WorldWideScience

Sample records for breastfeeding women content

  1. GPs' decision-making when prescribing medicines for breastfeeding women: Content analysis of a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many breastfeeding women seek medical care from general practitioners (GPs for various health problems and GPs may consider prescribing medicines in these consultations. Prescribing medicines to a breastfeeding mother may lead to untimely cessation of breastfeeding or a breastfeeding mother may be denied medicines due to the possible risk to her infant, both of which may lead to unwanted consequences. Information on factors governing GPs' decision-making and their views in such situations is limited. Methods GPs providing shared maternity care at the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne were surveyed using an anonymous postal survey to determine their knowledge, attitudes and practices on medicines and breastfeeding, in 2007/2008 (n = 640. Content analysis of their response to a question concerning decision-making about the use of medicine for a breastfeeding woman was conducted. A thematic network was constructed with basic, organising and global themes. Results 335 (52% GPs responded to the survey, and 253 (76% provided information on the last time they had to decide about the use of medicine for a breastfeeding woman. Conditions reported were mastitis (24%, other infections (24% and depressive disorders (21%. The global theme that emerged was "complexity of managing risk in prescribing for breastfeeding women". The organising themes were: certainty around decision-making; uncertainty around decision-making; need for drug information to be available, consistent and reliable; joint decision-making; the vulnerable "third party" and infant feeding decision. Decision-making is a spectrum from a straight forward decision, such as treatment of mastitis, to a complicated one requiring multiple inputs and consideration. GPs use more information seeking and collaboration in decision-making when they perceive the problem to be more complex, for example, in postnatal depression. Conclusion GPs feel that prescribing medicines for

  2. African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams

    2015-07-01

    The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast. PMID:25288408

  3. Facilitators for Empowering Women in Breastfeeding: a Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Kohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background  Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeeding. Material and Methods This study conducted by content analysis method. Thirty-four semi-structured individual interviews with 20 mothers having breastfeeding experience, 4 key family members, and 10 personnel involved in breastfeeding services were carried out. Data analysis was simultaneously performed with data collection. Results Three main categories of "Health system factors", "Family and personal factors" and "Social and cultural factors" were extracted from the participants' explanations, indicating the dimensions of facilitators for empowering women in breastfeeding. Conclusion Participants regarded the acquisition of breastfeeding skills in hospitals and breastfeeding counseling in health centers as important factors in facilitating their empowerment to early initiation of breastfeeding and its continuity. Further analysis showed "a mother's decision to breastfeed" along with her understanding of "positive attitude and her husband and family's participation in breastfeeding" boosts the breastfeeding ability and the support of the community through "positive cultural belief in breastfeeding" and" public education and information" provides an appropriate ground for the continuity of breastfeeding. In order to improve breastfeeding, a comprehensive planning with regard to women's empowerment in breastfeeding should be considered.

  4. Becoming a role model: The breastfeeding trajectory of Hong Kong women breastfeeding longer than 6 months

    OpenAIRE

    Tarrant, M; Dodgson, JE; Choi, VWK

    2004-01-01

    While a substantial proportion of breastfeeding women stop early in the postpartum period, some women are able to breastfeed for longer periods. The aim of this research was to explore the experience of breastfeeding with a subsample of Hong Kong women who have breastfed for longer than 6 months. Participants (n=17) were recruited from a larger infant-feeding study (n=360) conducted in tertiary-care hospitals in Hong Kong. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted and content analysis wa...

  5. Iodine status in pregnant and breastfeeding women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulators of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency...... iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding women after introduction of iodine fortification in a region of Denmark with previously moderate iodine deficiency. Additionally, thesis addressed mechanisms of iodiden transport to the fetus across the placenta and...... methodological challenges in the evaluation of urinary iodine status in prengnant and breastfeeding women....

  6. Women's Decisions about Breastfeeding and Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein

    1996-01-01

    Extends the concept of role incompatibility to examine potential incompatibilities between breastfeeding and maternal employment. Hypothesizes women may face both structural and attitudinal conflicts between these behaviors. Found significantly more women employed part-time are likely to breastfeed and for longer durations than women employed…

  7. A comparison of breastfeeding women's, peer supporters' and student midwives' breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwent, Kirsty L; Kempenaar, Larissa E

    2014-05-01

    In the United Kingdom over 90% of women do not breastfeed for as long as they would like, despite widespread knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding. Negative attitudes and low levels of knowledge in staff supporting breastfeeding may be a contributing factor. This paper reports on the breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes in two key workforce groups; student midwives (n = 19) and Breastfeeding Network peer supporters (n = 36) and compares them with breastfeeding women (n = 23). All three groups had high knowledge and attitude scores, but peer supporters had significantly higher levels than student midwives or breastfeeding women. Student midwives' knowledge of breastfeeding was higher than breastfeeding women's but they had similar breastfeeding attitude scores. The higher knowledge and attitude scores in peer supporters may be attributed to the effectiveness of their training, which includes challenging their existing breastfeeding attitudes and debriefing their personal breastfeeding experience. It is suggested that midwives' breastfeeding attitudes are affected by their community culture and their personal experience of breastfeeding. It is proposed that midwifery training should continue to embrace a biopsychosocial model, including training to improve breastfeeding attitudes, particularly for professionals from areas where breastfeeding is not the cultural norm, or who have had negative personal breastfeeding experiences. PMID:24594280

  8. Column: Black women health - Breastfeeding: Empowering Black Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel CF da Cruz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is related to women’s reproduction and health. All women have the right to breastfeed as enshrined in the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC. Breastfeeding also is related to women’s sexuality so, it is a gender issue and takes place to empowering women. Breastfeeding is particularly difficult for the black woman, marginalized by poverty, violence, poor nutritional status, job insecurities and gender/race inequalities.

  9. It takes a mother to practise breastfeeding : Women's perceptions of breastfeeding during the period of intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhoff, Alberta; Hutter, Inge; Haisma, Hinke

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, 81% of mothers initiate breastfeeding. After one month the percentage of mothers still breastfeeding drops, despite positive intentions. Little is known about women's perceptions of breastfeeding during the period of intention. Aim: This qualitative study aimed to gai

  10. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  11. Increased breastfeeding rates in black women after a treatment intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Margaret G; Endicott, Jean; Goetz, Raymond R

    2013-12-01

    There has been a considerable increase in rates of breastfeeding in the United States. Despite these trends, black women continue to fall below medical recommendations. Impoverished and poorly educated women also have a comparatively lower rate of breastfeeding. Provider encouragement and supportive interventions increase breastfeeding initiation among women of all backgrounds. The data presented come from a three-site randomized controlled bilingual depression treatment trial from 2005 to 2011 that examined the comparative effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy and a parenting education program. Breastfeeding education and support were provided for the majority of participants in each intervention. Breastfeeding status was queried at postpartum week 4. We found higher rates of breastfeeding in black women compared with those reported in national surveys. The black breastfeeding rate did not significantly differ from that of white or Hispanic women. American-born black women were just as likely to breastfeed as American-born white women, both at significantly greater rates than American-born Hispanic women. We also found no differences in breastfeeding rate in poorly educated and impoverished women. These data must be seen against the backdrop of a significant intervention to treat depression. Because breastfeeding interventions have been shown to increase breastfeeding rates, the support provided in our study likely increased rates in groups that lag behind. PMID:23971683

  12. Breastfeeding: how could it be enhanced? The perceptions of Vietnamese women in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, J C; Yam, B M

    2000-01-01

    In Australia, the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding is on the decline. The low incidence of breastfeeding includes the immigrant Vietnamese. The purpose of this study was to examine Vietnamese women's perceptions of factors that might influence their choice of infant feeding and how breastfeeding could be promoted and maintained by nurses, midwives, other health professionals, and the health care system as a whole. A convenience sample of 124 postnatal Vietnamese women from community agencies in western and southwestern suburbs of Sydney was interviewed. Content analysis showed that factors that affect their choice of infant feeding method were language difficulties in communicating with health professionals concerning breastfeeding, lack of social support and follow-up care, and attitudes of health professionals toward breastfeeding. To promote and maintain breastfeeding within the Vietnamese community in Sydney, Australia, appropriate health care planning and implementation based on their social, cultural, and language backgrounds and practices need to be considered. PMID:10907337

  13. Women's experiences of breastfeeding: an interpretive phenomenological study

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, Rachael Louise

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breastfeeding is a key public health issue, conferring benefits associated with both infant and maternal health. Despite an increasing research base about what helps or hinders breastfeeding, there is a dramatic drop in breastfeeding prevalence within the first six weeks following birth. The reasons that mothers give for stopping breastfeeding suggest that few mothers gave up because they planned to. This would appear to suggest that there is a gap between women's experiences ...

  14. Breastfeeding practices of ethnic Indian immigrant women in Melbourne, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Maharaj, Natasha; Bandyopadhyay, Mridula

    2013-01-01

    Background The health benefits of breastfeeding are well documented in public health and medical literature worldwide. Despite this, global rates of breastfeeding steadily decline during the first couple of months postpartum. Although immigrant women have higher initiation rates and a longer duration of breastfeeding overall, breastfeeding practices are compromised because of a myriad of socioeconomic and cultural factors, including the acculturation process. The objective of this study was t...

  15. Perspectives and attitudes of breastfeeding women using herbal galactagogues during breastfeeding: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Tin Fei; Hattingh, H. Laetitia; Sherriff, Jillian; Tee, Lisa B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Some herbal galactagogues have gained reputation and recognition by the public and health professionals as alternative approaches to increase breast milk supply. This study explores the perspectives and attitudes of breastfeeding women towards the use of herbal galactagogues while breastfeeding, their experiences, and why and how they have chosen an alternative option over conventional treatments to enhance breastfeeding performance. Methods This exploratory research was conducted ...

  16. Breastfeeding: knowledge of the women about this practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza de Jesus Trindade

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The milk is considered the best food for the baby, or the most skilled for the proper growth and development of children, keeping it away from infections and diseases larger. This study aims to identify the knowledge acquired by mothers visited by scholars of the Project Scope: "We will breastfeed, Mom?" About breast feeding. This is a documentary research, qualitative in nature. We analyzed 93 routes from home visits, for the year 2006. Information was submitted to the technical analysis of thematic content, from which emerged a category: "knowledge gained by the mothers about breast feeding", and eight subcategories. We conclude that the knowledge of the women on breastfeeding, are still scarce, which reinforces the importance of this project, since it allows greater knowledge about breastfeeding, thus providing, reduction in the rates of morbidity and mortality

  17. Factors affecting breastfeeding practices in working women of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Soomro, Jamil Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background, rationale and aim of the study Breastfeeding is considered to be an important measure to secure child s optimal health and survival. In urban areas of Pakistan most of the women can t afford to live at home longer because they serve as an important contributor of their family income. A woman's return to work has frequently been found to be a main contributor to the early termination of breastfeeding. Most workplaces do not have the supportive environment for breastfeeding...

  18. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Audience / Adults Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Feb 2, 2016 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  19. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended. PMID:23445372

  20. Breastfeeding practices that support women with diabetes to breastfeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Anne; Dunne, Fidelma

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this literature review was to identify breastfeeding practices that support women with diabetes to breastfeed. A search was undertaken of CINAHL and Medline databases to identify studies that inform breastfeeding practice for women with diabetes. This resulted in 14 studies (19 records). Most studies focused on women with GDM and T1D with some consideration of T2D. The review has been organised using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, to enable a clear focus on the needs of women while identifying supportive practices. The key findings of this review are that breastfeeding as the first feed and exclusive breastfeeding are beneficial to meeting physiological needs. Preparations such as having food nearby and having someone to call on can help meet the woman's safety and security needs. A sense of love and belonging is supported by the practice of an early first breastfeed, but antenatal breast milk expression is currently not recommended. The woman's self-esteem can be enhanced through informed multidisciplinary support. Finally, self-actualisation or success with breastfeeding has been achieved by women with diabetes. Common breastfeeding concerns rather than diabetes have been identified as reasons for cessation of breastfeeding. Practices that support women deal with these concerns are recommended. PMID:26278351

  1. Breastfeeding women under medication treatment in the public health network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Muniz da Silva Fragoso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the medications used by breastfeeding women treated in the public health network, and correlated actions. Methods: Cross-sectional, quantitative and descriptive study carried out with 100 breastfeeding women, recruited through nonprobabilistic convenience sampling, at the Municipal Hospital of Duque de Caxias, RJ, in 2012. A questionnaire was applied containing the following variables: prescribed medications, unwanted effects in nursing infants, and professionals involved in guidance on the edication. The data was analysed through descriptive statistics, based on absolute and relative frequencies. Results: It was found that 46% (n=46 of the breastfeeding women were aged 21 to 30 years, 54% (n=54 were primiparae, 52% (n=52 had complete fundamental level, and 72% (n=72 received prenatal care. It was verified that 78% (n = 78 of the sample were receiving some type of medicine and, among these, a significant percentage of nonsteroidal analgesic/anti-inflammatory medication, with 61.54% (n=48 of the breastfeeding women. All the prescribed medicines were in the category of compatible use with breastfeeding. The incidence of some unwanted symptoms was evidenced in 19.2% (n=15 of the breastfeeding women. Among the women undergoing medication therapy, 76.92% (n=60 received guidance during treatment, 55% (n=33 by doctors and 45% (n=27 by nurses. In this research, 100% of the breastfeeding women were satisfied with the acquired knowledge. Conclusion: It was noted a high percentage of breastfeeding women in the sample taking medicines, all compatible with breastfeeding. It stands out the limited engagement of the multidisciplinary team in the orientations. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p283

  2. Breastfeeding, pregnant, and non-breastfeeding nor pregnant women's food consumption: A matched within-household analysis in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective Promoting breastfeeding is major maternal and child health goal in India. It is unclear whether mothers receive additional food needed to support healthy breastfeeding. Methods Using the latest National Family and Health Survey (2005–2006), we applied multilevel linear regression models to document correlates of nutrition for (n = 20,764) breastfeeding women. We then compared consumption of pulses, eggs, meat, fish, dairy, fruit, and vegetables across a sample of breastfeeding, non-breastfeeding/pregnant (NBP), and pregnant women (n = 3,409) matched within households and five-year age bands. We tested whether breastfeeding women had greater advantages in the 18 high-focus states of India's National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). Results Vegetarianism, caste, and religion were the strongest predictors of breastfeeding women's nutrition. Breastfeeding women had no nutritional advantage compared to NBP women, and were disadvantaged in their consumption of milk (b = −0.14) in low-focus states. Pregnant women were similarly disadvantaged in their consumption of milk in low-focus states (b = −0.32), but consumed vegetables more frequently (b = 0.12) than NBP women in high-focus states. Conclusions Breastfeeding women do not receive nutritional advantages compared to NBP women. Targeted effort is needed to assess and improve nutritional adequacy for breastfeeding Indian women. PMID:26826049

  3. Breastfeeding women under medication treatment in the public health network

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Muniz da Silva Fragoso; Elizabeth Domingues da Silva; Josiane Monsores Mota

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the medications used by breastfeeding women treated in the public health network, and correlated actions. Methods: Cross-sectional, quantitative and descriptive study carried out with 100 breastfeeding women, recruited through nonprobabilistic convenience sampling, at the Municipal Hospital of Duque de Caxias, RJ, in 2012. A questionnaire was applied containing the following variables: prescribed medications, unwanted effects in nursing infants, and professionals invo...

  4. Management of mastitis in breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jeanne P

    2008-09-15

    Mastitis occurs in approximately 10 percent of U.S. mothers who are breastfeeding, and it can lead to the cessation of breastfeeding. The risk of mastitis can be reduced by frequent, complete emptying of the breast and by optimizing breastfeeding technique. Sore nipples can precipitate mastitis. The differential diagnosis of sore nipples includes mechanical irritation from a poor latch or infant mouth anomalies, such as cleft palate or bacterial or yeast infection. The diagnosis of mastitis is usually clinical, with patients presenting with focal tenderness in one breast accompanied by fever and malaise. Treatment includes changing breastfeeding technique, often with the assistance of a lactation consultant. When antibiotics are needed, those effective against Staphylococcus aureus (e.g., dicloxacillin, cephalexin) are preferred. As methicillin-resistant S. aureus becomes more common, it is likely to be a more common cause of mastitis, and antibiotics that are effective against this organism may become preferred. Continued breastfeeding should be encouraged in the presence of mastitis and generally does not pose a risk to the infant. Breast abscess is the most common complication of mastitis. It can be prevented by early treatment of mastitis and continued breastfeeding. Once an abscess occurs, surgical drainage or needle aspiration is needed. Breastfeeding can usually continue in the presence of a treated abscess. PMID:18819238

  5. Long-term breast-feeding in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, E; Nørgård, Hanne; Damm, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated.......Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated....

  6. Breastfeeding Education, Support, and Barriers among Iraqi Refugee Women in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanat, Hala; Farrell, Heather; Merrill, Ray; Cox, Erin

    2007-01-01

    UNICEF data indicates that Iraqi women have lower rates of breastfeeding than other Middle East countries and that breastfeeding rates are usually even lower among refugee women. This low rate of breastfeeding may be a result of refugee women's lack of public and social support and access to health professionals. This study identifies Iraqi…

  7. Cultural beliefs that may discourage breastfeeding among Lebanese women: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wick Livia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the health benefits of breastfeeding are well established, early introduction of formula remains a common practice. Cultural beliefs and practices can have an important impact on breastfeeding. This paper describes some common beliefs that may discourage breastfeeding in Lebanon. Methods Participants were healthy first-time mothers recruited from hospitals throughout Lebanon to participate in a study on usage patterns of a telephone hotline for postpartum support. The hotline was available to mothers for the first four months postpartum and patterns of usage, as well as questions asked were recorded. Thematic analysis of the content of questions which referred to cultural beliefs and practices related to breastfeeding was conducted. Results Twenty four percent of the 353 women enrolled in the study called the hotline, and 50% of the calls included questions about breastfeeding. Mothers expressed concern about having adequate amounts of breast milk or the quality of their breast milk. Concerns that the mother could potentially harm her infant though breastfeeding were rooted in a number of cultural beliefs. Having an inherited inability to produce milk, having "bad milk", and transmission of abdominal cramps to infants through breast milk were among the beliefs that were expressed. Although the researchers live and work in Lebanon, they were not aware of many of the beliefs that are reported in this study. Conclusion There are a number of cultural beliefs that could potentially discourage breastfeeding among Lebanese women. Understanding and addressing local beliefs and customs can help clinicians to provide more culturally appropriate counselling about breastfeeding.

  8. Breastfeeding, pregnant, and non-breastfeeding nor pregnant women's food consumption: A matched within-household analysis in India

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderjohann, J; Vellakkal, S; Stuckler, D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Promoting breastfeeding is major maternal and child health goal in India. It is unclear whether mothers receive additional food needed to support healthy breastfeeding. Methods: Using the latest National Family and Health Survey (2005-2006), we applied multilevel linear regression models to document correlates of nutrition for (n=20,764) breastfeeding women. We then compared consumption of pulses, eggs, meat, fish, dairy, fruit, and vegetables across a sample of brea...

  9. Women's perceptions, knowledge and breastfeeding decision-making: Linking theory to qualitative empirical data

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterhoff, Alberta Tonnise

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, many women who start breastfeeding stop doing so in the first month after birth. Campaigns aiming to increase breastfeeding rates, focus on initiation as well as on continuation of breastfeeding, preferably until six months after birth. Little is known about women’s underlying motives to stop or continue breastfeeding in the first month after birth. In this research, we conducted 26 in-depth interviews at two time points (before and after delivery) among 13 women who had t...

  10. [Vegetarian diets in the nutrition of pregnant and breastfeeding women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezińska, Małgorzata; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Pregnant and breastfeeding women who eat vegetarian are a source of much controversy. This is the result of concern that eliminating some or all animal produce may lead to nutritional deficiencies and thus adversely affect the mother's and child's health. The American Dietetic Association's position is that appropriately planned vegan, lacto-vegetarian and lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets ensure a normal course of pregnancy and lactation. However, in practice the balancing of such a diet can pose certain difficulties, especially for individuals without the necessary experience or knowledge about nutrition. Nutrients to which particular attention needs to be paid to ensure their sufficient supply include: protein (essential amino acids), Omega-3 essential fatty acids, iron and calcium as well as vitamins D and B(12). The proper adherence to recommendations can be attained with a varied diet containing suitable plant products compensating for the nutritional value of the eliminated animal products. Supplementation with vitamin D and vitamin B(12) is also necessary. Research shows that infants born to vegetarian mothers are born at term and have normal birth weight. There is an increased risk of hypospadias in boys. The main difference in the composition of vegetarian mothers' milk compared to non-vegetarians' is lower content of docosahexaenoic acid and higher content of Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid. PMID:27137830

  11. Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breastfeeding offers many benefits to your baby. Breast milk contains the right balance of nutrients to help ... should breastfeed. If you are having problems with breastfeeding, contact a lactation consultant. NIH: National Institute of ...

  12. Low prevalence of long-term breastfeeding among women with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Camilla W; Stage, Edna; Barfred, Charlotte;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of long-term breastfeeding among women with type 2 diabetes compared to women with type 1 diabetes and to identify predictors of long-term breastfeeding for women with pre-gestational diabetes. METHODS: In total, 149 women with diabetes were interviewed...... about long-term breastfeeding, defined as any breastfeeding 4 months postpartum. RESULTS: Ninety-eight percent of the women aimed to breastfeed. At time of discharge, any breastfeeding was frequent for both groups of women (86% versus 93%, p = 0.17). However, 4 months postpartum, the 44 women with type...... 2 diabetes showed significantly lower prevalence of breastfeeding than the 105 women with type 1 diabetes (34% versus 61%, p < 0.01). Number of feedings in the first 24 h was an independent positive predictor, whereas pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and smoking were independent negative...

  13. Women's perceptions, knowledge and breastfeeding decision-making : Linking theory to qualitative empirical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhoff, Alberta Tonnise

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, many women who start breastfeeding stop doing so in the first month after birth. Campaigns aiming to increase breastfeeding rates, focus on initiation as well as on continuation of breastfeeding, preferably until six months after birth. Little is known about women’s underlying mo

  14. Can we identify women who initiate and then prematurely cease breastfeeding? An Australian multicentre cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Quinlivan, Julie; Kua, Sonia; Gibson, Robert; McPhee, Andrew; Makrides, Maria M

    2015-01-01

    Background Health authorities recommend 6 months of fully breastfeeding and continuation of breastfeeding for at least a year. Many women initiate breastfeeding in hospital but discontinue before the six-month period, and therefore do not optimise the public health benefits. The aim of this study was to determine whether these women could be identified at hospital discharge, to enable targeted interventions. Methods A secondary analysis of women who intended to breastfeed and were enrolled in...

  15. A Social Media Campaign to Promote Breastfeeding among Saudi Women: A Web-based Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahkali, Salwa; Alkharjy, Nora; Alowairdy, Maryam; Househ, Mowafa; Da'ar, Omar; Alsurimi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged breastfeeding can prevent or limit the severity of a variety of diseases and conditions. Although evidence clearly shows that there are health benefits for breastfeeding, adherence to breastfeeding remains a key challenge facing maternal health providers in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of a social media platform (Twitter) to promote breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia. Between February 10 and March 25, 2015, a web-based questionnaire was administered to evaluate the impacts of a Twitter based educational campaign on the awareness, knowledge, and adherence to breastfeeding behavior for women in Saudi Arabia. The overall response rate among mothers with a newborn child was 83% (n=484). The results showed an increase in the knowledge and awareness of breastfeeding practices and adherence among Twitter followers. The initiation rate of breastfeeding had slightly increased among women who never had previously breastfed. More women reported their willingness to continue exclusive breastfeeding and to stop bottle-feeding. Results also show that an integration of professional breastfeeding support, public health education programs through social media could be an effective tool in promoting breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on designing and implementing a social media based educational outreach program to increase women's awareness, knowledge, and adherence to breastfeeding behavior in Saudi Arabia. PMID:26153006

  16. Predictors of Breastfeeding in Overweight and Obese Women: Data From Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP)

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Katrina M.; Lovelady, Cheryl A.; Østbye, Truls

    2011-01-01

    Excess maternal weight has been negatively associated with breastfeeding. We examined correlates of breastfeeding initiation and intensity in a racially diverse sample of overweight and obese women. This paper presents a secondary analysis of data from 450 women enrolled in a postpartum weight loss intervention (Active Mothers Postpartum [AMP]). Sociodemographic measures and body mass index (BMI), collected at 6 weeks postpartum, were examined for associations with breastfeeding initiation an...

  17. Predictors of breastfeeding duration among women in Kuwait: results of a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Manal Dashti; Scott, Jane A.; Edwards, Christine A.; Mona Al-Sughayer

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to report the prevalence of breastfeeding to six months among women in Kuwait and to determine the factors that are associated with the duration of breastfeeding. A cohort of 373 women recruited from maternity wards in four hospitals in Kuwait city were followed from birth to 26 weeks postpartum. The association of any and full breastfeeding duration and predictor variables were explored using multivariate Cox’s proportional hazards models. At six months, 39% o...

  18. Breastfeeding among Vietnamese women in Ho Chi Minh City: Attitudes and confidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Hanna; Westin, Frida

    2009-01-01

    Breastfeeding has several advantages for both mother and child. A woman’s attitude to breastfeeding is a good predictor for infant feeding method and her confidence in breastfeeding has an impact on her breastfeeding duration. Aim:The aim of the study was to assess the attitude to and confidence in breastfeeding among Vietnamese women in Ho Chi Minh City. The aim was also to investigate if the type of family, nuclear and extended, influences the Vietnamese women’s attitude to and confidence i...

  19. Parents’ Health Beliefs Influence Breastfeeding Patterns among Iranian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Parsa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine factors related to breastfeeding and its perceived health benefits among Iranian mothers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using 240 postpartum women who were selected randomly from eight public health care centers in Hamadan, Iran, in 2012. Mothers who breastfed (BF and mothers who never breastfed (NBF were given a structured questionnaire to collect their demographic data and information regarding their health beliefs and attitude towards child-rearing. Descriptive and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: The mean length of breastfeeding was 11.6 (standard deviation=12.5 weeks. There was no difference in demographic variables, such as age, type of medical insurance, number of living children, employment, education, and household income (p>0.050, between mothers that breastfed and those that did not. Mothers’ perception of the severity of child illness was higher in those who breastfed than those who never breastfed (p=0.050. In contrast, BF mothers had higher perceived confidence of medical care to prevent diseases (p<0.050 and a higher perception of reverse parent-child roles than NBF mothers (p<0.050. Conclusion: Mothers’ health beliefs and attitude to parenting has a significant role in choosing to breastfeed. Physicians and healthcare providers may provide supportive information that influence a mother’s breastfeeding behavior.

  20. Breastfeeding beliefs and practices of African women living in Brisbane and Perth, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Danielle; Vicca, Natalie; Streiner, Samantha

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of breastfeeding among refugee women from Liberia, Sierra Leone, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo living in two major capital cities in Australia. Participants were recruited from their relevant community associations and via a snowballing technique. Thirty-one women took part in either individual interviews or facilitated group discussions to explore their experiences of breastfeeding in their home country and in Australia. Thematic analysis revealed four main themes: cultural breastfeeding beliefs and practices; stigma and shame around breastfeeding in public; ambivalence towards breastfeeding and breastfeeding support. Women who originated from these four African countries highlighted a significant desire for breastfeeding and an understanding that it was the best method for feeding their infants. Their breastfeeding practices in Australia were a combination of practices maintained from their countries of origin and those adopted according to Australian cultural norms. They exemplified the complexity of breastfeeding behaviour and the relationship between infant feeding with economic status and the perceived social norms of the host country. The results illustrate the need for policy makers and health professionals to take into consideration the environmental, social and cultural contexts of the women who are purportedly targeted for the promotion of breastfeeding. PMID:23557385

  1. Breastfeeding practices in a cohort of inner-city women: the role of contraindications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Abhik

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the role of breastfeeding contraindications in breastfeeding practices. Our objectives were to 1 identify predictors of breastfeeding initiation and duration among a cohort of predominately low-income, inner-city women, and 2 evaluate the contribution of breastfeeding contraindications to breastfeeding practices. Methods Mother-infant dyads were systematically selected from 3 District of Columbia hospitals between 1995 and 1996. Breastfeeding contraindications and potential predictors of breastfeeding practices were identified through medical record reviews and interviews conducted after delivery (baseline. Interviews were conducted at 3–7 months postpartum and again at 7–12 months postpartum to determine breastfeeding initiation rates and duration. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify baseline factors associated with initiation of breastfeeding. Cox proportional hazards models were generated to identify baseline factors associated with duration of breastfeeding. Results Of 393 study participants, 201 (51% initiated breastfeeding. A total of 61 women (16% had at lease one documented contraindication to breastfeeding; 94% of these had a history of HIV infection and/or cocaine use. Of the 332 women with no documented contraindications, 58% initiated breastfeeding, vs. 13% of women with a contraindication. In adjusted analysis, factors most strongly associated with breastfeeding initiation were presence of a contraindication (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08–0.47, and mother foreign-born (AOR, 4.90; 95% CI, 2.38–10.10. Twenty-five percent of study participants who did not initiate breastfeeding cited concern about passing dangerous things to their infants through breast milk. Factors associated with discontinuation of breastfeeding (all protective included mother foreign-born (hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; 95% CI 0.39–0.77 increasing

  2. The Effect of Interventional Program on Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy and Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Pregnant Women in Ahvaz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Somayeh; Abedi, Parvin; Hasanpoor, Shirin; Bani, Soheila

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to determine the effect of educational program on Breastfeeding self-efficacy and duration of exclusive breastfeeding in pregnant women in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods. This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 120 nulliparous pregnant women who tended to breastfeed. The primary self-efficacy scores of samples were measured using Faux and Dennis breastfeeding self-efficacy questionnaire. Women were randomly recruited into two intervention and control groups. Educat...

  3. At What Cost? Women's Multiple Roles and the Management of Breastfeeding. Research Report No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Rama

    This study examined the relationship between Indian women's work and breastfeeding, focusing on the constraints imposed by combining work with breastfeeding, the strategies women used, and the support they received. A non-probability convenience sample of 969 mothers of infants 1 year or younger (34 percent from rural areas) was used. Four areas…

  4. Breast-Feeding in Immigrant Women: The Role of Social Support and Acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike

    1998-01-01

    A postpartum questionnaire assessed influences of social support and acculturation on breast-feeding among 962 low-income immigrant women in New York. More acculturated women were two times less likely to intend to breast-feed but reported more social support. Predictors of breastfeeding were intent, nonsmoking, role models, and certain attitudes,…

  5. Associations between perceived value of exclusive breastfeeding among pregnant women in the United States and exclusive breastfeeding to three and six months postpartum: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Nnebe-Agumadu, Uche H.; Racine, Elizabeth F.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Coffman, Maren J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Successful breastfeeding often starts with prenatally established intention. Yet, few mothers with the intention to exclusively breastfeed achieve their intended breastfeeding duration goal. This study examined the degree to which having a strong value of exclusive breastfeeding is associated with exclusive breastfeeding duration for at least 3 and 6 months postpartum among women who reported prenatal intention to exclusively breastfeed. Methods Data were from the Infant Feeding Pr...

  6. Breastfeeding rates: Is the Ross mother's survey underestimating breastfeeding rates of Hispanic women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among Hispanics in the United States, breastfeeding initiation and duration decrease with acculturation. Therefore, in communities with significant Hispanic immigrant populations, surveys of breastfeeding rates conducted in English will provide a biased picture of feeding behaviors. Three major su...

  7. Breastfeeding Practices in Relation to Country of Origin Among Women Living in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck-Rasmussen, Marianne; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Norsker, Filippa Nyboe;

    2014-01-01

    , suggesting that acculturation did not favor breastfeeding. For all but the group of women who had migrated from Pakistan, adjustment for socio-demographic indicators (age, parity, education, attachment to labour market, and income) eliminated the increased risk of suboptimal breastfeeding......The objective of this study was to describe breastfeeding practices and to compare the risk of suboptimal breastfeeding of women living in Denmark according to country of origin, and further to examine how socio-economic position and duration of stay in the country affected this risk. Information...... on breastfeeding of 42,420 infants born 2002-2009 and living in eighteen selected Danish municipalities was collected from the Danish Health Visitor's Child Health Database. The data was linked with data on maternal socio-demographic information from Danish population-covering registries. Suboptimal breastfeeding...

  8. Breastfeeding and HIV-infected women in the United States: harm reduction counseling strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Judy; Weber, Shannon; Cohan, Deborah

    2014-07-15

    Social and cultural forces have led some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women to question the recommendation in the United States not to breastfeed. Without an open dialogue, women may choose to breastfeed exclusively or intermittently and not disclose this to their provider. We review the evidence from global studies of the risks of breastfeeding among HIV-infected mothers and propose a harm reduction model for women considering breastfeeding. PMID:24771330

  9. BREASTFEEDING PRACTICE AMONG WOMEN ATTENDING PRIMARY HEALTH CENTERS IN RIYADH

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Amoud, Maysoon M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To study the patterns of breastfeeding of last children, duration, factors and reasons for it. (2) To study the factors affecting breastfeeding among mothers who are breastfeeding and the reasons for continuing or failure to continue, at the primary health care centers (PHC) in Riyadh. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted by distributing 1000 questionnaires in 10 PHC centers. The breastfeeding practices were categorized on WHO terms. Results: Most of the studied last ...

  10. Facilitators for Empowering Women in Breastfeeding: a Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shahnaz Kohan; Zeinab Heidari; Mahrokh Keshvari

    2016-01-01

    Background  Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeed...

  11. Working women and factors that interfere with breastfeeding: an integrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Augusta da Silva; Rejane Marie Barbosa Davim

    2013-01-01

    Researches show that women consider work and continuation of breastfeeding as incompatible practices. This work has as objective to analyze the scientific evidences about the barriers and facilitators in breastfeeding after the return of women to work. The literature research took place in SCOPUS, LILACS, PUBMED and CINAHL databases. The sample consisted of 20 articles published between 2001 and 2011. The articles were grouped and the results divided into five thematic categories: mothers' ex...

  12. Breastfeeding Among Minority Women: Moving From Risk Factors to Interventions123

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Donna J.; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    The gap between current breastfeeding practices and the Healthy People 2020 breastfeeding goals is widest for black women compared with all other ethnic groups. Also of concern, Hispanic and black women have the highest rates of formula supplementation of breast-fed infants before 2 d of life. These disparities must be addressed through the scale-up of effective interventions. The objective of this critical review is to identify and evaluate U.S.-based randomized trials evaluating breastfeedi...

  13. Predictors of Breastfeeding Duration among Women in Kuwait: Results of a Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Dashti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this paper are to report the prevalence of breastfeeding to six months among women in Kuwait and to determine the factors that are associated with the duration of breastfeeding. A cohort of 373 women recruited from maternity wards in four hospitals in Kuwait city were followed from birth to 26 weeks postpartum. The association of any and full breastfeeding duration and predictor variables were explored using multivariate Cox’s proportional hazards models. At six months, 39% of all infants were receiving some breast milk and only 2% of infants had been fully breastfed to 26 weeks. Women born in other Arab countries were less likely to discontinue breastfeeding than women born in Kuwait. Other factors positively associated with breastfeeding duration were level of maternal education, higher parity, infant being demand fed in hospital and a preference for breastfeeding on the part of the infant’s father and maternal grandmother. The introduction of a pacifier before four weeks of age and the mother intending to return to work by six months were negatively associated with duration. These findings present a number of opportunities for prolonging breastfeeding duration in Kuwait.

  14. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding myths Finding support Fitting it into your life My breastfeeding ... knew before they started breastfeeding and how to work through those new-to-breastfeeding jitters. Content last ...

  15. New evidence on breastfeeding and postpartum depression: the importance of understanding women's intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Cristina; Iacovou, Maria; Sevilla, Almudena

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to identify the causal effect of breastfeeding on postpartum depression (PPD), using data on mothers from a British survey, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were performed to investigate the effects of breastfeeding on mothers' mental health measured at 8 weeks, 8, 21 and 32 months postpartum. The estimated effect of breastfeeding on PPD differed according to whether women had planned to breastfeed their babies, and by whether they had shown signs of depression during pregnancy. For mothers who were not depressed during pregnancy, the lowest risk of PPD was found among women who had planned to breastfeed, and who had actually breastfed their babies, while the highest risk was found among women who had planned to breastfeed and had not gone on to breastfeed. We conclude that the effect of breastfeeding on maternal depression is extremely heterogeneous, being mediated both by breastfeeding intentions during pregnancy and by mothers' mental health during pregnancy. Our results underline the importance of providing expert breastfeeding support to women who want to breastfeed; but also, of providing compassionate support for women who had intended to breastfeed, but who find themselves unable to. PMID:25138629

  16. Shaken but not broken: Supporting breastfeeding women after the 2011 Christchurch New Zealand earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargest-Slade, Anna Claire; Gribble, Karleen D

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Christchurch New Zealand earthquake adversely affected large numbers of people and resulted in many mothers and infants evacuating the city. In the town of Timaru, an emergency day-stay breastfeeding service assisted evacuee women. The service was established after media messaging alerted mothers to the importance of breastfeeding and the location of breastfeeding assistance. The local hospital provided rooms for the breastfeeding support service, which delivered counselling to mothers experiencing breastfeeding challenges. The vulnerability of infants in emergencies demands that governments and aid organisations plan to support their wellbeing and access to safe food and liquid. Plans should be developed in accordance with the Emergency Nutrition Network's Operationalguidance on infant and young child feeding in emergencies and include breastfed and formula-fed infants. Many countries have existing health resources and personnel with the expertise to support infant feeding in emergencies. However, only comprehensive pre-emergency planning can ensure that infants are protected. PMID:27183769

  17. Socio-religious factors affecting the breast-feeding performance of women in the Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerleg, S

    1984-10-01

    Yemeni breast-feeding beliefs and practices are discussed in relation to the ritual status of Muslim women. It is argued that the existing socio-religious perspective of women in Yemen is expressed in, and reinforced by, their attitudes to breast-feeding. Yemeni women consider breastfeeding to be a powerful, but potentially destructive force. The Quran defines the worth of both women and breast-feeding, and this is upheld by the attitudes of contemporary Yemeni society. The practices and beliefs associated with the reproductive and menstrual cycles, indicate that these female functions are considered hedged with danger and ambiguity. Breast-feeding, which is connected to both cycles, is no exception. Traditional breast-feeding beliefs and practices are best understood within the wider context of the perceived place and ritual status of women in Yemeni society. PMID:6526683

  18. Breastfeeding throughout legal separation: women's experiences of the Australian Family Law system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Linda

    2010-11-01

    In 2006, the Australian Government introduced the Family Law Amendment (Shared Parental Responsibility) Act 2006 (Cth), which put in place a legal presumption of shared parental responsibility for children after separation and which emphasizes "equal-time" parenting arrangements regardless of the child's age. A qualitative approach was taken to investigate breastfeeding women's experiences of the implementation of the act and its impact on their ability to maintain breastfeeding. Fifteen women responded to questions related to their breastfeeding and their engagement with the family law system. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed, and data were then analyzed thematically. These women experienced inconsistent advice from all facets of legal services, including opinions about the inappropriateness of breastfeeding for infants over 6 months of age. Breastfeeding was considered only as nutrition, without recognition of its immunological and cognitive benefits and the security and comfort it provides. Many participant women felt that they had been persuaded against discussing breastfeeding in the legal system, resulting in a sense of disempowerment. PMID:20841494

  19. Influencing factors on time of breastfeeding initiation among a national representative sample of women in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sandor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is seen as vital for mother and child and therefore is of great public health concern. Early initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of delivery is important as it reduces neonatal mortality. Increasing our understanding of barriers and reasons for not commencing early breastfeeding is important to improve strategies and conditions to overcome such barriers. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate factors influencing time of breastfeeding among women in India, focusing on health care utilisation related issues and partner behaviour. Data from the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of the Government of India’s National Family Health Survey (NFHS from 2005-2006 (NFHS-3 have been used in this study. Breastfeeding for the latest child was considered in the study. A total of 35,795 female respondents are included in this study. Chi square test and adjusted logistic regression analysis were used. Among all 35,795 women in the study, a total of 31.1% initiated breastfeeding within one hour and 68.6% initiated breastfeeding within the first week. Educational level, economic status and women’s caste or tribe, place of delivery, prenatal visits to health care facilities and assistance during delivery as well as partner’s controlling and violent behavior are important factors influencing time of initiation of breastfeeding. It is evident that policy makers need to ensure that all health professionals support and promote early breastfeeding initiation. It is also important to promote deliveries in hospitals and other healthcare facilities as they may increase early initiation. Furthermore, it is fundamental that efforts are intensified for girls and women to obtain education to increase women’s empowerment and improved gender equality.  

  20. The Prevalence and Determinants of Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in a Sample of Women in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Tarrant, Roslyn; Younger, Katherine; Sheridan-Pereira, Margaret; White, Martin; Kearney, John(Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, U.S.A.)

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and ‘any’ breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers. Design: This prospective cross-sectional study involved the recruitment of women during the antenatal period, with subsequent follow-up of mothers who delivered healthy, term singleton infants, at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Se...

  1. Breastfeeding Offers Protection Against Obesity in Children of Recently Immigrated Latina Women

    OpenAIRE

    Verstraete, Sofia G.; Heyman, Melvin B.; Wojcicki, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been found to have a protective effect on subsequent development of obesity in childhood, particularly in white, non-Hispanic populations. The protective effect of nursing for more than 12 months in children of Latina women is less clear, which may be due to differences in levels of acculturation in previously studied populations. We evaluated the association between breastfeeding for 12 months or more and risk for obesity in a cohort of children of recently immigrated relat...

  2. Breastfeeding advice given to African American and white women by physicians and WIC counselors.

    OpenAIRE

    Beal, Anne C; Kuhlthau, Karen; Perrin, James M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study determined rates of breastfeeding advice given to African American and white women by medical providers and WIC nutrition counselors, and sought to determine whether racial differences in advice contributed to racial differences in rates of breastfeeding. METHODS: The study used data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey, a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of mothers with a live birth, infant death, or fetal death in 1988. T...

  3. Factors associated with breastfeeding at six months postpartum in a group of Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLachlan Helen L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite high levels of breastfeeding initiation in Australia, only 47 percent of women are breastfeeding (exclusively or partially six months later, with marked differences between social groups. It is important to identify women who are at increased risk of early cessation of breastfeeding. Methods Data from the three arms of a randomised controlled trial were pooled and analysed as a cohort using logistic regression to identify which factors predicted women continuing to feed any breast milk at six months postpartum. The original trial included 981 primiparous women attending a public, tertiary, women's hospital in Melbourne, Australia in 1999–2001. The trial evaluated the effect of two mid-pregnancy educational interventions on breastfeeding initiation and duration. In the 889 women with six month outcomes available, neither intervention increased breastfeeding initiation nor duration compared to standard care. Independent variables were included in the predictive model based on the literature and discussion with peers and were each tested individually against the dependent variable (any breastfeeding at six months. Results Thirty-three independent variables of interest were identified, of which 25 qualified for inclusion in the preliminary regression model; 764 observations had complete data available. Factors remaining in the final model that were positively associated with breastfeeding any breast milk at six months were: a very strong desire to breastfeed; having been breastfed oneself as a baby; being born in an Asian country; and older maternal age. There was an increasing association with increasing age. Factors negatively associated with feeding any breast milk at six months were: a woman having no intention to breastfeed six months or more; smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day pre-pregnancy; not attending childbirth education; maternal obesity; having self-reported depression in the six months after birth; and

  4. Practices and beliefs about exclusive breastfeeding by women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzmila Hernández

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the practices and beliefs about breastfeeding during the first 6 months after delivery, a study was completed with women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia. Methods: The methodology used for the study was ethno nursing, which facilitated inquiring about the emic perspective and identifying beneficial and risk-laden practices for the child´s health regarding feeding. Fifteen women were the key informants; this sample was determined by data saturation criteria. Findings: Findings are presented in two parts: practices and beliefs in favor of exclusive breastfeeding and practices and beliefs that do not support exclusive breastfeeding. The prominent practices and beliefs in favor of exclusive breastfeeding are related to the mother´s bond with the child, preparation for breastfeeding during pregnancy, and family support. Among the practices and beliefs not supporting maternal breastfeeding, we must highlight the mother´s lack of confidence in her breast milk production. Conclusions: Knowledge generated by this study may facilitate nursing care of women during pregnancy and postpartum that is congruent with their culture. To accomplish this, we identified cultural practices that should be kept and others needing modification or restructuring.

  5. Practices and beliefs about exclusive breastfeeding by women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzmila Hernández

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the practices and beliefs about breastfeeding during the first 6 months after delivery, a study was completed with women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia.Methods: The methodology used for the study was ethno nursing, which facilitated inquiring about the emic perspective and identifying beneficial and risk-laden practices for the child´s health regarding feeding. Fifteen women were the key informants; this sample was determined by data saturation criteria.Findings: Findings are presented in two parts: practices and beliefs in favor of exclusive breastfeeding and practices and beliefs that do not support exclusive breastfeeding. The prominent practices and beliefs in favor of exclusive breastfeeding are related to the mother´s bond with the child, preparation for breastfeeding during pregnancy, and family support. Among the practices and beliefs not supporting maternal breastfeeding, we must highlight the mother´s lack of confidence in her breast milk production.Conclusions: Knowledge generated by this study may facilitate nursing care of women during pregnancy and postpartum that is congruent with their culture. To accomplish this, we identified cultural practices that should be kept and others needing modification or restructuring.

  6. Recommendations on Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Work with Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In facilities where workers are exposed to ionizing radiation, a system of radiation protection is implemented which is ultimately based on a balancing of the risks and benefits to the uses of radiation involved. More restrictive dose limits are set for members of the public than for workers and these have been applied also to conceptus.There are many different industries and practices that involve the use of ionizing radiation and the potential exposure of female workers at fertility age. The radiation sources and levels of exposure may vary significantly in different industries, such as those associated with the nuclear fuel cycle (where the workforce is mostly male), industrial radiography, diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications (where the number of female workers may be greater than males) and others.The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) in its Basic Safety Standards (BSS) recommend to regard the conceptus as a member of the public when considering the protection of female workers who are pregnant. There is a requirement that women should be informed of the importance of early notification of pregnancy.In 2001, the ICRP in its Publication 88 published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to the conceptus from intakes by the mother. Several internal scenarios were considered, which include acute and chronic intakes by inhalation and ingestion for female workers and members of the public. For acute exposures, intakes were taken to occur at 2.5 years and 6 months before conception, at the time of conception, and at the end of weeks 5, 10, 15, 25 and 35 of the pregnancy.In 2005, the ICRP in its Publication 95 published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to the infant from intakes by the breasfeeding mother.This work examines the significance of pregnant and breastfeeding women work with radioactive materials on the potential

  7. Mother knows breast: A content analysis of breastfeeding in television network news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhart, Sherice; Dinkel, Danae

    2016-07-01

    Major health organizations worldwide have touted the benefits of breastfeeding and engaged in campaigns to increase rates of practice. This study content analyzes network television news transcripts (N = 475) to investigate the coverage of breastfeeding over a 15-year time period (1999-2013) across three networks (ABC, NBC, CBS). Results revealed that although television news reports on breastfeeding have steadily increased, topics have become more trivial. Reports were also found to heavily rely on episodic frames and primarily appear in morning news programs. Such coverage may have the ability to diminish the importance breastfeeding has on society and to deter policy advancement. Theoretical and practical implications for campaign development and promotion are discussed. PMID:26726733

  8. Reducing Postpartum Weight Retention and Improving Breastfeeding Outcomes in Overweight Women: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Martin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity is prevalent among women of reproductive age (42% BMI > 25 kg/m2 and parity is associated with risk of weight gain. Weight gain greater than that recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM is also associated with lower rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration in women. The aim of this pilot randomised controlled trial is to examine the feasibility of recruiting and maintaining a cohort of pregnant women with the view of reducing postpartum weight retention and improving breastfeeding outcomes. Women (BMI of 25–35 kg/m2 (n = 36 were recruited from the John Hunter Hospital antenatal clinic in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were stratified by BMI and randomised to one of three groups with follow-up to six months postpartum. Women received a dietary intervention with or without breastfeeding support from a lactation consultant, or were assigned to a wait-list control group where the dietary intervention was issued at three months postpartum. Feasibility and acceptability was assessed by participation rates and questionnaire. Analysis of variance and covariance was conducted to determine any differences between groups. Sixty-nine per cent of the participants were still enrolled at six months postpartum. This pilot demonstrated some difficulties in recruiting women from antenatal clinics and retaining them in the trial. Although underpowered; the results on weight; biomarkers and breastfeeding outcomes indicated improved metabolic health.

