  10. Lessons Learned in a Breastfeeding Media Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Julie L; Mzayek, Fawaz; Levy, Marian

    2016-09-01

    Breastfeeding is well accepted as the optimal nutrition for babies. The American Academy of Pediatrics states that infant feeding should no longer be thought of as a lifestyle choice, but rather as a public health issue. In Shelby County, Tennessee, rates of breastfeeding continue to be disparately low. To address this public health problem, a focus group study was conducted with the Shelby County population least likely to breastfeed. Following participants' suggestion to use a billboard campaign with pictures of local mothers and families, one highway billboard and ten bus stop signs were placed around the city in areas of the lowest breastfeeding rates. Self-administered surveys were completed by convenience sampling in target population areas with women least likely to breastfeed, both before placing the signs and 6 months later. No significant differences were noted in knowledge, attitudes, or practices after the media campaign, but trends toward increased intention to breastfeed were noted among expectant mothers. With collapsed data (pre and post), a majority of participants believed that breastfeeding is the best way to feed a baby and they were significantly more likely to plan to breastfeed if they knew about health benefits to the baby and to themselves. If they had heard about breastfeeding on the TV or radio, they were more likely to believe breastfeeding is important for long-term health. These findings suggest that a media campaign could have a complementary role in promoting breastfeeding among women with low initiation rates. PMID:27463248

  11. A Maternity different: Breastfeeding and Phytotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Hernández Benítez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of complementary health therapies has grown progressively since the 1950s. This article presents a bibliographical review on galactogogues. The main objective is to identify scientific evidence of plants used traditionally as galactogogues in our environment, and its efficacy and safety. We carried out a literature review in order to find the scientific evidence available on the Cochrane Library databases, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Cuidatge CUIDEN. The keywords used were: phytotherapy, breastfeeding galactogogues, herbal agents, herbal products, breastfeeding and galactogogues. To conclusion although the use of natural remedies, improve breastfeeding should provide accurate and updated health information and women transmit security capabilities.

  12. Breastfeeding, Maternal Education and Cognitive Function: A Prospective Study in Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Bartels, M.; Beijsterveldt, Van; Boomsma, D I

    2009-01-01

    The effect of breastfeeding on cognitive abilities is examined in the offspring of highly educated women and compared to the effects in women with low or middle educational attainment. All offspring consisted of 12-year old mono- or dizygotic twins and this made it possible to study the effect of breastfeeding on mean cognition scores as well as the moderating effects of breastfeeding on the heritability of variation in cognition. Information on breastfeeding and cognitive ability was availab...

  13. Beliefs about breastfeeding: a statewide survey of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, E; Sienkiewicz, M; Roholt, S

    1995-03-01

    A statewide project was implemented in 1993 to increase breastfeeding among low-income women in North Carolina through improved institutional policies and practices and professional lactation-management skills. A survey designed to ascertain professional beliefs about breastfeeding was mailed to 31 hospitals and 25 public health agencies. A total of 2209 health professionals completed the survey and met the study selection criteria. Nutritionists and pediatricians were most likely to have positive beliefs about breastfeeding, whereas hospital nurses were most likely to have negative beliefs. Personal breastfeeding experience contributed to positive beliefs. Professionals were least convinced of the emotional benefits of breastfeeding. Those with negative beliefs were most likely to advocate complete infant weaning from the breast before nine months of age. Although most health professionals had positive beliefs about breastfeeding, differences by profession, work environment, and personal breastfeeding experience indicate the need for comprehensive training in lactation management, and improvements in hospital and public health clinic environments. PMID:7741946

  14. Knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of managers, coworkers, and employed breastfeeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Glenn, Jennifer

    2008-10-01

    Employer attitudes and practices toward breastfeeding mothers are discouraging overall. Mothers who believe that breastfeeding while employed cannot be done without a considerable amount of additional work and stress may not even consider breastfeeding. Although it is known that lower income women tend not to breastfeed while employed, the relationship between type of employment and sustaining breastfeeding has not been clearly explained. Many women identify employment as a barrier to breastfeeding. Some elements of a workplace environment supportive of breastfeeding have been identified, including private space with a locking door (other than a bathroom stall), time to express milk at work, and adequate refrigeration. In relation to employers, monetary reasons (i.e., decreased productivity) are most frequently cited for not supporting breastfeeding. Only a small percentage of the research on employed breastfeeding mothers has focused on the workplace. Further research is needed to determine how breastfeeding can be beneficial to the mother, the infant, and the employer. PMID:18983103

  15. Social representations about support for breastfeeding in a group of breastfeeding women Las representaciones sociales de un grupo de mujeres/amamantadoras sobre el apoyo a la lactancia materna Representações sociais de um grupo de mulheres/nutrizes sobre o apoio à amamentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Swain Müller

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to get to know the social representations about support for breastfeeding in a group of breastfeeding women, as well as to identify the actions in their social environment these women perceive as supportive in their breastfeeding processes. Data were collected through a qualitative approach, using recorded semistructured interviews, organized in accordance with the Collective Subject Discourse and analyzed under the premises of Social Representations Theory. Results showed that the representations of women in this study about support for breastfeeding consist of actions available in the hospital, family and work contexts. In these women's perspective, support is a broad phenomenon that involves aspects of encouragement, promotion and protection to breastfeeding.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer las representaciones sociales de un grupo de amamantadoras sobre el apoyo para amamantar y, también, identificar las acciones del entorno social que son percibidas por esas mujeres, como apoyo en sus procesos de amamantar. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de un abordaje cualitativo, en entrevista semiestructurada grabada, y organizados conforme la propuesta del Discurso del Sujeto Colectivo y analizados según las concepciones de la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales. Los resultados mostraron que las representaciones de las mujeres de este estudio, sobre el apoyo para amamantar, son constituidas por las acciones disponibles en el contexto hospitalario, familiar y de trabajo. Bajo la óptica de la mujer, el apoyo es un fenómeno de gran amplitud que engloba aspectos de incentivo, de promoción y de protección al amamantamiento.Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer as representações sociais de um grupo de nutrizes sobre o apoio para amamentar e, também, identificar as ações do entorno social que são percebidas por essas mulheres, como apoio em seus processos de amamentação. Os dados foram coletados por meio de

  16. A amamentação entre filhos de mulheres trabalhadoras El amamantamiento entre hijos de mujeres trabajadoras Breastfeeding among children of women workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alves Brasileiro

    2012-08-01

    el municipio de Piracicaba, SP. Entre las participantes, 100 dúos madre-lactante recibieron orientaciones y apoyo para la práctica de la lactancia en un programa de prevención en salud bucal y los otros 100 dúos fueron abordados en una campaña de vacunación infantil. Se realizó análisis de regresión logística múltiple para identificar variables relacionadas al destete al cuarto mes de vida. RESULTADOS: La mayor parte de las participantes era primípara, pasó por cesárea, inició el amamantamiento en menos de cuatro horas posterior al parto y permaneció con su hijo en alojamiento conjunto. Tuvieron mayor probabilidad de parar el amamantamiento: madres no participantes del programa de incentivo (OR= 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85], madres que no tenían intervalo de 30 minutos durante la jornada laboral (OR= 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26] y madres cuyos hijos utilizaban chupete (OR= 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83] o tetero (OR= 14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]. CONCLUSIONES: Las madres que participaron en el grupo de incentivo de la lactancia, no ofrecieron chupete y tetero a los hijos y tenían intervalo durante el trabajo pararon el amamantamiento posterior al cuarto mes. Apoyo, informaciones sobre el manejo de la lactancia y sobre sus derechos garantizados por ley, en conjunto con la ampliación del tiempo de licencia maternidad, podrán tener un papel importante en el mantenimiento de la práctica de la lactancia materna.OBJECTIVE: To analyze employment benefits and factors associated with the maintenance of breastfeeding indexes among working mothers. METHODS: The sample was constituted by 200 formal women workers who returned to work before the child had reached six months of life, in the city of Piracicaba (Southeastern Brazil. Among the participants, 100 mother-infant dyads received guidance and support for the practice of breastfeeding within an oral health prevention program, and the other 100 dyads were addressed in a child vaccination campaign. Multiple logistic regression

  17. Breastfeeding policies and breastfeeding support programs in the mother's workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinelli, Maria Enrica

    2012-10-01

    Women should never be forced to make a choice between mother-work and other work. Many women mistakenly think they cannot breastfeed if they plan to return to work, and thus they may not talk with their employers about their intention to breastfeed or how breastfeeding might be supported at their workplace. All breastfeeding policies and strategies underline the importance of providing support for lactating mothers and highlight the need to promote specific interventions in the workplace. Possible strategies for working mothers include having the mother keep the baby with her while she works, allowing the mother to go to the baby to breastfeed during the workday, telecommuting, offering flexible work schedules, maintaining part-time work schedules, and using on-site or nearby child care centres. PMID:22958027

  18. African American Women’s Perceptions and Experiences about Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia S Obeng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There are health benefits to breastfeeding for both mothers and their children. The preventive health effects of breastfeeding continue into adulthood, lowering rate of various chronic illnesses. African American women, especially of lower socioeconomic status, are less likely to breastfeed in comparison to their racial and ethnic counterparts. The purpose of this study was to explore how African American women experience breastfeeding in the early stages of postpartum care. Two focus groups (N=20, 10 in each group were conducted with African American mothers. Results revealed that participants felt that there were health benefits to breastfeeding, and organizations such as WIC provided support. However, participants stated that lack of information, negative perceptions, and unforeseen circumstances were barriers to breastfeeding. This study proposes support and interventions for this group to increase breastfeeding among this population.

  19. Qualitative study of breastfeeding after childhood sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Childhood sexual assault (CSA) is a common experience for women. Little research has explored the breastfeeding experience of CSA survivors who successfully breastfeed. The objective of this study is to explore the experience of successful breastfeeding with mothers with a history of CSA. Eleven women are interviewed after responding to a community-based advertisement. The women self-identify as having experienced CSA by a family member. Semistructured interviews are conducted by the author. Interviews are transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes. Four key themes are identified: enhancement of the mother- baby relationship, validation of the maternal body, splitting of the breasts' dual role as maternal and sexual objects, and exposure and control when breastfeeding in public. Healthcare professionals should be aware of these maternal issues when promoting breastfeeding and counseling breastfeeding women. PMID:19414736

  20. The Relationship Between Postpartum Mental Status and Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Bilge Burcak Annagur; Ali Annagur

    2012-01-01

    Maternal mental health in postpartum period is an important issue as breast milk and breastfeeding. The mother’s physical and mental health is critical for long term breastfeeding and to give efficient care to baby. Maternal mental impairment results in insufficient feeding and disturbances in physical health of the baby. Women with depressive symptoms have been shown to fail to begin and continue breastfeeding. It is critical to diagnose and treat maternal depression to decrease negative out...

  1. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding ... with a lactation specialist. previous continue All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious ...

  2. Dad's Role in Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Dad's Role ...

  3. Serious Illnesses and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Serious Illnesses ...

  4. Reduced breastfeeding rates among obese mothers: a review of contributing factors, clinical considerations and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bever Babendure, Jennie; Reifsnider, Elizabeth; Mendias, Elnora; Moramarco, Michael W; Davila, Yolanda R

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with significantly lower rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration and exclusivity. Increasing rates of obesity among reproductive-age women has prompted the need to carefully examine factors contributing to lower breastfeeding rates in this population. Recent research has demonstrated a significant impact of breastfeeding to reduce the risk of obesity in both mothers and their children. This article presents a review of research literature from three databases covering the years 1995 to 2014 using the search terms of breastfeeding and maternal obesity. We reviewed the existing research on contributing factors to lower breastfeeding rates among obese women, and our findings can guide the development of promising avenues to increase breastfeeding among a vulnerable population. The key findings concerned factors impacting initiation and early breastfeeding, factors impacting later breastfeeding and exclusivity, interventions to increase breastfeeding in obese women, and clinical considerations. The factors impacting early breastfeeding include mechanical factors and delayed onset of lactogenesis II and we have critically analyzed the potential contributors to these factors. The factors impacting later breastfeeding and exclusivity include hormonal imbalances, psychosocial factors, and mammary hypoplasia. Several recent interventions have sought to increase breastfeeding duration in obese women with varying levels of success and we have presented the strengths and weaknesses of these clinical trials. Clinical considerations include specific techniques that have been found to improve breastfeeding incidence and duration in obese women. Many obese women do not obtain the health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding and their children are more likely to also be overweight or obese if they are not breastfed. Further research is needed into the physiological basis for decreased breastfeeding among obese women along with effective

  5. A study of the relationship between sexual activity and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Heidari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 1 Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahed University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran2(Received 2 March, 2009; Accepted 27 May, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Longterm breastfeeding is an important factor for women. Reverse effects of breastfeeding regarding sexual activities have been reported. However, the impact of breastfeeding, along with sexual activity of women during postpartum, is a debatable matter. This effect remains unknown in many societies such as Iran. Sexual activity during breastfeeding from women has not been studied. This study was carried out to compare the association of sexual activity of breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding women within 2-6 months after birth.Materials and methods: In this historical cohort study, which was carried out in 2007, the sexual activity of breastfeeding women was compared with 198 bottle-feeds women, who were referred to a public maternity health care center in Tehran. Women were recruited within the age of 20-35, being their first or second child and in 2-6 months after birth. A self-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Women were interviewed face-to-face by the first author.Results: Of 456 respondents, 258 were currently breastfeeding and 198 were bottle feed. Mean age of the mothers was 27±4.7 years. 28.3% of breastfeeding women and 22.9% of non breastfeeding women had sexual intercourse within the one month of postpartum period. There was no significant difference between the time of resumption of sexual activity and being breastfeed or not (p<0.07. Also, no significant difference was found between breastfeeding and bottle-feed women on sexual desire and satisfaction prior to pregnancy and in postpartum period (p<0.1, p<0.5. In 49/8% of breastfeed and 43.3% of non breastfeed women, sexual desire was decreased and also in 32.6% and 33%, sexual satisfaction was decreased respectively. The orgasm experience did not have a significant difference between the two groups

  6. Breastfeeding social marketing: lessons learned from USDA's "Loving Support" campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-10-01

    Social marketing involves the application of commercial marketing principles to advance the public good. Social marketing calls for much more than health communications campaigns. It involves four interrelated tasks: audience benefit, target behavior, essence (brand, relevance, positioning), and developing the "4Ps" (product, price, place, promotion) marketing mix. The ongoing U.S. Department of Agriculture "Loving Support Makes Breastfeeding Work" campaign was launched in 1997 based on social marketing principles to increase breastfeeding initiation rates and breastfeeding duration among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Since then there have been improvements in breastfeeding duration in the country, and the majority of WIC women now initiate breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in public places is still not well accepted by society at large, and any and exclusive breastfeeding durations remain exceedingly low. Lessons learned from "Loving Support" and other campaigns indicate that it is important to design social marketing campaigns to target the influential societal forces (e.g., family and friends, healthcare providers, employers, formula industry, legislators) that affect women's decision and ability to breastfeed for the recommended amount of time. This will require formative research that applies the social-ecological model to different population segments, taking and identifying the right incentives to nudge more women to breastfeed for longer. Any new breastfeeding campaign needs to understand and take into account the information acquisition preferences of the target audiences. The vast majority of WIC women have mobile devices and are accessing social media. The Brazilian experience indicates that making breastfeeding the social norm can be done with a solid social marketing strategy. This is consistent with the recently released "Six Steps to Achieve Breastfeeding Goals for WIC Clinics," which identifies

  7. Breastfeeding social marketing: lessons learned from USDA's "Loving Support" campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-10-01

    Social marketing involves the application of commercial marketing principles to advance the public good. Social marketing calls for much more than health communications campaigns. It involves four interrelated tasks: audience benefit, target behavior, essence (brand, relevance, positioning), and developing the "4Ps" (product, price, place, promotion) marketing mix. The ongoing U.S. Department of Agriculture "Loving Support Makes Breastfeeding Work" campaign was launched in 1997 based on social marketing principles to increase breastfeeding initiation rates and breastfeeding duration among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Since then there have been improvements in breastfeeding duration in the country, and the majority of WIC women now initiate breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in public places is still not well accepted by society at large, and any and exclusive breastfeeding durations remain exceedingly low. Lessons learned from "Loving Support" and other campaigns indicate that it is important to design social marketing campaigns to target the influential societal forces (e.g., family and friends, healthcare providers, employers, formula industry, legislators) that affect women's decision and ability to breastfeed for the recommended amount of time. This will require formative research that applies the social-ecological model to different population segments, taking and identifying the right incentives to nudge more women to breastfeed for longer. Any new breastfeeding campaign needs to understand and take into account the information acquisition preferences of the target audiences. The vast majority of WIC women have mobile devices and are accessing social media. The Brazilian experience indicates that making breastfeeding the social norm can be done with a solid social marketing strategy. This is consistent with the recently released "Six Steps to Achieve Breastfeeding Goals for WIC Clinics," which identifies

  8. Breastfeeding in China: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Binns Colin W; Qiu Liqian; Xu Fenglian; Liu Xiaoxian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This review aims to describe changes in breastfeeding and summarise the breastfeeding rates, duration and reasons of discontinuing 'any breastfeeding' or 'exclusive breastfeeding' in P.R. China. Breastfeeding rates in China fell during the 1970s when the use of breast milk substitutes became widespread, and reached the lowest point in the 1980s. As a result many efforts were introduced to promote breastfeeding. The breastfeeding rate in China started to increase in the 1990s, and sin...

  9. Study on correlation between breastfeeding behavior of 299 primiparous women during hospitalization and family support%299名初产妇住院期间母乳喂养行为与家庭支持相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱秀; 陆虹

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解初产妇住院期间的母乳喂养行为以及感知到的家庭支持程度,并分析两者之间的相关性.方法:采用问卷调查法,对299名住院分娩的初产妇进行调查.结果:初产妇住院期间的全母乳喂养率为40.1%,感知到的家庭支持为中等程度,采取全母乳喂养的初产妇的家庭支持高于混合喂养及人工喂养者,差异有统计学意义.结论:初产妇住院期间的母乳喂养率较低,初产妇感知到的家庭支持可以影响其母乳喂养行为.%Objective: To understand breastfeeding behavior of primiparous women during hospitalization and the degree of family support, and analyze the correlation. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate 299 primiparous women during hospitalization. Results: The pure breastfeeding rate was 40. 1 % among primiparous women during hospitalization, the degree of family support was moderate , the degree of family support among primiparous women adopting pure breastfeeding was statistically significantly higher than that a-mong primiparous women adopting mixed breastfeeding and artificial breastfeeding. Conclusion: The breastfeeding rate of primiparous women during hospitalization is low, and family support can affect breastfeeding behavior.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir and efavirenz in food insecure HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women in Tororo, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelink, Imke H; Savic, Rada M; Mwesigwa, Julia; Achan, Jane; Clark, Tamara; Plenty, Albert; Charlebois, Edwin; Kamya, Moses; Young, Sera L; Gandhi, Monica; Havlir, Diane; Cohan, Deborah; Aweeka, Francesca

    2014-02-01

    Pregnancy and food insecurity may impact antiretroviral (ART) pharmacokinetics (PK), adherence and response. We sought to quantify and characterize the PK of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and efavirenz (EFV) by pregnancy and nutritional status among HIV-infected women in Tororo, Uganda. In 2011, 62/225 ante-partum/post-partum single dried blood spot samples DBS and 43 post-partum hair samples for LPV/r were derived from 116 women, 51/194 ante-/post-partum DBS and 53 post-partum hair samples for EFV from 105 women. Eighty percent of Ugandan participants were severely food insecure, 26% lost weight ante-partum, and median BMI post-partum was only 20.2 kg/m(2) . Rich PK-data of normally nourished (pregnant) women and healthy Ugandans established prior information. Overall, drug exposure was reduced (LPV -33%, EFV -15%, ritonavir -17%) compared to well-nourished controls (P Hair concentrations correlated with plasma-exposure (P hair concentrations. Addressing malnutrition as well as ART-PK in this setting should be a priority.

  11. A vivência de amamentar para trabalhadoras e estudantes de uma universidade pública La experiencia de la amamantación para mujeres trabajadoras y estudiantes de una universidad pública Breast-feeding experience for women workers and students from a public university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isilia Aparecida Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo qualitativo teve como objetivo conhecer os principais elementos interferentes no processo de amamentação vivenciado por trabalhadoras e estudantes de uma universidade pública do Estado de São Paulo, no qual participaram 65 mulheres trabalhadoras e alunas, cujas entrevistas foram analisadas segundo os pressupostos de Taylor e Bogdan e do Interacionismo Simbólico. Os resultados demonstram que o processo de amamentar, para essas mulheres, mostrou-se delineado pelas condições seus ambientes doméstico, do trabalho ou de estudo. O ambiente físico, as relações entre seus familiares, superiores e seus pares exercem forte influência em sua determinação de manter a amamentação.Este estudio cualitativo tuvo como objetivo conocer los principales elementos de interferencia en el proceso de amamantamiento vivenciado por trabajadoras y estudiantes de una universidad pública, cuyos sujetos son las mujeres trabajadoras y alumnas de una universidad pública del Estado de São Paulo. Los datos se coletaron a través de entrevista, que se analizaron según los presupuestos de Taylor e Bogdan y bajo la óptica del Interaccionismo Simbólico. Los resultados apuntan que el proceso de amamantamiento para esas mujeres se mostró condicionado y delineado por las situaciones que surgen en su ambiente doméstico, de trabajo o estudio y las relaciones entre sus familiares, superiores y sus similares, ejercen fuerte influencia en la determinación de mantener la amamantacion.This qualitative research aimed to know the main interfering elements in the breast-feeding process as experienced by professional women and by students, that was carried out with 65 professional women and students from a public university in São Paulo state. The data collection was proceeded by interviews which contents were analyzed according to Taylor and Bogdan and Symbolic Interactionism approaches. Results indicated that the breast-feeding process for these women

  12. Scintigraphic examinations during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women: a survey of Belgian nuclear medicine physician's attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection is of major importance in pregnant and breast feeding women. This work was undertaken to assess the practices of Belgian nuclear medicine physicians towards performing diagnostic tests during pregnancy and in breast feeding women. A questionnaire was sent to 201 Belgian nuclear medicine physicians; 82 answers (41 %) were received. 51 % of the responding physicians agree to perform lung perfusion scan during pregnancy provided a reduced dose is administered, 33% refuse to perform it during first three months and 24% refuse to perform it for pregnancies older than three months. For the Tc-99m ventilation scan 79% and 66% refuse to perform it before and after first three months. Better agreement was observed for other Tc-99m scintigraphies or tests using other radionuclides. In breast feeding women 89% agree to perform Tc-99m tests provided a breast feeding break; however, the duration of this break appears variable. The need for obtaining a written informed consent appears controversial. Given the variability of the attitudes of nuclear medicine physicians, official guidelines for nuclear medicine diagnostic tests during pregnancy is needed. (authors)

  13. Bone Mineral Density in Gravida: Effect of Pregnancies and Breast-Feeding in Women of Differing Ages and Parity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Lebel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes of bone during pregnancy and during lactation evaluated by bone mineral density (BMD may have implications for risk of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied BMD in women of differing ages, parity, and lactation histories immediately postpartum for BMD, T-scores, and Z-scores. Institutional Review Board approval was received. All women while still in hospital postpartum were asked to participate. BMD was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA machine at femoral neck (FN and lumbar spine (LS by a single technician. Of 132 participants, 73 (55.3% were ≤30 years; 27 (20.5% were primiparous; 36 (27.3% were grand multiparous; 35 (26.5% never breast fed. Mean FN T-scores and Z-scores were higher than respective mean LS scores, but all means were within the normal limits. Mean LS T-scores and Z-scores were highest in the grand multiparas. There were only 2 (1.5% outliers with low Z-scores. We conclude that, in a large cohort of Israeli women with BMD parameters assessed by DXA within two days postpartum, mean T-scores and Z-scores at both the LS and FN were within normal limits regardless of age (20–46 years, parity (1–13 viable births, and history of either no or prolonged months of lactation (up to 11.25 years.

  14. Protection of breastfeeding in Papua New Guinea.

    OpenAIRE

    Friesen, H.; Vince, J; Boas, P.; Danaya, R.

    1999-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea the bottle-feeding of babies has been increasing, predominantly among unemployed women of low educational status. Many women are unaware of their legal right to have breaks at work for the purpose of breastfeeding, and a high proportion of workplaces have no facilities for mothers who wish to breastfeed their children. The laws on the feeding of infants should be updated and implemented, and an effort is needed to explain the benefits of breastfeeding and the rights of wor...

  15. Maternal Variables Influencing Duration of Breastfeeding Among Low-Income Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Tluczek, Audrey; Henriques, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    This study used a retrospective comparison of 2 naturally occurring groups, first to examine how exclusive versus partial breastfeeding relates to duration of breastfeeding and, second, to determine if factors such as age and body mass index are associated with exclusive versus partial breastfeeding duration. These factors were hypothesized to influence the amount of breastfeeding in a sample of 42 low-income mothers enrolled in the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Child...

  16. The Effectiveness of Lactation Consultants and Lactation Counselors on Breastfeeding Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay; Patel, Shveta

    2016-08-01

    Breastfeeding for all infants starting at birth and continuing until at least 6 months of age has been recommended by the World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics. The health benefits to infants and mothers have been demonstrated in many studies. Dedicated lactation specialists may play a role in providing education and support to pregnant women and new mothers wishing to breastfeed to improve breastfeeding outcomes. The objective of this review was to assess if lactation education or support programs using lactation consultants or lactation counselors would improve rates of initiation and duration of any breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding compared with usual practice. A systematic literature review of the evidence was conducted using electronic databases. The review was limited to randomized trials and yielded 16 studies with 5084 participants. It was found that breastfeeding interventions using lactation consultants and counselors increase the number of women initiating breastfeeding (odds ratio [OR] for any initiation vs not initiating breastfeeding = 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.67). The interventions improve any breastfeeding rates (OR for any breastfeeding up to 1 month vs not breastfeeding = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.09-2.04). In addition, there were beneficial effects on exclusive breastfeeding rates (OR for exclusive breastfeeding up to 1 month vs not exclusive breastfeeding = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.20-2.44). Most of the evidence would suggest developing and improving postpartum support programs incorporating lactation consultants and lactation counselors. PMID:26644419

  17. Progress in research on influence factors and interventions of working women's breastfeeding%职业女性母乳喂养影响因素及其干预的研究进展(综述)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易巧利; 李金萍; 申鑫; 罗茂月; 李记

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of working women, the breastfeeding problem of working mothers is increasingly prominent. Compared to those who don't attend work, lower initiation rates and much shorter duration of breastfeeding are generally observed among working mothers. The breastfeeding of working mothers is influenced by factors at different levels, including the mother herself, family, workplace, and society. To promote breast feeding practices among working mothers, corresponding interventions should be implemented at those levels.%随着职业女性人数的增多,职业母亲的母乳喂养问题也日益凸显。职业母亲的母乳喂养率和母乳喂养持续时间明显低于非职业女性。职业女性的母乳喂养率受多层面因素的影响,包括母亲自身、家庭、工作场所及社会。要改善职业母亲的母乳喂养状况,也要从这几个层面着手采取相应的干预措施。

  18. Progress in research on influence factors and interventions of working women's breastfeeding%职业女性母乳喂养影响因素及其干预的研究进展(综述)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易巧利; 李金萍; 申鑫; 罗茂月; 李记

    2015-01-01

    随着职业女性人数的增多,职业母亲的母乳喂养问题也日益凸显。职业母亲的母乳喂养率和母乳喂养持续时间明显低于非职业女性。职业女性的母乳喂养率受多层面因素的影响,包括母亲自身、家庭、工作场所及社会。要改善职业母亲的母乳喂养状况,也要从这几个层面着手采取相应的干预措施。%With the increasing number of working women, the breastfeeding problem of working mothers is increasingly prominent. Compared to those who don't attend work, lower initiation rates and much shorter duration of breastfeeding are generally observed among working mothers. The breastfeeding of working mothers is influenced by factors at different levels, including the mother herself, family, workplace, and society. To promote breast feeding practices among working mothers, corresponding interventions should be implemented at those levels.

  19. Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabulsi Mona

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. Methods We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Results Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Conclusions Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.

  20. Markets, breastfeeding and trade in mothers' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie P

    2015-01-01

    This introduction to a special issue on the economics of breastfeeding draws attention to the lack of economic justice for women. Human milk is being bought and sold. Commodifying and marketing human milk and breastfeeding risk reinforcing social and gender economic inequities. Yet there are potential benefits for breastfeeding, and some of the world's poorest women might profit. How can we improve on the present situation where everyone except the woman who donates her milk benefits? Breastfeeding is a global food production system with unsurpassed capacity to promote children's food security and maternal and child health, but it is side-lined by trade negotiators who seek instead to expand world markets for cow's milk-based formula. Regulators focus on potential risks of feeding donated human milk, rather than on health risks of exposing infants and young children to highly processed bovine milk. Similarly, policymakers aspire to provide universal health care access that may be unaffordable when two thirds of the world's children are not optimally nourished in infancy, resulting in a global double burden of infectious and chronic disease. Universal breastfeeding requires greater commitment of resources, but such investment remains lacking despite the cost effectiveness of breastfeeding protection, support and promotion in and beyond health services. Women invest substantially in breastfeeding but current policy - epitomised by the G20 approach to the 'gender gap' - fails to acknowledge the economic value of this unpaid care work. Economic incentives for mothers to optimally breastfeed are dwarfed by health system and commercial incentives promoting formula feeding and by government fiscal policies which ignore the resulting economic costs. 'The market' fails to protect breastfeeding, because market prices give the wrong signals. An economic approach to the problem of premature weaning from optimal breastfeeding may help prioritise global maternity protection as

  1. Factores que influyen en el abandono temprano de la lactancia por mujeres trabajadoras Factors associated with short duration of breast-feeding in Mexican working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Navarro-Estrella

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores maternos, laborales y de los servicios de salud que influyen en el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna en madres trabajadoras. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre noviembre de 1998 y marzo de 1999 se efectuó un estudio transversal comparativo con madres derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social de Ensenada, Baja California, México. A 265 madres se les aplicó un cuestionario entre los tres y nueve meses posparto. Se distribuyeron en: grupo I: madres con abandono temprano de la lactancia materna; grupo II: madres que prolongaron la lactancia materna por más de tres meses. Para identificar los factores asociados con el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna, se utilizó regresión logística. RESULTADOS: El 42.3% (112 de las madres abandonaron temprano la lactancia materna. Los factores de riesgo fueron: tener conocimientos malos sobre lactancia materna, OR 5.97 (IC 95% 1.67-20.67, la ausencia del antecedente de haberla practicado en un hijo previo OR 2.98 (IC 95% 1.66-5.36, tener un plan de duración de la misma de 0 a 3 meses, OR 16.24 (IC 95% 5.37-49.12, y la falta de facilidades en el trabajo para efectuarla, OR 1.99 (IC 95% 1.12-3.56. CONCLUSIONES: Los principales factores asociados con el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna fueron maternos. El único factor laboral fue la ausencia de facilidades para amamantar. Es probable que la calidad de los conocimientos, la experiencia previa con ella y tener facilidades laborales influyan en la decisión de prolongarla.OBJECTIVE:To identify the maternal, work, and health services factors associated with a short duration of breast-feeding in working mothers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out between November 1998 and March 1999, among 265 mothers medically insured by (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS Mexican Institute of Social Security, who completed a questionnaire when their babies were 3 to 9 months old

  2. Women's preferences regarding infant or maternal antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV during breastfeeding and their views on Option B+ in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda Ngarina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The WHO 2010 guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV recommended prophylactic antiretroviral treatment (ART either for infants (Option A or mothers (Option B during breastfeeding for pregnant women with a CD4 count of >350 cell/µL in low-income countries. In 2012, WHO proposed that all HIV-infected pregnant women should receive triple ART for life (B+ irrespective of CD4 count. Tanzania has recently switched from Option A to B+, with a few centers practicing B. However, more information on the real-life feasibility of these options is needed. This qualitative study explored women's preferences for Option A vs B and their views on Option B+ in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted four focus group discussions with a total of 27 pregnant women with unknown HIV status, attending reproductive and child health clinics, and 31 in-depth interviews among HIV-infected pregnant and post-delivery women, 17 of whom were also asked about B+. RESULTS: Most participants were in favor of Option B compared to A. The main reasons for choosing Option B were: HIV-associated stigma, fear of drug side-effects on infants and difficult logistics for postnatal drug adherence. Some of the women asked about B+ favored it as they agreed that they would eventually need ART for their own survival. Some were against B+ anticipating loss of motivation after protecting the child, fearing drug side-effects and not feeling ready to embark on lifelong medication. Some were undecided. CONCLUSION: Option B was preferred. Since Tanzania has recently adopted Option B+, women with CD4 counts of >350 cell/µL should be counseled about the possibility to "opt-out" from ART after cessation of breastfeeding. Drug safety and benefits, economic concerns and available resources for laboratory monitoring and evaluation should be addressed during B+ implementation to enhance long-term feasibility and effectiveness.

  3. Why invest, and what it will take to improve breastfeeding practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Nigel C; Bhandari, Nita; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Horton, Susan; Lutter, Chessa K; Martines, Jose C; Piwoz, Ellen G; Richter, Linda M; Victora, Cesar G

    2016-01-30

    Despite its established benefits, breastfeeding is no longer a norm in many communities. Multifactorial determinants of breastfeeding need supportive measures at many levels, from legal and policy directives to social attitudes and values, women's work and employment conditions, and health-care services to enable women to breastfeed. When relevant interventions are delivered adequately, breastfeeding practices are responsive and can improve rapidly. The best outcomes are achieved when interventions are implemented concurrently through several channels. The marketing of breastmilk substitutes negatively affects breastfeeding: global sales in 2014 of US$44·8 billion show the industry's large, competitive claim on infant feeding. Not breastfeeding is associated with lower intelligence and economic losses of about $302 billion annually or 0·49% of world gross national income. Breastfeeding provides short-term and long-term health and economic and environmental advantages to children, women, and society. To realise these gains, political support and financial investment are needed to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding.

  4. Antiretroviral treatment is associated with iron deficiency in HIV-infected Malawian women that is mitigated with supplementation, but is not associated with infant iron deficiency during 24 weeks of exclusive breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, Elizabeth M; Bentley, Margaret E; Chasela, Charles S; Kayira, Dumbani; Flax, Valerie L; Kourtis, Athena P; Ellington, Sascha R; Kacheche, Zebrone; Tegha, Gerald; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles M; Allen, Lindsay H; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Adair, Linda S

    2015-01-01

    Objective In resource-limited settings without safe alternatives to breastfeeding, the WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding and antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis. Given the high prevalence of anemia among HIV-infected women, mothers and their infants (via fetal iron accretion) may be at risk of iron deficiency. We assessed the effects of maternal micronutrient-fortified lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and maternal ARV treatment or infant ARV prophylaxis on maternal and infant iron status during exclusive breastfeeding from birth to 24 weeks. Methods The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study was a randomized controlled trial conducted in Lilongwe, Malawi from 2004-2010. HIV-infected mothers (CD4>200 cells/ul) and their infants were randomly assigned to 28-week interventions: maternal-LNS/maternal-ARV (n=424), maternal-LNS/infant-ARV (n=426), maternal-LNS (n=334), maternal-ARV (n=425), infant-ARV (n=426), or control (n=334). Longitudinal models tested intervention effects on hemoglobin (Hb). In a subsample (n=537) with multiple iron indicators, intervention effects on Hb, transferrin receptors (TfR) and ferritin were tested with linear and Poisson regression. Results In longitudinal models, LNS effects on maternal and infant Hb were minimal. In subsample mothers, maternal ARVs were associated with tissue iron depletion (TfR>8.3 mg/L) (Risk ratio (RR): 3.1, p0.1). In subsample infants, interventions were not associated with impaired iron status (all p-values>0.1). Conclusions Maternal ARV treatment with protease inhibitors is associated with maternal tissue iron depletion; but LNS mitigates adverse effects. ARVs do not appear to influence infant iron status; however, extended use needs to be evaluated. PMID:25723140

  5. 电话随访对初产妇产褥期母乳喂养行为的影响%Effect of telephone follow-up on breastfeeding behaviors of primiparous women during puperium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱秀; 陆虹

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of telephone follow - up on breastfeeding behaviors of primiparous women during puperiuri Methods:Quasi- experimental research method was used to select 120 primiparous women who gave birth to single and full -term neonates from May to September in 2009, then they were divided into control group and intervention group. The women in intervention group were followed up by telephone on the first, second and fourth weeks after delivery, the methods targeting to the problems in the course of breastfeeding and mental support were provided to the women. The women in control group received conventional nursing. The status of breastfeeding was evaluated at the end of puperiurr Results:A total of 100 primiparous women completed the whole study, 50 women in each group, the rate of follow - up was 80%. The breasffeeding rates of the two groups in hospital were 18. 0% and 18. 0%, respectively, there was no significant difference between the two groups (x2 = 2. 79, P = O. 24 ). At 6 weeks after delivery, the breastfeeding rates in control group and intervention group were 48.0% and 70. 0%, respectively, there was significant difference between the two groups (x2 =6. 17 ,P =O. 04). Conclusion:Telephone follow up can increase the breastfeeding rate of primiparous women during puperium to a certain degree.%目的:探讨电话随访对初产妇产褥期母乳喂养行为的影响.方法:采用类实验性研究方法,于2009年5~9月期问便利选取分娩单胎足月儿的初产妇120例,分为对照组和干预组.对干预组分别在产后7、14、28天左右进行电话随访,对产妇在母乳喂养过程中遇到的困难提供解决办法并为产妇提供心理支持;对照组只接受常规护理.产褥期结束时评价母乳喂养情况.结果:共有100例初产妇完成了本研究,随访率为80%,干预组和对照组各50例.住院期问两组母乳喂养率均为18.0%,两组比较差异无统计学意义(x2=2.79,P=0.24).

  6. Breastfeeding in Bolivia – information and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludvigsson Jonas F

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the attitudes of the mother and her family towards breastfeeding and the actual feeding pattern in a Bolivian population. A second objective was to study the relationship between breastfeeding information, specified according to source and timing, and feeding pattern. Methods Cross-sectional interviews with 420–502 Bolivian mothers with an infant less than or equal to 1 year of age. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding, use of prelacteal food and/or colostrum were the main outcome measures. Results The attitudes of the mother, her partner (the infant's father and the infant's grandmother towards breastfeeding did not influence the infant feeding pattern. Women who had received breastfeeding information from health care personnel before birth or on the maternity ward breastfed exclusively for a longer duration (adjusted p = 0.0233 and avoided prelacteal food to a greater extent (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 0.42; 95% confidence interval for adjusted odds ratio (95% CI AOR = 0.23–0.72. Information from a doctor before birth or on the maternity ward was associated with less use of prelacteal food (AOR = 0.53; 95% CI AOR = 0.31–0.93, an increased use of colostrum (AOR = 3.30; 95% CI AOR = 1.16–9.37, but was not linked to the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (p = 0.1767. Conclusion The current study indicates that breastfeeding information delivered by health care personnel in a non-trial setting may affect the infant feeding pattern including the use of prelacteal foods and colostrum. There was no evidence that the attitudes of the mother, or the infant's father or grandmother influenced actual feeding behavior. The lack of a "negative or neutral attitude" towards breastfeeding in the participants of the current study does, however, diminish the chances to link attitude to feeding behavior.

  7. 二胎孕妇母乳喂养认知、态度现状及知识需求调查%Investigation of breastfeeding cognition,attitude and knowledge demand for pregnant women with the second child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    勾宝华

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide the basis for health education by investigation of breastfeeding cognition,feeding pattern,attitude and knowledge for pregnant women with the second child.Methods Using a self-designed general information and breastfeeding knowledge questionnaire,a total of 1 98 pregnant women with second child who admitted from September 201 5 to March 201 6 and registered in-patient clinic received the investigation.Results Cognitive scores of second pregnant women with breastfeeding were in the range of 0 -20 points with average score (7.25 ±5.62)points,which was at a low level;top 3 ordinal breastfeeding knowledge sources were mother and other relatives,international circle of friends and health education from postpartum medical staff.The desired pathway to obtain knowledge in turn were health education from postpartum medical staff,hospital issued promotional text information,prenatal outpatient breast feeding counseling,and pregnant women school,etc.Different feeding ways for the first child:exclusive breastfeeding rate was 38.3%;mixed feeding rate was 48.4%;artificial feeding rate was 1 3.1 %;the breastfeeding rate was 86.8%.About 39.3%subjects experienced breastfeeding for more than 6 months with a good attitude,confidence for breastfeeding (88.3%) and willing to breastfeed (95.9%).Conclusions Second pregnant women′s perception of breastfeeding situation is not optimistic,which indicate promoting breastfeeding work is urgently needed.Medical staff should carry out a variety of forms,effective breastfeeding during pregnancy health education in timely.%目的:调查二胎孕妇母乳喂养知识、喂养方式和态度的现状,了解其知识需求,为健康教育的开展提供依据。方法采用自行设计的一般资料和母乳喂养知识问卷,对2015年9月—2016年3月在门诊建档198名二胎孕妇进行问卷调查。结果二胎孕妇对母乳喂养认知得分范围为0~20分,平均(7.25±5.62)分,得分偏低

  8. Breastfeeding and Postpartum Amenorrhea in Rural Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Aguirre, Guido

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The association between breastfeeding patterns and resumption of postpartum menstruation was examined in rural Guatemalan women from the INCAP longitudinal study (1969-1977. It was distinguished among women who experienced infant mortality before menses resumed, women who weaned before menses resumed, and women who had return of menses while still breastfeeding. Weaning and infant mortality before menses resumes are significant risk factors for resumption of postpartum menstruation. Among those women whose menses resumed while still nursing or who remained amenorrheic and nursing at lose to follow-up or the end of the study, low number of nursing bouts per 24-hr day and the early introduction of supplements to the child were significant risk factors for the return of postpartum menstruation.

  9. Travelers' Health: Travel and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hand expression, see www.workandpump.com/handexpression.htm ). TRAVELING WITH A BREASTFEEDING CHILD Breastfeeding provides unique benefits to mothers and children traveling together. Health care ...

