Amir Lisa H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many breastfeeding women seek medical care from general practitioners (GPs for various health problems and GPs may consider prescribing medicines in these consultations. Prescribing medicines to a breastfeeding mother may lead to untimely cessation of breastfeeding or a breastfeeding mother may be denied medicines due to the possible risk to her infant, both of which may lead to unwanted consequences. Information on factors governing GPs' decision-making and their views in such situations is limited. Methods GPs providing shared maternity care at the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne were surveyed using an anonymous postal survey to determine their knowledge, attitudes and practices on medicines and breastfeeding, in 2007/2008 (n = 640. Content analysis of their response to a question concerning decision-making about the use of medicine for a breastfeeding woman was conducted. A thematic network was constructed with basic, organising and global themes. Results 335 (52% GPs responded to the survey, and 253 (76% provided information on the last time they had to decide about the use of medicine for a breastfeeding woman. Conditions reported were mastitis (24%, other infections (24% and depressive disorders (21%. The global theme that emerged was "complexity of managing risk in prescribing for breastfeeding women". The organising themes were: certainty around decision-making; uncertainty around decision-making; need for drug information to be available, consistent and reliable; joint decision-making; the vulnerable "third party" and infant feeding decision. Decision-making is a spectrum from a straight forward decision, such as treatment of mastitis, to a complicated one requiring multiple inputs and consideration. GPs use more information seeking and collaboration in decision-making when they perceive the problem to be more complex, for example, in postnatal depression. Conclusion GPs feel that prescribing medicines for
Laanterä, Sari; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Ekström, Anette; Pölkki, Tarja
Little is known about prenatal breastfeeding confidence, although such knowledge is necessary for developing the content of counseling and tailoring it for individuals. The purpose of this study was to describe women's prenatal breastfeeding confidence and how their sociodemographic characteristics, breastfeeding knowledge, and attitudes relate to it. The electronic confidence scale was used in data collection, and 123 Finnish women filled in the questionnaire. The mean confidence score was 83.88 when the maximum possible score was 120. Confidence scores varied when parity, breastfeeding knowledge, and attitudes were involved. Variables regarding breastfeeding as difficult, regarding breastfeeding as exhausting, and parity explained 38.1% of the variation of the breastfeeding confidence scores. Pregnant women need information about managing potential breastfeeding problems and the physiology of breastfeeding. Interventions designed to promote breastfeeding confidence need to be focused on primiparas and women with a lack of breastfeeding knowledge.
Amir, Lisa H; Raval, Manjri; Hussainy, Safeera Y
Women often need to take medicines while breastfeeding and pharmacists need to provide accurate information in order to avoid undue caution about the compatibility of medicines and breastfeeding. The objective of this study was to review information provided about breastfeeding in commonly used pharmacology textbooks. We asked 15 Australian universities teaching pharmacy courses to provide a list of recommended pharmacology textbooks in 2011. Ten universities responded, generating a list of 11 textbooks that we analysed for content relating to breastfeeding. Pharmacology textbooks outline the mechanisms of actions of medicines and their use: however, only a small emphasis is placed on the safety/compatibility of medicines for women during breastfeeding. Current pharmacology textbooks recommended by Australian universities have significant gaps in their coverage of medicine use in breastfeeding. Authors of textbooks should address this gap, so academic staff can recommend texts with the best lactation content.
Heidari, Zeinab; Kohan, Shahnaz; Keshvari, Mahrokh
BACKGROUND: The positive effect of breastfeeding on health is globally accepted. However, breastfeeding has not yet practiced at a favorite level. Empowerment of mothers is an important factor for continuing breastfeeding. This study was conducted to explore women's perception of empowerment in breastfeeding. METHODS: The present qualitative study was conducted in conventional content analysis method. Thirty-four semi-structured deep interviews were conducted with 18 mothers, four key family ...
Full Text Available Breastfeeding is the fundamental aspect of child rearing that a woman copes with. It creates a wonderful bond between mothers and their babies. The importance of breast feeding to child health is highlighted by the yearly World Breastfeeding week (Forste, Weiss & Lippincott 2001:291. Breastfeeding promotions in the Northern province like anywhere else in the country appear effective and visible enough to encourage women at all levels to breastfeed. Ironically, many women give up breastfeeding when they return to work because the thoughts of expressing their milk at work and the fiddling around with pumps and storage at work seem overwhelming (McAlpine 1998:80. Based on the assumption that breastfeeding requires commitment and determination, the researcher thought it was necessary to enquire about the experiences of working women on breastfeeding. Focus group interviews were conducted using a semi-structured format. Twenty-six women participated in three focus group discussions. The study was conducted in the suburban areas of the Northern Province, Soutpansberg region. Data was transcribed from a taped session and analysed using an open code method.