  9. Initial breastfeeding attitudes and practices of women born in Turkey, Vietnam and Australia after giving birth in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Forster Della A; McLachlan Helen L

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Cultural variations exist in the proportion of women who breastfeed. For some cultural groups, migration to a new country is associated with a reduction in the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. This paper describes the initial breastfeeding attitudes and practices of women born in Vietnam, Turkey and Australia who gave birth in Australia. Methods The study included 300 women: 100 hundred Turkish-born, 100 Vietnamese-born and 100 Australian-born women who had given ...

  10. Breastfeeding: What are the Barriers? Why Women Struggle to Achieve Their Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Natasha K; Kellams, Ann

    2016-07-01

    Despite recognized health benefits for both mothers and infants, significant disparities still exist in the rates of breastfeeding in the United States. Major organizations representing the health of women and children (including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP], American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology [ACOG], American Academy of Family Physicians [AAFP], United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), the World Health Organization [WHO], and the United States Public Health Service [PHS]) recommend exclusive breastfeeding, but statistics show that although many women initiate breastfeeding, few meet the recommended goals for duration and exclusivity. This article reviews the evidence related to barriers (prenatal, medical, societal, hospital, and sociocultural) that many mothers face, and explore the known barriers and the impact they have on a woman's ability to breastfeed her infant. Strategies will be discussed to address (and potentially overcome) some of the most common barriers women face along with a list of resources that can be useful in this effort. Gaps in care and areas that need further research will be noted. This article is targeted toward physicians and other healthcare providers who work with women and who can assist with and advocate for the removal of barriers and thereby improve the health of women and children by increasing the rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity in the United States. PMID:27111125

  11. Breastfeeding Practices in Relation to Country of Origin Among Women Living in Denmark: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Busck-Rasmussen, Marianne; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Mortensen, Laust; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe breastfeeding practices and to compare the risk of suboptimal breastfeeding of women living in Denmark according to country of origin, and further to examine how socio-economic position and duration of stay in the country affected this risk. Information on breastfeeding of 42,420 infants born 2002–2009 and living in eighteen selected Danish municipalities was collected from the Danish Health Visitor’s Child Health Database. The data was linked with ...

  12. Cross Cultural Adaptation, Validity, and Reliability of the Farsi Breastfeeding Attrition Prediction Tools in Iranian Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mortazavi, Forough; MOUSAVI, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Janke, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Iran is decreasing. The breastfeeding attrition prediction tools (BAPT) have been validated and used in predicting premature weaning. Objectives: We aimed to translate the BAPT into Farsi, assess its content validity, and examine its reliability and validity to identify exclusive breastfeeding discontinuation in Iran. Materials and Methods: The BAPT was translated into Farsi and the content validity of the Farsi version of the BAPT was assess...

  13. Initial breastfeeding attitudes and practices of women born in Turkey, Vietnam and Australia after giving birth in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forster Della A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultural variations exist in the proportion of women who breastfeed. For some cultural groups, migration to a new country is associated with a reduction in the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. This paper describes the initial breastfeeding attitudes and practices of women born in Vietnam, Turkey and Australia who gave birth in Australia. Methods The study included 300 women: 100 hundred Turkish-born, 100 Vietnamese-born and 100 Australian-born women who had given birth in a large public, tertiary referral maternity hospital between January 1998 and May 1999 in Melbourne, Australia. Women were interviewed in hospital, between 24 hours after the birth and discharge from hospital. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire with some open-ended questions. Only women who had a normal vaginal birth and who gave birth to a healthy baby were included in the study. Results Almost all Turkish women initiated breastfeeding (98% compared with 84% of Australian women. Vietnamese women had the lowest rate of breastfeeding initiation (75%, perceived their partners to be more negative about breastfeeding and did not value the health benefits of colostrum to the same extent as the other two groups. Forty percent of Vietnamese women gave their baby formula in hospital. The results of this study add to the previously reported finding that immigrant Vietnamese women have low breastfeeding rates compared with other groups. Conclusion Despite the Baby Friendly status of the hospital where the study was conducted, major differences were found in breastfeeding initiation. Future research should develop and test interventions aimed at increasing breastfeeding initiation in Vietnamese women where initiation is low.

  14. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called nursing, is the ...

  15. An Interactive, Bilingual Touch Screen Program to Promote Breastfeeding Among Hispanic Rural Women: Usability Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Ashish; Wilhelm, Susan; Aguirre, Trina; Trout, Kate; Amadi, Chioma

    2013-01-01

    Background Computer technology can be effectively used to educate patients and improve knowledge and attitudes, leading to healthier behavior. Among rural women, breastfeeding outcomes seem to be worst compared to women living in urban areas. The implementation of a bilingual computer mediated health education program to disseminate information and improve outcomes among users with low literacy levels has proven to be successful. Objective The objective of this pilot study was to examine the ...

  16. The risk of postpartum maternal hyperglycaemia in women with gestational diabetes is reduced by breastfeeding

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, MW

    2011-09-01

    Background and aims: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with adverse fetal and maternal outcomes. It identifies women at risk of pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular risk in later life. Recent studies have suggested that breastfeeding may confer a beneficial effect on postpartum maternal glucose tolerance in both women with GDM and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy.\\r\

  17. Practices and beliefs about exclusive breastfeeding by women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Luzmila Hernández; Martha Lucía Vásquez

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the practices and beliefs about breastfeeding during the first 6 months after delivery, a study was completed with women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia. Methods: The methodology used for the study was ethno nursing, which facilitated inquiring about the emic perspective and identifying beneficial and risk-laden practices for the child´s health regarding feeding. Fifteen women were the key informants; this sample was determined by data saturation criteria. Findin...

  18. Practices and beliefs about exclusive breastfeeding by women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Luzmila Hernández; Martha Lucía Vásquez

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the practices and beliefs about breastfeeding during the first 6 months after delivery, a study was completed with women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia.Methods: The methodology used for the study was ethno nursing, which facilitated inquiring about the emic perspective and identifying beneficial and risk-laden practices for the child´s health regarding feeding. Fifteen women were the key informants; this sample was determined by data saturation criteria.Findings:...

  19. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top ... to-breastfeeding jitters. Content last updated: January 20, 2013. Print Return to top Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | ...

  20. "Socio Cultural:Case Study" Pregnant women's perception of exclusive breastfeeding in Makassar Ethnic (Makassar city, Gowa and Takalar regency) 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Syafar, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays 80% of infants in Indonesia are no longer breast-feeding since 24 hours the first since they were born, where mother should breast feed which is the main food that baby needed. The study was conducted to obtain information knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of pregnant women for exclusive breastfeeding.In this study conducted exploration of information through in-depth interviews among women who did exclusive breastfeeding, the mother who does not do exclusive breastfeeding, and midw...

  1. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practices among rural women in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Radhakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor infant feeding practices and their consequences are one of the world′s major problems and a serious obstacle to social and economic development. Various studies have shown that infant feeding could be influenced by socioeconomic status, maternal education, place of living and many other factors. Hence a prevalence study on exclusive breastfeeding was conducted in rural Tamil Nadu. Aim and Objective: To assess the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practices and the factors influencing them among women in a rural area in Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional study conducted in Attyampatti Panchyat Union, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, from March 2011-June 2011. All the 291 children in the age group of six months to two years in Attyampatti Panchayat Union were included in the study, irrespective of any sample. The data was analyzed using SPSS package. Results: Among the study population 52.6% were male children and 47.4% were females. Only 99 (34% children were exclusively breastfed for six months. The majority of women (60.5% initiated breastfeeding within half an hour after delivery. Various demographic factors like the education of the mother, type of delivery, type of family, occupation, number of children, monthly income, family size, age at marriage and religion had a direct influence on exclusive breastfeeding, which in turn influenced the weight of the baby and immune status of the child. Most of the mothers (44.7% inferred that the main reason for giving bottle feed is because of inadequate breast milk secretion. Conclusion: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding is low in this particular area. Hence promotion of exclusive breastfeeding and focus on the factors affecting them is highly warranted in this area.

  2. Predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women: a comparison of two theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeblen, A S; Thompson, N J; Miner, K R

    1999-10-01

    This study examined the applicability of the transtheoretical model and a model derived from the theory of reasoned action for predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women. Participants completed a 70-item self-report questionnaire assessing their breast-feeding attitudes, intentions, and support. A positive correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of Processes of Change used by respondents. A negative correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of negative breast-feeding beliefs held by respondents. Furthermore, women's normative beliefs and outcome beliefs were significantly correlated with breast-feeding intention in manners consistent with the model developed from the theory of reasoned action. After accounting for significant sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, the Processes of Change and outcome beliefs remained independently correlated with breast-feeding intention. These models are capable of predicting the intention to breast-feed and might offer an innovative approach for further breast-feeding research and intervention development. PMID:10533172

  3. Early cessation of breastfeeding amongst women in South Africa: an area needing urgent attention to improve child health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doherty Tanya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a critical component of interventions to reduce child mortality. Exclusive breastfeeding practice is extremely low in South Africa and there has been no improvement in this over the past ten years largely due to fears of HIV transmission. Early cessation of breastfeeding has been found to have negative effects on child morbidity and survival in several studies in Africa. This paper reports on determinants of early breastfeeding cessation among women in South Africa. Methods This is a sub group analysis of a community-based cluster-randomized trial (PROMISE EBF promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three South African sites (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal between 2006 and 2008 (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150. Infant feeding recall of 22 food and fluid items was collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks postpartum. Women’s experiences of breast health problems were also collected at the same time points. 999 women who ever breastfed were included in the analysis. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for site, arm and cluster, was performed to determine predictors of stopping breastfeeding by 12 weeks postpartum. Results By 12 weeks postpartum, 20% of HIV-negative women and 40% of HIV-positive women had stopped all breastfeeding. About a third of women introduced other fluids, most commonly formula milk, within the first 3 days after birth. Antenatal intention not to breastfeed and being undecided about how to feed were most strongly associated with stopping breastfeeding by 12 weeks (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR 5.6, 95% CI 3.4 – 9.5 and AOR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6 – 10.8, respectively. Also important was self-reported breast health problems associated with a 3-fold risk of stopping breastfeeding (AOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.7 – 5.7 and the mother having her own income doubled the risk of stopping breastfeeding (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3 – 2

  4. Self-care in pregnancy and breastfeeding: views of women and community pharmacists in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Boonyaprapa, Sathon

    2010-01-01

    During pregnancy and breastfeeding, women are concerned about the health and safety of themselves and their baby. They undertake many activities in order to maintain good health, manage minor ailments and improve their lifestyle, including seeking help and advice from pharmacies. Community pharmacists have an important role in selecting appropriate medicines and encouraging good health behaviours. The Thai population can purchase medicines from pharmacies without a prescription, and self-trea...

  5. Effects of menthol essence and breast milk on the improvement of nipple fissures in breastfeeding women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Amir Ali Akbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nipple fissure is a common disorder during breastfeeding. With high prevalence of nipple fissures and its impacts on breastfeeding, as well as the existence of evidence in favor of the application of peppermint as an antiinflammatory and antiinfection herb, the purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Menthol essence on improving nipple fissures in the primiparous breastfeeding women. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted using a clinical trial method. Samples were divided randomly into two groups of 55 women. The women in the peppermint group applied four drops of Menthol essence on their nipple and areola after each feeding. The control group applied four drops of their own milk on the nipple and areola after each feeding. Then, the two groups were studied on days 10 and 14 postpartum. For intensity of pain, the visual analog scale (0-10 cm and to measure the severity of damage, Amir scale (1-10 cm were applied and the existence or lack of nipple discharge was also recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS 17 software. Results: The mean intensity of pain and nipple fissure before treatment (8.55 ± 1.74 and day 10 after delivery (4.26 ± 1.57 and before treatment and day 14 after delivery in the case group (1.32 ± 1.02 had a significant difference (P < 0.001. Nipple discharge between the two groups, before treatment (%75.2 and day 10 after delivery (%31.6 and before treatment and day 14 after delivery (%15.7, the case group had a significant difference (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Menthol essence can improve nipple fissures in the primiparous breastfeeding women.

  6. Breastfeeding practices in relation to country of origin among women living in Denmark: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busck-Rasmussen, Marianne; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Mortensen, Laust; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe breastfeeding practices and to compare the risk of suboptimal breastfeeding of women living in Denmark according to country of origin, and further to examine how socio-economic position and duration of stay in the country affected this risk. Information on breastfeeding of 42,420 infants born 2002-2009 and living in eighteen selected Danish municipalities was collected from the Danish Health Visitor's Child Health Database. The data was linked with data on maternal socio-demographic information from Danish population-covering registries. Suboptimal breastfeeding was defined as Pakistan, adjustment for socio-demographic indicators (age, parity, education, attachment to labour market, and income) eliminated the increased risk of suboptimal breastfeeding. There was no evidence for differences in the breastfeeding support provided at hospital level according to migrant status. Suboptimal breastfeeding was more frequent among women who were non-Nordic migrants and descendants of migrants than among women with Danish origin. PMID:24748214

  7. Efficacy of e-technologies in improving breastfeeding outcomes among perinatal women: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Htun, Tha P; Tam, Wai S W; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee

    2016-07-01

    A growing line of research has highlighted that e-technologies may play a promising role in improving breastfeeding outcomes. The objective of this review was to synthesise the best of available evidence by conducting a meta-analysis to evaluate whether e-technologies have had any effect in improving breastfeeding outcomes among perinatal women. The review was conducted using nine electronic databases to search for English-language research studies from 2007 to 2014. A 'risk of bias' table was used to assess methodological quality. Meta-analysis was performed with the RevMan software. The Q test and I(2) test was used to assess the heterogeneity. The test of overall effect was assessed using z-statistics at P attitude (z = 3.01, P = 0.003) and breastfeeding knowledge (z = 4.54, P = < 0.00001) in subgroup analyses. This review provides support for the development of web-based, texting messaging, compact disc read-only memory, electronic prompts and interactive computer agent interventions for promoting and supporting breastfeeding. PMID:26194599

  8. Liquid gold from the milk bar: constructions of breastmilk and breastfeeding women in the language and practices of midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, E; Schmied, V; Fenwick, J; Sheehan, A

    2012-11-01

    Midwives are the main health professional group providing support and assistance to women during the early establishment of breastfeeding. In published accounts of early breastfeeding experiences women report high levels of dissatisfaction with health professional support. To gain an understanding of this dissatisfaction, we examined the way in which midwives represent breastmilk and construct breastfeeding women in their interactions. Seventy seven women and seventy six midwives at two maternity units in NSW, Australia, participated in this study. Eighty five interactions between a midwife and a breastfeeding woman were observed and audio recorded during the first week after birth. In addition, data were collected through observation of nine parenting education sessions, interviews with 23 women following discharge, and 11 managers and lactation consultants (collected between October 2008 and September 2009). Discourse analysis was used to analyse the transcribed interactions, and interview data. The analysis revealed that midwives prioritised both colostrum and mature breastmilk as a 'precious resource', essential for the health and wellbeing of the infant and mother. References to breastmilk as 'liquid gold' were both verbal and implied. Within this discourse, the production and acquisition of 'liquid gold' appeared to be privileged over the process of breastfeeding and women were, at times, positioned as incompetent operators of their bodily 'equipment', lacking knowledge and skill in breastfeeding. In this context breastfeeding became constructed as a manufacturing process for a demanding consumer. The approach taken by midwives revealed an intensive focus on nutrition to the exclusion of relational communication and support. The findings indicate the need to challenge the current 'disciplinary' and 'technological' practices used by midwives when providing breastfeeding support and the need for a cultural change in postnatal care. PMID:22906527

  9. Rapid Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation for Women in an HIV-1 Prevention Clinical Trial Experiencing Primary HIV-1 Infection during Pregnancy or Breastfeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Morrison

    Full Text Available During an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial in East Africa, we observed 16 cases of primary HIV-1 infection in women coincident with pregnancy or breastfeeding. Nine of eleven pregnant women initiated rapid combination antiretroviral therapy (ART, despite having CD4 counts exceeding national criteria for ART initiation; breastfeeding women initiated ART or replacement feeding. Rapid ART initiation during primary HIV-1 infection during pregnancy and breastfeeding is feasible in this setting.

  10. Rapid Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation for Women in an HIV-1 Prevention Clinical Trial Experiencing Primary HIV-1 Infection during Pregnancy or Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Morrison; Grace John-Stewart; John J Egessa; Sezi Mubezi; Sylvia Kusemererwa; Dennis K Bii; Nulu Bulya; Francis Mugume; Campbell, James D.; Jonathan Wangisi; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Connie Celum; Baeten, Jared M.

    2015-01-01

    During an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial in East Africa, we observed 16 cases of primary HIV-1 infection in women coincident with pregnancy or breastfeeding. Nine of eleven pregnant women initiated rapid combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), despite having CD4 counts exceeding national criteria for ART initiation; breastfeeding women initiated ART or replacement feeding. Rapid ART initiation during primary HIV-1 infection during pregnancy and breastfeeding is feasible in this setting.

  11. Low breastfeeding rates and body mass index in Danish children of women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger-Grøn, Jesper; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Blunck, Charlotte Holst;

    2015-01-01

    Background Offspring from women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at risk for later overweight, and the aim of treatment regimens is to normalize their prognosis. While the general concept is that breastfeeding is protective and should be promoted, some studies report increased levels of...... insulin and glucose in breast milk of women with diabetes, possibly increasing risks to the children. Previous studies may have low retention rates or mix GDM and pre-GDM, and often knowledge of confounders like maternal body mass index (BMI), level of hyperglycemia and feeding patterns is lacking. Data...

  12. Education, contraceptive use in women and the chance of six months exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummi Kalsum

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang:Di Indonesia proporsi ibu-ibu yang melaksanakan pemberian air susu ibu (ASI eksklusif selama enam bulan masih rendah. Pada tulisan ini disajikan beberapa faktor risiko yang berkaitan dengan pemberian ASI eksklusif 6 bulan. Metode: Analisis naskah ini memakai sebagian data Survei Demografi Kesehatan Indonesia (SDKI 2012 di 33 provinsi di Indonesia berdasarkan desain stratified sampling. Pada analisis ini sub-sampel ialah wanita berumur 15-49 tahun yang mempunyai bayi lahir tunggal hidup berumur 6 bulan, mempunyai bayi hidup bersama ibunya, dan mempunyai data lengkap untuk keperluan analisis ini. Jumlah ibu yang mempunyai anak <2 tahun serta hidup bersama anaknya sebanyak 1040, dan 325 di antaranya yang mempunyai anak 6 bulan serta lengkap datanya.Hasil:Ibu-ibu yang memberi ASI eksklusif hingga 6 bulan sebanyak 3,7%. Pemakaian kontrasepsi serta pendidikan merupakan dua faktor dominan terhadap kemungkinan pemberian ASI eksklusif. Dibandingkan dengan ibu yang memakai kontrasepsi hormonal, ibu yang tidak memakai kontrasepsi non hormonal serta yang tidak memakai kontrasepsi 7,3 kali lipat dan 9,1 kali lipat lebih tinggi memberikan ASI eksklusif [masing-masing risiko relatif (RRa = 7,25; P = 0,031; dan RRa = 9,08; P = 0,004]. Ditinjau dari segi pendidikan  ibu,  ibu  yang  yang  berpendidikan  rendah  dibandingkan  dengan  ibu  berpendidikan  tinggi/menengah 4.2 kali lipat memberikan ASI eksklusif (RRa = 4,19; P = 0,027.Kesimpulan:Ibu-ibu yang memberikan ASI eksklusif hingga 6 bulan lebih sering terdapat di antara ibu-ibu yang tidak memakai kontrasepsi serta yang berpendidikan rendah. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:17-22Kata kunci: ASI eksklusif, pendidikan ibu, kontrasepsi AbstractBackground: Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months among Indonesian women is very low. This paper aimed to assess several factors related to exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months in Indonesia. Methods: This paper used part of the data from

  13. A qualitative study of Western Australian women's perceptions of using a Snoezelen room for breastfeeding during their postpartum hospital stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Ellie

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence on the use of the Snoezelen concept for maternity clients. Snoezelen, a Dutch concept, initiated in the 1970s as a leisure activity for severely disabled people, involves creating an indoor environment using controllable stimuli to enhance comfort and relaxation. These specially designed rooms expose the user to multiple sensory stimulations combining vision, touch, sounds and aromas. The aim of this study was to provide insight into breastfeeding women's experience of using a Snoezelen room during hospitalisation. Methods A qualitative exploratory design was chosen to reveal women's perceptions of using the Snoezelen room. Osborne Park Hospital, the study setting is the second largest public provider of obstetric services in Western Australia. A purposive sample was drawn from breastfeeding women who used the Snoezelen room during their postpartum stay from March 2006 to March 2007. Saturation was achieved after eleven breastfeeding women were interviewed six weeks post discharge. Data analysis involved the constant comparison method. Results Participants entered the room feeling tired and emotional with an unsettled baby and breastfeeding issues aggravated by maternal stress and anxiety. All women indicated they were able to achieve relaxation while in the room and would recommend its use to other breastfeeding mothers. Two key themes revealed how the Snoezelen room facilitated maternal relaxation, which ultimately enhanced the breastfeeding experience. The first theme, "Finding Relaxation for the Breastfeeding Mother" incorporates three subthemes: 'Time out' for mother; Control in own personal space; and a Quiet/calm environment with homelike atmosphere. The second theme, "Enabling Focus on Breastfeeding", occurred after relaxation was achieved and involved four subthemes: Able to get one-on-one attention; Not physically exposed to others; Away from prying, judgemental eyes and Able to safely

  14. The extended Theory of Planned Behavior in explaining exclusive breastfeeding intention and behavior among women in Kelantan, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tengku Ismail, Tengku Alina; Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan; Bakar, Mohd Isa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to utilize an extended Theory of Planned Behavior in identifying predictors of exclusive breastfeeding intention and behavior among women in Kelantan, Malaysia. SUBJECTS/METHODS A prospective cohort study was conducted, recruiting pregnant womenthrough two-stage cluster sampling. Their exclusive breastfeeding intention, attitude, perceived norm, perceived behavioral control and past behavior were obtained at baseline through interviewer-guide...

  15. Adherence to medical treatment in relation to pregnancy, birth outcome & breastfeeding behavior among women with Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julsgaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    pregnancy outcomes, little is known about predictors for these outcomes in women with CD. In addition, the impact of breastfeeding on disease activity remains controversial. AIMS: The aims of this PhD thesis were to determine adherence to treatment and to investigate predictors for and prevalence rates of...... non-adherence to maintenance medical treatment among women with CD prior to, during, and after pregnancy; to assess pregnancy outcomes among women with CD, taking medical treatment, smoking status, and disease activity into account; to assess breastfeeding rates and the impact of breastfeeding on the......, the vast majority (95%) of CD women were in remission. The children's birth weight did not differ in relation to maternal medical treatment, but mean birth weight in children of smokers in medical treatment was 274 g lower than that of children of non-smokers in medical treatment. In our relatively...

  16. [Vegetarian diets of breastfeeding women in the light of dietary recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strucińska, Małgorzata

    2002-01-01

    The literature review concerning selected nutritional and health aspects of applying different vegetarian diets by breastfeeding women was presented. The only two types of vegetarian diets: lactoovo- and semi-vegetarian, when properly composed, seem to be relatively safe for mother and her child. The most threatening vegetarian diets for lactating women are those including exclusively products of plant origin (so called restricted diets: vegan or macrobiotic). The results of studies performed on mothers consuming these vegetarian diets showed deficiencies in: vitamin B12 and vitamin D (in mothers and their infants) and calcium (only in lactating women). The low intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was also characteristic in this group. Additionally the endogenous metabolism of DHA is inhibited due to high proportion of linoleic vs. linolenic acid intake. It considered that lactating women on vegetarian diet should have a greater nutritional knowledge in order to avoid deficiencies which would adversely affect mother's and her child's health. PMID:12053485

  17. Fathers Can Support Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is part of a continual effort to increase breastfeeding initiation and duration rates among African American women by involving fathers in breastfeeding promotion efforts. Target Audience: African American fathers. Also ...

  18. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation ... Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Making the decision to breastfeed Secrets to ...

  19. The effect of a culture-specific education program to promote breastfeeding among Vietnamese women in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, J C

    1994-08-01

    The rate of breastfeeding among immigrant Vietnamese women in Western countries is low compared to those in Vietnam. To counteract this trend, a language and culture specific education program was developed. An experimental design was used to test the effectiveness of this program. The sample consisted of 182 prenatal Vietnamese women. Data collection included questionnaires and interviews. Results suggested that the education program had significant effects on knowledge, attitudes, planned and actual behaviour towards breastfeeding. However, the effect did not sustain until 6 months postpartum. Implications for nursing practice and further research are discussed. PMID:7928125

  20. Maternal bodies and medicines: a commentary on risk and decision-making of pregnant and breastfeeding women and health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald Karalyn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The perceived risk/benefit balance of prescribed and over-the-counter (OTC medicine, as well as complementary therapies, will significantly impact on an individual’s decision-making to use medicine. For women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, this weighing of risks and benefits becomes immensely more complex because they are considering the effect on two bodies rather than one. Indeed the balance may lie in opposite directions for the mother and baby/fetus. The aim of this paper is to generate a discussion that focuses on the complexity around risk, responsibility and decision-making of medicine use by pregnant and breastfeeding women. We will also consider the competing discourses that pregnant and breastfeeding women encounter when making decisions about medicine. Discussion Women rely not only on biomedical information and the expert knowledge of their health care professionals but on their own experiences and cultural understandings as well. When making decisions about medicines, pregnant and breastfeeding women are influenced by their families, partners and their cultural societal norms and expectations. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are influenced by a number of competing discourses. “Good” mothers should manage and avoid any risks, thereby protecting their babies from harm and put their children’s needs before their own – they should not allow toxins to enter the body. On the other hand, “responsible” women take and act on medical advice – they should take the medicine as directed by their health professional. This is the inherent conflict in medicine use for maternal bodies. Summary The increased complexity involved when one body’s actions impact the body of another – as in the pregnant and lactating body – has received little acknowledgment. We consider possibilities for future research and methodologies. We argue that considering the complexity of issues for maternal bodies can improve our

  1. Avoiding risk at what cost? Putting use of medicines for breastfeeding women into perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breastfeeding women often need to take medicines, and therefore health professionals need to consider the effects of medication on lactation and the breastfed infant, and any associated risks. This commentary discusses the tragic case of a young woman with a history of mental illness who committed suicide in the postpartum period. She was determined to be a 'good mother' and breastfeed, and to avoid any potential adverse effects of medication on her breastfed infant. The final outcome was fatal for both mother and child. We argue that if women require medication during lactation, all risks need to be considered – the risk of not treating the maternal medical condition may greatly outweigh the potential risk to the breastfed infant.

  2. A study of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices with emphasis on misconceptions amongst the women with under two year children in rural area

    OpenAIRE

    Rahalkar Ashwinee A, Phalke Deepak B, Phalke Vaishali D

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding is one of the most important determinants of child survival, birth spacing, and the prevention of childhood infections. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding depend on its initiation, duration, and the age at which the breastfed child is weaned. The complementary feeding pattern also plays a very important role in the growth and development of the child. Aims & objectives: To study breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices adopted by women of Loni area. To study the s...

  3. Sexual Function in Breastfeeding Women in Family Health Centers of Tabriz, Iran, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamileh Malakoti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:There are conflicting evidences about the effects of breastfeeding on postpartum maternal sexual functioning. With regard to the methodological weaknesses of previous studies and cultural differences affecting their issue, the present study aims to evaluate sexual functions of lactating women and its components. Methods:This is a descriptive study in which 200 eligible postpartum women were selected from eight health centers of Tabriz (25 from each center. The eligible women were called and invited to attend the health center. The evaluation was performed using the Persian version of normalized questionnaire of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. The participants’ sexual function scores above 28 were considered desirable (regarding the cut-off point mentioned in the Persian version of the questionnaire. Results:Almost all of the lactating women suffered from sexual dysfunctions. Regarding the sexual performance’s components the lowest scores were for libido and sexual arousal. Conclusion:According to the findings of the studies, in order to prevent the effects of sexual dysfunction on lactating women and their family members it is necessary to develop sexual health programs in health centers.

  4. Effects of lactation on bone mineral content in healthy postpartum women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone mineral contents were estimated by dual photon absorptiometry of the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and single photon absorptiometry of the mid- and distal radius in 19 healthy women on their second postpartum day and at 6 months postpartum. All bone mineral measurements were performed by one technician, and the single and dual photon absorptiometry results were read by one observer. Daily oral calcium intakes were estimated from dietary histories obtained by a dietitian. Twelve women who breast-fed exclusively throughout the first 6 months postpartum were compared with seven formula-feeding women who did not breast-feed or who breast-fed for less than 3 months postpartum. No differences were found in age, parity, height, weight, or daily calcium intake between the breast- and formula-feeding women. Breast-feeding women had a significant decrease (averaging 6.5%) in bone mineral of the lumbar spine at 6 months postpartum as compared with 2 days postpartum (1.14 +/- 0.03 versus 1.22 +/- 0.03 g/cm2, mean +/- SEM; P less than .001), whereas no significant change occurred in the formula-feeding women at 6 months (1.24 +/- 0.03 versus 1.26 +/- 0.04 g/cm2). At 6 months postpartum, the breast-feeding women had a significantly lower mean bone mineral content of the lumbar spine than did formula-feeding women (P less than .05). No significant changes were noted in bone mineral content of the mid- or distal radius in either group of women during the period of evaluation. We conclude that during the first 6 months postpartum, breast-feeding is associated with bone mineral loss from the lumbar spine, but not from the mid- or distal radius

  5. Postpartum weight retention and breastfeeding among obese women from the randomized controlled Lifestyle in Pregnancy (LiP) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Christina Anne; Jensen, Dorte Møller; Ovesen, Per;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of lifestyle intervention in pregnancy on weight retention 6 months postpartum among obese women from the "Lifestyle in Pregnancy" (LiP) study, and to determine associations between breastfeeding with postpartum maternal weight. DESIGN: Six months postpartum follow...... breastfeeding mothers was higher among women with postpartum weight retention ≤5 kg compared with those with weight retention > 5 kg (94% vs. 85%, p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: We could not detect sustained weight control at 6 months postpartum despite a lower gestational weight gain for obese women during pregnancy...... up after a randomized controlled intervention trial. SETTING: Two university hospitals in Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 360 women with pregestational body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) . METHODS: The intervention involved lifestyle changes (diet and exercise) during pregnancy. The control group received...

  6. Evaluation of a breastfeeding peer support program for fathers of Hispanic participants in a Texas special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2002, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children(WIC) introduced an innovative approach for breastfeeding mothers and their spouses. The Pilot Peer Dad Program targeted fathers to promote and support their spouse in breastfeeding. This study evaluated duration of...

  7. Breastfeeding and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Esterik, P

    1994-12-01

    Breastfeeding empowers women and contributes to gender equality; therefore, it is an important feminist, human rights, and women's issue. Although seldom addressed as a feminist issue, breastfeeding is paradigmatically one because it requires rethinking basic issues such as the sexual division of labor, the fit between women's productive and reproductive lives, and the role of physiological processes in defining gender ideology. The conceptual problems which emerge in the fit between breastfeeding promotion and feminist theory include the place of motherhood; technology versus liberation; fear of biological determinism; breasts and sexuality; locating guilt; personal choice; romanticizing breastfeeding; and conceptualizing women's work. Feminist theorists who take up breastfeeding as an issue and medical researchers who address questions raised by feminist theory have the occasion to produce a non-dualistic feminist problematic that would draw together a wide range of theories and practices that go beyond breastfeeding and mothering. The failure to develop this analysis could have serious consequences. PMID:7713306

  8. Sexual functioning and commitment to their current relationship among breastfeeding and regularly cycling women in Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escasa-Dorne, Michelle J

    2015-03-01

    This project investigates the relationship between lactation and female sexual functioning and relationship commitment among partnered women in urban Manila. Previous literature suggests that the time after giving birth is often rife with lower sexual functioning and relationship dissatisfaction. Given the important role of caregiving by multiple individuals in humans, the current cross-sectional study suggests that female sexuality may decline immediately after giving birth but then may increase afterwards. Non-cycling, breastfeeding (n = 86); cycling, breastfeeding (n = 48); and nulliparous, regularly cycling (n = 105) women were recruited from neighborhood health centers in Manila to complete questionnaires that assessed sexual functioning and relationship satisfaction, along with demographic variables. Cycling, breastfeeding women report the highest sexual functioning scores and commitment scores. Females undergoing life history trade-offs between mating effort and parenting effort during the postpartum phase may employ a strategy in which they continue investment both in their offspring and in a romantic relationship. Variations in self-reported sexual functioning, level of commitment in a relationship, and love toward her current partner may indicate that breastfeeding women engage in sexual activities as part of a relationship maintenance strategy. Cultural and life history factors will serve as a framework for the findings. The current findings suggest women in Manila may experience a post-birth increase in sexual functioning that may be higher than pre-pregnancy levels. Future studies should incorporate a longitudinal component or a memory recall on pre-pregnancy and post-birth sexual functioning levels. PMID:25847056

  9. Intention or Experience? Predictors of Continued Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGirolamo, Ann; Thompson, Nancy; Martorell, Reynaldo; Fein, Sara; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    Despite the known benefits of breastfeeding, many women do not breastfeed their infants or stop breastfeeding early. This study examines the effects of prenatal intention and initial breastfeeding experiences on breast-feeding initiation and duration among 1,665 U.S. women completing questionnaires on infant feeding practices. Outcomes included no…

  10. Integrating group counseling, cell phone messaging, and participant-generated songs and dramas into a microcredit program increases Nigerian women's adherence to international breastfeeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2014-07-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5-7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely

  11. Cultural beliefs that may discourage breastfeeding among Lebanese women: a qualitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wick Livia; El Zein Lama; Osman Hibah

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Although the health benefits of breastfeeding are well established, early introduction of formula remains a common practice. Cultural beliefs and practices can have an important impact on breastfeeding. This paper describes some common beliefs that may discourage breastfeeding in Lebanon. Methods Participants were healthy first-time mothers recruited from hospitals throughout Lebanon to participate in a study on usage patterns of a telephone hotline for postpartum support....

  12. Advice given to women in Argentina about breast-feeding and the use of alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, M. Yanina; Mennella, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the types of advice that women in Argentina received from health professionals, family members, and friends about drinking alcoholic beverages and about alcohol usage during pregnancy and lactation. Methods In December 2001 and December 2002, structured interviews were conducted with a total of 167 women who were then breast-feeding or who had recently breast-fed their infant. Mothers were asked about the type of advice, if any, that they had received about the use of alcohol from health professionals and from family members and friends. Also included were questions related to the usage of the traditional Argentine beverage “mate” (an infusion widely consumed in South America that is prepared from the leaves of the Ilex paraguayensis plant) and the types of advice the women had received about breast-feeding and neonatal care in general. Results Of the 167 women studied, 96.4% of them reported that their physician had advised them to breast-feed their infant. In addition, 93.4% of the women said they had treated their infant’s umbilical cord stump with alcohol. Fewer than half of the women (46.7%) reported that their physician had advised them about drinking alcoholic beverages during pregnancy, and even fewer (25.7%) received such advice during lactation. Family and friends were about equally likely to give advice about the consumption of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy (42.6%) and during lactation (47.9%). However, the type of advice changed, with the family and friends being significantly more likely to encourage drinking when the women were lactating than when they were pregnant (P lactancia. Métodos En diciembre de 2001 y diciembre de 2002 se llevaron a cabo entrevistas estructuradas con un total de 167 mujeres que estaban amamantando o que habían amamantado recientemente. A las madres se les preguntó qué tipo de consejos, en caso de haberlos, les dieron los profesionales de la salud y sus parientes y amistades acerca del

  13. The Bosom Buddy Project: A Breastfeeding Support Group Sponsored by the Indiana Black Breastfeeding Coalition for Black and Minority Women in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Carol A; Hormuth, Laura J; Curtis, Terry J

    2015-11-01

    In 2012, the Indiana Black Breastfeeding Coalition (IBBC) used grant funds to increase participation in the Bosom Buddy Project, an original breastfeeding support group that pairs breastfeeding mothers with trained mentors. Resources for local organizations that support breastfeeding are extremely limited, making it difficult to expand programs and services. This article describes a variety of strategies used by the IBBC to expand programs and services. These activities provide a template for other community-based organizations that wish to provide culturally sensitive breastfeeding support in their community. PMID:25896467

  14. WIC Breastfeeding Policy Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Forrestal; Ronette Briefel; James Mabli

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding promotion and support is a core component of the nutrition services provided by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). The objectives of this study were to describe a census of state and local WIC agencies’ policies and practices to promote breastfeeding; the breastfeeding measures that agencies collect and report; and the data systems used to store and report that information. The study also used paradata to assess the WIC Breastfee...

  15. Breastfeeding and Antidepressants

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Although a large literature supports the benefits of breastfeeding, this review suggests that breastfeeding is less common among postpartum depressed women, even though their infants benefit from the breastfeeding. Depressed mothers, in part, do not breastfeed because of their concern about potentially negative effects of antidepressants on their infants. Although sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxol) concentrations are not detectable in infants’ sera, fluoxetine (Prozac) and citalopram ...

  16. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding d...

  17. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top ... breastfeeding myths Finding support Fitting it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe to It's ...

  18. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top ... breastfeeding myths Finding support Fitting it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe to It's ...

  19. Survey of patient satisfaction with the Breastfeeding Education and Support Services of The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Breastfeeding Education and Support Services (BESS is a unit of The Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia, staffed by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs, providing day/short-stay and an outpatient clinic for mothers and infants with breastfeeding problems. It is important to measure women's experience of visiting the service as part of quality assurance. The aim of this project was to conduct an anonymous postal survey of clients' satisfaction with BESS. Methods An anonymous survey was posted on 16 November 2005 and again on 31 January 2006, to all women who had attended BESS in September 2005. Results The response rate was 60.5% (78/129. Eighty percent (62/78 of respondents attended day-stay, 33% (26/78 attended short-stay and 15% (12/78 attended the outpatient clinic. The percentage of women who responded "strongly agree" to the statement "Overall, I am satisfied with the services" was 49% (35/72 and 50% (6/12 for those who went to day/short-stay and the outpatient clinic respectively. Overall, 56% of all respondents responded that the quality of BESS was "better than expected". The most common breastfeeding problem reported was difficulty attaching the baby to the breast, followed by nipple damage, low milk supply and painful feeding. Conclusion BESS seems to have provided a satisfactory service to most clients. Most respondents were clearly satisfied with the support given by the IBCLCs and have also responded that the staff were professional and knowledgeable in their field of work.

  20. Breastfeeding counsel against cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prameela Kannan Kutty

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The anticancer potential by breastfeeding is not fully tapped in the light of the present knowledge of the subject. Literature indicates that breastmilk has anticancer action but may underestimate its full capacity. The protective spectrum within breastmilk hints on the need for a more comprehensive understanding of it as an anticancer tool. Exclusive breastfeeding could confer protection from carcinogenesis with a greater impact than realised. A literature review was conducted using four electronic databases. Selected areas were extracted after thorough perusal of the articles. The uninitiated would take exclusive breastfeeding seriously if actively counselled as an anticancer tool. Advice on details of the breastfeeding process and holistic information on breastfeeding may endow a greater impact among the skeptics. Counselling the breastfeeding mother on information sometimes not imparted, such as on maternal nutrition, details of the process of breastfeeding, benefits of direct breastfeeding versus milk expression and her psychosocial well being may make a difference in optimising anticancer action that exists in breastmilk. Additionally, its anticancer potential provides a platform to universally improve physical and psychosocial well being of women who breastfeed. Statistics of protection by breastfeeding in some maternal and childhood cancers are evident. “Bio-geno-immuno-nutrition” of breastmilk may shield the mother and infant from carcinogenesis in more ways than appreciated. The molecular basis of mother-to-infant signals and their “energies” need to be researched. Breastfeeding as a modifiable behaviour provides cost effective nutrition with potential for both cancer immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy.

  1. Breastfeeding counsel against cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prameela Kannan Kutty

    2016-01-01

    The anticancer potential by breastfeeding is not fully tapped in the light of the present knowledge of the subject. Literature indicates that breastmilk has anticancer action but may underestimate its full capacity. The protective spectrum within breastmilk hints on the need for a more comprehensive understanding of it as an anticancer tool. Exclusive breastfeeding could confer protection from carcinogenesis with a greater impact than realised. A literature review was conducted using four electronic databases. Selected areas were extracted after thorough perusal of the articles. The uninitiated would take exclusive breastfeeding seriously if actively counselled as an anticancer tool. Advice on details of the breastfeeding process and holistic information on breastfeeding may endow a greater impact among the skeptics. Counselling the breastfeeding mother on information sometimes not imparted, such as on maternal nutrition, details of the process of breast-feeding, benefits of direct breastfeeding versus milk expression and her psychosocial well being may make a difference in optimising anticancer action that exists in breastmilk. Additionally, its anticancer potential provides a platform to universally improve physical and psychosocial well being of women who breastfeed. Statistics of protection by breastfeeding in some maternal and childhood cancers are evident. “Bio-geno-immuno-nutrition” of breastmilk may shield the mother and infant from carcinogenesis in more ways than appreciated. The molecular basis of mother-to-infant signals and their “en-ergies” need to be researched. Breastfeeding as a modifiable behaviour provides cost effective nutrition with potential for both cancer immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy.

  2. A study of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices with emphasis on misconceptions amongst the women with under two year children in rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahalkar Ashwinee A, Phalke Deepak B, Phalke Vaishali D

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is one of the most important determinants of child survival, birth spacing, and the prevention of childhood infections. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding depend on its initiation, duration, and the age at which the breastfed child is weaned. The complementary feeding pattern also plays a very important role in the growth and development of the child. Aims & objectives: To study breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices adopted by women of Loni area. To study the socio-cultural factors influencing breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. Settings and Design: Descriptive cross sectional study Methods and Material: 150 women fulfilling eligibility criteria were taken up for the study for duration of two months. A detailed questionnaire was given to the mothers and results were analysed later on. Statistical analysis used: Chi square test Results: In 4.6% cases prelacteal food was given. Colostrum was given in 90% cases, while in 10% it was not given. Only 50.6% babies were breastfed within 1 hour, Complementary feeding was started after 6 months in 84% babies, before 6 months in 4% and 12% did not know when to start weaning. Majority (58% said no to breastfeeding when mother was ill while 56.5% women had no change in their diet after delivery. Mother’s educational status was associated with proper breastfeeding practices while parity and socioeconomic factors had no significant impact. Conclusions: Most of the women adopted appropriate practices regarding breastfeeding and complementary feeding, but still misconceptions were noted. Thus more awareness should be created regarding this topic.

  3. Maternal bodies and medicines: a commentary on risk and decision-making of pregnant and breastfeeding women and health professionals

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald Karalyn; Amir Lisa H; Davey Mary-Ann

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The perceived risk/benefit balance of prescribed and over-the-counter (OTC) medicine, as well as complementary therapies, will significantly impact on an individual’s decision-making to use medicine. For women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, this weighing of risks and benefits becomes immensely more complex because they are considering the effect on two bodies rather than one. Indeed the balance may lie in opposite directions for the mother and baby/fetus. The aim of th...

  4. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ePublications News About Us ... Only Natural email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural > Overcoming challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges ...

  5. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation ... challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges Dealing with lack of family support Is my baby getting enough ...

  6. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... positions include the side-lying position and the football hold. (See the Breastfeeding holds section for illustrations of these positions.) Some women have a strong milk ejection reflex or let- ...

  7. Efficacy of Low-Level Laser Therapy in Relieving Nipple Pain in Breastfeeding Women: A Triple-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca, Kelly Pereira; Marcacine, Karla Oliveira; Gamba, Mônica Antar; Corrêa, Luciana; Aranha, Ana Cecília Corrêa; Abrão, Ana Cristina Freitas de Vilhena

    2016-08-01

    Pain accruing from nipple lesions caused by inadequate latching by the baby is a common complaint among breastfeeding women and an important obstacle to successful breastfeeding. Nipple pain occurs during the first days after delivery and is considered one of the main causes for early weaning. To investigate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy as a treatment for nipple pain due to breastfeeding. A triple-blind, randomized, clinical study. A university-affiliated hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Fifty-nine women with nipple lesions at the time of their admission. Thirty women (intervention group) received three sessions of laser therapy (InGaAIP laser, 660 nanometer, 40 milliwatts of power, 5 Joules per square centimeter of energy density for 5 seconds each, total energy = 0.6 Joules) in the region of the nipples at three different points in time (0 hour, 24 hours, and 48 hours after diagnosis of nipple lesion). Twenty-nine women with similar clinical conditions were randomly assigned to the control group. Self-reported pain was recorded before and after laser therapy using a visual analogue scale. The intervention group experienced a decrease of 2.0 centimeters in intensity of pain (p = .016) 24 hours after the first intervention and also presented lower levels of pain compared with the control group. Low-level laser therapy was considered effective for treating nipple lesions in breastfeeding women with pain, providing relief and prolonging exclusive breastfeeding. More clinical trials with different laser dosimetry and parameters are necessary to optimize laser therapy protocols for breastfeeding women. PMID:27363734

  8. Association of Bisphenol A Exposure with Breastfeeding and Perceived Insufficient Milk Supply in Mexican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Nicole; Peterson, Karen E; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Ferguson, Kelly K; Sánchez, Brisa N; Cantoral, Alejandra; Meeker, John D; Téllez-Rojo, Maria M; Pawlowski, Carolyn M; Ettinger, Adrienne S

    2016-08-01

    Introduction Estrogen inhibits lactation and bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production environmental estrogen. We hypothesize an inhibitory effect of BPA on lactation and aim to analyze the association between third trimester pregnancy urinary BPA and breastfeeding rates 1 month postpartum. Methods Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of breastfeeding and perceived insufficient milk supply (PIM) in relation to maternal peripartum urinary BPA concentrations were calculated in 216 mothers. Results 97.2 % of mothers in the lowest BPA tertile were breastfeeding at 1 month postpartum, compared to 89.9 % in highest (p = 0.01). Adjusted ORs (95 % CI) for not breastfeeding at 1 month were 1.9 (0.3, 10.7) and 4.3 (0.8, 21.6) for second and third BPA tertiles, respectively, compared to the lowest (p = 0.06, trend). 4.2 % reported PIM in the lowest BPA tertile, compared to 8.7 % in the highest (p = 0.03). Adjusted ORs (95 % CI) for PIM were 1.8 (0.4, 7.7) and 2.2 (0.5, 9.5), for the second and third BPA tertiles, respectively, compared to the lowest (p = 0.29, trend). Discussion These results suggest an association between maternal BPA exposure and decreased breastfeeding. PMID:27150949

  9. Maternal perceptions of partner support during breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Mannion, Cynthia A; Hobbs, Amy J; Sheila W McDonald; Tough, Suzanne C

    2013-01-01

    Background Many women find breastfeeding challenging to sustain beyond the first three postpartum months. Women rely on a variety of resources to aid and encourage breastfeeding, including ‘partner support’. Women’s perception of partner support during breastfeeding may influence maternal satisfaction and confidence but it remains understudied. We asked women about their perceptions of partner support during breastfeeding and measured the effect on maternal confidence, commitment, and satisfa...