  10. Acculturation and the initiation of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, D K; Markides, K S; Baranowski, T; Richardson, C J; Mikrut, W D; Bee, D E

    1994-07-01

    Despite the fact that breastfeeding is the most appropriate form of nutrition for the healthy term infant, the rate of initiation in the U.S. is declining. One demographic factor associated with this low rate is ethnicity and so in this study we measured acculturation (one aspect of ethnicity) into the U.S. and its relationship to the successful initiation of breastfeeding in a sample of women recruited approximately 2 months prenatally in a U.S.-Mexico border city. Interviews were administered in English or Spanish by bilingual interviewers prenatally (n = 906), natally (n = 788), and postnatally (n = 715). Acculturation (measured with a 20 item instrument) was strongly related to the intent to (p education (p = 0.002) were related to breastfeeding prenatally and natally. Initiation of breastfeeding was highest among those women least acculturated (52.9%) and lowest in those most acculturated (36.1%) indicating an inhibiting effect of acculturation. To improve the rate of initiation of breastfeeding in the U.S. (a national health goal) intervention programs must consider cultural factors. PMID:7722587

  11. [Raynaud's phenomenon of the papilla mammae caused by breastfeeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Jacob Brink; Rørbye, Christina

    2015-01-26

    In Denmark, the benefits of breastfeeding are emphasized and the Danish Health and Medicines Authority encourages women to breastfeed for at least six months. Raynaud's phenomenon can occur in any small arteriole and cause painful, temporary ischaemia. Women quit breastfeeding prematurely for a variety of reasons, pain being just one of them. In this case report we describe an incident of Raynaud's phenomenon of the nipple and describe how correct diagnosis can prevent unnecessary medical treatment and cause relief of symptoms, thus avoiding premature cessation of breastfeeding.

  12. Maternal recall of breastfeeding duration twenty years after delivery

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    Natland Siv Tone

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the health benefits from breastfeeding often rely on maternal recall of breastfeeding. Although short-term maternal recall has been found to be quite accurate, less is known about long-term accuracy. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of long-term maternal recall of breastfeeding duration. Methods In a prospective study of pregnancy and birth outcome, detailed information on breastfeeding during the child’s first year of life was collected from a cohort of Norwegian women who gave birth in 1986–88. Among 374 of the participants, data on breastfeeding initiation and duration were compared to recalled data obtained from mailed questionnaires some 20 years later. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, Bland-Altman plot, and Kappa statistics were used to assess the agreement between the two sources of data. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of misreporting breastfeeding duration by more than one month. Results Recorded and recalled breastfeeding duration were strongly correlated (ICC=0.82, p Conclusion Breastfeeding duration was recalled quite accurately 20 years after mothers gave birth in a population where breastfeeding is common and its duration long.

  13. Application of antidepressant drugs in the treatment of pregnancy and breastfeeding women%抗抑郁药在妊娠期及哺乳期妇女中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施慎逊

    2013-01-01

    尽管抗抑郁药已广泛应用于抑郁发作的治疗,但抗抑郁药在妊娠期或哺乳期妇女中的应用,如针对该人群使用抗抑郁药应注意些什么和哪些药物使用相对安全等问题一直是临床关注的焦点.本文综合文献及笔者的临床经验综述上述相关问题.%Antidepressant drugs have been widely used in the treatment of depressive disorders. However, the application of antidepressant drugs used in the pregnancy and breastfeeding women has been a clinical concern. Based on literature and author's clinical experience, this review describes what attention should be paid when antidepressant drugs are used in the pregnancy and breastfeeding women and which drugs are relatively safer.

  14. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Overcoming challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges Dealing with ... it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe ... at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. • Washington, DC 20201 ...

  15. Strengthening the human rights framework to protect breastfeeding: a focus on CEDAW

    OpenAIRE

    Galtry, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Background There have been recent calls for increased recognition of breastfeeding as a human right. The United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1979 (CEDAW) is the core human rights treaty on women. CEDAW’s approach to breastfeeding is considered from an historical perspective. A comparison is drawn with breastfeeding protection previously outlined in the International Labour Organization’s Maternity Protection Convention, 1919 (ILO C3), and...

  16. Impact of multi parity on iron content in multiparous women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of multiple pregnancies, a very common pattern in reproductive lifestyle of Pakistani women, needs to be addressed to see if it affects the iron content and hence cause iron deficiency. Recognising this deficiency prior to development of anaemia can prevent disastrous consequences that can complicate the life of the mother and foetus especially in developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the effect that the stress of multiple pregnancies has on the iron status of the body. Methods: This comparative study was conducted in a focus group of female population. Two hundred subjects were selected by convenient sampling and grouped depending on their parity status. Data regarding diet, and socioeconomic history was collected on pre-designed questionnaire. Serum Ferritin was used to assess iron deficiency using the Electro chemiluminescence Immunoassay (ECLIA). Data was statistically analysed using SPSS-17. Results: Mean value of serum Ferritin in the nulliparous group was 76.52 +- 4.92 eta g/mL with 16% of nulliparous subjects showing lower than normal values. Thirty-six percent of uniparous subjects showed low serum Ferritin values, mean value being 45.74 +- 4.51 eta g/mL. Seventy-two percent of the multiparous subjects showed iron deficiency with Ferritin levels of <20 eta g/mL. Mean serum Ferritin in this group was 25.21+- 2.75 g/mL. The differences between the Ferritin levels of the study groups were highly significant (p<0.01). Conclusions: Multiparous women had lower serum Ferritin levels than the control group suggesting that the stress of multiple pregnancies takes its toll on the iron content of the body. (author)

  17. Prevalência do aleitamento materno e fatores associados à interrupção da amamentação em mulheres militares Prevalencia de la lactancia materna y factores asociados a la interrupción de la amamantación en mujeres militares Prevalence of breastfeeding and factors associated with weaning from breastfeeding among military women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Caroline S. B. Freitas

    2012-12-01

    compuesto por 100 madres militares con niños de hasta 24 meses. Se recogieron datos sobre frecuencia de la lactancia materna, perfil socioeconómico, carrera militar, asistencia a la salud y hábito materno infantil. El análisis de regresión logística fue realizado para verificar la asociación entre interrupción de la lactancia materna a las variables del estudio. Las pruebas de Mann Whitney y prueba T fueron utilizadas para verificar el tiempo de lactancia exclusiva y de la lactancia materna. RESULTADOS: La lactancia materna tuvo ocurrió en 94% de los casos y su duración mediana fue de 7,2 meses. No hubo diferencia significativa de la lactancia materna entre madres militares de acuerdo con la patente, el nivel educacional y la actividad operacional. El análisis multivariado presentó asociación positiva entre el destete y las variables: situación civil de la madre (casada, información sobre la importancia de la amamantación en el prenatal y utilización de la leche no humana. La variable que se relacionó positivamente con una duración más grande de la lactancia materna exclusiva fue madres con dos hijos previos. CONCLUSIONES: La actividad operacional no interfirió en la prevalencia de la lactancia materna entre madres militares. Los autores especulan que durante el seguimiento prenatal la planificación de acciones dirigidas para la información de la importancia de la amamantación puede mejorar la prevalencia y la duración de la lactancia materna en esta población.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of breastfeeding and risk factors associated with weaning among military women in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a convenience sample including 100 military mothers with children aged up to 24 months. Data were collected on the frequency of breastfeeding, socioeconomic profile, military career, health care, and maternal and child habits. The logistic regression analysis was

  18. Development and evaluation of a self care program on breastfeeding in Japan: A quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awano Masayo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the importance of breastfeeding is well known in Japan, in recent years less than 50% of mothers were fully breastfeeding at one month after birth. The purpose of this study was to develop a self-care program for breastfeeding aimed at increasing mothers' breastfeeding confidence and to evaluate its effectiveness. Methods A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was conducted in Japan. The intervention, a breastfeeding self-care program, was created to improve mothers' self-efficacy for breastfeeding. This Breastfeeding Self-Care Program included: information on the advantages and basics of breastfeeding, a breastfeeding checklist to evaluate breastfeeding by mothers and midwives, and a pamphlet and audiovisual materials on breastfeeding. Mothers received this program during their postpartum hospital stay. A convenience sample of 117 primiparous women was recruited at two clinical sites from October 2007 to March 2008. The intervention group (n = 55, who gave birth in three odd-numbered months, received standard care and the Breastfeeding Self-Care Program while the control group (n = 62 gave birth in three even numbered months and received standard breastfeeding care. To evaluate the effectiveness of the Breastfeeding Self-Care Program, breastfeeding self-efficacy and breastfeeding rate were measured early postpartum, before the intervention, and after the intervention at one month postpartum. The study used the Japanese version of The Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale Short Form (BSES-SF to measure self-efficacy. Results The BSES-SF score of the intervention group rose significantly from 34.8 at early postpartum to 49.9 at one month after birth (p Conclusion Results indicate that the Breastfeeding Self-Care Program increased mothers' self-efficacy for breastfeeding and had a positive effect on the continuation of breastfeeding. Trial Registration Number UMIN000003517

  19. Exclusive maternal breastfeeding and the Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Edficher Margotti; Matias Epifanio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the factors related to the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and to associate them to the scores of the Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale. 300 mother-baby binomials were studied, from the capital cities of the southern region of Brazil in 2012, using the Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale during postpartum period and with intervals from 15 to 120 days after delivery. The average of the score of breastfeeding was 36 points. The risk factors for breastfeeding we...

  20. FAQ on Tattoos and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Добро пожаловать ברוכים הבאים HOŞ GELDİNİZ FAQ on Tattoos and Breastfeeding Breastfeeding and tattooing are enjoying resurgence ... and Breastfeeding. Is it safe to get a tattoo while breastfeeding? Tattoos are created by injecting ink ...

  1. WIC Participation and Breastfeeding at 3 Months Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Emily F; Gross, Susan M; Nguyen, Trang Q; Butz, Arlene M; Johnson, Sara B

    2016-08-01

    Objectives Participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) has been associated with lower breastfeeding initiation and duration. This study examines breastfeeding-related factors among WIC participants and nonparticipants that might explain these previous findings. Methods Respondents to the 2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II who were income-eligible for WIC were categorized as follows: no WIC participation (No-WIC); prenatal participation and infant entry while ≥60 % breastfeeding (WIC BF-high); prenatal participation and infant entry while Practice Accounting for prenatal breastfeeding intentions and attitudes, we find no negative association between WIC participation and breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum. This is in contrast to prior studies, and highlights the importance of understanding within-WIC differences. PMID:26994607

  2. Female employees' perceptions of organisational support for breastfeeding at work: findings from an Australian health service workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Danielle

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women's return to work can be a significant barrier to continued breastfeeding. Workplace policies and practices to promote and support continued, and longer duration of, breastfeeding are important. In the context of the introduction of a new breastfeeding policy for Area Health Services in New South Wales, Australia, a baseline survey was conducted to describe current practices and examine women's reports of perceived organisational support on breastfeeding intention and practice. Methods A cross sectional survey of female employees of the Sydney South West Area Health Service was conducted in late 2009. A mailed questionnaire was sent to 998 eligible participants who had taken maternity leave over the 20-month period from January 2008 to August 2009. The questionnaire collected items assessing breastfeeding intentions, awareness of workplace policies, and the level of organisational and social support available. For those women who had returned to work, further questions were asked to assess the perceptions and practices of breastfeeding in the work environment, as well as barriers and enabling factors to combining breastfeeding and work. Results Returning to work was one of the main reasons women ceased breastfeeding, with 60 percent of women intending to breastfeed when they returned to work, but only 40 percent doing so. Support to combine breastfeeding and work came mainly from family and partners (74% and 83% respectively, with little perceived support from the organisation (13% and human resources (6%. Most women (92% had received no information from their managers about their breastfeeding options upon their return to work, and few had access to a room specially designated for breastfeeding (19%. Flexible work options and lactation breaks, as well as access to a private room, were identified as the main factors that facilitate breastfeeding at work. Conclusions Enabling women to continue breastfeeding at work has

  3. Breastfeeding Practices among Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T. C.; Tanaka, Keiko; Polanin, Joshua R.; Koempel, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Breastfeeding is associated with a decreased risk of obesity in the early and adult years. Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) experience high rates of obesity which is often obfuscated with aggregated data. Using disaggregated data, we examined breastfeeding practices among NHPI. Methods. Seven databases and reference lists were searched. Two independent researchers extracted relevant studies based on predetermined criteria. Nine studies met our inclusion criteria and a meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects, inverse-various weighted models. Results. Few studies disaggregated NHPI populations when examining breastfeeding practices. Most studies were cross-sectional and our search yielded no randomized or quasirandomized control trials. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that 46.5% NHPI women initiated breastfeeding with 40.8% breastfeeding exclusively. These pooled analyses show that NHPI breastfeeding practices are below the recommended national and international goals and guidelines. Conclusion. Breastfeeding practices among NHPI are heterogeneous and critical disparities exist among certain NHPI subgroups and additional research needs to be conducted to determine the reasons for the disparity. Future studies should work to disaggregate data for NHPI and the various subpopulations. Multicomponent, multilevel strategies are needed to support breastfeeding practices among NHPI. PMID:27774314

  4. Gendered perceptions on infant feeding in Eastern Uganda: continued need for exclusive breastfeeding support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamagi Charles A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-poor settings, HIV positive mothers are recommended to choose between 'Exclusive breastfeeding' (EBF or 'Exclusive replacement feeding' (ERF. Acceptability, Feasibility, Affordability, Sustainability and Safety (AFASS has been the World Health Organization (WHO's a priori criteria for ERF the last ten years. 'AFASS' has become a mere acronym among many workers in the field of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, PMTCT. Thereby, non-breastfeeding has been suggested irrespective of social norms. EBF for the first half of infancy is associated with huge health benefits for children in areas where infant mortality is high. But, even if EBF has been recommended for a decade, few mothers are practicing it. We set out to understand fathers' and mothers' infant feeding perceptions and the degree to which EBF and ERF were 'AFASS.' Methods Eight focus groups with 81 informants provided information for inductive content analysis. Four groups were held by men among men and four groups by women among women in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda. Results Two study questions emerged: How are the different feeding options understood and accepted? And, what are men's and women's responsibilities related to infant feeding? A mother's commitment to breastfeed and the husband's commitment to provide for the family came out strongly. Not breastfeeding a newborn was seen as dangerous and as unacceptable, except in cases of maternal illness. Men argued that not breastfeeding could entail sanctions by kin or in court. But, in general, both men and women regarded EBF as 'not enough' or even 'harmful.' Among men, not giving supplements to breast milk was associated with poverty and men's failure as providers. Women emphasised lack of time, exhaustion, poverty and hunger as factors for limited breast milk production. Although women had attended antenatal teaching they expressed a need to know more. Most men felt left out from

  5. Representações sociais de mulheres sobre a amamentação: teste de associação livre de idéias acerca da interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno exclusivo Representaciones Sociales de Mujeres Sobre el Amamantamiento: Prueba de Asociación Libre de Ideas Acerca de la Interrupción Precoz del Amamantamiento Materno Exclusivo Social Representations of Women on Breastfeeding: Free Association of Ideas Test About the Early Interruption of the Exclusive Maternal Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cácia Mônica Osório

    2007-06-01

    reconocimiento de la importancia del amamantar materno y de la leche humana. "Salud del bebé" tuvo mayor expresividad en el grupo NTr, sugerido que esas mujeres anclaron el amamantar en el proceso salud-enfermedad. Concluyese que las mujeres reconocen la importancia de amamantar, pero no de su exclusivismo hasta el sexto mes de vida.The early interruption of exclusive breastfeeding (EB constitutes a problem with biological, psychological and sociocultural characteristics. This paper aims to describe the social representations of women who have early weaned EB. We have interviewed 30 women (15 were housewives HM, 15 were working mothers WM in mixed assited nursering in the Family Health Program in the city of Resende (RJ. From August to September 2005, we have collected data through a Free Association of Ideas test, aiming to emerge associations related to the words exploited at the level of social stereotypes, which was followed by the Bardin's content analyses. The data have shown high frequency of the category "pleasure, love and affection", showing the recognition of the importance of breastfeeding and of human milk. "Baby's health" has been more expressive in the HM group, suggesting that these women anchored breastfeeding in the health-sickness process. In conclusion, our women recognize the importance of breastfeeding but not its exclusiveness up to the sixth month of age.

  6. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe ... at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. • Washington, DC 20201 ...

  7. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe ... at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. • Washington, DC 20201 ...

  8. Timing of breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your baby's teeth. If your baby is drinking sugary drinks and breastfeeding, your baby may have problems with tooth decay. DO NOT give your baby sugary drinks, especially close to sleep time. Formula feeding at ...

  9. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... not provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize ...

  10. Breastfeeding - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of fruit: 1/2 cup fruit juice Apples Apricots Peaches 1/2 cup cut up fruit, such ... cigarettes in your breast milk. Know about your medicines and breastfeeding. Many medicines pass into mother's milk. ...

  11. Breastfeeding Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fish with high mercury levels. Do not eat shark, swordfish, king mackerel, or tilefish, and limit albacore ... bacteria and viruses that cause infection. Exclusive Breastfeeding: Feeding a baby only breast milk and no other ...

  12. Breastfeeding in China: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binns Colin W

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review aims to describe changes in breastfeeding and summarise the breastfeeding rates, duration and reasons of discontinuing 'any breastfeeding' or 'exclusive breastfeeding' in P.R. China. Breastfeeding rates in China fell during the 1970s when the use of breast milk substitutes became widespread, and reached the lowest point in the 1980s. As a result many efforts were introduced to promote breastfeeding. The breastfeeding rate in China started to increase in the 1990s, and since the mid-1990s 'any breastfeeding' rates in the majority of cities and provinces, including minority areas, have been above 80% at four months. But most cities and provinces did not reach the national target of 'exclusive breastfeeding' of 80%. The 'exclusive breastfeeding' rates in minority areas were relatively lower than comparable inland provinces. The mean duration of 'any breastfeeding' in the majority of cities or provinces was between seven and nine months. The common reasons for ceasing breastfeeding, or introducing water or other infant food before four months, were perceived breast milk insufficiency, mother going to work, maternal and child illness and breast problems. Incorrect traditional perceptions have a strong adverse influence on 'exclusive breastfeeding' in less developed areas or rural areas. China is a huge country, geographically and in population size, and there is considerable ethnic diversity. Therefore breastfeeding rates in different parts of China can vary considerably.

  13. A systematic review of measures assessing mothers' knowledge, attitudes, confidence and satisfaction towards breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Julie A; McInnes, Rhona J; Hoddinott, Pat; Alder, Elizabeth M

    2007-11-01

    In order to support breastfeeding interventions, there is a need for objective, reliable, valid and sensitive measures of factors related to breastfeeding. Publications on the development and testing of tools measuring mothers' knowledge, attitudes, confidence or self-efficiency and/or satisfaction towards breastfeeding were systematically reviewed. Twenty-two papers evaluating 13 self-report measures matched our selection criteria, and were critically appraised by two independent reviewers. All scales were tested with pregnant women or breastfeeding mothers. The 13 measures varied markedly in ease of completion and cultural appropriateness and none reached our highest level of evidence grading. Four of the measures had sufficient evidence to support their use, including the Breastfeeding Attrition Prediction Tool, the Modified Breastfeeding Evaluation Scale, the Breastfeeding Self-Efficiency Scale and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale. There has been a tendency to develop new measures rather than evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of existing measures, particularly in different populations. PMID:18062138

  14. Breastfeeding for diabetes prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Resham Raj; Shrestha, Dina

    2016-09-01

    Breastfeeding has been consistently observed to improve metabolism in mothers and their offspring. Apart from mother child bonding and nutritional benefits; it is associated with a decreased risk of acquiring metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in mothers, obesity and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in their children. Early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding should therefore be highly encouraged and strongly supported. PMID:27582164

  15. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top ... other health conditions. Content last updated: January 18, 2013. Print Return to top Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | ...

  16. Running Habits of Competitive Runners During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Tenforde, Adam S.; Toth, Kierann E. S.; Langen, Elizabeth; Fredericson, Michael; Sainani, Kristin L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Running is a popular sport that may be performed safely during pregnancy. Few studies have characterized running behavior of competitive female runners during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Hypothesis: Women modify their running behavior during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Study Design: Observational, cross-sectional study. Level of evidence: Level 2. Methods: One hundred ten female long-distance runners who ran competitively prior to pregnancy completed an online survey characteriz...

  17. Graduate Social Work Faculty's Support for Educational Content on Women and on Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Dana S; Woodford, Michael R; Gutiérrez, Lorraine M; Luke, Katherine P

    2015-10-01

    Social work faculty play an important role in preparing students to address sexism and engage in culturally competent practice with women. This study examines the nature of U.S. and Anglo-Canadian graduate social work faculty's support for content on women and on sexism. Although support appears high for both content areas, results suggest that faculty endorsement for content on women is significantly greater than that for sexism. Further, bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that the nature of support differs for each content area. Implications for social work education are discussed.

  18. Knowledge, attitude and practice of breastfeeding in the north of Jordan: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarin Zouhair

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Jordan, as in neighboring countries in the Middle East, higher education and higher employment rates in recent years among women have had an impact on traditionally based infant feeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate practice, knowledge and attitude to breastfeeding and to assess factors associated with breastfeeding among women in the north of Jordan. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out between 15 July 2003 and 15 August 2003. A total of 344 women with children aged between 6 months and 3 years from five different villages in the north of Jordan were randomly selected and interviewed. Information regarding participants' demographics, infant feeding in first six months of life, knowledge and attitude towards breastfeeding was collected. Results Full breastfeeding was reported by 58.3%, mixed feeding was reported by 30.3% and infant formula feeding was reported by 11.4%. Almost one third of the full breastfeeding group did so for 6–12 months, and almost two thirds did continue breastfeeding for more than one year. Employed women were more likely not to practice full breastfeeding compared to unemployed women (odds ratio 3.34, 95% CI 1.60, 6.98, and women who had caesarian delivery were more likely not to practice full breastfeeding compared to those who had vaginal delivery (odds ratio 2.36, 95% CI 1.17, 4.78. Jordanian women had a positive attitude but work place and short maternity leaves had a negative impact on breastfeeding. Conclusion This study showed that a high proportion of Jordanian women did breastfeed for more than one year. However, working women and those who deliver by caesarean section were less likely to breastfeed. It is speculated that adopting facilitatory measures at hospitals and work place could increase the rate of full breastfeeding.

  19. Reasons given by mothers for discontinuing breastfeeding in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olang Beheshteh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that in Iran, only 28% of infants were exclusively breastfed at six months, despite a high prevalence of breastfeeding at two years of age. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the reasons women discontinued exclusive breastfeeding. Method This retrospective study was based on questionnaires and interviews with 63,071 mothers of infants up to 24 months of age, divided into two populations: infants younger than six months and six months or older. The data were collected in 2005–2006 from all 30 provinces of Iran. Results Only 5.3% of infants less than six months of age stopped breastfeeding (mean age of 3.2 months; more commonly in urban than rural areas. The most frequently cited reasons mothers gave for discontinuing exclusive breastfeeding were physicians’ recommendation (54% and insufficient breast milk (self-perceived or true, 28%. Breastfeeding was common after six months of age: only 11% of infants discontinued breastfeeding, at a mean of 13.8 months. The most common reason for discontinuation at this age was insufficient breast milk (self-perceived or true, 45%. Maternal illness or medication (10%, infant illness (6%, and return to work (3% were uncommon causes. Use of a pacifier was correlated with breastfeeding discontinuation. Maternal age and education was not associated with duration of breastfeeding. Multivariate analysis showed that using a pacifier and formula or other bottle feeding increased the risk of early cessation of breastfeeding. Conclusions Physicians and other health professionals have an important role to play in encouraging and supporting mothers to maintain breastfeeding.

  20. ABFAB. Attachment to the breast and family attitudes to breastfeeding. The effect of breastfeeding education in the middle of pregnancy on the initiation and duration of breastfeeding: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN21556494

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldenström Ulla

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has proven difficult to reach World Health Organization (WHO recommendations that infants be exclusively breastfed from birth to six months of age 12, yet there is limited knowledge about interventions that are effective in increasing breastfeeding initiation and duration. Particularly lacking is evidence about how to maintain breastfeeding rates in countries which already have a high initiation of breastfeeding. This study aims to determine whether mid-pregnancy breastfeeding education, with a focus on either attitudes to breastfeeding or on technical aspects of breastfeeding, has an effect on rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration. Secondary aims of the study are to: explore what factors might affect the duration of breastfeeding and evaluate the interventions from the participant and childbirth facilitator perspectives. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial (RCT design will be used. Women having their first baby, and planning to give birth as public patients at the Royal Women's Hospital (RWH, Melbourne, will be approached at 18–20 weeks of pregnancy and invited to participate in the study. Participants will be randomly allocated to a control group or one of two group interventions: a previously designed and trialled tool to teach practical aspects of breastfeeding or an exploration of family attitudes to breastfeeding. The latter was developed and piloted by the investigators in conjunction with the group facilitators, prior to trial commencement. The interventions are planned to take place at 20–25 weeks. Data will be collected by questionnaire at recruitment, at interview in hospital after the birth and by telephone interview six months later. Medical/obstetric outcomes will be obtained from the medical record. The sample size (972 was calculated to identify an increase in breastfeeding initiation from 75 to 85% and an increase from 40 to 50% in breastfeeding at six months.

  1. When breastfeeding is unsuccessful - mothers' experiences after giving up breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jette Schilling; Kronborg, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Some mothers have to give up breastfeeding even though they want to breastfeed. To give up breastfeeding can be a sensitive issue in a time when breastfeeding is promoted as the healthiest for mother and child. The aim of this study was to describe mothers’ experiences after they gave up breastfe...

  2. Reduced breastfeeding rates among obese mothers: a review of contributing factors, clinical considerations and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Bever Babendure, Jennie; Reifsnider, Elizabeth; Mendias, Elnora; Moramarco, Michael W.; Davila, Yolanda R.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with significantly lower rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration and exclusivity. Increasing rates of obesity among reproductive-age women has prompted the need to carefully examine factors contributing to lower breastfeeding rates in this population. Recent research has demonstrated a significant impact of breastfeeding to reduce the risk of obesity in both mothers and their children. This article presents a review of research literature from three database...

  3. Breastfeeding Promotion Research: The ES/WIC Nutrition Education Initiative and Economic Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Weimer, Jon P.

    1998-01-01

    Educating low-income women about the advantages of breastfeeding their babies increases the number who breastfeed. This report summarizes the results of four projects that focused primarily on promoting breastfeeding, which is considered to be the most healthful and beneficial feeding method for most infants. Research has shown that breastfeeding improves the general health, growth, and development of infants and significantly reduces the risk of several health problems both during early life...

  4. Breastfeeding knowledge among health workers in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sonal; Rollins, Nigel C; Bland, Ruth

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a rapid assessment of breastfeeding knowledge amongst health workers in an area of high HIV prevalence. A cross-sectional survey using semi-structured questionnaires and problem-based scenarios was carried out. Responses were compared to those recommended in the World Health Organization (WHO) Breastfeeding Counselling Course. The setting was a rural area of KwaZulu Natal, with a population of 220 000 people. At the time of the study approximately 36 per cent of pregnant women were HIV-infected and no programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission was in place. A convenient sample of 71 healthcare workers (14 doctors, 25 professional nurses, 16 staff nurses, and 16 community health workers) were included in the study. Over 50% of respondents had given breastfeeding advice to clients over the previous month. However, there were significant discrepancies in breastfeeding knowledge compared to WHO recommendations. Ninety-three per cent (n = 13) of doctors knew that breastfeeding should be initiated within 30 min of delivery, but 71 per cent (n = 10) would recommend water, and 50 per cent (n = 7) solids to breastfed infants under 6 months of age. Fifty-seven per cent (n = 8) considered glucose water necessary for neonatal jaundice, constipation, and for infants immediately after delivery. Only 44 per cent (n = 7) of staff nurses and 56 per cent (n = 14) of professional nurses knew that breastfeeding should be on demand. The majority would recommend water, formula milk, and solids to breastfed infants under 6 months of age, and glucose water for neonatal jaundice and immediately after delivery. Knowledge of community health workers differed most from WHO recommendations: only 37 per cent (n = 6) knew that breastfeeding should be initiated within 30 min of delivery, 68 per cent (n = 11) thought breastfeeding should be on schedule and not on demand, and the majority would recommend supplements to infants under 6 months of age. Few

  5. Things to Avoid When Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Things to ...

  6. Committee Opinion No. 658: Optimizing Support for Breastfeeding as Part of Obstetric Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Although most women in the United States initiate breastfeeding, more than one half wean earlier than they desire. As reproductive health experts and advocates for women's health who work in conjunction with other obstetric and pediatric health care providers, obstetrician-gynecologists are uniquely positioned to enable women to achieve their infant feeding goals. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, with continued breastfeeding as complementary foods are introduced through the infant's first year of life, or longer as mutually desired by the woman and her infant. Because lactation is an integral part of reproductive physiology, all obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should develop and maintain knowledge and skills in anticipatory guidance, physical assessment and support for normal breastfeeding physiology, and management of common complications of lactation. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should support each woman's informed decision about whether to initiate or continue breastfeeding, recognizing that she is uniquely qualified to decide whether exclusive breastfeeding, mixed feeding, or formula feeding is optimal for her and her infant. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should support women in integrating breastfeeding into their daily lives in the community and in the workplace. The offices of obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should be a resource for breastfeeding women through the infant's first year of life, and for those who continue beyond the first year. PMID:26942393

  7. Committee Opinion No. 658 Summary: Optimizing Support For Breastfeeding As Part Of Obstetric Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Although most women in the United States initiate breastfeeding, more than one half wean earlier than they desire. As reproductive health experts and advocates for women's health who work in conjunction with other obstetric and pediatric health care providers, obstetrician-gynecologists are uniquely positioned to enable women to achieve their infant feeding goals. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, with continued breastfeeding as complementary foods are introduced through the infant's first year of life, or longer as mutually desired by the woman and her infant. Because lactation is an integral part of reproductive physiology, all obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should develop and maintain knowledge and skills in anticipatory guidance, physical assessment and support for normal breastfeeding physiology, and management of common complications of lactation. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should support each woman's informed decision about whether to initiate or continue breastfeeding, recognizing that she is uniquely qualified to decide whether exclusive breastfeeding, mixed feeding, or formula feeding is optimal for her and her infant. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should support women in integrating breastfeeding into their daily lives in the community and in the workplace. The offices of obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should be a resource for breastfeeding women through the infant's first year of life, and for those who continue beyond the first year. PMID:26942386

  8. Exclusively Breastfeeding and Hypernatremic Dehydration

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    MK Çağlar

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that breast-feeding is the best and safest way of feeding infants. Physiological weight loss occurs in the first two or three days of life, and the achievement of birth weight is expected towards the end of the first week. Hypernatremic dehydration may occur in exclusively breast-fed infants if milk supply is low during these first few days. It is not because of the high sodium content in breast milk; it is because of insufficient lactation. That is, the main cause of hypernatremic dehydration is water deprivation. There are many causes for low milk intake. Since most causes are preventable or able to be improved, mothers, particularly first time mothers, should receive more reassurance and practical advice in the technique of breast-feeding. Before their discharge from the hospital, they should be educated about the associated features of unsuccessful breast-feeding, such as going to the breast infrequently or for short times, infrequent passage of urine and stool, jaundice, lethargy, irritability and fever. Late diagnosis may cause catastrophic outcomes, such as a variety of palsies, apnea, bradycardia, seizures, hypertension, disseminated intravascular coagulation, necrotising enterocolitis after establishing full oral feeds, amputation of an extremity secondary to arterial thrombus, multiple cerebral infarctions, intracranial hemorrhages, massive intra ventricular hemorrhage, multiple dural thromboses. If babies are weighed on the day of the Guthrie test, those in the early onset of a disease and those who could not achieve their birth weight can be easily identified. The latter should be closely followed.

  9. Supporting Breastfeeding in Your Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Breastfeeding, natural and healthy though it is, can be tough, particularly in communities where there is little encouragement for breastfeeding mothers. In one survey, when asked to identify the barriers to breastfeeding, mothers most often cited busy schedules, embarrassment, and lack of support (Best Start Social Marketing 1997). Child care…

  10. Breastfeeding maintenance of very low weight premature babies: experience of mothers

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    Beatriz de Carvalho Ciaciare

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to comprehend the breastfeeding process from reports of mothers of premature babies and identify factors facilitating or complicating this process. A descriptive qualitative study regarding the family centered care. We conducted 12 interviews with mothers of six months premature babies of chronological age and we submitted data to content analysis. Four categories emerged: The previous breastfeeding experience in the process of breastfeeding the premature baby; Emotional context versus the breastfeeding process; The ability to manage breastfeeding the premature baby and, Successes and failures. We concluded that family and professional support, adequate management and the welcoming of individualized services in the prematurity context were majorly responsible for the breastfeeding success, being even able to surpass the previous maternal desire. Breastfeeding accompaniment after discharge is indispensable for its success with premature babies.

  11. Breastfeeding in Iran: prevalence, duration and current recommendations

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    Strandvik Birgitta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to promote breastfeeding is unquestionable for the health and development of infants. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence, duration and promotion of breastfeeding status in Iran with respect to the Baby Friendly Hospital, government actions and activities by the Breastfeeding Promotion Society including comparison with European countries. Methods This retrospective study is based on data from 63,071 infants less than 24 months of age in all the 30 urban and rural provinces of Iran. The data of breastfeeding rates were collected in 2005–2006 by trained health workers in the Integrated Monitoring Evaluation System in the Family Health Office of the Ministry of Health to evaluate its subordinate offices. A translated version of a questionnaire, used to assess the current breastfeeding situation in Europe, was used. Results At a national level, 90% and 57% of infants were breastfed at one and two-years of age, respectively. Exclusive breastfeeding rates at 4 and 6 months of age at national level averaged 56.8% and 27.7%. Exclusive breastfeeding rates at 4 and 6 months of age in rural areas were 58% and 29%, and in urban areas 56% and 27%, respectively. The policy questionnaire showed that out of the 566 hospitals across the country 466 hospitals were accredited as Baby Friendly Hospitals, covering more than 80% of the births in 2006. A national board set standards and certified pre-service education at the Ministry of Health. Iran officially adopted the WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in 1991. The legislation for working mothers met the International Labour Organization standards that cover women with formal employment. The Ministry of Health and Breastfeeding Promotion Society were responsible for producing booklets, pamphlets, breastfeeding journal, CD, workshops and websites. Monitoring of breastfeeding rates was performed every four years and funded by the Ministry of

  12. 系统化护理干预对改善产妇母乳喂养自信心效果的研究%The effect of synthetic nursing intervention on breastfeeding self-efficacy among maternal women in different postpartum stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴红霞

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价系统化护理干预对改善产妇母乳喂养自信心和纯母乳喂养率的效果。方法:选取在广州市3所三级甲等综合性医院妇产科住院分娩的313例产妇为研究对象,按住院顺序分为对照组148例,实验组165例。向对照组实施母乳喂养口头宣教,对实验组应用《实用母乳喂养手册》实施面对面、一对一的哺乳知识与技能指导并于产后5周、11周实施母乳喂养电话指导2次。比较两组产妇在产后3天、6周、3个月时的母乳喂养自信心量表(BSES)评分及纯母乳喂养率。结果:产后3天和6周时,实验组产妇的BSES评分高于对照组(P<0.001);产后3天、6周、3个月时,实验组的纯母乳喂养率高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:系统化护理干预能显著提高产妇的母乳喂养自信心和纯母乳喂养率。%Objective: To explore the effect of synthetic nursing intervention on breastfeeding self-efifcacy and exclusive breastfeeding rate among maternal women in different stages. Methods: The control group (n=148) received routine care with verbal education about breastfeeding. The study group (n=165) received synthetic breastfeeding nursing intervention, which composed of a practical handbook on breastfeeding, breastfeeding skills guiding through face-to-face and one-to-one education at bed-side in hospital, two telephone follow-ups related to breastfeeding at 5 and 11 weeks postpartum. All the participants completed Breastfeeding Self-Efifcacy Scale (BSES) in the hospital, at 6 weeks and 3 months postpartum. Results: At 3 days and 6 weeks postpartum, the mean scores of BSES in the study group were higher than those of the control group (P<0.001). At 3 days, 6 weeks and 3 months postpartum, the exclusive breastfeeding rates in the study group were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Synthetic breastfeeding nursing intervention could improve maternal women' breastfeeding self

  13. The Effect of Meperidine on Peripartum Breastfeeding and Neonatal Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Mahboobeh; Rahimi, Fateme; Hoseinzade, Mohammad Javad; Tanha, Fatemeh Davari; Barkhordari, Khosro; Yasseri, Ali Mohammad Fakhre

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of Meperidine, commonly administered for labor analgesia, on newborn weight and peripartum breastfeeding during two months after delivery. Materials and methods This pilot cohort study was conducted between October 2010 and October 2011 at the Women Hospital of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences. In this study, we examined the effects of meperidine on breastfeeding and neonatal weight. A total number of 184 full term pregnant women, planned to deliver at this center (normal vaginally delivery or cesarean), participated in this study. The study group included the women who received meperidine in peripartum time to be compared with a control group who did not receive any opioid. Meperidine was administrated to them based on their peripartum breastfeeding behaviour and baby weight, two month after delivery. Results Of the 184 woman recruited to the trial, 38 women had normal vaginal delivery and 146 had ccesarean. Within the first two-month, 4% of mothers in control group and 11% of meperidine group used formula. However, this differences were not statistically significant (p value= 0.07). Furthermore, baby weight distribution was not statistically different between two groups. Conclusion The inhibitory effect of using Meperidine on peripartum breastfeeding and weight of newborn in the first two months was not statistically significant in this study. More research is needed to clarify the association between meperidine and peripartum breastfeeding. PMID:24971099

  14. Bone and mineral metabolism in primiparous women and its relationship with breastfeeding: a longitudinal study Metabolismo óseo y mineral en mujeres primíparas y su relación con la lactancia: un estudio longitudinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Glerean

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in bone metabolism in breastfeeding women (BF. We selected 30 primiparous women and compared them to 31 nulliparous women. We assessed bone mineral density (BMD in the lumbar spine (LS, femoral neck (FN and trochanter (TROC, biochemical parameters of bone turnover and hormone and cytokine levels at the puerperium, 6 months and 12 months after delivery. A trend to lower BMD of LS was seen at initial evaluation in BF. BMD in LS, FN, and TROC were increased 12 months after delivery. Baseline body mass index was higher in puerperal women (p = 0.02 and correlated with an increased FN and TROC BMD one year post delivery (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003. An increase in bone remodeling markers, and lower urinary calcium was observed; after 12 months these values normalized. Prolactin, parathormone related peptide (PTHrP and IL-6 were enhanced during the first six months of breastfeeding. We conclude that calcium for breastfeeding was obtained by transient mobilization of calcium deposits from the trabecular bone, and urinary calcium sparing induced by calciotrophic hormones and cytokines. Body weigth is an important factor in proximal femur BMD.El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los cambios que suceden en el metabolismo óseo de mujeres que amamantan. Se seleccionaron 30 mujeres primíparas y se compararon con 30 mujeres nulíparas como grupo control. Se evaluó la densidad mineral ósea (DMO del raquis lumbar (RL, cuello femoral (CF y trocánter (TROC, parámetros del remodelado óseo, hormonas y citoquinas. Estos parámetros se midieron en el puerperio inmediato, y a los 6 y 12 meses post-parto. La DMO del RL de la mujeres primíparas evidenciaron una tendencia a menores valores al comienzo de la lactancia comparadas con las mujeres controles, y se observó un incremento significativo de la DMO a los 12 meses, alcanzando valores similares al grupo control. La DMO en CF y del TROC aument

  15. Progress in promoting breast-feeding, combating malnutrition, and composition and use of infant formula, 1981-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 90% of women in developing countries and 50 to 90% of women in industrialized countries now initiate breast-feeding, a marked improvement from 25 y ago. The duration of breast-feeding has lengthened, but fewer than 35% of infants worldwide are still exclusively breast-fed at 4 mo of age. C...

  16. Contents and Techniques of Management Development Programs for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplander, Guvenc G.; Gutmann, Jean E.

    1976-01-01

    Male and female executives were examined in terms of managerial style, perceived training needs, major job functions, and behavioral characteristics in three pilot programs focusing on management training for women. Held at the University of Maine, Orono, the programs adapted existing management education materials to female roles and viewpoints.…

  17. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants under six months of age in peninsular malaysia

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    Tan Kok

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is accepted as the natural form of infant feeding. For mothers to be able to breastfeed exclusively to the recommended six months, it is important to understand the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 682 mother-infant pairs with infants up to six months attending maternal and child health section of the government health clinics in Klang, Malaysia. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a pre-tested structured questionnaire over 4 months in 2006. Data on breastfeeding were based on practice in the previous one month period. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between the independent variables and exclusive breastfeeding adjusting for infant age. Results The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers with infants aged between one and six months was 43.1% (95% CI: 39.4, 46.8. In the multivariate model exclusive breastfeeding was positively associated with rural residence, Malay mothers, non-working and non-smoking mothers, multiparous mothers, term infants, mothers with husbands who support breastfeeding and mothers who practice bed-sharing. Conclusions Interventions that seek to increase exclusive breastfeeding should focus on women who are at risk of early discontinuation of breastfeeding.

  18. 单纯母乳喂养乳汁成分含量与产妇体重指数的相关性研究%The correlation research between milk component content in exclusive breastfeeding andmaternal body mass index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雅莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate correlation research between milk component content in exclusive breastfeeding andmaternal body mass index.Methods To investigate and analyze the maternal age, height, body weight before childbirth way, prenatal, gestational age, birth weight, baby weight, gender, height in 140 case. milk component content in exclusive breastfeeding andmaternal body mass index were contrastive analysised.Results Antenatal and pre-pregnancy BMI satisfied the equation BMI = 9.036 + 0.873 *. Maternal body index increases were positively associated with milk composition of zinc, calcium, magnesium, protein, fat, minerals, and the solid fat, were negatively correlated with iron, copper, and lactose.Conclusion Maternal body index increases were correlated with milk component content;controlling the maternal weight increase can keep the balance of milk component content.%目的:探讨研究单纯母乳喂养乳汁成分含量与产妇体重指数的相关性。方法:调查分析我院妇产科分娩的140例产妇年龄、身高、孕前体重、产前体重、孕周、分娩方式、婴儿体重、性别、身长等,对比分析产妇体重增长与乳汁成分含量的相关性。结果:产妇产前和孕前BMI满足方程:产前BMI=9.036+0.873*孕前BMI,产妇体重指数增幅与乳汁成分中锌元素、钙元素、镁元素、蛋白质、脂肪、矿物质和非脂肪固体呈正相关,与铁元素、铜元素和乳糖呈负相关。结论:产妇体重指数增加与乳汁成分含量有一定的相关性;控制产妇体重增加可保持乳汁成分含量的均衡性。

  19. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  20. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breastfeeding women get a flu vaccine? Why should pregnant women get a flu shot? Flu is more ... Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) . Is it safe for pregnant women and their developing babies to get a ...