Full Text Available Background Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeeding. Material and Methods This study conducted by content analysis method. Thirty-four semi-structured individual interviews with 20 mothers having breastfeeding experience, 4 key family members, and 10 personnel involved in breastfeeding services were carried out. Data analysis was simultaneously performed with data collection. Results Three main categories of "Health system factors", "Family and personal factors" and "Social and cultural factors" were extracted from the participants' explanations, indicating the dimensions of facilitators for empowering women in breastfeeding. Conclusion Participants regarded the acquisition of breastfeeding skills in hospitals and breastfeeding counseling in health centers as important factors in facilitating their empowerment to early initiation of breastfeeding and its continuity. Further analysis showed "a mother's decision to breastfeed" along with her understanding of "positive attitude and her husband and family's participation in breastfeeding" boosts the breastfeeding ability and the support of the community through "positive cultural belief in breastfeeding" and" public education and information" provides an appropriate ground for the continuity of breastfeeding. In order to improve breastfeeding, a comprehensive planning with regard to women's empowerment in breastfeeding should be considered.
Marhol, P; Dlouhý, P; Rambousková, J; Pokorný, R; Wiererová, O; Hrncírová, D; Procházka, B; Andel, M
The purpose of our study was to determine the content of trans fatty acids in early human breast milk as an indicator of dietary exposure in a sample of Roma breast-feeding women and in a sample of women from the general Czech population. We collected samples of early human milk from 43 Prague women from the general population and 21 Roma women. After lipid extraction, the fatty acids were converted into methyl esters (FAMEs). Finally, gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis on a CP-Sil 88 column was used to determine C18:1 trans monoenic fatty acid levels and total trans isomers fatty acid levels in human milk. A significantly higher content of C18:1 trans fatty acid isomers was detected in human milk fat from Roma mothers than in women of the general population (2.73 vs. 2.09%, p bad eating habits. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Midwives' support of breastfeeding in maternity wards has been proven to provide an impact on women's breastfeeding experiences. In previous studies women describe professional support unfavourably, with an emphasis on time pressures, lack of availability or guidance, promotion of unhelpful practices, and conflicting advice. Thus, the present study aims to investigate women's experiences and reflections of receiving breastfeeding support and midwives' experiences and reflections of giving breastfeeding support. Methods This study was carried out in a county in southwestern Sweden during 2003-2004. A qualitative method, content analysis, was chosen for the study. The data came from interviews with women as well as interviews with midwives who were experienced in breastfeeding support. Results The women's and midwives' experiences and reflections of receiving and giving breastfeeding support were conceptualized as one main theme: "Individualized breastfeeding support increases confidence and satisfaction." This theme contained three categories: "The unique woman," "The sensitive confirming process," and "Consistency of ongoing support." In order to feel confident in their new motherhood role, the women wanted more confirmation as unique individuals and as breastfeeding women; they wanted to be listened to; and they wanted more time, understanding, and follow-up from health professionals. In contrast, the midwives described themselves as encouraging and confirming of the women's needs. Conclusions If health care professionals responded to the woman's unique needs, the woman felt that the breastfeeding support was good and was based on her as an individual, otherwise a feeling of uncertainty emerged. The midwives, however, expressed that they gave the women individual support, but they also expressed that the support came from different points of view, because the midwives interpreted women's signals differently.
Bäckström, Caroline A; Wahn, Elisabeth I Hertfelt; Ekström, Anette C
Midwives' support of breastfeeding in maternity wards has been proven to provide an impact on women's breastfeeding experiences. In previous studies women describe professional support unfavourably, with an emphasis on time pressures, lack of availability or guidance, promotion of unhelpful practices, and conflicting advice. Thus, the present study aims to investigate women's experiences and reflections of receiving breastfeeding support and midwives' experiences and reflections of giving breastfeeding support. This study was carried out in a county in southwestern Sweden during 2003-2004. A qualitative method, content analysis, was chosen for the study. The data came from interviews with women as well as interviews with midwives who were experienced in breastfeeding support. The women's and midwives' experiences and reflections of receiving and giving breastfeeding support were conceptualized as one main theme: "Individualized breastfeeding support increases confidence and satisfaction." This theme contained three categories: "The unique woman," "The sensitive confirming process," and "Consistency of ongoing support." In order to feel confident in their new motherhood role, the women wanted more confirmation as unique individuals and as breastfeeding women; they wanted to be listened to; and they wanted more time, understanding, and follow-up from health professionals. In contrast, the midwives described themselves as encouraging and confirming of the women's needs. If health care professionals responded to the woman's unique needs, the woman felt that the breastfeeding support was good and was based on her as an individual, otherwise a feeling of uncertainty emerged. The midwives, however, expressed that they gave the women individual support, but they also expressed that the support came from different points of view, because the midwives interpreted women's signals differently.