  10. Factors influencing the duration of exclusive breastfeeding in a group of Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikaşifoğlu, M; Erginoz, E; Gur, E T; Baltas, Z; Beker, B; Arvas, A

    2001-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of demographic characteristics, hospital practices, maternal psychosocial factors, and knowledge about infant feeding and breast milk on duration of breastfeeding. The mothers of 91 healthy, term infants delivered at a university hospital between June 1998 and December 1998, and first seen in the well-child unit within 10 days of delivery, participated in the study. Forty-nine (54%) infants were exclusively breastfed at 4 months of age. Cox regression analysis showed a negative association between formula supplementation during the hospital stay and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. The median age for starting non-breast milk liquids was 1 month for those who received formula in the hospital and 3 months for those who did not (P = .001). The hospital practices were more predictive of the duration of exclusive breastfeeding in this study group than mothers' knowledge of infant feeding or psychosocial factors. Thus, hospital practices should be reevaluated. PMID:11847987

  11. Scintigraphic examinations during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women: a survey of nuclear medicine physician's attitudes in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The present survey was undertaken to approach the practices of Belgian nuclear medicine physicians towards performing diagnostic tests during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire (see infra) was sent to all (201) Belgian Nuclear Physicians. Results: 78 answers (39 %) were received. During pregnancy, do you accept to perform Tc-99m lung perfusion scan ? First 3 months pregnancy: Yes, using standard protocol: 16%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 51%; No: 33%. After 3 months pregnancy: Yes, using standard protocol: 24% ; Yes, using a reduced dose: 52% ; No: 24%. Tc-99m ventilation scan? First 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 10%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 11%; No: 79%. After 3 months : Yes, using standard protocol: 15%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 19%; No: 66%. Other diagnostic tests using Tc-99m? First 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 4%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 12%; No: 84%. After 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 4% ; Yes, using a reduced dose: 17%; No: 79%. Other diagnostic tests using other radioisotopes? First 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 3%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 0%; No: 97%. After 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 3% ; Yes, using a reduced dose: 0%; No: 97%. In breast-feeding women do you accept to perform Tc-99m diagnostic tests? No: 11%. Yes, using standard protocol: 0%. Yes, provided a breast-feeding break: 89%. In those situations is an informed consent necessary? Yes: 42% ; No: 58%. Conclusion: These results are quite similar to those obtained in other countries; given the diversity of the opinions expressed, practical guidelines defining a standardized attitude would be helpful

  12. Trio of terror (pregnancy, menstruation, and breastfeeding): an existential function of literal self-objectification among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kasey Lynn; Goldenberg, Jamie L; Heflick, Nathan A

    2014-07-01

    Research and theorizing suggest that objectification entails perceiving a person not as a human being but, quite literally, as an object. However, the motive to regard the self as an object is not well understood. The current research tested the hypothesis that literal self-objectification can serve a terror management function. From this perspective, the female body poses a unique existential threat on account of its role in reproduction, and regarding the self as an object is posited to shield women from this threat because objects, in contrast to humans, are not mortal. Across 5 studies, 3 operationalizations of literal self-objectification were employed (a denial of essentially human traits to the self, overlap in the explicit assignment of traits to the self and objects, and implicit associations between self and objects using an implicit association test) in response to 3 aspects of women's bodies involved in reproduction (pregnancy, menstruation, and breastfeeding). In each study, priming mortality led women (but not men, included in Studies 1, 3, 4, and 5) to literally self-objectify in conditions where women's reproductive features were salient. In addition, literal self-objectification was found to mediate subsequent responsiveness to death-related stimuli (Study 4). Together, these findings are the first to demonstrate a direct link between mortality salience, women's role in reproduction, and their self-objectification, supporting an existential function of self-objectification in women. PMID:24956319

  13. Breastfeeding Practices Among First-Time Mothers and Across Multiple Pregnancies

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherland, Tori; Pierce, Christopher B.; Blomquist, Joan L.; Handa, Victoria L.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate maternal characteristics associated with breastfeeding initiation and success. Women enrolled in the Mothers Outcomes After Delivery study reported breastfeeding practices 5–10 years after a first delivery. Women were classified as successful breastfeeding initiators, unsuccessful initiators, or non-initiators. For the first birth, demographic and obstetrical characteristics were compared across these three breastfeeding groups. For multiparous women, agreement in breastfeeding...

  14. Breastfeeding Outcome Comparison by Parity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Eric W.; Beiler, Jessica S.; Rose, Chelsea M.; Paul, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Anecdotally, breastfeeding experiences differ between those who have previously nursed an infant and those who are primiparous. This analysis contrasted breastfeeding outcomes between primiparous women and those with previous experience spanning from maternity stay through 6 months postpartum. Study Design: A secondary analysis was conducted of data collected in a randomized, controlled trial with mothers and “well” newborns ≥34 weeks of gestation comparing two post–hospital discharge care models. Mothers completed an in-person interview during the postpartum stay and phone surveys at 2 weeks, 2 months, and 6 months where questionnaires related to breastfeeding were completed. All participants intended to breastfeed. Chi-squared and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to test for differences between parity groups. Breastfeeding duration by parity group was compared using a Kaplan–Meier plot and a logrank test. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the relationship between breastfeeding duration and parity after adjusting for covariates. Results: Among 1,099 mothers available for analysis, 542 (49%) were primiparous. Multiparous mothers had a longer intended breastfeeding duration (median, 9 vs. 6 months; phazard of stopping breastfeeding (hazard ratio=0.66; p=0.03) than primiparous mothers. Conclusions: Women who have breastfed previously have significantly different breastfeeding experiences than primiparous women. Pre- and postdelivery breastfeeding support should differentially target primiparous women to improve breastfeeding outcomes. PMID:25549051

  15. Initiation of breastfeeding within 120 minutes after birth is associated with breastfeeding at four months among Japanese women: A self-administered questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moji Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportion of mothers in Japan who breastfeed exclusively has been low since the 1970s. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the time of first breastfeed after birth and the proportion of mothers fully breastfeeding up to four months postpartum. Methods A survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. The participants were 318 mothers who participated in a physical examination of their four month old infants in Nagasaki City, Japan in 2003. Results The time of first breastfeeding up to 120 minutes was significantly associated with the proportion of mothers fully breastfeeding during their stay in the clinic/hospital (p = 0.006, at one month (p = 0.004 and at four months after birth (p = 0.003. There was no significant difference in the proportion of full breastfeeding in mothers who first breastfed between the period of less 30 minutes after birth and that of between 31 and 120 minutes after birth. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the proportion of mothers who continued full breastfeeding at four months was significantly higher in those who breastfed their baby within 120 minutes compared with more than 120 minutes (OR 2.5, p = 0.01, but was not significantly different in those who breastfed within 30 minutes compared with more than 30 minutes (OR 1.8, p = 0.06. Early breastfeeding was affected by caesarean section, premature delivery and severe bleeding during delivery. Conclusion Commencement of early breastfeeding was associated with the proportion of mothers who fully breastfed their infants up to four months. Early breastfeeding, especially within two hours, is recommended for child and maternal health.

  16. Breastfeeding and its impact on daily life in women with type 1 diabetes during the first six months after childbirth: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Marie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For mothers with diabetes, breastfeeding is a great challenge due to their struggle with potentially unstable blood glucose levels. This paper explores breastfeeding attitudes and impact of breastfeeding on the daily life of mothers with type 1 diabetes compared with non-diabetic mothers. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study of 108 mothers with type 1 diabetes and a reference group of 104 mothers in the west of Sweden. Data were collected through medical records and structured telephone interviews at 2 and 6 months after childbirth. Results Women in both the diabetes group and the reference group had high levels of confidence (84% and 93% respectively in their breastfeeding capacity before childbirth, and 90% assessed breastfeeding as a positive and an important experience during the six months of follow-up. About 80% assessed breastfeeding as influencing daily life ‘very much’ or ‘quite a lot’ at 2 months as did 60% at 6 months, with no difference between the groups. In mothers with diabetes, the impact of breastfeeding on the priority of other duties decreased over time, as did feelings of time pressure and negative effects on patterns of sleep. Compared to the reference group, mothers with diabetes at 6 months remained more affected by disruptions in daily life and they felt more worried about their health both at 2 and 6 months after childbirth. For the reference group mothers’ sensitivity to unexpected disruptions in daily routines decreased between 2 and 6 months after childbirth, and they expressed a greater need to organize their time than mothers with diabetes. Conclusion Mothers with diabetes type 1 express more worry for own health and are more sensitive to distruptions. To balance their everyday life and to reduce the risk of stress and illhealth they are therefor, compared to other mothers, likely to need additional professional and peer support.

  17. Evaluation of breastfeeding promotion, support, and knowledge of benefits on breastfeeding outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kornides, Melanie; Kitsantas, Panagiota

    2013-01-01

    We examined how prenatal exposure to breastfeeding information from various media sources, maternal knowledge of benefits, family and clinician support, and peer practices influence breastfeeding outcomes in early infancy. Initiation of breastfeeding, any breastfeeding at two months, and exclusivity of breastfeeding at two months were examined in a cohort of US women using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II. Descriptive statistics, chi-square analyses and logistic regression were...

  18. The prevalence and determinants of breast-feeding initiation and duration in a sample of women in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2010-06-01

    To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers.

  19. Breastfeeding the preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Corvaglia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its peculiar nutritional and non-nutritional contents, which include long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids (LC-PUFA, prebiotics, immunological factors, hormones and growth factors, breast milk shows significant advantages over infant formulas in nourishing preterm infants. Better neurocognitive outcomes, which are reported to persist far beyond the early childhood, have been largely observed in breastfed preterm infants; a role of LC-PUFA in promoting neural and retinal development is assumed. As far as the gastrointestinal tract is concerned, several evidences have reported a dose-related reduction in NEC incidence among preterm infants fed on human milk. Moreover, the higher amount of immunological factors as secretory IgA within preterm breast milk might play a remarkable role in reducing the overall infections. Despite breastfeeding in preterm infants is generally linked with lowered growth rates which might potentially affect neurocognitive outcomes, the beneficial effects of human milk on neurodevelopment prevail. Fortified human milk might better fulfill the particular nutritional needs of preterm infants. However, as breast milk fortification is difficult to carry out after the achievement of full oral feeding, some concerns on the nutritional adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding during hospitalization as well as after discharge have been raised. Finally, breastfeeding also entails maternal psychological beneficial effects, as promoting the motherhood process and the mother-child relationship, which could be undermined in those women experiencing preterm delivery. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  20. Characteristics of overweight and obesity at age two and the association with breastfeeding in Hawai'i Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Johanna; Hayes, Donald; Chock, Linda

    2014-12-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with many adverse health effects during childhood and is linked to an increased risk for obesity in adulthood. The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics of early childhood overweight and obesity and assess the impact of breastfeeding. Data from Hawai'i's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) were analyzed for children 2 years of age born between 2005 and 2009 and their mothers. Childhood overweight and obesity was examined using a log-binomial regression model to estimate prevalence ratios. In the sample population, 12.5 % of children were overweight and 8.5 % of children were obese. Significant differences in childhood overweight and obesity were seen between breastfeeding duration and other socio-demographic groups. Children who were breastfed for 6 months or more had a lower risk of childhood obesity at age two compared to those who were never breastfed (APR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.69-0.91) with adjustment for child race/ethnicity, maternal age, trimester of prenatal care entry, maternal smoking status, and child birth weight. The prevalence of early childhood overweight and obesity is associated with shorter durations of breastfeeding. Early and continued breastfeeding support and education for mothers in the WIC program that improves duration of breastfeeding may help reduce the risk of early childhood obesity. PMID:24170508

  1. Online Continuing Education for Expanding Clinicians' Roles in Breastfeeding Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Roger A; Colchamiro, Rachel; Tolan, Ellen; Browne, Susan; Foley, Mary; Jenkins, Lucia; Mainello, Kristen; Vallu, Rohith; Hanley, Lauren E; Boisvert, Mary Ellen; Forgit, Julie; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Nordstrom, Christina

    2015-11-01

    Lack of health professional support is an important variable affecting mothers' achievement of breastfeeding goals. Online continuing education is a recognized pathway for disseminating content for improving clinicians' knowledge and supporting efforts to change practices. At the time we developed our project, free, accredited continuing education for physicians related to breastfeeding management that could be easily accessed using portable devices (via tablets/smartphones) was not available. Such resources were in demand, especially for facilities pursuing designation through the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. We assembled a government, academic, health care provider, and professional society partnership to create such a tutorial that would address the diverse content needed for supporting breastfeeding mothers postdischarge in the United States. Our 1.5-hour-long continuing medical and nursing education was completed by 1606 clinicians (1172 nurses [73%] and 434 physicians [27%]) within 1 year. More than 90% of nurses and over 98% of physicians said the tutorial achieved its 7 learning objectives related to breastfeeding physiology, broader factors in infant feeding decisions and practices, the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statement, and breastfeeding management/troubleshooting. Feedback received from the tutorial led to the creation of a second tutorial consisting of another 1.5 hours of continuing medical and nursing education related to breast examination and assessment prior to delivery, provision of anticipatory guidance to pregnant women interested in breastfeeding, maternity care practices that influence breastfeeding outcomes, breastfeeding preterm infants, breastfeeding's role in helping address disparities, and dispelling common myths. The tutorials contribute to achievement of 8 Healthy People 2020 Maternal, Infant and Child Health objectives. PMID:26013061

  2. Breastfeeding successfully

    OpenAIRE

    Malta. Health Promotion & Disease Prevention Directorate; Malta. Breastfeeding Working Group

    2012-01-01

    This leaflet issued by the Health Promotion & Disease Directorate and the Breastfeeding Working Group provides a better understanding of the breast, milk production as well as tips on successful breastfeeding.

  3. Maternal Vitamin D Status: Effect on Milk Vitamin D Content and Vitamin D Status of Breastfeeding Infants123

    OpenAIRE

    Dawodu, Adekunle; Tsang, Reginald C.

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing reports of rickets and vitamin D deficiency worldwide. Breastfeeding without adequate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation are the major risk factors. In view of the drive to promote and increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding, the relationship among maternal vitamin D status, vitamin D concentration of human milk, and hence vitamin D status of breastfeeding infants deserves reassessment. This review provides current information on the interrelationship be...

  4. International Breastfeeding Journal: Introducing a new journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract International Breastfeeding Journal is a new open access peer-reviewed journal with a multidisciplinary focus. The aim of International Breastfeeding Journal is to contribute to understanding all aspects of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is recognized as an important public health issue with enormous social and economic implications. In order to help women breastfeed successfully there is a need to understand both the physiology of lactation and the social and cultural context within which breastfeeding occurs. International Breastfeeding Journal invites manuscripts from around the world, which address all of these aspects, including the impediments to breastfeeding, the health effects of not breastfeeding for infants and their mothers, and the management of breastfeeding problems.

  5. Do Maternal Quality of Life and Breastfeeding Difficulties Influence the Continuation of Exclusive Breastfeeding?

    OpenAIRE

    Forough Mortazavi; Seyed Abbas Mousavi; Reza Chaman; Ahmad Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study was conducted to determine whether maternal quality of life (QOL) and breastfeeding difficulties influence the continuation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Methods. In a survey, 358 consecutive pregnant women filled out a quality of life questionnaire in the third trimester of pregnancy and the breastfeeding experience scale at 4 weeks postpartum. We assessed breastfeeding practices every month up to 6 months postpartum. Results. Only 11.8% of women continued EBF at s...

  6. Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms Page Content Article Body A growing number of adoptive mothers are interested in breastfeeding their babies through induced lactation. Prescription Medications No ...

  7. Supporting the Breast-feeding Dyad

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Donelda

    1986-01-01

    Although there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the last decade, 50% of women discontinue exclusive breast-feeding by the third month postpartum. Practices known to interfere with breast-feeding are often begun in hospital and continued at home. The physiology of lactation, the need for interaction between mother and infant during breast-feeding, and research findings indicate that scheduled feeds, feeds of limited duration, supplementation, and separation of mothers and infants int...

  8. International Breastfeeding Journal: Introducing a new journal

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Lisa H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract International Breastfeeding Journal is a new open access peer-reviewed journal with a multidisciplinary focus. The aim of International Breastfeeding Journal is to contribute to understanding all aspects of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is recognized as an important public health issue with enormous social and economic implications. In order to help women breastfeed successfully there is a need to understand both the physiology of lactation and the social and cultural context within w...

  9. Aleitamento materno exclusivo entre trabalhadoras com creche no local de trabalho Exclusive breastfeeding among working women with free daycare available at workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Duarte Osis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os fatores relacionados à decisão das mulheres em amamentar e a duração planejada e, de fato observada, do aleitamento exclusivo entre trabalhadoras que dispõem de creche na empresa. MÉTODOS: Estudo qualitativo no qual se comparou um grupo de 15 trabalhadoras cujos bebês estavam sendo alimentados apenas com leite materno quando começaram a freqüentar a creche da empresa com outro similar que incluía mulheres cujos bebês que, ao ingressar, já estavam recebendo, além do leite materno, outros alimentos. Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas e grupos focais. RESULTADOS: Evidenciaram-se como fatores relacionados à decisão de iniciar a amamentação e mantê-la ao retornar ao trabalho: o desejo de amamentar, embasado no valor que as mulheres dos dois grupos atribuíam ao aleitamento materno, bem como seus maridos e outras pessoas significativas (por exemplo: mãe, irmã, amigas. A duração do aleitamento exclusivo relacionou-se principalmente à orientação do pediatra que cuidava do bebê, que foi distinta em cada um dos grupos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: A existência da creche no local de trabalho aparece como elemento relevante para a manutenção do aleitamento após a licença de maternidade, especialmente o materno exclusivo. A decisão sobre quanto tempo amamentar de forma exclusiva esteve relacionada às informações recebidas acerca do assunto antes e durante a gestação, e no pós-parto. A diferença entre os dois grupos estudados foi que as mulheres que mantiveram o aleitamento exclusivo por quase seis meses acreditavam que quanto mais tempo dessem somente o leite materno, mais benefícios o bebê teria, enquanto as mulheres do outro grupo acreditavam que três meses de aleitamento exclusivo eram suficientes.OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors related to the decision of exclusive breastfeeding, and the planned and the actual duration among working women with free daycare available at workplace

  10. Cultural Norms in Conflict: Breastfeeding Among Hispanic Immigrants in Rural Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohl, Sarah; Thompson, Beti; Escareño, Monica; Duggan, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Objectives To examine perceptions, experiences, and attitudes towards breastfeeding among Hispanic women living in rural Washington State. Methods Twenty parous Hispanic women of low acculturation, aged 25-48 years and residents in rural Washington State participated in an exploratory, face-to-face interview. Interviews were audio-recorded, translated and transcribed, and analyzed using a thematic content analysis approach. Results Nine emergent themes were grouped into three overarching categories: (1) Breast is best; (2) Hispanic cultural and familial expectations to breastfeed; and (3) Adapting to life in the United States: cultural norms in conflict. Women said they were motivated to breastfeed because of their knowledge and observations of its health benefits for mother and child. They said breastfeeding is ingrained in their Hispanic cultural heritage, and infant feeding choices of female family members were particularly influential in women's own decision to breastfeed. Women said they experienced embarrassment about breastfeeding in the United States and as a result, often chose to initiate formula feeding as a complement so as to avoid feelings of shame. Additionally, they faced economic pressure to work, key barriers for continued breastfeeding among Hispanics in the United States. Conclusions for Practice Knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child and longstanding cultural practices of breastfeeding are not enough to encourage exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months among this rural Hispanic population. Continued support through family-level interventions as well as work place policies that encourage breastfeeding are needed for rural Hispanics to reach optimal breastfeeding rates. PMID:27021068

  11. Prevalence of abuse reported by pregnant women - impact on postpartum depression and breastfeeding: A prospective population-based analysis in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sørbø, Marie Flem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abuse of women is a violation of human rights, and has adverse impact on physical, mental and reproductive health. Yet, there is limited population based knowledge about the effect on postpartum health and breastfeeding. There is also need for increased understanding about the impact of abuse from different perpetrators. Large scale, population based, prospective studies are requested to assess the public health impact of abuse. Aims: To investigate the prevalence o...

  12. Associations of maternal obesity and psychosocial factors with breastfeeding intention, initiation, and duration1234

    OpenAIRE

    Hauff, Laura E; Leonard, Stephanie A.; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psychosocial factors influence breastfeeding outcomes, but little is known about these characteristics and how they influence breastfeeding behavior of obese women, who are a group that experiences poor breastfeeding outcomes.

  13. A descriptive study of Swedish women with symptoms of breast inflammation during lactation and their perceptions of the quality of care given at a breastfeeding clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall- Lord Marie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women's perceptions of quality of care during episodes of breast inflammation have been scantily explored. It was the objective of the present study to describe a cohort of breastfeeding women with inflammatory symptoms of the breast during lactation regarding demographical variables, illness history and symptoms at first contact with a breastfeeding clinic and to explore their physical health status, psychological well-being and perceptions of quality of care received, at a six-week postal follow-up. Methods This is a descriptive study set at a midwife-led breastfeeding clinic in Sweden, which included a cohort of women with 210 episodes of breast inflammation. The women had taken part in a RCT of acupuncture and care interventions and were recruited between 2002 and 2004. Of the total cohort, 176 (84 % responded to a postal questionnaire, six weeks after recovery. Results Of the 154 women for whom body temperature was recorded at the first visit, 80 (52% had fever ranging from 38.1°C to 40.7°C. There was no significant difference between those with favourable outcomes (5 or less contact days and those with less favourable outcomes (6 or more contact days for having fever or no fever at first contact. Thirty-six percent of women had damaged nipples. Significantly more women with a less favourable outcome (6 or more contact days had damaged nipples. Most women recovered well from the episode of breast inflammation and 96% considered their physical health and 97% their psychological well-being, to be good, six weeks after the episode. Those whose illness lasted 6 days or more showed less confidence in the midwives and in the care given to them. Twenty-one (12% women contacted health care services because of recurring symptoms and eight of the 176 responders (4.5% were prescribed antibiotics for these recurring symptoms. A further 46 women (26% of the responders reported recurring symptoms that they managed without recourse

  14. WIC AND BREASTFEEDING RATES: FOOD ASSISTANCE RESEARCH BRIEF

    OpenAIRE

    De Oliveira, Victor

    2003-01-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) promotes breastfeeding as the preferred method for feeding infants. The breastfeeding rates among women participating in WIC, although improving, continue to be significantly lower than the Healthy People 2010 target established by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Servicesthat at least 75 percent of women initiate breastfeeding and at least 50 percent continue breastfeeding for at least 6 months. WIC face...

  15. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ePublications News About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby ...

  16. Markets, breastfeeding and trade in mothers’ milk

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Julie P

    2015-01-01

    This introduction to a special issue on the economics of breastfeeding draws attention to the lack of economic justice for women. Human milk is being bought and sold. Commodifying and marketing human milk and breastfeeding risk reinforcing social and gender economic inequities. Yet there are potential benefits for breastfeeding, and some of the world’s poorest women might profit. How can we improve on the present situation where everyone except the woman who donates her milk benefits? Breastf...

  17. Breastfeeding on demand : Negotiating between contradictory ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Réka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine four women’s experiences of and attitudes towards breastfeeding. In order to achieve this end, the four women were interviewed individually. Breastfeeding is a controversial subject, which is also mirrored by the women and the different advice and recommendation that they meet. Consequently, each woman has to take a stand for what she thinks is suitable regarding her individual situation. Moreover, breastfeeding is embedded in complex historical, political...

  18. Managing the dynamics of shame in breastfeeding support

    OpenAIRE

    Leeming, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding promotion has long grappled with the issue of maternal guilt. However, recently attention has turned instead to shame, as a related but more problematic emotional response. Although women may talk about feeling shamed for breastfeeding in front of others, some also talk about shame-related feelings as a consequence of not breastfeeding or struggling to establish breastfeeding. Research suggests that cultural representations of breastfeeding can be taken up as if they imply th...

  19. Modeling the Impact of Breast-Feeding by HIV-Infected Women on Child Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Sally Jody

    1990-01-01

    Models the survival outcomes of children in developing countries born to women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are breast-fed, bottle-fed, and wet-nursed. Uses decision analysis to assess the relative risk of child mortality from HIV transmission and non-HIV causes associated with different methods of feeding. (FMW)

  20. Parity and breastfeeding are protective against breast cancer in Nigerian women

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, D.; ADEBAMOWO, C. A.; Ogundiran, T O; Akang, E E; O. Campbell; Adenipekun, A; Cummings, S.; Fackenthal, J; Ademuyiwa, F.; Ahsan, H; Olopade, O.I.

    2008-01-01

    As the relation between reproductive factors and breast cancer risk has not been systematically studied in indigenous women of sub-Saharan Africa, we examined this in a case–control study in Nigeria. In-person interviews were conducted using structured questionnaires to collect detailed reproductive history in 819 breast cancer cases and 569 community controls between 1998 and 2006. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared with wom...

  1. Food-based approaches for controlling vitamin A deficiency: studies in breastfeeding women in Indonesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Pee, de, S.

    1996-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies seriously hinder mental and physical development and are still an important cause of death in developing countries. Therefore, goals have been set worldwide for the year 2000: to eliminate deficiencies of vitamin A and iodine and to reduce prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in women by onethird of 1990 levels. Food-based approaches for the control of micronutrient deficiencies, using foods naturally rich in micronutrients and/or fortified foods, are preferable, be...

  2. Socially sensitive lactation: Exploring the social context of breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Leeming, Dawn; Williamson, Iain; Johnson, Sally; Lyttle, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Many women report difficulties with breastfeeding and do not maintain the practice for as long as intended. Although psychologists and other researchers have explored some of the difficulties they experience, fuller exploration of the relational contexts in which breastfeeding takes place is warranted to enable more in-depth analysis of the challenges these pose for breastfeeding women. The present paper is based on qualitative data collected from 22 first-time breastfeeding mothers through...

  3. Process-oriented training in breastfeeding for health professionals decreases women’s experiences of breastfeeding challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Blixt, Ingrid; Mårtensson, Lena B; Ekström, Anette C

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization recommends promoting exclusive breastfeeding for six months. Women often end breastfeeding earlier than planned, however women who continue to breastfeed despite problems often experience good support and counselling from health professionals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a process-oriented training in breastfeeding support counselling for midwives and child health nurses, on women’s satisfaction with breastfeeding counselling, ...

  4. Knowledge and beliefs about breastfeeding are not determinants for successful breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Shareena; Adzan, Nur Azeanny M; Quan, Lee K; Shafie, M Hasli; Rani, Nor Azila; Ramli, Kazzoma G

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional prospective study was performed to assess knowledge and attitude toward breastfeeding among mothers in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia and its influence on their breastfeeding practices. Two hundred thirteen women who had delivered healthy babies at term were enrolled. A structured questionnaire containing demographic data and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were used, followed by a telephone interview after 8 weeks to determine the feeding outcome. Women of Malay ethnicity with higher education level who had received breastfeeding counseling had a significantly more favorable attitude toward breastfeeding. Ethnicity was found to be a significant determinant in the success of breastfeeding, whereas returning to work was a major reason for discontinuing breastfeeding. In ensuring a successful breastfeeding practice, apart from knowledge and attitude, issues surrounding culture and traditions as well as improving deliverance of readily available support should be addressed. PMID:24893127

  5. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Breastfeeding 411 What breastfeeding means to me Staying healthy and eating well Overcoming challenges Addressing breastfeeding myths Finding support Fitting it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe to It's ...

  6. Alternative Hospital Gift Bags and Breastfeeding Exclusivity

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Yeon; Wunderlich, Shahla M.; Kashdan, Rickie

    2013-01-01

    The type of gift bags given to new mothers at the time of discharge from the hospital can influence their confidence in breastfeeding. Most hospitals in the US continue to distribute commercial gift bags containing formula samples despite the reported negative influence of commercial bags on the duration of breastfeeding. This study compared breastfeeding outcomes in women receiving three different kinds of gift bags at discharge. A prospective intervention study was conducted during 2009-201...

  7. Health Professionals’ Attitudes and Beliefs About Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Radzyminski, Sharon; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate how health-care providers perceived their role in breastfeeding and maternal support. Data was collected via interviews of 53 health-care professionals that provided care to breastfeeding women. The emerging themes included (a) understanding the benefits of breastfeeding: often lacking current knowledge, (b) lacking consistency: gaps between knowledge of benefits and actual clinical practice, (c) not knowing how to help: lack of assessment ...

  8. Breastfeeding Education: A Physician and Patient Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Stolzer, J. M.; Syed Afzal Hossain

    2014-01-01

    In the study presented here, Likert scaled surveys derived from the Surgeon General’s Blueprint for Action on Breastfeeding (2000) were mailed to 400 practicing physicians in a Midwestern state to assess medical school breastfeeding education. In addition, 500 surveys were mailed to women in the same Midwestern state who had given birth within the last year to determine what type of breastfeeding information they were receiving from their attending physicians. The purpose of this study is to ...

  9. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  10. Cannabis and Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Aurélia Garry; Virginie Rigourd; Ammar Amirouche; Valérie Fauroux; Sylvie Aubry; Raphaël Serreau

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at ...

  11. High prepregnant body mass index is associated with early termination of full and any breastfeeding in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Michaelsen, Kim F; Sørensen, Thorkild I A;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An association between high prepregnant body mass index (BMI) and early termination of breastfeeding has been observed, but this finding may have depended on the sociocultural context. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine whether this association was stronger with increasing mate...

  12. 孕妇母乳喂养自信心的影响因素调查分析%Analysis of the Influence Factors of Pregnant Women Breastfeeding Confi-dence Surveys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩烨玲

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究母乳喂养对婴儿健康的积极影响,研究母乳喂养自信心的影响因素并提出解决策略,提高母乳喂养率,促进婴儿健康成长.方法 通过对该院接收的50例孕产妇的分组指导和具体策略实施,得出母乳喂养自信心对于这种喂养方式形成的重要性. 结果母乳喂养受到多种因素的影响,临床上应致力于增强孕妇母乳喂养的自信心. 结论 应加强孕妇对母乳喂养的认识,提高其自信心. 通过医院护理、家庭支持等方式促进孕妇自信心的提高.%Objective To study the breastfeeding positive influence on the infant health, studies the influence factors of breastfeeding self-confidence and puts forward the strategy, increase the rate of breastfeeding, promote the healthy growth of babies. Methods Based on data received 50 cases of maternal group guidance and specific strategy implementation, it is concluded that breastfeeding confidence for this way of feeding the importance of form. Results Breastfeeding affected by many factors, self-confidence to enhance clinical pregnant women breastfeeding. Conclusion Pregnant women should be strengthened, the understanding of breastfeeding, improve their self-confidence. Hospital care and family support way im-prove pregnant woman of self-confidence.

  13. Intervention measures of breastfeeding for the women choosing hospitalized delivery%住院分娩母乳喂养干预措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘待霞; 李光源; 牛瑞潘

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨住院分娩者母乳喂养干预措施,提高纯母乳喂养率.方法:将2009年1月~2010年12月平顶山市妇幼保健院妇产科收治的3230例孕妇随机分为两组,干预组1960例孕妇,对照组1270例孕妇.干预组孕产妇由乳腺科医生到产科对其查房并进行干预;所有产妇出院后1月、2月分别进行母乳喂养状况随访调查.结果:干预前于预组孕妇乳房总异常率为9.29%,对照组为7.56%,差异无统计学意义(x2=2.92,P=0.09);干预后干预组和对照组母乳喂养有信心者分别为96.53%和77.64%,差异有统计学意义(X2=283.28,P<0.01);产后2组乳房不适率分别为15.97%和39.76%,差异有统计学意义(x2=230.72,P<0.01);干预组产妇泌乳时间明显短于对照组(P<0.01),泌乳量大于对照组(P<0.01);住院期间纯母乳喂养率干预组为95.20%,对照组为86.54%,产后1个月分别为93.67%和80.47%,产后2个月分别为91.58%和70.47%,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:母乳喂养干预措施可行,能显著提高母乳喂养率.%Objective: To explore the intervention measures of breastfeeding for the women choosing hospitalized delivery, increase the rate of pure breastfeeding Methods: 3 230 hospitalized pregnant women in obstetrical department of the hospital from January 2009 to December 2010 were divided into two groups randomly, 1 960 pregnant women in intervention group and 1 270 pregnant women in control group. The pregnant women in intervention group were intervened by doctors in department of mammary gland; the breastfeeding conditions of all the pregnant women were followed up at one and two months after leaving the hospital. Results: Before intervention, the total abnormal rates of breast in intervention group and control group were 9. 29% and 7. 56%, respectively, there was no significant difference between the two groups (x2 =2. 92, P =0. 09); after intervention, 96. 53% of the pregnant women in intervention group and 77. 64% of the

  14. Estimating the duration of full breastfeeding with survival analysis procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Singh G

    2007-01-01

    Background: Full breastfeeding refers to exclusive breastfeeding, which is the practice of feeding only breast milk excluding water, breast milk substitutes, other liquids and solid foods. `Full breastfeeding for the first six months is the most appropriate infant feeding practice. The duration of full breastfeeding varies considerably among women belonging to different sections of the population. Objective: To estimate the probabilities at various time intervals for the duration of full b...

  15. Maternal and infant health is protected by antiretroviral drug strategies that preserve breastfeeding by HIV-positive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Kuhn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The South African Department of Health is justified in withdrawing support for free infant formula. By so doing, it recognises that any intervention that might detract from breast feeding poses a serious threat to infant survival. Since evidence is now strong that antiretroviral drugs used during lactation prevent transmission of infection from a seropositive mother, strategies that promote breastfeeding can now be recommended for enhancing the health of mothers and infants.

  16. Evidence from peninsular Malaysia of breastfeeding as a contraceptive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S R

    1992-01-01

    This report examines Malaysian women's perceptions of the contraceptive effect of breastfeeding, the determinants of their perceptions, and any effect these perceptions might have on nursing duration and contraceptive use. The report also considers whether women are consciously replacing breastfeeding with modern contraceptive methods. Data from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey are analyzed, and the author concludes that Malaysian women do perceive that breastfeeding has a contraceptive effect, but that this perception is not universal. Ethnicity and desire for a particular family size are the most significant determinants of this perception. Finally, Malaysian women's recognition of the contraceptive effect of nursing does not influence either the duration of their breastfeeding or their adoption of contraception. Malaysian women may not be abandoning breastfeeding to adopt contraception. More probably, breastfeeding declines and contraceptive prevalence increases with modernization. PMID:1293861

  17. Effect of time of initiation and exclusivity of breastfeeding on postpartum weight retention of women who breastfeed at least 12 months

    OpenAIRE

    Hiestand, Kathleen Louise

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is a fundamental health promotion practice. Decades of research have documented mental, physical, and social benefits of breastfeeding for the child and the mother. However, the literature is inconclusive about one issue of great concern to many mothers and health care professionals: is there a significant relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum weight retention? Breastfeeding is a complex practice with many dimensions - timing of onset, duration, ...

  18. Overcoming breastfeeding problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plugged milk ducts; Nipple soreness when breastfeeding; Breastfeeding - overcoming problems; Let-down reflex ... Breastfeeding (nursing) your baby can be a good experience for both the mother and the baby. It ...

  19. Breastfeeding After Cesarean Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Breastfeeding After ...

  20. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work ... Enter email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural > Planning ahead The benefits of breastfeeding Learn the unique ...

  1. Breastfeeding promotion and support strategies based on Paulo Freire's epistemological categories

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Márcia Pereira Linhares; Cleide Maria Pontes; Mônica Maria Osório

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study identified strategies for promoting breastfeeding involving pregnant women, breastfeeding women and actors of the social support network for the breastfeeding process. METHODS: This qualitative study was guided by action research and the focal group technique to collect data. Focal Group 1 consisted of four pregnant and six breastfeeding women; Focal Group 2 consisted of six family members; and Focal Group 3 consisted of thirteen health professionals. The focal groups we...

  2. Impacto do incentivo ao aleitamento materno entre mulheres trabalhadoras formais The impact of breastfeeding promotion in women with formal employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alves Brasileiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigar se programas de incentivo ao aleitamento materno ajudam a prevenir o desmame precoce entre filhos de mães trabalhadoras. Foi realizado um estudo de intervenção não randomizado, por meio de inquérito entre mães que voltaram a trabalhar após o parto, participantes e não-participantes de um programa de incentivo ao aleitamento. A amostra consistiu de 200 mães de filhos com idades entre 6 e 10 meses. Para avaliar fatores associados ao desmame precoce, os resultados foram analisados por meio dos testes estatísticos de qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher e análise de regressão logística múltipla (α = 0,05. Os resultados mostraram que houve diferença estatística nas taxas de aleitamento materno exclusivo (p This study focused on programs to promote breastfeeding in order to prevent early weaning of working mothers' infant children. A non-randomized intervention study was conducted using a survey of mothers who had returned to work after childbirth, including both participants and non-participants in a program to promote breastfeeding. The sample consisted of 200 mothers of infants ranging from 6 to 10 months of age. Factors associated with early weaning were analyzed with the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests and multiple logistic regression (α = 0.05. The results showed statistical differences between the groups in relation to exclusive breastfeeding (p < 0.0001 and breastfeeding (p < 0.0001. There was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0056 between the groups in relation to time between childbirth and return to work. There was no difference between the end of maternity leave and weaning time. Mothers that were unable to nurse their infants during the work shift showed 4.98 times higher odds (95%CI: 1.27-19.61 of weaning them before the fourth month of age.

  3. Evaluation of a Practice-Development Initiative to Improve Breastfeeding Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Margaret; Cox, Julie; Doyle, Bronwyn; Reed, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of breastfeeding for infant, mother, family, and community are well recognized, and increasing breastfeeding rates is considered an important health-promotion strategy. Improving breastfeeding knowledge and practice among individuals caring for breastfeeding women is considered an important aspect of this strategy. The practice-development initiative described in this article aimed to improve hospital-based breastfeeding rates through the implementation of The Ten Steps to Succes...

  4. Factors Related to Breastfeeding Discontinuation Between Hospital Discharge and 2 Weeks Postpartum

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Elizabeth; Kothari, Catherine; Stark, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    Although breastfeeding is known to be beneficial to both mother and infant, many women encounter barriers to breastfeeding, even after successful breastfeeding initiation, which may put them at greater risk for early cessation of breastfeeding. The objectives of this study were to conduct a secondary analysis of data from a longitudinal study of postpartum depression to (a) examine factors related to very early discontinuation of breastfeeding (at 2 weeks postpartum) following hospital discha...

  5. Community based peer counsellors for support of exclusive breastfeeding: experiences from rural Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Ndeezi Grace; Semiyaga Nulu; Soltvedt Åshild; Tumwine James K; Nankunda Jolly; Tylleskär Thorkild

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Universal exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months could reduce infant mortality by 13%. Although 99% women initiate breastfeeding in Uganda, exclusive breastfeeding rates remain low. Although peer counsellors for support of breastfeeding mothers have been found useful in other countries, they have not been used in Uganda. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of training community based peer counsellors to support exclusive breastfeeding in a r...

  6. Maternal trait personality and breastfeeding duration: the importance of confidence and social support

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aim To explore associations among breastfeeding duration, maternal personality and maternal attitudes and experiences of breastfeeding. Background Understanding influences on breastfeeding initiation and duration is critical to increasing breastfeeding rates and supporting new mothers. Maternal characteristics such as self‐efficacy, knowledge and confidence are known to enable women to breastfeed, but little is known about the influence of maternal trait personality on breastfeeding....

  7. Effect of Breastfeeding Education Model Supported Through Home Visits on the Exclusive Breastfeeding Behaviour During the Postpartum Six Month

    OpenAIRE

    ERENEL, Dr. Ayten Şentürk; EROĞLU, Doç.Dr. Kafiye

    2005-01-01

    The study was conducted experimentally, to determine the impact of the breastfeeding education model on exlusive breastfeeding behaviour supported beginning at the hospital and continuing through house visits for a period of six months. The study was conducted at the postpartum care units of two major hospitals in Ankara and at the women's homes. The sampling consisted of a total of 46 women, with 23 in the study group and 23 control group. Breastfeeding education was provided to the wom...

  8. Keeping Abreast of the Multiple Biological, Cultural, and Psycho-Social Barriers to Breastfeeding in Modern Society

    OpenAIRE

    Ping, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding provides good-quality nutrition for babies and can be very beneficial for both mom and baby. However, modern women face many challenges in breastfeeding their babies that can be attributed to today’s ever-evolving cultural and psycho-social underpinnings. These multiple barriers to breastfeeding in today’s society hinder women from developing a good breastfeeding relationship with their babies. The various factors that prohibit initiation and prolonged breastfeeding however can ...

  9. [Knowledge about breastfeeding profits among primiparas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bączyk, Grażyna; Klejewski, Andrzej; Cichocka, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the only way to nourish newborns and toddlers and it enables them to have an optimal health condition and growth. Both a child and a mother draw a lot of profits from breastfeeding. Woman's milk is perfectly balanced as far as quantity and quality is concerned. It has specific generic nourishment that ensures optimal psychological emotional and physical development of a child. Breastfeeding also protects infants from immunological problems and infections. Having the skills and knowledge about breastfeeding is the main factor that enables a smooth process of lactation. All the medical staff and midwives especially are obliged to promote breastfeeding and they should provide information as well as emotional and technical support for mums through the whole period of lactation. The aim of this thesis was to examine the level of knowledge about breastfeeding among first-time mothers. An anonymous survey was used as an analytic tool. The survey was specifically created for this research and it contained 30 questions. Majority of responders (98%) declared a will for breastfeeding. Also majority of women (94%) knew that their milk contains all the needed ingredients for proper development of their young. According to the pregnant women in labor (98%) breastfeeding is a key element in establishing an emotional connection with the child. Most of the responders knew the influence of breastfeeding on child's health. Minority of the questioned women (14%) attended birthing courses. The responders were equipped in knowledge on various levels. It proves the necessity of systematic and planned education for women. The system of lactation counseling should be an integral part of post-labor care in obstetrician clinics. PMID:25799859

  10. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES OF EXCLUSIVE BREAST-FEEDING OF INFANTS AGED 0-6 MONTHS BY URBAN REFUGEE WOMEN IN KIGALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedeon Jino Bahemuka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at determining the knowledge, attitudes and practices of urban refugee women regarding the exclusive breastfeeding (EBF in order to promote its practice among this group of population and increase the number of women who adhere to it for achieving a better development of their children. The specific objectives of the study are to determine the urban refugee women’s knowledge regarding EBF, to identify their source of information about EBF, to assess their attitudes towards EBF and to determine EBF practice rate among these women. This is a descriptive crosssectional study. It involves 90 urban refugee women who had children aged six months to two years during the period of the study. The study was conducted between January 2011 and mid-February of the same year.The main results are the following: 74.4% of the mothers have correct knowledge about the EBF, and the health facilities are reported to at 90 % their main source of the information 71.1% of the mothers have positive attitude towards EBF, but 34.4 % practised EBF up to 6 months. There is no significant correlation between the dependant and the independent variables (p > 0.05.The factors leading the mothers in the study to such low practice of EBF, which are not captured by this study, might be anchored in their cultural or traditional practices. For almost all of the mothers come from the same country: the Democratic Republic of the Congo; mainly from the East of the country.Therefore, as a recommendation, a qualitative research should diligently be conducted in order to dig up the reasons for these women’s failure in practising EBF to six months. In addition, the women’s sensitisation for EBF practice should continue and be enhanced.

  11. Effectiveness of Topical Curcumin for Treatment of Mastitis in Breastfeeding Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raha Afshariani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the efficacy of topical curcumin in reducing breast inflammation in women suffering from lactational mastitis. Methods: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study including 63 breastfeeding women with lactational mastitis were randomly assigned to receive curcumin topical cream, one pump every 8 hours for 3 days (n=32 or topical moisturizer as placebo (n=31. Using an index for severity of breast inflammation, all of the patients had moderate breast inflammation before entering the study. The outcome of treatment was evaluated using the same index at 24, 48 and 72 hours of starting the treatment. Results: There was no significant difference between two study groups regarding the baseline characteristics such as age (p=0.361 and duration of lactation (p=0.551. After 72-hour of therapy, patients in curcumin groups had significantly lower rate of moderate (p=0.019 and mild (p=0.002 mastitis. Patients in curcumin group had significantly lower scores for tension (p<0.001, erythema (p<0.001 and pain (p<0.001, after 72-hour of treatment. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that topical preparation of curcumin successfully decrease the markers of lactational mastitis such as pain, breast tension and erythema within 72 hours of administration without side effects. Thus, topical preparation of curcumin could be safely administered for those suffering from lactational mastitis after excluding infectious etiologies.

  12. Relationship Between Delivery Type and Successful Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motahhareh Golestan

    Full Text Available Objective: Exclusive breastfeeding has a major effect on decreasing the mortality of the children, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this survey was to study the effect of type of delivery on success of exclusive breastfeeding.Methods: In a case-control study, 344 women including two equal groups of 172 cases were chosen based on the type of delivery, vaginal or by cesarean section, and followed for 6 months the way of feeding their infants and the rate of exclusive breastfeeding among them.Findings: The rate of exclusive breastfeeding was significantly lower in the mothers delivered by cesarean section than who delivered vaginally (13.4% vs. 41.8%. The average duration of breastfeeding among the women with vaginal delivery was significantly longer than the cases with cesarean delivery (4.5±1.7 months vs. 4.0±1.5 months. The rate of the onset of breastfeeding in the first hour of delivery was significantly higher among the group with vaginal delivery than the group with cesarean section (82 % vs. 38 % and finally the rate of formula feeding among the infants of the mothers with cesarean section was higher than in the infants of the mothers with vaginal delivery (33% vs. 22%.Conclusion: Cesarean section decreases the exclusive breastfeeding and hence attempts should be made to encourage the mothers for vaginal delivery and breastfeeding as well. Besides, discussing the benefits of breastfeeding for both mother and infant, supports the fact that mothers should be advised to attain executive breastfeeding.

  13. Representation of women's health in general medical versus women's health specialty journals: a content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochon Paula A

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women's health, traditionally defined, emphasises reproductive and maternal conditions without consideration of social contexts. Advocates urge a broader conceptualisation. The medical literature influences the definitions and delivery of women's health care. We compared how women's health was represented in leading general medical (GM versus women's health specialty (WS journals. Methods Original investigations published between January 1 – June 30, 1999 in leading GM (n = 514 and WS (n = 82 journals were compared. Data were collected from 99 GM and 82 WS articles on women's health. Independent reviewers conducted content analyses of sample characteristics, study design, and health topic. Each article was classified as "Traditional" (e.g. menstruation, breast cancer, "Non-traditional" (e.g. abuse, osteoporosis, or "Both." Results Of the GM articles, 53 (53.5% focused solely on a traditional women's health topic; half were reproductive and half female cancers. In contrast, 22 (26.8% WS articles were traditionally focused. A non-traditional topic was the sole focus of 27 (27.3% GM articles versus 34 (41.5% WS articles. One-fifth of GM and one-third of WS articles addressed both. RCTs dominated the GM articles, while 40% of WS articles used qualitative or mixed study designs. Leading sources of women's death and disability were not well covered in either type of journal. Conclusions Most GM articles drew on a narrow definition of women's health. WS journals provided more balanced coverage, addressing social concerns in addition to "navel-to-knees" women's health. Since GM journals have wide impact, editorial decisions and peer review processes should promote a broader conceptualisation of women's health.

  14. Breastfeeding, Maternal Education and Cognitive Function: A Prospective Study in Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Bartels, M.; Beijsterveldt, Van; Boomsma, D I

    2009-01-01

    The effect of breastfeeding on cognitive abilities is examined in the offspring of highly educated women and compared to the effects in women with low or middle educational attainment. All offspring consisted of 12-year old mono- or dizygotic twins and this made it possible to study the effect of breastfeeding on mean cognition scores as well as the moderating effects of breastfeeding on the heritability of variation in cognition. Information on breastfeeding and cognitive ability was availab...

  15. Knowledge and Beliefs About Breastfeeding Are Not Determinants for Successful Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak, Shareena; Adzan, Nur Azeanny M.; Quan, Lee K.; Shafie, M. Hasli; Rani, Nor Azila; Ramli, Kazzoma G.

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional prospective study was performed to assess knowledge and attitude toward breastfeeding among mothers in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia and its influence on their breastfeeding practices. Two hundred thirteen women who had delivered healthy babies at term were enrolled. A structured questionnaire containing demographic data and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were used, followed by a telephone interview after 8 weeks to determine the feeding outcome. Women of Malay eth...