  1. Breastfeeding practices in the city of Iguatu-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Vanda Teixeira de Freitas Cavalcante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess breastfeeding practices in Family Health Strategy. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study conducted in Family Health Units of the urban area of Iguatu-CE, Brazil, from August 2008 to May 2009. Participants were 402 mothers with children under six months of age who underwent prenatal consultations. We used a form with questions regarding breastfeeding, breastfeeding difficulties, introducing other foods, infant nutrition, consultations prenatal and postpartum visits undertaken by staff. The data were entered into SPSS 16.0 and analyzed descriptively. Results: Among the mothers interviewed (402, most said that was breastfeeding babies (N = 343, 85.3%, but introduced other food (N = 252, 62.6%, verifying low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. Of the 252 women who reported offering other food to baby, 158 (62.7% offered on their own, followed by those who chose to follow the indication of relatives and neighbors (N = 63, 25%. Conclusions: The study revealed that mothers of the Family Health Units from Iguatu-EC did not breastfeed their children exclusively, but with the introduction of other foods (other milk, porridge, thereby demonstrating the low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding.

  2. Necessidades de saúde de mulheres em processo de amamentação Necesidades de salud de mujeres en el proceso de lactancia Health needs of women in the process of breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glicéria Tochika Shimoda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Nosso objetivo foi identificar as necessidades de saúde de mulheres no processo de amamentação. Entrevistamos 238 mulheres, organizamos os dados segundo proposta do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. Utilizando taxonomia de Matsumoto, encontramos: Necessidade de boas condições de vida (ter boa alimentação; trabalhar/estudar; ter tempo para si; sono e repouso adequados; boa saúde mental; boas condições para amamentar seu filho; Necessidade de ter acesso a todas as tecnologias de saúde que contribuam para melhorar e prolongar a vida (lidar com intercorrências da amamentação, ter acesso aos serviços de saúde; Necessidade de ter vínculo com um profissional/equipe de saúde; Necessidade de autonomia e autocuidado na escolha do modo de "andar a vida" (ter orientação quanto à amamentação; receber apoio do profissional; sentir-se segura para amamentar.Nuestro objetivo fue identificar las necesidades de salud de la mujer en el proceso de la lactancia materna. Fueron participantes 238 mujeres y los datos fueron organizados de acuerdo a la propuesta del Discurso del Sujeto Colectivo. De acuerdo con la taxonomía de Matsumoto tuvimos: Necesidad de buenas condiciones de vida (tener una buena alimentación, trabajar o estudiar, tener tiempo para sí, sueño y resto adecuados; buena salud mental, buenas condiciones para la lactancia de su hijo; Necesidad de tener acceso a todas las tecnologías de salud que se contribuyen para mejorar y ampliar la vida (para tratar de las complicaciones de la lactancia materna, tener el acceso a los servicios de salud; Necesidad de vincular con un profesional o equipo de salud, Necesidad de cuidado de sí mismo y autonomía en la opción en el camino "para andar la vida" (tener orientación sobre la lactancia, recibir apoyo del profesional; sentirse seguro de sí mismo con respecto a la lactancia materna.Our objective was to identify the health needs of women in their breastfeeding process. We interviewed 238

  3. Labor Epidural Analgesia and Breastfeeding: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Cynthia A; Cong, Xiaomei; Chung, Keun Sam

    2016-08-01

    Despite widespread use of epidural analgesia during labor, no consensus has been reached among obstetric and anesthesia providers regarding its effects on breastfeeding. The purpose of this review was to examine the relationship between labor epidural analgesia and breastfeeding in the immediate postpartum period. PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched for articles published in 1990 or thereafter, using the search term breastfeeding combined with epidural, labor epidural analgesia, labor analgesia, or epidural analgesia Of 117 articles, 23 described empirical studies specific to labor epidural analgesia and measured a breastfeeding outcome. Results were conflicting: 12 studies showed negative associations between epidural analgesia and breastfeeding success, 10 studies showed no effect, and 1 study showed a positive association. Most studies were observational. Of 3 randomized controlled studies, randomization methods were inadequate in 2 and not evaluable in 1. Other limitations were related to small sample size or inadequate study power; variation and lack of information regarding type and dosage of analgesia or use of other intrapartum interventions; differences in timing, definition, and method of assessing breastfeeding success; or failure to consider factors such as mothers' intention to breastfeed, social support, siblings, or the mother's need to return to work or school. It is also unclear to what extent results are mediated through effects on infant neurobehavior, maternal fever, oxytocin release, duration of labor, and need for instrumental delivery. Clinician awareness of factors affecting breastfeeding can help identify women at risk for breastfeeding difficulties in order to target support and resources effectively. PMID:27121239

  4. 'This little piranha': a qualitative analysis of the language used by health professionals and mothers to describe infant behaviour during breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Elaine; Fenwick, Jenny; Sheehan, Athena; Schmied, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life offers the recommended best start in the life for a newborn baby. Yet, in Australia only a small number of babies receive breast milk exclusively for the first 6 months. Reasons for the introduction of formula milk are multi-factorial including access to appropriate support and the woman's experience of breastfeeding. The language and practices of health professionals can impact upon how a woman feels about breastfeeding and her breastfeeding body. One aspect of breastfeeding support that has had scarce attention in the literature is the language used by health professionals to describe the behaviour of the breastfeeding infant during the early establishment phase of breastfeeding. This paper reveals some of the ways in which midwives, lactation consultants and breastfeeding women describe the newborn baby during the first week after birth. The study was conducted at two maternity units in New South Wales. Interactions between midwives and breastfeeding women were observed and audio recorded on the post-natal ward and in women's homes, in the first week after birth. The transcribed data were analysed using discourse analysis searching for recurring words, themes and metaphors used in descriptions of the breastfeeding baby. Repeated negative references to infant personality and unfavourable interpretations of infant behaviour influenced how women perceived their infant. The findings revealed that positive language and interpretations of infant breastfeeding behaviour emerged from more relationship-based communication. PMID:26059182

  5. Assessing midwives' breastfeeding knowledge: Properties of the Newborn Feeding Ability questionnaire and Breastfeeding Initiation Practices scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantrill Ruth M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few reliable and valid tools to assess lactation and infant feeding knowledge and practices. This study tested the psychometric properties of two new scales, the Newborn Feeding Ability (NFA questionnaire and Breastfeeding Initiation Practices (BIP scale to assess midwives' breastfeeding knowledge and practices specific to breastfeeding initiation. Methods A national postal survey of Australian midwives (n = 3500 was conducted in October 2001. Reliability was determined through Cronbach's alpha coefficient and stability determined by a test-retest. Content validity was established through a critical review of literature and review by an expert panel. Construct validity was informed by an exploratory factor analysis and principle component analysis with varimax rotation. Correlations between NFA and BKQ knowledge subscale scores and BIP and BKQ practice subscale scores assessed criterion validity. A multiple hierarchical regression analysis determined predictive validity of the NFA and BIP. Results A response rate of 31.6% (n = 1107 was achieved. Adequate internal consistency was established for both instruments. Five factors on the NFA questionnaire were congruent with knowledge about effects of skin-to-skin contact, physiological stability, newborn innate abilities, work practices and effective breastfeeding. The BIP revealed three factors related to observing pre-feeding behavior, mother/baby care and attachment and positioning practices. Predictive validity of knowledge was moderate (r = 0.481, p Conclusion The Newborn Feeding Ability questionnaire and the Breastfeeding Initiation Practices scale can contribute to practice development by assessing lactation and infant feeding knowledge and practice deficits. Individual learning needs can be identified, and effectiveness of education interventions evaluated using these tools. Further testing is required with other samples of midwives and health professionals

  6. Drugs in breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotham, Neil; Hotham, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Most commonly used drugs are relatively safe for breastfed babies. The dose received via milk is generally small and much less than the known safe doses of the same drug given directly to neonates and infants. Drugs contraindicated during breastfeeding include anticancer drugs, lithium, oral retinoids, iodine, amiodarone and gold salts. An understanding of the principles underlying the transfer into breast milk is important, as is an awareness of the potential adverse effects on the infant. Discussion with the mother about the possibility of either negative product information or ill-informed advice from others will reduce the confusion and anxiety that may be generated. Good resources about medicines and breastfeeding are available and include state-based medicines information services. PMID:26648652

  7. A systematic review of interventions to improve knowledge and self-management skills concerning contraception, pregnancy and breastfeeding in people with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Ilana N; Ngian, Gene-Siew; Van Doornum, Sharon; Briggs, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to determine the effectiveness of interventions for improving knowledge and/or self-management skills concerning contraception, pregnancy and breastfeeding in people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We searched four databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Trials, PsycINFO) using a comprehensive search strategy. Studies were eligible if they were prospective, published in English from 2004 to 2015, included participants with RA and tested an intervention designed to improve knowledge and/or self-management skills relating to family planning, pregnancy or breastfeeding. As no studies met the latter criterion, the search strategy was expanded to include all prospective studies evaluating RA educational and/or self-management interventions. Data on study characteristics, participant characteristics and programme content were extracted to summarise the evidence base for interventions to support people with RA during their reproductive years. Expanded literature searches identified 2290 papers, of which 68 were eligible. Of these, nine papers (13%) specifically excluded pregnant women/breastfeeding mothers or recruited only older people. Only one study (1%) explicitly evaluated pregnancy-focused education via a motherhood decision aid, while eight studies (12%) incorporated relevant (albeit minor) components within broader RA educational or self-management interventions. Of these, three studies provided methotrexate education in relation to conception/pregnancy/breastfeeding; three incorporated discussions on RA and relationships, impact of RA on the family or sexual advice; one provided information regarding contraception and fertility; and one issued a warning regarding use of biologic therapy in pregnancy/breastfeeding. In conclusion, information regarding family planning, pregnancy or breastfeeding represents a negligible part of published RA educational interventions, with scope to develop targeted resources.

  8. EFFECT OF BEHAVIOUR CHANGE COMMUNICATION ON BREASTFEEDING PRACTICES IN PERIURBAN AREA OF ALIGARH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Haroon Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1.To assess the behavior of pregnant women regarding breastfeeding practices. 2. Assessing impact of Behavior Change Communication Package among pregnant women regarding breastfeeding practices. Study design: A community based intervention study Setting: Field practice areas of Urban Health Training Center, Department of Community Medicine, JNMCH, AMU, Aligarh. Participants: 200 pregnant women (100 pregnant women from each intervention and non-intervention group Sampling: Purposive sampling method. Statistical Analysis: Data analysed with Epi Info version 3.5.1. Percentages, Relative Risk and Chi Square Test used. Results: Due to implementation of BCC Package in intervention, good practices like giving colostrum were increased two times. Initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour was increased 4.7 times, exclusive breastfeeding was gone up 3.8 times for first seven days of delivery. There was significant difference (P–value <0.05 between the two groups regarding breastfeeding on 7th day of delivery. The differences were significant (P–value-<0.05 on 7th and 28th days of delivery. Conclusion: Good practices of breastfeeding within one hour, using colostrum, exclusive breastfeeding were improved significantly after implementation of behavior change communication package.

  9. Association of Breastfeeding and the Federal Poverty Level: National Survey of Family Growth, 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, R. Constance; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Hayes, Sarah E.; Azulay Chertok, Ilana R.

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is strongly endorsed in the Healthy People 2020 goals; however, there remain many disparities in breastfeeding prevalence. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between breastfeeding and the Federal Poverty Level in the United States. Data from 5,397 women in the National Survey of Family Growth 2011–2013 survey were included in this study. The data were analyzed for descriptive features and logistic regressions of the Federal Poverty Level on breastfeeding. There were 64.1% of women who reported breastfeeding. Over one-third (35.2%) of women reported having a household income of 0–99% of the Federal Poverty Level. There were 15.2% of women who reported an income of 400% and above the Federal Poverty Level. With statistical adjustment for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, parity, preterm birth, birth weight, insurance, and dwelling, the Federal Poverty Level was not significantly associated with breastfeeding. In this recent survey of mothers, Federal Poverty Level was not shown to be a significant factor in breastfeeding. PMID:27019750

  10. Impact of education and training on type of care provided by community-based breastfeeding counselors: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan Elizabeth M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies using community-based breastfeeding counselors (CBBCs have repeatedly shown positive impact on breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity and duration, particularly among low-income mothers. To date, there has not been a comprehensive study to determine the impact of CBBC attributes such as educational background and training, on the type of care that CBBCs provide. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of CBBCs to ascertain the influence of counselor education and type of training on type of support and proficiency of CBBCs in communities across the United States. Invitations to participate in this online survey of CBBCs were e-mailed to program coordinators of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC, La Leche League, and other community-based health organizations, who in turn invited and encouraged their CBBCs to participate. Descriptive analysis was used to describe participants (N = 847, while bivariate analysis using χ2 test was used to examine the differences between CBBC education, training received and breastfeeding support skills used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the independent determinants of specific breastfeeding support skills. Results The major findings from the research indicate that overall, educational attainment of CBBCs is not a significant predictor for the curriculum used in their training and type of support skills used during counseling sessions, but initial training duration was positively associated with the use of many breastfeeding support skills. Another major influence of counselor support to clients is the type of continuing education they receive after their initial training, with higher likelihood of use of desirable support skills associated with counselors continuing their breastfeeding education at conferences or trainings away from their job sites. Conclusions Our results show that different

  11. Session 1: Public health nutrition. Breast-feeding practices in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2008-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids during this time. Historically, Irish breast-feeding initiation rates have remained strikingly low in comparison with international data and there has been little improvement in breast-feeding duration rates. There is wide geographical variation in terms of breast-feeding initiation both internationally and in Ireland. Some of these differences in breast-feeding rates may be associated with differing socio-economic characteristics. A recent cross-sectional prospective study of 561 pregnant women attending a Dublin hospital and followed from the antenatal period to 6 months post partum has found that 47% of the Irish-national mothers initiated breast-feeding, while only 24% were still offering \\'any\\' breast milk to their infants at 6 weeks. Mothers\\' positive antenatal feeding intention to breast-feed is indicated as one of the most important independent determinants of initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks, suggesting that the antenatal period should be targeted as an effective time to influence and affect mothers\\' attitudes and beliefs pertaining to breast-feeding. These results suggest that the \\'cultural\\' barrier towards breast-feeding appears to still prevail in Ireland and consequently an environment that enables women to breast-feed is far from being achieved. Undoubtedly, a shift towards a more positive and accepting breast-feeding culture is required if national breast-feeding rates are to improve.

  12. Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Hunter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Childbirth Experiences Survey, which explored key topics such as (1 breastfeeding initiation, (2 early post-partum breastfeeding, (3 breastfeeding plan, (4 post-partum breastfeeding support and (5 breast feeding duration. This was a voluntary self-reported questionnaire. The surveys were completed by the mothers during the post-partum period. Results: 45.9% (n=67 of mothers received helped from their husband or partner with breastfeeding while in the hospital, while 54.1% (n=79 of mothers did not receive support from their partners. Mothers who received early post-partum breastfeeding support were more likely to continue breastfeeding after leaving the hospital. Conclusion: First-time mothers who identified as having breastfeeding support from their partners, the infant’s father, during the early post-partum period were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and had longer breastfeeding durations.

  13. Breastfeeding initiation: impact of obesity in a large Canadian perinatal cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Verret-Chalifour

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate incidence of breastfeeding initiation according to maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI in "Grossesse en Santé", a large prospective birth cohort in Quebec City. METHODS: Breastfeeding initiation in the post-partum period, pre-pregnancy BMI, sociodemographic determinants and obstetrical and neonatal factors were collected from years 2005 to 2010 in 6592 women with single pregnancies. Prenatal non-intention to breastfeed was documented in a subgroup of the cohort (years 2009-2010. Log-binomial regression analyses were performed to assess relative risk (RR of non-initiation of breastfeeding between maternal BMI categories in models including pre- and post-natal determinants, after exclusion of variables with a mediating effect. RESULTS: Twenty percent (20% of obese women did not initiate breastfeeding in the post-natal period at hospital compared to 12% for normal weight women. Compared with those having a normal pre-pregnancy BMI, obese women had a higher risk of non-initiation of breastfeeding (RRunadj 1.69, 95% CI 1.44-1.98, even after adjustment for prenatal and sociodemographic factors (RRadj 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.46. Furthermore, the risk of non-initiation of breastfeeding in obese women still remained higher after introduction of per- and post-natal factors (RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.42. The prenatal non-intention to breastfeed was strongly associated with the non-initiation of breastfeeding for all categories of BMI. CONCLUSION: Maternal obesity is associated with a two-fold rate of non-initiation of breastfeeding. Considering the benefits of breastfeeding and the increasing obesity rate, adapted interventions and specialized support should target both pre- and immediate post-natal periods in this population.

  14. Is infliximab safe to use while breastfeeding?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joel Z Stengel; Hays L Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often affects women around the age of conception and pregnancy. Most drugs used to treat IBD are safe in pregnancy, but physicians must consider the clinical implications of certain treatment regimens in young, fertile females. We report an informative case of a pregnant patient with IBD who underwent treatment with infliximab during her pregnancy and while nursing her infant. Serum and breast milk infliximab levels were monitored throughout this time period. This case report suggests that targeted monoclonal antibodies and other biologic agents can be used with caution in pregnant and breastfeeding patients.

  15. Working mothers of the World Health Organization Western Pacific offices: lessons and experiences to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iellamo, Alessandro; Sobel, Howard; Engelhardt, Katrin

    2015-02-01

    Optimal breastfeeding saves lives. However, suboptimal breastfeeding is prevalent, primarily resulting from inappropriate promotion of infant formula and challenges of working mothers to continue breastfeeding. The article aims to determine the extent to which World Health Organization (WHO) policies protect, promote, and support breastfeeding women working at the WHO, Western Pacific Region. An online survey targeted all female WHO and contractual staff in all country and regional offices, who delivered a baby between July 24, 2008 and July 24, 2013. Respondents advised on how the worksite could better support breastfeeding. Thirty-two female staff from 11 of the 12 WHO offices within the Western Pacific Region responded. "Returning to work" (44%) and "not having enough milk" (17%) were the most commonly reported reasons for not breastfeeding. Eighteen (56%) reported using infant formula and 8 (44%) reported that the product was prescribed. Among the suggestions given to better support breastfeeding, 10 (32%) recommended having a private room with a chair, table, electric outlet, and refrigerator. The findings show that women working at the WHO face similar challenges to mothers outside the WHO. Based on the findings, we recommend the following: (1) provide prenatal/postpartum breastfeeding counseling services for employees; (2) establish breastfeeding rooms in country offices and regularly orient staff on agency policies to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding; (3) annually celebrate World Breastfeeding Week with employees; (4) encourage other public and private institutions to conduct online surveys and elicit recommendations from mothers on how their workplace can support breastfeeding; and (5) conduct a larger survey among UN agencies on how to better protect, promote, and support breastfeeding. PMID:25398406

  16. The Interactions between Breastfeeding Mothers and Their Babies during the Breastfeeding Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Videotaped 12 breastfeeding mothers and their babies during breastfeeding sessions to investigate maternal-infant interactions occurring during breastfeeding sessions. Presents four case studies to examine differences in breastfeeding interactions, as well as benefits and disadvantages that breastfeeding provided different mother-child pairs. (MM)

  17. Why invest, and what it will take to improve breastfeeding practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Nigel C; Bhandari, Nita; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Horton, Susan; Lutter, Chessa K; Martines, Jose C; Piwoz, Ellen G; Richter, Linda M; Victora, Cesar G

    2016-01-30

    Despite its established benefits, breastfeeding is no longer a norm in many communities. Multifactorial determinants of breastfeeding need supportive measures at many levels, from legal and policy directives to social attitudes and values, women's work and employment conditions, and health-care services to enable women to breastfeed. When relevant interventions are delivered adequately, breastfeeding practices are responsive and can improve rapidly. The best outcomes are achieved when interventions are implemented concurrently through several channels. The marketing of breastmilk substitutes negatively affects breastfeeding: global sales in 2014 of US$44·8 billion show the industry's large, competitive claim on infant feeding. Not breastfeeding is associated with lower intelligence and economic losses of about $302 billion annually or 0·49% of world gross national income. Breastfeeding provides short-term and long-term health and economic and environmental advantages to children, women, and society. To realise these gains, political support and financial investment are needed to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding. PMID:26869576

  18. Women have higher protein content of beta-oxidation enzymes in skeletal muscle than men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy C Maher

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that compared with men, women have better ultra-endurance capacity, oxidize more fat during endurance exercise, and are more resistant to fat oxidation defects i.e. diet-induced insulin resistance. Several groups have shown that the mRNA and protein transcribed and translated from genes related to transport of fatty acids into the muscle are greater in women than men; however, the mechanism(s for the observed sex differences in fat oxidation remains to be determined. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were obtained from moderately active men (N=12 and women (N=11 at rest to examine mRNA and protein content of genes involved in lipid oxidation. Our results show that women have significantly higher protein content for tri-functional protein alpha (TFPalpha, very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD, and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD (P<0.05. There was no significant sex difference in the expression of short-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD, or peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha, or PPARgamma, genes potentially involved in the transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism. In conclusion, women have more protein content of the major enzymes involved in long and medium chain fatty acid oxidation which could account for the observed differences in fat oxidation during exercise.

  19. Breastfeeding and feminism: a focus on reproductive health, rights and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbok, Miriam H; Smith, Paige Hall; Taylor, Emily C

    2008-01-01

    The annual Breastfeeding and Feminism Symposia aim to reposition breastfeeding as a valued part of women's (re)productive lives and rights. The symposia are designed to raise the profile of breastfeeding within the women's advocacy and feminist studies' communities, and to increase recognition among breastfeeding supporters that breastfeeding promotion could receive more socio-political support by partnering with those concerned with women's reproductive health, rights and justice, women's economic advancement, and the elimination of social, economic and health inequities. The third symposium (2007) sought to build dialogue and increase communications between and among these diverse communities. The nine articles presented in this thematic series were selected by the journal editors, and represent the core discussions at the symposium. This editorial presents the areas of synergy and strategies for action that emerged from the discussions. These strategies and this thematic issue are intended to reassert the momentum that evolved among participants, and to stimulate involvement among individuals and organizations not in attendance in promoting breastfeeding as a women's reproductive health, rights and justice concern. PMID:18680575

  20. Breastfeeding and feminism: A focus on reproductive health, rights and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Emily C

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The annual Breastfeeding and Feminism Symposia aim to reposition breastfeeding as a valued part of women's (reproductive lives and rights. The symposia are designed to raise the profile of breastfeeding within the women's advocacy and feminist studies' communities, and to increase recognition among breastfeeding supporters that breastfeeding promotion could receive more socio-political support by partnering with those concerned with women's reproductive health, rights and justice, women's economic advancement, and the elimination of social, economic and health inequities. The third symposium (2007 sought to build dialogue and increase communications between and among these diverse communities. The nine articles presented in this thematic series were selected by the journal editors, and represent the core discussions at the symposium. This editorial presents the areas of synergy and strategies for action that emerged from the discussions. These strategies and this thematic issue are intended to reassert the momentum that evolved among participants, and to stimulate involvement among individuals and organizations not in attendance in promoting breastfeeding as a women's reproductive health, rights and justice concern.

  1. [Results of a study of breastfeeding by pediatric and health education workers 1983-1987].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, A

    1989-08-01

    The authors investigated the rate of breastfeeding in infants born in February in the CSR in 1983-1987. During this period the rate of breastfeeding increased by 3-4%, in particular during the 3rd, 4th and 5th month. The number of infants not breastfed at all did not change and is 12%. By the third month two-thirds of infants cease to be breastfed and only less than one third are breastfed for more than three months. By the end of the 6th month less than one tenth of infants are breastfed. Recommendations to increase the rate of breastfeeding comprise in addition to provisions in obstetric departments (rooming-in) more intense individual health education of mothers in these departments and in paediatric health communities, group training of pregnant women, inclusion of the importance of breastfeeding into syllabi in schools and propagation of breastfeeding in mass media and social organizations of the National Front. PMID:2582533

  2. Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations.

  3. Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations. PMID:23844558

  4. [Pregnancy and breastfeeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Quijano, María Eugenia; Heller-Rouassant, Solange

    2016-09-01

    During pregnancy and breastfeeding the demand for nutrients that promote the growth and development of the fetus, maternal tissues and breastmilk production is increased. Milk and dairy products provide energy, proteins, fatty acids, carbohydrates, calcium, phosphorus, vitamins D and B12, therefore their importance during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The energy through food supply allows the development and growth from the conception; protein promotes the rapid growth of the maternal and fetal tissues: fatty acids stimulate the development of the fetus central nervous system; carbohydrates are essential to support fetal brain growth; calcium is essential for the formation and mineralization of the fetus skeleton, while vitamin D promotes calcium absorption and the development of the nervous and immune systems. Multiple studies refer a positive association between the consumption of dairy products and birth weight. Regarding height, some papers show an increase in the femur length and in the total height (head-ankle) with regard to the intake of dairy products. Few studies report an association between a specific dairy product and the presence of allergic diseases. Therefore, more research is mandatory. PMID:27603881

  5. Scaling up breastfeeding programmes in a complex adaptive world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Hall Moran, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    The 2016 Breastfeeding Lancet Series continues to provide unequivocal evidence regarding the numerous benefits that optimal breastfeeding practices offer to children and women worldwide and the major savings that improving these practices can have as a result of their major public health benefits. Unfortunately, this knowledge remains underutilized as there has been little progress scaling up effective breastfeeding programmes globally. Improving the uptake and scaling up of effective national breastfeeding programmes that are potent enough to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration should be a top priority for all countries. Complex analysis systems longitudinal research is needed to understand how best to empower decision makers to achieve this goal through well-validated participatory decision-making tools to help their countries assess baseline needs, including costs, as well as progress with their scaling-up efforts. Sound systems thinking frameworks and scaling-up models are now available to guide and research prospectively future scaling-up efforts that can be replicated, with proper adaptations, across countries. PMID:27161881

  6. Using a wellness program to promote a culture of breastfeeding in the workplace: Oregon Health & Science University's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magner, Antoinette; Phillipi, Carrie Anne

    2015-02-01

    In the United States, many women stop breastfeeding within the first month that they return to work. Working mothers experience challenges in maintaining milk supply and finding the time and space to express breast milk or feed their babies in workplace settings. Changing attitudes and culture within the workplace may be accomplished in conjunction with ensuring compliance with state and federal laws regarding breastfeeding to improve breastfeeding rates after return to work. Employee wellness programs can be 1 avenue to promote breastfeeding and human milk donation as healthy behaviors. PMID:25326414

  7. Trace elements content and hormonal profiles in women with androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tkachev, Vladislav P

    2011-01-01

    It is well-known that some trace element imbalances play a significant role in the pathomechanism of many forms of alopecia. Androgenetic alopecia, however, is a specific local sensitivity of hair follicle receptors to androgens. In a clinical and laboratory study, 153 women with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and 32 control women were examined. In AGA patients telogen hair and vellus hair (miniaturization, D AGA group levels of androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone were higher than in the control group. Hair elemental content, analyzed by ICP-MS, demonstrated a lowered Cu and Zn content in the frontal area in comparison to the occipital area. It is important to note, that the AGA patients with elevated levels of androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone presented an increased Cu content and decreased Mn, Se, Zn contents in the occipital area of scalp. The occipital level of Cu positively correlated with the concentration of free testosterone in the serum. A negative correlation between the Zn content in the occipital area and the dehydroepiandrosterone level in the blood was found. Unfortunately, a routine treatment course of AGA patients, including topical inhibitor of 5-alpha-reductase and minoxidil, had no effect on the Cu hair content in occipital and frontal areas. However, there were positive changes in the morphological structure and other trace element contents. These data led us to hypothesize a key role of Cu metabolism disturbances in the AGA onset, development of AGA, and potential pharmaceutical targets for the treatment of AGA. PMID:21167696

  8. The planning of a national breastfeeding educational intervention for medical residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Pound

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is the ideal form of nutrition for newborns, yet our recent pan-Canadian study showed that the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of primary care pediatricians and family physicians are suboptimal with regard to breastfeeding. Objective: We aim to develop, implement, and evaluate a national breastfeeding educational intervention at the postgraduate residency level. Methods: Our initial development process is informed by Kern's approach to curriculum development. To date, we have completed breastfeeding education needs assessment surveys of both practicing physicians and medical residents. We have also developed learning outcomes as well as possible strategies for implementing and evaluating this future educational intervention. Results: The results of our needs assessment surveys provided a rationale to develop a breastfeeding educational intervention for medical residents. Through stakeholder consultations, we have developed five initial learning outcomes for a national breastfeeding educational intervention. We have also identified promising strategies for implementing and evaluating the intervention. Conclusions: This systematic process has provided an opportunity to create a national breastfeeding educational intervention for medical residents. It has fostered collaboration between experts and knowledge users, with the goal of impacting breastfeeding rates and duration of women, which will lead to improved maternal and child outcomes.

  9. A single center study of the effects of trained fathers' participation in constant breastfeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Raeisi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Constant breastfeeding that depends on the family support. Fathers' involvement is as an important factor of successful breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fathers' participation in constant breastfeeding in Vali-E-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Iran. This interventional study was piloted on spouses of pregnant women participating in pregnancy courses. The case group consisted of fathers attending training courses of breastfeeding during pregnancy (Group A, and the control group was made up of fathers who did not take part in training courses (Group B. The courses were held three times from the 30th week of gestation to the end of pregnancy in a family health research center. Fathers attended three training sessions where they were trained by brochures. After delivery newborns were weighted and examined for jaundice (3-5 days, 30 days, three and six months after birth. According to mothers' views, spouses' participation, encouragement and support in group A, was 11 times more than group B. It means that 47 (94% of spouses in the group A participated in mothers' constant breastfeeding, but fathers' participation in group B was 60% (30 spouses. This study showed that breastfeeding was more constant in the group that fathers participated in breastfeeding training course. One of the reasons for such a significant difference was spouses' participation, encouragement and support in the trained group. This study showed that fathers' involvement in training programs may influence constancy of breastfeeding.

  10. Effects of step exercise on muscle damage and muscle Ca2+ content in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredsted, Anne; Clausen, Torben; Overgaard, Kristian

    2008-07-01

    Eccentric exercise often produces severe muscle damage, whereas concentric exercise of a similar load elicits a minor degree of muscle damage. The cellular events initiating muscle damage are thought to include an increase in cytosolic Ca. It was hypothesized that eccentric muscle activity in humans would lead to a larger degree of cell damage and increased intracellular Ca accumulation in skeletal muscle than concentric activity would. Furthermore, possible differences between men and women in muscle damage were investigated following step exercise. Thirty-three healthy subjects (18 men and 15 women) participated in a 30-minute step exercise protocol involving concentric contractions with 1 leg and eccentric contractions with the other leg. Muscle Ca content, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and muscle enzymes in the plasma were measured. In a subgroup of the subjects, T2 relaxation time was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. No significant changes were found in muscle Ca content in vastus lateralis biopsy specimens in women or in men. Following step exercise, MVC decreased in both legs of both genders. The women had a significantly larger strength decrease in the eccentric leg than the men had on postexercise day 2 (p adductor magnus muscle, peaking on day 3 (75%) (p muscle damage preferentially in the eccentrically working muscles, considerably more in women than in men. This indicates that gender-specific step training programs may be warranted to avoid excessive muscle damage. PMID:18545196

  11. Sexual function and depressive symptoms in young women with elevated macroprolactin content: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta; Okopien, Bogusław

    2016-07-01

    Elevated prolactin levels seem to be associated with impaired sexuality. The clinical significance of macroprolactinemia, associated with the predominance of high molecular mass circulating forms of prolactin, is still poorly understood. This study was aimed at investigating sexual function in young women with macroprolactinemia. The study enrolled 14 young women with macroprolactinemia, 14 with increased monomeric prolactin levels, as well as 14 age- and weight-matched healthy women. All patients completed a questionnaire evaluating female sexual function (Female Sexual Function Index-FSFI), as well as a questionnaire assessing the presence and severity of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition-BDI-II). Apart from total prolactin levels and macroprolactin content, circulating levels of thyrotropin, total testosterone, and 17-β estradiol were also measured. Patients with elevated monomeric prolactin levels had a lower total FSFI score, as well as lower scores for all domains: sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, orgasm, sexual satisfaction, and dyspareunia. These scores correlated with total and monomeric prolactin levels. In turn, women with macroprolactinemia were characterized by a lower score for sexual desire, and only this score correlated with total prolactin levels and macroprolactin content. The total score in the BDI-II questionnaire was higher in patients with hyper- and macroprolactinemia than in the control subjects. Contrary to multidimensional impairment of sexual function in women with elevated monomeric prolactin, macroprolactinemia only seems to disturb sexual desire. PMID:26902871

  12. A content analysis of obstetrics and gynecology scholarship: implications for women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, L; Stevens, J; Stecker, T

    1997-01-01

    In the context of studying the medicalization of women, we sought insight into the reflexive and mutually influential relationships between the prevailing social agenda and the formal knowledge base by analyzing the content, purpose and funding source of the scholarly work published in the three major, English-language obstetrics and gynecology journals. Our analysis of the 6103 articles published in 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1993 led us to the conclusion that, rather than responding to changing social needs and life-styles, the obstetrics and gynecology specialty has continued to emphasize the reproductive nature of women rather than the health and well-being requirements of non-pregnant and non-fertile women. The social values and attitudes toward women inferred from the priorities evident in these data are ideologically consistent with the view that women's primary role is that of reproduction. The implied importance of certain themes and the consequent allocation of resources may serve to perpetuate the politically oppressive view of women as biologically motivated and determined. PMID:9472954

  13. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Breastfeeding and human milk are the normative standards for infant feeding and nutrition. Given the documented short- and long-term medical and neurodevelopmental advantages of breastfeeding, infant nutrition should be considered a public health issue and not only a lifestyle choice. The American Academy of Pediatrics reaffirms its recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding for about 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding as complementary foods are introduced, with continuation of breastfeeding for 1 year or longer as mutually desired by mother and infant. Medical contraindications to breastfeeding are rare. Infant growth should be monitored with the World Health Organization (WHO) Growth Curve Standards to avoid mislabeling infants as underweight or failing to thrive. Hospital routines to encourage and support the initiation and sustaining of exclusive breastfeeding should be based on the American Academy of Pediatrics-endorsed WHO/UNICEF "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding." National strategies supported by the US Surgeon General's Call to Action, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and The Joint Commission are involved to facilitate breastfeeding practices in US hospitals and communities. Pediatricians play a critical role in their practices and communities as advocates of breastfeeding and thus should be knowledgeable about the health risks of not breastfeeding, the economic benefits to society of breastfeeding, and the techniques for managing and supporting the breastfeeding dyad. The "Business Case for Breastfeeding" details how mothers can maintain lactation in the workplace and the benefits to employers who facilitate this practice. PMID:22371471

  14. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content in the diagnosis of iron deficiency in Chinese pre-menopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Dan; CHEN Yu; WU Wei; ZHANG Feng; XU Jia; CUI Wei; LI Shu-lan; LI Rong-sheng

    2007-01-01

    @@ Pre-menopausal women are at risk for iron deficiency due to menstrual blood losses. The prevalence rates (PR) of iron depletion, iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and iron deficiency were 34.4%, 15.1% and 49.5% in pre-menopausal non-pregnant women respectively in China.1 Traditionally, the diagnosis of iron deficiency relies on the hematological markers (hemoglobin (HGB),mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), red cell distribution width (RDW))and biochemical markers (serum ferritin (SF), serum iron (SI), transferrin saturation (TS), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)). Recently, the reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) is considered to be used as a marker of iron deficiency.2 The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic efficiency of CHr with the old markers in diagnosis of iron deficiency in Chinese pre-menopausal women.

  15. Primiparae perception on guidance in prenatal care regarding breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaliza Morais Teixeira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to analyze the perceptions of primiparae on the guidance received in prenatal care regarding breastfeeding. Qualitative descriptive study, whose data collection happened, the period March-May 2010, through semi-structured interviews with 10 primiparae admitted to the rooming unit of a hospital in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. For data analysis we used the content analysis, emerging the following categories: Guidelines on pre-natal care; Importance of breastfeeding; and Breast care and problems. We identified that prenatal consultation is a way to monitor the mother during pregnancy, as well as being a time to educate them about the several changes and consequences that occur during pregnancy. We concluded that mothers have a satisfactory awareness of the importance of prenatal care; however we observed a superficial knowledge apprehended in prenatal care regarding breastfeeding.

  16. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and its determinants in first 6 months of life: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Chudasama, Rajesh K; Chikitsa D. Amin; Yogesh N Parikh

    2009-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding for first 6 months of life is recommended under Infant and Young Child Feeding practices in India. The objective of present study was to estimate the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding during first 6 months of life of babies and to identify factors that interfere with the practice in the study area. Methods: A prospective cohort of 462 women who delivered at maternity unit of Government Medical College & Hospital, Rajkot, which is a tertiary care centre ...

  17. Breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding: a mixed methods study of acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Nicola; Thomson, Gill; Morgan, Heather; MacLennan, Graeme; Campbell, Marion; Dykes, Fiona; Hoddinott, Pat

    2016-10-01

    Increasing breastfeeding rates would improve maternal and child health, but multiple barriers to breastfeeding persist. Breast pump provision has been used as an incentive for breastfeeding, although effectiveness is unclear. Women's use of breast pumps is increasing and a high proportion of mothers express breastmilk. No research has yet reported women's and health professionals' perspectives on breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding. In the Benefits of Incentives for Breastfeeding and Smoking cessation in pregnancy (BIBS) study, mixed methods research explored women's and professionals' views of breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding. A survey of health professionals across Scotland and North West England measured agreement with 'a breast pump costing around £40 provided for free on the NHS' as an incentive strategy. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted in two UK regions with a total of 68 participants (pregnant women, new mothers, and their significant others and health professionals) and thematic analysis undertaken. The survey of 497 health professionals found net agreement of 67.8% (337/497) with the breast pump incentive strategy, with no predictors of agreement shown by a multiple ordered logistic regression model. Qualitative research found interrelated themes of the 'appeal and value of breast pumps', 'sharing the load', 'perceived benefits', 'perceived risks' and issues related to 'timing'. Qualitative participants expressed mixed views on the acceptability of breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding. Understanding the mechanisms of action for pump type, timing and additional support required for effectiveness is required to underpin trials of breast pump provision as an incentive for improving breastfeeding outcomes. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27502101

  18. Ealuation of Occupational Factors on Continuation of Breastfeeding and Formula Initiation in Employed Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, M; Moosavi, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: During recent decades, women have been increasingly involved in social activities. Despite the fact that mothers prefer to breastfeed, their return to work is associated with a reduction in breastfeeding frequency and duration. The present study evaluates the impact of occupational factors on continuation of breastfeeding and formula initiation in employed mothers with infants aged 6-12 months in Bandar-Abbas, Iran in 2010. Method and Materials: This is a descriptive...

  19. Breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding: a mixed methods study of acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Nicola; Thomson, Gill; Morgan, Heather; MacLennan, Graeme; Campbell, Marion; Dykes, Fiona; Hoddinott, Pat

    2016-10-01

    Increasing breastfeeding rates would improve maternal and child health, but multiple barriers to breastfeeding persist. Breast pump provision has been used as an incentive for breastfeeding, although effectiveness is unclear. Women's use of breast pumps is increasing and a high proportion of mothers express breastmilk. No research has yet reported women's and health professionals' perspectives on breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding. In the Benefits of Incentives for Breastfeeding and Smoking cessation in pregnancy (BIBS) study, mixed methods research explored women's and professionals' views of breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding. A survey of health professionals across Scotland and North West England measured agreement with 'a breast pump costing around £40 provided for free on the NHS' as an incentive strategy. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted in two UK regions with a total of 68 participants (pregnant women, new mothers, and their significant others and health professionals) and thematic analysis undertaken. The survey of 497 health professionals found net agreement of 67.8% (337/497) with the breast pump incentive strategy, with no predictors of agreement shown by a multiple ordered logistic regression model. Qualitative research found interrelated themes of the 'appeal and value of breast pumps', 'sharing the load', 'perceived benefits', 'perceived risks' and issues related to 'timing'. Qualitative participants expressed mixed views on the acceptability of breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding. Understanding the mechanisms of action for pump type, timing and additional support required for effectiveness is required to underpin trials of breast pump provision as an incentive for improving breastfeeding outcomes. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. First time mothers' experiences of breastfeeding their newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Harder, Ingegerd; Hall, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite efforts to improve continued breastfeeding, the percentages of exclusively breastfeeding remain low. To help the breastfeeding mother and reshape professional practice, we need more knowledge of maternal experiences of breastfeeding in the first months. The objective was to expl......Objective Despite efforts to improve continued breastfeeding, the percentages of exclusively breastfeeding remain low. To help the breastfeeding mother and reshape professional practice, we need more knowledge of maternal experiences of breastfeeding in the first months. The objective...

  1. Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also cause sexual dysfunction. You may have less sexual desire during pregnancy, right after childbirth or when you are breastfeeding. After menopause many women feel less sexual desire, have vaginal dryness or have pain during sex ...

  2. Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women Osteoporosis and African American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women ( 繁體中文 ) Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women Osteoporosis and Asian ...

  3. A systematic review of maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation and duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donath Susan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding behaviour is multifactorial, and a wide range of socio-cultural and physiological variables impact on a woman's decision and ability to breastfeed successfully. An association has been reported between maternal obesity and low breastfeeding rates. This is of public health concern because obesity is rising in women of reproductive age and the apparent association with increased artificial feeding will lead to a greater risk of obesity in children. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between maternal overweight and obesity and breastfeeding intention and initiation and duration. Methods A systematic review was conducted in January and February 2007, using the following databases: Medline, CINAHL and the Australian Breastfeeding Association's Lactation Resource Centre. Studies which have examined maternal obesity and infant feeding intention, initiation, duration and delayed onset of lactation were tabulated and summarised. Results Studies have found that obese women plan to breastfeed for a shorter period than normal weight women and are less likely to initiate breastfeeding. Of the four studies that examined onset of lactation, three reported a significant relationship between obesity and delayed lactogenesis. Fifteen studies, conducted in the USA, Australia, Denmark, Kuwait and Russia, have examined maternal obesity and duration of breastfeeding. The majority of large studies found that obese women breastfed for a shorter duration than normal weight women, even after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Conclusion There is evidence from epidemiological studies that overweight and obese women are less likely to breastfeed than normal weight women. The reasons may be biological or they may be psychological, behavioral and/or cultural. We urgently need qualitative studies from women's perspective to help us understand women in this situation and their infant feeding decisions and behaviour.