Wambach, Karen; Domian, Elaine Williams; Page-Goertz, Sallie; Wurtz, Heather; Hoffman, Kelli
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hispanic breastfeeding mothers begin early formula supplementation at higher rates than other ethnic groups, which can lead to shorter breastfeeding duration and decreased exclusive breastfeeding. Acculturation, the process of adopting beliefs and behaviors of another culture, appears to influence breastfeeding practices of Hispanic women in the United States. Little is known about Mexican American mothers' formula use and exclusive breastfeeding within the context of acculturation. Our study identified perceived benefits and barriers to exclusive breastfeeding and levels of acculturation among Mexican American women living in a Midwestern city. We used a qualitative descriptive design integrating Pender's Health Promotion Model concepts. Individual interviews were conducted in English or Spanish (N = 21). The revised Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans was used to examine acculturation levels. Acculturation scores indicated that the majority (66%) of the sample was "very Mexican oriented." Most women exclusively breastfed, with a few using early supplementation for "insufficient milk production." Three themes emerged: (1) It is natural that a woman give life and also provide the best food for her baby; (2) Breastfeeding is ultimately a woman's decision but is influenced by tradition, guidance, and encouragement; and (3) Breast milk is superior but life circumstances can challenge one's ability to breastfeed. Strong familial/cultural traditions supported and normalized breastfeeding. Barriers to exclusive breastfeeding were similar to breastfeeding women in general, in the United States. Findings support the need for culturally competent and individualized lactation care. © The Author(s) 2015.
Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; Gagnier, Marielle C; Johanns, Casey; Desai, Sima S; Haakenstad, Annie; McNellan, Claire R; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H
Breastfeeding is an effective intervention to reduce pediatric morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of practices and predictors of breastfeeding among the poor in Mesoamerica has not been well described. We estimated the prevalence of ever breastfeeding, early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, and breastfeeding between 6 mo and 2 y of age using household survey data for the poorest quintile of families living in 6 Mesoamerican countries. We also assessed the predictors of breastfeeding behaviors to identify factors amenable to policy interventions. We analyzed data from 12,529 children in Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, Panama, and El Salvador using baseline survey data from the Salud Mesoamérica 2015 Initiative. We created multivariable Poisson regression models with robust variance estimates to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% CIs for breastfeeding outcomes and to control for sociodemographic and healthcare-related factors. Approximately 97% of women in all countries breastfed their child at least once, and 65.1% (Nicaragua) to 79.0% (Panama) continued to do so between 6 mo and 2 y of age. Breastfeeding in the first hour of life varied by country (P < 0.001), with the highest proportion reported in Panama (89.8%) and the lowest in El Salvador (65.6%). Exclusive breastfeeding also varied by country (P = 0.037), ranging from 44.5% in Panama to 76.8% in Guatemala. For every 20% increase in the proportion of peers who exclusively breastfed, there was an 11% (aRR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.18) increase in the likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding. Our study revealed significant variation in the prevalence of breastfeeding practices by poor women across countries surveyed by the Salud Mesoamérica 2015 initiative. Future interventions to promote exclusive breastfeeding should consider ways to leverage the role of the community in supporting individual women. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams
The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast. © The Author(s) 2014.
Andersen, Stine Linding
women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...... iodine status in pregnant and breastfeeding women.......Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...