  16. Aleitamento materno: como é vivenciado por mulheres assistidas em uma unidade de saúde de referência na atenção materno-infantil em Teresina, Piauí Breast-feeding: the way it is experienced by women assisted at a Pediatrics and Maternity Hospital in Teresina in the State of Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Viana Ramos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: ampliar a compreensão acerca de como as mulheres que desmamaram os seus filhos antes do quarto mês de vida percebem a amamentação e a assistência recebida no curso do ciclo gravídico-puerperal. MÉTODOS: adotou-se a Teoria das Representações Sociais como referencial teórico-metodológico. Ao todo foram entrevistadas 24 mulheres com base num questionário semi-estruturado. A análise dos dados se deu a partir do método de análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: a análise do discurso das entrevistadas permitiu evidenciar um verdadeiro descompasso entre o discurso proferido pela instituição, em favor da amamentação exclusiva até o sexto mês de vida, e a vivência das mulheres com relação a este ato, que se traduziu na impossibilidade de cumprir tal orientação frente as suas condições concretas de vida. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados revelaram a necessidade de uma urgente reformulação nos referenciais que embasam as ações de saúde voltadas para essa área, com vistas a contemplar, além dos determinantes biológicos, os condicionantes socioculturais que permeiam a amamentação.OBJECTIVES: increase the understanding on how women who have weaned their children before the fourth month of life view breast-feeding and care received during the pregnancy and puerperal cycle. METHODS: the theory of Social Representation was used as a theoretical and methodological reference. In the whole 24 women were interviewed through a semi-structured questionnaire. Data analysis was performed based on a content analysis method. RESULTS: statements analysis of the respondents determined the gap between the standing of the institution favoring exclusive breast-feeding until the sixth month of life and the experience of women related to breast-feeding which established the impossibility of following such recommendation in the face of real life conditions. CONCLUSIONS: results revealed the need of an urgent reformulation of healthcare actions

  17. Knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of managers, coworkers, and employed breastfeeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Glenn, Jennifer

    2008-10-01

    Employer attitudes and practices toward breastfeeding mothers are discouraging overall. Mothers who believe that breastfeeding while employed cannot be done without a considerable amount of additional work and stress may not even consider breastfeeding. Although it is known that lower income women tend not to breastfeed while employed, the relationship between type of employment and sustaining breastfeeding has not been clearly explained. Many women identify employment as a barrier to breastfeeding. Some elements of a workplace environment supportive of breastfeeding have been identified, including private space with a locking door (other than a bathroom stall), time to express milk at work, and adequate refrigeration. In relation to employers, monetary reasons (i.e., decreased productivity) are most frequently cited for not supporting breastfeeding. Only a small percentage of the research on employed breastfeeding mothers has focused on the workplace. Further research is needed to determine how breastfeeding can be beneficial to the mother, the infant, and the employer. PMID:18983103

  18. Lessons Learned in a Breastfeeding Media Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Julie L; Mzayek, Fawaz; Levy, Marian

    2016-09-01

    Breastfeeding is well accepted as the optimal nutrition for babies. The American Academy of Pediatrics states that infant feeding should no longer be thought of as a lifestyle choice, but rather as a public health issue. In Shelby County, Tennessee, rates of breastfeeding continue to be disparately low. To address this public health problem, a focus group study was conducted with the Shelby County population least likely to breastfeed. Following participants' suggestion to use a billboard campaign with pictures of local mothers and families, one highway billboard and ten bus stop signs were placed around the city in areas of the lowest breastfeeding rates. Self-administered surveys were completed by convenience sampling in target population areas with women least likely to breastfeed, both before placing the signs and 6 months later. No significant differences were noted in knowledge, attitudes, or practices after the media campaign, but trends toward increased intention to breastfeed were noted among expectant mothers. With collapsed data (pre and post), a majority of participants believed that breastfeeding is the best way to feed a baby and they were significantly more likely to plan to breastfeed if they knew about health benefits to the baby and to themselves. If they had heard about breastfeeding on the TV or radio, they were more likely to believe breastfeeding is important for long-term health. These findings suggest that a media campaign could have a complementary role in promoting breastfeeding among women with low initiation rates. PMID:27463248

  19. Breastfeeding as an environment preserving facto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Amaral Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to determine the knowledge on breastfeeding acquired by women during the pregnant and puerperal period and to check if the breastfeeding benefits for the environment preservation were referred by the mothers. METHODS: this is a documental, descriptive and quantitative by nature research, with secondary data, collected from records of “Vamos amamentar, mamãe?” ("Let's breastfeed, mom?" extension project, resultant from the mothers monitoring during the 2008 year, with a total of 116 mothers. RESULTS: most mothers are in the age group from 14 to 18 years (31.89%; 57.75% have only primary level; 62.06% have stable relationship/married; 92.24% report having received information about breastfeeding during prenatal care, among which the highlights were: exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months (45.68%; pregnant women feeding (47.41%; breasts care 28 (24.13%, while: milking, myths’ clarification and non-use of bottles and pacifiers each submitted, only (0.86%, noting also that breastfeeding as an environment preservation factor was not mentioned. CONCLUSION: the mothers hold a reasonable knowledge of breastfeeding. Health professionals have an important role in stimulating and implementing new works focused on a practice that considers this subject from a multidimensional perspective, considering the complex bio-psycho-socio-cultural-environmental-emotional factors involving breastfeeding.

  20. Social representations about support for breastfeeding in a group of breastfeeding women Las representaciones sociales de un grupo de mujeres/amamantadoras sobre el apoyo a la lactancia materna Representações sociais de um grupo de mulheres/nutrizes sobre o apoio à amamentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Swain Müller

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to get to know the social representations about support for breastfeeding in a group of breastfeeding women, as well as to identify the actions in their social environment these women perceive as supportive in their breastfeeding processes. Data were collected through a qualitative approach, using recorded semistructured interviews, organized in accordance with the Collective Subject Discourse and analyzed under the premises of Social Representations Theory. Results showed that the representations of women in this study about support for breastfeeding consist of actions available in the hospital, family and work contexts. In these women's perspective, support is a broad phenomenon that involves aspects of encouragement, promotion and protection to breastfeeding.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer las representaciones sociales de un grupo de amamantadoras sobre el apoyo para amamantar y, también, identificar las acciones del entorno social que son percibidas por esas mujeres, como apoyo en sus procesos de amamantar. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de un abordaje cualitativo, en entrevista semiestructurada grabada, y organizados conforme la propuesta del Discurso del Sujeto Colectivo y analizados según las concepciones de la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales. Los resultados mostraron que las representaciones de las mujeres de este estudio, sobre el apoyo para amamantar, son constituidas por las acciones disponibles en el contexto hospitalario, familiar y de trabajo. Bajo la óptica de la mujer, el apoyo es un fenómeno de gran amplitud que engloba aspectos de incentivo, de promoción y de protección al amamantamiento.Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer as representações sociais de um grupo de nutrizes sobre o apoio para amamentar e, também, identificar as ações do entorno social que são percebidas por essas mulheres, como apoio em seus processos de amamentação. Os dados foram coletados por meio de

  1. A Maternity different: Breastfeeding and Phytotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Hernández Benítez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of complementary health therapies has grown progressively since the 1950s. This article presents a bibliographical review on galactogogues. The main objective is to identify scientific evidence of plants used traditionally as galactogogues in our environment, and its efficacy and safety. We carried out a literature review in order to find the scientific evidence available on the Cochrane Library databases, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Cuidatge CUIDEN. The keywords used were: phytotherapy, breastfeeding galactogogues, herbal agents, herbal products, breastfeeding and galactogogues. To conclusion although the use of natural remedies, improve breastfeeding should provide accurate and updated health information and women transmit security capabilities.

  2. Beliefs about breastfeeding: a statewide survey of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, E; Sienkiewicz, M; Roholt, S

    1995-03-01

    A statewide project was implemented in 1993 to increase breastfeeding among low-income women in North Carolina through improved institutional policies and practices and professional lactation-management skills. A survey designed to ascertain professional beliefs about breastfeeding was mailed to 31 hospitals and 25 public health agencies. A total of 2209 health professionals completed the survey and met the study selection criteria. Nutritionists and pediatricians were most likely to have positive beliefs about breastfeeding, whereas hospital nurses were most likely to have negative beliefs. Personal breastfeeding experience contributed to positive beliefs. Professionals were least convinced of the emotional benefits of breastfeeding. Those with negative beliefs were most likely to advocate complete infant weaning from the breast before nine months of age. Although most health professionals had positive beliefs about breastfeeding, differences by profession, work environment, and personal breastfeeding experience indicate the need for comprehensive training in lactation management, and improvements in hospital and public health clinic environments. PMID:7741946

  3. Breastfeeding as an environment preserving facto

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Amaral Martins; Aline Cristiane de Souza Azevedo Aguiar; Jamilly Freitas Ribeiro; Luzia Wilma Santana da Silva; Emanuelle Caires Dias Araújo Nunes; Rosália Teixeira Araújo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to determine the knowledge on breastfeeding acquired by women during the pregnant and puerperal period and to check if the breastfeeding benefits for the environment preservation were referred by the mothers. METHODS: this is a documental, descriptive and quantitative by nature research, with secondary data, collected from records of “Vamos amamentar, mamãe?” ("Let's breastfeed, mom?") extension project, resultant from the mothers monitoring during the 2008 year, with a total of 1...

  4. African American Women’s Perceptions and Experiences about Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia S Obeng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There are health benefits to breastfeeding for both mothers and their children. The preventive health effects of breastfeeding continue into adulthood, lowering rate of various chronic illnesses. African American women, especially of lower socioeconomic status, are less likely to breastfeed in comparison to their racial and ethnic counterparts. The purpose of this study was to explore how African American women experience breastfeeding in the early stages of postpartum care. Two focus groups (N=20, 10 in each group were conducted with African American mothers. Results revealed that participants felt that there were health benefits to breastfeeding, and organizations such as WIC provided support. However, participants stated that lack of information, negative perceptions, and unforeseen circumstances were barriers to breastfeeding. This study proposes support and interventions for this group to increase breastfeeding among this population.

  5. Breastfeeding policies and breastfeeding support programs in the mother's workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinelli, Maria Enrica

    2012-10-01

    Women should never be forced to make a choice between mother-work and other work. Many women mistakenly think they cannot breastfeed if they plan to return to work, and thus they may not talk with their employers about their intention to breastfeed or how breastfeeding might be supported at their workplace. All breastfeeding policies and strategies underline the importance of providing support for lactating mothers and highlight the need to promote specific interventions in the workplace. Possible strategies for working mothers include having the mother keep the baby with her while she works, allowing the mother to go to the baby to breastfeed during the workday, telecommuting, offering flexible work schedules, maintaining part-time work schedules, and using on-site or nearby child care centres. PMID:22958027

  6. Reduced breastfeeding rates among obese mothers: a review of contributing factors, clinical considerations and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bever Babendure, Jennie; Reifsnider, Elizabeth; Mendias, Elnora; Moramarco, Michael W; Davila, Yolanda R

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with significantly lower rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration and exclusivity. Increasing rates of obesity among reproductive-age women has prompted the need to carefully examine factors contributing to lower breastfeeding rates in this population. Recent research has demonstrated a significant impact of breastfeeding to reduce the risk of obesity in both mothers and their children. This article presents a review of research literature from three databases covering the years 1995 to 2014 using the search terms of breastfeeding and maternal obesity. We reviewed the existing research on contributing factors to lower breastfeeding rates among obese women, and our findings can guide the development of promising avenues to increase breastfeeding among a vulnerable population. The key findings concerned factors impacting initiation and early breastfeeding, factors impacting later breastfeeding and exclusivity, interventions to increase breastfeeding in obese women, and clinical considerations. The factors impacting early breastfeeding include mechanical factors and delayed onset of lactogenesis II and we have critically analyzed the potential contributors to these factors. The factors impacting later breastfeeding and exclusivity include hormonal imbalances, psychosocial factors, and mammary hypoplasia. Several recent interventions have sought to increase breastfeeding duration in obese women with varying levels of success and we have presented the strengths and weaknesses of these clinical trials. Clinical considerations include specific techniques that have been found to improve breastfeeding incidence and duration in obese women. Many obese women do not obtain the health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding and their children are more likely to also be overweight or obese if they are not breastfed. Further research is needed into the physiological basis for decreased breastfeeding among obese women along with effective

  7. ADIPOKINES CONTENT AND ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY INDICATORS OF WOMEN WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Kapralova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Study objective: to study the adipokines content and echocardiography indicators of women with hypothyroidism.Materials and methods. 30 women with hypothyroidism were included into the study with the average age of 55.2 ± 2.2 years old and the duration of disease of 8.53 ± 0.84 years. Anthropometric parameters of all patients were measured. Levels of leptin, resistin, adiponectin were investigated with enzyme multiplied immunoassay. Morphometric parameters of the left ventricle (LV were assessed with echocardiography.Results. The examined patients with hypothyroidism displayed increased concentration of leptin and resistin, as well as decreased concentration of adiponectin. Concentric and eccentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle is revealed in more than half of cases with patients with the hypofunction of the thyroid gland.Conclusion. Evident decreasing of the level of adiponektin and increasing of the level of leptin and resistin was revealed with examined patients on the background of the excessive body weight. Hypertrophy of the left ventricle and diastolic dysfunction of the myocard with its relatively preserved contractile ability was revealed with women that suffer from hypothyroidism. Age, excessive body weight, increasing of arterial blood pressure, and hypoadiponectinemia play a significant role in the left ventricle myocardial remodeling.

  8. Breastfeeding Strategy for Northern Ireland (PDF 212 KB)

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health; Social Services and Public Safety

    2000-01-01

    Northern Ireland has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates in the world. Low breastfeeding rates are associated with considerable morbidity, some mortality and increased health service costs for women and children. In Northern Ireland, several factors make the initiation and maintenance of breastfeeding particularly difficult; these include cultural attitudes, commercial promotion of artificial milks and obstacles for the working mother. The aim of the Strategy is to promote and support br...

  9. Breastfeeding Attitudes of WIC Staff: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Reifsnider, Elizabeth; Gill, Sara; Villarreal, Patty; Tinkle, Mindy B.

    2003-01-01

    A sample of staff members from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC program) were interviewed about breastfeeding and their perceptions of WIC recipients' views on breastfeeding. WIC staff members universally supported breastfeeding and expressed desires for more linkages between WIC agencies and perinatal education specialists in childbirth education classes, as well as with mothers during their postpartum hospital stay. The WIC staff members in thi...

  10. The Relationship Between Postpartum Mental Status and Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Bilge Burcak Annagur; Ali Annagur

    2012-01-01

    Maternal mental health in postpartum period is an important issue as breast milk and breastfeeding. The mother’s physical and mental health is critical for long term breastfeeding and to give efficient care to baby. Maternal mental impairment results in insufficient feeding and disturbances in physical health of the baby. Women with depressive symptoms have been shown to fail to begin and continue breastfeeding. It is critical to diagnose and treat maternal depression to decrease negative out...

  11. A study of the relationship between sexual activity and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Heidari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 1 Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahed University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran2(Received 2 March, 2009; Accepted 27 May, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Longterm breastfeeding is an important factor for women. Reverse effects of breastfeeding regarding sexual activities have been reported. However, the impact of breastfeeding, along with sexual activity of women during postpartum, is a debatable matter. This effect remains unknown in many societies such as Iran. Sexual activity during breastfeeding from women has not been studied. This study was carried out to compare the association of sexual activity of breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding women within 2-6 months after birth.Materials and methods: In this historical cohort study, which was carried out in 2007, the sexual activity of breastfeeding women was compared with 198 bottle-feeds women, who were referred to a public maternity health care center in Tehran. Women were recruited within the age of 20-35, being their first or second child and in 2-6 months after birth. A self-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Women were interviewed face-to-face by the first author.Results: Of 456 respondents, 258 were currently breastfeeding and 198 were bottle feed. Mean age of the mothers was 27±4.7 years. 28.3% of breastfeeding women and 22.9% of non breastfeeding women had sexual intercourse within the one month of postpartum period. There was no significant difference between the time of resumption of sexual activity and being breastfeed or not (p<0.07. Also, no significant difference was found between breastfeeding and bottle-feed women on sexual desire and satisfaction prior to pregnancy and in postpartum period (p<0.1, p<0.5. In 49/8% of breastfeed and 43.3% of non breastfeed women, sexual desire was decreased and also in 32.6% and 33%, sexual satisfaction was decreased respectively. The orgasm experience did not have a significant difference between the two groups

  12. Study on correlation between breastfeeding behavior of 299 primiparous women during hospitalization and family support%299名初产妇住院期间母乳喂养行为与家庭支持相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱秀; 陆虹

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解初产妇住院期间的母乳喂养行为以及感知到的家庭支持程度,并分析两者之间的相关性.方法:采用问卷调查法,对299名住院分娩的初产妇进行调查.结果:初产妇住院期间的全母乳喂养率为40.1%,感知到的家庭支持为中等程度,采取全母乳喂养的初产妇的家庭支持高于混合喂养及人工喂养者,差异有统计学意义.结论:初产妇住院期间的母乳喂养率较低,初产妇感知到的家庭支持可以影响其母乳喂养行为.%Objective: To understand breastfeeding behavior of primiparous women during hospitalization and the degree of family support, and analyze the correlation. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate 299 primiparous women during hospitalization. Results: The pure breastfeeding rate was 40. 1 % among primiparous women during hospitalization, the degree of family support was moderate , the degree of family support among primiparous women adopting pure breastfeeding was statistically significantly higher than that a-mong primiparous women adopting mixed breastfeeding and artificial breastfeeding. Conclusion: The breastfeeding rate of primiparous women during hospitalization is low, and family support can affect breastfeeding behavior.

  13. Breastfeeding social marketing: lessons learned from USDA's "Loving Support" campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-10-01

    Social marketing involves the application of commercial marketing principles to advance the public good. Social marketing calls for much more than health communications campaigns. It involves four interrelated tasks: audience benefit, target behavior, essence (brand, relevance, positioning), and developing the "4Ps" (product, price, place, promotion) marketing mix. The ongoing U.S. Department of Agriculture "Loving Support Makes Breastfeeding Work" campaign was launched in 1997 based on social marketing principles to increase breastfeeding initiation rates and breastfeeding duration among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Since then there have been improvements in breastfeeding duration in the country, and the majority of WIC women now initiate breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in public places is still not well accepted by society at large, and any and exclusive breastfeeding durations remain exceedingly low. Lessons learned from "Loving Support" and other campaigns indicate that it is important to design social marketing campaigns to target the influential societal forces (e.g., family and friends, healthcare providers, employers, formula industry, legislators) that affect women's decision and ability to breastfeed for the recommended amount of time. This will require formative research that applies the social-ecological model to different population segments, taking and identifying the right incentives to nudge more women to breastfeed for longer. Any new breastfeeding campaign needs to understand and take into account the information acquisition preferences of the target audiences. The vast majority of WIC women have mobile devices and are accessing social media. The Brazilian experience indicates that making breastfeeding the social norm can be done with a solid social marketing strategy. This is consistent with the recently released "Six Steps to Achieve Breastfeeding Goals for WIC Clinics," which identifies

  14. FAQ: Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surveillance Software Health Education Public Service Videos Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Top of Page If I am pregnant or breastfeeding, should I use insect repellents? Yes. Protecting yourself ...

  15. What about Breastfeeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraising Ideas Vehicle Donation Volunteer Efforts What about Breastfeeding? skip to submenu Parents & Individuals Information for Parents & Individuals What about Breastfeeding? To download the PDF version of this factsheet, ...

  16. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding ... with a lactation specialist. previous continue All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious ...

  17. Dad's Role in Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Dad's Role ...

  18. Serious Illnesses and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Serious Illnesses ...

  19. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Overcoming challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges Dealing with lack of family support Is my baby getting enough milk? Breastfeeding ...

  20. A vivência de amamentar para trabalhadoras e estudantes de uma universidade pública La experiencia de la amamantación para mujeres trabajadoras y estudiantes de una universidad pública Breast-feeding experience for women workers and students from a public university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isilia Aparecida Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo qualitativo teve como objetivo conhecer os principais elementos interferentes no processo de amamentação vivenciado por trabalhadoras e estudantes de uma universidade pública do Estado de São Paulo, no qual participaram 65 mulheres trabalhadoras e alunas, cujas entrevistas foram analisadas segundo os pressupostos de Taylor e Bogdan e do Interacionismo Simbólico. Os resultados demonstram que o processo de amamentar, para essas mulheres, mostrou-se delineado pelas condições seus ambientes doméstico, do trabalho ou de estudo. O ambiente físico, as relações entre seus familiares, superiores e seus pares exercem forte influência em sua determinação de manter a amamentação.Este estudio cualitativo tuvo como objetivo conocer los principales elementos de interferencia en el proceso de amamantamiento vivenciado por trabajadoras y estudiantes de una universidad pública, cuyos sujetos son las mujeres trabajadoras y alumnas de una universidad pública del Estado de São Paulo. Los datos se coletaron a través de entrevista, que se analizaron según los presupuestos de Taylor e Bogdan y bajo la óptica del Interaccionismo Simbólico. Los resultados apuntan que el proceso de amamantamiento para esas mujeres se mostró condicionado y delineado por las situaciones que surgen en su ambiente doméstico, de trabajo o estudio y las relaciones entre sus familiares, superiores y sus similares, ejercen fuerte influencia en la determinación de mantener la amamantacion.This qualitative research aimed to know the main interfering elements in the breast-feeding process as experienced by professional women and by students, that was carried out with 65 professional women and students from a public university in São Paulo state. The data collection was proceeded by interviews which contents were analyzed according to Taylor and Bogdan and Symbolic Interactionism approaches. Results indicated that the breast-feeding process for these women

  1. A Functional Assessment of the Impact of Advantages and Disadvantages on Breastfeeding Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Frederik; Bakker, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Although health and other benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child have been repeatedly shown, there is still a large proportion of women who do not initiate or continue breastfeeding. The aim of the current study is to analyze the contribution of the presentation of advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding in developing an attitude…

  2. Conhecimentos maternos sobre amamentação entre puérperas inscritas em programa de pré-natal Breastfeeding knowledge among post-partum women previously enrolled in a prenatal program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilza Sandre-Pereira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer o nível de informação sobre amamentação entre as mulheres que participam do programa de pré-natal na Maternidade-Escola da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. A amostra totalizou 135 puérperas que responderam a questionário estruturado, contendo perguntas objetivas sobre aspectos práticos e teóricos do aleitamento materno. Os resultados mostraram que as mulheres iniciaram o pré-natal, em média, com 16 semanas de gravidez e realizaram cerca de oito consultas. Dentre elas, 53,3% afirmaram ter recebido informações sobre aleitamento materno durante o acompanhamento pré-natal e a informação mais lembrada por 22,2% foi a de amamentar até os seis meses de vida do bebê. Quanto ao momento ideal para a primeira mamada, 50,4% consideraram ser logo após o parto e 47,4% apontaram o leite materno como benéfico para proteger o bebê contra doenças. Embora as mães tenham conhecimentos básicos sobre aleitamento materno, questões como o momento ideal para a primeira mamada, a importância do colostro e aspectos nutricionais relacionados à nutriz ainda precisam ser melhor esclarecidos durante o pré-natal e no período pós-parto imediato.The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge of breastfeeding issues among post-partum women who had participated in a prenatal program at the Rio de Janeiro Federal University (UFRJ Maternity Teaching Hospital. The sample totaled 135 post-partum women who answered a structured questionnaire with objective questions about practical and theoretical aspects of breastfeeding. The women had begun prenatal care at the 16th week of gestation on average, with an average of 8 medical consultations. Some 53.3% stated having received information about breastfeeding during prenatal care, and 22.2% stated that the information they remembered the best was that they should breastfeed for the first 6 months. Regarding the best moment for the first feeding, 50

  3. Impact of multi parity on iron content in multiparous women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of multiple pregnancies, a very common pattern in reproductive lifestyle of Pakistani women, needs to be addressed to see if it affects the iron content and hence cause iron deficiency. Recognising this deficiency prior to development of anaemia can prevent disastrous consequences that can complicate the life of the mother and foetus especially in developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the effect that the stress of multiple pregnancies has on the iron status of the body. Methods: This comparative study was conducted in a focus group of female population. Two hundred subjects were selected by convenient sampling and grouped depending on their parity status. Data regarding diet, and socioeconomic history was collected on pre-designed questionnaire. Serum Ferritin was used to assess iron deficiency using the Electro chemiluminescence Immunoassay (ECLIA). Data was statistically analysed using SPSS-17. Results: Mean value of serum Ferritin in the nulliparous group was 76.52 +- 4.92 eta g/mL with 16% of nulliparous subjects showing lower than normal values. Thirty-six percent of uniparous subjects showed low serum Ferritin values, mean value being 45.74 +- 4.51 eta g/mL. Seventy-two percent of the multiparous subjects showed iron deficiency with Ferritin levels of <20 eta g/mL. Mean serum Ferritin in this group was 25.21+- 2.75 g/mL. The differences between the Ferritin levels of the study groups were highly significant (p<0.01). Conclusions: Multiparous women had lower serum Ferritin levels than the control group suggesting that the stress of multiple pregnancies takes its toll on the iron content of the body. (author)

  4. Scintigraphic examinations during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women: a survey of Belgian nuclear medicine physician's attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection is of major importance in pregnant and breast feeding women. This work was undertaken to assess the practices of Belgian nuclear medicine physicians towards performing diagnostic tests during pregnancy and in breast feeding women. A questionnaire was sent to 201 Belgian nuclear medicine physicians; 82 answers (41 %) were received. 51 % of the responding physicians agree to perform lung perfusion scan during pregnancy provided a reduced dose is administered, 33% refuse to perform it during first three months and 24% refuse to perform it for pregnancies older than three months. For the Tc-99m ventilation scan 79% and 66% refuse to perform it before and after first three months. Better agreement was observed for other Tc-99m scintigraphies or tests using other radionuclides. In breast feeding women 89% agree to perform Tc-99m tests provided a breast feeding break; however, the duration of this break appears variable. The need for obtaining a written informed consent appears controversial. Given the variability of the attitudes of nuclear medicine physicians, official guidelines for nuclear medicine diagnostic tests during pregnancy is needed. (authors)

  5. Bone mineral density in gravida: effect of pregnancies and breast-feeding in women of differing ages and parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Ehud; Mishukov, Yuri; Babchenko, Liana; Samueloff, Arnon; Zimran, Ari; Elstein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Changes of bone during pregnancy and during lactation evaluated by bone mineral density (BMD) may have implications for risk of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied BMD in women of differing ages, parity, and lactation histories immediately postpartum for BMD, T-scores, and Z-scores. Institutional Review Board approval was received. All women while still in hospital postpartum were asked to participate. BMD was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machine at femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) by a single technician. Of 132 participants, 73 (55.3%) were ≤30 years; 27 (20.5%) were primiparous; 36 (27.3%) were grand multiparous; 35 (26.5%) never breast fed. Mean FN T-scores and Z-scores were higher than respective mean LS scores, but all means were within the normal limits. Mean LS T-scores and Z-scores were highest in the grand multiparas. There were only 2 (1.5%) outliers with low Z-scores. We conclude that, in a large cohort of Israeli women with BMD parameters assessed by DXA within two days postpartum, mean T-scores and Z-scores at both the LS and FN were within normal limits regardless of age (20-46 years), parity (1-13 viable births), and history of either no or prolonged months of lactation (up to 11.25 years). PMID:25506038

  6. Breastfeeding in China: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Binns Colin W; Qiu Liqian; Xu Fenglian; Liu Xiaoxian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This review aims to describe changes in breastfeeding and summarise the breastfeeding rates, duration and reasons of discontinuing 'any breastfeeding' or 'exclusive breastfeeding' in P.R. China. Breastfeeding rates in China fell during the 1970s when the use of breast milk substitutes became widespread, and reached the lowest point in the 1980s. As a result many efforts were introduced to promote breastfeeding. The breastfeeding rate in China started to increase in the 1990s, and sin...

  7. Breastfeeding Expectations and Experiences: Associations with Mood and Well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Shayle, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Background Research indicates that there are benefits to both the mother and infant of breastfeeding. Campaigns have been launched in the UK with some efficacy in increasing the numbers reporting an intention to breastfeed, however, breastfeeding continuation rates remain relatively low. It is known that women’s expectations of breastfeeding are important when considering breastfeeding continuation. It is also recognised, that for women there is the potential of impact on postnatal mood an...

  8. Association of Breastfeeding and the Federal Poverty Level: National Survey of Family Growth, 2011–2013

    OpenAIRE

    R. Constance Wiener; Usha Sambamoorthi; Hayes, Sarah E.; Ilana R. Azulay Chertok

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is strongly endorsed in the Healthy People 2020 goals; however, there remain many disparities in breastfeeding prevalence. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between breastfeeding and the Federal Poverty Level in the United States. Data from 5,397 women in the National Survey of Family Growth 2011–2013 survey were included in this study. The data were analyzed for descriptive features and logistic regressions of the Federal Poverty Level on breastfeeding. T...

  9. Becoming Baby-Friendly: Increasing breastfeeding exclusivity and duration rates through Vancouver's community health services

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Katie Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent gains in breastfeeding initiation and ongoing public health recommendations for exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of an infant’s life, breastfeeding exclusivity and duration rates remain suboptimal in Vancouver and across Canada. In an effort to establish breastfeeding as the cultural norm for women, children, and families, Vancouver Coastal Health (VCH) recently developed a VCH-wide policy and guidelines about the feeding of healthy term infants. This paper...

  10. Maternal Variables Influencing Duration of Breastfeeding Among Low-Income Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Tluczek, Audrey; Henriques, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    This study used a retrospective comparison of 2 naturally occurring groups, first to examine how exclusive versus partial breastfeeding relates to duration of breastfeeding and, second, to determine if factors such as age and body mass index are associated with exclusive versus partial breastfeeding duration. These factors were hypothesized to influence the amount of breastfeeding in a sample of 42 low-income mothers enrolled in the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Child...

  11. Progress in research on influence factors and interventions of working women's breastfeeding%职业女性母乳喂养影响因素及其干预的研究进展(综述)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易巧利; 李金萍; 申鑫; 罗茂月; 李记

    2015-01-01

    随着职业女性人数的增多,职业母亲的母乳喂养问题也日益凸显。职业母亲的母乳喂养率和母乳喂养持续时间明显低于非职业女性。职业女性的母乳喂养率受多层面因素的影响,包括母亲自身、家庭、工作场所及社会。要改善职业母亲的母乳喂养状况,也要从这几个层面着手采取相应的干预措施。%With the increasing number of working women, the breastfeeding problem of working mothers is increasingly prominent. Compared to those who don't attend work, lower initiation rates and much shorter duration of breastfeeding are generally observed among working mothers. The breastfeeding of working mothers is influenced by factors at different levels, including the mother herself, family, workplace, and society. To promote breast feeding practices among working mothers, corresponding interventions should be implemented at those levels.

  12. Progress in research on influence factors and interventions of working women's breastfeeding%职业女性母乳喂养影响因素及其干预的研究进展(综述)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易巧利; 李金萍; 申鑫; 罗茂月; 李记

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of working women, the breastfeeding problem of working mothers is increasingly prominent. Compared to those who don't attend work, lower initiation rates and much shorter duration of breastfeeding are generally observed among working mothers. The breastfeeding of working mothers is influenced by factors at different levels, including the mother herself, family, workplace, and society. To promote breast feeding practices among working mothers, corresponding interventions should be implemented at those levels.%随着职业女性人数的增多,职业母亲的母乳喂养问题也日益凸显。职业母亲的母乳喂养率和母乳喂养持续时间明显低于非职业女性。职业女性的母乳喂养率受多层面因素的影响,包括母亲自身、家庭、工作场所及社会。要改善职业母亲的母乳喂养状况,也要从这几个层面着手采取相应的干预措施。

  13. Women's preferences regarding infant or maternal antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV during breastfeeding and their views on Option B+ in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda Ngarina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The WHO 2010 guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV recommended prophylactic antiretroviral treatment (ART either for infants (Option A or mothers (Option B during breastfeeding for pregnant women with a CD4 count of >350 cell/µL in low-income countries. In 2012, WHO proposed that all HIV-infected pregnant women should receive triple ART for life (B+ irrespective of CD4 count. Tanzania has recently switched from Option A to B+, with a few centers practicing B. However, more information on the real-life feasibility of these options is needed. This qualitative study explored women's preferences for Option A vs B and their views on Option B+ in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted four focus group discussions with a total of 27 pregnant women with unknown HIV status, attending reproductive and child health clinics, and 31 in-depth interviews among HIV-infected pregnant and post-delivery women, 17 of whom were also asked about B+. RESULTS: Most participants were in favor of Option B compared to A. The main reasons for choosing Option B were: HIV-associated stigma, fear of drug side-effects on infants and difficult logistics for postnatal drug adherence. Some of the women asked about B+ favored it as they agreed that they would eventually need ART for their own survival. Some were against B+ anticipating loss of motivation after protecting the child, fearing drug side-effects and not feeling ready to embark on lifelong medication. Some were undecided. CONCLUSION: Option B was preferred. Since Tanzania has recently adopted Option B+, women with CD4 counts of >350 cell/µL should be counseled about the possibility to "opt-out" from ART after cessation of breastfeeding. Drug safety and benefits, economic concerns and available resources for laboratory monitoring and evaluation should be addressed during B+ implementation to enhance long-term feasibility and effectiveness.

  14. Protection of breastfeeding in Papua New Guinea.

    OpenAIRE

    Friesen, H.; Vince, J; Boas, P.; Danaya, R.

    1999-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea the bottle-feeding of babies has been increasing, predominantly among unemployed women of low educational status. Many women are unaware of their legal right to have breaks at work for the purpose of breastfeeding, and a high proportion of workplaces have no facilities for mothers who wish to breastfeed their children. The laws on the feeding of infants should be updated and implemented, and an effort is needed to explain the benefits of breastfeeding and the rights of wor...

  15. The Effectiveness of Lactation Consultants and Lactation Counselors on Breastfeeding Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay; Patel, Shveta

    2016-08-01

    Breastfeeding for all infants starting at birth and continuing until at least 6 months of age has been recommended by the World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics. The health benefits to infants and mothers have been demonstrated in many studies. Dedicated lactation specialists may play a role in providing education and support to pregnant women and new mothers wishing to breastfeed to improve breastfeeding outcomes. The objective of this review was to assess if lactation education or support programs using lactation consultants or lactation counselors would improve rates of initiation and duration of any breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding compared with usual practice. A systematic literature review of the evidence was conducted using electronic databases. The review was limited to randomized trials and yielded 16 studies with 5084 participants. It was found that breastfeeding interventions using lactation consultants and counselors increase the number of women initiating breastfeeding (odds ratio [OR] for any initiation vs not initiating breastfeeding = 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.67). The interventions improve any breastfeeding rates (OR for any breastfeeding up to 1 month vs not breastfeeding = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.09-2.04). In addition, there were beneficial effects on exclusive breastfeeding rates (OR for exclusive breastfeeding up to 1 month vs not exclusive breastfeeding = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.20-2.44). Most of the evidence would suggest developing and improving postpartum support programs incorporating lactation consultants and lactation counselors. PMID:26644419

  16. Antiretroviral treatment is associated with iron deficiency in HIV-infected Malawian women that is mitigated with supplementation, but is not associated with infant iron deficiency during 24 weeks of exclusive breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, Elizabeth M; Bentley, Margaret E; Chasela, Charles S; Kayira, Dumbani; Flax, Valerie L; Kourtis, Athena P; Ellington, Sascha R; Kacheche, Zebrone; Tegha, Gerald; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles M; Allen, Lindsay H; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Adair, Linda S

    2015-01-01

    Objective In resource-limited settings without safe alternatives to breastfeeding, the WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding and antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis. Given the high prevalence of anemia among HIV-infected women, mothers and their infants (via fetal iron accretion) may be at risk of iron deficiency. We assessed the effects of maternal micronutrient-fortified lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and maternal ARV treatment or infant ARV prophylaxis on maternal and infant iron status during exclusive breastfeeding from birth to 24 weeks. Methods The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study was a randomized controlled trial conducted in Lilongwe, Malawi from 2004-2010. HIV-infected mothers (CD4>200 cells/ul) and their infants were randomly assigned to 28-week interventions: maternal-LNS/maternal-ARV (n=424), maternal-LNS/infant-ARV (n=426), maternal-LNS (n=334), maternal-ARV (n=425), infant-ARV (n=426), or control (n=334). Longitudinal models tested intervention effects on hemoglobin (Hb). In a subsample (n=537) with multiple iron indicators, intervention effects on Hb, transferrin receptors (TfR) and ferritin were tested with linear and Poisson regression. Results In longitudinal models, LNS effects on maternal and infant Hb were minimal. In subsample mothers, maternal ARVs were associated with tissue iron depletion (TfR>8.3 mg/L) (Risk ratio (RR): 3.1, p0.1). In subsample infants, interventions were not associated with impaired iron status (all p-values>0.1). Conclusions Maternal ARV treatment with protease inhibitors is associated with maternal tissue iron depletion; but LNS mitigates adverse effects. ARVs do not appear to influence infant iron status; however, extended use needs to be evaluated. PMID:25723140

  17. Factores que influyen en el abandono temprano de la lactancia por mujeres trabajadoras Factors associated with short duration of breast-feeding in Mexican working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Navarro-Estrella

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores maternos, laborales y de los servicios de salud que influyen en el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna en madres trabajadoras. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre noviembre de 1998 y marzo de 1999 se efectuó un estudio transversal comparativo con madres derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social de Ensenada, Baja California, México. A 265 madres se les aplicó un cuestionario entre los tres y nueve meses posparto. Se distribuyeron en: grupo I: madres con abandono temprano de la lactancia materna; grupo II: madres que prolongaron la lactancia materna por más de tres meses. Para identificar los factores asociados con el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna, se utilizó regresión logística. RESULTADOS: El 42.3% (112 de las madres abandonaron temprano la lactancia materna. Los factores de riesgo fueron: tener conocimientos malos sobre lactancia materna, OR 5.97 (IC 95% 1.67-20.67, la ausencia del antecedente de haberla practicado en un hijo previo OR 2.98 (IC 95% 1.66-5.36, tener un plan de duración de la misma de 0 a 3 meses, OR 16.24 (IC 95% 5.37-49.12, y la falta de facilidades en el trabajo para efectuarla, OR 1.99 (IC 95% 1.12-3.56. CONCLUSIONES: Los principales factores asociados con el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna fueron maternos. El único factor laboral fue la ausencia de facilidades para amamantar. Es probable que la calidad de los conocimientos, la experiencia previa con ella y tener facilidades laborales influyan en la decisión de prolongarla.OBJECTIVE:To identify the maternal, work, and health services factors associated with a short duration of breast-feeding in working mothers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out between November 1998 and March 1999, among 265 mothers medically insured by (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS Mexican Institute of Social Security, who completed a questionnaire when their babies were 3 to 9 months old

  18. Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabulsi Mona

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. Methods We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Results Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Conclusions Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.

  19. 电话随访对初产妇产褥期母乳喂养行为的影响%Effect of telephone follow-up on breastfeeding behaviors of primiparous women during puperium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱秀; 陆虹

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of telephone follow - up on breastfeeding behaviors of primiparous women during puperiuri Methods:Quasi- experimental research method was used to select 120 primiparous women who gave birth to single and full -term neonates from May to September in 2009, then they were divided into control group and intervention group. The women in intervention group were followed up by telephone on the first, second and fourth weeks after delivery, the methods targeting to the problems in the course of breastfeeding and mental support were provided to the women. The women in control group received conventional nursing. The status of breastfeeding was evaluated at the end of puperiurr Results:A total of 100 primiparous women completed the whole study, 50 women in each group, the rate of follow - up was 80%. The breasffeeding rates of the two groups in hospital were 18. 0% and 18. 0%, respectively, there was no significant difference between the two groups (x2 = 2. 79, P = O. 24 ). At 6 weeks after delivery, the breastfeeding rates in control group and intervention group were 48.0% and 70. 0%, respectively, there was significant difference between the two groups (x2 =6. 17 ,P =O. 04). Conclusion:Telephone follow up can increase the breastfeeding rate of primiparous women during puperium to a certain degree.%目的:探讨电话随访对初产妇产褥期母乳喂养行为的影响.方法:采用类实验性研究方法,于2009年5~9月期问便利选取分娩单胎足月儿的初产妇120例,分为对照组和干预组.对干预组分别在产后7、14、28天左右进行电话随访,对产妇在母乳喂养过程中遇到的困难提供解决办法并为产妇提供心理支持;对照组只接受常规护理.产褥期结束时评价母乳喂养情况.结果:共有100例初产妇完成了本研究,随访率为80%,干预组和对照组各50例.住院期问两组母乳喂养率均为18.0%,两组比较差异无统计学意义(x2=2.79,P=0.24).

  20. Markets, breastfeeding and trade in mothers' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie P

    2015-01-01

    This introduction to a special issue on the economics of breastfeeding draws attention to the lack of economic justice for women. Human milk is being bought and sold. Commodifying and marketing human milk and breastfeeding risk reinforcing social and gender economic inequities. Yet there are potential benefits for breastfeeding, and some of the world's poorest women might profit. How can we improve on the present situation where everyone except the woman who donates her milk benefits? Breastfeeding is a global food production system with unsurpassed capacity to promote children's food security and maternal and child health, but it is side-lined by trade negotiators who seek instead to expand world markets for cow's milk-based formula. Regulators focus on potential risks of feeding donated human milk, rather than on health risks of exposing infants and young children to highly processed bovine milk. Similarly, policymakers aspire to provide universal health care access that may be unaffordable when two thirds of the world's children are not optimally nourished in infancy, resulting in a global double burden of infectious and chronic disease. Universal breastfeeding requires greater commitment of resources, but such investment remains lacking despite the cost effectiveness of breastfeeding protection, support and promotion in and beyond health services. Women invest substantially in breastfeeding but current policy - epitomised by the G20 approach to the 'gender gap' - fails to acknowledge the economic value of this unpaid care work. Economic incentives for mothers to optimally breastfeed are dwarfed by health system and commercial incentives promoting formula feeding and by government fiscal policies which ignore the resulting economic costs. 'The market' fails to protect breastfeeding, because market prices give the wrong signals. An economic approach to the problem of premature weaning from optimal breastfeeding may help prioritise global maternity protection as

  1. Breastfeeding and Postpartum Amenorrhea in Rural Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Aguirre, Guido

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The association between breastfeeding patterns and resumption of postpartum menstruation was examined in rural Guatemalan women from the INCAP longitudinal study (1969-1977. It was distinguished among women who experienced infant mortality before menses resumed, women who weaned before menses resumed, and women who had return of menses while still breastfeeding. Weaning and infant mortality before menses resumes are significant risk factors for resumption of postpartum menstruation. Among those women whose menses resumed while still nursing or who remained amenorrheic and nursing at lose to follow-up or the end of the study, low number of nursing bouts per 24-hr day and the early introduction of supplements to the child were significant risk factors for the return of postpartum menstruation.

  2. Breastfeeding in Bolivia – information and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludvigsson Jonas F

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the attitudes of the mother and her family towards breastfeeding and the actual feeding pattern in a Bolivian population. A second objective was to study the relationship between breastfeeding information, specified according to source and timing, and feeding pattern. Methods Cross-sectional interviews with 420–502 Bolivian mothers with an infant less than or equal to 1 year of age. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding, use of prelacteal food and/or colostrum were the main outcome measures. Results The attitudes of the mother, her partner (the infant's father and the infant's grandmother towards breastfeeding did not influence the infant feeding pattern. Women who had received breastfeeding information from health care personnel before birth or on the maternity ward breastfed exclusively for a longer duration (adjusted p = 0.0233 and avoided prelacteal food to a greater extent (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 0.42; 95% confidence interval for adjusted odds ratio (95% CI AOR = 0.23–0.72. Information from a doctor before birth or on the maternity ward was associated with less use of prelacteal food (AOR = 0.53; 95% CI AOR = 0.31–0.93, an increased use of colostrum (AOR = 3.30; 95% CI AOR = 1.16–9.37, but was not linked to the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (p = 0.1767. Conclusion The current study indicates that breastfeeding information delivered by health care personnel in a non-trial setting may affect the infant feeding pattern including the use of prelacteal foods and colostrum. There was no evidence that the attitudes of the mother, or the infant's father or grandmother influenced actual feeding behavior. The lack of a "negative or neutral attitude" towards breastfeeding in the participants of the current study does, however, diminish the chances to link attitude to feeding behavior.

  3. Assessing Infant Breastfeeding Beliefs Among Low-Income Mexican Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Sara L.; Reifsnider, Elizabeth; Mann, Angela R.; Villarreal, Patty; Tinkle, Mindy B.

    2004-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with low-income, pregnant women and new mothers receiving services from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC program) along with their male partners and their mothers. All participants were Hispanics of Mexican American origin. The topics for the focus-group discussions were breastfeeding beliefs and perceptions. All participants were aware of the benefits of breastfeeding. Participants identified time, embarrassment, and...

  4. Acculturation and the initiation of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, D K; Markides, K S; Baranowski, T; Richardson, C J; Mikrut, W D; Bee, D E

    1994-07-01

    Despite the fact that breastfeeding is the most appropriate form of nutrition for the healthy term infant, the rate of initiation in the U.S. is declining. One demographic factor associated with this low rate is ethnicity and so in this study we measured acculturation (one aspect of ethnicity) into the U.S. and its relationship to the successful initiation of breastfeeding in a sample of women recruited approximately 2 months prenatally in a U.S.-Mexico border city. Interviews were administered in English or Spanish by bilingual interviewers prenatally (n = 906), natally (n = 788), and postnatally (n = 715). Acculturation (measured with a 20 item instrument) was strongly related to the intent to (p education (p = 0.002) were related to breastfeeding prenatally and natally. Initiation of breastfeeding was highest among those women least acculturated (52.9%) and lowest in those most acculturated (36.1%) indicating an inhibiting effect of acculturation. To improve the rate of initiation of breastfeeding in the U.S. (a national health goal) intervention programs must consider cultural factors. PMID:7722587

  5. Maternal recall of breastfeeding duration twenty years after delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natland Siv Tone

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the health benefits from breastfeeding often rely on maternal recall of breastfeeding. Although short-term maternal recall has been found to be quite accurate, less is known about long-term accuracy. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of long-term maternal recall of breastfeeding duration. Methods In a prospective study of pregnancy and birth outcome, detailed information on breastfeeding during the child’s first year of life was collected from a cohort of Norwegian women who gave birth in 1986–88. Among 374 of the participants, data on breastfeeding initiation and duration were compared to recalled data obtained from mailed questionnaires some 20 years later. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, Bland-Altman plot, and Kappa statistics were used to assess the agreement between the two sources of data. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of misreporting breastfeeding duration by more than one month. Results Recorded and recalled breastfeeding duration were strongly correlated (ICC=0.82, p Conclusion Breastfeeding duration was recalled quite accurately 20 years after mothers gave birth in a population where breastfeeding is common and its duration long.

  6. Application of antidepressant drugs in the treatment of pregnancy and breastfeeding women%抗抑郁药在妊娠期及哺乳期妇女中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施慎逊

    2013-01-01

    尽管抗抑郁药已广泛应用于抑郁发作的治疗,但抗抑郁药在妊娠期或哺乳期妇女中的应用,如针对该人群使用抗抑郁药应注意些什么和哪些药物使用相对安全等问题一直是临床关注的焦点.本文综合文献及笔者的临床经验综述上述相关问题.%Antidepressant drugs have been widely used in the treatment of depressive disorders. However, the application of antidepressant drugs used in the pregnancy and breastfeeding women has been a clinical concern. Based on literature and author's clinical experience, this review describes what attention should be paid when antidepressant drugs are used in the pregnancy and breastfeeding women and which drugs are relatively safer.

  7. School Nurses and Teachers: Attitudes regarding Inclusion of Breastfeeding Education in School Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Hila J.

    2010-01-01

    School nurses and middle and high school teachers (N = 107) participated in a survey that explored their attitudes and behaviors related to the inclusion of breastfeeding content to highlight the scientific and exceptional health advantages of breastfeeding and to promote a breastfeeding culture. Although some participants believed that…

  8. Breastfeeding, Malta 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Attard Montalto, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Although the scientific and economic benefits in support of breastfeeding over formula feeds is overwhelming, Malta retains one of the lowest rates for breastfeeding in almost all developed and several under-developed countries. Recently, this rate had begun to improve: from just 45% of maltese mothers breastfeeding (exclusively or mixed feeding) at the time of discharge from St. Luke's Hospital in 1995, to 64% in 2000. Nevertheless, this improvement was not sustained and only 18% of maltese ...

  9. Travelers' Health: Travel and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hand expression, see www.workandpump.com/handexpression.htm ). TRAVELING WITH A BREASTFEEDING CHILD Breastfeeding provides unique benefits to mothers and children traveling together. Health care ...

  10. Breastfeeding Report Card 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The CDC Breastfeeding Report Card provides state-by-state data to help public health practitioners, health professionals, community members, child care ...

  11. Strengthening the human rights framework to protect breastfeeding: a focus on CEDAW

    OpenAIRE

    Galtry, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Background There have been recent calls for increased recognition of breastfeeding as a human right. The United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1979 (CEDAW) is the core human rights treaty on women. CEDAW’s approach to breastfeeding is considered from an historical perspective. A comparison is drawn with breastfeeding protection previously outlined in the International Labour Organization’s Maternity Protection Convention, 1919 (ILO C3), and...