  4. The changing role of breastfeeding in economic development: a theoretical exposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, W P

    1981-01-01

    This paper develops a model of breastfeeding, contraception, and birth spacing that includes physiological and behavioral aspects and yields a number of testable predictions concerning influences of particular factors on breastfeeding. The model is built on the assumption that breastfeeding is a costly activity for most women, requiring time and nutrients, neither of which is freely available. Given these costs, the fact that many women do breastfeed suggests that it also produces benefits that people value such as the survival and development of the child and birth spacing. The model also assumes that mothers respond to changes in the cost of the activity and that of other means of contraception and feeding babies. It implies that mothers will breastfeed less when their time spent in other ways is more valuable and when substitutes for breastfeeding are more readily available. The author begins with a model of birth spacing and child survival that includes the roles of breastfeeding, and its substitutes. The number of live births is influenced by economic returns that raise family income, and utility returns to the parents. Given a desired number of surviving children and a particular probability of child survival, the couple can achieve its resulting desired number of births and the implied average births interval by adjusting either the length of postpartum amenorrhea or the length of the interval. A shift in the demand (supply) curve causes a larger shift in the amount of breastfeeding when the supply (demand) curve is more elastic. When there is an active wetnursing market, variations in factors that underlie a woman's breastfeeding supply curve may affect her period of postpartum amenorrhea but not the survival or development of her children. Also, shifts in factors that influence woman's demand for breastfeeding may affect her infant's development and survival but not a woman's fecundity. Some implications of this model are: 1) an increase in the market

  5. Exclusive breastfeeding duration in Cali, Colombia, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera Gustavo Alonso

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exclusive breast-feeding (EB is the nutritional gold standard of children in their 0-6 months of life and its practice is recommended in the current national plans of health, feeding and nutrition. Objective: To describe the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EB in a cohort of women who breastfed, from Cali, Colombia, in 2003. Methods: A cohort of 438 urban women was established, with first singleton live birth in immediate postpartum, whose childbirth was cared without complications, in one of the six institutions (4 public and 2 private that concentrate 80% of all deliveries from the city, approximately. With the previous consent of each woman and through structured questionnaires, these women were interviewed in the first hours after postpartum; then, they were visited and a face to face interview was applied at home, at days 8, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 since the birth, until abandon of EB was identified or woman could not be found. Results: At recruitment, 15 out of 453 puerperal women captured in postpartum rooms refused to participate in the study; 38 (8.5% women were lost during the following. At the end of the months 1°, 2°, 3°, 4°, 5° and 6°, respectively, only 28%, 15%, 9%, 5%, 2% and 1.6% of the women included to the study kept EB practice, according to the adopted criteria. Conclusion: High participation in the prenatal and delivery care of the institutions selected for this study, low lost of women during the following and broad socio-economic distribution of recruited women, allow to suggest that observations from this cohort characterise the duration of EB in 1, 2, 3 and 4 socio-economic strata of urban area of Cali, Colombia, in 2003. The duration of EB in the studied cohort is very short regarding to national and international recommendations. This fact indicates the scarce effects of both, national packages of National Security System in Health and national and local initiatives addressed to

  6. Developing and testing an online breastfeeding training among undergraduate nursing students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Villegas, Natalia; Azaiza, Khitam; Henderson, Shakira; Hooshmand, Mary; Peragallo, Nilda

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of breastfeeding for mothers and babies have been well documented in the scientific literature, with new evidence about the benefits continuing to emerge. The Surgeon General’s call to action to support breastfeeding recommends mandatory breastfeeding education and training for all healthcare providers that deliver care to mothers and babies. The purpose of this study is to analyze the development of an online computer based breastfeeding training (BT) and the preliminary outcomes of this training. The development of this training included consultation with content and technology experts. The collection of preliminary outcomes related to breastfeeding knowledge data and evaluation of the online BT was pre and posttest study. Eighty six undergraduate nursing students completed the online BT using Blackboard Learn. The online component of the BT consisted of five modules with a combined length of approximately 16 hours. After the completion of the modules, the students increased their levels of knowledge related to breastfeeding and the majority believed that they were fully able to perform skills to support breastfeeding. The results of this study indicate that a successful BT for nursing students can be effectively designed, which can in the future be disseminated to other healthcare providers and students. In addition, this online BT was cost-efficient and effective in improving students’ knowledge and skills to support breastfeeding.

  7. Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Varies Widely: A Need for Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Karen Jean; Hegadoren, Kathleen M.; Dieleman, Levinus Albert; Fedorak, Richard Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects patients in their young reproductive years. Women with IBD require maintenance therapies during pregnancy and breastfeeding. However, physician management of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding has not been well characterized. Objective. To characterize physician perceptions and management of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of Canadian physicians who are involved in the care of women with IBD was conducted. The survey included multiple-choice and Likert scale questions about perceptions and practice patterns regarding the management of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Results. 183 practicing physicians completed the questionnaire: 97/183 (53.0%) gastroenterologists; 75/183 (41.0%) general practitioners; and 11/183 (6.0%) other physicians. Almost half (87/183, 47.5%) of the physicians felt comfortable managing pregnant IBD patients. For specified IBD medications, proportions of physicians who indicated they would continue them during pregnancy were as follows: sulfasalazine, 47.4%; oral mesalamine, 67.0%; topical mesalamine, 70.3%; oral prednisone, 68.0%; topical prednisone, 78.0%; oral budesonide, 61.6%; topical budesonide, 75.0%; ciprofloxacin, 15.3%; metronidazole, 31.4%; azathioprine, 57.1%; methotrexate, 2.8%; infliximab, 55.6%; adalimumab, 78.1%. Similar proportions of physicians would continue these medications during breastfeeding. A higher proportion of gastroenterologists than nongastroenterologists indicated appropriate use of these IBD medications during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Conclusions. Physician management of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding varies widely. Relative to other physicians, responses of gastroenterologists more frequently reflected best practices pertaining to medications for control of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding. There is a need for further education regarding the management of IBD during pregnancy and

  8. Effect of systematic pregnant health education on pregnant women choosing the mode of delivery and breastfeeding%孕期系统化健康教育对孕妇选择分娩方式及纯母乳喂养的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀宣; 张晓菊

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨孕期系统化健康教育对孕妇分娩及纯母乳喂养方式选择的影响。方法将2010年5月以来到我院就诊并待产的280名孕妇随机分为健康教育组和对照组,健康教育组孕妇在孕期对其进行产前系统化健康教育,对照组孕妇进行常规宣教,比较两组孕妇最终的自然分娩率以及母乳喂养的情况。结果健康教育组经干预后其分娩及母乳喂养相关知识的知晓率明显提高;健康教育组的孕妇对医嘱的依从性明显高于对照组(P<0.05),自然分娩率及纯母乳喂养率也显著高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论在孕妇孕期进行系统化健康教育不仅可显著提高孕妇对孕婴相关知识的掌握程度和医嘱的依从性,而且还可提高孕妇的自然分娩率和纯母乳喂养率,有效提高了孕婴的生存质量。%Objective To explore the effect of systematic pregnant health education on the choosing of the mode of delivery and breastfeeding. Methods A total of 280 pregnant women in our hospital from May 2010 were randomly divided into health education group and control group. The prenatal health education was performed to preg-nant women in health education group during pregnancy, while conventional education was performed to pregnant women in the control group. The final rate of natural childbirth and breastfeeding were compared between the two groups. Results The rate of knowing the childbirth and breastfeeding knowledge increased significantly in the health education group, and patients' compliance to medical advice in the health education group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The rates of natural childbirth and breastfeeding was also significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Systematic health education can improve the master degree of pregnant women's knowledge in pregnant women, the compliance, and the rate of natural childbirth and

  9. Breastfeeding in America: a history of influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulier, Diane

    2009-02-01

    The author explores the history of breastfeeding in America. Popular belief is that medicine, science, and the formula industry have had the most impact on women's decisions to bottle versus breastfeed. What cannot be overlooked are other areas of influence. Cultural practices, including the beliefs of colonial Americans, the increased social value of children in the 20th century, and the emergence of a middle class, have influenced maternal decision making. The first and second waves of feminism affected women's choices. Politics and religion have had multiple and varied influences. It is this author's position that culture, gender, politics, and religion, as well as medicine, science, and industry, have combined to affect feeding choices. All of these influences, as well as others, both unforeseen and unpredictable, will continue to affect the future of breastfeeding in our society. PMID:19196856

  10. The Effects of Leptin on Breastfeeding Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Cannon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breastfed infants have a reduced risk of becoming overweight and/or obese later in life. This protective effect has been partly attributed to leptin present in breastmilk. This study investigated 24-h variations of skim milk leptin and its relationship with breastmilk macronutrients and infant breastfeeding patterns. Exclusive breastfeeding mothers of term singletons (n = 19; age 10 ± 5 weeks collected pre- and post-feed breastmilk samples for every breastfeed over a 24-h period and test-weighed their infants to determine milk intake at every breastfeed over a 24-h period. Samples (n = 454 were analysed for leptin, protein, lactose and fat content. Skim milk leptin concentration did not change with feeding (p = 0.184. However, larger feed volumes (>105 g were associated with a decrease in post-feed leptin levels (p = 0.009. There was no relationship between the change in leptin levels and change in protein (p = 0.313 or lactose levels (p = 0.587 between pre- and post-feed milk, but there was a trend for a positive association with changes in milk fat content (p = 0.056. Leptin concentration significantly increased at night (p < 0.001 indicating a possible 24-h pattern. Leptin dose (ng was not associated with the time between feeds (p = 0.232. Further research should include analysis of whole breastmilk and other breastmilk fractions to extend these findings.

  11. Selecting a Caregiver Who Supports Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Selecting A ...

  12. Breastfeeding - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breastfeeding URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breastfeeding.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  13. The influence of grandmothers on breastfeeding rates: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Negin, Joel; Coffman, Jenna; Vizintin, Pavle; Raynes-Greenow, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of an infant’s life has enormous potential to reduce mortality and morbidity. The older generation, particularly the infant’s grandmothers, play a central role in various aspects of pregnancy and child rearing decision-making within the family unit. This is particularly true in low- and middle-income countries where older women are seen as owners of traditional knowledge. Despite this, most health programs target the individual perso...

  14. The Importance of Breastfeeding in Holy Quran

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Bayyenat; Seyed Amirhosein Ghazizade Hashemi; Abbasali Purbaferani; Masumeh Saeidi

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the ideal and most natural way of nurturing infants. The importance of breastfeeding has been proved unequivocally, and UNICEF and WHO have issued guidelines to ensure breastfeeding. More than 14 centuries is that in Islamic teachings with the most comprehensive, most beautiful and most powerful motivation, is raised important points in the form of advice and education about breastfeeding.  Included in Islam recommended every mother to breastfeed her children up to the age of...

  15. A Web-Based Breastfeeding Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Wei-Chen (Phoebe); Thompson, Cheryl B.; Smith, Jackie A.; Pugh, Leigh; Stanley, Claire

    2003-01-01

    Two Web-based breastfeeding programs were developed to provide new parents with necessary information on proper breastfeeding techniques. One version was plain text and the other version combined text with graphics. The computer was viewed as a valuable learning tool. The breastfeeding program that contained graphics was preferred over the text-only program. Educators are encouraged to use Web-based graphic programs to provide breastfeeding education to new parents.

  16. Media and breastfeeding: Friend or foe?

    OpenAIRE

    Peuchaud Sheila; Brown Jane D

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The mass media have the potential to be powerful friends or foes in promoting breastfeeding. The media could help by putting the issue of breastfeeding on policy agendas and by framing breastfeeding as healthy and normative for baby and mother. Currently, however, it looks as if the media are more often contributing to perceptions that breastfeeding is difficult for mothers and potentially dangerous for babies. This paper presents a brief overview of research on the media and breastf...

  17. Breastfeeding attitudes of Finnish parents during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Pietilä Anna-Maija; Ekström Anette; Pölkki Tarja; Laanterä Sari

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Breastfeeding attitudes are known to influence infant feeding but little information exists on the prenatal breastfeeding attitudes of parents. The purpose of this study was to describe Finnish parents' prenatal breastfeeding attitudes and their relationships with demographic characteristics. Methods The electronic Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Confidence scale was developed and 172 people (123 mothers, 49 fathers) completed the study. The data were analysed using ...

  18. Nursing care plan standardized breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana de la Flor Picado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The superiority of human milk in feeding the human infant is incontestable. Breastmilk is a living food can´t be copied and is supported by numerous arguments in support of excellence, both biological and anthropometric or economic. Despite it, has been a significant decline in this practice. Scientific advances, sociological changes and the lack f health personnel have contributed to this expense. Currently, both the WHO and UNICEF cone try relaunching excusive breastfeeding as feeding the infant until 6 months of life. Initiatives whit the Baby Friendly Hospital or the Strategic Plan for the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding trying to promote the recognition of breastfeeding as irrefutable cornerstone for optimal growth and development of our children.Goal: Unify care criteria and actions to promote breastfeeding initiation and maintenance of the same, improving communication between professionals and between them and patients.Methodology: Care Development Plan following the NANDA taxonomies, NOC, NIC.Conclusions: Standardized work promotes decision making and performance of nursing staff to develop a happy breastfeeding.

  19. Work related determinants of breastfeeding discontinuation among employed mothers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darus Azlan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross-sectional study assesses factors that contribute to discontinuing breastfeeding among employed mothers in Malaysia. Methods A structured questionnaire was used in conducting this study involving all government health clinics in Petaling district between July and September 2006. Respondents were Malaysian women with children between the ages of six to twelve months who were formally employed. Factors studied were selected socio-demographic and work-related characteristics. Results From a total of 290 respondents, 51% discontinued breastfeeding. The majority (54% of mothers who discontinued breastfeeding had breastfed their babies for less than three months. Compared to Malay mothers, the risk of breastfeeding discontinuation were higher among Chinese (AOR 3.7, 95% CI: 1.7, 7.8 and Indian mothers (AOR 7.3, 95% CI 1.9, 27.4. Not having adequate breastfeeding facilities at the workplace was also a risk factor for breastfeeding discontinuation (AOR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.05, 3.1. Conclusion It is important that workplaces provide adequate breastfeeding facilities such as a room in which to express breast milk and a refrigerator, and allow mothers flexible time to express breast milk.

  20. Factors associated with breastfeeding duration and exclusivity in mothers returning to paid employment postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dorothy Li; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Tarrant, Marie

    2015-05-01

    Mothers who are employed postpartum are less likely to continue breastfeeding than mothers who are not formally employed. However, as postpartum employment is increasingly necessary for the majority of new mothers, it is important to investigate factors that influence the continuation of breastfeeding in employed mothers. A sample of 1,738 mothers who returned to paid employment postpartum were recruited from the obstetric units of four public hospitals in Hong Kong, and prospectively followed for 12 months or until their infant was weaned. More than 85 % of participants returned to formal employment within 10 weeks postpartum, with over 90 % of these employed full-time. About one-third of the participants (32 %) were able to combine breastfeeding and employment, with breastfeeding defined as continuing for more than 2 weeks after returning to work postpartum. Later return to work and higher maternal education were associated with new mothers being able to combine breastfeeding and employment. Later return to work, shorter working hours, parental childcare, and higher maternal education were also associated with less likelihood of weaning from any or exclusive breastfeeding. Improvements in employment-related conditions for mothers and additional support for lower educated mothers may be effective strategies to enable employed women to continue breastfeeding after their return to work.

  1. Breastfeeding Knowledge and Practices among Mothers of Children under 2 Years of Age Living in a Military Barrack in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modupe Rebekah Akinyinka, MBBS, MPH, FMCPH

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human milk is uniquely superior as a source of nutrition for infants, and breastfeeding has many benefits. This study determined the breastfeeding knowledge and practices of women who have children aged 0-2 years living in a Naval Barracks. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among 220 women in a Naval Barracks selected using systematic random sampling method. Pre-tested questionnaires were administered by trained interviewers, and data was analyzed using Epi info 2000 and Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 19. Results: There was generally fair knowledge about breastfeeding among the women. Most of the respondents (97.3% had ever breastfed their babies, 56.5% of them initiated breastfeeding within an hour of delivery, 24.1% admitted that they gave pre-lacteal feeds, 74.1% practiced exclusive breastfeeding for a mean period of 4.98 months and 30.7% engaged in bottle-feeding. Several factors were significantly associated with breastfeeding practices. Conclusions: Breastfeeding practices varied among the respondents despite the fair knowledge. Global Health Implications: This study reveals the need to educate women and communities worldwide particularly in low-income countries about good breastfeeding practices. Targeting these women will help to improve maternal and child health.

  2. Health disparities and advertising content of women's magazines: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victorio Maria

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in health status among ethnic groups favor the Caucasian population in the United States on almost all major indicators. Disparities in exposure to health-related mass media messages may be among the environmental factors contributing to the racial and ethnic imbalance in health outcomes. This study evaluated whether variations exist in health-related advertisements and health promotion cues among lay magazines catering to Hispanic, African American and Caucasian women. Methods Relative and absolute assessments of all health-related advertising in 12 women's magazines over a three-month period were compared. The four highest circulating, general interest magazines oriented to Black women and to Hispanic women were compared to the four highest-circulating magazines aimed at a mainstream, predominantly White readership. Data were collected and analyzed in 2002 and 2003. Results Compared to readers of mainstream magazines, readers of African American and Hispanic magazines were exposed to proportionally fewer health-promoting advertisements and more health-diminishing advertisements. Photographs of African American role models were more often used to advertise products with negative health impact than positive health impact, while the reverse was true of Caucasian role models in the mainstream magazines. Conclusion To the extent that individual levels of health education and awareness can be influenced by advertising, variations in the quantity and content of health-related information among magazines read by different ethnic groups may contribute to racial disparities in health behaviors and health status.

  3. Compreendendo a prática do aleitamento exclusivo: um estudo junto a lactantes usuárias da rede de serviços em Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil Understanding exclusive breastfeeding practices: an exploratory study of lactating women using the health services network in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Tavares Machado

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: abordar percepções e vivências de mulheres que amamentaram exclusivamente por seis meses; retratar suas atitudes e o significado que a amamentação tem para elas, esclarecendo como se originou e se sustentou no grupo a prática da amamentação exclusiva. MÉTODOS: estudo qualitativo de investigação social, com enfoque crítico-interpretativo. A amostra foi composta por 13 lactantes, usuárias da rede de serviços de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. A técnica utilizada foi a entrevista individual em profundidade. RESULTADOS: evidenciou-se a complexidade do ato de amamentar, muitas vezes naturalizado e considerado como possível de ser vivenciado, independentemente do contexto social em que se desenvolve. O papel desempenhado pelos pais e avós mostrou-se um elemento importante no processo da amamentação. Constatou-se, que o sucesso do aleitamento materno teve como origem os significados construídos pelas informantes, ao longo de suas vidas e na própria vivência de lactante, na qual se processaram reinterpretações de concepções prévias às suas experiências com o ato de amamentar.. CONCLUSÕES: as experiências reportam à dimensão concreta da vida, na qual se inserem as relações estabelecidas com os serviços e os profissionais de saúde. A motivação e percepção do processo de amamentar ancoram-se em experiências inseridas em redes sócio-familiares, construtoras de autoconfiança, resultando numa determinação, que superam, os diferentes obstáculos apresentados para a conquista da amamentação.OBJECTIVES: this paper focus on perceptions and experiences of women who practiced exclusive breastfeeding for a minimum period of six months. We tried to understand their attitudes and what breastfeeding meant to them in an attempt to understand how this option took place and was maintained in the group making the decision of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: the study was oriented by social survey qualitative

  4. "If You're Fat, Then I'm Humongous!": Frequency, Content, and Impact of Fat Talk among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Rachel H.; Engeln-Maddox, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Fat talk (women speaking negatively about the size and shape of their bodies) is a phenomenon that both reflects and creates body dissatisfaction. Our study investigated the content, frequency, and impact of fat talk among college women. Participants (168 female students at a Midwestern U.S. university) completed online surveys containing fat…

  5. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

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    Full Text Available ... project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation ... story Partner resources Subscribe to It's Only Natural email updates. Enter ...

  6. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation ... story Partner resources Subscribe to It's Only Natural email updates. Enter ...

  7. Benefits of Breastfeeding

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    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ePublications News About Us Contact Us ...

  8. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

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  9. Benefits of Breastfeeding

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  10. Breastfeeding support for adolescent mothers: similarities and differences in the approach of midwives and qualified breastfeeding supporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burt Susan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding are now major public health priorities. It is well established that skilled support, voluntary or professional, proactively offered to women who want to breastfeed, can increase the initiation and/or duration of breastfeeding. Low levels of breastfeeding uptake and continuation amongst adolescent mothers in industrialised countries suggest that this is a group that is in particular need of breastfeeding support. Using qualitative methods, the present study aimed to investigate the similarities and differences in the approaches of midwives and qualified breastfeeding supporters (the Breastfeeding Network (BfN in supporting breastfeeding adolescent mothers. Methods The study was conducted in the North West of England between September 2001 and October 2002. The supportive approaches of 12 midwives and 12 BfN supporters were evaluated using vignettes, short descriptions of an event designed to obtain specific information from participants about their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to a particular situation. Responses to vignettes were analysed using thematic networks analysis, involving the extraction of basic themes by analysing each script line by line. The basic themes were then grouped to form organising themes and finally central global themes. Discussion and consensus was reached related to the systematic development of the three levels of theme. Results Five components of support were identified: emotional, esteem, instrumental, informational and network support. Whilst the supportive approaches of both groups incorporated elements of each of the five components of support, BfN supporters placed greater emphasis upon providing emotional and esteem support and highlighted the need to elicit the mothers' existing knowledge, checking understanding through use of open questions and utilising more tentative language. Midwives were more directive and gave more

  11. Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar G; Bahl, Rajiv; Barros, Aluísio J D; França, Giovanny V A; Horton, Susan; Krasevec, Julia; Murch, Simon; Sankar, Mari Jeeva; Walker, Neff; Rollins, Nigel C

    2016-01-30

    The importance of breastfeeding in low-income and middle-income countries is well recognised, but less consensus exists about its importance in high-income countries. In low-income and middle-income countries, only 37% of children younger than 6 months of age are exclusively breastfed. With few exceptions, breastfeeding duration is shorter in high-income countries than in those that are resource-poor. Our meta-analyses indicate protection against child infections and malocclusion, increases in intelligence, and probable reductions in overweight and diabetes. We did not find associations with allergic disorders such as asthma or with blood pressure or cholesterol, and we noted an increase in tooth decay with longer periods of breastfeeding. For nursing women, breastfeeding gave protection against breast cancer and it improved birth spacing, and it might also protect against ovarian cancer and type 2 diabetes. The scaling up of breastfeeding to a near universal level could prevent 823,000 annual deaths in children younger than 5 years and 20,000 annual deaths from breast cancer. Recent epidemiological and biological findings from during the past decade expand on the known benefits of breastfeeding for women and children, whether they are rich or poor. PMID:26869575

  12. Feelings expressed by women with hiv clinical unable to breastfeed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Larissa Andrade Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice are restricted conditions that no-indicated definitively the breastfeeding. Therefore, this study addresses the objectives: know the sentiments expressed by women with HIV clinical failure to breastfeed; describe the importance of the mother and child contact in breastfeeding, as well as reporting the alternatives encountered by mothers to compensate for the deprivation of this practice. Therefore this research is characterized as descriptive exploratory qualitative in nature. Taking as a sample 10 women who had already passed the period of breast feeding at the breast, using the Reference Center for STD / AIDS in the municipality of Jequié / Ba. The instrument for data collection was the form, which was filled from the signing of the term of Free and Informed Consent built for this purpose. Data analysis was submitted to the technical analysis of the Content of Bardin, from which emerged the categories and subcategories: Feelings (sadness, helplessness, shame, despair, guilt; importance of breastfeeding (prevention of diseases and exchange of affection and finally, strategy to compensate for the deprivation of breastfeeding (offering more care and attention. Given the foregoing concluded that the HIV positive mothers in addition to carrying this condition throughout his life, which has already lead to a significant blow in their emotions, they had to give up breastfeeding natural - by which time the woman was fully realizes mother - leading the lastimosas express the same experiences, mainly by various understand the benefits of breast milk as much as nutritional immunological and psychological for the baby. This reality serves as incentive for reflection on the part of health professionals to see these women on a holistic and natural in these children as defenceless beings who require more care and attention

  13. The role of support and other factors in early breastfeeding cessation: an analysis of data from a maternity survey in England

    OpenAIRE

    Oakley, L; L.; Henderson, J.; M. Redshaw; Quigley, M

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the majority of women in England initiate breastfeeding, approximately one third cease breastfeeding by six weeks and many of these women report they would like to have breastfed for longer. Methods Data from a survey of women ≥16 years who gave birth to singleton term infants in 2009 in England; questionnaires were completed approximately three months postnatally. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between postnatal support and other fa...

  14. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ Moms- ... and raw sprouts. Do not eat these foods. Food safety advice when you are pregnant Follow the food ...

  15. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MyPlate What Is MyPlate? Fruits All About the Fruit Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Tips to Help You Eat Fruits Food ... Updated: Feb 2, 2016 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy Oils ONLINE TOOLS ...

  16. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ ... and raw sprouts. Do not eat these foods. Food safety advice when you are pregnant Follow the ...

  17. IMPACT OF ANTENATAL COUNSELLING ON KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE REGARDING BREASTFEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Manjula

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of several studies from India and other countries with high under 5 mortality rates, there is a need for strategies to save children from preventable causes of death. Ensuring safe infant feeding by promoting breastfeeding is the most practical and viable of such strategies. However, lack of knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding on the part of the mothers as well as health care providers has led to faulty infant feeding practices taking a toll in the developing countries. There is a definite need for interventions that improve the knowledge of the mothers regarding ideal breastfeeding practices. The present study attempts to evaluate the usefulness of trained, semi-skilled lactation counsellors in positively influencing the knowledge, attitude and practices of breastfeeding mothers. AIMS To assess the impact of antenatal counselling on the knowledge, attitude and practice of breastfeeding mothers. MATERIAL AND METHODS It is a single centre cross sectional questionnaire based study. Pregnant Mothers admitted in OBG Department of Gandhi Hospital are included in the Study; 600 pregnant women recruited were divided into groups A and B with 300 subjects in each group. Women in group B were given a brief structured lactation counselling on a one-to-one basis by trained, semi-skilled lactation counsellors just before delivery. Both groups were interviewed after delivery using an identical questionnaire to assess their knowledge, atti tude and practice regarding breastfeeding. The responses were statistically analysed using an open Epi Info method. RESULTS In the Counselled group there is a significant positive impact on mothers in all parameters of breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS 1. Antenatal counselling by trained lactation counsellors plays a significant positive impact on the knowledge, attitude and practices of breastfeeding mothers. 2. Lactation Counsellors may be from the community with comprehensive training from paediatricians.

  18. Attitudes of Saudi mothers towards breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshebly, Mashael; Sobaih, Badr

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the practice and attitudes of Saudi mothers towards breastfeeding. A cross-sectional survey done on a total of 517 Saudi mothers using a questionnaire inquiring about their demographic data, breastfeeding practice in the first 6 months after delivery and longer, different reasons for stopping breastfeeding. Furthermore, their impression on the relation between breastfeeding and breast cancer as well as prevention of infant's allergic and infectious diseases. Only 37.5% of the mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. 31.9% of the mothers continued breastfeeding until 9-12 months, and only 23% continued until 18-24 months. Insufficient breast milk was the commonest reason for stopping breastfeeding (25.9%). The vast majority of the mothers (95.2%) believe that breast milk can prevent allergy and infection to their infants, and 88.4% agreed that breastfeeding may decrease the risk of breast cancer. 30% of mothers with higher income and higher socio-economic class tend to have less compliance with breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months lag far behind the WHO recommendation. There is a major problem with adequacy of breast milk production in the majority of mothers in this study which might indicate the need for proper awareness and teaching programs regarding breastfeeding in our community. PMID:27651551

  19. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation.

  20. Human milk benefits and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Anatolitou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is uniquely superior for infant feeding and represents the perfect example of individualization in Pediatrics. Human milk is not a uniform body fluid but a secretion of the mammary gland of changing composition. Foremilk differs from hindmilk, and colostrum is strikingly different from transitional and mature milk. Milk changes with time of day and during the course of lactation. Extensive research has demonstrated health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychological, social, economic and environmental benefits of human milk. Breastfeeding results in improved infant and maternal health outcomes in both the industrialized and developing world. Some specific topics will be discussed such as the preventive effect of human milk on infections, overweight, obesity and diabetes, malignant disease, neurodevelopmental outcomes, reduction of necrotizing enterocolitis. Important health benefits of breastfeeding and lactation are also described for mothers. Finally, contraindications to breastfeeding and supplementation of breastfed infants are presented. Interventions to promote breastfeeding are relatively simple and inexpensive. Infant feeding should not be regarded as a lifestyle choice but rather as a basic health issue.

  1. [Myths and beliefs surrounding breastfeeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Emanuele Souza; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2011-05-01

    The scope of this work was to analyze the main myths and beliefs surrounding breastfeeding for the theoretical-practical perspective of the various studies extant in the literature. The studies were obtained by bibliographical surveys in the main databases (Medline, Lilacs, scielo), retrieved using the key words "Breastfeeding," "Weaning," "Myths" and "Beliefs" (and their versions in English and Spanish). Books, theories, dissertations and publications in international and national organs were also consulted. It was seen that over the centuries there have been doubts surrounding the correct form of suckling newborns based on concepts that include biological aspects and socio-cultural determinants. It was seen that various myths and beliefs surrounding suckling generate either feelings of guilt, anxiety, or feelings of trust and support in the breastfeeding mother with respect to her capacity to produce breast milk. In this respect, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to understand suckling from the maternal standpoint, dispelling myths and beliefs, altering outlooks, in such a way as to comprehend the various factors present in suckling, acting in a more effective way for prolongation and maintenance of breastfeeding. PMID:21655719

  2. Breastfeeding. COTALMA: training health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas, M C

    1994-01-01

    The Comite Tecnico de Apoyo a la Lactancia Materna (COTALMA), the Technical Breastfeeding Support Committee, was founded in Bolivia in 1989. It is financed by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). It is administered in coordination with the Ministry of Health (MOH). MOH and UNICEF choose the hospitals, who send teams that include a pediatrician, a gynecologist, a nurse, and a nutritionist. The first phase of the course (5.5 days) covers the scientific background of breastfeeding. A baseline study is then planned and conducted at each hospital. 2 to 3 months later, the second phase takes place during which data is presented and breast feeding programs are developed for each hospital. Communication, training, counseling, and planning and evaluation are covered. Practicums are conducted at hospitals. Trainers are usually members of COTALMA. The person in charge of maternal and child health services at MOH lectures on national health policies concerning mothers and children. Training includes use of the national health card, breastfeeding and child survival, and breastfeeding as a family planning method. Culturally appropriate course materials, which are in Spanish, are adapted from those developed by Wellstart International. Articles by COTALMA members and others are added. Participants are encouraged to train all staff at their institutions. PMID:12287930

  3. Benefits of Breastfeeding

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    Full Text Available ... of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top ... at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. • Washington, DC 20201 800- ...

  4. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

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    Full Text Available ... of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top ... at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. • Washington, DC 20201 800- ...

  5. Benefits of Breastfeeding

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  6. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

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    Full Text Available ... project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip ... Health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. • Washington, DC 20201 ...

  7. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

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    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ... of the Assistant Secretary for Health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence ...

  8. Benefits of Breastfeeding

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    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ... of the Assistant Secretary for Health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence ...

  9. Padrão de aleitamento materno no primeiro mês de vida em mulheres submetidas a cirurgia de redução de mamas e implantes Breastfeeding pattern in the first month of life in women submitted to breast reduction and augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Aparecida de Andrade

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o padrão de aleitamento materno no primeiro mês de vida da criança em mulheres que se submeteram a dois tipos de cirurgias mamárias - redução e implante - e comparar com o padrão praticado por mulheres que não se submeteram às cirurgias. MÉTODOS: Coorte prospectiva controlada com 25 mulheres submetidas a cirurgia redutora, 24 a cirurgia de implante e 25 sem cirurgia de mama, que tiveram seus filhos no Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo (SP. Os dados foram coletados por meio de avaliações realizadas entre 48 e 72 horas, entre os quinto e sétimo dias e 30 dias após o parto. Para análise dos dados, usaram-se os testes qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher, curva de Kaplan-Meier e regressão de Cox. RESULTADOS: A probabilidade de uma criança estar em aleitamento exclusivo no final do primeiro mês de vida foi de 29% em mulheres com cirurgia redutora e 54% nas com cirurgia de implante, e 80% nas mulheres sem cirurgia. A probabilidade do aleitamento misto estar presente neste mesmo período foi de 68% entre mães com cirurgia de redução, 32% com cirurgia de implante e apenas 16% entre as mulheres sem cirurgia mamária. O risco de uma criança estar em aleitamento não exclusivo foi cinco vezes maior entre mães do grupo submetido a redução, quando comparado àquelas do grupo sem cirurgia (p = 0,002. Para o grupo de mulheres com implante, o risco de uma criança estar em aleitamento não exclusivo foi 2,6 vezes aquele observado entre crianças cujas mães fazem parte do grupo sem cirurgia (p = 0,075. CONCLUSÃO: A cirurgia redutora de mama e de implante refletiu em menor taxa de aleitamento materno exclusivo no primeiro mês de vida da criança.OBJECTIVE: To describe the breastfeeding pattern in the first month of life in women submitted to two types of surgery - breast reduction and augmentation - and to compare it with the pattern exhibited by women who had no surgery. METHODS: Controlled prospective cohort

  10. Exclusive breastfeeding practice in Nigeria: a bayesian stepwise regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayawan, Ezra; Adebayo, Samson B; Chitekwe, Stanley

    2014-11-01

    Despite the importance of breast milk, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in Nigeria is far lower than what has been recommended for developing countries. Worse still, the practise has been on downward trend in the country recently. This study was aimed at investigating the determinants and geographical variations of EBF in Nigeria. Any intervention programme would require a good knowledge of factors that enhance the practise. A pooled data set from Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 1999, 2003, and 2008 were analyzed using a Bayesian stepwise approach that involves simultaneous selection of variables and smoothing parameters. Further, the approach allows for geographical variations at a highly disaggregated level of states to be investigated. Within a Bayesian context, appropriate priors are assigned on all the parameters and functions. Findings reveal that education of women and their partners, place of delivery, mother's age at birth, and current age of child are associated with increasing prevalence of EBF. However, visits for antenatal care during pregnancy are not associated with EBF in Nigeria. Further, results reveal considerable geographical variations in the practise of EBF. The likelihood of exclusively breastfeeding children are significantly higher in Kwara, Kogi, Osun, and Oyo states but lower in Jigawa, Katsina, and Yobe. Intensive interventions that can lead to improved practise are required in all states in Nigeria. The importance of breastfeeding needs to be emphasized to women during antenatal visits as this can encourage and enhance the practise after delivery. PMID:24619227

  11. Factors that intervene in exclusive breastfeeding: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Corrêa Porto de Abreu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Early weaning is still very present in Brazil, despite the investments in promoting, supporting and protecting breastfeeding. This current integrative review of qualitative researches characterized the factors that intervene in the early weaning and identified the collaborative nuclei for its prevention. Fourteen primary researches composed this study, through a research developed in the following databases: BDENF, LILACS, MEDLINE, and SCIENCE DIRECT, with the descriptors: Breast Feeding, Weaning, and Nursing. Early weaning is related to the socioeconomic context, working mom, previous experiences, and breast problems. These are all considered in the decision-making on weaning. Health professionals need to review their practices to encourage and support breastfeeding, aiming to develop them in an individual and dialogued way together with the women and her family.

  12. The impact of cosmetic breast implants on breastfeeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schiff, Michal; Algert, Charles S; Ampt, Amanda; Sywak, Mark S.; Roberts, Christine L

    2014-01-01

    Background Cosmetic breast augmentation (breast implants) is one of the most common plastic surgery procedures worldwide and uptake in high income countries has increased in the last two decades. Women need information about all associated outcomes in order to make an informed decision regarding whether to undergo cosmetic breast surgery. We conducted a systematic review to assess breastfeeding outcomes among women with breast implants compared to women without. Methods A systematic literatur...

  13. Are fathers underused advocates for breastfeeding?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenosi, M

    2011-11-01

    Fathers\\' knowledge base and attitudes influence breastfeeding practice. We aimed to evaluate if Irish fathers felt included in the breastfeeding education and decision process. 67 fathers completed questionnaires, which assessed their role in the decision to breastfeed, knowledge regarding the benefits of breastfeeding and attitude towards breastfeeding.Forty-two (62.7%) of their partners were breastfeeding. Antenatal classes were attended by 38 (56.7%); 59 (88.1%) discussed breastfeeding with their partners and 26 (38.8%) felt that the decision was made together. Twelve (48%) fathers of formula fed infants were unaware that breastfeeding was healthier for the baby. Most fathers (80.6%) felt that breastfeeding was the mother\\'s decision and most (82.1%) felt that antenatal information was aimed at mothers only. Irish fathers remain relatively uninformed regarding the benefits of breastfeeding. This may contribute to their exclusion from the decision to breastfeed. Antenatal education should incorporate fathers more, and this may result in an improvement in our breastfeeding rates.

  14. "She would sit with me": mothers' experiences of individual peer support for exclusive breastfeeding in Uganda

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    Nankabirwa Victoria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different strategies have been used to improve the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Peer counsellors are reported to improve exclusive breastfeeding levels, but few studies have assessed the satisfaction of women with the support given, especially in Africa. In this paper we describe women's experiences of peer counselling for exclusive breastfeeding in an East African setting. Methods In the Ugandan site of PROMISE-EBF, a multi-centre community randomised trial to evaluate the effect of peer counselling for exclusive breastfeeding on infant health, 370 women in the intervention arm participated in a study exit interview. Individual peer counselling was offered to women in 12 of the 24 study clusters, scheduled as five visits: before childbirth and during weeks 1, 4, 7 and 10 after childbirth. During the visits, the women were given information and skills to help them breastfeed exclusively. After the 10-week visit, they were interviewed about their feelings and experiences related to the peer counselling. Results Overall, more than 95% of the women expressed satisfaction with the various aspects of peer counselling offered. Those who had received five or more visits were more likely to give positive responses about their experience with peer counselling than those who had received fewer visits. They explained their satisfaction with time spent with the peer counsellor in terms of how much she discussed with them. Most women felt their knowledge needs about breastfeeding were covered by the peer counsellors, while others expressed a desire to learn about complementary feeding and family planning. Attributes of the peer counsellors included their friendliness, being women and giving support in a familiar and relaxed way. Women were positive about the acquisition of knowledge and the benefit to their babies from the peer counselling. They preferred a peer counsellor to a health worker for support of exclusive

  15. Benefits of Breastfeeding

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    Full Text Available ... unique ways that breast milk can impact your child’s health and reduce the risks of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), asthma, obesity, and other health conditions. Content last updated: January ...

  16. Antioxidant Vitamin (E&C Contents in Colostrum of Bangladeshi Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubena Haque

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colostrum is the first product of lactation and can be considered as first vaccine for newborns. It contains numerous nutrients as well as antioxidant vitamins necessary for newborns. Objective: The aim of the study was to measure the antioxidant vitamin (vitamins E and C contents in colostrum and to compare them with the nutritional status, age and parity of the lactating mothers and birth weight of the babies. Materials and method: In this cross sectional study antioxidant vitamins E and C of colostrum of seventy six post-partum mothers were estimated irrespective of their age, parity, socioeconomic and nutritional status. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC was employed to analyze the colostral content of vitamin E and spectrophotometric method was used for estimation of vitamin C (ascorbic acid level. These levels were then compared against maternal and fetal characteristics. Results: The mean concentration (±SD of vitamin E and C were 519.809(±1.16 μgm/dl and 1.33(±0.076 mg/dl respectively. No significant relationship was found between maternal age, parity, BMI or birth weight of the baby and the colostral content of vitamin E and C. Conclusion: Colostrum of Bangladeshi women are rich in antioxidant vitamins and not dependent on sociodemographic variables of mothers and / or birth weight of baby.

  17. Breastfeeding and weaning: a look on the experiences of nurses who are mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Caroline Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One aimed to understand the experience of children’s breastfeeding and weaning by nurses who are mothers. Descriptive, exploratory study with a qualitative approach, performed in Maringá, PA, Brazil, with 10 nurses who are mothers, selected by the snowball method between November 2011 and January 2012. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the content analysis technique. Three categories emerged: understanding the process of pregnancy and breastfeeding in the life context of nurses who are mothers; Outlining the weaning process from the perspective of nurses who are mothers; Breastfeeding and the professional demands of nurses who are mothers: motivations and strategies used for weaning. It was considered that returning to work was the main reason for early weaning, resulting in feelings of frustration by nurses who are mothers for not following the recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding up to the sixth month, in terms of personal experience.

  18. Moderation of Breastfeeding Effects on Adult Depression by Estrogen Receptor Gene Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Merjonen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is known to benefit both the mother’s and the child’s health. Our aim was to test the interactive effects between estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1 rs2234693 and breastfeeding when predicting the child’s later depression in adulthood. A sample of 1209 boys and girls from the Young Finns Study were followed from childhood over 27 years up to age 30–45 years. Adulthood depressive symptoms were self-reported by the participants using the Beck Depression Inventory. Breastfeeding as well as several possibly confounding factors was reported by the parents in childhood or adolescence. Breastfeeding tended to predict lower adult depression, while ESR1 rs2234693 was not associated with depression. A significant interaction between breastfeeding and ESR1 was found to predict participants’ depression (P=.004 so that C/C genotype carriers who had not been breastfed had higher risk of depression than T-allele carriers (40.5% versus 13.0% while there were no genotypic differences among those who had been breastfed. In sex-specific analysis, this interaction was evident only among women. We conclude that child’s genes and maternal behavior may interact in the development of child’s adult depression so that breastfeeding may buffer the inherited depression risk possibly associated with the C/C genotype of the ESR1 gene.

  19. Longer Breastfeeding in Infancy Decreases Systolic Hypertension Risk in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rak Karolina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies show that breastfeeding is associated with numerous direct and indirect health benefits for children in later life, although the relationship between breastfeeding and cardiovascular risk is still equivocal. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between duration of breastfeeding and cardiovascular risk in young adults. The cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of 128 volunteers (71 women and 57 men at the age of 19 years. It consisted of a questionnaire, together with anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. It was demonstrated that 90.3% of the participants had been breastfed and the mean duration of breastfeeding was 8.8±7.6 months. Participants who were breastfed for longer than six months had a significantly lower systolic blood pressure than those breastfed for less than six months. Results of analyses were consistent for the female group, the male group and the combined group. The results suggest that breastfeeding for longer than six months decreases systolic hypertension risk in young adults. The promotion of breastfeeding may decrease the rate of cardiovascular disease and thus improve health status of the population.