Shayesteh Jahanfar; Chirk Jenn Ng; Cheong Lieng Teng
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mastitis can be caused by ineffective positioning of the baby at the breast or restricted feeding. Infective mastitis is commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus . The prevalence of mastitis in breastfeeding women may reach 33%. Effective milk removal, pain medication and antibiotic therapy have been the mainstays of treatment. OBJECTIVES: This review aims to examine the effectiveness of antibiotic therapies in relieving symptoms for breastfeeding women with mastitis...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mastitis can be caused by ineffective positioning of the baby at the breast or restricted feeding. Infective mastitis is commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus . The prevalence of mastitis in breastfeeding women may reach 33%. Effective milk removal, pain medication and antibiotic therapy have been the mainstays of treatment. OBJECTIVES: This review aims to examine the effectiveness of antibiotic therapies in relieving symptoms for breastfeeding women with mastitis with or without laboratory investigation. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2012, contacted investigators and other content experts known to us for unpublished trials and scanned the reference lists of retrieved articles. Selection criteria: We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs and quasi-RCTs comparing the effectiveness of various types of antibiotic therapies or antibiotic therapy versus alternative therapies for the treatment of mastitis. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. When in dispute, we consulted a third author. MAIN RESULTS: Two trials met the inclusion criteria. One small trial (n = 25 compared amoxicillin with cephradine and found no significant difference between the two antibiotics in terms of symptom relief and abscess formation. Another, older study compared breast emptying alone as 'supportive therapy' versus antibiotic therapy plus supportive therapy, and no therapy. The findings of the latter study suggested faster clearance of symptoms for women using antibiotics, although the study design was problematic. AUTHORS CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to confirm or refute the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy for the treatment of lactational mastitis. There is an urgent need to conduct high-quality, double-blinded RCTs to determine whether antibiotics should be used in this
Buttham S; Kongwattanakul K; Jaturat N; Soontrapa S
... University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the rate of non-exclusive breastfeeding and associated factors among Thai women under the Breastfeeding Promotion Program.Methods...
Webber, Elaine; Serowoky, Mary
Health care provider support is essential for breastfeeding success. Family Nurse Practitioners (FNP) are in a unique position to promote and manage breastfeeding. There is a gap in the literature regarding the amount and type of breastfeeding curricular content in FNP programs. An online survey of FNP programs was conducted. Data collection included program descriptors, didactic breastfeeding coursework, and clinical breastfeeding opportunities available to students. No programs offered courses specific to breastfeeding: 82% of programs devoted 1 to 2 hours of didactic lactation content. More than three quarters of the programs offered students breastfeeding counseling opportunities; no programs, however, identified specific breastfeeding clinical competencies. FNPs can play an integral role in breastfeeding promotion and counseling. There appears to be a lack of education provided to FNPs regarding breastfeeding management. Creative approaches that incorporate lactation education into FNP programs may increase FNPs' breastfeeding knowledge and enhance their ability to provide support to breastfeeding families. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oosterhoff, Alberta; Hutter, Inge; Haisma, Hinke
Background: In the Netherlands, 81% of mothers initiate breastfeeding. After one month the percentage of mothers still breastfeeding drops, despite positive intentions. Little is known about women's perceptions of breastfeeding during the period of intention. Aim: This qualitative study aimed to
Song, Seon Mi; Park, Mi Kyung
The purpose of this study was to develop a breastfeeding empowerment program and to investigate the effects of the breastfeeding empowerment program on self-efficacy, adaptation and continuation of breastfeeding for primiparous women. The 5 session breastfeeding empowerment program was developed and a non-equivalent control group non-synchronized quasi-experiment design was used. Fifty-five participants were assigned to either the experimental group (n=27) or the control group (n=28). Effects were tested using repeated measures ANOVA and χ²-test. Scores for self-efficacy, adaptation and continuation of breastfeeding of in the experimental group after program were significantly higher than 1 week, 4 weeks, 8 weeks scores in control group. The effects of the breastfeeding empowerment program for elevating self-efficacy, adaptation and continuation of breastfeeding in primiparous women were validated. Therefore, this program can be recommended for vigorous use in clinical practice.