  12. Prevalência do aleitamento materno e fatores associados à interrupção da amamentação em mulheres militares Prevalencia de la lactancia materna y factores asociados a la interrupción de la amamantación en mujeres militares Prevalence of breastfeeding and factors associated with weaning from breastfeeding among military women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Caroline S. B. Freitas

    2012-12-01

    compuesto por 100 madres militares con niños de hasta 24 meses. Se recogieron datos sobre frecuencia de la lactancia materna, perfil socioeconómico, carrera militar, asistencia a la salud y hábito materno infantil. El análisis de regresión logística fue realizado para verificar la asociación entre interrupción de la lactancia materna a las variables del estudio. Las pruebas de Mann Whitney y prueba T fueron utilizadas para verificar el tiempo de lactancia exclusiva y de la lactancia materna. RESULTADOS: La lactancia materna tuvo ocurrió en 94% de los casos y su duración mediana fue de 7,2 meses. No hubo diferencia significativa de la lactancia materna entre madres militares de acuerdo con la patente, el nivel educacional y la actividad operacional. El análisis multivariado presentó asociación positiva entre el destete y las variables: situación civil de la madre (casada, información sobre la importancia de la amamantación en el prenatal y utilización de la leche no humana. La variable que se relacionó positivamente con una duración más grande de la lactancia materna exclusiva fue madres con dos hijos previos. CONCLUSIONES: La actividad operacional no interfirió en la prevalencia de la lactancia materna entre madres militares. Los autores especulan que durante el seguimiento prenatal la planificación de acciones dirigidas para la información de la importancia de la amamantación puede mejorar la prevalencia y la duración de la lactancia materna en esta población.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of breastfeeding and risk factors associated with weaning among military women in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a convenience sample including 100 military mothers with children aged up to 24 months. Data were collected on the frequency of breastfeeding, socioeconomic profile, military career, health care, and maternal and child habits. The logistic regression analysis was

  13. Female employees' perceptions of organisational support for breastfeeding at work: findings from an Australian health service workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Danielle

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women's return to work can be a significant barrier to continued breastfeeding. Workplace policies and practices to promote and support continued, and longer duration of, breastfeeding are important. In the context of the introduction of a new breastfeeding policy for Area Health Services in New South Wales, Australia, a baseline survey was conducted to describe current practices and examine women's reports of perceived organisational support on breastfeeding intention and practice. Methods A cross sectional survey of female employees of the Sydney South West Area Health Service was conducted in late 2009. A mailed questionnaire was sent to 998 eligible participants who had taken maternity leave over the 20-month period from January 2008 to August 2009. The questionnaire collected items assessing breastfeeding intentions, awareness of workplace policies, and the level of organisational and social support available. For those women who had returned to work, further questions were asked to assess the perceptions and practices of breastfeeding in the work environment, as well as barriers and enabling factors to combining breastfeeding and work. Results Returning to work was one of the main reasons women ceased breastfeeding, with 60 percent of women intending to breastfeed when they returned to work, but only 40 percent doing so. Support to combine breastfeeding and work came mainly from family and partners (74% and 83% respectively, with little perceived support from the organisation (13% and human resources (6%. Most women (92% had received no information from their managers about their breastfeeding options upon their return to work, and few had access to a room specially designated for breastfeeding (19%. Flexible work options and lactation breaks, as well as access to a private room, were identified as the main factors that facilitate breastfeeding at work. Conclusions Enabling women to continue breastfeeding at work has

  14. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Overcoming challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges Dealing with ... it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe ... at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. • Washington, DC 20201 ...

  15. WIC Participation and Breastfeeding at 3 Months Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Emily F; Gross, Susan M; Nguyen, Trang Q; Butz, Arlene M; Johnson, Sara B

    2016-08-01

    Objectives Participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) has been associated with lower breastfeeding initiation and duration. This study examines breastfeeding-related factors among WIC participants and nonparticipants that might explain these previous findings. Methods Respondents to the 2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II who were income-eligible for WIC were categorized as follows: no WIC participation (No-WIC); prenatal participation and infant entry while ≥60 % breastfeeding (WIC BF-high); prenatal participation and infant entry while Practice Accounting for prenatal breastfeeding intentions and attitudes, we find no negative association between WIC participation and breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum. This is in contrast to prior studies, and highlights the importance of understanding within-WIC differences. PMID:26994607

  16. Breastfeeding: guidance received in prenatal care, delivery and postpartum care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Caroline Barbieri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the guidelines considering breastfeeding given by health professionals to women during prenatal care, delivery and postpartum care. Quantitative and descriptive work developed at Regional Pinheiros, Maringá-PR, from the registry in SisPreNatal, from May to August 2009. Data were collected through interviews conducted with parents at home, using a structured instrument. Participants were 36 mothers, most of whom received counseling for breastfeeding during prenatal (58.3%, maternity (87.6% and in nursing visits to newborn (84.6%. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was 37.5%, even with the end of maternity leave. The rate is still below the recommended by the World Health Organization for exclusive breastfeeding. The present results may contribute to the monitoring of health actions and development of new strategies in the maintenance of exclusive breastfeeding.

  17. Exclusive maternal breastfeeding and the Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Edficher Margotti; Matias Epifanio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the factors related to the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and to associate them to the scores of the Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale. 300 mother-baby binomials were studied, from the capital cities of the southern region of Brazil in 2012, using the Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale during postpartum period and with intervals from 15 to 120 days after delivery. The average of the score of breastfeeding was 36 points. The risk factors for breastfeeding we...

  18. FAQ on Tattoos and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Добро пожаловать ברוכים הבאים HOŞ GELDİNİZ FAQ on Tattoos and Breastfeeding Breastfeeding and tattooing are enjoying resurgence ... and Breastfeeding. Is it safe to get a tattoo while breastfeeding? Tattoos are created by injecting ink ...

  19. Breastfeeding and returning to work

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    This leaflet aims to encourage breastfeeding mothers to continue breastfeeding after they have returned to work. It highlights the benefits of continuing to breastfeed, sets out the options for combining breastfeeding and work, explains the rights breastfeeding mothers have to support from their employer, and outlines what facilities and equipment mothers will need to express milk at work.

  20. Breastfeeding practices in the Pacific Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Forces of modernization, aggressive marketing on the part of infant formula companies, and an equation of bottle-feeding with sophistication all contributed to a decline in the prevalence of breastfeeding in the Pacific Basin. However, a return to breastfeeding is currently being spearheaded by better educated mothers and supported by health workers. Breastfeeding promotion will be a major emphasis of the Pacific Basin Maternal and Child Health Resource Center in its 1st year of operation. Specifically, a Breastfeeding Package containing a brochure, staff training materials, public education resources, and a model bill is being prepared. The patient brochure will be translated in local vernacular for each jurisdiction. Staff training materials will focus on the development of patient education skills and help with the management of lactating women. Public education and promotional efforts will also be undertaken through the educational system and the mass media. Finally, a model bill supporting the promotion of breastfeeding will be provided to each jurisdiction. Among provisions suggested are flex-time maternity leave to allow mothers to nurse their infants. PMID:12281757

  1. A amamentação entre filhos de mulheres trabalhadoras El amamantamiento entre hijos de mujeres trabajadoras Breastfeeding among children of women workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alves Brasileiro

    2012-08-01

    el municipio de Piracicaba, SP. Entre las participantes, 100 dúos madre-lactante recibieron orientaciones y apoyo para la práctica de la lactancia en un programa de prevención en salud bucal y los otros 100 dúos fueron abordados en una campaña de vacunación infantil. Se realizó análisis de regresión logística múltiple para identificar variables relacionadas al destete al cuarto mes de vida. RESULTADOS: La mayor parte de las participantes era primípara, pasó por cesárea, inició el amamantamiento en menos de cuatro horas posterior al parto y permaneció con su hijo en alojamiento conjunto. Tuvieron mayor probabilidad de parar el amamantamiento: madres no participantes del programa de incentivo (OR= 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85], madres que no tenían intervalo de 30 minutos durante la jornada laboral (OR= 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26] y madres cuyos hijos utilizaban chupete (OR= 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83] o tetero (OR= 14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]. CONCLUSIONES: Las madres que participaron en el grupo de incentivo de la lactancia, no ofrecieron chupete y tetero a los hijos y tenían intervalo durante el trabajo pararon el amamantamiento posterior al cuarto mes. Apoyo, informaciones sobre el manejo de la lactancia y sobre sus derechos garantizados por ley, en conjunto con la ampliación del tiempo de licencia maternidad, podrán tener un papel importante en el mantenimiento de la práctica de la lactancia materna.OBJECTIVE: To analyze employment benefits and factors associated with the maintenance of breastfeeding indexes among working mothers. METHODS: The sample was constituted by 200 formal women workers who returned to work before the child had reached six months of life, in the city of Piracicaba (Southeastern Brazil. Among the participants, 100 mother-infant dyads received guidance and support for the practice of breastfeeding within an oral health prevention program, and the other 100 dyads were addressed in a child vaccination campaign. Multiple logistic regression

  2. Gendered perceptions on infant feeding in Eastern Uganda: continued need for exclusive breastfeeding support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamagi Charles A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-poor settings, HIV positive mothers are recommended to choose between 'Exclusive breastfeeding' (EBF or 'Exclusive replacement feeding' (ERF. Acceptability, Feasibility, Affordability, Sustainability and Safety (AFASS has been the World Health Organization (WHO's a priori criteria for ERF the last ten years. 'AFASS' has become a mere acronym among many workers in the field of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, PMTCT. Thereby, non-breastfeeding has been suggested irrespective of social norms. EBF for the first half of infancy is associated with huge health benefits for children in areas where infant mortality is high. But, even if EBF has been recommended for a decade, few mothers are practicing it. We set out to understand fathers' and mothers' infant feeding perceptions and the degree to which EBF and ERF were 'AFASS.' Methods Eight focus groups with 81 informants provided information for inductive content analysis. Four groups were held by men among men and four groups by women among women in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda. Results Two study questions emerged: How are the different feeding options understood and accepted? And, what are men's and women's responsibilities related to infant feeding? A mother's commitment to breastfeed and the husband's commitment to provide for the family came out strongly. Not breastfeeding a newborn was seen as dangerous and as unacceptable, except in cases of maternal illness. Men argued that not breastfeeding could entail sanctions by kin or in court. But, in general, both men and women regarded EBF as 'not enough' or even 'harmful.' Among men, not giving supplements to breast milk was associated with poverty and men's failure as providers. Women emphasised lack of time, exhaustion, poverty and hunger as factors for limited breast milk production. Although women had attended antenatal teaching they expressed a need to know more. Most men felt left out from

  3. Representações sociais de mulheres sobre a amamentação: teste de associação livre de idéias acerca da interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno exclusivo Representaciones Sociales de Mujeres Sobre el Amamantamiento: Prueba de Asociación Libre de Ideas Acerca de la Interrupción Precoz del Amamantamiento Materno Exclusivo Social Representations of Women on Breastfeeding: Free Association of Ideas Test About the Early Interruption of the Exclusive Maternal Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cácia Mônica Osório

    2007-06-01

    reconocimiento de la importancia del amamantar materno y de la leche humana. "Salud del bebé" tuvo mayor expresividad en el grupo NTr, sugerido que esas mujeres anclaron el amamantar en el proceso salud-enfermedad. Concluyese que las mujeres reconocen la importancia de amamantar, pero no de su exclusivismo hasta el sexto mes de vida.The early interruption of exclusive breastfeeding (EB constitutes a problem with biological, psychological and sociocultural characteristics. This paper aims to describe the social representations of women who have early weaned EB. We have interviewed 30 women (15 were housewives HM, 15 were working mothers WM in mixed assited nursering in the Family Health Program in the city of Resende (RJ. From August to September 2005, we have collected data through a Free Association of Ideas test, aiming to emerge associations related to the words exploited at the level of social stereotypes, which was followed by the Bardin's content analyses. The data have shown high frequency of the category "pleasure, love and affection", showing the recognition of the importance of breastfeeding and of human milk. "Baby's health" has been more expressive in the HM group, suggesting that these women anchored breastfeeding in the health-sickness process. In conclusion, our women recognize the importance of breastfeeding but not its exclusiveness up to the sixth month of age.

  4. When breastfeeding is unsuccessful - mothers' experiences after giving up breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jette Schilling; Kronborg, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Some mothers have to give up breastfeeding even though they want to breastfeed. To give up breastfeeding can be a sensitive issue in a time when breastfeeding is promoted as the healthiest for mother and child. The aim of this study was to describe mothers’ experiences after they gave up breastfe......Some mothers have to give up breastfeeding even though they want to breastfeed. To give up breastfeeding can be a sensitive issue in a time when breastfeeding is promoted as the healthiest for mother and child. The aim of this study was to describe mothers’ experiences after they gave up...... breastfeeding even though they intended to breastfeed. A qualitative social constructive approach was used to describe mothers’ experiences after giving up breastfeeding. Danish first-time mothers who had expected and wanted to breastfeed were interviewed four months after birth. The interviews were analysed by...... aware that mothers who have to give up breastfeeding need special attention and support....

  5. Contents and Techniques of Management Development Programs for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplander, Guvenc G.; Gutmann, Jean E.

    1976-01-01

    Male and female executives were examined in terms of managerial style, perceived training needs, major job functions, and behavioral characteristics in three pilot programs focusing on management training for women. Held at the University of Maine, Orono, the programs adapted existing management education materials to female roles and viewpoints.…

  6. Running Habits of Competitive Runners During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Tenforde, Adam S.; Toth, Kierann E. S.; Langen, Elizabeth; Fredericson, Michael; Sainani, Kristin L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Running is a popular sport that may be performed safely during pregnancy. Few studies have characterized running behavior of competitive female runners during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Hypothesis: Women modify their running behavior during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Study Design: Observational, cross-sectional study. Level of evidence: Level 2. Methods: One hundred ten female long-distance runners who ran competitively prior to pregnancy completed an online survey characteriz...

  7. Transdermal estradiol treatment during breastfeeding: maternal and infant serum concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Emily; Bogen, Debra L; Hoxha, Denada; Wisner, Katherine L

    2016-04-01

    We examined estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) concentrations in breastfeeding mother-infant dyads. The mothers had postpartum depression and were participants in a randomized clinical trial with three treatments (transdermal E2, sertraline, and placebo). Neither infant E1 and E2 concentrations nor infant growth differed across the treatments. Transdermal E2 administration of 50 to 200 mcg/day for breastfeeding women did not affect infant E1 or E2 concentrations or infant growth. PMID:25956588

  8. Nursing students' views on promoting successful breastfeeding in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajalic, Zada

    2014-09-01

    Promoting breastfeeding is important work for health-care personnel in the Swedish context. This promotion is multifaceted and demands the ongoing development of knowledge and competence among both health-care personnel and patients. The aim of the present study was to describe the nursing students' perspectives on breastfeeding in Sweden. Data were obtained in the form of written reflections from nursing students (n=65) and examined using manifest content analysis. The results show that the factors of importance in promoting successful breastfeeding are information about breastfeeding's benefits, traditions and cultural acceptance of the practice, and by government prohibition of infant formula. We conclude that knowledge about the benefits of breastfeeding needs to be prioritized continuously during education. PMID:25169002

  9. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top ... other health conditions. Content last updated: January 18, 2013. Print Return to top Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | ...

  10. Breastfeeding in China: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binns Colin W

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review aims to describe changes in breastfeeding and summarise the breastfeeding rates, duration and reasons of discontinuing 'any breastfeeding' or 'exclusive breastfeeding' in P.R. China. Breastfeeding rates in China fell during the 1970s when the use of breast milk substitutes became widespread, and reached the lowest point in the 1980s. As a result many efforts were introduced to promote breastfeeding. The breastfeeding rate in China started to increase in the 1990s, and since the mid-1990s 'any breastfeeding' rates in the majority of cities and provinces, including minority areas, have been above 80% at four months. But most cities and provinces did not reach the national target of 'exclusive breastfeeding' of 80%. The 'exclusive breastfeeding' rates in minority areas were relatively lower than comparable inland provinces. The mean duration of 'any breastfeeding' in the majority of cities or provinces was between seven and nine months. The common reasons for ceasing breastfeeding, or introducing water or other infant food before four months, were perceived breast milk insufficiency, mother going to work, maternal and child illness and breast problems. Incorrect traditional perceptions have a strong adverse influence on 'exclusive breastfeeding' in less developed areas or rural areas. China is a huge country, geographically and in population size, and there is considerable ethnic diversity. Therefore breastfeeding rates in different parts of China can vary considerably.

  11. Community based peer counsellors for support of exclusive breastfeeding: experiences from rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndeezi Grace

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months could reduce infant mortality by 13%. Although 99% women initiate breastfeeding in Uganda, exclusive breastfeeding rates remain low. Although peer counsellors for support of breastfeeding mothers have been found useful in other countries, they have not been used in Uganda. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of training community based peer counsellors to support exclusive breastfeeding in a rural district in Uganda. Methods With assistance of the investigators, the local communities selected fifteen women aged 25 to 30 years. These women were trained for five days on breastfeeding counselling using the La Leche League curriculum. After training they returned to their communities and started supporting breastfeeding peers. They were followed up and supported in their work for three months. The programme was evaluated through focus group discussions with the peer counsellors, fathers and mothers. Results The trainees appreciated the knowledge gained and discussed cultural beliefs which affect breastfeeding. They offered breastfeeding support to 15 mothers each within the first two months. They found time to visit and help their breastfeeding peers despite busy schedules. They identified common breastfeeding problems as "insufficient breast milk", sore nipples, breast engorgement, mastitis and poor positioning at the breast. They further observed that most of these problems were eased by correct positioning of the baby at the breast. The peer counsellors were easily accepted by their communities. The mothers were happy to have someone within their community helping them with their breastfeeding problems. Although the peer counsellors were initially selected as volunteers, soon they demanded remuneration. Conclusion The training and follow up of peer counsellors to support exclusive breastfeeding in this rural district is feasible. The peer

  12. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe ... at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. • Washington, DC 20201 ...

  13. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe ... at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. • Washington, DC 20201 ...

  14. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... not provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize ...

  15. Breastfeeding - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of fruit: 1/2 cup fruit juice Apples Apricots Peaches 1/2 cup cut up fruit, such ... cigarettes in your breast milk. Know about your medicines and breastfeeding. Many medicines pass into mother's milk. ...

  16. Breastfeeding Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fish with high mercury levels. Do not eat shark, swordfish, king mackerel, or tilefish, and limit albacore ... bacteria and viruses that cause infection. Exclusive Breastfeeding: Feeding a baby only breast milk and no other ...

  17. Supporting breastfeeding poster

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2013-01-01

    This poster shows how grandparents can make a real difference by supporting a daughter or son's partner in their decision to breastfeed and directs them to the leaflet A grandparent's guide to supporting breastfeeding

  18. Toxoplasmosis and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Their Families Communities Health Care Employment Research & Surveillance Public Health Infrastructure National Policies & Positions Healthy People 2020 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Resources & Publications Breastfeeding Progress MMWR Highlights CDC Guide to Strategies to ...

  19. Timing of breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your baby's teeth. If your baby is drinking sugary drinks and breastfeeding, your baby may have problems with tooth decay. DO NOT give your baby sugary drinks, especially close to sleep time. Formula feeding at ...

  20. Reasons given by mothers for discontinuing breastfeeding in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olang Beheshteh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that in Iran, only 28% of infants were exclusively breastfed at six months, despite a high prevalence of breastfeeding at two years of age. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the reasons women discontinued exclusive breastfeeding. Method This retrospective study was based on questionnaires and interviews with 63,071 mothers of infants up to 24 months of age, divided into two populations: infants younger than six months and six months or older. The data were collected in 2005–2006 from all 30 provinces of Iran. Results Only 5.3% of infants less than six months of age stopped breastfeeding (mean age of 3.2 months; more commonly in urban than rural areas. The most frequently cited reasons mothers gave for discontinuing exclusive breastfeeding were physicians’ recommendation (54% and insufficient breast milk (self-perceived or true, 28%. Breastfeeding was common after six months of age: only 11% of infants discontinued breastfeeding, at a mean of 13.8 months. The most common reason for discontinuation at this age was insufficient breast milk (self-perceived or true, 45%. Maternal illness or medication (10%, infant illness (6%, and return to work (3% were uncommon causes. Use of a pacifier was correlated with breastfeeding discontinuation. Maternal age and education was not associated with duration of breastfeeding. Multivariate analysis showed that using a pacifier and formula or other bottle feeding increased the risk of early cessation of breastfeeding. Conclusions Physicians and other health professionals have an important role to play in encouraging and supporting mothers to maintain breastfeeding.

  1. Breastfeeding for diabetes prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Resham Raj; Shrestha, Dina

    2016-09-01

    Breastfeeding has been consistently observed to improve metabolism in mothers and their offspring. Apart from mother child bonding and nutritional benefits; it is associated with a decreased risk of acquiring metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in mothers, obesity and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in their children. Early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding should therefore be highly encouraged and strongly supported. PMID:27582164

  2. ABFAB. Attachment to the breast and family attitudes to breastfeeding. The effect of breastfeeding education in the middle of pregnancy on the initiation and duration of breastfeeding: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN21556494

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldenström Ulla

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has proven difficult to reach World Health Organization (WHO recommendations that infants be exclusively breastfed from birth to six months of age 12, yet there is limited knowledge about interventions that are effective in increasing breastfeeding initiation and duration. Particularly lacking is evidence about how to maintain breastfeeding rates in countries which already have a high initiation of breastfeeding. This study aims to determine whether mid-pregnancy breastfeeding education, with a focus on either attitudes to breastfeeding or on technical aspects of breastfeeding, has an effect on rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration. Secondary aims of the study are to: explore what factors might affect the duration of breastfeeding and evaluate the interventions from the participant and childbirth facilitator perspectives. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial (RCT design will be used. Women having their first baby, and planning to give birth as public patients at the Royal Women's Hospital (RWH, Melbourne, will be approached at 18–20 weeks of pregnancy and invited to participate in the study. Participants will be randomly allocated to a control group or one of two group interventions: a previously designed and trialled tool to teach practical aspects of breastfeeding or an exploration of family attitudes to breastfeeding. The latter was developed and piloted by the investigators in conjunction with the group facilitators, prior to trial commencement. The interventions are planned to take place at 20–25 weeks. Data will be collected by questionnaire at recruitment, at interview in hospital after the birth and by telephone interview six months later. Medical/obstetric outcomes will be obtained from the medical record. The sample size (972 was calculated to identify an increase in breastfeeding initiation from 75 to 85% and an increase from 40 to 50% in breastfeeding at six months.

  3. Different attitudes during breastfeeding consultations when infant formula was given: a phenomenographic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zwedberg Sofia; Naeslund Lars

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background WHO and UNICEF believe that both antenatal and maternity care organizations are in an excellent position to protect and, if necessary, reinstate a culture that promotes breastfeeding, and that they are responsible for doing so. In Sweden, the number of breastfeeding women has been decreasing annually since 1996. Thus the aim of this study is to identify, describe and analyze the attitude midwives have towards the mother, child and breastfeeding when infant formula is given...

  4. Breastfeeding Promotion Research: The ES/WIC Nutrition Education Initiative and Economic Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Weimer, Jon P.

    1998-01-01

    Educating low-income women about the advantages of breastfeeding their babies increases the number who breastfeed. This report summarizes the results of four projects that focused primarily on promoting breastfeeding, which is considered to be the most healthful and beneficial feeding method for most infants. Research has shown that breastfeeding improves the general health, growth, and development of infants and significantly reduces the risk of several health problems both during early life...

  5. Poor Adherence to National and International Breastfeeding Duration Targets in an Australian Longitudinal Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Hure, Alexis J; Powers, Jennifer R.; Chojenta, Catherine L.; Byles, Julie E.; Loxton, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To report on the proportion and characteristics of Australian infants who are fed, and mothers who feed, in accordance with the national and international breastfeeding duration targets of six, 12 and 24 months. Furthermore, to examine the longitudinal breastfeeding duration patterns for women with more than one child. Methods Breastfeeding duration data for 9773 children have been self-reported by a national sample of 5091 mothers aged 30–36 years in 2009, participating in the Aus...

  6. A randomized controlled trial of an antenatal intervention to increase exclusive breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Cheung, Ka-lun; 黃張嘉倫

    2014-01-01

    In Hong Kong, while around 85% of mothers choose to breastfeed their infants, most discontinue within the first one to two months postpartum. This indicates that there is room for improving the current breastfeeding education. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a professional one-to-one antenatal breastfeeding support and education intervention on the exclusivity and duration of breastfeeding. A total of 469 primiparous women who attended the ante...

  7. Acceptability of financial incentives for breastfeeding: thematic analysis of readers’ comments to UK online news reports

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, Emma L.; Holmes, Matthew; McColl, Elaine; Sniehotta, Falko F; Adams, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Whilst it is recommended that babies are breastfed exclusively for the first six months, many mothers do not maintain breastfeeding for this length of time. Previous research confirms that women and midwives value financial incentives for breastfeeding, but limited research has explored the wider acceptability of these interventions to the general public. This paper examines opinion towards financial incentives for breastfeeding using reader responses to UK on-line media coverage o...

  8. Barriers to postnatal care and exclusive breastfeeding among urbanwomen in southeastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph O Ugboaja; Berthrand, Nwosu O.; Igwegbe, Anthony O.; Amaka L OBI-Nwosu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Available evidence shows that only a small proportion of Nigerian women access postnatal care and practice exclusive breastfeeding. Given that both interventions are critical to the survival of both the mother and the new born, it is important to identify factors that militate against an effective postnatal care and exclusive breastfeeding in the country, in order to scale up services. The aim was to determine the major barriers to postnatal care and exclusive breastfeeding among ...

  9. Reduced breastfeeding rates among obese mothers: a review of contributing factors, clinical considerations and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Bever Babendure, Jennie; Reifsnider, Elizabeth; Mendias, Elnora; Moramarco, Michael W.; Davila, Yolanda R.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with significantly lower rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration and exclusivity. Increasing rates of obesity among reproductive-age women has prompted the need to carefully examine factors contributing to lower breastfeeding rates in this population. Recent research has demonstrated a significant impact of breastfeeding to reduce the risk of obesity in both mothers and their children. This article presents a review of research literature from three database...

  10. Breastfeeding knowledge among health workers in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sonal; Rollins, Nigel C; Bland, Ruth

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a rapid assessment of breastfeeding knowledge amongst health workers in an area of high HIV prevalence. A cross-sectional survey using semi-structured questionnaires and problem-based scenarios was carried out. Responses were compared to those recommended in the World Health Organization (WHO) Breastfeeding Counselling Course. The setting was a rural area of KwaZulu Natal, with a population of 220 000 people. At the time of the study approximately 36 per cent of pregnant women were HIV-infected and no programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission was in place. A convenient sample of 71 healthcare workers (14 doctors, 25 professional nurses, 16 staff nurses, and 16 community health workers) were included in the study. Over 50% of respondents had given breastfeeding advice to clients over the previous month. However, there were significant discrepancies in breastfeeding knowledge compared to WHO recommendations. Ninety-three per cent (n = 13) of doctors knew that breastfeeding should be initiated within 30 min of delivery, but 71 per cent (n = 10) would recommend water, and 50 per cent (n = 7) solids to breastfed infants under 6 months of age. Fifty-seven per cent (n = 8) considered glucose water necessary for neonatal jaundice, constipation, and for infants immediately after delivery. Only 44 per cent (n = 7) of staff nurses and 56 per cent (n = 14) of professional nurses knew that breastfeeding should be on demand. The majority would recommend water, formula milk, and solids to breastfed infants under 6 months of age, and glucose water for neonatal jaundice and immediately after delivery. Knowledge of community health workers differed most from WHO recommendations: only 37 per cent (n = 6) knew that breastfeeding should be initiated within 30 min of delivery, 68 per cent (n = 11) thought breastfeeding should be on schedule and not on demand, and the majority would recommend supplements to infants under 6 months of age. Few

  11. Committee Opinion No. 658: Optimizing Support for Breastfeeding as Part of Obstetric Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Although most women in the United States initiate breastfeeding, more than one half wean earlier than they desire. As reproductive health experts and advocates for women's health who work in conjunction with other obstetric and pediatric health care providers, obstetrician-gynecologists are uniquely positioned to enable women to achieve their infant feeding goals. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, with continued breastfeeding as complementary foods are introduced through the infant's first year of life, or longer as mutually desired by the woman and her infant. Because lactation is an integral part of reproductive physiology, all obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should develop and maintain knowledge and skills in anticipatory guidance, physical assessment and support for normal breastfeeding physiology, and management of common complications of lactation. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should support each woman's informed decision about whether to initiate or continue breastfeeding, recognizing that she is uniquely qualified to decide whether exclusive breastfeeding, mixed feeding, or formula feeding is optimal for her and her infant. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should support women in integrating breastfeeding into their daily lives in the community and in the workplace. The offices of obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should be a resource for breastfeeding women through the infant's first year of life, and for those who continue beyond the first year. PMID:26942393

  12. Committee Opinion No. 658 Summary: Optimizing Support For Breastfeeding As Part Of Obstetric Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Although most women in the United States initiate breastfeeding, more than one half wean earlier than they desire. As reproductive health experts and advocates for women's health who work in conjunction with other obstetric and pediatric health care providers, obstetrician-gynecologists are uniquely positioned to enable women to achieve their infant feeding goals. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, with continued breastfeeding as complementary foods are introduced through the infant's first year of life, or longer as mutually desired by the woman and her infant. Because lactation is an integral part of reproductive physiology, all obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should develop and maintain knowledge and skills in anticipatory guidance, physical assessment and support for normal breastfeeding physiology, and management of common complications of lactation. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should support each woman's informed decision about whether to initiate or continue breastfeeding, recognizing that she is uniquely qualified to decide whether exclusive breastfeeding, mixed feeding, or formula feeding is optimal for her and her infant. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should support women in integrating breastfeeding into their daily lives in the community and in the workplace. The offices of obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should be a resource for breastfeeding women through the infant's first year of life, and for those who continue beyond the first year. PMID:26942386

  13. 系统化护理干预对改善产妇母乳喂养自信心效果的研究%The effect of synthetic nursing intervention on breastfeeding self-efficacy among maternal women in different postpartum stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴红霞

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价系统化护理干预对改善产妇母乳喂养自信心和纯母乳喂养率的效果。方法:选取在广州市3所三级甲等综合性医院妇产科住院分娩的313例产妇为研究对象,按住院顺序分为对照组148例,实验组165例。向对照组实施母乳喂养口头宣教,对实验组应用《实用母乳喂养手册》实施面对面、一对一的哺乳知识与技能指导并于产后5周、11周实施母乳喂养电话指导2次。比较两组产妇在产后3天、6周、3个月时的母乳喂养自信心量表(BSES)评分及纯母乳喂养率。结果:产后3天和6周时,实验组产妇的BSES评分高于对照组(P<0.001);产后3天、6周、3个月时,实验组的纯母乳喂养率高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:系统化护理干预能显著提高产妇的母乳喂养自信心和纯母乳喂养率。%Objective: To explore the effect of synthetic nursing intervention on breastfeeding self-efifcacy and exclusive breastfeeding rate among maternal women in different stages. Methods: The control group (n=148) received routine care with verbal education about breastfeeding. The study group (n=165) received synthetic breastfeeding nursing intervention, which composed of a practical handbook on breastfeeding, breastfeeding skills guiding through face-to-face and one-to-one education at bed-side in hospital, two telephone follow-ups related to breastfeeding at 5 and 11 weeks postpartum. All the participants completed Breastfeeding Self-Efifcacy Scale (BSES) in the hospital, at 6 weeks and 3 months postpartum. Results: At 3 days and 6 weeks postpartum, the mean scores of BSES in the study group were higher than those of the control group (P<0.001). At 3 days, 6 weeks and 3 months postpartum, the exclusive breastfeeding rates in the study group were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Synthetic breastfeeding nursing intervention could improve maternal women' breastfeeding self

  14. Breastfeeding maintenance of very low weight premature babies: experience of mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz de Carvalho Ciaciare

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to comprehend the breastfeeding process from reports of mothers of premature babies and identify factors facilitating or complicating this process. A descriptive qualitative study regarding the family centered care. We conducted 12 interviews with mothers of six months premature babies of chronological age and we submitted data to content analysis. Four categories emerged: The previous breastfeeding experience in the process of breastfeeding the premature baby; Emotional context versus the breastfeeding process; The ability to manage breastfeeding the premature baby and, Successes and failures. We concluded that family and professional support, adequate management and the welcoming of individualized services in the prematurity context were majorly responsible for the breastfeeding success, being even able to surpass the previous maternal desire. Breastfeeding accompaniment after discharge is indispensable for its success with premature babies.

  15. Reason for termination of breastfeeding and the length of breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M S; Sodemann, Morten; Mølbak, Kare; Aaby, Peter

    1996-01-01

    In third world countries the length of breastfeeding often has a major influence on child mortality, morbidity and nutritional status. When evaluating the impact of length of breastfeeding the reason why a mother terminates breastfeeding is usually not taken into consideration....

  16. Things to Avoid When Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Things to ...

  17. As vivências da amamentação para um grupo de mulheres: nos limites de ser "o corpo para o filho" e de ser "o corpo para si" Breastfeeding experiences in a group of women: the limits of "the body for the child" and "the body for oneself"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Márcia Spanó Nakano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo buscamos compreender o significado atribuído, por um grupo de mulheres da cidade de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, sobre as vivências da amamentação no que se refere às sensações e manifestações em seus corpos, bem como as percebidas nos corpos de seus filhos. Compreendemos esse fenômeno integrado a sistemas de valores da maternidade e do corpo. Constitui-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa. Participaram vinte primíparas com parto há menos de trinta dias, que procuraram as unidades básicas de saúde por razão adversa à amamentação. A análise das entrevistas e observações baseou-se na técnica de análise de conteúdo, modalidade temática. Para essas mulheres, amamentar é ser uma boa mãe e dar o melhor para o filho. Na prática da amamentação, entre limites e possibilidades, dimensionam o que consideram "problema", baseando-se nas manifestações percebidas em seus corpos e, prioritariamente, nos corpos de seus filhos. Suas preocupações estão fundadas nos prejuízos e perigos a que expõem o filho. Tais vivências se processam nos limites de ser: o corpo para o filho e o corpo para si, o que confere um vivido conflito entre maternidade e individualidade.This study aims to understand the meanings ascribed by a group of women from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, to their experiences with breastfeeding in relation to the sensations and manifestations in their own bodies as well as those they perceive in their children. The phenomenon was viewed as integrated with value systems related to motherhood and the body. The research methodology was qualitative. Participants included twenty primiparous women who had given birth less than 30 days previously who came to primary health care clinics due to various complaints. The analysis of interviews and observations was based on the thematic modality of content analysis. For these women, breastfeeding means to be a good mother and to give the best of oneself to the child

  18. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breastfeeding women get a flu vaccine? Why should pregnant women get a flu shot? Flu is more ... Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) . Is it safe for pregnant women and their developing babies to get a ...

  19. Breastfeeding in Iran: prevalence, duration and current recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strandvik Birgitta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to promote breastfeeding is unquestionable for the health and development of infants. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence, duration and promotion of breastfeeding status in Iran with respect to the Baby Friendly Hospital, government actions and activities by the Breastfeeding Promotion Society including comparison with European countries. Methods This retrospective study is based on data from 63,071 infants less than 24 months of age in all the 30 urban and rural provinces of Iran. The data of breastfeeding rates were collected in 2005–2006 by trained health workers in the Integrated Monitoring Evaluation System in the Family Health Office of the Ministry of Health to evaluate its subordinate offices. A translated version of a questionnaire, used to assess the current breastfeeding situation in Europe, was used. Results At a national level, 90% and 57% of infants were breastfed at one and two-years of age, respectively. Exclusive breastfeeding rates at 4 and 6 months of age at national level averaged 56.8% and 27.7%. Exclusive breastfeeding rates at 4 and 6 months of age in rural areas were 58% and 29%, and in urban areas 56% and 27%, respectively. The policy questionnaire showed that out of the 566 hospitals across the country 466 hospitals were accredited as Baby Friendly Hospitals, covering more than 80% of the births in 2006. A national board set standards and certified pre-service education at the Ministry of Health. Iran officially adopted the WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in 1991. The legislation for working mothers met the International Labour Organization standards that cover women with formal employment. The Ministry of Health and Breastfeeding Promotion Society were responsible for producing booklets, pamphlets, breastfeeding journal, CD, workshops and websites. Monitoring of breastfeeding rates was performed every four years and funded by the Ministry of

  20. Exclusively Breastfeeding and Hypernatremic Dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Çağlar

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that breast-feeding is the best and safest way of feeding infants. Physiological weight loss occurs in the first two or three days of life, and the achievement of birth weight is expected towards the end of the first week. Hypernatremic dehydration may occur in exclusively breast-fed infants if milk supply is low during these first few days. It is not because of the high sodium content in breast milk; it is because of insufficient lactation. That is, the main cause of hypernatremic dehydration is water deprivation. There are many causes for low milk intake. Since most causes are preventable or able to be improved, mothers, particularly first time mothers, should receive more reassurance and practical advice in the technique of breast-feeding. Before their discharge from the hospital, they should be educated about the associated features of unsuccessful breast-feeding, such as going to the breast infrequently or for short times, infrequent passage of urine and stool, jaundice, lethargy, irritability and fever. Late diagnosis may cause catastrophic outcomes, such as a variety of palsies, apnea, bradycardia, seizures, hypertension, disseminated intravascular coagulation, necrotising enterocolitis after establishing full oral feeds, amputation of an extremity secondary to arterial thrombus, multiple cerebral infarctions, intracranial hemorrhages, massive intra ventricular hemorrhage, multiple dural thromboses. If babies are weighed on the day of the Guthrie test, those in the early onset of a disease and those who could not achieve their birth weight can be easily identified. The latter should be closely followed.

  1. Bone and mineral metabolism in primiparous women and its relationship with breastfeeding: a longitudinal study Metabolismo óseo y mineral en mujeres primíparas y su relación con la lactancia: un estudio longitudinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Glerean

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in bone metabolism in breastfeeding women (BF. We selected 30 primiparous women and compared them to 31 nulliparous women. We assessed bone mineral density (BMD in the lumbar spine (LS, femoral neck (FN and trochanter (TROC, biochemical parameters of bone turnover and hormone and cytokine levels at the puerperium, 6 months and 12 months after delivery. A trend to lower BMD of LS was seen at initial evaluation in BF. BMD in LS, FN, and TROC were increased 12 months after delivery. Baseline body mass index was higher in puerperal women (p = 0.02 and correlated with an increased FN and TROC BMD one year post delivery (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003. An increase in bone remodeling markers, and lower urinary calcium was observed; after 12 months these values normalized. Prolactin, parathormone related peptide (PTHrP and IL-6 were enhanced during the first six months of breastfeeding. We conclude that calcium for breastfeeding was obtained by transient mobilization of calcium deposits from the trabecular bone, and urinary calcium sparing induced by calciotrophic hormones and cytokines. Body weigth is an important factor in proximal femur BMD.El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los cambios que suceden en el metabolismo óseo de mujeres que amamantan. Se seleccionaron 30 mujeres primíparas y se compararon con 30 mujeres nulíparas como grupo control. Se evaluó la densidad mineral ósea (DMO del raquis lumbar (RL, cuello femoral (CF y trocánter (TROC, parámetros del remodelado óseo, hormonas y citoquinas. Estos parámetros se midieron en el puerperio inmediato, y a los 6 y 12 meses post-parto. La DMO del RL de la mujeres primíparas evidenciaron una tendencia a menores valores al comienzo de la lactancia comparadas con las mujeres controles, y se observó un incremento significativo de la DMO a los 12 meses, alcanzando valores similares al grupo control. La DMO en CF y del TROC aument

  2. Supporting Breastfeeding in Your Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Breastfeeding, natural and healthy though it is, can be tough, particularly in communities where there is little encouragement for breastfeeding mothers. In one survey, when asked to identify the barriers to breastfeeding, mothers most often cited busy schedules, embarrassment, and lack of support (Best Start Social Marketing 1997). Child care…

  3. Frequently Asked Questions about Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FACT SHEET FROM THE OFFICE ON WOMEN’S HEALTH Breastfeeding The experience of breastfeeding is special for so many reasons: the joyful ... her child. Here, you’ll find facts about breastfeeding and get practical tips on how to make ...

  4. Progress in promoting breast-feeding, combating malnutrition, and composition and use of infant formula, 1981-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 90% of women in developing countries and 50 to 90% of women in industrialized countries now initiate breast-feeding, a marked improvement from 25 y ago. The duration of breast-feeding has lengthened, but fewer than 35% of infants worldwide are still exclusively breast-fed at 4 mo of age. C...

  5. 单纯母乳喂养乳汁成分含量与产妇体重指数的相关性研究%The correlation research between milk component content in exclusive breastfeeding andmaternal body mass index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雅莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate correlation research between milk component content in exclusive breastfeeding andmaternal body mass index.Methods To investigate and analyze the maternal age, height, body weight before childbirth way, prenatal, gestational age, birth weight, baby weight, gender, height in 140 case. milk component content in exclusive breastfeeding andmaternal body mass index were contrastive analysised.Results Antenatal and pre-pregnancy BMI satisfied the equation BMI = 9.036 + 0.873 *. Maternal body index increases were positively associated with milk composition of zinc, calcium, magnesium, protein, fat, minerals, and the solid fat, were negatively correlated with iron, copper, and lactose.Conclusion Maternal body index increases were correlated with milk component content;controlling the maternal weight increase can keep the balance of milk component content.%目的:探讨研究单纯母乳喂养乳汁成分含量与产妇体重指数的相关性。方法:调查分析我院妇产科分娩的140例产妇年龄、身高、孕前体重、产前体重、孕周、分娩方式、婴儿体重、性别、身长等,对比分析产妇体重增长与乳汁成分含量的相关性。结果:产妇产前和孕前BMI满足方程:产前BMI=9.036+0.873*孕前BMI,产妇体重指数增幅与乳汁成分中锌元素、钙元素、镁元素、蛋白质、脂肪、矿物质和非脂肪固体呈正相关,与铁元素、铜元素和乳糖呈负相关。结论:产妇体重指数增加与乳汁成分含量有一定的相关性;控制产妇体重增加可保持乳汁成分含量的均衡性。

  6. Nursing Students’ Views on Promoting Successful Breastfeeding in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Promoting breastfeeding is important work for health-care personnel in the Swedish context. This promotion is multifaceted and demands the ongoing development of knowledge and competence among both health-care personnel and patients. The aim of the present study was to describe the nursing students’ perspectives on breastfeeding in Sweden. Data were obtained in the form of written reflections from nursing students (n=65) and examined using manifest content analysis. The results show that the ...

  7. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants under six months of age in peninsular malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Kok

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is accepted as the natural form of infant feeding. For mothers to be able to breastfeed exclusively to the recommended six months, it is important to understand the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 682 mother-infant pairs with infants up to six months attending maternal and child health section of the government health clinics in Klang, Malaysia. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a pre-tested structured questionnaire over 4 months in 2006. Data on breastfeeding were based on practice in the previous one month period. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between the independent variables and exclusive breastfeeding adjusting for infant age. Results The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers with infants aged between one and six months was 43.1% (95% CI: 39.4, 46.8. In the multivariate model exclusive breastfeeding was positively associated with rural residence, Malay mothers, non-working and non-smoking mothers, multiparous mothers, term infants, mothers with husbands who support breastfeeding and mothers who practice bed-sharing. Conclusions Interventions that seek to increase exclusive breastfeeding should focus on women who are at risk of early discontinuation of breastfeeding.

  8. Is breastfeeding really invisible, or did the health care system just choose not to notice it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulford Chris

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are innumerable myths and misconceptions about breastfeeding that minimize its importance; these often keep health workers from providing effective care to support and protect breastfeeding. They are compounded by lack of basic and applied research, and by the cultural invisibility of breastfeeding in the United States. This paper highlights some of the blind spots and suggests the importance of an approach that places breastfeeding promotion and advocacy within the context of women's lives. As we work to ensure that the health care system provides good breastfeeding care, we need to guard against letting the medicalization of infant feeding keep us from remembering that breastfeeding is something that mothers and children do, in all the aspects of their private and public lives.

  9. Antenatal Care Utilisation and Content between Low-Risk and High-Risk Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, Ping Ling; Hornetz, Klaus; Dahlui, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of antenatal care is to monitor and improve the wellbeing of the mother and foetus. The World Health Organization recommends risk-oriented strategy that includes: (i) routine care to all women, (ii) additional care for women with moderately severe diseases and complications, (iii) specialised obstetrical and neonatal care for women with severe diseases and complications. Antenatal care is concerned with adequate care in order to be effective. Measurement for adequacy of antenatal care often applies indexes that assess initiation of care and number of visits. In addition, adequacy of care content should also be assessed. Results of studies in developed settings demonstrate that women without risk factors use antenatal services more frequently than recommended. Such over-utilisation is problematic for low-resourced settings. Moreover, studies show that a substantial proportion of high-risk women had utilisation or content of care below the recommended standard. Yet studies in developing countries have seldom included a comparison between low-risk and high-risk women. The purpose of the study was therefore to assess adequacy of care and pregnancy outcomes for the different risk groups. Methods A retrospective study using a multistage sampling technique, at public-funded primary health care clinics was conducted. Antenatal utilisation level was assessed using a modified Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilisation index that measures the timing for initiation of care and observed-to-expected visits ratio. Adequacy of antenatal care content assessed compliance to routine care based on the local guidelines. Results Intensive or “adequate-plus” antenatal care utilisation as defined by the modified index was noted in over half of the low-risk women. On the other hand, there were 26% of the high-risk women without the expected intensive utilisation. Primary- or non-educated high-risk women were less likely to have a higher antenatal care utilisation

  10. Women have higher protein content of beta-oxidation enzymes in skeletal muscle than men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy C Maher

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that compared with men, women have better ultra-endurance capacity, oxidize more fat during endurance exercise, and are more resistant to fat oxidation defects i.e. diet-induced insulin resistance. Several groups have shown that the mRNA and protein transcribed and translated from genes related to transport of fatty acids into the muscle are greater in women than men; however, the mechanism(s for the observed sex differences in fat oxidation remains to be determined. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were obtained from moderately active men (N=12 and women (N=11 at rest to examine mRNA and protein content of genes involved in lipid oxidation. Our results show that women have significantly higher protein content for tri-functional protein alpha (TFPalpha, very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD, and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD (P<0.05. There was no significant sex difference in the expression of short-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD, or peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha, or PPARgamma, genes potentially involved in the transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism. In conclusion, women have more protein content of the major enzymes involved in long and medium chain fatty acid oxidation which could account for the observed differences in fat oxidation during exercise.

  11. Breastfeeding patterns in the rural community of Hilo, Hawai'i: an exploration of existing data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Jeanie L

    2013-03-01

    Before any breastfeeding promotion effort, an understanding of the existing breastfeeding patterns is essential. Hawai'i County is a rural, ethnically diverse, medically underserved community. The purpose of this study was to describe the breastfeeding patterns of women living in Hilo, Hawai'i. Data from several existing national, state, and local data sets were accessed to identify and describe the breastfeeding patterns of women in this community. Available breastfeeding data about women in Hilo was obtained from the Hawai'i WIC program and includes initiation, duration, exclusivity of breastfeeding, and reasons for not breastfeeding. These data were compared to data from published reports available at the county, state, and national level. The State of Hawai'i and Hilo exceed national targets for breastfeeding initiation; however, rates soon drop following delivery, and mixed feedings of infants is common. The highest percentage of mothers weaned their infants within the first four weeks postpartum. The reasons the majority of the mothers gave for weaning were tied to breastfeeding situations that are amenable to skilled lactation support (eg, milk supply issues and latch or sucking problems). While available data sets offer valuable information on the breastfeeding patterns in this rural community, there are limitations to their usefulness, primarily due to the inconsistent operational definitions of infant feeding variables used in the surveys, and the lack of availability of community level data. PMID:23520565

  12. Experiences of birth and breastfeeding following assisted conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Margaret; Roiko, Anne; Reed, Rachel; Williams, Cath; Willcocks, Kerry

    2013-03-01

    The short and long-term benefits that breastfeeding has for both infant and mother are well recognised. With births increasingly occurring as a result of assisted conception (AC) technologies, the impact that these treatments have on a woman's experience of breastfeeding is an important issue to explore. This paper reports findings from a qualitative study exploring this association. Women who had undergone AC and planned to give birth at one private institution in regional Queensland, Australia, were approached to participate in this study (n = 12). Utilising narrative enquiry in the form of pre and post-birth interviews, participants' accounts of their experiences of breastfeeding were analysed as a means of understanding and representing their journeys. Findings demonstrated that during pregnancy the women were focused on healthy outcomes, showing ambivalence towards the mode of birth. There was a determination to breastfeed that was seen as one way to counteract the intervention and medicalisation they had undergone to conceive. Postnatally, for a number of women in the study breastfeeding difficulties were experienced--a finding that supports recent research. Further mixed method investigation into the impact that assisted conception has on breastfeeding intention, initiation and ability is indicated. PMID:23600323

  13. Breastfeeding maintenance of very low weight premature babies: experience of mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz de Carvalho Ciaciare; Michelle Thais Migoto; Talita Balaminut; Mauren Teresa Grubisich Mendes Tacla; Sarah Nancy Deggau Hegeto de Souza; Edilaine Giovanini Rossetto

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to comprehend the breastfeeding process from reports of mothers of premature babies and identify factors facilitating or complicating this process. A descriptive qualitative study regarding the family centered care. We conducted 12 interviews with mothers of six months premature babies of chronological age and we submitted data to content analysis. Four categories emerged: The previous breastfeeding experience in the process of breastfeeding the premature bab...

  14. Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations. PMID:23844558

  15. 42 CFR 431.635 - Coordination of Medicaid with Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... breastfeeding women, postpartum women, and pregnant women mean women as defined in section 17 of the Child... eligible) for Medicaid and who are: (i) Pregnant women; (ii) Postpartum women; (iii) Breastfeeding women... presumptively eligible) who are under age 5 or who are women who might be pregnant, postpartum, or...