  20. Clinical Management of the Breast-Feeding Mother-Infant Dyad in Recovery From Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Deborah W

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is one of the most health-promoting and cost-effective nutritional substances known to humankind. Breastmilk provides substantial and remarkable physiological and psychological health benefits. Within the last decade, there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the United States and worldwide and an increased awareness of the immense health benefits for mothers, infants, and societies that support it. Each mother-baby dyad is a unique pair, with distinct relationships, biases, barriers, and obstacles. This article aims to address clinical management for the opioid-recovering breast-feeding dyad and to translate current evidenced-based practice findings, recommendations, and resources to best support this unique population. The recovering breast-feeding mother and newborn with opioid dependence deserve special consideration and expert care to foster their recovery and breast-feeding efforts. It is our moral and ethical responsibility as healthcare professionals to enable, foster, and promote breast-feeding among all families, especially those who stand to benefit the greatest. Substance recovery cannot be treated in isolation, nor can breast-feeding efforts; an interdisciplinary professional team effort promises the greatest chances for recovery success. With appropriate evidence-based practice support, training, and intervention by knowledgeable professionals, many women can overcome the biases and obstacles associated with opioid recovery to successfully breast-feed their babies. PMID:27272990

  1. Breast-feeding: nature's contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, R V

    1985-01-01

    Our ancestors achieved the lowest rate of reproduction of any living mammal by the postponement of puberty until well into the 2nd decade of life, a maximal probability of conception of only about 24% per menstrual cycle even when ovulation had commenced, a 4-year birth interval as a result of the contraceptive effects of breastfeeding, and sharply declining fertility during the 4th decade of life, leading to complete sterility at the menopause. This pattern of reproduction was ideally suited to the prevailing lifestyle of the nomadic hunter-gatherer. The postponement of puberty resulted in a prolonged period of childhood dependency, thus enabling parents to transmit their acquired experience to their offspring. Long birth intervals were essential for a woman who had to wander 1000 or more miles each year in search of food, because she could not manage to carry more than 1 child with her at a time. The lifestyle of comparatively recent times of a settled agricultural economy made possible subsequent rural and urban development, but this transition from nomad to city dweller also stimulated fertility. The cultivation of crops and the domestication of animals led to the development of permanent housing, where the mother could leave her baby in a safe place while she worked in the field. The resultant reduction in mother-infant contact coupled with the availability of early weaning foods reduced the suckling frequency, thereby eroding the contraceptive effect of breastfeeding and decreasing the birth interval. The model conquest of disease eventually led to rapid rates of population growth. In the developed countries of Europe and North America, reproduction was subsequently held in check by the use of artificial forms of contraception, but this has yet to take place in the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and South America. For a developing country, contraceptives are expensive, may be culturally unacceptable, and carry health risks. Breastfeeding is 1 form of

  2. Constraints to exclusive breastfeeding practice among breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Nigeria: implications for scaling up

    OpenAIRE

    Agunbiade Ojo M; Ogunleye Opeyemi V

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The practice of exclusive breastfeeding is still low despite the associated benefits. Improving the uptake and appropriating the benefits will require an understanding of breastfeeding as an embodied experience within a social context. This study investigates breastfeeding practices and experiences of nursing mothers and the roles of grandmothers, as well as the work-related constraints affecting nurses in providing quality support for breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Ni...

  3. When Breast-feeding is not Contraindicated: Do you know when to stop breast-feeding?

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Jack

    1991-01-01

    As more mothers elect to breast-feed, more concomitant problems in mothers and babies are reported that are thought to contraindicate breast-feeding. Many frequently cited maternal and infant reasons for stopping breast-feeding are not valid. Breast-feeding can usually be maintained if the physician remembers that breast-feeding is important for the baby and mother and not simply another feeding method.

  4. Constraints to exclusive breastfeeding practice among breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Nigeria: implications for scaling up

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    Agunbiade Ojo M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of exclusive breastfeeding is still low despite the associated benefits. Improving the uptake and appropriating the benefits will require an understanding of breastfeeding as an embodied experience within a social context. This study investigates breastfeeding practices and experiences of nursing mothers and the roles of grandmothers, as well as the work-related constraints affecting nurses in providing quality support for breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Nigeria. Methods Using a concurrent mixed method approach, a structured questionnaire was administered to 200 breastfeeding mothers. In-depth interviews were also held with breastfeeding mothers (11, nurses (10 and a focus group discussion session with grandmothers. Results Breastfeeding was perceived as essential to baby's health. It strengthens the physical and spiritual bond between mothers and their children. Exclusive breastfeeding was considered essential but demanding. Only a small proportion (19% of the nursing mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding. The survey showed the major constraints to exclusive breastfeeding to be: the perception that babies continued to be hungry after breastfeeding (29%; maternal health problems (26%; fear of babies becoming addicted to breast milk (26%; pressure from mother-in-law (25%; pains in the breast (25%; and the need to return to work (24%. In addition, the qualitative findings showed that significant others played dual roles with consequences on breastfeeding practices. The desire to practice exclusive breastfeeding was often compromised shortly after child delivery. Poor feeding, inadequate support from husband and conflicting positions from the significant others were dominant constraints. The nurses decried the effects of their workload on providing quality supports for nursing mothers. Conclusion Breastfeeding mothers are faced with multiple challenges as they strive to practice exclusive breastfeeding. Thus

  5. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

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    Mônica Oliveira B. Oriá

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches of Portuguese-language sources. Articles were organized and analyzed chronologically by comparing the evolution of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Program. The incomplete research output of the Brazilian nursing profession in regard to breastfeeding research needs to be addressed. In addition, specific cultural, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Brazilian regional settings remain to be explored. Emphasis on potential confounders and critical interrelations is warranted.

  6. Factors influencing breastfeeding preparedness among primigravidae attending antenatal clinic, at university of Port Harcourt teaching hospital, Rivers state, Nigeria

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    Robinson-Bassey G. C.

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Based on these findings it was recommended among others that midwives should be involved in appropriate education of expectant mothers especially new ones to help improve breastfeeding preparedness among them; women should be engaged in occupation that allow them enough time to breastfeed and employers should make adequate provisions for breastfeeding mothers in order to encourage them. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1071-1076

  7. When breastfeeding is unsuccessful--mothers' experiences after giving up breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jette Schilling; Kronborg, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Some mothers have to give up breastfeeding even though they want to breastfeed. To give up breastfeeding can be a sensitive issue in a time when breastfeeding is promoted as the healthiest for mother and child. The aim of this study was to describe mothers’ experiences after they gave up breastfe...

  8. Are Breastfeeding Patterns in Pakistan Changing?

    OpenAIRE

    Zubeda Khan

    1991-01-01

    Prolonged breastfeeding, apart from being beneficial to the child's health, helps in keeping the birth rate low. One of the effects of malnutrition in developing countries is the reduction in the period of lactation. In Pakistan, where the birth rate is already very high and the use of contraceptives limited, any reduction in the breastfeeding period may result in an increase of the birth rate. This study was undertaken to find out the recent changes in the breastfeeding pattern and their pot...

  9. The effects of frenotomy on breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Lopes de Castro MARTINELLI; MARCHESAN, Irene Queiroz; Gusmão, Reinaldo Jordão; Honório, Heitor Marques; BERRETIN-FELIX, Giédre

    2015-01-01

    Although the interference of tongue-tie with breastfeeding is a controversial subject, The use of lingual frenotomy has been widely indicated by health professionals. Objective : To observe changes in breastfeeding patterns after lingual frenotomy concerning the number of sucks, pause length between groups of sucking and mother's complaints. Material and Methods : Oral yes/no questions about breastfeeding symptoms and sucking/swallowing/breathing coordination were answered by the mothers of 1...

  10. Breastfeeding Practices and Parental Employment in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Miki; Usui, Emiko

    2014-01-01

    Much research shows that breastfeeding provides short- and long-term health benefits for both mothers and their children. However, few studies have yet investigated the factors which may promote or inhibit breastfeeding practices in Japan. To fill this research gap, this paper uses data newly gathered in 2012 on breastfeeding initiation and duration for each child of each mother, which enable us to estimate mother fixed-effects models that control for unobserved differences among mothers. Com...

  11. Do tongue ties affect breastfeeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, D Mervyn

    2004-11-01

    This study assessed indications for and safety and outcome of simple division of tongue tie without an anesthetic. There were 215 infants younger than 3 months (mean 0-19 days) who had major problems breastfeeding, despite professional support. Symptoms, tongue tie details, safety of division, and complications were recorded. Feeding was assessed by the mothers immediately, at 24 hours, and 3 months after division. Prior to division, 88% had difficulty latching, 77% of mothers experienced nipple trauma, and 72% had a continuous feeding cycle. During division, 18% slept throughout; 60% cried more after division (mean 0-15 seconds). There were no significant complications. Within 24 hours, 80% were feeding better. Overall, 64% breastfed for at least 3 months (UK national average is 30%). Initial assessment, diagnosis, and help, followed by division and subsequent support by a qualified lactation consultant, might ensure that even more mothers and infants benefit from breastfeeding. PMID:15479660

  12. Global trends in exclusive breastfeeding

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    Cai Xiaodong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant and young child feeding is critical for child health and survival. Proportion of infants 0–5 months who are fed exclusively with breast milk is a common indicator used for monitoring and evaluating infant and young child feeding in a given country and region. Despite progress made since 1990, a previous review in 2006 of global and regional trends found improvement to be modest. The current study provides an update in global and regional trends in exclusive breastfeeding from 1995 to 2010, taking advantage of the wealth of data from recent household surveys. Methods Using the global database of infant and young child feeding maintained by the United Nations Children’s Fund, the authors examined estimates from 440 household surveys in 140 countries over the period between 1995 and 2010 and calculated global and regional averages of the rate of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0–5 months for the two time points to assess the trends. Results Trend data suggest the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among infants younger than six months in developing countries increased from 33% in 1995 to 39% in 2010. The prevalence increased in almost all regions in the developing world, with the biggest improvement seen in West and Central Africa. Conclusions In spite of the well-recognized importance of exclusive breastfeeding, the practice is not widespread in the developing world and increase on the global level is still very modest with much room for improvement. Child nutrition programmes worldwide continue to require investments and commitments to improve infant feeding practices in order to have maximum impact on children’s lives.

  13. HIV testing in the maternity ward and the start of breastfeeding: a survival analysis

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    Glaucia T. Possolli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that influence of the time between birth and the beginning of breastfeeding, especially at the moment of the rapid HIV test results at hospital admission for delivery.METHODS: Cohort study of 932 pregnant women who underwent rapid HIV test admitted in the hospital for delivery in Baby-Friendly Hospitals. The survival curves of time from birth to the first feeding were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the joint effect of independent variables by the Cox model with a hierarchical analysis. As the survival curves were not homogeneous among the five hospitals, hindering the principle of proportionality of risks, the data were divided into two groups according to the median time of onset of breastfeeding at birth in women undergoing rapid HIV testing.RESULTS: Hospitals with median time to breastfeeding onset at birth of up to 60 min were considered as early breastfeeding onset and those with higher medians were considered as late breastfeeding onset at birth. Risk factors common to hospitals considered to be with early and late breastfeeding onset at birth were: cesarean section (RR = 1.75 [95% CI: 1.38-2.22]; RR = 3.83 [95% CI: 3.03-4.85] and rapid test result after birth (RR = 1.45 [95% CI: 1.12-1.89]; RR = 1.65 [95% CI: 1.35-2.02], respectively; and hospitals with late onset: starting prenatal care in the third trimester (RR = 1.86 [95% CI: 1.16-2.97].CONCLUSIONS: The onset of breastfeeding is postponed, even in Baby-Friendly Hospitals, when the results of the rapid HIV test requested in the maternity are not available at the time of delivery.

  14. Breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and practice among school teachers in Abha female educational district, southwestern Saudi Arabia

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    Al-Binali Ali Mohamed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate knowledge, or inappropriate practice, of breastfeeding may lead to undesirable consequences. The aim of this study was to assess breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP among female teachers in the Abha Female Educational District and identify factors that may affect breastfeeding practice in the study population. Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among school teachers in Abha Female Educational District during the months of April to June, 2011. Breastfeeding KAP of participants who had at least one child aged five years or younger at the time of the study were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire, based on their experience with the last child. Results A total of 384 women made up of 246 (61.1% primary-, 89 (23.2% intermediate- and 49 (12.8% high-school teachers participated in the study. One hundred and nineteen participants (31% started breastfeeding their children within one hour of delivery, while exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was reported only by 32 (8.3% participants. Insufficient breast milk and work related problems were the main reasons given by 169 (44% and 148 (38.5% of participants, respectively, for stopping breastfeeding before two years. Only 33 participants (8.6% had attended classes related to breastfeeding. However, 261 participants (68% indicated the willingness to attend such classes, if available, in future pregnancies. Conclusions This study revealed that breast milk insufficiency and adverse work related issues were the main reasons for a very low rate of exclusive breastfeeding among female school teachers in Abha female educational district, Saudi Arabia. A very low rate of attending classes addressing the breastfeeding issues during pregnancy, and an alarming finding of a high percentage of babies receiving readymade liquid formula while still in hospital, were also brought out by the present study. Such

  15. Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses

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    Glenn Wendy K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer. We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast milk. Methods We conducted a prospective review of 100 consecutive births of infants in the same centre to determine the proportion of newborn infants who were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk, as distinct from being fully breast fed. We also report a review of the breastfeeding practices of mothers of over 87,000 newborn infants in the Australian State of New South Wales. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia. Approval 05063, 29 September 2005. Results Virtually all (97 of 100 newborn infants in this centre were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk whether or not they were fully breast fed. Between 82.2% to 98.7% of 87,000 newborn infants were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk. Conclusion In some Western communities there is near universal exposure of new born infants to colostrum and breast milk. Accordingly it is possible for the transmission of human milk borne viruses. This is contrary to the widespread assumption that human milk borne viruses cannot be associated with breast cancer.

  16. The promotion of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluhungwa, R R; Yung, W

    1979-01-01

    To reverse the current trend of a significant decline worldwide in breast feeding means reeducation of medical and health personnel as well as the general public. Programs to promote breast feeding require the commitment of governments, with support from various ministries including health, education, labor, community development and judiciary. Examples of what 3 developing countries--Jamaica, Colombia and Thailand--are doing to promote breast feeding are reported. A large scale breast feeding campaign was launched in Jamaica in October 1977. The 3 phases of the campaign were: 1) preliminary surveys and research and motivation of professional, voluntary and extension groups through training seminars, panel discussions, and meetings; 2) promotion of breast feeding via mass media and motivation of target groups by trained personnel; and 3) evaluation of the campaign. A survey undertaken in 1978 showed that the breast feeding messages had achieved the desired effect--more mothers practiced breast feeding. In Colombia the breast feeding campaign emphasized non-formal education through the use of games and pictures. A game is used which is usually initiated by a health worker in the waiting room of a health center and involves the mothers, the general public, and sometimes the professional personnel. Through reading and interpreting rhymed breast feeding messages, the participants exchange opinions and experiences. Before starting a campaign to encourage low-income urban and semi-urban mothers to breast feed, the National Food and Nutrition Committee of Thailand pretested slogans and posters designed for the promotion of breast feeding. Posters develpoed in accordance with the suggestions made by the women were tested among 126 pregnant and lactating women. The Committee decided which picture to print for low-income and rural audiences and which to print for middle-class audiences. PMID:12336781

  17. Changes of serum and chorion-villi contents of EGF in early pregnant women undergone artificial abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum and chorion-villi contents of EGF in pregnant women undergone artificial abortion with drug (mifepristone) or surgery (curettage). Methods: Serum epidermal growth factor (EGF), E2, progesterone levels changes as well as chorion-villi EGF contents were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with drug abortion (before and after mifepristone 25mg bid x 3 days), 30 pregnant women undergone curettage (determined twice, 3 days apart) and 32 controls (serum only). Results: Serum EGF, E2, and progesterone contents in all pregnant women were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). The chorion-villi contents of EGF in patients undergone drug abortion were significantly lower than those in patients undergone curettage (P<0.05). Both serum EGF and progesterone contents dropped after 3 days treatment with mifepristone (vs those in curettage group, P<0.05). Conclusion: Mifepristone might exert the effect of abortion through decrease of EGF levels, which was detrimental to fetus growth. (authors)

  18. Early termination of breastfeeding among Philippine urban poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, G M; Guthrie, H A; Fernandez, T L; Estrera, N

    1983-01-01

    The research objective was to identify factors that caused mothers to terminate breastfeeding prematurely, i.e., before the infant reached his or her 1st birthday. Nursing for at least 1 year was a minimum goal of health authorities in the area of this research. The study was conducted in 2 urban poor areas and in 2 fringe squatter settlements of Cebu City, a metropolitan area of 500,000 people in the central Philippines. The data were collected by 2 women field workers. The 130 participants, who were within 3 months of delivery, pre- or postpartum were recruited in 1979. They were visited in their homes once a month by the worker who weighed the mother and the baby, inquired about their diets, and recorded breastfeeding experiences and plans. Special attention was given to any problems the mothers were having that might interfere with continued nursing. Other than encouraging mothers to use the local health center, workers did not intervene to support breastfeeding. The mothers were followed for at least the crucial 1st 6 months. Many were followed for a year or more. Of those who agreed to participate prior to delivery, and who composed 1/3 of the total group, some 95% initiated breastfeeding. Of the 3 who did not, 2 tried to nurse but gave up when the newborn showed persistent diarrhea. Between 10-20% of babies were on a mixed diet of breast and bottle feeding, some beginning as early as the 1st month when mothers returned to part-time work. Other mothers, feeling that the babies were not getting enough to eat, added bottles regularly. This pattern did not necessarily lead to the early termination of breastfeeding. With the exception of 2 instances when mothers decided that their babies were big enough to get along without breast milk, the mothers were forced by circumstances as they perceived them to wean the child. Almost all the terminations were abrupt, with the mother continuing to have an adequate supply of milk. The insufficient milk situation reported by

  19. Exclusive breastfeeding practices reported by mothers and the introduction of additional liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Marcuz de Souza Campos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the concept of exclusive breastfeeding held by nursing women by comparing the period they consider that they perform it and the infants' age at the introduction of additional liquids. METHOD: Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with 309 women who delivered babies at a university hospital in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. The data were subjected to descriptive analysis; the variables of interest were crossed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test, the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Approximately 30% of the women reported having introduced additional liquids before the infants reached aged six months old, while asserting that they were performing exclusive breastfeeding. The following variables were associated with early introduction of liquids: lack of employment (p = 0.0386, younger maternal age (p = 0.0159 and first pregnancy (p = 0.003. CONCLUSION: The concept of exclusive breastfeeding might not be fully clear to women, as they seem to believe that it means not to feed the children other types of milk but that giving other liquids is allowed. These results show that promotion of breastfeeding should take beliefs and values into consideration to achieve effective dialogue and understanding with mothers.

  20. Contradictions and conflict: A meta-ethnographic study of migrant women’s experiences of breastfeeding in a new country

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    Schmied Virginia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies report mixed findings about rates of both exclusive and partial breastfeeding amongst women who are migrants or refugees in high income countries. It is important to understand the beliefs and experiences that impact on migrant and refugee women’s infant feeding decisions in order to appropriately support women to breastfeed in a new country. The aim of this paper is to report the findings of a meta-ethnographic study that explored migrant and refugee women’s experiences and practices related to breastfeeding in a new country. Methods CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOPUS and the Cochrane Library with Full Text databases were searched for the period January 2000 to May 2012. Out of 2355 papers retrieved 11 met the inclusion criteria. A meta-ethnographic synthesis was undertaken using the analytic strategies and theme synthesis techniques of reciprocal translation and refutational investigation. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP tool. Results Eight qualitative studies and three studies reporting both qualitative and quantitative data were included and one overarching theme emerged: ‘Breastfeeding in a new country: facing contradictions and conflict’. This theme comprised four sub-themes ‘Mother’s milk is best’; ‘Contradictions and conflict in breastfeeding practices’; ‘Producing breast milk requires energy and good health’; and ‘The dominant role of female relatives’. Migrant women who valued, but did not have access to, traditional postpartum practices, were more likely to cease breastfeeding. Women reported a clash between their individual beliefs and practices and the dominant practices in the new country, and also a tension with family members either in the country of origin or in the new country. Conclusion Migrant women experience tensions in their breastfeeding experience and require support from professionals who can sensitively address

  1. Determination of Breastfeeding Behaviors of Mothers and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Akyuz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is a descriptive research which was planned to determine the factors related to beginning and maintaining the breastfeeding of the mothers. This research was conducted with the mothers who applied to the The Healthy Child Department in Pediatrics Clinic at Gulhane Medical Millitary Academy (GMMA. The women who applied to this department constituted the population of the study (N=750, and the women who volunteered to join the study between April and June constituted the sampling (n=120. In the result of this study, the most of the women planned to feed their babies with breast milk, and for their choice of preferring the breast milk, they thought that breast milk is the best nutrient for their babies, and keeping their babies from the illnesses. It was found that the half of the mothers who had vaginal birth fed their babies with the breast milk in an early one hour. Seventy-nine point two percentages of the mothers pointed out giving no meals before feeding with breast milk, and the others generally fed their babies with infant food and liquid with sugar. In this study, it was determined that breastfeeding is still common among the mothers, and most of the babies are fed with the breast milk for several times. However the babies are fed with the milk for a long time, the mothers still need education and training programme about the subjects like initial breastfeeding time, giving the liquid and infant food, only not giving the breast milk and start to feed with infant food early or later. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 331-335

  2. Determination of Breastfeeding Behaviors of Mothers and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Akyuz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is a descriptive research which was planned to determine the factors related to beginning and maintaining the breastfeeding of the mothers. This research was conducted with the mothers who applied to the The Healthy Child Department in Pediatrics Clinic at Gulhane Medical Millitary Academy (GMMA. The women who applied to this department constituted the population of the study (N=750, and the women who volunteered to join the study between April and June constituted the sampling (n=120. In the result of this study, the most of the women planned to feed their babies with breast milk, and for their choice of preferring the breast milk, they thought that breast milk is the best nutrient for their babies, and keeping their babies from the illnesses. It was found that the half of the mothers who had vaginal birth fed their babies with the breast milk in an early one hour. Seventy-nine point two percentages of the mothers pointed out giving no meals before feeding with breast milk, and the others generally fed their babies with infant food and liquid with sugar. In this study, it was determined that breastfeeding is still common among the mothers, and most of the babies are fed with the breast milk for several times. However the babies are fed with the milk for a long time, the mothers still need education and training programme about the subjects like initial breastfeeding time, giving the liquid and infant food, only not giving the breast milk and start to feed with infant food early or later. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 331-335

  3. Environmental factors in the relationship between breastfeeding and infant mortality: the role of sanitation and water in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, W P; Habicht, J P; DaVanzo, J

    1984-04-01

    Mothers' recall data collected in Malaysia in 1976-1977 are analyzed to study correlates of mortality of 5471 infants. Respondent population is 1262 women living in 52 primary sampling units of Peninsular Malaysia. Lengths of unsupplemented and supplemented breastfeeding and presence of piped household water and toilet sanitation are related to infant mortality in regressions that also control other correlates. The analysis is disaggregated into three periods of infancy. Through six months of feeding, unsupplemented breastfeeding is more strongly associated with fewer infant deaths than is supplemented breastfeeding. Type of sanitation is generally more strongly associated with mortality than is type of water supply. The effects of breastfeeding and the environmental variables are shown to be strongly interactive and to change systematically during the course of infancy. Breastfeeding is more strongly associated with infant survival in homes without piped water or toilet sanitation. In homes with both modern facilities, supplemented breastfeeding has no significant effect, and unsupplemented breastfeeding is statistically significant only for mortality in days 8-28. Presence of modern water and sanitation systems appears unimportant for mortality of infants who are breastfed without supplementation for six months. PMID:6711541

  4. Factors Associated with Exclusive Breastfeeding in Timor-Leste: Findings from Demographic and Health Survey 2009–2010

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    Vishnu Khanal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is known to have nutritional and health benefits. This study investigated factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged five months or less in Timor-Leste. The latest data from the national Demographic and Health Survey 2009–2010 were analyzed by binary logistic regression. Of the 975 infants included in the study, overall 49% (95% confidence interval 45.4% to 52.7% were exclusively breastfed. The exclusive breastfeeding prevalence declined with increasing infant age, from 68.0% at less than one month to 24.9% at five months. Increasing infant age, mothers with a paid occupation, who perceived their newborn as non-average size, and residence in the capital city Dili, were associated with a lower likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding. On the other hand, women who could decide health-related matters tended to breastfeed exclusively, which was not the case for others whose decisions were made by someone else. The results suggested the need of breastfeeding promotion programs to improve the exclusive breastfeeding rate. Antenatal counseling, peer support network, and home visits by health workers could be feasible options to promote exclusive breastfeeding given that the majority of births occur at home.

  5. Use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, E R; Damkier, P; Pedersen, L H;

    2015-01-01

    with a psychiatric disease, we asked the Danish Psychiatric Society, the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the Danish Paediatric Society and the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology to appoint members for the working group. A comprehensive review of the literature was hereafter conducted. RESULTS......OBJECTIVE: To write clinical guidelines for the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding for daily practice in psychiatry, obstetrics and paediatrics. METHOD: As we wanted a guideline with a high degree of consensus among health professionals treating pregnant women...

  6. Breastfeeding practices in urban and rural Vietnam

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    Thu Huong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe and compare breastfeeding practices in rural and urban areas of Vietnam and to study associations with possibly influencing person and household factors. This type of study has not been conducted in Vietnam before. Methods Totally 2,690 children, born from 1st March 2008 to 30th June 2010 in one rural and one urban Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, were followed from birth to the age of 12 months. Information about demography, economy and education for persons and households was obtained from household surveys. Standard statistical methods including survival and regression analyses were used. Results Initiation of breastfeeding during the first hour of life was more frequent in the urban area compared to the rural (boys 40% vs. 35%, girls 49% vs. 40%. High birth weight and living in households with large number of assets significantly increased the probability for early initiation of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding at three months of age was more commonly reported in the rural than in the urban area (boys 58% vs. 46%, girls 65% vs. 53%. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding as well as of any breastfeeding was longer in the rural area than in the urban area (medians for boys 97 days vs. 81 days, for girls 102 days vs. 91 days. The percentages of children with exclusive breastfeeding lasting at least 6 months, as recommended by WHO, were low in both areas. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding was significantly shorter for mothers with three or more antenatal care visits or Caesarean section in both areas. High education level of mothers was associated with longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the rural area. No significant associations were found between duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother’s age, household economy indicators or household size. Conclusion Intervention programs with the aim to promote breastfeeding are needed. Mothers should

  7. Smoking Behaviour before, during, and after Pregnancy: The Effect of Breastfeeding

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    Laura Lauria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data for this study were obtained from a population-based follow-up study in 25 Italian Local Health Units (LHUs to evaluate pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum care in Italy. A sample of 3534 women was recruited and interviewed within a few days of their giving birth and at 3, 6, and 12 months after delivery, by trained interviewers using questionnaires. The objective of the study was to evaluate changes in smoking behaviour from one interview to the next. Of 2546 women who completed the follow-up, smoking prevalences before and during pregnancy were 21.6% and 6.7%; smoking prevalences and smoking relapse at 3, 6, and 12 months were 8.1% and 18.5%, 10.3% and 30.3%, and 10.9% and 32.3%, respectively. Smoking during and after pregnancy was more likely among women who were less educated, single, not attending antenatal classes, employed, and not breastfeeding. The results show that women who are breastfeeding smoke less than not breastfeeding women, even after controlling for other predictors (i.e.,  smoking relapse at 12 months: OR=0.43, 95%  CI:  0.19, 0.94. A low maternal mood increases the risk of smoking relapse within 6 months of about 73%. This study also suggests that prolonged breastfeeding reduces the risk of smoking relapse and that this reduction may be persistent in time. Interventions targeting breastfeeding promotion may also indirectly support smoking cessation, even in absence of specific interventions.

  8. The Importance of Breastfeeding in Holy Quran

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    Saeed Bayyenat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is the ideal and most natural way of nurturing infants. The importance of breastfeeding has been proved unequivocally, and UNICEF and WHO have issued guidelines to ensure breastfeeding. More than 14 centuries is that in Islamic teachings with the most comprehensive, most beautiful and most powerful motivation, is raised important points in the form of advice and education about breastfeeding.  Included in Islam recommended every mother to breastfeed her children up to the age of two years if the lactation period was to be completed. Aware of these recommendations and the usage of them, will lead to the most efficient and effective incentives to promote breast-feeding.

  9. Breastfeeding profile and practice of Nigerian mothers: a cross-sectional survey

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    Chidozie Emmanuel Mbada

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding patterns in the developing world are still below the recommended levels and the potential to improve child survival remains untapped. This study investigated the breastfeeding profile and practices of Nigerian nursing mothers. Methods: This cross-sectional survey involved women at attending selected baby-friendly facilities in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria who had breastfed their most recent baby for a minimum of six months. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on demographics, infant-maternal characteristics and breastfeeding practices. 383 mothers volunteered for this study, yielding a response rate of 95.7%. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics at 0.05 alpha level. Results: The mean age of the respondent was 29.0 +/- 4.96 years. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF rate was 86.2%. Breastfeeding initiation time of less than 1 hour after delivery and 24 hours rooming-in practice rate was 78.3% and 79.1% respectively. Daily breastfeeding time and total breastfeeding duration was 8.06 +/- 2.33 hours and 18.3 +/- 4.82 months respectively. The mean onset time for water supplementation was 4.74 +/- 1.77 months with a rate of 30.3% within 1-3 months. Weaning initiation time was mostly (43.9% within 12 to 18 month of infant's age. There was significant association between EBF practice and each of maternal education (X2 = 6.554; P = 0.038 and Socio-Economic Status (SES (X2 = 19.32; P = 0.031 with most of the respondents in the lower SES (56.1% subscribing to EBF. Conclusions: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF rate for the first six months among Nigerian mothers attending baby-friendly clinics was high. Breastfeeding initiation time after delivery was early, water supplementation to breastfeeding was before 5 months of the infant's life and weaning practice was late. Maternal educational level and socio-economic status significantly influenced EBF practice. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet

  10. Assessing Breastfeeding Using Nuclear Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children who receive only human milk for the first 6 months of their lives are more resistant to disease and infection and less likely than children fed with formula milk to develop diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in adulthood. With the IAEA’s guidance, nuclear techniques are being used to test the effectiveness of breastfeeding promotion strategies. Researchers use non-radioactive stable isotopes of hydrogen (2H) in water (2H2O) to measure the movement of liquid from mother to child

  11. Breastfeeding: A human rights issue?

    OpenAIRE

    George Kent

    2001-01-01

    George Kent tackles the sensitive issue of breastfeeding from both the infant's and mother's point of view. He traces the human rights discourse over nutrition rights of the last decades and concludes that though it is certainly true that children have the right to the best nutrition possible, it is the mother's right to choose that should determine if a child is breastfed. He suggests it is important to provide the right knowledge and supportive environment to enable a woman to choose what i...

  12. Breastfeeding Support in a Community Pharmacy: Improving Access through the Well Babies at Walgreens Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenell, Amy; Friesen, Carol A; Hormuth, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Well Babies at Walgreens is a unique community-based corporate partnership program that offers breastfeeding support by a lactation professional in a private room at the pharmacy. Walgreens is a community pharmacy chain with more than 8000 locations in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands. The primary goal of Well Babies is to support breastfeeding women using a model that is expandable to other Walgreens pharmacy sites. The Well Babies program offers drop-in services, with a professional consultation by a lactation consultant and baby weight check, if desired. Well Babies creators are developing a business plan for Walgreens and a toolkit that would help other stores implement the program. An additional goal is to improve continuity of care for breastfeeding by engaging pharmacists as vital members of the health care team. Offering breastfeeding support at a pharmacy improves access and encourages support persons to attend while simultaneously allowing the family to complete other errands. This initiative included education for pharmacists to improve the recommendations they make for breastfeeding mothers and to improve awareness among pharmacists of the benefits associated with breastfeeding and the need to preserve the breastfeeding relationship. The first drop-in location opened in April 2012. Grant funding from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, awarded to the Indiana State Department of Health, made it possible to open a second drop-in location in June 2013. Future plans include developing an employee lactation program and expanding Well Babies at Walgreens at other store locations. PMID:25829476

  13. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and determinants among Brazilian children under two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Warkentin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study described the duration and identified the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: The study used data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher 2006 (National Demographic and Health Survey on Women and Children 2006. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by trained professionals and refer to a subsample of 1,704 children aged less than 24 months. The estimated durations of exclusive breastfeeding are presented according to socioeconomic, demographic and epidemiological variables. Kaplan Meier estimator curves were used to produce valid estimates of breastfeeding duration and the Cox's proportional hazards model was fitted to identify risks. RESULTS: The median estimated duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 60 days. The final Cox model consisted of mother's age <20 years (hazard ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.11-1.48, use of pacifier (hazard ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.37-1.71, not residing in the country's southeast region (hazard ratio=1.22, 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.40 and socioeconomic status (hazard ratio=1.28, 95% confidence interval=1.06-1.55. CONCLUSION: The Kaplan Meier estimator corrected the underestimated duration of breastfeeding in the country when calculated by the current status methodology. Despite the national efforts done in the last decades to promote breastfeeding, the results indicate that the duration of exclusive breastfeeding is still half of that recommended for this dietary practice to promote health. Ways to revert this situation would be ongoing educational activities involving the educational and health systems, associated with advertising campaigns on television and radio mainly targeting young mothers with low education level and low income, identified as those at high risk of weaning their children early.

  14. The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa; Barr, Lester; Metaxas, George; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. While there are known genetic predispositions to the disease it is probable that environmental factors are also involved. Recent research has demonstrated a regionally specific distribution of aluminium in breast tissue mastectomies while other work has suggested mechanisms whereby breast tissue aluminium might contribute towards the aetiology of breast cancer. We have looked to develop microwave digestion combined with a new form of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as a precise, accurate and reproducible method for the measurement of aluminium in breast tissue biopsies. We have used this method to test the thesis that there is a regional distribution of aluminium across the breast in women with breast cancer. Microwave digestion of whole breast tissue samples resulted in clear homogenous digests perfectly suitable for the determination of aluminium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The instrument detection limit for the method was 0.48 μg/L. Method blanks were used to estimate background levels of contamination of 14.80 μg/L. The mean concentration of aluminium across all tissues was 0.39 μg Al/g tissue dry wt. There were no statistically significant regionally specific differences in the content of aluminium. We have developed a robust method for the precise and accurate measurement of aluminium in human breast tissue. There are very few such data currently available in the scientific literature and they will add substantially to our understanding of any putative role of aluminium in breast cancer. While we did not observe any statistically significant differences in aluminium content across the breast it has to be emphasised that herein we measured whole breast tissue and not defatted tissue where such a distribution was previously noted. We are very confident that the method developed herein could now be used to provide accurate and reproducible data on the aluminium content

  15. The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa; Barr, Lester; Metaxas, George; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. While there are known genetic predispositions to the disease it is probable that environmental factors are also involved. Recent research has demonstrated a regionally specific distribution of aluminium in breast tissue mastectomies while other work has suggested mechanisms whereby breast tissue aluminium might contribute towards the aetiology of breast cancer. We have looked to develop microwave digestion combined with a new form of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as a precise, accurate and reproducible method for the measurement of aluminium in breast tissue biopsies. We have used this method to test the thesis that there is a regional distribution of aluminium across the breast in women with breast cancer. Microwave digestion of whole breast tissue samples resulted in clear homogenous digests perfectly suitable for the determination of aluminium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The instrument detection limit for the method was 0.48 μg/L. Method blanks were used to estimate background levels of contamination of 14.80 μg/L. The mean concentration of aluminium across all tissues was 0.39 μg Al/g tissue dry wt. There were no statistically significant regionally specific differences in the content of aluminium. We have developed a robust method for the precise and accurate measurement of aluminium in human breast tissue. There are very few such data currently available in the scientific literature and they will add substantially to our understanding of any putative role of aluminium in breast cancer. While we did not observe any statistically significant differences in aluminium content across the breast it has to be emphasised that herein we measured whole breast tissue and not defatted tissue where such a distribution was previously noted. We are very confident that the method developed herein could now be used to provide accurate and reproducible data on the aluminium content

  16. BREASTFEEDING: THE MEANING FOR PREGNANT POSITIVE HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Portes de Oliveira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In The actions of prevention to the HIV AIDS, in the prenatal lens the advising of women infected bythe HIV about the risk from the vertical transmission causing to prohibition from the lactation and from the breastfeedingcrossed. Objective it identify joined the pregnants HIV positive the main worries as regards the impedimentfrom the breast-feeding natural and evaluate the individual educational needs of activities as form alternative to theaffectionate and psychic emotional support to the pregnant. Methodology treats itself of a boarding qualitative, theywere interviewed pregnants soropositivas inscription in the outpatient clinic of prenatal of high risk, of a PublicHospital, in Goiânia GO. Analyzing the facts: them interviewed were unanimous in affirm that to pregnancy wasnot planned. It be pregnant and uncover that they are bearers of the virus HIV brought bigger expectationsregarding the pregnancy: fear, insecurity, anguish and doubts are emotions by them related. And, they stood outthat the specific groups permit bigger liberty for argument and change of experiences, the work helps to pregnantreact to the consequences of the virus HIV. Like this being, we understand that the aid to the pregnantsoroposotive, in the institution studied attends a standard quality, however, is important thing systematize thespecific formation of groups of pregnant soropositives for HIV.

  17. [Etanercept in pregnancy and breast-feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, L

    2010-05-01

    Etanercept is a biological drug, inhibitor of the Tumor Necrosis Factor indicated for the treatment of severe or moderate psoriasis resistant to other therapies. Because its use is becoming increasingly extended, we should know its possible teratogenic effects. The data provided by the literature and studies prior to the marketing of the product are very limited. Thus, it is necessary to study the presence of possible risks more through experiments in animal models and to conduct prolonged prospective studies in humans. With the current knowledge, it seems that suspension of the treatment from one month prior to becoming pregnant would provide an adequate safety margin, and that most of the patients who have become pregnant and have suspended etanercept as soon as they knew they were pregnant have not had any complications. However, the data needed to recommend etanercept for the control of psoriasis of a pregnant woman are very limited and controversial. Since the effects of a possible transfer of etanercept to maternal milk in a still-immature immune system are not known, in accordance with the risk/benefit principle, the use of etanercept should not be recommended in breast-feeding women. PMID:20492888

  18. [Dangerous wet nurses: breastfeeding, science, and slavery in A Mãi de Familia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carula, Karoline

    2012-12-01

    The article examines how the defense of breastfeeding was intertwined with slavery-related issues in 'A Mãi de Familia', a newspaper that circulated in the city of Rio de Janeiro (1879-1888). A special focus of analysis are the articles signed by physician Carlos Costa, main editor and founder of the periodical. After introducing the newspaper, the text goes on to highlight the fight in favor of breastfeeding, which was a highly notable topic aimed at educating women to fulfill their maternal roles in accordance with hygienic parameters. It then discusses how the fact that most wet nurses were slaves influenced arguments against mercenary breastfeeding. Lastly, it analyzes a story published in the newspaper, which narrates the misfortunes of a captive wet nurse.

  19. Discrimination against breastfeeding: a racial/economic issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, K G

    1989-03-01

    Black mothers in South Africa are more likely to breast feed than white mothers, and for a longer period of time. During hospital visits the author observed nurseries in which black mothers fed their children while white mothers did not. In the nurseries for white mothers there were many advertisements from formula companies promoting their products. Because of overcrowding black mothers are usually released 24 hours after birth. There are billboards advertising baby foods in the black areas also, and the cost of these foods is more than most can afford. Using these foods often leads to dehydration, and if the child is not treated in a rehydration center, it dies. Also, the family may suffer when money is used for the more costly formula when less expensive foods could feed the whole family. In the US many black women on welfare are given formula for their children, since many health workers and others are not interested in or ignorant of breastfeeding benefits. Compared to white South African women, fewer white women breastfeed, but they do it longer. There is also extensive promotion of gadgets to assist breast feeding mothers in the US including breast pumps, breast pads, and nipple shields. Some of these are in use in South Africa are just as useless there. In South Africa affluent white women do not breastfeed while in the US more do. In the US poor black women do not breastfeed while in South Africa they do. From these observations it appears that non-western health care systems are more supportive of breastfeeding than the western systems. One might examine the question of social class and racial issues involved, also. PMID:2730764

  20. Breastfeeding and child cognitive outcomes: Evidence from a hospital-based breastfeeding support policy

    OpenAIRE

    Del Bono, Emilia; Rabe, Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the causal effects of breastfeeding on early child development using exogenous variation in breastfeeding support policies across UK maternity hospitals. Based on data from the Millennium Cohort Study, we find that mothers giving birth in hospitals where such policies are implemented are between 8 and 9 percentage points more likely to breastfeed exclusively at 4 and 8 weeks than mothers who give birth in other hospitals. The effect of breastfeeding are found to be large ...

  1. Experiência do cuidado materno e amamentação sob a ótica de mulheres vítimas de violência conjugal Experiencia del cuidado materno y amamantación por la óptica de mujeres víctimas de violencia conyugal Maternal care and breastfeeding experience of women suffering intimate partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aguiar Lourenço

    2008-08-01

    ambiguos: marcadamente solitaria y de momentos vistos como positivos. El desmame ocurrió precozmente para la mayoría de las entrevistadas. La necesidad de trabajar fuera, la falta de información sobre amamantación y la propia experiencia de violencia fueron las principales razones expuestas para no continuación con la amamantación. CONCLUSIONES: El estudio apunta la necesidad de considerar la mujer como protagonista del modelo asistencial en amamantación, construyendo espacios de escucha que incluyan la atención para la violencia conyugal, bien como medios diferenciados de apoyo.OBJECTIVE: To describe maternal care and breastfeeding experience of women suffering intimate partner violence. METHODOGICAL PROCEDURES: A qualitative study was conducted in 11 women suffering intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Women aged 16-41 years were recruited in a hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro between January and March 2005. Data were collected through in-depth interviews using a life history approach and complemented by a semi-structured guide. ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS: Women expressed mixed feelings of loneliness and good moments regarding maternal care and breastfeeding experience. Most had early cessation of breastfeeding and the reasons reported included: the need to resume their working activities, lack of information on breastfeeding and the violence experienced by these women. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows a need to approach women as key actors of a nursing model, offering opportunities to listen to their concerns as well as to provide care to intimate partner violence victims and differentiated support.