Irusen, Hayley; Rohwer, Anke C; Steyn, D Wilhelm; Young, Taryn
The benefits of breastfeeding are well known, and the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and continuing breastfeeding to age two. However, many women stop breastfeeding due to lactational breast abscesses. A breast abscess is a localised accumulation of infected fluid in breast tissue. Abscesses are commonly treated with antibiotics, incision and drainage (I&D) or ultrasound-guided needle aspiration, but there is no consensus on the optimal treatment. To assess the effects of different treatments for the management of breast abscesses in breastfeeding women. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trial Register (27 February 2015). In addition we searched African Journals Online (27 February 2015), Google Scholar (27 February 2015), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Databases (27 February 2015) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal (27 February 2015). We also checked reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted experts in the field as well as relevant pharmaceutical companies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating any intervention for treating lactational breast abscesses compared with any other intervention. Studies published in abstract form, quasi-RCTs and cluster-RCTs were not eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We included six studies. Overall, trials had an unclear risk of bias for most domains due to poor reporting. Two studies did not stratify data for lactational and non-lactational breast abscesses, and these studies do not contribute to the results. This review is based on data from four studies involving 325 women. Needle aspiration (with and without ultrasound guidance) versus incision and drainage (I&D) Mean time (days) to complete resolution of breast abscess (three studies) - there was
Southwell Brian G
Full Text Available Abstract Mass media content likely influences the decision of women to breastfeed their newborn children. Relatively few studies have empirically assessed such a hypothesis to date, however. Most work has tended to focus either on specific interventions or on broad general commentary about the role of media. In this study, we examined infant feeding advertisements in 87 issues of Parents' Magazine, a popular parenting magazine, from the years 1971 through 1999. We then used content analysis results to predict subsequent changes in levels of breastfeeding among U.S. women. When the frequency of hand feeding advertisements increased, the percentage change in breastfeeding rates reported the next year generally tended to decrease. These results underscore the need to acknowledge the potential role of popular media content in understanding breastfeeding patterns and public health trends.
Ana Luiza de Jesus Trindade
Full Text Available The milk is considered the best food for the baby, or the most skilled for the proper growth and development of children, keeping it away from infections and diseases larger. This study aims to identify the knowledge acquired by mothers visited by scholars of the Project Scope: "We will breastfeed, Mom?" About breast feeding. This is a documentary research, qualitative in nature. We analyzed 93 routes from home visits, for the year 2006. Information was submitted to the technical analysis of thematic content, from which emerged a category: "knowledge gained by the mothers about breast feeding", and eight subcategories. We conclude that the knowledge of the women on breastfeeding, are still scarce, which reinforces the importance of this project, since it allows greater knowledge about breastfeeding, thus providing, reduction in the rates of morbidity and mortality
Jahanfar, Shayesteh; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Teng, Cheong Lieng
Mastitis can be caused by ineffective positioning of the baby at the breast or restricted feeding. Infective mastitis is commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus . The prevalence of mastitis in breastfeeding women may reach 33%. Effective milk removal, pain medication and antibiotic therapy have been the mainstays of treatment. This review aims to examine the effectiveness of antibiotic therapies in relieving symptoms for breastfeeding women with mastitis with or without laboratory investigation. Two trials met the inclusion criteria. One small trial (n = 25) compared amoxicillin with cephradine and found no significant difference between the two antibiotics in terms of symptom relief and abscess formation. Another, older study compared breast emptying alone as 'supportive therapy' versus antibiotic therapy plus supportive therapy, and no therapy. The findings of the latter study suggested faster clearance of symptoms for women using antibiotics, although the study design was problematic. There is insufficient evidence to confirm or refute the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy for the treatment of lactational mastitis. There is an urgent need to conduct high-quality, double-blinded RCTs to determine whether antibiotics should be used in this common postpartum condition.
Osman, Hibah; El Zein, Lama; Wick, Livia
Although the health benefits of breastfeeding are well established, early introduction of formula remains a common practice. Cultural beliefs and practices can have an important impact on breastfeeding. This paper describes some common beliefs that may discourage breastfeeding in Lebanon. Participants were healthy first-time mothers recruited from hospitals throughout Lebanon to participate in a study on usage patterns of a telephone hotline for postpartum support. The hotline was available to mothers for the first four months postpartum and patterns of usage, as well as questions asked were recorded. Thematic analysis of the content of questions which referred to cultural beliefs and practices related to breastfeeding was conducted. Twenty four percent of the 353 women enrolled in the study called the hotline, and 50% of the calls included questions about breastfeeding. Mothers expressed concern about having adequate amounts of breast milk or the quality of their breast milk. Concerns that the mother could potentially harm her infant though breastfeeding were rooted in a number of cultural beliefs. Having an inherited inability to produce milk, having "bad milk", and transmission of abdominal cramps to infants through breast milk were among the beliefs that were expressed. Although the researchers live and work in Lebanon, they were not aware of many of the beliefs that are reported in this study. There are a number of cultural beliefs that could potentially discourage breastfeeding among Lebanese women. Understanding and addressing local beliefs and customs can help clinicians to provide more culturally appropriate counselling about breastfeeding.