  16. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have diabetes. Breastfeeding may help prevent sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Mothers who breastfeed find it easier to lose weight ... Wage and Hour Division. Break Time for Nursing Mothers. www.dol.gov/whd/nursingmothers. Accessed April 28, ... MD, Pediatric ER, Joe DiMaggio Children's Hospital, Hollywood, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare ...

  17. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  18. Necessidades de saúde de mulheres em processo de amamentação Necesidades de salud de mujeres en el proceso de lactancia Health needs of women in the process of breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glicéria Tochika Shimoda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Nosso objetivo foi identificar as necessidades de saúde de mulheres no processo de amamentação. Entrevistamos 238 mulheres, organizamos os dados segundo proposta do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. Utilizando taxonomia de Matsumoto, encontramos: Necessidade de boas condições de vida (ter boa alimentação; trabalhar/estudar; ter tempo para si; sono e repouso adequados; boa saúde mental; boas condições para amamentar seu filho; Necessidade de ter acesso a todas as tecnologias de saúde que contribuam para melhorar e prolongar a vida (lidar com intercorrências da amamentação, ter acesso aos serviços de saúde; Necessidade de ter vínculo com um profissional/equipe de saúde; Necessidade de autonomia e autocuidado na escolha do modo de "andar a vida" (ter orientação quanto à amamentação; receber apoio do profissional; sentir-se segura para amamentar.Nuestro objetivo fue identificar las necesidades de salud de la mujer en el proceso de la lactancia materna. Fueron participantes 238 mujeres y los datos fueron organizados de acuerdo a la propuesta del Discurso del Sujeto Colectivo. De acuerdo con la taxonomía de Matsumoto tuvimos: Necesidad de buenas condiciones de vida (tener una buena alimentación, trabajar o estudiar, tener tiempo para sí, sueño y resto adecuados; buena salud mental, buenas condiciones para la lactancia de su hijo; Necesidad de tener acceso a todas las tecnologías de salud que se contribuyen para mejorar y ampliar la vida (para tratar de las complicaciones de la lactancia materna, tener el acceso a los servicios de salud; Necesidad de vincular con un profesional o equipo de salud, Necesidad de cuidado de sí mismo y autonomía en la opción en el camino "para andar la vida" (tener orientación sobre la lactancia, recibir apoyo del profesional; sentirse seguro de sí mismo con respecto a la lactancia materna.Our objective was to identify the health needs of women in their breastfeeding process. We interviewed 238

  19. 'This little piranha': a qualitative analysis of the language used by health professionals and mothers to describe infant behaviour during breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Elaine; Fenwick, Jenny; Sheehan, Athena; Schmied, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life offers the recommended best start in the life for a newborn baby. Yet, in Australia only a small number of babies receive breast milk exclusively for the first 6 months. Reasons for the introduction of formula milk are multi-factorial including access to appropriate support and the woman's experience of breastfeeding. The language and practices of health professionals can impact upon how a woman feels about breastfeeding and her breastfeeding body. One aspect of breastfeeding support that has had scarce attention in the literature is the language used by health professionals to describe the behaviour of the breastfeeding infant during the early establishment phase of breastfeeding. This paper reveals some of the ways in which midwives, lactation consultants and breastfeeding women describe the newborn baby during the first week after birth. The study was conducted at two maternity units in New South Wales. Interactions between midwives and breastfeeding women were observed and audio recorded on the post-natal ward and in women's homes, in the first week after birth. The transcribed data were analysed using discourse analysis searching for recurring words, themes and metaphors used in descriptions of the breastfeeding baby. Repeated negative references to infant personality and unfavourable interpretations of infant behaviour influenced how women perceived their infant. The findings revealed that positive language and interpretations of infant breastfeeding behaviour emerged from more relationship-based communication. PMID:26059182

  20. Breastfeeding practices in the city of Iguatu-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Vanda Teixeira de Freitas Cavalcante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess breastfeeding practices in Family Health Strategy. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study conducted in Family Health Units of the urban area of Iguatu-CE, Brazil, from August 2008 to May 2009. Participants were 402 mothers with children under six months of age who underwent prenatal consultations. We used a form with questions regarding breastfeeding, breastfeeding difficulties, introducing other foods, infant nutrition, consultations prenatal and postpartum visits undertaken by staff. The data were entered into SPSS 16.0 and analyzed descriptively. Results: Among the mothers interviewed (402, most said that was breastfeeding babies (N = 343, 85.3%, but introduced other food (N = 252, 62.6%, verifying low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. Of the 252 women who reported offering other food to baby, 158 (62.7% offered on their own, followed by those who chose to follow the indication of relatives and neighbors (N = 63, 25%. Conclusions: The study revealed that mothers of the Family Health Units from Iguatu-EC did not breastfeed their children exclusively, but with the introduction of other foods (other milk, porridge, thereby demonstrating the low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding.

  1. A systematic review of interventions to improve knowledge and self-management skills concerning contraception, pregnancy and breastfeeding in people with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Ilana N; Ngian, Gene-Siew; Van Doornum, Sharon; Briggs, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to determine the effectiveness of interventions for improving knowledge and/or self-management skills concerning contraception, pregnancy and breastfeeding in people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We searched four databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Trials, PsycINFO) using a comprehensive search strategy. Studies were eligible if they were prospective, published in English from 2004 to 2015, included participants with RA and tested an intervention designed to improve knowledge and/or self-management skills relating to family planning, pregnancy or breastfeeding. As no studies met the latter criterion, the search strategy was expanded to include all prospective studies evaluating RA educational and/or self-management interventions. Data on study characteristics, participant characteristics and programme content were extracted to summarise the evidence base for interventions to support people with RA during their reproductive years. Expanded literature searches identified 2290 papers, of which 68 were eligible. Of these, nine papers (13%) specifically excluded pregnant women/breastfeeding mothers or recruited only older people. Only one study (1%) explicitly evaluated pregnancy-focused education via a motherhood decision aid, while eight studies (12%) incorporated relevant (albeit minor) components within broader RA educational or self-management interventions. Of these, three studies provided methotrexate education in relation to conception/pregnancy/breastfeeding; three incorporated discussions on RA and relationships, impact of RA on the family or sexual advice; one provided information regarding contraception and fertility; and one issued a warning regarding use of biologic therapy in pregnancy/breastfeeding. In conclusion, information regarding family planning, pregnancy or breastfeeding represents a negligible part of published RA educational interventions, with scope to develop targeted resources. PMID:26638162

  2. Sexual function and depressive symptoms in young women with elevated macroprolactin content: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta; Okopien, Bogusław

    2016-07-01

    Elevated prolactin levels seem to be associated with impaired sexuality. The clinical significance of macroprolactinemia, associated with the predominance of high molecular mass circulating forms of prolactin, is still poorly understood. This study was aimed at investigating sexual function in young women with macroprolactinemia. The study enrolled 14 young women with macroprolactinemia, 14 with increased monomeric prolactin levels, as well as 14 age- and weight-matched healthy women. All patients completed a questionnaire evaluating female sexual function (Female Sexual Function Index-FSFI), as well as a questionnaire assessing the presence and severity of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition-BDI-II). Apart from total prolactin levels and macroprolactin content, circulating levels of thyrotropin, total testosterone, and 17-β estradiol were also measured. Patients with elevated monomeric prolactin levels had a lower total FSFI score, as well as lower scores for all domains: sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, orgasm, sexual satisfaction, and dyspareunia. These scores correlated with total and monomeric prolactin levels. In turn, women with macroprolactinemia were characterized by a lower score for sexual desire, and only this score correlated with total prolactin levels and macroprolactin content. The total score in the BDI-II questionnaire was higher in patients with hyper- and macroprolactinemia than in the control subjects. Contrary to multidimensional impairment of sexual function in women with elevated monomeric prolactin, macroprolactinemia only seems to disturb sexual desire. PMID:26902871

  3. Labor Epidural Analgesia and Breastfeeding: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Cynthia A; Cong, Xiaomei; Chung, Keun Sam

    2016-08-01

    Despite widespread use of epidural analgesia during labor, no consensus has been reached among obstetric and anesthesia providers regarding its effects on breastfeeding. The purpose of this review was to examine the relationship between labor epidural analgesia and breastfeeding in the immediate postpartum period. PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched for articles published in 1990 or thereafter, using the search term breastfeeding combined with epidural, labor epidural analgesia, labor analgesia, or epidural analgesia Of 117 articles, 23 described empirical studies specific to labor epidural analgesia and measured a breastfeeding outcome. Results were conflicting: 12 studies showed negative associations between epidural analgesia and breastfeeding success, 10 studies showed no effect, and 1 study showed a positive association. Most studies were observational. Of 3 randomized controlled studies, randomization methods were inadequate in 2 and not evaluable in 1. Other limitations were related to small sample size or inadequate study power; variation and lack of information regarding type and dosage of analgesia or use of other intrapartum interventions; differences in timing, definition, and method of assessing breastfeeding success; or failure to consider factors such as mothers' intention to breastfeed, social support, siblings, or the mother's need to return to work or school. It is also unclear to what extent results are mediated through effects on infant neurobehavior, maternal fever, oxytocin release, duration of labor, and need for instrumental delivery. Clinician awareness of factors affecting breastfeeding can help identify women at risk for breastfeeding difficulties in order to target support and resources effectively. PMID:27121239

  4. Impact of education and training on type of care provided by community-based breastfeeding counselors: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan Elizabeth M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies using community-based breastfeeding counselors (CBBCs have repeatedly shown positive impact on breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity and duration, particularly among low-income mothers. To date, there has not been a comprehensive study to determine the impact of CBBC attributes such as educational background and training, on the type of care that CBBCs provide. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of CBBCs to ascertain the influence of counselor education and type of training on type of support and proficiency of CBBCs in communities across the United States. Invitations to participate in this online survey of CBBCs were e-mailed to program coordinators of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC, La Leche League, and other community-based health organizations, who in turn invited and encouraged their CBBCs to participate. Descriptive analysis was used to describe participants (N = 847, while bivariate analysis using χ2 test was used to examine the differences between CBBC education, training received and breastfeeding support skills used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the independent determinants of specific breastfeeding support skills. Results The major findings from the research indicate that overall, educational attainment of CBBCs is not a significant predictor for the curriculum used in their training and type of support skills used during counseling sessions, but initial training duration was positively associated with the use of many breastfeeding support skills. Another major influence of counselor support to clients is the type of continuing education they receive after their initial training, with higher likelihood of use of desirable support skills associated with counselors continuing their breastfeeding education at conferences or trainings away from their job sites. Conclusions Our results show that different

  5. EFFECT OF BEHAVIOUR CHANGE COMMUNICATION ON BREASTFEEDING PRACTICES IN PERIURBAN AREA OF ALIGARH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Haroon Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1.To assess the behavior of pregnant women regarding breastfeeding practices. 2. Assessing impact of Behavior Change Communication Package among pregnant women regarding breastfeeding practices. Study design: A community based intervention study Setting: Field practice areas of Urban Health Training Center, Department of Community Medicine, JNMCH, AMU, Aligarh. Participants: 200 pregnant women (100 pregnant women from each intervention and non-intervention group Sampling: Purposive sampling method. Statistical Analysis: Data analysed with Epi Info version 3.5.1. Percentages, Relative Risk and Chi Square Test used. Results: Due to implementation of BCC Package in intervention, good practices like giving colostrum were increased two times. Initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour was increased 4.7 times, exclusive breastfeeding was gone up 3.8 times for first seven days of delivery. There was significant difference (P–value <0.05 between the two groups regarding breastfeeding on 7th day of delivery. The differences were significant (P–value-<0.05 on 7th and 28th days of delivery. Conclusion: Good practices of breastfeeding within one hour, using colostrum, exclusive breastfeeding were improved significantly after implementation of behavior change communication package.

  6. Association of Breastfeeding and the Federal Poverty Level: National Survey of Family Growth, 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, R. Constance; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Hayes, Sarah E.; Azulay Chertok, Ilana R.

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is strongly endorsed in the Healthy People 2020 goals; however, there remain many disparities in breastfeeding prevalence. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between breastfeeding and the Federal Poverty Level in the United States. Data from 5,397 women in the National Survey of Family Growth 2011–2013 survey were included in this study. The data were analyzed for descriptive features and logistic regressions of the Federal Poverty Level on breastfeeding. There were 64.1% of women who reported breastfeeding. Over one-third (35.2%) of women reported having a household income of 0–99% of the Federal Poverty Level. There were 15.2% of women who reported an income of 400% and above the Federal Poverty Level. With statistical adjustment for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, parity, preterm birth, birth weight, insurance, and dwelling, the Federal Poverty Level was not significantly associated with breastfeeding. In this recent survey of mothers, Federal Poverty Level was not shown to be a significant factor in breastfeeding. PMID:27019750

  7. Session 1: Public health nutrition. Breast-feeding practices in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2008-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids during this time. Historically, Irish breast-feeding initiation rates have remained strikingly low in comparison with international data and there has been little improvement in breast-feeding duration rates. There is wide geographical variation in terms of breast-feeding initiation both internationally and in Ireland. Some of these differences in breast-feeding rates may be associated with differing socio-economic characteristics. A recent cross-sectional prospective study of 561 pregnant women attending a Dublin hospital and followed from the antenatal period to 6 months post partum has found that 47% of the Irish-national mothers initiated breast-feeding, while only 24% were still offering \\'any\\' breast milk to their infants at 6 weeks. Mothers\\' positive antenatal feeding intention to breast-feed is indicated as one of the most important independent determinants of initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks, suggesting that the antenatal period should be targeted as an effective time to influence and affect mothers\\' attitudes and beliefs pertaining to breast-feeding. These results suggest that the \\'cultural\\' barrier towards breast-feeding appears to still prevail in Ireland and consequently an environment that enables women to breast-feed is far from being achieved. Undoubtedly, a shift towards a more positive and accepting breast-feeding culture is required if national breast-feeding rates are to improve.

  8. Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Hunter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Childbirth Experiences Survey, which explored key topics such as (1 breastfeeding initiation, (2 early post-partum breastfeeding, (3 breastfeeding plan, (4 post-partum breastfeeding support and (5 breast feeding duration. This was a voluntary self-reported questionnaire. The surveys were completed by the mothers during the post-partum period. Results: 45.9% (n=67 of mothers received helped from their husband or partner with breastfeeding while in the hospital, while 54.1% (n=79 of mothers did not receive support from their partners. Mothers who received early post-partum breastfeeding support were more likely to continue breastfeeding after leaving the hospital. Conclusion: First-time mothers who identified as having breastfeeding support from their partners, the infant’s father, during the early post-partum period were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and had longer breastfeeding durations.

  9. Drugs in breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotham, Neil; Hotham, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Most commonly used drugs are relatively safe for breastfed babies. The dose received via milk is generally small and much less than the known safe doses of the same drug given directly to neonates and infants. Drugs contraindicated during breastfeeding include anticancer drugs, lithium, oral retinoids, iodine, amiodarone and gold salts. An understanding of the principles underlying the transfer into breast milk is important, as is an awareness of the potential adverse effects on the infant. Discussion with the mother about the possibility of either negative product information or ill-informed advice from others will reduce the confusion and anxiety that may be generated. Good resources about medicines and breastfeeding are available and include state-based medicines information services. PMID:26648652

  10. Making use of expertise: a qualitative analysis of the experience of breastfeeding support for first-time mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeming, Dawn; Williamson, Iain; Johnson, Sally; Lyttle, Steven

    2015-10-01

    There is now a body of research evaluating breastfeeding interventions and exploring mothers' and health professionals' views on effective and ineffective breastfeeding support. However, this literature leaves relatively unexplored a number of questions about how breastfeeding women experience and make sense of their relationships with those trained to provide breastfeeding support. The present study collected qualitative data from 22 breastfeeding first-time mothers in the United Kingdom on their experiences of, and orientation towards, relationships with maternity care professionals and other breastfeeding advisors. The data were obtained from interviews and audio-diaries at two time points during the first 5 weeks post-partum. We discuss a key theme within the data of 'Making use of expertise' and three subthemes that capture the way in which the women's orientation towards those assumed to have breastfeeding expertise varied according to whether the women (1) adopted a position of consulting experts vs. one of deferring to feeding authorities; (2) experienced difficulty interpreting their own and their baby's bodies; and (3) experienced the expertise of health workers as empowering or disempowering. Although sometimes mothers felt empowered by aligning themselves with the scientific approach and 'normalising gaze' of health care professionals, at other times this gaze could be experienced as objectifying and diminishing. The merits and limitations of a person-centred approach to breastfeeding support are discussed in relation to using breastfeeding expertise in an empowering rather than disempowering way. PMID:23557351

  11. Duration OF breastfeeding associated with the breastfeeding Peer Support Program for husbands and fathers of Brownsville, Texas WIC participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to explore the association between participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) pilot Peer Dad Program and duration of breastfeeding. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted along the Texas-Mexico border. Participants ...

  12. Serum contents of endocannabinoids are correlated with blood pressure in depressed women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho WS Vanessa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is known to be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Since recent preclinical evidence suggests that endogenous agonists of cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids are involved in both cardiovascular function and depression, we asked whether endocannabinoids correlated with either in humans. Results Resting blood pressure and serum content of endocannabinoids in ambulatory, medication-free, female volunteers with depression (n = 28 and their age- and ethnicity-matched controls (n = 27 were measured. In females with depression, both diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures were positively correlated with serum contents of the endocannabinoids, N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. There was no correlation between blood pressure and endocannabinoids in control subjects. Furthermore, depressed women had significantly higher systolic blood pressure than control subjects. A larger body mass index was also found in depressed women, however, it was not significantly correlated with serum endocannabinoid contents. Conclusions This preliminary study raises the possibility that endocannabinoids play a role in blood pressure regulation in depressives with higher blood pressure, and suggests an interrelationship among endocannabinoids, depression and cardiovascular risk factors in women.

  13. Working mothers of the World Health Organization Western Pacific offices: lessons and experiences to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iellamo, Alessandro; Sobel, Howard; Engelhardt, Katrin

    2015-02-01

    Optimal breastfeeding saves lives. However, suboptimal breastfeeding is prevalent, primarily resulting from inappropriate promotion of infant formula and challenges of working mothers to continue breastfeeding. The article aims to determine the extent to which World Health Organization (WHO) policies protect, promote, and support breastfeeding women working at the WHO, Western Pacific Region. An online survey targeted all female WHO and contractual staff in all country and regional offices, who delivered a baby between July 24, 2008 and July 24, 2013. Respondents advised on how the worksite could better support breastfeeding. Thirty-two female staff from 11 of the 12 WHO offices within the Western Pacific Region responded. "Returning to work" (44%) and "not having enough milk" (17%) were the most commonly reported reasons for not breastfeeding. Eighteen (56%) reported using infant formula and 8 (44%) reported that the product was prescribed. Among the suggestions given to better support breastfeeding, 10 (32%) recommended having a private room with a chair, table, electric outlet, and refrigerator. The findings show that women working at the WHO face similar challenges to mothers outside the WHO. Based on the findings, we recommend the following: (1) provide prenatal/postpartum breastfeeding counseling services for employees; (2) establish breastfeeding rooms in country offices and regularly orient staff on agency policies to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding; (3) annually celebrate World Breastfeeding Week with employees; (4) encourage other public and private institutions to conduct online surveys and elicit recommendations from mothers on how their workplace can support breastfeeding; and (5) conduct a larger survey among UN agencies on how to better protect, promote, and support breastfeeding. PMID:25398406

  14. Meanings attributed to breastfeeding in the first two years of life: a study with women from two municipalities in the Recôncavo Baiano region of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Demétrio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the maternal meanings attributed to breastfeeding during the child's first two years of life. METHODS: This qualitative, exploratory and analytical study involved mothers that participated in a cohort from a larger study done in the municipalities of Mutuipe and Laje in the Recôncavo area of the State of Bahia, Brazil. The methodological resources included thorough individual interviews and thematic analysis. The meanings were analyzed by the theoretical framework of sociological phenomenology. RESULTS: The meanings stated by the mothers show the singularity of breastfeeding, the importance of family, spousal and health practitioner support, and knowledge about the benefits of breastfeeding for the mother's and child's health and nutritional status. CONCLUSION: The meanings attributed to breastfeeding in the child's first two years of life reflected the influences of complex networks of social relationships of the mother's social and cultural context and of the scientific and biomedical discourse.

  15. Why invest, and what it will take to improve breastfeeding practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Nigel C; Bhandari, Nita; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Horton, Susan; Lutter, Chessa K; Martines, Jose C; Piwoz, Ellen G; Richter, Linda M; Victora, Cesar G

    2016-01-30

    Despite its established benefits, breastfeeding is no longer a norm in many communities. Multifactorial determinants of breastfeeding need supportive measures at many levels, from legal and policy directives to social attitudes and values, women's work and employment conditions, and health-care services to enable women to breastfeed. When relevant interventions are delivered adequately, breastfeeding practices are responsive and can improve rapidly. The best outcomes are achieved when interventions are implemented concurrently through several channels. The marketing of breastmilk substitutes negatively affects breastfeeding: global sales in 2014 of US$44·8 billion show the industry's large, competitive claim on infant feeding. Not breastfeeding is associated with lower intelligence and economic losses of about $302 billion annually or 0·49% of world gross national income. Breastfeeding provides short-term and long-term health and economic and environmental advantages to children, women, and society. To realise these gains, political support and financial investment are needed to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding. PMID:26869576

  16. Breastfeeding and feminism: A focus on reproductive health, rights and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Emily C

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The annual Breastfeeding and Feminism Symposia aim to reposition breastfeeding as a valued part of women's (reproductive lives and rights. The symposia are designed to raise the profile of breastfeeding within the women's advocacy and feminist studies' communities, and to increase recognition among breastfeeding supporters that breastfeeding promotion could receive more socio-political support by partnering with those concerned with women's reproductive health, rights and justice, women's economic advancement, and the elimination of social, economic and health inequities. The third symposium (2007 sought to build dialogue and increase communications between and among these diverse communities. The nine articles presented in this thematic series were selected by the journal editors, and represent the core discussions at the symposium. This editorial presents the areas of synergy and strategies for action that emerged from the discussions. These strategies and this thematic issue are intended to reassert the momentum that evolved among participants, and to stimulate involvement among individuals and organizations not in attendance in promoting breastfeeding as a women's reproductive health, rights and justice concern.

  17. Breastfeeding and feminism: a focus on reproductive health, rights and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbok, Miriam H; Smith, Paige Hall; Taylor, Emily C

    2008-01-01

    The annual Breastfeeding and Feminism Symposia aim to reposition breastfeeding as a valued part of women's (re)productive lives and rights. The symposia are designed to raise the profile of breastfeeding within the women's advocacy and feminist studies' communities, and to increase recognition among breastfeeding supporters that breastfeeding promotion could receive more socio-political support by partnering with those concerned with women's reproductive health, rights and justice, women's economic advancement, and the elimination of social, economic and health inequities. The third symposium (2007) sought to build dialogue and increase communications between and among these diverse communities. The nine articles presented in this thematic series were selected by the journal editors, and represent the core discussions at the symposium. This editorial presents the areas of synergy and strategies for action that emerged from the discussions. These strategies and this thematic issue are intended to reassert the momentum that evolved among participants, and to stimulate involvement among individuals and organizations not in attendance in promoting breastfeeding as a women's reproductive health, rights and justice concern. PMID:18680575

  18. [Breast-feeding during the process of transculturation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Franco, L

    1985-07-01

    Sociocultural changes in Europe during the Industrial Revolution of the past century resulted in a decline in the practice of breastfeeding. Migration of a large part of the rural population to the city led to a substantial change of life styles, with the health of the population seriously affected. Poor sanitary conditions, deteriorating nutritional status, and other problems became more widespread. Some contemporary reports noted the adverse effects on infant health of the decline in breastfeeding. A researcher in Manchester, Englands found that 60% of infants who were breastfed showed satisfactory growth and nutritional status through 9 months, compared with only 10% of artificially fed infants. In some respects, developments in postwar Latin American reflect trends in Europe a century ago, with rural-urban migration, the incorporation of women into the labor market, the development of food technology, and the use of advertising and propaganda combining to produce a decline in the prevalence of breastfeeding. The proportions of infants breastfed declined from 15% to 6% in Chile between 1960-1968, while in Mexico a parallel but less marked decline in breastfeeding has occurred in both rural and low income urban areas. In 1973, 2/3 of 5000 mothers interviewed breastfed their infants in the 1st month, while by 1979 only 52.8% of a similar sample did so. 3 possible explanations of the decline in breastfeeding see it as a symptom of abandonment of traditional ways by mothers in a process of cultural change; as a decision made without reflection on its consequences for the baby and the family; or as a result of information received by the mother whose interpretation is influenced by her educational level. To understand the phenomenon, breastfeeding must be considered a form of instinctive behavior by which the mother promotes the growth of her baby during a phase of intense nutritional demand, but the practice of breastfeeding is also the result of interaction of the

  19. Benefits and risks of breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2005, the American Academy of Pediatrics extended their position concerning the superiority of human milk for feeding human infants and the reasons for encouraging breastfeeding. Yet questions have been raised whether the benefits of breastfeeding pertain to populations in the industrialized wor...

  20. Breastfeeding cessation and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ystrom Eivind

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal anxiety and depression and breastfeeding cessation are significant public health problems. There is an association between maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression and early breastfeeding cessation. In earlier studies, the causality of this association was interpreted both ways; symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum significantly impacts breastfeeding, and breastfeeding cessation significantly impacts symptoms of anxiety and depression. First, we aimed to investigate whether breastfeeding cessation is related to an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from pregnancy to six months postpartum. Second, we also investigated whether the proposed symptom increase after breastfeeding cessation was disproportionately high for those women already suffering from high levels of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. Methods To answer these objectives, we examined data from 42 225 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Subjects were recruited in relation to a routine ultra-sound examination, and all pregnant women in Norway were eligible. We used data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and questionnaires both pre and post partum. Symptoms of anxiety and depression at six months postpartum were predicted in a linear regression analysis by WHO-categories of breastfeeding, symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum (standardized score, and interaction terms between breastfeeding categories and prepartum symptoms of anxiety and depression. The results were adjusted for cesarean sections, primiparity, plural births, preterm births, and maternal smoking. Results First, prepartum levels of anxiety and depression were related to breastfeeding cessation (β 0.24; 95% CI 0.21-0.28, and breastfeeding cessation was predictive of an increase in postpartum anxiety and depression ( β 0.11; 95%CI 0.09-0.14. Second, prepartum anxiety and depression interacted with the relation between

  1. [Results of a study of breastfeeding by pediatric and health education workers 1983-1987].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, A

    1989-08-01

    The authors investigated the rate of breastfeeding in infants born in February in the CSR in 1983-1987. During this period the rate of breastfeeding increased by 3-4%, in particular during the 3rd, 4th and 5th month. The number of infants not breastfed at all did not change and is 12%. By the third month two-thirds of infants cease to be breastfed and only less than one third are breastfed for more than three months. By the end of the 6th month less than one tenth of infants are breastfed. Recommendations to increase the rate of breastfeeding comprise in addition to provisions in obstetric departments (rooming-in) more intense individual health education of mothers in these departments and in paediatric health communities, group training of pregnant women, inclusion of the importance of breastfeeding into syllabi in schools and propagation of breastfeeding in mass media and social organizations of the National Front. PMID:2582533

  2. Maternal prepregnancy waist circumference and BMI in relation to gestational weight gain and breastfeeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Nøhr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M;

    2015-01-01

    , affects GWG and breastfeeding behavior. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how maternal prepregnancy fat distribution, described by waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), is associated with GWG and breastfeeding behavior. DESIGN: We analyzed 1371 live births to 1024 women after enrollment in the...... size was differently associated with GWG and breastfeeding behavior depending on the location of the fat mass. Thus, maternal fat distribution may be a more important determinant of GWG and breastfeeding behavior than BMI alone.......BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that gestational weight gain (GWG) and breastfeeding behavior may influence long-term maternal abdominal fat mass. However, this could be confounded by abdominal fat mass before pregnancy because it is unknown whether abdominal fat mass, independently of body size...

  3. The Interactions between Breastfeeding Mothers and Their Babies during the Breastfeeding Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Videotaped 12 breastfeeding mothers and their babies during breastfeeding sessions to investigate maternal-infant interactions occurring during breastfeeding sessions. Presents four case studies to examine differences in breastfeeding interactions, as well as benefits and disadvantages that breastfeeding provided different mother-child pairs. (MM)

  4. Using a wellness program to promote a culture of breastfeeding in the workplace: Oregon Health & Science University's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magner, Antoinette; Phillipi, Carrie Anne

    2015-02-01

    In the United States, many women stop breastfeeding within the first month that they return to work. Working mothers experience challenges in maintaining milk supply and finding the time and space to express breast milk or feed their babies in workplace settings. Changing attitudes and culture within the workplace may be accomplished in conjunction with ensuring compliance with state and federal laws regarding breastfeeding to improve breastfeeding rates after return to work. Employee wellness programs can be 1 avenue to promote breastfeeding and human milk donation as healthy behaviors. PMID:25326414

  5. Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also cause sexual dysfunction. You may have less sexual desire during pregnancy, right after childbirth or when you are breastfeeding. After menopause many women feel less sexual desire, have vaginal dryness or have pain during sex ...

  6. Addressing Breastfeeding Disparities in Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Carol Grace

    2007-01-01

    This article examines social justice issues affecting breastfeeding in the United States. Public health goals for breastfeeding initiation and duration and barriers to breastfeeding among low-income groups are discussed. Suggestions are made about ways social workers may more assertively support breastfeeding in the context of social work practice.

  7. Health disparities and advertising content of women's magazines: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victorio Maria

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in health status among ethnic groups favor the Caucasian population in the United States on almost all major indicators. Disparities in exposure to health-related mass media messages may be among the environmental factors contributing to the racial and ethnic imbalance in health outcomes. This study evaluated whether variations exist in health-related advertisements and health promotion cues among lay magazines catering to Hispanic, African American and Caucasian women. Methods Relative and absolute assessments of all health-related advertising in 12 women's magazines over a three-month period were compared. The four highest circulating, general interest magazines oriented to Black women and to Hispanic women were compared to the four highest-circulating magazines aimed at a mainstream, predominantly White readership. Data were collected and analyzed in 2002 and 2003. Results Compared to readers of mainstream magazines, readers of African American and Hispanic magazines were exposed to proportionally fewer health-promoting advertisements and more health-diminishing advertisements. Photographs of African American role models were more often used to advertise products with negative health impact than positive health impact, while the reverse was true of Caucasian role models in the mainstream magazines. Conclusion To the extent that individual levels of health education and awareness can be influenced by advertising, variations in the quantity and content of health-related information among magazines read by different ethnic groups may contribute to racial disparities in health behaviors and health status.

  8. [Antidepressant drugs and breastfeeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellantuono, Cesario; Migliarese, Giovanni; Maggioni, Francesca; Imperadore, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    The post-partum period, as well as pregnancy, is associated with an increased risk of anxiety and/or affective disorders. Postnatal depression, frequently in co-morbidity with anxiety symptoms, is recognised as the most frequent form of maternal morbidity after delivery, with a prevalence rate estimated between 5% to 15%. Among antidepressant drugs, the SSRIs are considered the drugs of choice in the treatment of post-partum affective disorders, particularly in the major depression. It is, thus, crucial from a clinical standpoint to establish, in the newborn whose mother needs to be treated with an SSRI, the safety profile of these drugs during breastfeeding. The benefits of breastfeeding, on the other hand, both for the nursing mother and the infant, are in fact very well documented. Unfortunately, all antidepressant drugs, including SSRIs, cross into breast milk and the milk-to-plasma ratio, a measure proposed to establish the amount of drug transferred to maternal milk, does not seem to be a reliable parameter to predict the safety of these drugs. From the available literature, however, it seems that among SSRIs, paroxetina and sertralina offer the best safety profile, as these drugs has never been associated with unsafe reports in suckling infants. Despite these reassuring but preliminary data, more studies are needed to better assess the safety of the antidepressant drugs in the infants exposed during breastfeeding. As general rule, it is important to recommend if the mother wishes to breastfeed her infant while taking an antidepressant, that the baby should be closely monitored in order to detect, as soon as possible, any unwanted drug-related side effect. PMID:17345878

  9. Scaling up breastfeeding programmes in a complex adaptive world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Hall Moran, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    The 2016 Breastfeeding Lancet Series continues to provide unequivocal evidence regarding the numerous benefits that optimal breastfeeding practices offer to children and women worldwide and the major savings that improving these practices can have as a result of their major public health benefits. Unfortunately, this knowledge remains underutilized as there has been little progress scaling up effective breastfeeding programmes globally. Improving the uptake and scaling up of effective national breastfeeding programmes that are potent enough to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration should be a top priority for all countries. Complex analysis systems longitudinal research is needed to understand how best to empower decision makers to achieve this goal through well-validated participatory decision-making tools to help their countries assess baseline needs, including costs, as well as progress with their scaling-up efforts. Sound systems thinking frameworks and scaling-up models are now available to guide and research prospectively future scaling-up efforts that can be replicated, with proper adaptations, across countries. PMID:27161881

  10. "If You're Fat, Then I'm Humongous!": Frequency, Content, and Impact of Fat Talk among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Rachel H.; Engeln-Maddox, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Fat talk (women speaking negatively about the size and shape of their bodies) is a phenomenon that both reflects and creates body dissatisfaction. Our study investigated the content, frequency, and impact of fat talk among college women. Participants (168 female students at a Midwestern U.S. university) completed online surveys containing fat…

  11. A single center study of the effects of trained fathers' participation in constant breastfeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Raeisi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Constant breastfeeding that depends on the family support. Fathers' involvement is as an important factor of successful breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fathers' participation in constant breastfeeding in Vali-E-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Iran. This interventional study was piloted on spouses of pregnant women participating in pregnancy courses. The case group consisted of fathers attending training courses of breastfeeding during pregnancy (Group A, and the control group was made up of fathers who did not take part in training courses (Group B. The courses were held three times from the 30th week of gestation to the end of pregnancy in a family health research center. Fathers attended three training sessions where they were trained by brochures. After delivery newborns were weighted and examined for jaundice (3-5 days, 30 days, three and six months after birth. According to mothers' views, spouses' participation, encouragement and support in group A, was 11 times more than group B. It means that 47 (94% of spouses in the group A participated in mothers' constant breastfeeding, but fathers' participation in group B was 60% (30 spouses. This study showed that breastfeeding was more constant in the group that fathers participated in breastfeeding training course. One of the reasons for such a significant difference was spouses' participation, encouragement and support in the trained group. This study showed that fathers' involvement in training programs may influence constancy of breastfeeding.

  12. Improving Hospital Breastfeeding Policies in New York State: Development of the Model Hospital Breastfeeding Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Hawke, Bethany A.; Dennison, Barbara A.; Hisgen, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The public health importance of breastfeeding, especially exclusive breastfeeding, is gaining increased recognition. Despite a strong evidence base that key hospital maternity practices (Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding) impact breastfeeding initiation and exclusivity in the hospital and breastfeeding duration post-discharge, they are not widely implemented. In 2009, written hospital breastfeeding policies were collected from all New York State (NYS) hospitals providing maternity care se...

  13. Breastfeeding in public: “You can do it?”

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Lisa H

    2014-01-01

    On a regular basis there is an outcry about a mother who has been told to cover up or move away from a public area while she is breastfeeding. Mothers should feel free to breastfeed whenever they need to. However, the increasing market for “nursing covers” to hide the breast while feeding is evidence of changing perceptions. Discomfort with the idea of breastfeeding in public has been cited as a reason for some women choosing not to initiate breastfeeding or planning a shorter duration of bre...

  14. 4.9 Doses to Infants From Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.9 Doses to Infants From Breastfeeding' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  15. Breastfeeding attitudes and confidence among mothers in a rural area of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Westmar, Hanna; Johansson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Attitudes and confidence among women can predict the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. The longer duration of breastfeeding, the more advantages there are for both mother and child. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore how the attitudes and the confidence were among Thai mothers and if there was a difference between nuclear families and extended families in these issues. Method: A descriptive comparative cross-sectional study with a quantitative method was performed by using IIFAS (Io...

  16. Reasons for Reducing Breastfeeding Duration Among Chinese Mothers in Ireland:a Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qianling

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The Ireland Chinese Mother Survey has revealed a remarkable decline of breastfeeding duration among Chinese mothers who gave birth in Ireland [1]. This qualitative study was undertaken to explore the reasons for such a decrease and to determine the influence of residency in Ireland on breastfeeding practices among immigrant Chinese. Methods: Purposive sampling together with the snowball technique was used to recruit immigrant Chinese women who have given birth in Ireland. Seven...

  17. Ealuation of Occupational Factors on Continuation of Breastfeeding and Formula Initiation in Employed Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, M; Moosavi, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: During recent decades, women have been increasingly involved in social activities. Despite the fact that mothers prefer to breastfeed, their return to work is associated with a reduction in breastfeeding frequency and duration. The present study evaluates the impact of occupational factors on continuation of breastfeeding and formula initiation in employed mothers with infants aged 6-12 months in Bandar-Abbas, Iran in 2010. Method and Materials: This is a descriptive...

  18. Breast-feeding Continuation in South-Eastern of Iran: the Associated Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Roostaee, Fatemeh; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Zaboli, Maryam; Keykhaie, Razieh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Shahrak, Paridokht; Soroush, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast-feeding not only promotes health in an infancy period, but also leads to human vigor and safety at varied life periods viz. adolescence, youth, middle-age, or even adulthood. Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the factors affecting the breast-feeding continuation effectively for a selected region of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 523 women having less than two year old babies from the selected counties covered by the Zahedan University...

  19. A systematic review of maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation and duration

    OpenAIRE

    Donath Susan; Amir Lisa H

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Breastfeeding behaviour is multifactorial, and a wide range of socio-cultural and physiological variables impact on a woman's decision and ability to breastfeed successfully. An association has been reported between maternal obesity and low breastfeeding rates. This is of public health concern because obesity is rising in women of reproductive age and the apparent association with increased artificial feeding will lead to a greater risk of obesity in children. The aim of t...

  20. A systematic review of maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation and duration

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Lisa H; Donath, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding behaviour is multifactorial, and a wide range of socio-cultural and physiological variables impact on a woman's decision and ability to breastfeed successfully. An association has been reported between maternal obesity and low breastfeeding rates. This is of public health concern because obesity is rising in women of reproductive age and the apparent association with increased artificial feeding will lead to a greater risk of obesity in children. The aim of this paper...

  1. Factors Associated With Breastfeeding Among a Sample of Chinese Mothers Who Gave Birth in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qianling; Younger, Katherine; Kearney, John(Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, U.S.A.)

    2009-01-01

    Rationale & Objectives: The factors influencing breastfeeding rates are complex, and the socio-cultural environment has an important influence on how women choose to feed their infants. The present study sought to determine factors affecting breastfeeding practices of Chinese mothers who gave birth in Ireland. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional survey (written in Chinese). Questionnaires were distributed to Chinese mothers in Chinese markets and language schools in Ireland. Results & Find...

  2. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and its determinants in first 6 months of life: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Chudasama, Rajesh K; Chikitsa D. Amin; Yogesh N Parikh

    2009-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding for first 6 months of life is recommended under Infant and Young Child Feeding practices in India. The objective of present study was to estimate the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding during first 6 months of life of babies and to identify factors that interfere with the practice in the study area. Methods: A prospective cohort of 462 women who delivered at maternity unit of Government Medical College & Hospital, Rajkot, which is a tertiary care centre ...

  3. A systematic review of maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation and duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donath Susan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding behaviour is multifactorial, and a wide range of socio-cultural and physiological variables impact on a woman's decision and ability to breastfeed successfully. An association has been reported between maternal obesity and low breastfeeding rates. This is of public health concern because obesity is rising in women of reproductive age and the apparent association with increased artificial feeding will lead to a greater risk of obesity in children. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between maternal overweight and obesity and breastfeeding intention and initiation and duration. Methods A systematic review was conducted in January and February 2007, using the following databases: Medline, CINAHL and the Australian Breastfeeding Association's Lactation Resource Centre. Studies which have examined maternal obesity and infant feeding intention, initiation, duration and delayed onset of lactation were tabulated and summarised. Results Studies have found that obese women plan to breastfeed for a shorter period than normal weight women and are less likely to initiate breastfeeding. Of the four studies that examined onset of lactation, three reported a significant relationship between obesity and delayed lactogenesis. Fifteen studies, conducted in the USA, Australia, Denmark, Kuwait and Russia, have examined maternal obesity and duration of breastfeeding. The majority of large studies found that obese women breastfed for a shorter duration than normal weight women, even after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Conclusion There is evidence from epidemiological studies that overweight and obese women are less likely to breastfeed than normal weight women. The reasons may be biological or they may be psychological, behavioral and/or cultural. We urgently need qualitative studies from women's perspective to help us understand women in this situation and their infant feeding decisions and behaviour.

  4. Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women Osteoporosis and African American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women ( 繁體中文 ) Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women Osteoporosis and Asian ...

  5. Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're a new mom or a seasoned parenting pro, breastfeeding often comes with its fair share ... When the time is right, start with a single-grain, iron-fortified cereal for babies (rice cereal ...

  6. The changing role of breastfeeding in economic development: a theoretical exposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, W P

    1981-01-01

    This paper develops a model of breastfeeding, contraception, and birth spacing that includes physiological and behavioral aspects and yields a number of testable predictions concerning influences of particular factors on breastfeeding. The model is built on the assumption that breastfeeding is a costly activity for most women, requiring time and nutrients, neither of which is freely available. Given these costs, the fact that many women do breastfeed suggests that it also produces benefits that people value such as the survival and development of the child and birth spacing. The model also assumes that mothers respond to changes in the cost of the activity and that of other means of contraception and feeding babies. It implies that mothers will breastfeed less when their time spent in other ways is more valuable and when substitutes for breastfeeding are more readily available. The author begins with a model of birth spacing and child survival that includes the roles of breastfeeding, and its substitutes. The number of live births is influenced by economic returns that raise family income, and utility returns to the parents. Given a desired number of surviving children and a particular probability of child survival, the couple can achieve its resulting desired number of births and the implied average births interval by adjusting either the length of postpartum amenorrhea or the length of the interval. A shift in the demand (supply) curve causes a larger shift in the amount of breastfeeding when the supply (demand) curve is more elastic. When there is an active wetnursing market, variations in factors that underlie a woman's breastfeeding supply curve may affect her period of postpartum amenorrhea but not the survival or development of her children. Also, shifts in factors that influence woman's demand for breastfeeding may affect her infant's development and survival but not a woman's fecundity. Some implications of this model are: 1) an increase in the market

  7. Promotion of breast-feeding in a Chinese community in Montreal.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan-Yip, A. M.; Kramer, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    Following a prospective survey that showed a very low rate of breast-feeding (10%) in 1977-79 among Chinese women in Montreal, a culturally targeted program, which included individual prenatal counselling and a community-wide promotion and education campaign, was developed to improve the rates. The study group consisted of all Chinese women delivering in 1980 and 1981 who had taken their infants to one pediatrician for continuing care. The rates of breast-feeding in the 88 women who had recei...

  8. Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Wendy K; Heads Joy; Lawson James S; Whitaker Noel J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer. We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast milk. Methods We conducted a prospective review of 100 consecutive births of infants in the same centre to determine the propo...

  9. Feelings expressed by women with hiv clinical unable to breastfeed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Larissa Andrade Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice are restricted conditions that no-indicated definitively the breastfeeding. Therefore, this study addresses the objectives: know the sentiments expressed by women with HIV clinical failure to breastfeed; describe the importance of the mother and child contact in breastfeeding, as well as reporting the alternatives encountered by mothers to compensate for the deprivation of this practice. Therefore this research is characterized as descriptive exploratory qualitative in nature. Taking as a sample 10 women who had already passed the period of breast feeding at the breast, using the Reference Center for STD / AIDS in the municipality of Jequié / Ba. The instrument for data collection was the form, which was filled from the signing of the term of Free and Informed Consent built for this purpose. Data analysis was submitted to the technical analysis of the Content of Bardin, from which emerged the categories and subcategories: Feelings (sadness, helplessness, shame, despair, guilt; importance of breastfeeding (prevention of diseases and exchange of affection and finally, strategy to compensate for the deprivation of breastfeeding (offering more care and attention. Given the foregoing concluded that the HIV positive mothers in addition to carrying this condition throughout his life, which has already lead to a significant blow in their emotions, they had to give up breastfeeding natural - by which time the woman was fully realizes mother - leading the lastimosas express the same experiences, mainly by various understand the benefits of breast milk as much as nutritional immunological and psychological for the baby. This reality serves as incentive for reflection on the part of health professionals to see these women on a holistic and natural in these children as defenceless beings who require more care and attention

  10. Exclusive breastfeeding duration in Cali, Colombia, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera Gustavo Alonso

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exclusive breast-feeding (EB is the nutritional gold standard of children in their 0-6 months of life and its practice is recommended in the current national plans of health, feeding and nutrition. Objective: To describe the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EB in a cohort of women who breastfed, from Cali, Colombia, in 2003. Methods: A cohort of 438 urban women was established, with first singleton live birth in immediate postpartum, whose childbirth was cared without complications, in one of the six institutions (4 public and 2 private that concentrate 80% of all deliveries from the city, approximately. With the previous consent of each woman and through structured questionnaires, these women were interviewed in the first hours after postpartum; then, they were visited and a face to face interview was applied at home, at days 8, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 since the birth, until abandon of EB was identified or woman could not be found. Results: At recruitment, 15 out of 453 puerperal women captured in postpartum rooms refused to participate in the study; 38 (8.5% women were lost during the following. At the end of the months 1°, 2°, 3°, 4°, 5° and 6°, respectively, only 28%, 15%, 9%, 5%, 2% and 1.6% of the women included to the study kept EB practice, according to the adopted criteria. Conclusion: High participation in the prenatal and delivery care of the institutions selected for this study, low lost of women during the following and broad socio-economic distribution of recruited women, allow to suggest that observations from this cohort characterise the duration of EB in 1, 2, 3 and 4 socio-economic strata of urban area of Cali, Colombia, in 2003. The duration of EB in the studied cohort is very short regarding to national and international recommendations. This fact indicates the scarce effects of both, national packages of National Security System in Health and national and local initiatives addressed to

  11. Growth monitoring and the promotion of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behague, D

    1993-12-01

    Recent studies evaluating the efficacy of growth monitoring programs have scrutinized their educational and preventive capabilities. Advocates claim that growth monitoring can be effective if communities and mothers are more actively involved in the process of weighing and measuring, and if the technology is understood by all as an aid for disease prevention and health promotion rather than as a 'curative' procedure. Others have argued that this theory is rarely possible to implement. The ways in which preventive growth monitoring can be made possible are still under exploration, given that the reasons for such deeply imbedded 'curative' expectations of growth monitoring are not fully understood. Any such understanding requires an analysis of growth monitoring within the context of the GOBI (growth monitoring, oral rehydration therapy, breastfeeding and immunization) child survival framework. To attain this type of understanding, a series of qualitative methodological techniques were used in a population of 50 mothers and several health care facilities in Pelotas, RS, Brazil, as a complement to pre-existing epidemiological data from the Center for Epidemiology at the Federal University of Pelotas. With a subsample of 15 mothers, intensive interviews and observations were specifically focused on: (1) mothers' understanding of growth monitoring, (2) breastfeeding practices and beliefs, (3) doctor-patient communication. Findings from this study suggest that, even in a program with widespread attendance and a relatively 'interactive' growth monitoring approach, the use of growth charts do little to promote duration or frequency of breastfeeding, and may even pay a role in the factors which deter women from choosing to breastfeed for longer durations or with greater frequency. We found that mothers' personal interpretations of the charts were representative of the larger socio-cultural and economic issues that affected their lives on a daily basis. Growth charts thus

  12. Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period

    OpenAIRE

    Theresa Hunter; Georg’ann Cattelona

    2014-01-01

    Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Chil...