  2. A study of acid phosphatase locus 1 in women with high fat content and normal body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Antonino; Di Renzo, Laura; Puja, Alberto; Saccucci, Patrizia; Gloria-Bottini, Fulvia; Bottini, Egidio

    2009-03-01

    De Lorenzo and coworkers have recently described a class of women with normal body mass index (BMI) and high fat content (normal weight obese syndrome [NWO]). This observation prompted us to study the possible role of acid phosphatase locus 1 (ACP(1)) in the differentiation of this special class of obese subjects. Acid phosphatase locus 1 is a polymorphic gene associated with severe obesity and with total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. The enzyme is composed by 2 isoforms--F and S--that have different biochemical properties and probably different functions. The sample study was composed of 130 white women from the population of Rome. Total fat mass and percentage of fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Thirty-six women had a BMI less than 25 and percentage of fat mass greater than 30 (high fat, normal BMI [HFHB]), and 94 women showed a BMI greater than 25 and a percentage of fat mass greater than 30 (high fat, high BMI [HFHB]). In the whole sample, the proportion of low-activity ACP(1) genotypes (*A/*A and *B/*A) was higher than in controls. However, whereas HFNB showed a very high frequency of ACP(1) *A/*A genotype, high-fat, high-BMI women showed an increase of *B/*A genotype. These 2 genotypes differ in the concentration of F isoform and the F/S ratio, which are lower in ACP(1)*A/*A genotype than in ACP(1)*B/*A genotype. The genetic differentiation of the class of women with normal BMI and high fat content from the class showing a concordant level of the 2 parameters supports the hypothesis that HFNB class represents a special cluster of obese subjects not revealed by BMI evaluation. Because ACP(1) is present in adipocytes, the present observation suggests that F isoform may have a specific role in the regulation of quantity of adipose tissue. PMID:19217450

  3. Breast-feeding and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodwin, D W; Gabrielli, W F; Penick, E C;

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to determine whether early termination of breast-feeding contributes to later alcohol dependence, as proposed more than 200 years ago by the British physician Thomas Trotter. METHOD: In 1959-1961, a multiple-specialty group of physicians studied 9, 182 consecutive...... diagnosed as alcohol dependent at age 30, 13 (48%) came from the group weaned from the breast before the age of 3 weeks; only 33 (19%) of the 173 non-alcohol-dependent subjects came from the early weaning group. When challenged by other perinatal variables in a multiple regression analysis, early weaning...... significantly contributed to the prediction of the severity of alcoholism at age 30. CONCLUSIONS: The data support the hypothesis that early weaning may be associated with a greater risk of alcohol dependence later in life....

  4. The association between breast tissue optical content and mammographic density in pre- and post-menopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M Blackmore

    Full Text Available Mammographic density (MD, associated with higher water and lower fat content in the breast, is strongly related to breast cancer risk. Optical attenuation spectroscopy (OS is a non-imaging method of evaluating breast tissue composition by red and near-infrared light transmitted through the breast that, unlike mammography, does not involve radiation. OS provides information on wavelength dependent light scattering of tissue and on absorption by water, lipid, oxy-, deoxy-hemoglobin. We propose that OS could be an alternative marker of breast cancer risk and that OS breast tissue measures will be associated with MD. In the present analysis, we developed an algorithm to estimate breast tissue composition and light scattering parameters using a spectrally constrained global fitting procedure employing a diffuse light transport model. OS measurements were obtained from 202 pre- and post-menopausal women with normal mammograms. Percent density (PD and dense area (DA were measured using Cumulus. The association between OS tissue composition and PD and DA was analyzed using linear regression adjusted for body mass index. Among pre-menopausal women, lipid content was significantly inversely associated with square root transformed PD (β = -0.05, p = 0.0002 and DA (β = -0.05, p = 0.019; water content was significantly positively associated with PD (β = 0.06, p = 0.008. Tissue oxygen saturation was marginally inversely associated with PD (β = -0.03, p = 0.057 but significantly inversely associated with DA (β = -0.10, p = 0.002. Among post-menopausal women lipid and water content were significantly associated (negatively and positively, respectively with PD (β lipid = -0.08, β water = 0.14, both p<0.0001 and DA (β lipid = -0.10, p<0.0001; β water = 0.11, p = 0.001. The association between OS breast content and PD and DA is consistent with more proliferation in dense tissue of younger women, greater lipid content in low density tissue and higher water

  5. Breastfeeding practices in mothers: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanis S. Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite the WHO and UNICEF recommendations, the well-known breastfeeding benefits, and the efforts to promote and support breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding by Indonesian mothers remains low and contributes to high infant mortality rates. Objective To elucidate the factors that influence mothers’ choices for infant feeding Methods This qualitative study was conducted as part of a nationwide survey. The study included 36 in-depth interviews of mothers with infants aged 0-11 months, and health care professionals, including general practitioners, pediatricians, and midwives. This study was performed between October – November 2010 in both rural and urban areas of 4 provinces in Indonesia. Results We found that most mothers intended to breastfeed and had positive perceptions of breastfeeding. However, mothers faced many challenges in the practice of exclusive and proper breastfeeding. Additionally, the perceived definition of exclusive breastfeeding varied among the participants, leading to non-exclusive breastfeeding attitudes. The most frequent reasons for mothers to introduce additional milk formula or food were the perception of an inadequate milk supply, infant dissatisfaction or fussiness after feeding. Different perceptions were also demonstrated in different regions and the varying levels of socioeconomic status. Health care practitioners (HCPs were the most reliable source for giving adequate information, but unfortunately, they were not easily accessible and provided inconsistent information. Consequently, closely-related family members were the major contributors of information to a mother’s choice of infant feeding, because they were easily accessible. Conclusion Factors influencing mothers in their breastfeeding practices are their basic knowledge, demographic and socio-economic status, as well as the availability of support from closely-related family members, friends, and HCPs. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:35-41.].

  6. Maternal affection and motivation for breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Edite; Chaves, Cláudia; Duarte, João; Nelas, Paula; Coutinho, Emília

    2016-01-01

    Several studies by UNICEF, OMS and other childhood protection institutions have concluded that the breastfeeding is considered an important strategy for infantile survival. Thus, the motivation for breastfeeding is an important variable which should be considered, given that motivation is the agent propeller of all action. To identify whether maternal affection conditions the motivation for maternal breast feeding. Quantitative, transverse, descriptive-correlational and explanatory study, usi...

  7. BREASTFEEDING AND OVERWEIGHT IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Aparício, Graça; Cunha, Madalena; Albuquerque, Carlos; Duarte, João; Bonito, Jorge; Franco, Vitor; Rodrigues, Vitor; Oliveira, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background: Scientific evidence shows that breastfeeding has a protective effect on the development of excess weight. Objectives: To determine the effect of breastfeeding on overweight children. Methods: Cross-sectional and observational study comprising 1424 preschool children, average age 4,58 years old (SD=0,990), residents in the centre/north region of Portugal. Children’s anthropometric measurement was obtained and the classification was based on NCHS reference (CDC, 2000) and...

  8. [Knowledge of nurses and incentive strategies for family participation in breastfeeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Rafaella Brandão; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Vilela, Alba Benemérita Alves

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to analyze the knowledge of nurses about the benefits of breastfeeding for the family and describe the inclusion of family involvement in health activities associated with breastfeeding. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted with 8 nurses in the municipality of Itapetinga in the state of Bahia in the first semester of 2014. Semi-structured interviews were used for data gathering and the thematic content analysis technique was used for processing the data. It was found that awareness of nurses about the benefits of breastfeeding for the family corresponds to the information released by the Ministry of Health and to the data found in the literature. This includes the promotion of maternal and child health and the strengthening of emotional bonds. It should be stressed that there was no mention about the advantages of breastfeeding as a natural method of family planning. With respect to family inclusion in breastfeeding, it was found that nurses use the actions of health education and puerperal and home visits as a strategy, emphasizing the trials and difficulties of a family nature. Health professionals should encourage this participation, in an attempt to work together with family members so that they feel active participants and recognize their importance in this process. PMID:27557025

  9. [Assessment of an educational technology in the string literature about breastfeeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Paula Marciana Pinheiro; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag

    2013-02-01

    The goal of this study was to assess educational technology in the string literature about breastfeeding. The study was conducted between March and September 2009 by breastfeeding experts and experts on string literature. A psychometric model was adopted as the theoretical-methodological framework. For data collection, an instrument was used to assess the content about breastfeeding and the string literature rules. The analysis was based on comparisons of the notes and critical reflections of experts. Ethical guidelines were followed during the study. After the assessments, the educational technology was adjusted until all of the experts agreed. The assessment of educational technology can reduce obstacles to information dissemination and can lead to improvements in quality of life.

  10. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...... a theoretical approach, which takes complexity as fundamental premise for modern society (Luhmann, 1985, 2002). In educational situations conditionally valuable content generally will exceed what can actually be taught within the frames of an education. In pedagogy this situation is often referred...... to as ‘abundance of material’, and in many cases it is not obvious, how the line between actually chosen and conditionally relevant content can be draw. Difficulties in drawing the line between actual educational content and conditionally relevant content can be handled in different way. One way, quite efficient...

  11. Effects of work-related factors on the breastfeeding behavior of working mothers in a Taiwanese semiconductor manufacturer: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Chie Wei-Chu; Wu Ya-Chi; Chen Yi Chun

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years, the creation of supportive environments for encouraging mothers to breastfeed their children has emerged as a key health issue for women and children. The provision of lactation rooms and breast pumping breaks have helped mothers to continue breastfeeding after returning to work, but their effectiveness is uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of worksite breastfeeding-friendly policies and work-related factors on the behaviour of work...

  12. Keeping it Natural: Does Persuasive Magazine Content Have an Effect on Young Women's Intentions for Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kate; Miller, Yvette D

    2015-01-01

    Information in the popular media tends to be biased toward promoting the benefits of medicalized birth for low-risk pregnancies. We aimed to assess the effect of communicating the benefits of non-medicalized birth in magazine articles on women's birth intentions and to identify the mechanisms by which social communication messages affected women's intentions for birth. A convenience sample of 180 nulliparous Australian women aged 18-35 years were randomly exposed to a magazine article endorsing non-medicalized birth (using either celebrity or non-celebrity endorsement) or organic eating (control) throughout June-July 2011. Magazine articles that endorsed non-medicalized birth targeted perceived risk of birth, expectations for labor and birth, and attitudes toward birth. These variables and intention for birth were assessed by self-report before and after exposure. Exposure to a magazine article that endorsed non-medicalized birth significantly reduced women's intentions for a medicalized birth, regardless of whether the endorsement was by celebrities or non-celebrities. Changes in perceived risk of birth mediated the effect of magazine article exposure on women's intentions for a medicalized birth. Persuasive communication that endorses non-medicalized birth could be delivered at the population level and may reduce women's intentions for a medicalized birth. PMID:25793927

  13. Breastfeeding and Blogging: Exploring the Utility of Blogs to Promote Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joshua; Hall, P. Cougar; Hanson, Carl; Thackeray, Rosemary; Barnes, Michael; Neiger, Brad; McIntyre, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Background: People are increasingly using the Internet and social networking sites for behavior support. Almost no literature exists exploring the utility of these sites for supporting breastfeeding behavior. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which blogs are currently being used to support breastfeeding behavior.…

  14. "As Good as Chocolate" and "Better than Ice Cream": How Toddler, and Older, Breastfeeders Experience Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Karleen D.

    2009-01-01

    The breastfeeding experiences of 114 Australian children who were currently breastfeeding were explored via maternal observation and direct questioning of the children. Mothers commonly stated that their child breastfed for comfort and this opinion was validated by observations of when the children breastfed, which was often in the transition to…

  15. Mothers’ experiences of sharing breastfeeding or breastmilk, part 2: the early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Thorley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While women who informally shared breastfeeding or breastmilk (also called cross-nursing or co-feeding in the latter part of the twentieth century were often reluctant to disclose this practice, media attention in the last few years has resulted in this practice being discussed more. Nurses may, therefore, encounter mothers who have shared or are sharing breastfeeding or their breastmilk at least once. This paper is the second of two to explore the experiences of mothers co-feeding in a variety of situations. Twenty-two mothers who had co-fed, and the coordinator of an online milk-sharing network, were recruited from online breastfeeding discussion networks, personal contacts and word of mouth. Sampling stopped when eight countries were included. Respondents came from a range of cultures and gave different reasons for this practice. They could choose whether to respond to a set of open-ended questions by email or telephone. A number of different situations were identified in which the women had cross-fed on one or more occasions. Cultural issues, including milk siblingship in Islamic and other cultures, were explored. Consent was important, but fully informed consent was not necessarily obtained. Although no formal screening was conducted, it was clear that the women informally screened those with whom they shared their milk. In this study, sharing of breastfeeding or breastmilk mostly occurred in kinship or close female relationships, or at least between women with similar lifestyles and values, and seldom through casual contacts. In most cases, there was informal screening and the women would not have cross-fed indiscriminately.

  16. Experimental hyperglycemia induces an increase of monocyte and T-lymphocyte content in adipose tissue of healthy obese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Tencerová

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia represents one of possible mediators for activation of immune system and may contribute to worsening of inflammatory state associated with obesity. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of a short-term hyperglycemia (HG on the phenotype and relative content of immune cells in circulation and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT in obese women without metabolic complications.Three hour HG clamp with infusion of octreotide and control investigations with infusion of octreotide or saline were performed in three groups of obese women (Group1: HG, Group 2: Octreotide, Group 3: Saline, n=10 per group. Before and at the end of the interventions, samples of SAAT and blood were obtained. The relative content of immune cells in blood and SAAT was determined by flow cytometry. Gene expression analysis of immunity-related markers in SAAT was performed by quantitative real-time PCR.In blood, no changes in analysed immune cell population were observed in response to HG. In SAAT, HG induced an increase in the content of CD206 negative monocytes/macrophages (p<0.05 and T lymphocytes (both T helper and T cytotoxic lymphocytes, p<0.01. Further, HG promoted an increase of mRNA levels of immune response markers (CCL2, TLR4, TNFα and lymphocyte markers (CD3g, CD4, CD8a, TBX21, GATA3, FoxP3 in SAAT (p<0.05 and 0.01. Under both control infusions, none of these changes were observed.Acute HG significantly increased the content of monocytes and lymphocytes in SAAT of healthy obese women. This result suggests that the short-term HG can modulate an immune status of AT in obese subjects.

  17. Can early breastfeeding support increase the 6-8 week breastfeeding prevalence rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Linda

    2014-05-01

    Breastfeeding has significant health benefits for mothers and babies and is an important strategy to reduce health inequalities (UNICEF, 2010). The Baby Friendly Initiative, a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates, has been adopted by the trust. In line with the trust's priorities, the health visiting team initiated a project to increase the 6-8 breastfeeding prevalence rates. Breastfeeding mothers in a defined project area were offered breastfeeding support in their homes within the first postnatal week. Although the results after six months did demonstrate an overall increase in the 6-8 week prevalence rate of 5%, the monthly figures where disappointingly inconsistent and it was difficult to attribute the rise to the increased support offered. Nevertheless, the feedback from mothers who received support demonstrated that it was valued and had a positive impact on their confidence to continue to breastfeed. PMID:24881195

  18. Health Versus Appearance Versus Body Competence: A Content Analysis Investigating Frames of Health Advice in Women's Health Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Hahn, Rachel

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which women's health magazines advise readers to adopt healthy behaviors in order to look good (appearance frame), in order to feel good (health frame), or in order to perform better (body competence frame). A content analysis of 5 years of the 6 highest circulating U.S. women's health magazines revealed a higher frequency of health frames (32.6%) than appearance frames (24.8%) overall, but when beauty/health hybrid magazines (i.e., Shape and Self) were examined separately, appearance frames (32.8%) outnumbered health frames (26.5%). Compared to appearance and health frames, body competence frames were underrepresented (13.3% in the full sample). The visual sexual objectification of female models in women's health magazines was also investigated. Appearance-framed articles (43.2%) were significantly more likely to visually depict women with a high degree of skin exposure than health-framed articles (17.4%), and appearance-framed articles (34.8%) were more likely to focus on individual body parts than health-framed articles (21.3%). In addition, despite the magazines' editorial focus on health, the most frequent category of products advertised was appearance-enhancing products. Results are discussed in light of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997).

  19. Health Versus Appearance Versus Body Competence: A Content Analysis Investigating Frames of Health Advice in Women's Health Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Hahn, Rachel

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which women's health magazines advise readers to adopt healthy behaviors in order to look good (appearance frame), in order to feel good (health frame), or in order to perform better (body competence frame). A content analysis of 5 years of the 6 highest circulating U.S. women's health magazines revealed a higher frequency of health frames (32.6%) than appearance frames (24.8%) overall, but when beauty/health hybrid magazines (i.e., Shape and Self) were examined separately, appearance frames (32.8%) outnumbered health frames (26.5%). Compared to appearance and health frames, body competence frames were underrepresented (13.3% in the full sample). The visual sexual objectification of female models in women's health magazines was also investigated. Appearance-framed articles (43.2%) were significantly more likely to visually depict women with a high degree of skin exposure than health-framed articles (17.4%), and appearance-framed articles (34.8%) were more likely to focus on individual body parts than health-framed articles (21.3%). In addition, despite the magazines' editorial focus on health, the most frequent category of products advertised was appearance-enhancing products. Results are discussed in light of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). PMID:27043477

  20. A family practice breastfeeding education pilot program: an observational, descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laughlin Kathleen M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United States Preventive Services Task Force found that effective interventions for extending breastfeeding duration are generally begun during the prenatal period, provide ongoing support for patients and combine information with face-to-face guidance. A 2001 literature review had similar findings but also found that employing a lactation consultant in the clinical setting may increase breastfeeding duration rates. Thus, a program was developed at a family practice office that employed a lactation consultant and followed the American Academy of Pediatrics' "Ten Steps to Support Parents' Choice to Breastfeed Their Baby." Methods The program distributed handouts at each prenatal and well-child visit (up to one year. Using questionnaires, a small audit project evaluated the program's impact on breastfeeding goals, duration, in-hospital exclusivity and maternal perception of success. Mothers completed goal surveys at baseline and post-intervention, usually while waiting for prenatal clinic visits. Duration was assessed by surveys completed during well-infant visits, postal mailings or telephone interviews at breastfeeding cessation, 6 months and 1 year. The outcomes measured were increases in goals, maternal perception of success, duration and in-hospital exclusivity. Results Participants included 33 women: 48% had a bachelor's or master's degree, 61% were non-Hispanic white, and 67% reported incomes of US$75,000 or higher. At baseline 5/31 planned to exclusively breastfeed for 4–6 months and 5/33 planned to breastfeed for 6–12 months. Post-intervention there was a 200% increase (15/31 in the exclusively breastfeeding 4–6 month group and a 160% increase (13/33 in the 6–12 month duration group. Actual in-hospital exclusivity rates were 61%, 6-month duration rates were 73%, and 12-month rates were 33%. Over 75% of mothers reported feeling successful. Conclusion This small pilot educational program may have significant

  1. Increased PUFA Content and 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway Expression Are Associated with Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattijs M. Heemskerk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have more inflammation in their subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT than age-and-BMI similar obese women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT. We aimed to investigate whether WAT fatty acids and/or oxylipins are associated with the enhanced inflammatory state in WAT of the T2DM women. Fatty acid profiles were measured in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (vWAT of 19 obese women with NGT and 16 age-and-BMI similar women with T2DM. Oxylipin levels were measured in sWAT of all women. Arachidonic acid (AA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA percentages were higher in sWAT, but not vWAT of the T2DM women, and AA correlated positively to the gene expression of macrophage marker CD68. We found tendencies for higher oxylipin concentrations of the 5-LOX leukotrienes in sWAT of T2DM women. Gene expression of the 5-LOX leukotriene biosynthesis pathway was significantly higher in sWAT of T2DM women. In conclusion, AA and DHA content were higher in sWAT of T2DM women and AA correlated to the increased inflammatory state in sWAT. Increased AA content was accompanied by an upregulation of the 5-LOX pathway and seems to have led to an increase in the conversion of AA into proinflammatory leukotrienes in sWAT.

  2. BREASTFEEDING PRACTICE IN DAMMAM AREA OF SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Qadri, Mohammad H.; Al-Harfi, Ridah A.; Al-Gamdi, Mohammad A.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to determine the breastfeeding status for children under 24 months and assess the causes of breastfeeding failure among those mothers who do not breastfeed their babies. Methodology: This study was conducted on a sampled population of 1185 children under 24 months of age, using breastfeeding indicators recommended by World Health Organization, for assessing breastfeeding practices within a recall period of 24 hours, in the Dammam area of Saudi ...

  3. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent moth...

  4. Infant feeding practices and breastfeeding duration in Japan: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue Madoka; Binns Colin W; Otsuka Keiko; Jimba Masamine; Matsubara Manami

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Japanese health system places great emphasis on healthy development. However, the prevalence of Exclusive Breastfeeding at one month postpartum between 1980 and 2005 has remained unchanged, fluctuating between 42% and 49%. At the same time, the Any Breastfeeding prevalence has gradually increased from about 80% to 95%. In 2010, the latest national breastfeeding report showed that ‘exclusive’ and ‘any’ breastfeeding rates have improved. However, as the World Health Organization (W...

  5. Breastfeeding Peer Counseling: From Efficacy through Scale-up

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Donna J.; Morel, Katherine; Anderson, Alex Kojo; Damio, Grace; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    There are a growing number of publications evaluating various breastfeeding peer counseling (PC) models. We have systematically reviewed a) the randomized trials assessing the effectiveness of breastfeeding PC in improving rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration, exclusivity and maternal and child health outcomes; and b) scientific literature describing the scale-up of breastfeeding PC programs. Twenty-six peer-reviewed publications were included in this review. The overwhelming majority ...

  6. Social Marketing and Breastfeeding: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Through the review of relevant literature this study illuminates the concepts of social marketing and breastfeeding. It specifically discusses the positioning of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding within different fields of study and develops a theoretical framework that tries to bridge the gap between those disciplines. Method: Various electronic databases were used and through systematic selection 11 scientific articles were identified that this literature review is based on. Results: The review indicates that the relationship between social marketing and breastfeeding is complex. There are indications that this relationship is being investigated within three distinct fields of research: psychology/education, public health and marketing. Depending on the research field the emphasis is put on either breastfeeding or social marketing as well as on the other concepts that were discovered to be of importance within this relationship. Namely, group and individual demography as well as behaviour were revealed to be important elements of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding. Conclusions: Based on the results this study concludes that a more multidimensional view on the relationship between the concepts under study is needed since the focus of previous studies is very one-sided and limited to just one element when all elements should be integrated equally. PMID:23618478

  7. Breastfeeding: a natural defence against obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella D'Angelo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today, obesity represents one of the most serious health problems facing both children and adults. Childhood obesity has several causes, including genetic factors, dietary habits, personal behaviours, and interaction of all of these. It often leads to adult obesity, which causes health problems including heart disease, diabetes, and even early death. Thus, many studies have investigated possible measures to prevent childhood obesity, and breastfeeding is considered an important early preventive intervention. Despite the fact that several milk formulas have been demonstrated to be safe and effective for feeding both term and premature infants, for its immunological and nutritional qualitative advantages, human milk is nowadays universally recognized as the optimal feeding choice for healthy, sick and preterm infants. To date, it is however still unclear whether breastfeeding can prevent childhood obesity. In fact, literature data provide controversial results, probably due to several confounding factors, including maternal habits, age, level of education, lifestyle, race, parity, pregnancy complications, types of delivery, and infant health factors. Thus, whether breastfeeding protects against obesity is still unclear. Further researches, by reducing the influence of confounding factors and improving the accuracy of the effect estimate, are needed to confirm the validity of the role of breastfeeding in reducing the risk of developing childhood overweight. This review briefly summarizes what is known on the possible relationship between breastfeeding and prevention of obesity development.

  8. The place of the clock in pediatric advice: rationales, cultural themes, and impediments to breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, A V

    1990-01-01

    This analysis treats the U.S. medical literature as evidence concerning the formal system of knowledge in allopathic medicine. An examination of pediatric advice on breastfeeding reveals the logic of medical reasoning, the use of scientific rationales, and the intrusion of specific cultural themes. The corpus of data includes works of 18 authors published in 36 volumes from 1897 to 1987, 27 volumes being editions of two major pediatric textbooks. All sources advocate breastfeeding but the detailed advice on how to carry out the process actually tends to undermine it. Moreover, the clock has provided the main frame of reference, creating regimentation reminiscent of factory work, segmenting breastfeeding into a series of steps, and emphasizing efficiency in time and motion. Feeding schedules were advocated in former decades as a matter of discipline for the infant, but nowadays they are viewed as biologically innate to normal infants and to breast milk production. The literature manifests responses over the century to behavioral, biochemical and physiological studies; however, except possibly for one textbook, no thorough rethinking has occurred. Sources of the 1980s continue to focus on the tempo of feeding as a major concern. Cultural themes besides the factory model of breastfeeding include the extension of professional advice to family matters, the subordination of lay women to professional expertise, mistrust of women's bodily signals including the let-down reflex in determining the timing of feedings, mistrust of signals from infants as well, and a professional ideal of flexible advice coupled with rigid limits concerning schedules. The literature interweaves the cultural themes with rationales based on physiological studies in support of specific regimens in breastfeeding, and the relegation of control in breastfeeding to medical experts denies the validity of mutual bodily and emotional responses within the mother-infant dyad. Pediatric authorities thus

  9. Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

  10. Biological underpinnings of breastfeeding challenges: the role of genetics, diet, and environment on lactation physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeon; Kelleher, Shannon L

    2016-08-01

    Lactation is a dynamic process that has evolved to produce a complex biological fluid that provides nutritive and nonnutritive factors to the nursing offspring. It has long been assumed that once lactation is successfully initiated, the primary factor regulating milk production is infant demand. Thus, most interventions have focused on improving breastfeeding education and early lactation support. However, in addition to infant demand, increasing evidence from studies conducted in experimental animal models, production animals, and breastfeeding women suggests that a diverse array of maternal factors may also affect milk production and composition. In this review, we provide an overview of our current understanding of the role of maternal genetics and modifiable factors, such as diet and environmental exposures, on reproductive endocrinology, lactation physiology, and the ability to successfully produce milk. To identify factors that may affect lactation in women, we highlight some information gleaned from studies in experimental animal models and production animals. Finally, we highlight the gaps in current knowledge and provide commentary on future research opportunities aimed at improving lactation outcomes in breastfeeding women to improve the health of mothers and their infants. PMID:27354238

  11. [Problematic breastfeeding due to a short frenulum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Erica D M; Rupert, A W M Stijn; Schulpen, Tom W J

    2010-01-01

    Ankyloglossia (tongue tie) in the neonate can be a cause of breastfeeding problems. Frenotomy (cutting of the frenulum linguae) had fallen into disrepute, but has regained its place as a standard medical procedure in Anglo-Saxon countries, though not in the Netherlands. We present two neonates, both boys, presenting with breastfeeding problems caused by ankyloglossia. The first baby described did not drink enough and hence did not gain any weight. The mother of the second patient experienced a great deal of pain and had cracked nipples, caused by an abnormal suckling action. Both boys underwent frenotomy with good result. Recent ultrasound studies reveal that frenotomy immediately normalizes the suckling action in babies with ankyloglossia. Randomized controlled trials show that 95% of breastfeeding problems disappear. There is sufficient evidence to state that frenotomy is a very safe and useful procedure in neonates. PMID:20170571

  12. Breastfeeding support in neonatal intensive care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Bojesen, Susanne Norby; Kronborg, Hanne;

    2012-01-01

    expression within 6 hours after birth, and mothers were encouraged to double pump. Most NICUs aimed to initiate skin-to-skin contact the first time the parents were in the NICU, and daily skin-to-skin contact was estimated to last for 2-4 hours in 63% and 4-8 hours in 37% of the units. The use of bottle-feeding...... was restricted. Conclusions: The Danish NICUs described the support of breastfeeding as a high priority, which was reflected in the recommended policies for breast milk pumping, skin-to-skin contact, and the parents' presence in the NICU, as well as in the restricted use of bottle-feeding. However, support...... parents to stay overnight; 2 units had short restrictions on parents' presence. Five NICUs had integrated postpartum care for mothers. Breastfeeding policies, written guidelines, and systematic breastfeeding training for the staff were common in most NICUs. Seventeen NICUs recommended starting breast milk...

  13. Influences of teriparatide administration on marrow fat content in postmenopausal osteopenic women using MR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Luo, X; Xie, X; Yan, F; Chen, G; Zhao, W; Jiang, Z; Fang, C; Shen, J

    2016-06-01

    Objective Teriparatide could induce osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells while inhibiting adipocyte differentiation. However, there are significant differences between ex vivo and in vivo models. We aimed to evaluate the impact of teriparatide on marrow and abdominal fat accumulation in postmenopausal osteopenic women. Methods Postmenopausal osteopenic women were randomly assigned to receive teriparatide or placebo for 12 months. Subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), marrow fat fraction (MFF), bone density (BMD) and bone biomarkers were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Results At 12 months, mean percentage changes in BMD from baseline were 3.51%, 2.21% and 1.80% at lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck for the teriparatide group, respectively. Relative to baseline conditions, teriparatide reduced MFF (-3.54% at 6 months; -5.87% at 12 months, all p < 0.01). A significant difference in MFF, but not BMD, was first detected at 6 months (p = 0.012) between groups. MFF was negatively associated with SAT (r = -0.479) and positively associated with VAT (r = 0.531) and VAT/SAT (r = 0.415, all p < 0.05). Teriparatide treatment did not alter abdominal fat composition. Conclusion Teriparatide effectively lowers marrow adiposity but not abdominal fat accumulation in postmenopausal osteopenic women. PMID:26744910

  14. Breastfeeding twins and higher-order multiples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromada, K K; Spangler, A K

    1998-01-01

    The benefits of breastfeeding for pre-term and full-term infants are well documented. Breastfeeding facilitates maternal-infant attachment, provides optimal infant nutrition and immunologic protection, and minimizes economic impact. These benefits are multiplied with twins and higher-order multiples, who often are born at risk. Supporting a mother as she initiates and continues to breastfeed one infant requires specific knowledge and skills. Health professionals need additional knowledge and skills if they are to provide appropriate assessment, intervention, and support when a mother breastfeeds twins or higher-order multiples. PMID:9684207

  15. Community volunteers can improve breastfeeding among children under six months of age in the Democratic Republic of Congo crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaluka Ghislain B

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is a major public health problem in developing countries and exclusive breastfeeding is an efficient strategy that can be used to prevent malnutrition and reduce child mortality. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of community volunteers in promoting exclusive breastfeeding from birth in an area of endemic malnutrition. Methods This evaluation analyzed the impact of the community-based nutrition project in Katana health district of the Democratic Republic of Congo from 2004 to 2006. Each of the villages in this sector had a nutritional village committee made up of five members responsible for continuously working to raise awareness of the importance of exclusive breastfeeding from birth among pregnant women and community leaders in their respective villages. The program worked with community volunteers with a mean age of 37 years, most of whom were married (86%. Eighty percent of the community volunteers had completed secondary school or a higher level of education. Data related to the period of exclusive breastfeeding and to the number of visits made to the health services for 208 children. The data were compared with data from 178 infants collected from another health sector, which had never developed a community-based nutrition program. Results The duration of exclusive breastfeeding from birth (median, range was 6 months (2 to 7 in the intervention area compared with 4 months (1 to 6 in the comparison area (p Conclusions The promotion of breastfeeding by community volunteers in an area of endemic malnutrition in rural Democratic Republic of Congo increased the duration of exclusive breastfeeding from birth.

  16. Trace metal content in aspirin and women's cosmetics via proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multielemental analysis to determine the trace metal content of generic and name-brand aspirins and name-brand lipsticks was done via proton induced x-ray (PIXE) measurements. The Hope College PIXE system is described as well as the target preparation methods. The trace metal content of twelve brands of aspirin and aspirin substitutes and fourteen brands of lipstick are reported. Detection limits for most elements are in the range of 100 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 parts per million

  17. Effects of work-related factors on the breastfeeding behavior of working mothers in a Taiwanese semiconductor manufacturer: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie Wei-Chu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the creation of supportive environments for encouraging mothers to breastfeed their children has emerged as a key health issue for women and children. The provision of lactation rooms and breast pumping breaks have helped mothers to continue breastfeeding after returning to work, but their effectiveness is uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of worksite breastfeeding-friendly policies and work-related factors on the behaviour of working mothers. Methods This study was conducted at a large Taiwanese semiconductor manufacturer in August-September 2003. Questionnaires were used to collect data on female employees' breastfeeding behaviour, child rearing and work status when raising their most recently born child. A total of 998 valid questionnaires were collected, giving a response rate of 75.3%. Results The results showed that 66.9% of survey respondents breastfed initially during their maternity leave, which averaged 56 days. Despite the provision of lactation rooms and breast pumping breaks, only 10.6% mothers continued to breastfeed after returning to work, primarily office workers and those who were aware of their company's breastfeeding-friendly policies. Conclusion In conclusion, breastfeeding-friendly policies can significantly affect breastfeeding behaviour. However, an unfavourable working environment, especially for fab workers, can make it difficult to implement breastfeeding measures. With health professionals emphasizing that the importance of breastfeeding for infant health, and as only females can perform lactation, it is vital that women's work "productive role" and family "reproductive role" be respected and accommodated by society.

  18. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  19. Evaluation of an educational intervention on breastfeeding for NICU nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddell, Erica; Marinelli, Kathleen; Froman, Robin D; Burke, Georgine

    2003-08-01

    The effect of breastfeeding education on breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes of nurses in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was evaluated. NICU nurses (intervention) and pediatric nurses (untreated control) working at a northeastern US children's hospital participated in the pretest/posttest design study. Both groups answered the same breastfeeding questionnaire on 2 occasions. NICU nurses completed the questionnaire the second time after attending the education session. Outcome measures evaluated by questionnaire items were (1) breastfeeding knowledge, (2) pro-breastfeeding attitudes, (3) baby-focused care attitudes, and (4) nurse-focused care attitudes. Comparison groups were similar at pretest on demographic variables and remained so despite attrition between pretesting and posttesting. A significant increase (P NICU nurses' breastfeeding knowledge after the education session. Findings suggest that an educational intervention has potential for improving NICU nurses' knowledge and certain attitudes about breastfeeding but may not alter other attitudes of interest in the desired direction.

  20. Breastfeeding Practices During the First Month Postpartum and Associated Factors: Impact on Breastfeeding Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Mortazavi, Forough; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Wambach, Karen Ann; Mortazavi, Saideh Sadat; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The introduction of fluids to infants during the first days postpartum, which may be harmful to infant health, is a common practice in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to find the prevalence of breastfeeding practices using monthly dietary recall and factors associated with introduction of fluids during the first month of life and determine the effects of these supplementations on breastfeeding survival. Patients and Methods: This longitudinal study carried out in Shahroud, Iran...

  1. Effect of Breastfeeding Promotion on Early Childhood Caries and Breastfeeding Duration among 5 Year Old Children in Eastern Uganda: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Birungi

    Full Text Available Although several studies have shown short term health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, its long term consequences have not been studied extensively in low-income contexts. This study assessed the impact of an EBF promotion initiative for 6 months on early childhood caries (ECC and breastfeeding duration in children aged 5 years in Mbale, Eastern Uganda.Participants were recruited from the Ugandan site of the PROMISE- EBF cluster randomised trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150. A total of 765 pregnant women from 24 clusters were included in the ratio 1:1 to receive peer counselled promotion of EBF as the intervention or standard of care. At the 5 year follow-up, ECC was recorded under field conditions using the World Health Organization's decayed missing filled tooth (dmft index. Adjusted negative binomial and linear regression were used in the analysis.Mean breastfeeding duration in the intervention and control groups (n=417 were 21.8 (CI 20.7-22.9 and 21.3(CI 20.7-21.9 months, respectively. The mean dmft was 1.5 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9 and 1.7 (SD 2.9 in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Corresponding prevalence estimates of ECC were 38% and 41%. Negative binomial regression analysis adjusted for cluster effects and loss-to-follow-up by inverse probability weights (IPW showed an incidence-rate ratio (IRR of 0.91 (95% CI 0.65-1.2. Comparing the effect of the trial arm on breastfeeding duration showed a difference in months of 0.48 (-0.72 to 1.7.PROMISE EBF trial did not impact on early childhood caries or breastfeeding duration at 5 years of age. This study contributes to the body of evidence that promotion of exclusive breastfeeding does not raise oral health concerns. However, the high burden of caries calls for efforts to improve the oral health condition in this setting.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00397150.

  2. Effect of Breastfeeding Promotion on Early Childhood Caries and Breastfeeding Duration among 5 Year Old Children in Eastern Uganda: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birungi, Nancy; Fadnes, Lars T.; Okullo, Isaac; Kasangaki, Arabat; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Ndeezi, Grace; Tumwine, James K.; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lie, Stein Atle; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2015-01-01

    Background Although several studies have shown short term health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), its long term consequences have not been studied extensively in low-income contexts. This study assessed the impact of an EBF promotion initiative for 6 months on early childhood caries (ECC) and breastfeeding duration in children aged 5 years in Mbale, Eastern Uganda. Methods Participants were recruited from the Ugandan site of the PROMISE- EBF cluster randomised trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150). A total of 765 pregnant women from 24 clusters were included in the ratio 1:1 to receive peer counselled promotion of EBF as the intervention or standard of care. At the 5 year follow-up, ECC was recorded under field conditions using the World Health Organization’s decayed missing filled tooth (dmft) index. Adjusted negative binomial and linear regression were used in the analysis. Results Mean breastfeeding duration in the intervention and control groups (n=417) were 21.8 (CI 20.7–22.9) and 21.3(CI 20.7–21.9) months, respectively. The mean dmft was 1.5 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9) and 1.7 (SD 2.9) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Corresponding prevalence estimates of ECC were 38% and 41%. Negative binomial regression analysis adjusted for cluster effects and loss-to-follow-up by inverse probability weights (IPW) showed an incidence-rate ratio (IRR) of 0.91 (95% CI 0.65–1.2). Comparing the effect of the trial arm on breastfeeding duration showed a difference in months of 0.48 (-0.72 to 1.7). Conclusion PROMISE EBF trial did not impact on early childhood caries or breastfeeding duration at 5 years of age. This study contributes to the body of evidence that promotion of exclusive breastfeeding does not raise oral health concerns. However, the high burden of caries calls for efforts to improve the oral health condition in this setting. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00397150 PMID:25938681

  3. Breastfeeding and maternal diet in atopic dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Tina Y.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2011-01-01

    Question Many children are affected by atopic dermatitis (AD) at a very young age. I often consider whether nonpharmacologic interventions could prevent or mitigate the development of AD. Do breastfeeding or changes to the maternal diet help prevent the development of childhood AD?

  4. Breastfeeding practice in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Šumanović-Glamuzina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the new countries established after the break up of the former Yugoslavia. One of the unfortunate legacies of this country due to the 1992-1994 war is the destruction of human and material resources. Despite many negative events, steady progress can be seen in social, technological and cultural aspects of life. According to the global public health recommendation, infants should be breastfed for the first six months of life to achieve optimal growth, health and development. Therefore, to meet their evolving nutritional requirements, infants should receive nutritionally adequate and safe food, with Breastfeeding (BF extended up to and beyond two years of age. In Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H majority of mothers (estimated at 95% have initiated breastfeeding. However, Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF is not commonly practiced, and BF ceases by the age of five months. After 1995, a number of programs were introduced by WHO and UNICEF in B&H with a primary goal to ensure that babies were given a healthy start in life. Through implementation of Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI, enabling exact public health survey – the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS, it would be possible to create comparable health indicators and make a step forward to promote and support breastfeeding practice as the best option for infants.

  5. Duration of breast-feeding and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Villegas, R.; Gao, Y.-T.; Yang, G.; Li, H. L.; Elasy, T; Zheng, W; Shu, X.-O.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to examine the association between lifetime breast-feeding and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a large population-based cohort study of middle-aged women. Methods This was a prospective study of 62,095 middle-aged parous women in Shanghai, China, who had no prior history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer or cardiovascular disease at study recruitment. Breast-feeding history, dietary intake, physical activity and anthropometric measureme...

  6. A Case Study of Michigan's Breastfeeding Initiative: The Role of Coalitions in Community-Based Breastfeeding Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Iris J; Rutledge, Gia; Roberts Ayers, Diane

    2015-11-01

    The Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH) funded 9 local breastfeeding coalitions to implement breastfeeding support groups and to develop breastfeeding resources for mothers and health professionals. The authors conducted qualitative analyses of reports, success stories, and MDCH grantees' interview responses (via follow-up call with 3 coalitions) to assess key barriers, facilitators, and lessons learned for coalitions implementing breastfeeding support groups. Coalitions noted implementation barriers related to their organizational structure and to recruiting mothers and finding meeting locations. Facilitators to implementing breastfeeding support groups included referrals, expertise, resources, and incentives. The following themes emerged from the reports analysis regarding how to implement breastfeeding support groups: "meet moms where they are," build community partnerships, and leverage in-kind and financial resources to sustain breastfeeding support groups. PMID:26286470

  7. Participação do pai no processo da amamentação: vivências, conhecimentos, comportamentos e sentimentos The participation of fathers in the breastfeeding process: experiences, knowledge, behaviors and emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide M. Pontes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar vivências, conhecimentos, comportamentos e sentimentos do pai no processo da amamentação. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, exploratório e qualitativo, realizado com 17 casais moradores de uma favela da cidade de Recife (PE, Nordeste do Brasil, em relação ao aleitamento materno do último filho, com idade entre 6 e 8 meses. A entrevista semi-estruturada, conduzida por questões norteadoras, foi utilizada para coletar as informações. Estas foram investigadas à luz do referencial teórico, da construção histórica, social e cultural da paternidade, através da análise de conteúdo, na modalidade temática. RESULTADOS: Desta análise, emergiram quatro temas: recordações ambíguas/esmaecidas sobre amamentação durante a infância; conhecimento sobre amamentação centrado na saúde da criança, responsabilidade da mulher e economia para o pai; comportamentos apresentados pelo pai durante a sua participação no ciclo grávido-puerperal direcionados à amamentação; e sentimentos entrelaçados de fragilidades ao amamentar. CONCLUSÕES: Os conhecimentos e sentimentos presentes na participação do pai na amamentação são produtos da socialização do homem/mulher, centrada no corpo biológico, reforçando que o amamentar pertence apenas à mulher.OBJECTIVE: To identify the experiences, knowledge, behaviors and emotions of fathers with relation to the process of breastfeeding. METHODS: This is a descriptive, explorative and qualitative study involving 17 couples resident in a favela in the city of Recife, PE, in the Northeast of Brazil, whose most recent child was aged between 6 and 8 months. A semi-structured interview employing leading questions was used for data collection. These data were analyzed in the light of theoretical references, the historical, social and cultural construction of fatherhood, by means of thematic content analysis. RESULTS: Four themes emerged from this analysis: faint

  8. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI and Breastfeeding Success in Lactating Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Haghighi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breastfeeding is one of the most effective ways to promote children's health. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between emotional intelligence and success of breastfeeding. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study in referring of multiple health centers in Shiraz, sample of 150 mothers with children aged one to three 3 years were selected using convenience sampling method and divided to breast fed and formula fed children groups, they obtained Bar-on and demographic questionnaire .Data were analyzed by SPSS software and Significant level for all tests was considered as 5%. Results: Mean age of mothers was 28.8±4.3 and the mean age of children was 19.80±5.8 years in breast fed and  18.98±6.25 in formula fed infants (p=0.406   ; 45.3% of them were high school graduates or low literate, and the rest of them were college educated. 71.3% of the women were housewives and most of them were nulliparous. 71.3% of all women had cesarean delivery. The mean duration of breastfeeding in children  were 14.80±4.35 month in breast fed and  3.98±1.25 month in formula fed infants (p

  9. Reasons for failure of breast-feeding counselling: mothers' perspectives in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, R; Kabir, I; Hamadani, J D; Habte, D

    1997-01-01

    During the hospitalization in the Dhaka hospital of the international Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, of a group of partially breast-fed infants aged 1-12 weeks who had been admitted with acute diarrhoea, their mothers were individually counselled by breast-feeding counsellors to start exclusive breast-feeding. The counselling was repeated 1 week later at home, and the women's infant-feeding practices were evaluated 2 weeks after their infants had been discharged from hospital. A total of 25% of the mothers failed to breast-feed exclusively despite having been counselled. The case studies of these mothers illustrate that although they generally complained about having "insufficient breast milk" various factors such as domineering grandmothers, lack of financial support by their husbands, too much housework, or disinterest contributed to their failure to breast-feed exclusively. While family support is essential for all lactating mothers, women with familial or financial problems require special attention and extra counselling sessions so that they can be helped to identify how to achieve and sustain exclusive breast-feeding. PMID:9277005

  10. Breast-feeding behavioral patterns among La Leche League mothers: a descriptive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, T A; Rothenberger, L A

    1984-06-01

    Many studies have documented the behavioral patterns of unrestricted breast-feeding among Third World mothers, but knowledge of this behavior among Western women is lacking. La Leche League International is a strong advocate of unrestricted breast-feeding, a feeding behavior more characteristic of women in developing countries than in Western society. To investigate the breast-feeding patterns of La Leche League mothers, a pilot study of 24 active members was undertaken. Utilizing a home diary, a 2-month record of suckling frequency, vaginal bleeding, sexual intercourse, solid food supplements, and six-hour intervals without a suckling episode was maintained. The results show the La Leche League mother in this sample to be an average of 29 years old, white, and well-educated. She fed an infant an average of 15 times per day and frequently slept with her child. Frequency of mother and child sleeping together was inversely related to the frequency of marital intercourse. Prolonged lactational amenorrhea was also found, as 92% of the mothers nursing infants 5 to 16 months old had not regained their normal menstrual flow. La Leche League mothers represent a subset of nursing mothers who have a life-style of which the primary care physician must be aware in order to provide optimal maternal-infant care.

  11. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  12. Supporting breastfeeding In Local Communities (SILC): protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    McLachlan, Helen L.; Forster, Della A; Amir, Lisa H.; Small, Rhonda; Cullinane, Meabh; Watson, Lyndsey F; Shafiei, Touran

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is associated with significant positive health outcomes for mothers and infants. However, despite recommendations from the World Health Organization, exclusive breastfeeding for six months is uncommon. Increased breastfeeding support early in the postpartum period may be effective in improving breastfeeding maintenance. This trial will evaluate two community-based interventions to increase breastfeeding duration in Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Victoria, Australia....

  13. Studies on the reference values of bone mineral content in Bulgarian women using single energy quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative CT assessment of bone mineral content (BMC) is widely used in clinical practice. The results obtained from the examination of every single patient are compared with the reference values for the corresponding age and sex. It is known that BMC shows well recognized genetic, racial, ethnic and other differences. On the other hand, the introduction of different techniques, calibration phantoms, algorithms for choosing the region of interest, statistical models etc. leads to some differences in reference values. The authors present their own studies on the reference values of BMC in Bulgarian women using single energy quantitative computed tomography and a liquid K2HPO4 calibration phantom. Different statistical models for data processing are proposed. The results are compared to the studies of recognized foreign authors. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs. (author)

  14. Application of the Breastfeeding Personal Efficacy Beliefs Inventory and Acknowledgment of Barriers for Improving Breastfeeding Initiation Rates in an Urban Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwata Bose

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breastfeeding (BF is recognized as the preferred method of infant nutrition by American Academy of Pediatricians, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the World Health Organization. Despite the benefits of BF, in 1998 only 69% of new mothers in the United States initiated BF and 29% continued to breastfeed at 6 months. Objective: To assess perceived breastfeeding confidence (BFC and determine barriers in regards to BF in an urban population. Methods: The Breastfeeding Personal Efficacy Beliefs Inventory (BPEBI was used to determine perceived BFC. The survey was distributed to 271 women during prenatal appointments at an urban Milwaukee medical center. BF initiation rate at discharge was determined by records review. A principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to examine the structure of the BPEBI in this population. Results: Survey response rate was 89%. Overall BFC was 74%. BF initiation rate at discharge was 62%, exclusively BF (EBF at discharge (no bottle-feeding was 55%. In multivariate models, EBF decreased with black race (p=0.02 and with residence in the low socioeconomic status zip codes of the central city of Milwaukee (p=0.01. BFC increased with prior exposure to BF (p=0.03, EBF (p=0.03 and length of BF (p=0.02. Factor analysis identified two constructs: BFC increased with prior exposure to BF (p=0.006 and EBF (p=0.001 within the motivation construct, and BFC increased with EBF (p=0.000 within the technique/environment construct. Conclusions: The main barriers to increased BFC were lack of prior exposure to BF and nonexclusive breastfeeding practices. BF initiation rate at discharge was low compared to self-reported level of confidence. EBF decreased with black race and with closer proximity to the central city of Milwaukee.

  15. Oxidative capacity and glycogen content increase more in arm than leg muscle in sedentary women after intense training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Connolly, Luke; Weihe, Pál; Iuliano, Enzo; Krustrup, Peter; Saltin, Bengt; Mohr, Magni

    2015-07-15

    The hypothesis that the adaptive capacity is higher in human upper- than lower-body skeletal muscle was tested. Furthermore, the hypothesis that more pronounced adaptations in upper-body musculature can be achieved by "low-volume high-intensity" compared with "high-volume low-intensity" exercise training was evaluated. A group of sedentary premenopausal women aged 45 ± 6 yr (± SD) with expected high adaptive potential in both upper- and lower-extremity muscle groups participated. After random allocation to high-intensity swimming (HIS, n = 21), moderate-intensity swimming (MOS, n = 21), soccer (SOC, n = 21) or a nontraining control group (CON, n = 20), the training groups completed three workouts per week for 15 wk. Resting muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle and deltoideus muscle before and after the intervention. After the training intervention, a larger (P muscle of the HIS group compared with vastus lateralis muscle of the SOC group for citrate synthase maximal activity (95 ± 89 vs. 27 ± 34%), citrate synthase protein expression (100 ± 29 vs. 31 ± 44%), 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase maximal activity (35 ± 43 vs. 3 ± 25%), muscle glycogen content (63 ± 76 vs. 20 ± 51%), and expression of mitochondrial complex II, III, and IV. Additionally, HIS caused higher (P muscle citrate synthase maximal activity, citrate synthase protein expression, and muscle glycogen content. In conclusion, the deltoideus muscle has a higher adaptive potential than the vastus lateralis muscle in sedentary women, and "high-intensity low-volume" training is a more efficient regime than "low-intensity high-volume" training for increasing the aerobic capacity of the deltoideus muscle.

  16. Breastfeeding and the risk for diarrhea morbidity and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victora Cesar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and no breastfeeding among children 6-23 months of age are associated with increased diarrhea morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We estimate the protective effects conferred by varying levels of breastfeeding exposure against diarrhea incidence, diarrhea prevalence, diarrhea mortality, all-cause mortality, and hospitalization for diarrhea illness. Methods We systematically reviewed all literature published from 1980 to 2009 assessing levels of suboptimal breastfeeding as a risk factor for selected diarrhea morbidity and mortality outcomes. We conducted random effects meta-analyses to generate pooled relative risks by outcome and age category. Results We found a large body of evidence for the protective effects of breastfeeding against diarrhea incidence, prevalence, hospitalizations, diarrhea mortality, and all-cause mortality. The results of random effects meta-analyses of eighteen included studies indicated varying degrees of protection across levels of breastfeeding exposure with the greatest protection conferred by exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and by any breastfeeding among infants and young children 6-23 months of age. Specifically, not breastfeeding resulted in an excess risk of diarrhea mortality in comparison to exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age (RR: 10.52 and to any breastfeeding among children aged 6-23 months (RR: 2.18. Conclusions Our findings support the current WHO recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life as a key child survival intervention. Our findings also highlight the importance of breastfeeding to protect against diarrhea-specific morbidity and mortality throughout the first 2 years of life.

  17. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paige Hall

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have

  18. 孕产妇母乳喂养的心理护理体会%Psychological Nursing Breastfeeding Maternal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉萍

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨母乳喂养是促进婴儿健康发育的重要性。方法对孕产妇在孕期、分娩期、哺乳期及时针对孕产妇不同的心理状况,进行心理护理,使产妇保持最佳心理状态,成功地实施母乳喂养。结果出院时的母乳喂养率达到90%。结论帮助母亲做好自我心理调整,可以为4个月~6个月母乳喂养奠定良好的基础。%Objective: To explore the importance of breastfeeding is to promote healthy development of infants. Methods: the pregnant women during pregnancy, childbirth, lactation time according to dif erent psychological status of pregnant women, psychological nursing, maternal keep the best state of mind, the successful implementation of breastfeeding. Results: the hospital breastfeeding rate reached 90%. Conclusion: to help her mother do the self psychological adjustment, can be 4 months to lay a good foundation for 6 months of breastfeeding.

  19. Vivência da amamentação por trabalhadoras de uma indústria têxtil do Estado do Ceará, Brasil Vivencia de la amamantación de trabajadoras de una industria textil de Ceará, Brasil Breastfeeding esperiences of women who work at a textile industry from Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Márcia Bustamante de Morais

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender a vivência das funcionárias contratadas em uma indústria têxtil do Estado do Ceará, após o retorno ao trabalho, diante do processo de aleitamento materno ou desmame. Pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, realizada em junho de 2007 com cinco mães trabalhadoras. Os relatos dos sujeitos, a partir de um roteiro de perguntas abertas, revelaram dificuldades para conciliar o trabalho e a amamentação, consequentes às suas crenças e à falta de suporte social e institucional. As condições de trabalho deficientes a que essas mulheres estão expostas também são fatores determinantes na continuidade ou interrupção da amamentação. Evidenciou-se a necessidade de ampliar as melhorias das instituições com creches, postos de coleta de leite e acompanhamento permanente dessas mulheres quando do retorno ao trabalhoEste estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender la vivencia de las funcionarias contratadas en una industria textil del Estado de Ceara, Brasil, después de regresar al trabajo, frente al proceso de amamantamiento materno o desmame. Investigación de carácter cualitativo, realizada en junio de 2007 con cinco madres trabajadoras. Los relatos de dichas mujeres, a partir de un conjunto de preguntas abiertas, revelaron dificultades para conciliar el trabajo y la amamantación, como consecuencia de sus creencias y de la falta de soporte social e institucional. Las condiciones deficientes de trabajo a las que esas mujeres están expuestas también son factores determinantes en la continuidad o interrupción de la amamantación. Es necesario ampliar las mejorías de las instituciones con guarderías, puestos de recolección de leche y acompañamiento permanente de esas mujeres, cuando se produzca su vuelta al trabajoThis study aimed to understand the experience of women staff employed in a textile industry from Ceara State, Brazil, after returning to work, compared to the process of breastfeeding or

  20. The effects of frenotomy on breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lopes de Castro MARTINELLI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the interference of tongue-tie with breastfeeding is a controversial subject, The use of lingual frenotomy has been widely indicated by health professionals. Objective : To observe changes in breastfeeding patterns after lingual frenotomy concerning the number of sucks, pause length between groups of sucking and mother's complaints. Material and Methods : Oral yes/no questions about breastfeeding symptoms and sucking/swallowing/breathing coordination were answered by the mothers of 109, 30 day old infants. On the same day the infants had their lingual frenulum assessed by administering a lingual frenulum protocol. After the assessment, all tongue-tied infants were referred for frenotomy; nevertheless, only 14 underwent the surgery. Of the 109 infants, 14 infants who did not have frenulum alterations were included as controls. Birth order and gender were the criteria for recruiting the control group. The tongue-tied infants underwent lingual frenotomy at 45 days of age. At the conclusion of the frenotomy, the infants were breastfed. At 75 days old, both groups – control and post-frenotomy – were reassessed. Before the reassessment the same oral yes/no questions were answered by the mothers of the 14 infants who underwent frenotomy. The mothers of the control group answered the questionnaire only at the time of the first assessment. Data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results : After frenotomy, the number of sucks increased and the pause length between sucking decreased during breastfeeding. The controls maintained the same patterns observed in the first assessment. From the questionnaire answered by the mothers of the 14 tongue-tied infants, at 30 days and 75 days, we observed that the symptoms concerning breastfeeding and sucking/swallowing/breathing coordination were improved after lingual frenotomy Conclusions : after lingual frenotomy, changes were observed in the breastfeeding patterns of the the tongue-tied infants

  1. Effect of breastfeeding promotion interventions on breastfeeding rates, with special focus on developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhutta Zulfiqar A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the recognized benefits of breastfeeding for the health of the mother and infants, the World Health Organization (WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF for the first six months of life. However, the prevalence of EBF is low globally in many of the developing and developed countries around the world. There is much interest in the effectiveness of breastfeeding promotion interventions on breastfeeding rates in early infancy. Methods A systematic literature was conducted to identify all studies that evaluated the impact of breastfeeding promotional strategies on any breastfeeding and EBF rates at 4-6 weeks and at 6 months. Data were abstracted into a standard excel sheet by two authors. Meta-analyses were performed with different sub-group analyses. The overall evidence were graded according to the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG rules using the adapted Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE criteria and recommendations made from developing country studies for inclusion into the Live Saved Tool (LiST model. Results After reviewing 968 abstracts, 268 studies were selected for potential inclusion, of which 53 randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials were selected for full abstraction. Thirty two studies gave the outcome of EBF at 4-6 weeks postpartum. There was a statistically significant 43% increase in this outcome, with 89% and 20% significant increases in developing and developed countries respectively. Fifteen studies reported EBF outcomes at 6 months. There was an overall 137% increase, with a significant 6 times increase in EBF in developing countries, compared to 1.3 folds increase in developed country studies. Further sub-group analyses proved that prenatal counseling had a significant impact on breastfeeding outcomes at 4-6 weeks, while both prenatal and postnatal counseling were important for EBF at 6 months. Conclusion Breastfeeding promotion

  2. Management of Ankyloglossia and Breastfeeding Difficulties in the Newborn: Breastfeeding Sessions, Myofunctional Therapy, and Frenotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The problems of suction in newborns give rise to multiple consequences for both the mother and the newborn. The objective of this paper is to present a case of ankyloglossia (“tongue-tie”) and the suction problems that were treated by a multidisciplinary team. The subject is a 17-day-old male patient, with ankyloglossia and suction problems during breastfeeding (pain in the breastfeeding mother, poor weight gain, and long breastfeeds). The patient followed the circuit established in our centre between the services of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Breastfeeding and Speech Therapy and Orofacial Rehabilitation (CELERE). The evolution following the breastfeeding sessions, the myofunctional stimulation, and the lingual frenotomy was very favourable, thereby solving the suction problems that the newborn presented. All our patients receive breastfeeding sessions and myofunctional therapy as treatment. We know that a frenotomy is not always necessary and we believe that the stimulation of sucking before and after the surgical intervention is important in order to improve the final result.

  3. Management of Ankyloglossia and Breastfeeding Difficulties in the Newborn: Breastfeeding Sessions, Myofunctional Therapy, and Frenotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrés-Amat, Elvira; Pastor-Vera, Tomasa; Rodríguez-Alessi, Paula; Ferrés-Amat, Eduard; Mareque-Bueno, Javier; Ferrés-Padró, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    The problems of suction in newborns give rise to multiple consequences for both the mother and the newborn. The objective of this paper is to present a case of ankyloglossia ("tongue-tie") and the suction problems that were treated by a multidisciplinary team. The subject is a 17-day-old male patient, with ankyloglossia and suction problems during breastfeeding (pain in the breastfeeding mother, poor weight gain, and long breastfeeds). The patient followed the circuit established in our centre between the services of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Breastfeeding and Speech Therapy and Orofacial Rehabilitation (CELERE). The evolution following the breastfeeding sessions, the myofunctional stimulation, and the lingual frenotomy was very favourable, thereby solving the suction problems that the newborn presented. All our patients receive breastfeeding sessions and myofunctional therapy as treatment. We know that a frenotomy is not always necessary and we believe that the stimulation of sucking before and after the surgical intervention is important in order to improve the final result. PMID:27688921

  4. Obesity and early cessation of breastfeeding in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Væth, Michael; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with early cessation of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is multi-factorial and several factors contribute to this association. Our aim was to investigate to what extent socio-demographic and psychosocial characteristics, parity and prenatal conditions could explain...... the association between high BMI and early cessation of breastfeeding Methods: We used data from a randomized trial of 1597 Danish mothers of singleton infants. Self-reported Maternal postnatal weight and height were available from 1375 (86 %). High BMI was defined as body mass index ≥32 kg/m2 at ~ 17...... breastfeeding, and were more frequently characterised by socio-demographic-, psychosocial-, perinatal- and behavioural factors known to increase the risk of early breastfeeding cessation. In the adjusted analyses (n = 1226) the association between BMI and duration of exclusive breastfeeding depended on parity...

  5. Childhood Obesity – Prevention Begins with Breastfeeding

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-02

    This podcast is based on the August, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the US. Breastfeeding can help prevent obesity, but one in three moms stop without hospital support. About 95% of hospitals lack policies that fully support breastfeeding moms. Hospitals need to do more to help moms start and continue breastfeeding.  Created: 8/2/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2011.

  6. Breastfeeding and IQ Growth from Toddlerhood through Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie von Stumm; Robert Plomin

    2015-01-01

    ObjectivesThe benefits of breastfeeding for cognitive development continue to be hotly debated but are yet to be supported by conclusive empirical evidence.MethodsWe used here a latent growth curve modeling approach to test the association of breastfeeding with IQ growth trajectories, which allows differentiating the variance in the IQ starting point in early life from variance in IQ gains that occur later in childhood through adolescence. Breastfeeding (yes/ no) was modeled as a direct predi...

  7. Breastfeeding and depression: a systematic review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Cláudia Castro; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research has separately indicated associations between pregnancy depression and breastfeeding, breastfeeding and postpartum depression, and pregnancy and postpartum depression. This paper aimed to provide a systematic literature review on breastfeeding and depression, considering both pregnancy and postpartum depression. Methods: An electronic search in three databases was performed using the keywords: “breast feeding”, “bottle feeding”, “depression”, “pregnancy”, and “postpartum”...

  8. Breastfeeding among Mothers on Opioid Maintenance Treatment: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Lillian C; Doan, Therese Jung

    2016-08-01

    Although there is an abundance of interventional studies to increase breastfeeding rates, little is known about how to support and promote breastfeeding among mothers on opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). The studies on maternal OMT mainly focus on medication excreted in breast milk and breastfeeding benefits for infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). We aim to review interventions to improve breastfeeding outcomes among mothers on OMT to make recommendations for practice and future research. We searched CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for articles, preferably experimental/quasi-experimental studies published within the past 10 years, that examined interventions to increase rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration among mothers on OMT. Nine studies met our inclusion criteria, comprising 5 categories: 4 combined obstetric and addiction care, 1 rooming-in, 1 Baby-Friendly hospital, 2 inpatient/outpatient NAS treatment, and 1 divided methadone dose. Breastfeeding rates were relatively higher for divided methadone dose (81% initiated any breastfeeding) and rooming-in (62% initiated any breastfeeding); lower in Baby-Friendly hospital (24%) and inpatient/outpatient NAS treatment (45% and 24%, respectively); and mixed in combined obstetric and addiction care programs (2 studies reported 70% and 76%; 2 studies reported 17% and 28%). Studies that included both methadone and buprenorphine did not specify breastfeeding results by medication. We recommend future research to differentiate breastfeeding types and duration by OMT medication. Qualitative studies are needed to explore maternal view on breastfeeding regarding need, barrier, and motivating factors in order to develop effective interventions to promote breastfeeding among mothers on OMT. PMID:27053175

  9. Maternal recall of breastfeeding duration twenty years after delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Natland Siv Tone; Andersen Lene Frost; Nilsen Tom Ivar Lund; Forsmo Siri; Jacobsen Geir W

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies on the health benefits from breastfeeding often rely on maternal recall of breastfeeding. Although short-term maternal recall has been found to be quite accurate, less is known about long-term accuracy. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of long-term maternal recall of breastfeeding duration. Methods In a prospective study of pregnancy and birth outcome, detailed...

  10. Does Returning to Work After Childbirth Affect Breastfeeding Practices?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinka Chatterji; Kevin Frick

    2003-01-01

    Although the Surgeon General recently highlighted breastfeeding as '......one of the most important contributors to infant health,' few health economics studies based in developed countries have considered breastfeeding as an important health behavior that can be influenced by labor market decisions and by public policies. This study examines the effect of the timing and intensity of returning to work after childbirth on the probability of initiating breastfeeding and the number of weeks of b...

  11. Trade-offs underlying maternal breastfeeding decisions : a conceptual model.

    OpenAIRE

    Tully, Kristin P.; Ball, Helen L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new conceptual model that generates predictions about breastfeeding decisions and identifies interactions that affect outcomes. We offer a contextual approach to infant feeding that models multi-directional influences by expanding on the evolutionary parent–offspring conflict and situation-specific breastfeeding theories. The main hypothesis generated from our framework suggests that simultaneously addressing breastfeeding costs and benefits, in relation to how they are ...

  12. Maternal Religious Involvement and Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Burdette, Amy M.; Pilkauskas, Natasha V.

    2012-01-01

    Although religious involvement is associated with a number of beneficial health outcomes, few studies have investigated whether religious involvement is associated with breastfeeding behaviors. Our analyses of two waves of data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 4,166) indicate that mothers who frequently attend religious services are more likely to initiate breastfeeding than mothers who never attend services. Understanding religious variations in breastfeeding may allo...

  13. Does breastfeeding support at work help mothers and employers at the same time?

    OpenAIRE

    Del Bono, Emilia; Pronzato, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    This paper asks whether the availability of breastfeeding facilities at the workplace helps to reconcile breastfeeding and work commitments. Using data from the 2005 UK Infant Feeding Survey, we model the joint probability to return to work and breastfeeding and analyse its association with the availability of breastfeeding facilities. Our findings indicate that the availability of breastfeeding facilities is associated with a higher probability of breastfeeding and a higher probability to re...

  14. Breastfeeding-Associated Hypernatremia: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagno, Camilla; Camozzi, Pietro; Renzi, Samuele; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Bianchetti, Mario G; Milani, Gregorio P

    2016-02-01

    There are increasing reports on hypernatremia, a potentially devastating condition, in exclusively breastfed newborn infants. Our purposes were to describe the clinical features of the condition and identify the risk factors for it. We performed a review of the existing literature in the National Library of Medicine database and in the search engine Google Scholar. A total of 115 reports were included in the final analysis. Breastfeeding-associated neonatal hypernatremia was recognized in infants who were ≤ 21 days of age and had ≥ 10% weight loss of birth weight. Cesarean delivery, primiparity, breast anomalies or breastfeeding problems, excessive prepregnancy maternal weight, delayed first breastfeeding, lack of previous breastfeeding experience, and low maternal education level were significantly associated with breastfeeding-associated hypernatremia. In addition to excessive weight loss (≥ 10%), the following clinical findings were observed: poor feeding, poor hydration state, jaundice, excessive body temperature, irritability or lethargy, decreased urine output, and epileptic seizures. In conclusion, the present survey of the literature identifies the following risk factors for breastfeeding-associated neonatal hypernatremia: cesarean delivery, primiparity, breastfeeding problems, excessive maternal body weight, delayed breastfeeding, lack of previous breastfeeding experience, and low maternal education level. PMID:26530059

  15. Cotidianidade da mulher que tem HIV/AIDS: modo de ser diante da (impossibilidade de amamentar Cotidianidad de la mujer que tiene VIH/SIDA: modo de ser ante la (imposibilidad de amamantar The daily routine of women infected with HIV/AIDS: way of being in the face of the impossibility of breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Maris de Mello Padoin

    2010-03-01

    asistencial, el encuentro vivido y dialogado, mediado por la escucha, empatía e intersubjetividad, que se desarrolla a partir de la comprensión del modo de ser del humano ante las imposibilidades de la condición serológica y en la búsqueda de desvelar sus posibilidades.The purpose of this phenomenological research is to understand the daily routine of women infected with the virus of human immunodeficiency (HIV prevented from breastfeeding. Twelve women were interviewed in a university hospital in southern Brazil. Their statements, analyzed through a Heideggerian approach, showed that the women reveal themselves as beings-in-the-world and are mainly impersonal. The way of being of de-cadence was unveiled and expressed by occupation, gossip, curiosity, ambiguity, fear, and the inauthenticity of the pact of silence and the unsaid. The helpful care mediated by a dialogic relationship between mother and son/daughter, between the woman and the professional, showed the possibility of movement from inauthenticity to authenticity. We recommend the use of direct and dialogued interaction as an assistance strategy, mediated by listening, empathy and intersubjectivity, and developed through the comprehension of the way of being of the human being in the face of the impossibilities imposed by the serological condition and in their attempt to unveil their possibilities.

  16. Vitamin B12 status is associated to bone mineral content and bone mineral density in frail elderly women, but not in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Lips, M.; Jong, N.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in the elderly. Encouraged by early indications, we investigated the plasma vitamin B-12 status in association with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in frail elderly people. Data of 194 free-living Dutch frail elderly (143 women

  17. The Australian Women´s Weekly 1933-1982 now available in Trove: An overview of the digitisation process, the content and covers

    OpenAIRE

    Holley, Rose

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the digitisation process for the Australian Women´s Weekly. Once digitised it is full-text searchable from Trove the Australian Discovery service, and this presentation highlights why the content is unique and how it can be easily searched in Trove.

  18. Parent Misidentification Leading to the Breastfeeding of the Wrong Baby in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Charles W; Marc-Aurele, Krishelle L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Because there are clear benefits to breast milk over formula for infants, the goal of the World Health Organization is to increase breastfeeding rates. As more women are breastfeeding and providing breast milk to newborns in hospitals, there is increased risk for administration error. CASE REPORT A hospitalized preterm infant was breastfed by the wrong mother when the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Nurse failed to properly identify the mother. An infectious disease workup done on the donor mother was negative, but the recipient infant was positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV). Since the donor mother who accidentally breastfed the wrong infant was CMV-negative, the baby in our case had likely been exposed to CMV from his biological mother. The attending physician apologized to all of the family members involved, but the father of one infant continued to express anger. CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this is the first case of accidental breastfeeding in a hospital setting to be described in the literature. Parental misidentification and a language barrier led to the error. An infectious disease workup did not find any evidence of disease transmission from this event. Increased attention to minimize breast milk errors is needed. Despite a long history of wet nursing, unregulated breast milk sharing and cross nursing is not recommended. Instead, if a mother cannot provide breast milk herself, pasteurized donor breast milk from breast milk banks is encouraged. PMID:27515898

  19. The Decline in Breastfeeding: An Analysis of the Role of the Nestle Corporation from Two Perspectives. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 11 (1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Carolyn E.

    An attempt is made to analyze the ascendancy of formula feeding of infants in terms of the conflicting ideologies of Marxism and capitalism. The decline of breastfeeding is traced, and is linked with the interrelated phenomena of free market economics and the domination of women by men in Western society. The monograph has two sections:…

  20. Trends in overweight by educational level in 33 low- and middle-income countries: The role of parity, age at first birth and breastfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Lopez-Arana (S.); A. Burdorf (Alex); M. Avendano (Mauricio)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined trends in overweight among women of reproductive age by educational level in 33 low- and middle-income countries, and estimated the contribution of parity, age at first birth and breastfeeding to these trends. We used repeated cross-sectional Demographic Health Survey

  1. Excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after nuclear medicine examinations. Biokinetic and dosimetric data and recommendations on breastfeeding interruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liepe, K. [GH Hospital Frankfurt/Oder, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Frankfurt an der Oder (Germany); Becker, A. [GH Hospital Frankfurt/Oder, Department of Internal Medicine, Frankfurt an der Oder (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Since the 1990s the advantages of breastfeeding have been emphasized and the number of women who nurse their infant has increased significantly. Although women in this population are generally healthy and relatively rarely need radionuclide imaging or radionuclide therapies, the issue of radiation protection of breastfed children arises because of their higher radiosensitivity. Approximately 55 papers on excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after radionuclide imaging or therapy have been published. Unfortunately, most of them are case reports or include only a small number of cases. In 1955 the first report was published about a breastfeeding woman after radioiodine treatment of thyrotoxicosis. This early study showed a higher concentration of radioiodine in breast milk than in plasma and investigated the risk to the infant, especially to the thyroid gland.

  2. Excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after nuclear medicine examinations. Biokinetic and dosimetric data and recommendations on breastfeeding interruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the 1990s the advantages of breastfeeding have been emphasized and the number of women who nurse their infant has increased significantly. Although women in this population are generally healthy and relatively rarely need radionuclide imaging or radionuclide therapies, the issue of radiation protection of breastfed children arises because of their higher radiosensitivity. Approximately 55 papers on excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after radionuclide imaging or therapy have been published. Unfortunately, most of them are case reports or include only a small number of cases. In 1955 the first report was published about a breastfeeding woman after radioiodine treatment of thyrotoxicosis. This early study showed a higher concentration of radioiodine in breast milk than in plasma and investigated the risk to the infant, especially to the thyroid gland.

  3. The cost of not breastfeeding in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Dylan; Horton, Susan; Siregar, Adiatma Yudistira Manogar; Pitriyan, Pipit; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Mathisen, Roger; Phan, Linh Thi Hong; Rudert, Christiane

    2016-10-01

    Rates of exclusive breastfeeding are slowly increasing, but remain suboptimal globally despite the health and economic benefits. This study estimates the costs of not breastfeeding across seven countries in Southeast Asia and presents a cost-benefit analysis of a modeled comprehensive breastfeeding strategy in Viet Nam, based on a large programme. There have been very few such studies previously for low- and middle-income countries. The estimates used published data on disease prevalence and breastfeeding patterns for the seven countries, supplemented by information on healthcare costs from representative institutions. Modelling of costs of not breastfeeding used estimated effects obtained from systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Modelling of cost-benefit for Viet Nam used programme data on costs combined with effects from a large-scale cluster randomized breastfeeding promotion intervention with controls. This study found that over 12 400 preventable child and maternal deaths per year in the seven countries could be attributed to inadequate breastfeeding. The economic benefits associated with potential improvements in cognition alone, through higher IQ and earnings, total $1.6 billion annually. The loss exceeds 0.5% of Gross National Income in the country with the lowest exclusive breastfeeding rate (Thailand). The potential savings in health care treatment costs ($0.3 billion annually) from reducing the incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia could help offset the cost of breastfeeding promotion. Based on the data available and authors' assumptions, investing in a national breastfeeding promotion strategy in Viet Nam could result in preventing 200 child deaths per year and generate monetary benefits of US$2.39 for every US$1, or a 139% return on investment. These encouraging results suggest that there are feasible and affordable opportunities to accelerate progress towards achieving the Global Nutrition Target for exclusive breastfeeding by 2025.

  4. The cost of not breastfeeding in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Dylan; Horton, Susan; Siregar, Adiatma Yudistira Manogar; Pitriyan, Pipit; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Mathisen, Roger; Phan, Linh Thi Hong; Rudert, Christiane

    2016-10-01

    Rates of exclusive breastfeeding are slowly increasing, but remain suboptimal globally despite the health and economic benefits. This study estimates the costs of not breastfeeding across seven countries in Southeast Asia and presents a cost-benefit analysis of a modeled comprehensive breastfeeding strategy in Viet Nam, based on a large programme. There have been very few such studies previously for low- and middle-income countries. The estimates used published data on disease prevalence and breastfeeding patterns for the seven countries, supplemented by information on healthcare costs from representative institutions. Modelling of costs of not breastfeeding used estimated effects obtained from systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Modelling of cost-benefit for Viet Nam used programme data on costs combined with effects from a large-scale cluster randomized breastfeeding promotion intervention with controls. This study found that over 12 400 preventable child and maternal deaths per year in the seven countries could be attributed to inadequate breastfeeding. The economic benefits associated with potential improvements in cognition alone, through higher IQ and earnings, total $1.6 billion annually. The loss exceeds 0.5% of Gross National Income in the country with the lowest exclusive breastfeeding rate (Thailand). The potential savings in health care treatment costs ($0.3 billion annually) from reducing the incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia could help offset the cost of breastfeeding promotion. Based on the data available and authors' assumptions, investing in a national breastfeeding promotion strategy in Viet Nam could result in preventing 200 child deaths per year and generate monetary benefits of US$2.39 for every US$1, or a 139% return on investment. These encouraging results suggest that there are feasible and affordable opportunities to accelerate progress towards achieving the Global Nutrition Target for exclusive breastfeeding by 2025. PMID:27107295

  5. Factors associated with breastfeeding in children less than one year of age in the city of Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Arena

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The practice of breastfeeding represents multiple benefits to children; however, several studies show thatthere has been a gradual loss of breastfeeding habits in industrialized and developing countries, mainly because the greatdiversity of types of milk. Additionalliy, there was the presence of biological and socio-cultural factors, which influence andmodify this practice and generate a negative impact on the health of the infant population. In Colombia, in 2005, it was reportedthat the median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 2.2 months and the median duration was 14.9 months total; likewise,the department of Bolivar reported a median slightly over a month.Objective: To determine the relationship between social and biological factors in the prevalence of exclusive breastfeedingin children under one year of age in Cartagena, Colombia.Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study, the population consisted of the mothers of 23,109 children less than oneyear of age, the sample was 562 mothers. The probability sampling was stratified by clusters of three locations in the city whereevery neighborhood was a cluster. After selecting the neighborhood, a simple random sampling was conducted by city blocks.Mothers of children under one year of age were sought in their homes in the city blocks selected. The information was collectedthrough the survey «Breastfeeding and complementary feeding» used by PROFAMILIA, demographic characteristics weredemographic characteristics were also investigated.Results: The median for breastfeeding was 2 months, social factors associated were: not using a feeding bottle (CI: 2.37-5.38, nuclear family membership (CI: 1.29-2.72, not being a mother head of household (CI: 0.27-0.62, and the biologicalfactor showing association was temporary suspension of breastfeeding (CI: 0.23-0.70.Conclusion: The duration of the exclusive breastfeeding practice among women turned out to be very short and thepractice until the sixth

  6. Moving National Breastfeeding Policies into Practice: A Plea to Integrate Lactation Education and Training into Nutrition and Dietetics Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurich, Melissa Ann; McCool, Megan Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    In 2011, the Surgeon General's Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding called on all health professional organizations, medical schools, and credentialing boards to establish and incorporate minimum lactation education and training requirements into their credentialing, licensing, and certification processes and to include breastfeeding education in undergraduate and graduate education and training programs. Given the commonalities between the fields of nutrition and breastfeeding, it has been proposed that nutrition professionals are an underutilized resource in the field of lactation management. Considering the lack of breastfeeding knowledge and skills among health professionals, nutrition professionals should be afforded opportunities to learn lactation management during their studies. The United States Breastfeeding Committee published Core Competencies in Breastfeeding Care and Services for All Health Professionals in 2010. However, professional nutrition and lactation credentialing boards should cooperate to integrate mandatory minimum standards of lactation education for nutrition professionals. Undergraduate and graduate programs in nutrition and dietetics should incorporate lactation content into their core curricula to comply with such standards. In addition, dietetics programs should offer optional clinical lactation experiences for students who aspire to become an International Board Certified Lactation Consultant. PMID:27280979

  7. Vaginal Fibroblastic Cells from Women with Pelvic Organ Prolapse Produce Matrices with Increased Stiffness and Collagen Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Zapata, Alejandra M.; Kerkhof, Manon H.; Ghazanfari, Samaneh; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; Stoop, Reinout; Smit, Theo H.; Helder, Marco N.

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is characterised by the weakening of the pelvic floor support tissues, and often by subsequent prolapse of the bladder outside the body, i.e. cystocele. The bladder is kept in place by the anterior vaginal wall which consists of a dense extracellular matrix rich in collagen content that is maintained and remodelled by fibroblastic cells, i.e. fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Since altered matrix production influences tissue quality, and myofibroblasts are involved in normal and pathological soft tissue repair processes, we evaluated matrix production of cells derived from pre- and post-menopausal POP and non-POP control anterior vaginal wall tissues. Results showed that cells from postmenopausal POP women deposited matrices with high percentage of collagen fibres with less anisotropic orientation and increased stiffness than those produced by controls. There was a transient increase in myofibroblastic phenotype that was lost after the peak of tissue remodelling. In conclusion, affected fibroblasts from postmenopausal prolapsed tissues produced altered matrices in vitro compared to controls. Such aberrant altered matrix production does not appear to be a consequence of abnormal phenotypical changes towards the myofibroblastic lineage. PMID:26965792

  8. Breastfeeding-Friendly Erie County: Establishing a Baby Café Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Deborah J; Dennison, Barbara A; Restina, Kyle

    2015-11-01

    Community-based lactation support groups help improve breastfeeding duration by offering practical peer and professional help and counseling through the sharing of information and experiences in a relaxed setting. The objective of this project, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was to establish at least 5 Baby Cafés in organizations that reach low-income women living in a high-need, racially/ethnically diverse, urban county with 1 of the lowest rates of breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity, and duration in New York. The New York State Department of Health partnered with the P(2) Collaborative of Western New York and United Way of Buffalo & Erie County's Healthy Start Healthy Future for All Coalition to facilitate the recruitment of 11 community-based agencies in Erie County, New York, to provide and/or enhance breastfeeding support. Six organizations were funded to establish licensed Baby Cafés, which provided skilled, free-of-charge, drop-in lactation support and counseling to mothers at easily accessible locations. The organizations provided staff training and staffing at the Baby Cafés, established coordinated hours of operation between all locations, and jointly marketed their services. Collectively, the 6 Baby Cafés provided 11 drop-in sessions per week. During the 7-month start-up time, mothers/babies made 276 visits and they averaged 75 visits per month, representing at least 150 clients. After the funding ended, 5 organizations continued to support and staff the Baby Cafés whereas 1 organization added another Baby Café. Future evaluation is needed to determine their effect on breastfeeding exclusivity and duration. PMID:26319111

  9. Practice of focus on solving mode in improving health education on breastfeeding%聚焦解决模式在提高母乳喂养健康教育中的应用实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈群芬; 王川; 季庆华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the application method and effect of focus on solving mode on improving health education of breastfeeding .Methods Totally 60 hospitalized pregnant women were randomly divided into observation group and control group equally . The control group was given health education of conventional contents and patterns , and the observe group was educated with five steps of the focus on solving mode .The awareness rate of knowledge about breastfeeding and exclusive rate of breastfeeding at the admission , discharge and 42 day after childbirth were compared between two groups .Results The awareness rate of breastfeeding knowledge of the observation group was significantly better than that of the control group at discharge and postpartum 42 day (χ2 value was 2.263 and 2.035, respectively, both P<0.05).The rate of insisting on breastfeeding in the observation group at discharge and 42 day after childbirth were significantly higher than that in the control group (χ2 value was 2.131 and 2.193, respectively, both P<0.05).Conclusion The health education for hospitalized maternal women by the focus on solving mode can improve the effect of health education and exclusive rate of breastfeeding .%目的:探讨聚焦解决模式在提高母乳喂养健康教育中的应用方法及效果。方法将60例住院产妇随机分为观察组与对照组,两组各30例。对照组按照常规内容和模式进行健康教育,观察组按照聚焦解决模式5个步骤进行健康教育。分别于入院时、出院时以及产后第42天对两组患者进行母乳喂养知识知晓率、纯母乳喂养执行率进行比较与评价。结果观察组产妇出院时和产后42天母乳喂养知识知晓率均显著优于对照组(χ2值分别为2.263、2.035,均P<0.05)。观察组出院时和产后42天坚持纯母乳喂养坚持率均显著高于对照组(χ2值分别为2.131、2.193,均P<0.05)。结论采用聚焦解决模式对住院

  10. Revising acute care systems and processes to improve breastfeeding and maternal postnatal health: a pre and post intervention study in one English maternity unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bick Debra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most women in the UK give birth in a hospital labour ward, following which they are transferred to a postnatal ward and discharged home within 24 to 48 hours of the birth. Despite policy and guideline recommendations to support planned, effective postnatal care, national surveys of women’s views of maternity care have consistently found in-patient postnatal care, including support for breastfeeding, is poorly rated. Methods Using a Continuous Quality Improvement approach, routine antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care systems and processes were revised to support implementation of evidence based postnatal practice. To identify if implementation of a multi-faceted QI intervention impacted on outcomes, data on breastfeeding initiation and duration, maternal health and women’s views of care, were collected in a pre and post intervention longitudinal survey. Primary outcomes included initiation, overall duration and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Secondary outcomes included maternal morbidity, experiences and satisfaction with care. As most outcomes of interest were measured on a nominal scale, these were compared pre and post intervention using logistic regression. Results Data were obtained on 741/1160 (64% women at 10 days post-birth and 616 (54% at 3 months post-birth pre-intervention, and 725/1153 (63% and 575 (50% respectively post-intervention. Post intervention there were statistically significant differences in the initiation (p = 0.050, duration of any breastfeeding (p = 0.020 and duration of exclusive breastfeeding to 10 days (p = 0.038 and duration of any breastfeeding to three months (p = 0.016. Post intervention, women were less likely to report physical morbidity within the first 10 days of birth, and were more positive about their in-patient care. Conclusions It is possible to improve outcomes of routine in-patient care within current resources through continuous quality

  11. A qualitative study of the experiences and expectations of women receiving in-patient postnatal care in one English maternity unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bick Debra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies consistently highlight in-patient postnatal care as the area of maternity care women are least satisfied with. As part of a quality improvement study to promote a continuum of care from the birthing room to discharge home from hospital, we explored women's expectations and experiences of current in-patient care. Methods For this part of the study, qualitative data from semi-structured interviews were transcribed and analysed using content analyses to identify issues and concepts. Women were recruited from two postnatal wards in one large maternity unit in the South of England, with around 6,000 births a year. Results Twenty women, who had a vaginal or caesarean birth, were interviewed on the postnatal ward. Identified themes included; the impact of the ward environment; the impact of the attitude of staff; quality and level of support for breastfeeding; unmet information needs; and women's low expectations of hospital based postnatal care. Findings informed revision to the content and planning of in-patient postnatal care, results of which will be reported elsewhere. Conclusions Women's responses highlighted several areas where changes could be implemented. Staff should be aware that how they inter-act with women could make a difference to care as a positive or negative experience. The lack of support and inconsistent advice on breastfeeding highlights that units need to consider how individual staff communicate information to women. Units need to address how and when information on practical aspects of infant care is provided if women and their partners are to feel confident on the woman's transfer home from hospital.