  13. Personal Attitudes or Structural Factors? A Contextual Analysis of Breastfeeding Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Nita Mary; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2004-01-01

    A personal attitudes model (i.e., infant feeding choices are based on personal attitudes primarily) and a structural factors model (i.e., feeding choices are shaped by the structural contexts of women's lives, as much as personal attitudes) of women's breastfeeding behavior were tested by surveying a longitudinal sample of 548 mostly European…

  14. Racial/ethnic variation in breastfeeding across the US: a multilevel analysis from the National Survey of Children's Health, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanoff, Candice M; McManus, Beth M; Carle, Adam C; McCormick, Marie C; Subramanian, S V

    2012-04-01

    We examined whether differences across states in race/ethnicity-specific breastfeeding rates are due solely to state differences in individual factors associated with breastfeeding or additionally, certain state "contextual" factors. Using data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, multilevel models examined whether state variability in race/ethnicity specific breastfeeding initiation and duration to 6 months were explained by (1) individual sociodemographic characteristics of women in states, and (2) an aggregate state measure of the availability of evidence-based maternity care services related to breastfeeding. Observed variability of race/ethnicity-specific breastfeeding rates was only minimally reduced after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics (Median Odds Ratios (MOR), breastfeeding initiation: non-Hispanic White = 1.46, non-Hispanic Black = 2.26; Hispanic = 1.89. MOR, breastfeeding for 6 months: non-Hispanic White = 1.36, non-Hispanic Black = 1.84; Hispanic = 1.56). Overall variability in the degree of state gaps changed little in adjusted models (breastfeeding initiation: non-Hispanic Black σ(2) = 0.74, se 0.28, Hispanic σ(2) = 0.45, se 0.11; breastfeeding to 6-months: non-Hispanic Black σ(2) = 0.41, se 0.10, Hispanic σ(2) = 0.22, se 0.05). The measure of maternity care services was positively associated with breastfeeding overall but generally did not explain a substantial portion of between-state variability nor the overall variability in racial/ethnic gaps. Contextual sources of variation in state breastfeeding practices and disparities remain poorly understood. Differences in the socioeconomic makeup of states do not fully explain variability. The association of state breastfeeding rates and disparities with relevant policy and practice factors should be further investigated. PMID:22466719

  15. Antioxidant Vitamin (E&C Contents in Colostrum of Bangladeshi Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubena Haque

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colostrum is the first product of lactation and can be considered as first vaccine for newborns. It contains numerous nutrients as well as antioxidant vitamins necessary for newborns. Objective: The aim of the study was to measure the antioxidant vitamin (vitamins E and C contents in colostrum and to compare them with the nutritional status, age and parity of the lactating mothers and birth weight of the babies. Materials and method: In this cross sectional study antioxidant vitamins E and C of colostrum of seventy six post-partum mothers were estimated irrespective of their age, parity, socioeconomic and nutritional status. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC was employed to analyze the colostral content of vitamin E and spectrophotometric method was used for estimation of vitamin C (ascorbic acid level. These levels were then compared against maternal and fetal characteristics. Results: The mean concentration (±SD of vitamin E and C were 519.809(±1.16 μgm/dl and 1.33(±0.076 mg/dl respectively. No significant relationship was found between maternal age, parity, BMI or birth weight of the baby and the colostral content of vitamin E and C. Conclusion: Colostrum of Bangladeshi women are rich in antioxidant vitamins and not dependent on sociodemographic variables of mothers and / or birth weight of baby.

  16. Being baby friendly: evidence-based breastfeeding support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleminson, J; Oddie, S; Renfrew, M J; McGuire, W

    2015-03-01

    Breast feeding improves important outcomes for mothers and infants. In the UK, breastfeeding rates have historically been low, particularly among socially disadvantaged young women. Although there have been gradual increases in breastfeeding initiation rates since 2000, rates of exclusive breast feeding and continuation until 6 months remain lower than those in similar countries. This review summarises the evidence for effective and cost-effective strategies to help women, particularly those in low income groups, make informed choices, overcome barriers and establish and maintain breast feeding. We describe the development and impact of the Unicef Baby Friendly Initiative, and the roles and responsibilities, and challenges and opportunities that clinicians have in promoting breast feeding and maintaining a baby-friendly culture and environment. PMID:25293712

  17. Breastfeeding in America: a history of influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulier, Diane

    2009-02-01

    The author explores the history of breastfeeding in America. Popular belief is that medicine, science, and the formula industry have had the most impact on women's decisions to bottle versus breastfeed. What cannot be overlooked are other areas of influence. Cultural practices, including the beliefs of colonial Americans, the increased social value of children in the 20th century, and the emergence of a middle class, have influenced maternal decision making. The first and second waves of feminism affected women's choices. Politics and religion have had multiple and varied influences. It is this author's position that culture, gender, politics, and religion, as well as medicine, science, and industry, have combined to affect feeding choices. All of these influences, as well as others, both unforeseen and unpredictable, will continue to affect the future of breastfeeding in our society. PMID:19196856

  18. The influence of grandmothers on breastfeeding rates: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Negin, Joel; Coffman, Jenna; Vizintin, Pavle; Raynes-Greenow, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of an infant’s life has enormous potential to reduce mortality and morbidity. The older generation, particularly the infant’s grandmothers, play a central role in various aspects of pregnancy and child rearing decision-making within the family unit. This is particularly true in low- and middle-income countries where older women are seen as owners of traditional knowledge. Despite this, most health programs target the individual perso...

  19. The Effects of Leptin on Breastfeeding Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Cannon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breastfed infants have a reduced risk of becoming overweight and/or obese later in life. This protective effect has been partly attributed to leptin present in breastmilk. This study investigated 24-h variations of skim milk leptin and its relationship with breastmilk macronutrients and infant breastfeeding patterns. Exclusive breastfeeding mothers of term singletons (n = 19; age 10 ± 5 weeks collected pre- and post-feed breastmilk samples for every breastfeed over a 24-h period and test-weighed their infants to determine milk intake at every breastfeed over a 24-h period. Samples (n = 454 were analysed for leptin, protein, lactose and fat content. Skim milk leptin concentration did not change with feeding (p = 0.184. However, larger feed volumes (>105 g were associated with a decrease in post-feed leptin levels (p = 0.009. There was no relationship between the change in leptin levels and change in protein (p = 0.313 or lactose levels (p = 0.587 between pre- and post-feed milk, but there was a trend for a positive association with changes in milk fat content (p = 0.056. Leptin concentration significantly increased at night (p < 0.001 indicating a possible 24-h pattern. Leptin dose (ng was not associated with the time between feeds (p = 0.232. Further research should include analysis of whole breastmilk and other breastmilk fractions to extend these findings.

  20. Work related determinants of breastfeeding discontinuation among employed mothers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darus Azlan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross-sectional study assesses factors that contribute to discontinuing breastfeeding among employed mothers in Malaysia. Methods A structured questionnaire was used in conducting this study involving all government health clinics in Petaling district between July and September 2006. Respondents were Malaysian women with children between the ages of six to twelve months who were formally employed. Factors studied were selected socio-demographic and work-related characteristics. Results From a total of 290 respondents, 51% discontinued breastfeeding. The majority (54% of mothers who discontinued breastfeeding had breastfed their babies for less than three months. Compared to Malay mothers, the risk of breastfeeding discontinuation were higher among Chinese (AOR 3.7, 95% CI: 1.7, 7.8 and Indian mothers (AOR 7.3, 95% CI 1.9, 27.4. Not having adequate breastfeeding facilities at the workplace was also a risk factor for breastfeeding discontinuation (AOR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.05, 3.1. Conclusion It is important that workplaces provide adequate breastfeeding facilities such as a room in which to express breast milk and a refrigerator, and allow mothers flexible time to express breast milk.

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... in many US hospitals do not fully support breastfeeding. Some of the Ten Steps on which hospitals ...

  2. Selecting a Caregiver Who Supports Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Selecting A ...

  3. Breastfeeding - good for both of us

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    This poster promotes breastfeeding and highlights the fact that it has health benefits for both mother and baby. It also provides contact details of local organisations that can offer help and advice on breastfeeding.

  4. Breastfeeding - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breastfeeding URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breastfeeding.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  5. The role of support and other factors in early breastfeeding cessation: an analysis of data from a maternity survey in England

    OpenAIRE

    Oakley, L; L.; Henderson, J.; M. Redshaw; Quigley, M

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the majority of women in England initiate breastfeeding, approximately one third cease breastfeeding by six weeks and many of these women report they would like to have breastfed for longer. Methods Data from a survey of women ≥16 years who gave birth to singleton term infants in 2009 in England; questionnaires were completed approximately three months postnatally. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between postnatal support and other fa...

  6. Breastfeeding and breast cancer: a case-control study in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessaro Sérgio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and breast cancer in Southern Brazil, a case-control design was employed, with two age-matched control groups. A total of 250 cases of breast cancer were identified in women from 20 to 60 years of age, with 1,020 hospital and community controls. The main study variables were occurrence of breastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding. A multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was employed. According to the results, breastfeeding did not have a protective effect against breast cancer. The odds ratio (OR for women who breastfed was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8-1.2 compared to women who did not breastfeed. For women who breastfed for six months or less, the OR was 1.0 (95% CI: 0.6-1.8. In pre-menopausal women who breastfed for more than 25 months, the OR was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.5-3.5, and in post-menopausal women OR was 1.27 (95% CI: 0.5-3.1, compared to women who had not breastfeed.

  7. The Importance of Breastfeeding in Holy Quran

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Bayyenat; Seyed Amirhosein Ghazizade Hashemi; Abbasali Purbaferani; Masumeh Saeidi

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the ideal and most natural way of nurturing infants. The importance of breastfeeding has been proved unequivocally, and UNICEF and WHO have issued guidelines to ensure breastfeeding. More than 14 centuries is that in Islamic teachings with the most comprehensive, most beautiful and most powerful motivation, is raised important points in the form of advice and education about breastfeeding.  Included in Islam recommended every mother to breastfeed her children up to the age of...

  8. The Breastfeeding Mother and the Pediatrician

    OpenAIRE

    Geraghty, Sheela R.; Riddle, Sarah W.; Shaikh, Ulfat

    2008-01-01

    An estimated 70% of mothers in the United States initiate breastfeeding annually. Mothers often discuss breastfeeding problems with their infant’s pediatrician. Pediatricians may feel unsure about their role when assisting the nonpatient, breastfeeding mother. By having practical solutions and support systems in place to anticipate and tend to breastfeeding mothers’ needs, pediatricians can be instrumental in preventing early weaning. The purpose of this article is to provide practical sugges...

  9. Breastfeeding attitudes of Finnish parents during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Pietilä Anna-Maija; Ekström Anette; Pölkki Tarja; Laanterä Sari

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Breastfeeding attitudes are known to influence infant feeding but little information exists on the prenatal breastfeeding attitudes of parents. The purpose of this study was to describe Finnish parents' prenatal breastfeeding attitudes and their relationships with demographic characteristics. Methods The electronic Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Confidence scale was developed and 172 people (123 mothers, 49 fathers) completed the study. The data were analysed using ...

  10. A Web-Based Breastfeeding Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Wei-Chen (Phoebe); Thompson, Cheryl B.; Smith, Jackie A.; Pugh, Leigh; Stanley, Claire

    2003-01-01

    Two Web-based breastfeeding programs were developed to provide new parents with necessary information on proper breastfeeding techniques. One version was plain text and the other version combined text with graphics. The computer was viewed as a valuable learning tool. The breastfeeding program that contained graphics was preferred over the text-only program. Educators are encouraged to use Web-based graphic programs to provide breastfeeding education to new parents.

  11. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Oriá Mônica Oliveira B.; Glick Doris F.; Alves Maria Dalva S.

    2005-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches...

  12. Media and breastfeeding: Friend or foe?

    OpenAIRE

    Peuchaud Sheila; Brown Jane D

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The mass media have the potential to be powerful friends or foes in promoting breastfeeding. The media could help by putting the issue of breastfeeding on policy agendas and by framing breastfeeding as healthy and normative for baby and mother. Currently, however, it looks as if the media are more often contributing to perceptions that breastfeeding is difficult for mothers and potentially dangerous for babies. This paper presents a brief overview of research on the media and breastf...

  13. Maternal prepregnant body mass index, duration of breastfeeding, and timing of complementary food introduction are associated with infant weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Michaelsen, Kim F; Rasmussen, Kathleen M;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy breastfeed for shorter durations than do normal-weight women. These shorter durations may place infants of overweight and obese women at risk of not receiving the benefits of breastfeeding, which may include a reduced risk of overweig...

  14. Framing breastfeeding and formula-feeding messages in popular U.S. magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah; Andsager, Julie L; Campo, Shelly; Aquilino, Mary; Stewart Dyer, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    Media framing of infant feeding has the ability to influence knowledge and views of the barriers, benefits, and solutions inherent in breastfeeding or formula-feeding. This study examined how seven popular U.S. parenting, general women's, and African American magazines framed breastfeeding and formula-feeding messages to determine whether a sense-making approach was used and the extent to which visual images portrayed feeding practices. Analysis included 615 articles published from 1997 to 2003 that referred to infant feeding. Text and images were analyzed. The magazines provided more information on breastfeeding than formula feeding. Parenting magazines included more advice than barriers or benefits. African American magazines presented more breastfeeding benefits, and general women's magazines contained the least infant-feeding information. Messages were focused on individualized breastfeeding barriers and advice, seldom covered social and environmental issues, and placed much of the responsibility of infant feeding on the mother, while the role of social and partner support was diminished. Bottle-feeding images were nearly as common as breastfeeding images. Findings can be used by public health practitioners to increase the likelihood of reaching certain target audiences through popular magazines. PMID:17182529

  15. Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar G; Bahl, Rajiv; Barros, Aluísio J D; França, Giovanny V A; Horton, Susan; Krasevec, Julia; Murch, Simon; Sankar, Mari Jeeva; Walker, Neff; Rollins, Nigel C

    2016-01-30

    The importance of breastfeeding in low-income and middle-income countries is well recognised, but less consensus exists about its importance in high-income countries. In low-income and middle-income countries, only 37% of children younger than 6 months of age are exclusively breastfed. With few exceptions, breastfeeding duration is shorter in high-income countries than in those that are resource-poor. Our meta-analyses indicate protection against child infections and malocclusion, increases in intelligence, and probable reductions in overweight and diabetes. We did not find associations with allergic disorders such as asthma or with blood pressure or cholesterol, and we noted an increase in tooth decay with longer periods of breastfeeding. For nursing women, breastfeeding gave protection against breast cancer and it improved birth spacing, and it might also protect against ovarian cancer and type 2 diabetes. The scaling up of breastfeeding to a near universal level could prevent 823,000 annual deaths in children younger than 5 years and 20,000 annual deaths from breast cancer. Recent epidemiological and biological findings from during the past decade expand on the known benefits of breastfeeding for women and children, whether they are rich or poor. PMID:26869575

  16. Breastfeeding support for adolescent mothers: similarities and differences in the approach of midwives and qualified breastfeeding supporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burt Susan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding are now major public health priorities. It is well established that skilled support, voluntary or professional, proactively offered to women who want to breastfeed, can increase the initiation and/or duration of breastfeeding. Low levels of breastfeeding uptake and continuation amongst adolescent mothers in industrialised countries suggest that this is a group that is in particular need of breastfeeding support. Using qualitative methods, the present study aimed to investigate the similarities and differences in the approaches of midwives and qualified breastfeeding supporters (the Breastfeeding Network (BfN in supporting breastfeeding adolescent mothers. Methods The study was conducted in the North West of England between September 2001 and October 2002. The supportive approaches of 12 midwives and 12 BfN supporters were evaluated using vignettes, short descriptions of an event designed to obtain specific information from participants about their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to a particular situation. Responses to vignettes were analysed using thematic networks analysis, involving the extraction of basic themes by analysing each script line by line. The basic themes were then grouped to form organising themes and finally central global themes. Discussion and consensus was reached related to the systematic development of the three levels of theme. Results Five components of support were identified: emotional, esteem, instrumental, informational and network support. Whilst the supportive approaches of both groups incorporated elements of each of the five components of support, BfN supporters placed greater emphasis upon providing emotional and esteem support and highlighted the need to elicit the mothers' existing knowledge, checking understanding through use of open questions and utilising more tentative language. Midwives were more directive and gave more

  17. Changes of serum and chorion-villi contents of EGF in early pregnant women undergone artificial abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum and chorion-villi contents of EGF in pregnant women undergone artificial abortion with drug (mifepristone) or surgery (curettage). Methods: Serum epidermal growth factor (EGF), E2, progesterone levels changes as well as chorion-villi EGF contents were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with drug abortion (before and after mifepristone 25mg bid x 3 days), 30 pregnant women undergone curettage (determined twice, 3 days apart) and 32 controls (serum only). Results: Serum EGF, E2, and progesterone contents in all pregnant women were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). The chorion-villi contents of EGF in patients undergone drug abortion were significantly lower than those in patients undergone curettage (P<0.05). Both serum EGF and progesterone contents dropped after 3 days treatment with mifepristone (vs those in curettage group, P<0.05). Conclusion: Mifepristone might exert the effect of abortion through decrease of EGF levels, which was detrimental to fetus growth. (authors)

  18. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MyPlate What Is MyPlate? Fruits All About the Fruit Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Tips to Help You Eat Fruits Food ... Updated: Feb 2, 2016 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy Oils ONLINE TOOLS ...

  19. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ Moms- ... and raw sprouts. Do not eat these foods. Food safety advice when you are pregnant Follow the food ...

  20. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ ... and raw sprouts. Do not eat these foods. Food safety advice when you are pregnant Follow the ...

  1. Higher content of C18:1 trans fatty acids in early human milk fat of Roma breast-feeding women

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marhol, Petr; Dlouhý, P.; Rambousková, J.; Pokorný, R.; Wiererová, O.; Hrnčířová, D.; Procházka, B.; Anděl, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 5 (2007), s. 461-467. ISSN 0250-6807 Grant ostatní: GA Mzd(CZ) NJ6120 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : trans fatty acids * roma * human milk Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.831, year: 2007

  2. Barriers to postnatal care and exclusive breastfeeding among urbanwomen in southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O Ugboaja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Available evidence shows that only a small proportion of Nigerian women access postnatal care and practice exclusive breastfeeding. Given that both interventions are critical to the survival of both the mother and the new born, it is important to identify factors that militate against an effective postnatal care and exclusive breastfeeding in the country, in order to scale up services. The aim was to determine the major barriers to postnatal care and exclusive breastfeeding among urban women in southeastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 400 urban market women using semistructured questionnaires and focus group discussions. Results: Out of 400 women interviewed, 365 (91.7% attended postnatal clinic. Lack of knowledge about postnatal care services (42.2%; n = 14, distant location of the hospitals (36.4%; n = 12 and feeling that postnatal visits was not necessary (21.1%; n = 7 were the main reasons for non-attendance to postnatal clinic. With respect to exclusive breastfeeding, 143 (35.9% of the women practiced EBF. The main reasons for nonpractice of EBF were that EBF was very stressful (26.2%; n = 67, mother′s refusal (23.5%; n = 60, and the feeling that EBF was not necessary (18.1%; n = 46. Thirty five (13.7% of the women were constrained by time while the husband′s refusal accounted for 1.5% (n = 3 of the reasons for nonpractice of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion: Poor knowledge and inaccessibility to health facilities were the main obstacles to postnatal care while the practice of exclusive breastfeeding was limited by the stress and mothers refusal.

  3. IMPACT OF ANTENATAL COUNSELLING ON KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE REGARDING BREASTFEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Manjula

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of several studies from India and other countries with high under 5 mortality rates, there is a need for strategies to save children from preventable causes of death. Ensuring safe infant feeding by promoting breastfeeding is the most practical and viable of such strategies. However, lack of knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding on the part of the mothers as well as health care providers has led to faulty infant feeding practices taking a toll in the developing countries. There is a definite need for interventions that improve the knowledge of the mothers regarding ideal breastfeeding practices. The present study attempts to evaluate the usefulness of trained, semi-skilled lactation counsellors in positively influencing the knowledge, attitude and practices of breastfeeding mothers. AIMS To assess the impact of antenatal counselling on the knowledge, attitude and practice of breastfeeding mothers. MATERIAL AND METHODS It is a single centre cross sectional questionnaire based study. Pregnant Mothers admitted in OBG Department of Gandhi Hospital are included in the Study; 600 pregnant women recruited were divided into groups A and B with 300 subjects in each group. Women in group B were given a brief structured lactation counselling on a one-to-one basis by trained, semi-skilled lactation counsellors just before delivery. Both groups were interviewed after delivery using an identical questionnaire to assess their knowledge, atti tude and practice regarding breastfeeding. The responses were statistically analysed using an open Epi Info method. RESULTS In the Counselled group there is a significant positive impact on mothers in all parameters of breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS 1. Antenatal counselling by trained lactation counsellors plays a significant positive impact on the knowledge, attitude and practices of breastfeeding mothers. 2. Lactation Counsellors may be from the community with comprehensive training from paediatricians.

  4. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation ... story Partner resources Subscribe to It's Only Natural email updates. Enter ...

  5. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation ... story Partner resources Subscribe to It's Only Natural email updates. Enter ...

  6. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ePublications News About Us ... Only Natural email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural > Planning ahead The benefits of ...

  7. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ePublications News About Us Contact Us ...

  8. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ePublications News About Us Contact Us ...

  9. Padrão de aleitamento materno no primeiro mês de vida em mulheres submetidas a cirurgia de redução de mamas e implantes Breastfeeding pattern in the first month of life in women submitted to breast reduction and augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Aparecida de Andrade

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o padrão de aleitamento materno no primeiro mês de vida da criança em mulheres que se submeteram a dois tipos de cirurgias mamárias - redução e implante - e comparar com o padrão praticado por mulheres que não se submeteram às cirurgias. MÉTODOS: Coorte prospectiva controlada com 25 mulheres submetidas a cirurgia redutora, 24 a cirurgia de implante e 25 sem cirurgia de mama, que tiveram seus filhos no Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo (SP. Os dados foram coletados por meio de avaliações realizadas entre 48 e 72 horas, entre os quinto e sétimo dias e 30 dias após o parto. Para análise dos dados, usaram-se os testes qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher, curva de Kaplan-Meier e regressão de Cox. RESULTADOS: A probabilidade de uma criança estar em aleitamento exclusivo no final do primeiro mês de vida foi de 29% em mulheres com cirurgia redutora e 54% nas com cirurgia de implante, e 80% nas mulheres sem cirurgia. A probabilidade do aleitamento misto estar presente neste mesmo período foi de 68% entre mães com cirurgia de redução, 32% com cirurgia de implante e apenas 16% entre as mulheres sem cirurgia mamária. O risco de uma criança estar em aleitamento não exclusivo foi cinco vezes maior entre mães do grupo submetido a redução, quando comparado àquelas do grupo sem cirurgia (p = 0,002. Para o grupo de mulheres com implante, o risco de uma criança estar em aleitamento não exclusivo foi 2,6 vezes aquele observado entre crianças cujas mães fazem parte do grupo sem cirurgia (p = 0,075. CONCLUSÃO: A cirurgia redutora de mama e de implante refletiu em menor taxa de aleitamento materno exclusivo no primeiro mês de vida da criança.OBJECTIVE: To describe the breastfeeding pattern in the first month of life in women submitted to two types of surgery - breast reduction and augmentation - and to compare it with the pattern exhibited by women who had no surgery. METHODS: Controlled prospective cohort

  10. Meanings attributed to breastfeeding in the first two years of life: a study with women from two municipalities in the Recôncavo Baiano region of Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin Demétrio; Maria da Conceição Monteiro da Silva; Sandra Maria Chaves-dos-Santos; Ana Marlúcia Oliveira Assis

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the maternal meanings attributed to breastfeeding during the child's first two years of life. METHODS: This qualitative, exploratory and analytical study involved mothers that participated in a cohort from a larger study done in the municipalities of Mutuipe and Laje in the Recôncavo area of the State of Bahia, Brazil. The methodological resources included thorough individual interviews and thematic analysis. The meanings were analyzed by the theoretic...

  11. Increasing breastfeeding initiation and duration at a community level: an evaluation of Sagkeeng First Nation's community health nurse and peer counselor programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Patricia J

    2002-08-01

    The effectiveness of two Sagkeeng First Nation breastfeeding initiatives--prenatal instruction by a community health nurse and a postpartum peer counselor (PC) program for breastfeeding women--was evaluated at a community level through chart audits (1992 to 1997, n = 283). Breastfeeding initiation rates increased from 38% in 1995 to 60% in 1997 (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.1, P = .01, adjusted for birth weight and parity). PC clients were half as likely to wean (RR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.25-0.98, P = .04, adjusted for birth weight and parity), with 61% still breastfeeding at 2 months (vs 48% nonclients) and 56% at 6 months (vs 19%). PC clients had fewer problems (median 1 vs 2, P = .044) and greater satisfaction with breastfeeding (median 5 vs 4, P = .07). Qualitative interviews (n = 22) confirmed PC clients as more satisfied and more confident about breastfeeding, with fewer problems and more information. PMID:12192958

  12. The impact of cosmetic breast implants on breastfeeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schiff, Michal; Algert, Charles S; Ampt, Amanda; Sywak, Mark S.; Roberts, Christine L

    2014-01-01

    Background Cosmetic breast augmentation (breast implants) is one of the most common plastic surgery procedures worldwide and uptake in high income countries has increased in the last two decades. Women need information about all associated outcomes in order to make an informed decision regarding whether to undergo cosmetic breast surgery. We conducted a systematic review to assess breastfeeding outcomes among women with breast implants compared to women without. Methods A systematic literatur...

  13. Audiovisual education and breastfeeding practices: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Nikodem

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available A randomized control trial was conducted at the Coronation Hospital, to evaluate the effect of audiovisual breastfeeding education. Within 72 hours after delivery, 340 women who agreed to participate were allocated randomly to view one of two video programmes, one of which dealt with breastfeeding. To determine the effect of the programme on infant feeding a structured questionnaire was administered to 108 women who attended the six week postnatal check-up. Alternative methods, such as telephonic interviews (24 and home visits (30 were used to obtain information from subjects who did not attend the postnatal clinic. Comparisons of mother-infant relationships and postpartum depression showed no significant differences. Similar proportions of each group reported that their baby was easy to manage, and that they felt close to and could communicate well with it. While the overall number of mothers who breast-fed was not significantly different between the two groups, there was a trend towards fewer mothers in the study group supplementing with bottle feeding. It was concluded that the effectiveness of aidiovisual education alone is limited, and attention should be directed towards personal follow-up and support for breastfeeding mothers.

  14. Exclusive breastfeeding practice in Nigeria: a bayesian stepwise regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayawan, Ezra; Adebayo, Samson B; Chitekwe, Stanley

    2014-11-01

    Despite the importance of breast milk, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in Nigeria is far lower than what has been recommended for developing countries. Worse still, the practise has been on downward trend in the country recently. This study was aimed at investigating the determinants and geographical variations of EBF in Nigeria. Any intervention programme would require a good knowledge of factors that enhance the practise. A pooled data set from Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 1999, 2003, and 2008 were analyzed using a Bayesian stepwise approach that involves simultaneous selection of variables and smoothing parameters. Further, the approach allows for geographical variations at a highly disaggregated level of states to be investigated. Within a Bayesian context, appropriate priors are assigned on all the parameters and functions. Findings reveal that education of women and their partners, place of delivery, mother's age at birth, and current age of child are associated with increasing prevalence of EBF. However, visits for antenatal care during pregnancy are not associated with EBF in Nigeria. Further, results reveal considerable geographical variations in the practise of EBF. The likelihood of exclusively breastfeeding children are significantly higher in Kwara, Kogi, Osun, and Oyo states but lower in Jigawa, Katsina, and Yobe. Intensive interventions that can lead to improved practise are required in all states in Nigeria. The importance of breastfeeding needs to be emphasized to women during antenatal visits as this can encourage and enhance the practise after delivery. PMID:24619227

  15. "She would sit with me": mothers' experiences of individual peer support for exclusive breastfeeding in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nankabirwa Victoria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different strategies have been used to improve the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Peer counsellors are reported to improve exclusive breastfeeding levels, but few studies have assessed the satisfaction of women with the support given, especially in Africa. In this paper we describe women's experiences of peer counselling for exclusive breastfeeding in an East African setting. Methods In the Ugandan site of PROMISE-EBF, a multi-centre community randomised trial to evaluate the effect of peer counselling for exclusive breastfeeding on infant health, 370 women in the intervention arm participated in a study exit interview. Individual peer counselling was offered to women in 12 of the 24 study clusters, scheduled as five visits: before childbirth and during weeks 1, 4, 7 and 10 after childbirth. During the visits, the women were given information and skills to help them breastfeed exclusively. After the 10-week visit, they were interviewed about their feelings and experiences related to the peer counselling. Results Overall, more than 95% of the women expressed satisfaction with the various aspects of peer counselling offered. Those who had received five or more visits were more likely to give positive responses about their experience with peer counselling than those who had received fewer visits. They explained their satisfaction with time spent with the peer counsellor in terms of how much she discussed with them. Most women felt their knowledge needs about breastfeeding were covered by the peer counsellors, while others expressed a desire to learn about complementary feeding and family planning. Attributes of the peer counsellors included their friendliness, being women and giving support in a familiar and relaxed way. Women were positive about the acquisition of knowledge and the benefit to their babies from the peer counselling. They preferred a peer counsellor to a health worker for support of exclusive

  16. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation. PMID:16208206

  17. BREASTFEEDING IN THE PERINATAL PERIOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human milk is recognized by the American Academy of Pediatrics as the optimal feeding for all infants, although supplementation with specially formulated human milk fortifiers is required to meet the nutritional needs of premature newborns. Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first six mo...

  18. Breastfeeding. COTALMA: training health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas, M C

    1994-01-01

    The Comite Tecnico de Apoyo a la Lactancia Materna (COTALMA), the Technical Breastfeeding Support Committee, was founded in Bolivia in 1989. It is financed by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). It is administered in coordination with the Ministry of Health (MOH). MOH and UNICEF choose the hospitals, who send teams that include a pediatrician, a gynecologist, a nurse, and a nutritionist. The first phase of the course (5.5 days) covers the scientific background of breastfeeding. A baseline study is then planned and conducted at each hospital. 2 to 3 months later, the second phase takes place during which data is presented and breast feeding programs are developed for each hospital. Communication, training, counseling, and planning and evaluation are covered. Practicums are conducted at hospitals. Trainers are usually members of COTALMA. The person in charge of maternal and child health services at MOH lectures on national health policies concerning mothers and children. Training includes use of the national health card, breastfeeding and child survival, and breastfeeding as a family planning method. Culturally appropriate course materials, which are in Spanish, are adapted from those developed by Wellstart International. Articles by COTALMA members and others are added. Participants are encouraged to train all staff at their institutions. PMID:12287930

  19. Human milk benefits and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Anatolitou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is uniquely superior for infant feeding and represents the perfect example of individualization in Pediatrics. Human milk is not a uniform body fluid but a secretion of the mammary gland of changing composition. Foremilk differs from hindmilk, and colostrum is strikingly different from transitional and mature milk. Milk changes with time of day and during the course of lactation. Extensive research has demonstrated health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychological, social, economic and environmental benefits of human milk. Breastfeeding results in improved infant and maternal health outcomes in both the industrialized and developing world. Some specific topics will be discussed such as the preventive effect of human milk on infections, overweight, obesity and diabetes, malignant disease, neurodevelopmental outcomes, reduction of necrotizing enterocolitis. Important health benefits of breastfeeding and lactation are also described for mothers. Finally, contraindications to breastfeeding and supplementation of breastfed infants are presented. Interventions to promote breastfeeding are relatively simple and inexpensive. Infant feeding should not be regarded as a lifestyle choice but rather as a basic health issue.

  20. Factors that intervene in exclusive breastfeeding: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Corrêa Porto de Abreu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Early weaning is still very present in Brazil, despite the investments in promoting, supporting and protecting breastfeeding. This current integrative review of qualitative researches characterized the factors that intervene in the early weaning and identified the collaborative nuclei for its prevention. Fourteen primary researches composed this study, through a research developed in the following databases: BDENF, LILACS, MEDLINE, and SCIENCE DIRECT, with the descriptors: Breast Feeding, Weaning, and Nursing. Early weaning is related to the socioeconomic context, working mom, previous experiences, and breast problems. These are all considered in the decision-making on weaning. Health professionals need to review their practices to encourage and support breastfeeding, aiming to develop them in an individual and dialogued way together with the women and her family.

  1. Why women decide not to breastfeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, D N

    1991-12-01

    The reasons for the low frequency of breastfeeding at an urban medical center were evaluated in a study in which 81 women were interviewed concerning the factors affecting their choice of infant feeding method and attitudes toward breastfeeding. One-half of the women made their decision during pregnancy, and 41 percent did so before conception. They received information on infant feeding methods from health care providers, family, and friends. In addition to their own thoughts and feelings, family members had the most influence on the feeding method. The influence of health care providers was minimal, yet most women received early and comprehensive prenatal care. Although they thought that breastfeeding was better for the baby, the majority chose to bottle feed due to negative attitudes toward breastfeeding, conflicting responsibilities or schedules, convenience, negative breastfeeding experiences, and health or medical reasons. PMID:1764151

  2. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ePublications News About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Overcoming challenges Overcoming ...

  3. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top ... at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. • Washington, DC 20201 800- ...

  4. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top ... at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. • Washington, DC 20201 800- ...

  5. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ... of the Assistant Secretary for Health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence ...

  6. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ... of the Assistant Secretary for Health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence ...

  7. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip ... Health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. • Washington, DC 20201 ...

  8. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip ... Health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. • Washington, DC 20201 ...

  9. The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa; Barr, Lester; Metaxas, George; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. While there are known genetic predispositions to the disease it is probable that environmental factors are also involved. Recent research has demonstrated a regionally specific distribution of aluminium in breast tissue mastectomies while other work has suggested mechanisms whereby breast tissue aluminium might contribute towards the aetiology of breast cancer. We have looked to develop microwave digestion combined with a new form of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as a precise, accurate and reproducible method for the measurement of aluminium in breast tissue biopsies. We have used this method to test the thesis that there is a regional distribution of aluminium across the breast in women with breast cancer. Microwave digestion of whole breast tissue samples resulted in clear homogenous digests perfectly suitable for the determination of aluminium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The instrument detection limit for the method was 0.48 μg/L. Method blanks were used to estimate background levels of contamination of 14.80 μg/L. The mean concentration of aluminium across all tissues was 0.39 μg Al/g tissue dry wt. There were no statistically significant regionally specific differences in the content of aluminium. We have developed a robust method for the precise and accurate measurement of aluminium in human breast tissue. There are very few such data currently available in the scientific literature and they will add substantially to our understanding of any putative role of aluminium in breast cancer. While we did not observe any statistically significant differences in aluminium content across the breast it has to be emphasised that herein we measured whole breast tissue and not defatted tissue where such a distribution was previously noted. We are very confident that the method developed herein could now be used to provide accurate and reproducible data on the aluminium content

  10. Is baby-friendly breastfeeding support in maternity hospitals associated with breastfeeding satisfaction among Japanese mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Hiroko; Nanishi, Keiko; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine

    2015-06-01

    While the World Health Organization's Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative has increased breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, a survey found that only 8.5 % of maternity hospitals in 31 developed countries could be designated baby-friendly. Baby-friendly breastfeeding support is sometimes criticized as mother unfriendly. This study examined whether baby-friendly breastfeeding support was associated with breastfeeding satisfaction, duration, and exclusivity among Japanese mothers. In this cross-sectional study, 601 breastfeeding Japanese mothers completed questionnaires at their infants' 4-month health checkups at two wards in Yokohama, Japan; 363 were included in the analysis. Baby-friendly breastfeeding support was measured based on the WHO's "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding." We measured satisfaction using two subscales of the Japanese version of the Maternal Breastfeeding Evaluation Scale. The association of baby-friendly support with maternal satisfaction was assessed using multiple linear regression, while the prevalence ratios (PRs) for breastfeeding were estimated using Poisson regression. Mothers were stratified by prepartum exclusive breastfeeding intention (yes, n = 256; no, n = 107). Mothers who experienced early skin-to-skin contact with their infants were more likely to report breastfeeding satisfaction than those who did not. Among mothers without exclusive breastfeeding intention, those who were encouraged to feed on demand were more likely to be breastfeeding without formula at 1 month (PR 2.66 [95 % CI 1.32, 5.36]) and to perceive breastfeeding as beneficial for their baby (regression coefficient = 3.14 [95 % CI 0.11, 6.17]) than those who were not so encouraged. Breastfeeding satisfaction was a useful measure of breastfeeding outcome. Early skin-to-skin contact and encouragement to feed on demand in the hospital facilitate breastfeeding satisfaction. PMID:25366103

  11. Moderation of Breastfeeding Effects on Adult Depression by Estrogen Receptor Gene Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Merjonen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is known to benefit both the mother’s and the child’s health. Our aim was to test the interactive effects between estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1 rs2234693 and breastfeeding when predicting the child’s later depression in adulthood. A sample of 1209 boys and girls from the Young Finns Study were followed from childhood over 27 years up to age 30–45 years. Adulthood depressive symptoms were self-reported by the participants using the Beck Depression Inventory. Breastfeeding as well as several possibly confounding factors was reported by the parents in childhood or adolescence. Breastfeeding tended to predict lower adult depression, while ESR1 rs2234693 was not associated with depression. A significant interaction between breastfeeding and ESR1 was found to predict participants’ depression (P=.004 so that C/C genotype carriers who had not been breastfed had higher risk of depression than T-allele carriers (40.5% versus 13.0% while there were no genotypic differences among those who had been breastfed. In sex-specific analysis, this interaction was evident only among women. We conclude that child’s genes and maternal behavior may interact in the development of child’s adult depression so that breastfeeding may buffer the inherited depression risk possibly associated with the C/C genotype of the ESR1 gene.

  12. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: promoting and supporting breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessen, Rachelle; Kavanagh, Katherine

    2015-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that exclusive breastfeeding provides optimal nutrition and health protection for the first 6 months of life, and that breastfeeding with complementary foods from 6 months until at least 12 months of age is the ideal feeding pattern for infants. Breastfeeding is an important public health strategy for improving infant and child morbidity and mortality, improving maternal morbidity, and helping to control health care costs. Research continues to support the positive effects of human milk on infant and maternal health, as it is a living biological fluid with many qualities not replicable by human milk substitutes. Recent research advancements include a greater understanding of the human gut microbiome, the protective effect of human milk for premature infants and those born to women experiencing gestational diabetes mellitus, the relationship of breastfeeding with human immunodeficiency virus, and the increased ability to characterize cellular components of human milk. Registered dietitian nutritionists and nutrition and dietetics technicians, registered, should continue efforts to shift the norm of infant feeding away from use of human milk substitutes and toward human milk feeds. The role of registered dietitian nutritionists and nutrition and dietetics technicians, registered, in breastfeeding promotion and support, in the context of the professional code of ethics and the World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes, are discussed in the "Practice Paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding," published on the Academy website at: www.eatright.org/positions. PMID:25721389

  13. Assessment of breastfeeding knowledge of nurse practitioners and nurse-midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellings, P; Howe, C

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate a national study of physician knowledge, experience, and attitudes about breastfeeding. All family, pediatric, and women's health care nurse practitioners and nurse-midwives in a northwestern state were surveyed using a mail questionnaire; the response rate was 60.4%. Respondents were nearly unanimous in believing that "breast is best" and in recommending breastfeeding to expectant mothers as a part of their role. In general, 70% of respondents considered themselves effective or very effective in meeting the needs of breastfeeding patients. Although respondents were very supportive of breastfeeding, they were less knowledgeable about specific management strategies. There were differences in attitudes among nursing specialties and with years of experience. Overall, this statewide sample of nurse practitioners and nurse-midwives had a better understanding of the benefits of breastfeeding and an increased sense of effectiveness in managing breastfeeding problems than the physician participants in the national study. A national sample of nurse practitioners and nurse-midwives is needed to verify and expand on the results from this single jurisdiction, where 40% of the respondents were graduates of the home institution of the co-investigators. PMID:10907336

  14. Effects of baby-friendly hospital initiative on breast-feeding practices in Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine changes in the breastfeeding practices of mothers after receiving counseling on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding as defined by the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative comparing baby friendly hospitals (BFHs) and non-baby-friendly hospitals in Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: The observational study was conducted from June 2007 to June 2009 in randomly selected baby-friendly and non-baby-friendly hospitals of Sindh, Pakistan. Non-probability purposive sampling was employed. The maternity staff was trained on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The changes in breastfeeding practices were analysed by SPSS version 15. Results: A total of 236 women were included in the study. Of them, 196 (83.05%) were from baby-friendly hospitals and 40 (16.94%) from non-baby-friendly hospitals. Besides, 174 (88.7%) mothers in baby-friendly hospitals and 5 (12.5%) in non-baby-friendly hospitals during antenatal care received counseling by healthcare providers. There was an increase in breastfeeding practice up to 194 (98.97%) in the first category compared to 12 (30%) in the other category. Conclusion: Counseling under the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative improved breastfeeding practices up to 98.97% in baby-friendly compared to non-baby-friendly hospitals. (author)

  15. Clinical Management of the Breast-Feeding Mother-Infant Dyad in Recovery From Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Deborah W

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is one of the most health-promoting and cost-effective nutritional substances known to humankind. Breastmilk provides substantial and remarkable physiological and psychological health benefits. Within the last decade, there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the United States and worldwide and an increased awareness of the immense health benefits for mothers, infants, and societies that support it. Each mother-baby dyad is a unique pair, with distinct relationships, biases, barriers, and obstacles. This article aims to address clinical management for the opioid-recovering breast-feeding dyad and to translate current evidenced-based practice findings, recommendations, and resources to best support this unique population. The recovering breast-feeding mother and newborn with opioid dependence deserve special consideration and expert care to foster their recovery and breast-feeding efforts. It is our moral and ethical responsibility as healthcare professionals to enable, foster, and promote breast-feeding among all families, especially those who stand to benefit the greatest. Substance recovery cannot be treated in isolation, nor can breast-feeding efforts; an interdisciplinary professional team effort promises the greatest chances for recovery success. With appropriate evidence-based practice support, training, and intervention by knowledgeable professionals, many women can overcome the biases and obstacles associated with opioid recovery to successfully breast-feed their babies. PMID:27272990

  16. The use of oral contraceptive before pregnancy and breastfeeding duration: A cross-sectional study with retrospective ascertainment

    OpenAIRE

    Karmaus Wilfried; Soto-Ramírez Nelís

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Various studies have identified risk factors associated with decreased breastfeeding duration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between oral contraceptive (OC) use before pregnancy and breastfeeding duration. Methods In 1994/95, as part of a 3-year epidemiologic follow-up study of school children, reproductive interviews were conducted with their mothers. The study population consists of 663 women residing in Hesse, Central Germany; ...

  17. Factors influencing breastfeeding preparedness among primigravidae attending antenatal clinic, at university of Port Harcourt teaching hospital, Rivers state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson-Bassey G. C.

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Based on these findings it was recommended among others that midwives should be involved in appropriate education of expectant mothers especially new ones to help improve breastfeeding preparedness among them; women should be engaged in occupation that allow them enough time to breastfeed and employers should make adequate provisions for breastfeeding mothers in order to encourage them. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1071-1076

  18. Factors affecting breastfeeding cessation after discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Melissa C; Masaba, Rose O; Nyikuri, Mary; Thomas, Timothy K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study, a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission study, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is provided from 34 weeks gestation, through delivery to six months postpartum. The study recommends that women practice exclusive breastfeeding for six months, then wean abruptly. We sought to explore factors such as, education, family support, cultural norms, and sources of information about perinatal HIV transmission, which may influe...

  19. Are fathers underused advocates for breastfeeding?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenosi, M

    2011-11-01

    Fathers\\' knowledge base and attitudes influence breastfeeding practice. We aimed to evaluate if Irish fathers felt included in the breastfeeding education and decision process. 67 fathers completed questionnaires, which assessed their role in the decision to breastfeed, knowledge regarding the benefits of breastfeeding and attitude towards breastfeeding.Forty-two (62.7%) of their partners were breastfeeding. Antenatal classes were attended by 38 (56.7%); 59 (88.1%) discussed breastfeeding with their partners and 26 (38.8%) felt that the decision was made together. Twelve (48%) fathers of formula fed infants were unaware that breastfeeding was healthier for the baby. Most fathers (80.6%) felt that breastfeeding was the mother\\'s decision and most (82.1%) felt that antenatal information was aimed at mothers only. Irish fathers remain relatively uninformed regarding the benefits of breastfeeding. This may contribute to their exclusion from the decision to breastfeed. Antenatal education should incorporate fathers more, and this may result in an improvement in our breastfeeding rates.

  20. Impact of ritual pollution on lactation and breastfeeding practices in rural West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay Mridula

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding in India is universal and prolonged. Several cultural practices are associated with lactation and breastfeeding in India, mainly revolving around the concept of ritual purity and 'hot and cold' foods, food avoidance, restricted diet after childbirth, and remaining in seclusion for a certain time period because of the polluting effects of childbirth. This study on breastfeeding practices explored how the concept of ritual pollution influenced practices after delivery, including during lactation and breastfeeding. Methods The study was conducted in four villages of West Bengal State in India, representing different levels of socioeconomic development, religion, and caste/tribe from September 1993 to April 1994. One hundred households with one woman respondent from each household were selected from each village. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed for data collection. A survey questionnaire was administered to 402 respondents and in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 women in the reproductive age group (13–49 years, and 12 case studies were documented with women belonging to different caste, religious, and tribal groups. Results Belief in 'impurity and polluting effects of childbirth' necessitated seclusion and confinement of mothers after childbirth in the study villages. Breastfeeding was universal and prolonged, and food proscriptions were followed by mothers after childbirth to protect the health of their newborn. Initiation of breastfeeding was delayed after birth because of the belief that mother's milk is 'not ready' until two-to-three days postpartum. Generally, colostrum was discarded before putting the infant to the breast in the study villages. Breastfeeding lasted up to five years, and the majority of women in the sample introduced supplementary food before six months. Most infants in the study villages were given a prelacteal feed immediately after birth, only a small number

  1. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... unique ways that breast milk can impact your child’s health and reduce the risks of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), asthma, obesity, and other health conditions. Content last updated: January ...

  2. Breastfeeding Infants with Phenylketonuria in the United States and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Banta-Wright, Sandra A.; Press, Nancy; Knafl, Kathleen A.; Robert D. Steiner; Houck, Gail M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study described the prevalence and duration of mothers' breastfeeding infants with phenylketonuria (PKU) and explored factors related to duration of breastfeeding as a surrogate for breastfeeding success.

  3. HIV testing in the maternity ward and the start of breastfeeding: a survival analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia T. Possolli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that influence of the time between birth and the beginning of breastfeeding, especially at the moment of the rapid HIV test results at hospital admission for delivery.METHODS: Cohort study of 932 pregnant women who underwent rapid HIV test admitted in the hospital for delivery in Baby-Friendly Hospitals. The survival curves of time from birth to the first feeding were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the joint effect of independent variables by the Cox model with a hierarchical analysis. As the survival curves were not homogeneous among the five hospitals, hindering the principle of proportionality of risks, the data were divided into two groups according to the median time of onset of breastfeeding at birth in women undergoing rapid HIV testing.RESULTS: Hospitals with median time to breastfeeding onset at birth of up to 60 min were considered as early breastfeeding onset and those with higher medians were considered as late breastfeeding onset at birth. Risk factors common to hospitals considered to be with early and late breastfeeding onset at birth were: cesarean section (RR = 1.75 [95% CI: 1.38-2.22]; RR = 3.83 [95% CI: 3.03-4.85] and rapid test result after birth (RR = 1.45 [95% CI: 1.12-1.89]; RR = 1.65 [95% CI: 1.35-2.02], respectively; and hospitals with late onset: starting prenatal care in the third trimester (RR = 1.86 [95% CI: 1.16-2.97].CONCLUSIONS: The onset of breastfeeding is postponed, even in Baby-Friendly Hospitals, when the results of the rapid HIV test requested in the maternity are not available at the time of delivery.

  4. Constraints to exclusive breastfeeding practice among breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Nigeria: implications for scaling up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agunbiade Ojo M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of exclusive breastfeeding is still low despite the associated benefits. Improving the uptake and appropriating the benefits will require an understanding of breastfeeding as an embodied experience within a social context. This study investigates breastfeeding practices and experiences of nursing mothers and the roles of grandmothers, as well as the work-related constraints affecting nurses in providing quality support for breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Nigeria. Methods Using a concurrent mixed method approach, a structured questionnaire was administered to 200 breastfeeding mothers. In-depth interviews were also held with breastfeeding mothers (11, nurses (10 and a focus group discussion session with grandmothers. Results Breastfeeding was perceived as essential to baby's health. It strengthens the physical and spiritual bond between mothers and their children. Exclusive breastfeeding was considered essential but demanding. Only a small proportion (19% of the nursing mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding. The survey showed the major constraints to exclusive breastfeeding to be: the perception that babies continued to be hungry after breastfeeding (29%; maternal health problems (26%; fear of babies becoming addicted to breast milk (26%; pressure from mother-in-law (25%; pains in the breast (25%; and the need to return to work (24%. In addition, the qualitative findings showed that significant others played dual roles with consequences on breastfeeding practices. The desire to practice exclusive breastfeeding was often compromised shortly after child delivery. Poor feeding, inadequate support from husband and conflicting positions from the significant others were dominant constraints. The nurses decried the effects of their workload on providing quality supports for nursing mothers. Conclusion Breastfeeding mothers are faced with multiple challenges as they strive to practice exclusive breastfeeding. Thus

  5. Breastfeeding in Ireland. A five-year strategic action plan - National Committee on Breastfeeding 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health

    2005-01-01

    The protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding has been identified in many national policy documents as a major public health issue. Breastfeeding offers mothers and babies significant health advantages both in the short term and throughout their lives.From a health policy point of view, it is generally agreed that the better health afforded by breastfeeding can result in major savings in the provision of health care. Studies have also shown that breastfeeding has a positive effect on...