  12. Cooperative Extension Answers the Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Michelle F.

    2016-01-01

    Extension has many opportunities to promote breastfeeding, one of the most highly effective preventive measures a mother can take to protect the health of her infant and herself. This article describes how and why Cooperative Extension can and should partner with federal and state efforts to promote breastfeeding. Members of Rutgers' Family and…

  13. Benefits of Breastfeeding (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-10-08

    Breastfeeding has well-documented benefits for both newborns and their mothers, and getting off to a good start is important for success. In this podcast, Dr. Cria Perrine discusses the importance of breastfeeding babies during their first year of life.  Created: 10/8/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/8/2015.

  14. Does breastfeeding influence future sperm quality and reproductive hormones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, J M; Jensen, M S; Thulstrup, Ane Marie;

    2011-01-01

    No human study has investigated the possible impact of breastfeeding on semen quality and levels of reproductive hormones, but a recent study of another hypothesis indicated an association with oligozoospermia. We investigated the association between breastfeeding, semen quality and levels of rep...

  15. Parity, breastfeeding and risk of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Sanne Ae; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Wood, Angela M;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is uncertainty about the direction and magnitude of the associations between parity, breastfeeding and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We examined the separate and combined associations of parity and breastfeeding practices with the incidence of CHD later in life among...

  16. Breastfeeding, Bonding, and the Mother-Infant Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Clark, Roseanne

    2003-01-01

    Analyzed data from a longitudinal study of 570 mother-infant pairs to test the bonding hypothesis and the good-enough caregiver hypothesis as they relate to breastfeeding with maternal bonding and the mother-infant relationship. Found that breastfeeding dyads tended to show higher-quality relationships at 12 months than did bottle-feeding dyads.…

  17. Breastfeeding and the Mother-Infant Relationship--A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jarno; de Weerth, Carolina; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

    2008-01-01

    A positive effect of breastfeeding on the mother-infant relationship is often assumed in the scientific literature, but this has not been systematically reviewed. This review aims to clarify the role of breastfeeding in the mother-infant relationship, which is conceptualized as the maternal bond toward the infant and infant attachment toward the…

  18. Benefits of Breastfeeding (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-10-08

    Breastfeeding has health benefits for babies and mothers, and getting off to a good start in the hospital is important. This podcast discusses the importance of beginning breastfeeding at the hospital.  Created: 10/8/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/8/2015.

  19. Breastfeeding and the mother-infant relationship-A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Weerth, C. de; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    A positive effect of breastfeeding on the mother–infant relationship is often assumed in the scientific literature, but this has not been systematically reviewed. This review aims to clarify the role of breastfeeding in the mother–infant relationship, which is conceptualized as the maternal bond tow

  20. Secrets and lies: Breastfeeding and professional paid work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatrell, Caroline Jane

    2007-07-01

    This paper explores the conflict between health advice and organisational practice regarding breastfeeding. It focuses on the group of mothers with the highest rates of both breastfeeding initiation and of continuous employment following maternity leave: specifically, educated mothers in managerial and/or professional occupations. In this context, the paper investigates, through in-depth interviews, the embodied experiences of 20 heterosexual UK mothers, qualified to degree level, who returned to professional employment within 1 year of childbirth. The paper observes that mothers who attempted to combine breastfeeding with paid work did so with difficulty because the material activity of breastfeeding was 'taboo' within the workplace. Thus, the requirement to conform to organisational expectations regarding 'suitable' embodied behaviour contradicted health advice about what was 'best' for infant children. In order to comply with workplace requirements, mothers in the study were obliged either to cease breastfeeding or to conceal breastfeeding activities. In the light of mothers' experiences, the paper suggests that breastfeeding duration rates among professionally employed mothers can only be improved if negative attitudes about maternal bodies and employment are challenged and if employers, as well as mothers, are the focus of health initiatives aimed at promoting breastfeeding.

  1. Breastfeeding: Mothers and health practitioners in the context of private medical care in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana du Plessis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the well-documented health benefits of breastfeeding and recommendations by the Department of Health for women to exclusively breastfeed for approximately the first six months of life and continuation beyond one year, a large percentage of South African women do not breastfeed their infants, or only do so for a short period of time. No national South African statistics are available but figures emerging from the attendance of mothers at a baby clinic on the West Rand in Gauteng indicated the following: 64% of the mothers breastfeed up to six weeks, after which the figure rapidly declines to less than 20% at three months (Truter 2007. Several studies have assessed the attitudes of health care personnel towards breastfeeding, but little is known of the type of information given to breastfeeding mothers by private medical practitioners who are the frontline of contact with clients and who may convey information that either promotes or discourages breastfeeding. The following question was thus formulated: With regard to breastfeeding, what are the constraints to breastfeeding in private practice?

    Therefore, in order to understand the constraints to breastfeeding, the purpose of this study was to assess the breastfeeding information given to pregnant women by health professionals in private practice. The specific objectives of the study were to determine the breastfeeding recommendations made by private health professionals during pregnancy, to describe the management of breastfeeding in the consulting rooms of private medical practitioners, and to describe women’s experiences of breastfeeding in private hospitals. In Phase 1 of the study the population comprised all mothers who attended a support group for new mothers at a private post-natal clinic In Phase 2 the population comprised all mothers who attended a community baby clinic or support group. The sample consisted of all primigravidae who breastfed or attempted to breastfeed in the

  2. Trade-offs underlying maternal breastfeeding decisions: a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Kristin P; Ball, Helen L

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new conceptual model that generates predictions about breastfeeding decisions and identifies interactions that affect outcomes. We offer a contextual approach to infant feeding that models multi-directional influences by expanding on the evolutionary parent-offspring conflict and situation-specific breastfeeding theories. The main hypothesis generated from our framework suggests that simultaneously addressing breastfeeding costs and benefits, in relation to how they are interpreted by mothers, will be most effective. Our approach focuses on contributors to the attitudes and commitment underlying breastfeeding outcomes, beginning in the prenatal period. We conclude that some maternal-offspring conflict is inherent with the dynamic infant feeding relationship. Guidance that anticipates and addresses family trade-offs over time can be incorporated into breastfeeding support for families. PMID:22188564

  3. Smallpox Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Updates Subscribe Listen Page last reviewed February ... Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Download page Subscribe to RSS Get email ...

  4. Your Guide to Breastfeeding for African-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wiggle” slightly. • Your baby’s lips turn out like fish lips, not in. You may not even be ... work through stress and find better ways to deal with problems. For more serious stress-related disorders, ...

  5. Comparison of Very Low Energy Diet Products Available in Australia and How to Tailor Them to Optimise Protein Content for Younger and Older Adult Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Alice A.; Franklin, Janet; Pattinson, Andrea L.; Cheng, Zilvia G. Y.; Samman, Samir; Markovic, Tania P.; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Very low energy diets (VLED) are efficacious in inducing rapid weight loss but may not contain adequate macronutrients or micronutrients for individuals with varying nutritional requirements. Adequate protein intake during weight loss appears particularly important to help preserve fat free mass and control appetite, and low energy and carbohydrate content also contributes to appetite control. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the nutritional content (with a focus on protein), nutritional adequacy and cost of all commercially-available VLED brands in Australia. Nutritional content and cost were extracted and compared between brands and to the Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) or adequate intake (AI) of macronutrients and micronutrients for men and women aged 19–70 years or >70 years. There was wide variability in the nutritional content, nutritional adequacy and cost of VLED brands. Most notably, even brands with the highest daily protein content, based on consuming three products/day (KicStart™ and Optislim®, ~60 g/day), only met estimated protein requirements of the smallest and youngest women for whom a VLED would be indicated. Considering multiple options to optimise protein content, we propose that adding pure powdered protein is the most suitable option because it minimizes additional energy, carbohydrate and cost of VLEDs. PMID:27657150

  6. Breastfeeding with maternal antiretroviral therapy or formula feeding to prevent HIV postnatal mother-to-child transmission in Rwanda. : Prevention of postnatal HIV transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Peltier, Cécile-Alexandra; Ndayisaba, Gilles-François; Lepage, Philippe; VAN GRIENSVEN, Johan; Leroy, Valériane; Omes, Christine; Ndimubanzi, Patrick-C; Courteille, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    International audience OBJECTIVE: To assess the 9-month HIV-free survival of children with two strategies to prevent HIV mother-to-child transmission. DESIGN: Nonrandomized interventional cohort study. SETTING: Four public health centres in Rwanda. PARTICIPANTS: Between May 2005 and January 2007, all consenting HIV-infected pregnant women were included. INTERVENTION: Women could choose the mode of feeding for their infant: breastfeeding with maternal HAART for 6 months or formula feeding. ...

  7. Fatores associados com a duração do aleitamento materno Factors associated with duration of breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto G. Chaves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar os índices de aleitamento materno exclusivo e complementado e identificar variáveis que interferem na prática da amamentação no município de Itaúna (MG. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal realizado com 246 mulheres assistidas na maternidade do Hospital Manoel Gonçalves, no município de Itaúna (MG. O acompanhamento das mães e recém-nascidos foi realizado mensalmente nos primeiros 12 meses após o parto ou até a interrupção da amamentação. A análise da duração do aleitamento materno exclusivo e complementado foi realizada utilizando procedimentos de análise de sobrevivência. O efeito das co-variáveis sobre o tempo de aleitamento foi avaliado através do modelo de regressão de Cox. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo no sexto mês foi de 5,3%, e de aleitamento materno aos 12 meses, 33,7%. A mediana de aleitamento materno exclusivo foi de 40 dias, e a mediana de aleitamento materno, 237 dias. A análise multivariada mostrou associação negativa (p 9 consultas, uso de álcool ou tabaco, tempo da primeira mamada (> 6 horas e uso de chupeta. CONCLUSÕES: Os índices de aleitamento materno no município de Itaúna (MG estão muito abaixo daqueles preconizados pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. As principais variáveis relacionadas negativamente ao tempo de aleitamento materno exclusivo e complementado estão associadas à assistência materno-infantil, sendo, portanto, passíveis de intervenção.OBJECTIVES: To determine rates of exclusive breastfeeding and of complementary feeding and to identify variables that interfere with breastfeeding in the municipality of Itaúna, MG, Brazil. METHODS: A longitudinal study was undertaken enrolling 246 women who gave birth at the maternity unit of the Manoel Gonçalves Hospital, in Itaúna, MG. The mothers and their infants were seen monthly for the first 12 months after birth or until they stopped breastfeeding. Survival analysis procedures were

  8. Content of odd-numbered carbon fatty acids in the milk of lactating women and in infant formula and follow-up formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Martysiak-Żurowska

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relation between the content of pentadecanoic acid C15:0 (PA and heptadecanoic acid C17:0 (HA in human milk and the type of the mothers' diet and determine the content of these fatty acids in infant formulas and follow-up formulas available on the market. Thirty-four, healthy mothers, aged 24-33 y were take part in the study. Mothers were classified according to their diet status into one of two groups: diet low in dairy products (15 and standard diet (19. Analyzed 12 differences infant formulas, 6 infant formulas and 6 follow-on formulas. In the group of women whose diet was low in dairy products, the PA content of human milk fat reached on average 0.195 ±0.017% of total fatty acids, and the HA content – 0.202 ±0.012%. In the group of women eating a standard diet, a statistically significant increase was observed in the PA and HA content of milk fat which on average reached: PA – 0.406 ±0.019% and HA – 0.360 ±0.015% of total fatty acids. It was concluded that in respect of human milk, PA and HA could be regarded as biomarkers of milk fat consumption by lactating women. From among 12 investigated infant formulas (IF and follow-up formulas (FF which are available in retail, PA of 0.63 to 0.98% and HA of 0.37 to 0.60% of total fatty acids was found in only 4 formulas which contain bovine milk fat. In IFs which, according to the manufacturer's statement, do not contain milk fat, PA content was from 0.04 to 0.07% and HA – from 0.02 to 0.08% of total fatty acids.

  9. Maternal, Infant Characteristics, Breastfeeding Techniques, and Initiation: Structural Equation Modeling Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Lau; Tha Pyai Htun; Peng Im Lim; Sarah Ho-Lim; Piyanee Klainin-Yobas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among maternal and infant characteristics, breastfeeding techniques, and exclusive breastfeeding initiation in different modes of birth using structural equation modeling approaches. Methods We examined a hypothetical model based on integrating concepts of a breastfeeding decision-making model, a breastfeeding initiation model, and a social cognitive theory among 952 mother-infant dyads. The LATCH breastfeeding assessment tool ...

  10. Shifts in media images of women appearance and social status from 1960 to 2010: A content analysis of beauty advertisements in two Australian magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ann; Knight, Tess

    2015-12-01

    Ageing well and successful ageing have become important themes to describe how older individuals should keep ageing at bay. Products and services aimed at controlling ageing have become associated with ageing well. In this study we aimed to analyse the representation of older women in advertisements specific to appearance and ageing. In particular, we sought to explore how ageing for women was presented in the media over a period 50 years and when advertisements began to use the term 'anti-ageing'. A content analysis of 710 advertisements from two prominent Australian women's magazines, from 1960 to 2010, was conducted. Analyses showed that advertisements provided a narrow range of images representing women's physical appearance. The underlying messages were that ageing is problematic and that it had become unforgivable to show any signs of ageing. Text contained in advertisements for beauty products from the two chosen Australian magazines often gave specific and prescriptive advice to women on ways to avoid losing their youthful appearance. It was concluded that media relay powerful messages to spread and modify cultural beliefs informing individuals of a range of options that propose liberation from the problem of ageing.

  11. Shifts in media images of women appearance and social status from 1960 to 2010: A content analysis of beauty advertisements in two Australian magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ann; Knight, Tess

    2015-12-01

    Ageing well and successful ageing have become important themes to describe how older individuals should keep ageing at bay. Products and services aimed at controlling ageing have become associated with ageing well. In this study we aimed to analyse the representation of older women in advertisements specific to appearance and ageing. In particular, we sought to explore how ageing for women was presented in the media over a period 50 years and when advertisements began to use the term 'anti-ageing'. A content analysis of 710 advertisements from two prominent Australian women's magazines, from 1960 to 2010, was conducted. Analyses showed that advertisements provided a narrow range of images representing women's physical appearance. The underlying messages were that ageing is problematic and that it had become unforgivable to show any signs of ageing. Text contained in advertisements for beauty products from the two chosen Australian magazines often gave specific and prescriptive advice to women on ways to avoid losing their youthful appearance. It was concluded that media relay powerful messages to spread and modify cultural beliefs informing individuals of a range of options that propose liberation from the problem of ageing. PMID:26568217

  12. Trends in breastfeeding indicators in a city of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciete O. Vieira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate trends in breastfeeding indicators in the city of Feira de Santana, Brazil, and to identify population characteristics that might have influenced this trend. METHODS: Three methodologically comparable cross-sectional surveys performed in 1996, 2001, and 2009 were analyzed. These involved 2,159, 2,319, and 1,471 children younger than 1 year of age who were vaccinated in national multivaccination campaigns in the respective years. A standardized questionnaire was used, containing closed questions on consumption of breast milk and other foods on the day before the survey, along with questions regarding the characteristics of the population. RESULTS: The annual growth of the breastfeeding indicators was 2.1% for breastfeeding in the first hour of life (from 52.2% to 68.9%; 1.1% for breastfeeding among children aged 9 to 12 months (from 45% to 59.6%; and 0.8% for exclusive breastfeeding among infants younger than 6 months (from 36.9% to 47.4%. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding increased from 52.3 to 84.3 days, and overall breastfeeding from 278 to 376 days. Some changes in the characteristics of the population were observed, which may have positively influenced the evolution of the breastfeeding indicators (better schooling level among the mothers, less use of dummies/pacifiers, and lower proportions of adolescent mothers, or negatively (greater proportions of primiparous mothers and cesarean deliveries, and lower frequency of births in Baby-Friendly Hospitals. CONCLUSION: There were significant advances in breastfeeding indicators, although they are still far from ideal. Changes observed in population characteristics may have positively or negatively influenced this evolution.

  13. Does breastfeeding increase risk of early childhood caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, L

    2015-09-01

    According to the WHO, "breastfeeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development. Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months of age, with continued breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods up to two years of age or beyond". However, several studies have reported prolonged and unrestricted breastfeeding as a potential risk factor for primary tooth caries (ECC). On-demand breastfeeding, particularly while lying down at night, would seem to cause ECC because milk remains in the baby's mouth for long periods of time. There is lack of evidence that human milk is cariogenic; other factors, such as oral hygiene, may be more influential in caries development than on-demand breastfeeding. Moreover the biomechanics of breastfeeding differs from those of bottle feeding and milk is expressed into the soft palate and swallowed without remaining on teeth. Indeed we cannot forget that the main factor influencing caries development in infants is the presence of bacteria streptococcus mutans that thrives in a combination of sugars, small amounts of saliva and a low pH. Today the question is open and recently Chaffee, Felines, Vitolo et al. [2014] have found that breastfeeding for 24 months or longer increases the prevalence of severe early childhood caries in low-income families in Porto Alegre, Brazil. These results do not claim that prolonged breastfeeding is the cause of tooth decay; we can expect an association with food for infants often rich in refined sugars, which cause the reduction of the protective effect of saliva on the deciduous teeth enamel. In Japan, Kato, Yorifuji, Yamakawa et al. [2015] have found that infants who had been breastfed for at least 6 or 7 months, both exclusively and partially, were at elevated risk of dental caries at the age of 30 months compared with those who had been exclusively fed with formula. The authors themselves say, however, that further studies

  14. Breastfeeding Trends in Cambodia, and the Increased Use of Breast-Milk Substitute—Why Is It a Danger?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophonneary Prak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional analysis of the Cambodia Demographic Health Surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010 was conducted to observe the national trends in infant and young child feeding practices. The results showed that rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged 0–5.9 months have increased substantially since 2000, concurrent with an increase in the rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and a reduction in the giving of pre-lacteal feeds. However, the proportion of infants being fed with breast-milk substitutes (BMS during 0–5.9 months doubled in 5 years (3.4% to 7.0% from 2000 to 2005, but then did not increase from 2005, likely due to extensive public health campaigns on exclusive breastfeeding. BMS use increased among children aged 6–23.9 months from 2000 to 2010 (4.8% to 9.3%. 26.1% of women delivering in a private clinic provided their child with breast-milk substitute at 0–5.9 months, which is five times more than women delivering in the public sector (5.1%, and the greatest increase in bottle use happened among the urban poor (5.8% to 21.7%. These findings are discussed with reference to the increased supply and marketing of BMS that is occurring in Cambodia.

  15. The Impact of Breastfeeding Pattern on the Duration of Lactational Amenorrhoea in Chengdu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine the relation between infant feeding practices (and other fac-tors) and the duration of postpartum amenorrhoea in a sample of Chinese womendinally in 541 mothers and their infants in Pengxian County Sichuan Province. The,durations of breast feeding and of lactational amenorrhoea were estimated throughsurvival analysis. Cox's non-parametric hazards regression analysis was performed todetermine thevariables associated with the duration of lactational amenorrhoea.Results Mothers breast fed frequently per day, the mean frequency ranging from 6. 4per day at 3 weeks postpartum to 5. 4 per day at 6 months. They breast fed for over18. 3 monthson average. The median duration of lactational amenorrhoea was 9. 3months. Theperiod from birth until the first breast feed was a significant determinantof the duration of lactational amenorrhoea, P = 0. 038. Compared with women whoended full breastfeeding earlier, those who ceased full breast feeding at 120 to 24Cdays returned to menses significantly sooner (risk ratio = 1. 34; 95% CI = 1. 06~1. 69). This finding is probably spurious since no relationship between full breast feed-ing duration and the return of menses was found among women who ended full breast-feeding after 240 days.Conclusion The most important determinant of the return of menses was the delay inthe first breast feed after birth, suggesting that the Ten Steps to Successful Breast feed-ing should be more precisely implemented.

  16. Who we were and who we will be : The temporal context of women's in-group stereotype content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morton, Thomas A.; Rabinovich, Anna; Postmes, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Research has elaborated considerably on the dimensions of out-group stereotype content and on the origins and functions of different content combinations. Less attention has been given to the origins and functions of in-group stereotype content. We argue that in-group stereotypes are likely to serve

  17. Healthy Eating for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents For Men For Women For Seniors Healthy Eating for Women Published April 11, 2014 Print Email ... Food Health Nutrition Wellness Dietary Guidelines and MyPlate Healthy Eating Healthy Aging For Women Latest Content 1 2 ...

  18. An evaluation of two guidance programmes to promote breast-feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steyn

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years a comprehensive research project has been undertaken to develop a guidance programme in three adjacent communities in the South- Western Cape with the aim o f lowering the high incidence o f coronary heart disease. The purpose o f this substudy was to determine whether the guidance provided in the different communities had any influence on the knowledge o f and attitudes towards the nutrition o f pregnant women, babies and infants as well as breast-feeding practices o f the women who gave birth during the period 1980 to 1986. In the first community guidance was provided by means o f small mass media and interpersonal communication whereas only the small mass media were employed in the second. The third served as the control community. The findings suggest that the combined interpersonal and mass media programme was more successful than the mass media programme alone.

  19. Effects of maternal nicotine on breastfeeding infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Cândida Caniçali; Ruela, Priscilla Bôa F; Brotto, Léia Damasceno de A; Garcia, Telma Ribeiro; Lima, Eliane de Fátima

    2013-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess scientific evidence about the effects of maternal nicotine on infant by an integrative review. DATA SOURCES Studies published in Portuguese, English and Spanish, from 1990 to 2009, with abstracts available in the Latin American Health Sciences Literature (Lilacs) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System On-Line (Medline) databases. The descriptors were: "breastfeeding", "lactation" and "smoking". DATA SYNTHESIS The main identified effects of nicotine on infants were: changes in sleep and wakefulness patterns; reduction of iodine supply; hystopathological damage on liver and lung; intracellular oxidative damage; reduction of pancreatic ß cells; and decreased glucose tolerance. CONCLUSIONS It is recommended to inform mothers about harmful chemicals contained in cigarettes that can be secreted into breast milk. They should be strongly encouraged to stop smoking during lactation. PMID:24142324

  20. The neonatal nurse: advocating for breastfeeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Colm; Nurse, Sharon

    2016-02-01

    Accurate information and support from healthcare professionals as well as respect for parental choice are all factors which contribute to effective breastfeeding in the neonatal unit; with this in mind, Colm Darby and Sharon Nurse discuss the potential problems in expressing breast milk and the interventions which might be effective in avoiding them. Advocacy is an inherent part of neonatal nurses' role whilst caring for sick, vulnerable babies. Colm Darby is a male neonatal nurse working in a predominantly female environment and passionately believes in supporting and advocating for mothers who want to provide breast milk for their babies. In this article, CoIm uses Borton's model of reflection to discuss how he acted as an effective advocate for such a mother.

  1. T-lymphocyte subsets, thymic size and breastfeeding in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Hasselbalch, Helle; Lisse, Ida M;

    2004-01-01

    We followed the changes in concentration of T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood and thymus size during infancy. Previous studies have found increased thymus size in breastfed infants. The present study analyzed the association between breastfeeding and the number of CD4......+ and CD8+ cells. Two different populations of infants between birth and 1 year of age were examined. Study Group I: infants with a variable duration of breastfeeding. Study Group II: long-term breastfed infants. In both groups a correlation was found between CD8+ cells and the thymic index at 10 months...... from 8 to 10 months of age; and a positive correlation between the number of breastfeedings per day at 8 months of age, and an increase in CD4+ cells from 8 to 10 months of age (p <0.01). In conclusion, a correlation was found between thymus size and CD8+ cells. Breastfeeding might have both a current...

  2. Relationship between breastfeeding and obesity in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafa, Mohammadreza; Moslehi, Nazanin; Afshari, Shirin; Hossini, Aghafatemeh; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza

    2012-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the weight status and the relationship of infant-feeding variables, birthweight and birth order with BMI in a group of Iranian children. Five hundred and eleven students of both sexes at the first grade in elementary schools (aged 7 years) were recruited randomly from all 19 educational districts of Tehran. Weights and heights of children and their mothers were measured. Data on breastfeeding (BF), formula-feeding, the timing of introduction of complementary foods (CF), birthweight, and birth order were collected from the mothers. The 2007 WHO reference value was used for determining child's weight status. Regression analysis in single and a 2-level linear regression models was used for examining the independent relationships of infant-feeding variables, birthweight and birth order with childhood BMI. The prevalence of underweight and overweight in this group of children was 7.6% and 19.7%, respectively. Total time of BF and duration of exclusive BF were not associated with childhood BMI. The timing of introduction of CF was inversely related to childhood BMI after controlling for other variables (beta:-0.34; 95% CI:-0.58,-0.10). Children with an early introduction of CF had significantly higher mean BMI (p for linear trend=0.012). Birth order and birthweight were related to childhood BMI significantly. These data suggest that overweight and obesity are nutritional problems among 7 years old Teharani children. The timing of introduction of CF, birth order, and birthweight were independent predictors of childhood BMI. Neither total time of BF nor duration of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with adiposity in children. PMID:23082632

  3. THE SUBJECTIVAL CONTENT OF IMAGES “SUCCESSFUL MAN” AND “SUCCESSFUL WOMAN” AS A FACTOR OF PSYCHIC ADJUSTMENT OF WOMEN IN INVOLUNTARY UNEMPLOYMENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Геннадьевна Лопухова

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study is investigation of correlation between a content of gender appearance of image “successful person” and parameters of psychic and social adjustment of women belonging to different generations.Methodology.  Subjective image “successful person” means a stable and possibly gender differentiated element of “Ideal Me” images system. It includes cognitive component (conscious and verbalization representations of typical description of successful person, and affective component (positive or negative positions in regards to image “successful person”. We have compared results of survey and valuation of 265 women belonging to different generations and staying in different social situations: involuntary unemployment situation, employment and getting professional education. Subjective and projective methods were used in survey of cognitive and affective components of “successful person” image. Valuation of psychic adjustment based on parameters of internal conflict in comparison with manifestations of anxiety, frustration, aggression, rigidity, neurotic. Data analysis used parametric and nonparametric methods, including ANOVA/MANOVA.Results. It has been discovered that level of psychic adjustment of women depends much more on proper integration of subjective “successful person” image content with individual features of self-conception than on objective “social status” (being in involuntary unemployment situation.Practical implications are psychology consulting and correction of social or psychic unadjustment.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-41

  4. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Campos Martins Machado; Karine Franklin Assis; Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho Oliveira; Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro; Raquel Maria Amaral Araújo; Alexandre Faisal Cury; Silvia Eloiza Priore; Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied...

  5. Impact of Breastfeeding Duration on Age at Menarche

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sahab, Ban; Adair, Linda; Hamadeh, Mazen J.; Ardern, Chris I.; Tamim, Hala

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to assess the relation between breastfeeding duration and age at menarche. Analysis was based on a cohort of 994 Filipino girls born in 1983–1984 and followed up from infancy to adulthood by the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. The main outcome was self-reported age at menarche. Cox regression was used to investigate the relation between duration of exclusive and any breastfeeding with age at menarche with adjustment sequentially for specific sets of known socioec...

  6. The role of exclusive breastfeeding in prevention of childhood epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Kurniadi; Elisabeth Siti Herini; Wahyu Damayanti

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy affects 1% of children worldwide. The highest incidence is in the first year of life, and perinatal factors, such as hypoxic-ischemic injury, infection, and cortical malformation may play etiologic roles. Breast milk contains optimal nutrients for human brain in early life. Breastfeeding has been associated with lower risk of infections, better cognitive and psychomotor development. However, the role of breastfeeding in preventing childhood epilepsy remains unclear. Ob...

  7. The role of exclusive breastfeeding in prevention of childhood epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Kurniadi; Elisabeth Siti Herini; Wahyu Damayanti

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy affects 1% of children worldwide. The highest incidence is in the first year of life, and perinatal factors, such as hypoxic-ischemic injury, infection, and cortical malformation may play etiologic roles. Breast milk contains optimal nutrients for human brain in early life. Breastfeeding has been associated with lower risk of infections, better cognitive and psychomotor development. However, the role of breastfeeding in preventing childhood epilepsy remains unclear. Object...

  8. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: Evidence from maternity leave mandates

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Baker; Kevin S. Milligan

    2007-01-01

    Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. However, we find little impact on the self-reported...

  9. Promoting breastfeeding through health education at the time of immunizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M S; Sodemann, Morten; Mølbak, Kare;

    1999-01-01

    into two groups. Mothers in the intervention group were given health education according to WHO's recommendations; about exclusive breastfeeding for at least the first 4 mo, prolonged breastfeeding and family planning methods. At 4 mo of age introduction of weaning food was delayed in the intervention...... weaning of children in special risk groups was not avoided. An evaluation of the impact of the WHO recommendations in different settings is warranted....

  10. Randomized, Controlled Trial to Examine the Impact of Providing Yogurt to Women Enrolled in WIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Ellen B.; Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Walker, Brent H.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine the impact of providing yogurt to women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Design: Randomized, controlled intervention trial. Setting: Two California WIC local agency sites. Participants: 511 pregnant, breast-feeding, or postpartum women. Intervention: Substitution of…

  11. Final report : breastfeeding and maternal smoking, breastfeeding and substance misuse : a review of programs/interventions nationwide.

    OpenAIRE

    Rudzik, Alanna E.F.

    2014-01-01

    Two areas of maternal and child health were identified as important contributors to the health of the local populations of Middlesbrough and Redcar/Cleveland. These areas were maternal smoking (in pregnancy and the postpartum) and breastfeeding and maternal substance misuse (drugs and alcohol) and breastfeeding. The goal of the consultancy was to identify programs or interventions from around the UK that have been designed to deal with these two issues, to evaluate outcom...

  12. Triple-antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission through breastfeeding--the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study, Kenya: a clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy K Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective strategies are needed for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT in resource-limited settings. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study was a single-arm open label trial conducted between July 2003 and February 2009. The overall aim was to investigate whether a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen that was designed to maximally suppress viral load in late pregnancy and the first 6 mo of lactation was a safe, well-tolerated, and effective PMTCT intervention. METHODS AND FINDINGS: HIV-infected pregnant women took zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine or nelfinavir from 34-36 weeks' gestation to 6 mo post partum. Infants received single-dose nevirapine at birth. Women were advised to breastfeed exclusively and wean rapidly just before 6 mo. Using Kaplan-Meier methods we estimated HIV-transmission and death rates from delivery to 24 mo. We compared HIV-transmission rates among subgroups defined by maternal risk factors, including baseline CD4 cell count and viral load. Among 487 live-born, singleton, or first-born infants, cumulative HIV-transmission rates at birth, 6 weeks, and 6, 12, and 24 mo were 2.5%, 4.2%, 5.0%, 5.7%, and 7.0%, respectively. The 24-mo HIV-transmission rates stratified by baseline maternal CD4 cell count <500 and ≥500 cells/mm(3 were 8.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.8%-12.0% and 4.1% (1.8%-8.8%, respectively (p = 0.06; the corresponding rates stratified by baseline maternal viral load <10,000 and ≥10,000 copies/ml were 3.0% (1.1%-7.8% and 8.7% (6.1%-12.3%, respectively (p = 0.01. None of the 12 maternal and 51 infant deaths (including two second-born infants were attributed to antiretrovirals. The cumulative HIV-transmission or death rate at 24 mo was 15.7% (95% CI 12.7%-19.4%. CONCLUSIONS: This trial shows that a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen from late pregnancy through 6 months of breastfeeding for PMTCT is safe and feasible in a resource-limited setting. These

  13. Motivação de gestantes para o aleitamento materno Motivating breastfeeding among expectant mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Aparecida Moreira Takushi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer os motivos de gestantes para o aleitamento materno. MÉTODOS: É um estudo qualitativo realizado com 164 gestantes assistidas no pré-natal em dois Centros de Saúde na região central da cidade de São Paulo. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas sobre motivação para amamentar. As narrativas foram organizadas em planilha eletrônica em busca de categorias. RESULTADOS: As principais categorias identificadas estavam relacionadas à saúde da criança, da mulher e aos benefícios da prática de amamentar e do leite materno. A maioria das mulheres (98,8% foi favorável à amamentação. Benefícios à saúde da criança foi o motivo mais freqüente (73,8%. CONCLUSÃO: A motivação ao aleitamento materno foi centrada nos benefícios à saúde da criança. A amamentação é valorizada independentemente da vontade materna.OBJECTIVE: The present study sought to discover the reasons for expectant mothers to breastfeed. METHODS: This was a qualitative study involving 164 expectant mothers attending prenatal care in two health centers of the city of São Paulo. Semi-structured interviews were done to collect data on the reasons to breastfeed. The information was organized in a spreadsheet to search for categories. RESULTS: The main identified categories regarded the child's and woman's health and the benefits of breastfeeding and breast milk. The majority of the women (98.8% regarded breastfeeding favorably. Benefit to the child's health was the reason mentioned most often (73.8%. CONCLUSION: Motivation to breastfeed was based on benefits to the child's health. Breastfeeding is valued regardless of the mother's will.

  14. Determining a Cut-Off Point for Scores of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form: Secondary Data Analysis of an Intervention Study in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Nanishi

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding self-efficacy can be measured with the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF. Mothers with low BSES-SF scores stop exclusive breastfeeding prematurely, but specific interventions can prevent that undesirable outcome. Because those interventions can be expensive, often one must decide which mothers will receive them. For that purpose, a cut-off BSES-SF score would be useful, but none is available. Therefore, we aimed to assess the overall accuracy of BSES-SF scores as predictors of not practicing post-discharge exclusive breastfeeding, and to choose an appropriate cut-off score for making that prediction.This is a secondary data analysis of an intervention study. Data from 378 women in two non-Baby-Friendly Hospitals were analyzed. Participants were women in their third trimester who were 16 years of age or older, were able to read and write Japanese, were expected to have a singleton birth, and had completed the BSES-SF before discharge. BSES-SF scores were measured before discharge. Breastfeeding status was assessed 4 weeks and 12 weeks postpartum. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were used to assess the predictive ability of the BSES-SF and to inform the choice of a cut-off point.For both of the ROC curves (4 and 12 weeks postpartum the area under the curve was 0.74. To obtain a high sensitivity, a cut-off score of 50 was chosen. With that cut-off score the sensitivity was 79% and the specificity was 52% 4 weeks postpartum, and they were 77% and 52%, respectively, 12 weeks postpartum.In conclusion, the BSES-SF has moderate overall accuracy to distinguish women who will not practice exclusive breastfeeding after discharge from those who will. At non-Baby-Friendly hospitals in Japan, interventions to support exclusive breastfeeding might be considered for new mothers who have BSES-SF scores that are less than or equal to 50.

  15. A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF THE ROLES PORTRAYED BY WOMEN IN COMMERCIALS: 1973 - 2008 DOI: 10.5585/remark.v9i3.2201

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    Claudia Rosa Acevedo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to examine female roles portrayed by advertising. More specifically, the question that motivated this research project was: What messages about women have been given to society through advertisement? Have these portrayals been changed during the past decades? The study consisted of a systematic content analysis of Brazilian commercials from 1973 to 2008. A probabilistic sample procedure was employed. Ninety five pieces were selected. Our results have revealed that some specific images have changed over the years, however, they continued to be stereotyped and idealized.

  16. Evaluating the usability of an interactive, bi-lingual, touchscreen-enabled breastfeeding educational programme: application of Nielson’s heuristics

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    Ashish Joshi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Usability challenges have to be met in an interactive computer program development and should meet all users’ needs. Objective: The study purpose was to conduct heuristic evaluation of an interactive, bilingual touch screen enabled breastfeeding educational program for Hispanic women living in rural settings.Methods: Two usability experts used Nielsen’s heuristics while reviewing the user interface in May 2013 using principles of Nielson’s Heuristics. Nielson’s heuristics are a set of usability engineering principles developed to identify issues in user interface design and involves analysis of the interface. The heuristic evaluations were carried out in the interface, program sections, and interactive educational modules. A total of 271 screens were evaluated and included: interface (n=5, program sections (n=223 and educational content (n=43.Results: A total of 97 violations were identified and were mostly related to interface (8violations/5screens and program components (89violations/266screens. The most common violations reported were recognition rather than recall (62%, n=60, consistency and standards (14%, n=14, and match between the system and real world (9%, n= 9. Majority of the violations had minor usability issues (73%, n=71. The only catastrophic violation reported was due to the visibility of system status in the assessment modules.Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the system was more consistent with Nielsen’s usability heuristics. 

  17. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

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    Mariana Campos Martins Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90, 47.6% (n = 80, and 69.6% (n = 117, respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  18. Use of cough and cold preparations during breastfeeding.

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    Mitchell, J L

    1999-12-01

    Adverse reactions in infants from maternal drug ingestion depend largely on the amount of milk consumed by the infant, timing of breastfeeding in relation to dosing, dose of the medication, dosing interval, and duration of therapy. When taking medications, breastfeeding mothers should be instructed to take their medication after breastfeeding, at the lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration. Overall, there are few data from human studies on the use of antihistamines, decongestants, and cough products during breastfeeding. Studies of pseudoephedrine, triprolidine, and loratadine in humans conclude that low levels of each drug would reach a breastfed infant. Since triprolidine and pseudoephedrine are also considered compatible with breastfeeding by the AAP, these 2 drugs should be the first-line choices. Codeine is considered compatible with breastfeeding by the AAP, and would be an acceptable choice for short-term use as a cough suppressant. It is important to note that many of the liquid cough and cold products contain alcohol. In addition, many of the combination products are a mixture of an antihistamine and a decongestant and may also contain aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or caffeine. It is preferable for nursing mothers to only take medications that are necessary and to avoid such combination products. The AAP considers alcohol, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and caffeine compatible with breastfeeding. Aspirin has been associated with significant negative effects on some nursing infants, and the AAP recommends giving aspirin to nursing mothers with caution. Mothers taking cough and cold products should watch for adverse events in their breastfed infants. Infants may experience paradoxical central nervous stimulation from antihistamines and irritability and insomnia from decongestants. PMID:10776186

  19. Breastfeeding versus formula-feeding and girls' pubertal development.

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    Kale, Aarti; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Laurent, Cecile; Greenspan, Louise C; Hiatt, Robert A; Windham, Gayle; Galvez, Maida P; Biro, Frank M; Pinney, Susan M; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Wolff, Mary S; Barlow, Janice; Mirabedi, Anousheh; Lasater, Molly; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2015-03-01

    To examine the association of breastfeeding or its duration with timing of girls' pubertal onset, and the role of BMI as a mediator in these associations. A population of 1,237 socio-economically and ethnically diverse girls, ages 6-8 years, was recruited across three geographic locations (New York City, Cincinnati, and the San Francisco Bay Area) in a prospective study of predictors of pubertal maturation. Breastfeeding practices were assessed using self-administered questionnaire/interview with the primary caregiver. Girls were seen on at least annual basis to assess breast and pubic hair development. The association of breastfeeding with pubertal timing was estimated using parametric survival analysis while adjusting for body mass index, ethnicity, birth-weight, mother's education, mother's menarcheal age, and family income. Compared to formula fed girls, those who were mixed-fed or predominantly breastfed showed later onset of breast development [hazard ratios 0.90 (95 % CI 0.75, 1.09) and 0.74 (95 % CI 0.59, 0.94), respectively]. Duration of breastfeeding was also directly associated with age at onset of breast development (p trend = 0.008). Associations between breastfeeding and pubic hair onset were not significant. In stratified analysis, the association of breastfeeding and later breast onset was seen in Cincinnati girls only. The association between breast feeding and pubertal onset varied by study site. More research is needed about the environments within which breastfeeding takes place in order to better understand whether infant feeding practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that may influence age at onset of breast development and subsequent risk for disease in adulthood. PMID:24916206

  20. The role of exclusive breastfeeding in prevention of childhood epilepsy

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    Alexander Kurniadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Epilepsy affects 1% of children worldwide. The highest incidence is in the first year of life, and perinatal factors, such as hypoxic-ischemic injury, infection, and cortical malformation may play etiologic roles. Breast milk contains optimal nutrients for human brain in early life. Breastfeeding has been associated with lower risk of infections, better cognitive and psychomotor development. However, the role of breastfeeding in preventing childhood epilepsy remains unclear. Objective To evaluate an association between exclusive breastfeeding and childhood epilepsy. Methods A case-control study conducted from 1 May to 3 July 2013 involving children with epilepsy aged 6 months to 18 years who were attending pediatric outpatient clinic of Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta. Neurologically normal children, individually matched by age and sex, visiting the same clinic were considered as controls. Exclusion criteria were children with structural brain abnormality, history of epilepsy in family, and who had history of neonatal seizure, intracranial infection, febrile seizure, and head trauma before onset of epilepsy. History of breastfeeding was obtained by interviewing the parents. The difference of exclusively breastfeeding proportion between cases and controls was analyzed by McNemar test. Results The total number of participants was 68 cases and controls each. Subjects with epilepsy had lower proportion of exclusively breastfed (48.5% compared with controls (54.4%, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.541. Exclusively breastfeeding showed no statistical significance in decreasing risk of epilepsy (OR=0.71; 95%CI 0.32 to 1.61. Conclusions Exclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months has no effect against childhood epilepsy.