  6. Constraints to exclusive breastfeeding practice among breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Nigeria: implications for scaling up

    OpenAIRE

    Agunbiade Ojo M; Ogunleye Opeyemi V

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The practice of exclusive breastfeeding is still low despite the associated benefits. Improving the uptake and appropriating the benefits will require an understanding of breastfeeding as an embodied experience within a social context. This study investigates breastfeeding practices and experiences of nursing mothers and the roles of grandmothers, as well as the work-related constraints affecting nurses in providing quality support for breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Ni...

  7. When Breast-feeding is not Contraindicated: Do you know when to stop breast-feeding?

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Jack

    1991-01-01

    As more mothers elect to breast-feed, more concomitant problems in mothers and babies are reported that are thought to contraindicate breast-feeding. Many frequently cited maternal and infant reasons for stopping breast-feeding are not valid. Breast-feeding can usually be maintained if the physician remembers that breast-feeding is important for the baby and mother and not simply another feeding method.

  8. Breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and practice among school teachers in Abha female educational district, southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Binali Ali Mohamed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate knowledge, or inappropriate practice, of breastfeeding may lead to undesirable consequences. The aim of this study was to assess breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP among female teachers in the Abha Female Educational District and identify factors that may affect breastfeeding practice in the study population. Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among school teachers in Abha Female Educational District during the months of April to June, 2011. Breastfeeding KAP of participants who had at least one child aged five years or younger at the time of the study were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire, based on their experience with the last child. Results A total of 384 women made up of 246 (61.1% primary-, 89 (23.2% intermediate- and 49 (12.8% high-school teachers participated in the study. One hundred and nineteen participants (31% started breastfeeding their children within one hour of delivery, while exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was reported only by 32 (8.3% participants. Insufficient breast milk and work related problems were the main reasons given by 169 (44% and 148 (38.5% of participants, respectively, for stopping breastfeeding before two years. Only 33 participants (8.6% had attended classes related to breastfeeding. However, 261 participants (68% indicated the willingness to attend such classes, if available, in future pregnancies. Conclusions This study revealed that breast milk insufficiency and adverse work related issues were the main reasons for a very low rate of exclusive breastfeeding among female school teachers in Abha female educational district, Saudi Arabia. A very low rate of attending classes addressing the breastfeeding issues during pregnancy, and an alarming finding of a high percentage of babies receiving readymade liquid formula while still in hospital, were also brought out by the present study. Such

  9. Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in urban informal settlements, Nairobi Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutua Martin K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organisation (WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life for optimal growth, development and health. Breastfeeding should continue up to two years or more and nutritionally adequate, safe, and appropriately-fed complementary foods should be introduced at the age of six months to meet the evolving needs of the growing infant. Little evidence exists on breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa. Our aim was to assess breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in Nairobi slums with reference to WHO recommendations. Methods Data from a longitudinal study conducted in two Nairobi slums are used. The study used information on the first year of life of 4299 children born between September 2006 and January 2010. All women who gave birth during this period were interviewed on breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices at recruitment and this information was updated twice, at four-monthly intervals. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine factors associated with cessation of breastfeeding in infancy and early introduction of complementary foods. Results There was universal breastfeeding with almost all children (99% having ever been breastfed. However, more than a third (37% were not breastfed in the first hour following delivery, and 40% were given something to drink other than the mothers' breast milk within 3 days after delivery. About 85% of infants were still breastfeeding by the end of the 11th month. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months was rare as only about 2% of infants were exclusively breastfed for six months. Factors associated with sub-optimal infant breastfeeding and feeding practices in these settings include child's sex; perceived size at birth; mother's marital status, ethnicity; education level; family planning (pregnancy desirability; health seeking behaviour (place of delivery and; neighbourhood

  10. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Oliveira B. Oriá

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches of Portuguese-language sources. Articles were organized and analyzed chronologically by comparing the evolution of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Program. The incomplete research output of the Brazilian nursing profession in regard to breastfeeding research needs to be addressed. In addition, specific cultural, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Brazilian regional settings remain to be explored. Emphasis on potential confounders and critical interrelations is warranted.

  11. High initiation and long duration of breastfeeding despite absence of early skin-to-skin contact in Karen refugees on the Thai-Myanmar border: a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    White Adrienne L; Carrara Verena I; Paw Moo Kho; Malika; Dahbu ColleyPaw; Gross Mechthild M; Stuetz Wolfgang; Nosten Francois H; McGready Rose

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) after birth is recommended as part of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) baby friendly health initiative to promote optimum breastfeeding. This paper reports rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration in a low resource environment, where early SSC is not practised, and explores views of pregnant women and midwives surrounding breastfeeding and swaddling. Methods Data from records from a single hospital on the Thai-Myanmar borde...

  12. A study of acid phosphatase locus 1 in women with high fat content and normal body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Antonino; Di Renzo, Laura; Puja, Alberto; Saccucci, Patrizia; Gloria-Bottini, Fulvia; Bottini, Egidio

    2009-03-01

    De Lorenzo and coworkers have recently described a class of women with normal body mass index (BMI) and high fat content (normal weight obese syndrome [NWO]). This observation prompted us to study the possible role of acid phosphatase locus 1 (ACP(1)) in the differentiation of this special class of obese subjects. Acid phosphatase locus 1 is a polymorphic gene associated with severe obesity and with total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. The enzyme is composed by 2 isoforms--F and S--that have different biochemical properties and probably different functions. The sample study was composed of 130 white women from the population of Rome. Total fat mass and percentage of fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Thirty-six women had a BMI less than 25 and percentage of fat mass greater than 30 (high fat, normal BMI [HFHB]), and 94 women showed a BMI greater than 25 and a percentage of fat mass greater than 30 (high fat, high BMI [HFHB]). In the whole sample, the proportion of low-activity ACP(1) genotypes (*A/*A and *B/*A) was higher than in controls. However, whereas HFNB showed a very high frequency of ACP(1) *A/*A genotype, high-fat, high-BMI women showed an increase of *B/*A genotype. These 2 genotypes differ in the concentration of F isoform and the F/S ratio, which are lower in ACP(1)*A/*A genotype than in ACP(1)*B/*A genotype. The genetic differentiation of the class of women with normal BMI and high fat content from the class showing a concordant level of the 2 parameters supports the hypothesis that HFNB class represents a special cluster of obese subjects not revealed by BMI evaluation. Because ACP(1) is present in adipocytes, the present observation suggests that F isoform may have a specific role in the regulation of quantity of adipose tissue. PMID:19217450

  13. Are Breastfeeding Patterns in Pakistan Changing?

    OpenAIRE

    Zubeda Khan

    1991-01-01

    Prolonged breastfeeding, apart from being beneficial to the child's health, helps in keeping the birth rate low. One of the effects of malnutrition in developing countries is the reduction in the period of lactation. In Pakistan, where the birth rate is already very high and the use of contraceptives limited, any reduction in the breastfeeding period may result in an increase of the birth rate. This study was undertaken to find out the recent changes in the breastfeeding pattern and their pot...

  14. Secular trends in breastfeeding in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; Saldiva, Sílvia Regina Dias Médici; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document the secular trend in breastfeeding in Brazil. Data bases from seven national surveys conducted from 1975 to 2008 were reanalyzed. To obtain compatible data from the different surveys, children in the same age group and the same indicators were analyzed, using the same statistical techniques. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2.5 to 11.3 months, and the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in infants under six months of age increas...

  15. The effects of frenotomy on breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Lopes de Castro MARTINELLI; MARCHESAN, Irene Queiroz; Gusmão, Reinaldo Jordão; Honório, Heitor Marques; BERRETIN-FELIX, Giédre

    2015-01-01

    Although the interference of tongue-tie with breastfeeding is a controversial subject, The use of lingual frenotomy has been widely indicated by health professionals. Objective : To observe changes in breastfeeding patterns after lingual frenotomy concerning the number of sucks, pause length between groups of sucking and mother's complaints. Material and Methods : Oral yes/no questions about breastfeeding symptoms and sucking/swallowing/breathing coordination were answered by the mothers of 1...

  16. Breastfeeding self-efficacy among adolescent mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Renata de Lima Bizerra; Jéssica Pinheiro Carnaúba; Anne Fayma Lopes Chaves; Rebeca Silveira Rocha; Hérica Cristina Alves de Vasconcelos; Mônica Oliveira Batista Oriá

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess breastfeeding self-efficacy among lactating adolescents. A quantitative study involving 172 lactating adolescents, conducted in 14 Basic Health Units in the northeast cities of Brazil. For data collection, we used a form and the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale – Short Form. Data were analyzed with a statistical software. Results showed high breastfeeding self-efficacy (84%), with more adherence to the items: “Ensure that my baby is properly latched o...

  17. Northern Ireland regional breastfeeding peer support training

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    This resource�has been produced for breastfeeding coordinators and breastfeeding peer support trainers who provide training for peer support volunteers. �� The resource has been distributed by PHA directly to those involved in breastfeeding peer support programmes in Northern Ireland. Further copies can be requested as applicable from Lesley Blackstock at: The CD supports delivery of eight peer support teaching sessions (two hours each), which meet Open College Net...

  18. Breastfeeding Practices and Parental Employment in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Miki; Usui, Emiko

    2014-01-01

    Much research shows that breastfeeding provides short- and long-term health benefits for both mothers and their children. However, few studies have yet investigated the factors which may promote or inhibit breastfeeding practices in Japan. To fill this research gap, this paper uses data newly gathered in 2012 on breastfeeding initiation and duration for each child of each mother, which enable us to estimate mother fixed-effects models that control for unobserved differences among mothers. Com...

  19. Is breast best?: breastfeeding, motherhood and identity

    OpenAIRE

    Earle, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    Is Breast Best?: breastfeeding, motherhood and identity is concerned with how breastfeeding is both a personal and a political issue. Earle begins with a cross-cultural analysis of the prevalence of breastfeeding, considering differences between and within countries and cultures and highlighting the presumed physical and psychological advantages for mothers and their babies. The remainder of the chapter is devoted to data derived from a qualitative study concerned with the body in pregnancy, ...

  20. Breastfeeding in emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M

    1995-02-01

    In emergency situations created by wars, natural disasters, and famines, people are forced to live in crowded, unsanitary conditions where access to food and health care is limited and the danger of infection, particularly with diarrheal diseases, is great. The situation is compounded when anxieties exist concerning breast feeding; this usually occurs in industrialized countries where artificial feeding was widespread prior to the crisis, breast feeding skills were lost, and inaccurate information replaced traditional knowledge. It is believed that psychological stress and poor diet cause breast milk to dry up. Although diet is important, undernourished women are capable of producing enough milk to feed their babies. Psychological stress can temporarily prevent the release of milk from the breast, but it does not affect milk production. Large supplies of infant formula are not needed, and unrestricted distribution of breast milk substitutes can undermine breast feeding and increase the risk of disease and death. Almost all mothers are physically capable of breast feeding. Those who provide health care and relief assistance during emergencies should undertake the following measures to support breast feeding and to protect the health of mothers: 1) work for agreement between outside agencies and local health workers on breast feeding policy and practice, share up-to-date information, and establish mechanisms to ensure actions are implemented in a coordinated manner; 2) ensure that maternity care practices follow WHO/UNICEF guidelines; 3) encourage women who are not breast feeding to do so, rather than criticizing them; 4) educate the whole community about the benefits of breast feeding and highlight the importance of family and social support; 5) offer one-to-one assistance to mothers who are experiencing difficulty breast feeding through use of a network of experienced mothers, or by training breast feeding counselors (women), who are sensitive to the culture

  1. Maternal bodies, breast-feeding, and consumer desire in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschang, Suzanne Zhang

    2007-03-01

    Urban Chinese women in the 1990s formulated their infant-feeding decisions in the context of a society undergoing radical transformation as the nation moved from a centrally planned socialist economy to a global, market-oriented one. Narratives of new mothers in Beijing in the 1990s provide insights into the multiple forces that shaped their infant-feeding practices. These personal histories also illustrate the limitations of multilateral breast-feeding programs that emphasize breast-feeding as a natural interaction between mother and infant. The cases I present here demonstrate instead that the material, bodily manifestations of breast-feeding require nursing mothers to continually renegotiate relations with husbands, coworkers, and family. Chinese women's accounts also add insight to theoretical deliberations on gender and the body, for they demonstrate that cultural expectations and the demands of the lactating body must be considered to understand fully the process of women's decisions in a social and not strictly reproductive context. On a larger scale, the data also illustrate how global intervention, in the form of the WHO-UNICEF-sponsored Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, promotes breast-feeding as a woman's primary duty at the same time that market forces counter this message as women redefine their individual expectations and social relationships. PMID:17405698

  2. Do tongue ties affect breastfeeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, D Mervyn

    2004-11-01

    This study assessed indications for and safety and outcome of simple division of tongue tie without an anesthetic. There were 215 infants younger than 3 months (mean 0-19 days) who had major problems breastfeeding, despite professional support. Symptoms, tongue tie details, safety of division, and complications were recorded. Feeding was assessed by the mothers immediately, at 24 hours, and 3 months after division. Prior to division, 88% had difficulty latching, 77% of mothers experienced nipple trauma, and 72% had a continuous feeding cycle. During division, 18% slept throughout; 60% cried more after division (mean 0-15 seconds). There were no significant complications. Within 24 hours, 80% were feeding better. Overall, 64% breastfed for at least 3 months (UK national average is 30%). Initial assessment, diagnosis, and help, followed by division and subsequent support by a qualified lactation consultant, might ensure that even more mothers and infants benefit from breastfeeding. PMID:15479660

  3. Food for Thought? Breastfeeding and Child Development

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzsimons, Emla; Vera-Hernandez, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    We show that children who are born at the weekend or just before are less likely to be breastfed, owing to poorer breastfeeding support services at weekends. We use this variation to estimate the effect of breastfeeding on children’s development for a sample of uncomplicated births from low educated mothers. We find that breastfeeding has large effects on children’s cognitive development, but not on non-cognitive development or health. Regarding mechanisms, we estimate how breastfeeding a...

  4. Early termination of breastfeeding among Philippine urban poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, G M; Guthrie, H A; Fernandez, T L; Estrera, N

    1983-01-01

    The research objective was to identify factors that caused mothers to terminate breastfeeding prematurely, i.e., before the infant reached his or her 1st birthday. Nursing for at least 1 year was a minimum goal of health authorities in the area of this research. The study was conducted in 2 urban poor areas and in 2 fringe squatter settlements of Cebu City, a metropolitan area of 500,000 people in the central Philippines. The data were collected by 2 women field workers. The 130 participants, who were within 3 months of delivery, pre- or postpartum were recruited in 1979. They were visited in their homes once a month by the worker who weighed the mother and the baby, inquired about their diets, and recorded breastfeeding experiences and plans. Special attention was given to any problems the mothers were having that might interfere with continued nursing. Other than encouraging mothers to use the local health center, workers did not intervene to support breastfeeding. The mothers were followed for at least the crucial 1st 6 months. Many were followed for a year or more. Of those who agreed to participate prior to delivery, and who composed 1/3 of the total group, some 95% initiated breastfeeding. Of the 3 who did not, 2 tried to nurse but gave up when the newborn showed persistent diarrhea. Between 10-20% of babies were on a mixed diet of breast and bottle feeding, some beginning as early as the 1st month when mothers returned to part-time work. Other mothers, feeling that the babies were not getting enough to eat, added bottles regularly. This pattern did not necessarily lead to the early termination of breastfeeding. With the exception of 2 instances when mothers decided that their babies were big enough to get along without breast milk, the mothers were forced by circumstances as they perceived them to wean the child. Almost all the terminations were abrupt, with the mother continuing to have an adequate supply of milk. The insufficient milk situation reported by

  5. Breastfeeding in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D S; Wang, X

    1995-01-01

    In China, where breast feeding was almost universal 30-40 years ago, the prevalence of breast feeding has declined rapidly in urban and periurban areas because of 1) separation of the newborn and mother in the hospital, 2) mothers returning to work early and working far from home, 3) perceptions of too little milk, and 4) easy access to substitutes. Studies have revealed that breast-fed babies over 6 months old grow at a slightly lower rate than bottle-fed babies, suggesting that proper weaning foods should be provided after 6 months of age. Breast feeding is associated with lower infant morbidity (lower respiratory infection, gastrointestinal tract infection, eczema, and rickets). Despite their fears to the contrary, Chinese mothers produce an amount of breast milk in the range of that produced by women in Western countries and greater than that produced by women in other developing countries. Studies of the nutritional composition of the milk of Chinese mothers also found that it is adequate for the baby's needs. Research has indicated, however, that the foods offered to the baby during weaning satisfy only about 18% of their caloric needs. Thus, not only does breast feeding need promotion in China, weaning practices also require modification. PMID:7495141

  6. Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wendy K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer. We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast milk. Methods We conducted a prospective review of 100 consecutive births of infants in the same centre to determine the proportion of newborn infants who were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk, as distinct from being fully breast fed. We also report a review of the breastfeeding practices of mothers of over 87,000 newborn infants in the Australian State of New South Wales. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia. Approval 05063, 29 September 2005. Results Virtually all (97 of 100 newborn infants in this centre were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk whether or not they were fully breast fed. Between 82.2% to 98.7% of 87,000 newborn infants were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk. Conclusion In some Western communities there is near universal exposure of new born infants to colostrum and breast milk. Accordingly it is possible for the transmission of human milk borne viruses. This is contrary to the widespread assumption that human milk borne viruses cannot be associated with breast cancer.

  7. The association between breast tissue optical content and mammographic density in pre- and post-menopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M Blackmore

    Full Text Available Mammographic density (MD, associated with higher water and lower fat content in the breast, is strongly related to breast cancer risk. Optical attenuation spectroscopy (OS is a non-imaging method of evaluating breast tissue composition by red and near-infrared light transmitted through the breast that, unlike mammography, does not involve radiation. OS provides information on wavelength dependent light scattering of tissue and on absorption by water, lipid, oxy-, deoxy-hemoglobin. We propose that OS could be an alternative marker of breast cancer risk and that OS breast tissue measures will be associated with MD. In the present analysis, we developed an algorithm to estimate breast tissue composition and light scattering parameters using a spectrally constrained global fitting procedure employing a diffuse light transport model. OS measurements were obtained from 202 pre- and post-menopausal women with normal mammograms. Percent density (PD and dense area (DA were measured using Cumulus. The association between OS tissue composition and PD and DA was analyzed using linear regression adjusted for body mass index. Among pre-menopausal women, lipid content was significantly inversely associated with square root transformed PD (β = -0.05, p = 0.0002 and DA (β = -0.05, p = 0.019; water content was significantly positively associated with PD (β = 0.06, p = 0.008. Tissue oxygen saturation was marginally inversely associated with PD (β = -0.03, p = 0.057 but significantly inversely associated with DA (β = -0.10, p = 0.002. Among post-menopausal women lipid and water content were significantly associated (negatively and positively, respectively with PD (β lipid = -0.08, β water = 0.14, both p<0.0001 and DA (β lipid = -0.10, p<0.0001; β water = 0.11, p = 0.001. The association between OS breast content and PD and DA is consistent with more proliferation in dense tissue of younger women, greater lipid content in low density tissue and higher water

  8. Environmental factors in the relationship between breastfeeding and infant mortality: the role of sanitation and water in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, W P; Habicht, J P; DaVanzo, J

    1984-04-01

    Mothers' recall data collected in Malaysia in 1976-1977 are analyzed to study correlates of mortality of 5471 infants. Respondent population is 1262 women living in 52 primary sampling units of Peninsular Malaysia. Lengths of unsupplemented and supplemented breastfeeding and presence of piped household water and toilet sanitation are related to infant mortality in regressions that also control other correlates. The analysis is disaggregated into three periods of infancy. Through six months of feeding, unsupplemented breastfeeding is more strongly associated with fewer infant deaths than is supplemented breastfeeding. Type of sanitation is generally more strongly associated with mortality than is type of water supply. The effects of breastfeeding and the environmental variables are shown to be strongly interactive and to change systematically during the course of infancy. Breastfeeding is more strongly associated with infant survival in homes without piped water or toilet sanitation. In homes with both modern facilities, supplemented breastfeeding has no significant effect, and unsupplemented breastfeeding is statistically significant only for mortality in days 8-28. Presence of modern water and sanitation systems appears unimportant for mortality of infants who are breastfed without supplementation for six months. PMID:6711541

  9. The Representation of Women in Western Nigerian Lifestyle Magazine Advertisements; A Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Olorunfemi, Onotina Jeiva

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The representation of women in the media has been a consistent subject matter over the years and has evolved into a major feature of every media form. This has been a major concern as many scholars have tried to establish the connection between how women are represented in the media (which is often subjective) and how they are viewed in the society. The roles women are featured playing are usually demeaning and belittling as has always been the case. This research was carried out in...

  10. The first breastfeeding session: studies on caregivers' support and breastfeeding duration

    OpenAIRE

    Cato, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cato, K. 2015 The first breastfeeding session: studies on caregivers’ support and breastfeeding duration. 33pp. Uppsala. ISBN 978-91-506-2494-6   It is well-known that the first breastfeeding session can be essential for breastfeeding duration. The hands-on approach given by health care professionals, where health care professionals touch the woman’s breast and the baby in order to stimulate latch on and breastfeeding, has been described as awkward and disturbing.   The aim of this t...

  11. Determination of Breastfeeding Behaviors of Mothers and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Akyuz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is a descriptive research which was planned to determine the factors related to beginning and maintaining the breastfeeding of the mothers. This research was conducted with the mothers who applied to the The Healthy Child Department in Pediatrics Clinic at Gulhane Medical Millitary Academy (GMMA. The women who applied to this department constituted the population of the study (N=750, and the women who volunteered to join the study between April and June constituted the sampling (n=120. In the result of this study, the most of the women planned to feed their babies with breast milk, and for their choice of preferring the breast milk, they thought that breast milk is the best nutrient for their babies, and keeping their babies from the illnesses. It was found that the half of the mothers who had vaginal birth fed their babies with the breast milk in an early one hour. Seventy-nine point two percentages of the mothers pointed out giving no meals before feeding with breast milk, and the others generally fed their babies with infant food and liquid with sugar. In this study, it was determined that breastfeeding is still common among the mothers, and most of the babies are fed with the breast milk for several times. However the babies are fed with the milk for a long time, the mothers still need education and training programme about the subjects like initial breastfeeding time, giving the liquid and infant food, only not giving the breast milk and start to feed with infant food early or later. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 331-335

  12. Determination of Breastfeeding Behaviors of Mothers and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Akyuz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is a descriptive research which was planned to determine the factors related to beginning and maintaining the breastfeeding of the mothers. This research was conducted with the mothers who applied to the The Healthy Child Department in Pediatrics Clinic at Gulhane Medical Millitary Academy (GMMA. The women who applied to this department constituted the population of the study (N=750, and the women who volunteered to join the study between April and June constituted the sampling (n=120. In the result of this study, the most of the women planned to feed their babies with breast milk, and for their choice of preferring the breast milk, they thought that breast milk is the best nutrient for their babies, and keeping their babies from the illnesses. It was found that the half of the mothers who had vaginal birth fed their babies with the breast milk in an early one hour. Seventy-nine point two percentages of the mothers pointed out giving no meals before feeding with breast milk, and the others generally fed their babies with infant food and liquid with sugar. In this study, it was determined that breastfeeding is still common among the mothers, and most of the babies are fed with the breast milk for several times. However the babies are fed with the milk for a long time, the mothers still need education and training programme about the subjects like initial breastfeeding time, giving the liquid and infant food, only not giving the breast milk and start to feed with infant food early or later. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 331-335

  13. Smoking Behaviour before, during, and after Pregnancy: The Effect of Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lauria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data for this study were obtained from a population-based follow-up study in 25 Italian Local Health Units (LHUs to evaluate pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum care in Italy. A sample of 3534 women was recruited and interviewed within a few days of their giving birth and at 3, 6, and 12 months after delivery, by trained interviewers using questionnaires. The objective of the study was to evaluate changes in smoking behaviour from one interview to the next. Of 2546 women who completed the follow-up, smoking prevalences before and during pregnancy were 21.6% and 6.7%; smoking prevalences and smoking relapse at 3, 6, and 12 months were 8.1% and 18.5%, 10.3% and 30.3%, and 10.9% and 32.3%, respectively. Smoking during and after pregnancy was more likely among women who were less educated, single, not attending antenatal classes, employed, and not breastfeeding. The results show that women who are breastfeeding smoke less than not breastfeeding women, even after controlling for other predictors (i.e.,  smoking relapse at 12 months: OR=0.43, 95%  CI:  0.19, 0.94. A low maternal mood increases the risk of smoking relapse within 6 months of about 73%. This study also suggests that prolonged breastfeeding reduces the risk of smoking relapse and that this reduction may be persistent in time. Interventions targeting breastfeeding promotion may also indirectly support smoking cessation, even in absence of specific interventions.

  14. Large unilateral breast autoinflation after breastfeeding linked to polyacrylamide hydrogel injection augmentation mammaplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Gavin Chun-Wui; Ong, Yee Siang

    2011-02-01

    Augmentation mammaplasty using polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) injection is associated with myriad complications. A patient treated by the authors had bilateral breast augmentation with PAAG injection and experienced large unilateral right breast autoinflation after breastfeeding, which required surgical clearance of a likely galactocele or sterile pus collection that resulted in deformity. Patients with PAAG filler injection-augmented breasts should avoid breastfeeding. The authors recommend against using PAAG injection for augmentation mammaplasty, especially in women intending to breastfeed. Physicians and patients must be aware of the complications associated with PAAG before gel administration. PMID:20652566

  15. Mothers' experiences sharing breastfeeding or breastmilk, Part 2: early 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Thorley

    2012-01-01

    While women who informally shared breastfeeding or breastmilk (also called cross-feeding or co-feeding) in the latter part of the twentieth century were often reluctant to disclose this practice, media attention in the last few years has resulted in more discussion of this practice. Nurses may therefore encounter mothers who at least once have shared or are sharing breastfeeding or breastmilk. This paper is the second of two to explore the experiences of mothers of co-feedin...

  16. Mothers’ experiences of sharing breastfeeding or breastmilk, part 2: the early 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Thorley

    2011-01-01

    While women who informally shared breastfeeding or breastmilk (also called cross-nursing or co-feeding) in the latter part of the twentieth century were often reluctant to disclose this practice, media attention in the last few years has resulted in this practice being discussed more. Nurses may, therefore, encounter mothers who have shared or are sharing breastfeeding or their breastmilk at least once. This paper is the second of two to explore the experiences of mothers co-feeding in a vari...

  17. Keeping it Natural: Does Persuasive Magazine Content Have an Effect on Young Women's Intentions for Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kate; Miller, Yvette D

    2015-01-01

    Information in the popular media tends to be biased toward promoting the benefits of medicalized birth for low-risk pregnancies. We aimed to assess the effect of communicating the benefits of non-medicalized birth in magazine articles on women's birth intentions and to identify the mechanisms by which social communication messages affected women's intentions for birth. A convenience sample of 180 nulliparous Australian women aged 18-35 years were randomly exposed to a magazine article endorsing non-medicalized birth (using either celebrity or non-celebrity endorsement) or organic eating (control) throughout June-July 2011. Magazine articles that endorsed non-medicalized birth targeted perceived risk of birth, expectations for labor and birth, and attitudes toward birth. These variables and intention for birth were assessed by self-report before and after exposure. Exposure to a magazine article that endorsed non-medicalized birth significantly reduced women's intentions for a medicalized birth, regardless of whether the endorsement was by celebrities or non-celebrities. Changes in perceived risk of birth mediated the effect of magazine article exposure on women's intentions for a medicalized birth. Persuasive communication that endorses non-medicalized birth could be delivered at the population level and may reduce women's intentions for a medicalized birth. PMID:25793927

  18. Breastfeeding in relation to risk of different breast cancer characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Butt, Salma; Borgquist, Signe; Anagnostaki, Lola; Landberg, Göran; Manjer, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this present study was to examine duration of breastfeeding in relation to the risk of different subgroups of breast cancer. A prospective cohort, The Malmö Diet and Cancer study, including 14092 parous women, were followed during a mean of 10.2 years and a total of 424 incident breast cancers were diagnosed. Methods Tumours were classified regarding invasiveness, tumour size, axillary lymph node status, Nottingham grade, tumour proliferation (Ki67), HER2, cyclin D1 and ...

  19. Experimental hyperglycemia induces an increase of monocyte and T-lymphocyte content in adipose tissue of healthy obese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Tencerová

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia represents one of possible mediators for activation of immune system and may contribute to worsening of inflammatory state associated with obesity. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of a short-term hyperglycemia (HG on the phenotype and relative content of immune cells in circulation and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT in obese women without metabolic complications.Three hour HG clamp with infusion of octreotide and control investigations with infusion of octreotide or saline were performed in three groups of obese women (Group1: HG, Group 2: Octreotide, Group 3: Saline, n=10 per group. Before and at the end of the interventions, samples of SAAT and blood were obtained. The relative content of immune cells in blood and SAAT was determined by flow cytometry. Gene expression analysis of immunity-related markers in SAAT was performed by quantitative real-time PCR.In blood, no changes in analysed immune cell population were observed in response to HG. In SAAT, HG induced an increase in the content of CD206 negative monocytes/macrophages (p<0.05 and T lymphocytes (both T helper and T cytotoxic lymphocytes, p<0.01. Further, HG promoted an increase of mRNA levels of immune response markers (CCL2, TLR4, TNFα and lymphocyte markers (CD3g, CD4, CD8a, TBX21, GATA3, FoxP3 in SAAT (p<0.05 and 0.01. Under both control infusions, none of these changes were observed.Acute HG significantly increased the content of monocytes and lymphocytes in SAAT of healthy obese women. This result suggests that the short-term HG can modulate an immune status of AT in obese subjects.

  20. Breastfeeding profile and practice of Nigerian mothers: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidozie Emmanuel Mbada

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding patterns in the developing world are still below the recommended levels and the potential to improve child survival remains untapped. This study investigated the breastfeeding profile and practices of Nigerian nursing mothers. Methods: This cross-sectional survey involved women at attending selected baby-friendly facilities in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria who had breastfed their most recent baby for a minimum of six months. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on demographics, infant-maternal characteristics and breastfeeding practices. 383 mothers volunteered for this study, yielding a response rate of 95.7%. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics at 0.05 alpha level. Results: The mean age of the respondent was 29.0 +/- 4.96 years. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF rate was 86.2%. Breastfeeding initiation time of less than 1 hour after delivery and 24 hours rooming-in practice rate was 78.3% and 79.1% respectively. Daily breastfeeding time and total breastfeeding duration was 8.06 +/- 2.33 hours and 18.3 +/- 4.82 months respectively. The mean onset time for water supplementation was 4.74 +/- 1.77 months with a rate of 30.3% within 1-3 months. Weaning initiation time was mostly (43.9% within 12 to 18 month of infant's age. There was significant association between EBF practice and each of maternal education (X2 = 6.554; P = 0.038 and Socio-Economic Status (SES (X2 = 19.32; P = 0.031 with most of the respondents in the lower SES (56.1% subscribing to EBF. Conclusions: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF rate for the first six months among Nigerian mothers attending baby-friendly clinics was high. Breastfeeding initiation time after delivery was early, water supplementation to breastfeeding was before 5 months of the infant's life and weaning practice was late. Maternal educational level and socio-economic status significantly influenced EBF practice. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet

  1. Níveis de alfa-tocoferol no soro e colostro de lactantes e associação com variáveis maternas Alpha-tocopherol level in serum and colostrum of breastfeeding women and association with maternal variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Queiroz de Lira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Diagnosticar bioquimicamente o estado nutricional de vitamina E de lactantes por meio da análise do alfa-tocoferol no soro e no colostro, verificar sua associação com variáveis maternas e determinar a prevalência de deficiência de vitamina E nessas mulheres. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 103 puérperas que foram classificadas quanto às seguintes variáveis maternas: idade, estado nutricional pré-gestacional, ganho de peso gestacional, paridade e tipo de parto. Amostras de soro e colostro foram coletadas em jejum no pós-parto imediato e o alfa-tocoferol foi analisado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Para definir o estado nutricional de vitamina E, foi adotado ponto de corte sérico (697,7 μg/dL. A análise estatística foi realizada com o uso do teste t de Student para amostras independentes e correlação de Pearson. As diferenças foram consideradas significativas quando pPURPOSE: To determine the nutritional status of vitamin E in breastfeeding women through the analysis of alpha-tocopherol concentration in serum and colostrum, to analyze its relation with maternal variables and to determine the prevalence of vitamin E deficiency in these women. METHODS: The study included 103 mothers who were classified according to maternal variables: age, nutritional status before pregnancy, gestational weight gain, parity and mode of delivery. Colostrum and serum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. Alpha-tocopherol was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. A serum cutoff of 697.7 μg/dL was adopted to define the nutritional status of vitamin E. Statistical analysis was performed with the Student's t test for independent samples and Pearson's correlation. Differences were significant when p<0.05. RESULTS: The average concentration of alpha-tocopherol was 1.125±551.0 μg/dL in colostrum and 1,138.6±346.0 μg/dL in serum, indicating adequate

  2. Health Versus Appearance Versus Body Competence: A Content Analysis Investigating Frames of Health Advice in Women's Health Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Hahn, Rachel

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which women's health magazines advise readers to adopt healthy behaviors in order to look good (appearance frame), in order to feel good (health frame), or in order to perform better (body competence frame). A content analysis of 5 years of the 6 highest circulating U.S. women's health magazines revealed a higher frequency of health frames (32.6%) than appearance frames (24.8%) overall, but when beauty/health hybrid magazines (i.e., Shape and Self) were examined separately, appearance frames (32.8%) outnumbered health frames (26.5%). Compared to appearance and health frames, body competence frames were underrepresented (13.3% in the full sample). The visual sexual objectification of female models in women's health magazines was also investigated. Appearance-framed articles (43.2%) were significantly more likely to visually depict women with a high degree of skin exposure than health-framed articles (17.4%), and appearance-framed articles (34.8%) were more likely to focus on individual body parts than health-framed articles (21.3%). In addition, despite the magazines' editorial focus on health, the most frequent category of products advertised was appearance-enhancing products. Results are discussed in light of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). PMID:27043477

  3. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and determinants among Brazilian children under two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Warkentin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study described the duration and identified the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: The study used data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher 2006 (National Demographic and Health Survey on Women and Children 2006. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by trained professionals and refer to a subsample of 1,704 children aged less than 24 months. The estimated durations of exclusive breastfeeding are presented according to socioeconomic, demographic and epidemiological variables. Kaplan Meier estimator curves were used to produce valid estimates of breastfeeding duration and the Cox's proportional hazards model was fitted to identify risks. RESULTS: The median estimated duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 60 days. The final Cox model consisted of mother's age <20 years (hazard ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.11-1.48, use of pacifier (hazard ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.37-1.71, not residing in the country's southeast region (hazard ratio=1.22, 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.40 and socioeconomic status (hazard ratio=1.28, 95% confidence interval=1.06-1.55. CONCLUSION: The Kaplan Meier estimator corrected the underestimated duration of breastfeeding in the country when calculated by the current status methodology. Despite the national efforts done in the last decades to promote breastfeeding, the results indicate that the duration of exclusive breastfeeding is still half of that recommended for this dietary practice to promote health. Ways to revert this situation would be ongoing educational activities involving the educational and health systems, associated with advertising campaigns on television and radio mainly targeting young mothers with low education level and low income, identified as those at high risk of weaning their children early.

  4. Breastfeeding Support in a Community Pharmacy: Improving Access through the Well Babies at Walgreens Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenell, Amy; Friesen, Carol A; Hormuth, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Well Babies at Walgreens is a unique community-based corporate partnership program that offers breastfeeding support by a lactation professional in a private room at the pharmacy. Walgreens is a community pharmacy chain with more than 8000 locations in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands. The primary goal of Well Babies is to support breastfeeding women using a model that is expandable to other Walgreens pharmacy sites. The Well Babies program offers drop-in services, with a professional consultation by a lactation consultant and baby weight check, if desired. Well Babies creators are developing a business plan for Walgreens and a toolkit that would help other stores implement the program. An additional goal is to improve continuity of care for breastfeeding by engaging pharmacists as vital members of the health care team. Offering breastfeeding support at a pharmacy improves access and encourages support persons to attend while simultaneously allowing the family to complete other errands. This initiative included education for pharmacists to improve the recommendations they make for breastfeeding mothers and to improve awareness among pharmacists of the benefits associated with breastfeeding and the need to preserve the breastfeeding relationship. The first drop-in location opened in April 2012. Grant funding from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, awarded to the Indiana State Department of Health, made it possible to open a second drop-in location in June 2013. Future plans include developing an employee lactation program and expanding Well Babies at Walgreens at other store locations. PMID:25829476

  5. High initiation and long duration of breastfeeding despite absence of early skin-to-skin contact in Karen refugees on the Thai-Myanmar border: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Adrienne L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC after birth is recommended as part of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF baby friendly health initiative to promote optimum breastfeeding. This paper reports rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration in a low resource environment, where early SSC is not practised, and explores views of pregnant women and midwives surrounding breastfeeding and swaddling. Methods Data from records from a single hospital on the Thai-Myanmar border where refugee women gave birth during a one-year period (2010 were used to determine breastfeeding initiation rates and the time of the first breastfeed, and duration of breastfeeding of the previous alive child in multigravidae. Focus group discussions (FGD were conducted to obtain information from pregnant women attending antenatal care about their intended or previous duration of breastfeeding and views on breastfeeding. Interviews with local midwives explored reasons for high rates of breastfeeding in this setting and the practice of newborn swaddling. Results Of 1404 live births in 2010 in Maela refugee camp there were 982 evaluable mother-newborn pairs, including 80 infants born before 37 weeks gestation. Initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour after birth and exclusive breastfeeding at discharge in term mother-newborn pairs was 91.2% (823/902 and 99.3% (896/902; and before 37 weeks gestation, 48.8% (39/80 and 98.8% (79/80. Reported duration of previous breastfeeding was 19 (range 2 to 72 months. During FGD all primigravidae (n = 17 intended to breastfeed and all multigravidae (n = 33 had previously breastfed; expected or previous duration of feeding was for more than one year or longer. The major theme identified during FGD was breastfeeding is “good”. Women stated their intention to breastfeed with certainty. This certainty was echoed during the interviews with midwifery staff. SSC requires a delay in early swaddling that in

  6. The Importance of Breastfeeding in Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bayyenat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is the ideal and most natural way of nurturing infants. The importance of breastfeeding has been proved unequivocally, and UNICEF and WHO have issued guidelines to ensure breastfeeding. More than 14 centuries is that in Islamic teachings with the most comprehensive, most beautiful and most powerful motivation, is raised important points in the form of advice and education about breastfeeding.  Included in Islam recommended every mother to breastfeed her children up to the age of two years if the lactation period was to be completed. Aware of these recommendations and the usage of them, will lead to the most efficient and effective incentives to promote breast-feeding.

  7. Breastfeeding support in neonatal intensive care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Bojesen, Susanne Norby; Kronborg, Hanne; Hallström, Inger

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of breastfeeding of preterm infants is affected by the support provided at the hospital and in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). However, policies and guidelines promoting breastfeeding vary both nationally and internationally. Objectives: The aim of this survey was...... to describe breastfeeding support in Danish NICUs, where approximately 98% of mothers initiate lactation. Methods: A national survey of all 19 Danish NICUs was conducted in 2009. Four NICUs were at designated Baby-Friendly hospitals, and 5 had a lactation consultant. In all NICUs, it was possible for...... some parents to stay overnight; 2 units had short restrictions on parents' presence. Five NICUs had integrated postpartum care for mothers. Breastfeeding policies, written guidelines, and systematic breastfeeding training for the staff were common in most NICUs. Seventeen NICUs recommended starting...

  8. Breastfeeding self-efficacy among adolescent mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Lima Bizerra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess breastfeeding self-efficacy among lactating adolescents. A quantitative study involving 172 lactating adolescents, conducted in 14 Basic Health Units in the northeast cities of Brazil. For data collection, we used a form and the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale – Short Form. Data were analyzed with a statistical software. Results showed high breastfeeding self-efficacy (84%, with more adherence to the items: “Ensure that my baby is properly latched on for the whole feeding” (91%, and “Always recognize then my baby is finished breastfeeding” (93%, and less referent to feed the baby without using formula (18% and breastfeed in front of people (14%. We found high breastfeeding self-efficacy in adolescent mothers in our study, showing a new knowledge about this specific public, in general, related to breastfeeding vulnerability.

  9. Strategies to support breastfeeding. Discarding myths and outdated advice.

    OpenAIRE

    Moxley, S.; Kennedy, M

    1994-01-01

    Lack of teaching about breastfeeding in nursing and medical schools has resulted in mothers receiving inconsistent and inaccurate advice from health care professionals. New community programs can help breastfeeding families through parent-baby information telephone lines and breastfeeding support drop-in groups. Physicians and nurses can help breastfeeding mothers by keeping up-to-date and giving consistent information.

  10. Improving Breastfeeding Behaviors: Evidence from Two Decades of Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cynthia P.

    This report summarizes research on interventions intended to improve four key breastfeeding behaviors: early initiation of breastfeeding, feeding of colostrum to newborns, exclusive breastfeeding for the first 0-6 months, and continued breastfeeding through the second year and beyond. It clarifies what is known about improving these practices in…

  11. An exploratory content analysis of a Saudi women's beauty products' discussion forum

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Haidari, N; Coughlan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Online communities are an important source of electronic word-of-mouth (e-WOM). However, few studies have examined the use of such messages within the Middle Eastern context. This study focuses on Saudi women as members of an online beauty forum. Previous work suggested a mediating effect of gender, with women being more likely to trust word-of-mouth and follow it up with a purchase. A conceptual model with a theoretical underpinning from existing contributions in literature provides the basi...

  12. [Etanercept in pregnancy and breast-feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, L

    2010-05-01

    Etanercept is a biological drug, inhibitor of the Tumor Necrosis Factor indicated for the treatment of severe or moderate psoriasis resistant to other therapies. Because its use is becoming increasingly extended, we should know its possible teratogenic effects. The data provided by the literature and studies prior to the marketing of the product are very limited. Thus, it is necessary to study the presence of possible risks more through experiments in animal models and to conduct prolonged prospective studies in humans. With the current knowledge, it seems that suspension of the treatment from one month prior to becoming pregnant would provide an adequate safety margin, and that most of the patients who have become pregnant and have suspended etanercept as soon as they knew they were pregnant have not had any complications. However, the data needed to recommend etanercept for the control of psoriasis of a pregnant woman are very limited and controversial. Since the effects of a possible transfer of etanercept to maternal milk in a still-immature immune system are not known, in accordance with the risk/benefit principle, the use of etanercept should not be recommended in breast-feeding women. PMID:20492888

  13. Assessing Breastfeeding Using Nuclear Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children who receive only human milk for the first 6 months of their lives are more resistant to disease and infection and less likely than children fed with formula milk to develop diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in adulthood. With the IAEA’s guidance, nuclear techniques are being used to test the effectiveness of breastfeeding promotion strategies. Researchers use non-radioactive stable isotopes of hydrogen (2H) in water (2H2O) to measure the movement of liquid from mother to child

  14. Breastfeeding: A human rights issue?

    OpenAIRE

    George Kent

    2001-01-01

    George Kent tackles the sensitive issue of breastfeeding from both the infant's and mother's point of view. He traces the human rights discourse over nutrition rights of the last decades and concludes that though it is certainly true that children have the right to the best nutrition possible, it is the mother's right to choose that should determine if a child is breastfed. He suggests it is important to provide the right knowledge and supportive environment to enable a woman to choose what i...

  15. Experiência do cuidado materno e amamentação sob a ótica de mulheres vítimas de violência conjugal Experiencia del cuidado materno y amamantación por la óptica de mujeres víctimas de violencia conyugal Maternal care and breastfeeding experience of women suffering intimate partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aguiar Lourenço

    2008-08-01

    ambiguos: marcadamente solitaria y de momentos vistos como positivos. El desmame ocurrió precozmente para la mayoría de las entrevistadas. La necesidad de trabajar fuera, la falta de información sobre amamantación y la propia experiencia de violencia fueron las principales razones expuestas para no continuación con la amamantación. CONCLUSIONES: El estudio apunta la necesidad de considerar la mujer como protagonista del modelo asistencial en amamantación, construyendo espacios de escucha que incluyan la atención para la violencia conyugal, bien como medios diferenciados de apoyo.OBJECTIVE: To describe maternal care and breastfeeding experience of women suffering intimate partner violence. METHODOGICAL PROCEDURES: A qualitative study was conducted in 11 women suffering intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Women aged 16-41 years were recruited in a hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro between January and March 2005. Data were collected through in-depth interviews using a life history approach and complemented by a semi-structured guide. ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS: Women expressed mixed feelings of loneliness and good moments regarding maternal care and breastfeeding experience. Most had early cessation of breastfeeding and the reasons reported included: the need to resume their working activities, lack of information on breastfeeding and the violence experienced by these women. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows a need to approach women as key actors of a nursing model, offering opportunities to listen to their concerns as well as to provide care to intimate partner violence victims and differentiated support.

  16. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007; R...... strategy is theoretically based on systems theory as formulated by Niklas Luhmann (Luhmann, 1995; 2002) and on own work, where. Luhmann’s general ideas and concepts of the educational system are transposed into a didactical framework (Keiding, 2005,2007,2008).......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......, is subordinating content to methods as seen in modern didactics, hereby transforming content to a medium for achievement of learning-to-learn skills rather than something valuable in its own right. At the level of general didactics quite few attempts have been made to formulate criteria and...

  17. Increased PUFA Content and 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway Expression Are Associated with Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattijs M. Heemskerk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have more inflammation in their subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT than age-and-BMI similar obese women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT. We aimed to investigate whether WAT fatty acids and/or oxylipins are associated with the enhanced inflammatory state in WAT of the T2DM women. Fatty acid profiles were measured in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (vWAT of 19 obese women with NGT and 16 age-and-BMI similar women with T2DM. Oxylipin levels were measured in sWAT of all women. Arachidonic acid (AA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA percentages were higher in sWAT, but not vWAT of the T2DM women, and AA correlated positively to the gene expression of macrophage marker CD68. We found tendencies for higher oxylipin concentrations of the 5-LOX leukotrienes in sWAT of T2DM women. Gene expression of the 5-LOX leukotriene biosynthesis pathway was significantly higher in sWAT of T2DM women. In conclusion, AA and DHA content were higher in sWAT of T2DM women and AA correlated to the increased inflammatory state in sWAT. Increased AA content was accompanied by an upregulation of the 5-LOX pathway and seems to have led to an increase in the conversion of AA into proinflammatory leukotrienes in sWAT.

  18. Impact of Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy and Sociocultural Factors on Early Breastfeeding in an Urban, Predominantly Dominican Community

    OpenAIRE

    Glassman, Melissa E.; McKearney, Karen; Saslaw, Minna; Sirota, Dana R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Latinas have high breastfeeding initiation rates that decrease significantly in the first postpartum months. Little is known about the effects of self-efficacy and sociocultural factors on early breastfeeding among low-income Latinas. This study quantifies early breastfeeding rates and identifies factors associated with breastfeeding at 4–6 weeks postpartum in our community.

  19. Professionally Mediated Peer Support and Early Breastfeeding Success

    OpenAIRE

    Vari, Patty M.; Camburn, Joan; Henly, Susan J.

    2000-01-01

    Social support interventions that incorporate professionally mediated peer support (PMPS) for improved breastfeeding outcomes were compared with no special breastfeeding support. Fifty-five breastfeeding mothers participated. The breastfeeding outcomes of duration, completeness, satisfaction, and exclusive breastfeeding were compared at 6 weeks postpartum among an experimental group that received PMPS, and among younger community (YC) and older community (OC) groups that received no special b...

  20. Peer Effects in Breastfeeding: Evidence from the IFPS II Study

    OpenAIRE

    Iryna Topolyan; Qian Wang; Xu Xu

    2015-01-01

    We study breastfeeding in the context of social interactions, distinguishing between peer influences and intergenerational transfer of breastfeeding behavior. Using data from Infant Feeding Practices Study II, we estimate peer effects in breastfeeding decisions. There is strong evidence of peer effects, which may suggest the presence of the social multiplier in breastfeeding that could lead to an amplified social response to policy interventions. However, the prevalence of breastfeeding in a ...