Chang, Shu-min; Rowe, Jennifer; Goopy, Suzanne
The purpose of the study was to describe the influence of non-family-based support on breastfeeding practices among career women in Taiwan during the first four postnatal months. A qualitative, case study approach was used to investigate the phenomenon. A purposive sample of 14 women was recruited and took part in two to three in-depth interviews. The data were transcribed and analysed using descriptive content analysis. It was found that non-family supports had significant influence on their efforts to maintain breastfeeding. Women faced a number of challenges to breastfeeding. The services provided by in-centre care organizations, the resources and organizations accessed through the Internet, and the support provided by colleagues in their workplaces supported women's efforts to maintain breastfeeding. Given the low breastfeeding maintenance rates in Taiwan and the changing societal structure where fewer families rely on family support, the findings highlight the resources, programmes and nursing practice which might support women's needs and promote breastfeeding among career women. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Newby, R M; Davies, P S W
Maternal adiposity is known to affect breastfeeding initiation and duration via both antenatal and postnatal factors. This study investigates associations between maternal pregravid body mass index (BMI), breastfeeding duration and antenatal breastfeeding confidence, intention and social comfort among primiparous Australian women. Women in their first pregnancy (n=462) were recruited by convenience sampling in Queensland, Australia. Participants responded to an antenatal and six postnatal questionnaires during their infants' first year between June 2010 and March 2012. Maternal pregravid BMI was examined against breastfeeding duration, participants' antenatal infant feeding intentions and measures of breastfeeding confidence and social comfort. Breastfeeding initiation in this cohort was 97%, but 46% of mothers had ceased breastfeeding at 52 weeks postpartum. Breastfeeding duration differed significantly (χ(2) (2)=7.21, P=0.007) between normal, overweight and obese women. No differences were found in antenatal intention for feeding type nor intended breastfeeding duration by one-way ANOVA (F(2,178)=1.77, P=0.17). More than half of the pregnant respondents anticipated social discomfort breastfeeding in public, with obese women significantly more likely to anticipate discomfort breastfeeding in the presence of close female friends, (χ(2) (1)=5.53, P=0.019). This study confirmed the risk of premature cessation of breastfeeding for obese mothers. Interventions during pregnancy that address body image issues in relation to breastfeeding may facilitate breastfeeding success for obese mothers and their infants and accrue short- and long-term health benefits for both.
Full Text Available Sucharat Buttham,1 Kiattisak Kongwattanakul,1 Natiya Jaturat,2 Sukree Soontrapa1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Breastfeeding Clinic, Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the rate of non-exclusive breastfeeding and associated factors among Thai women under the Breastfeeding Promotion Program.Methods: This was a prospective descriptive study that involved term postpartum women who attended the Breastfeeding Clinic at Srinagarind Hospital in Thailand, from April to December 2016. Abstracted data included baseline characteristics, obstetric history, breastfeeding history, problems in breastfeeding at day 3 and 2 weeks, and feeding status at 12 weeks postpartum. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were used to determine significant factors predicting non-exclusive breastfeeding.Results: Of the 500 postpartum women enrolled in this study, follow-up data at 12 weeks postpartum were available for 368 women (73.6%. The rate of non-exclusive breastfeeding assessed at 12 weeks postpartum was 26.4% (95% CI 21.9%–31.2%. Nipple problems and pain during the first 3 days postpartum and milk storage problems at 2 weeks postpartum were the major reasons for non-exclusive breastfeeding (69.4% and 59.1%, respectively. The significant independent factors that predicted these included patients not having confidence in their ability to breastfeed exclusively or not having any intention to do so (OR 7.22; 95% CI 3.26–14.24, no rooming-in (OR 2.31; 95% CI 1.04–5.12, and low milk quantity at 2 weeks postpartum (OR 3.75; 95% CI 1.70–8.29.Conclusion: The rate of non-exclusive breastfeeding in this study was ~26%, and significant associated factors included having lack of confidence/intention, no rooming-in, and low milk quantity reported at 2 weeks postpartum. Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding promotion, pregnancy
Fallon, Anne; Dunne, Fidelma
The aim of this literature review was to identify breastfeeding practices that support women with diabetes to breastfeed. A search was undertaken of CINAHL and Medline databases to identify studies that inform breastfeeding practice for women with diabetes. This resulted in 14 studies (19 records). Most studies focused on women with GDM and T1D with some consideration of T2D. The review has been organised using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, to enable a clear focus on the needs of women while identifying supportive practices. The key findings of this review are that breastfeeding as the first feed and exclusive breastfeeding are beneficial to meeting physiological needs. Preparations such as having food nearby and having someone to call on can help meet the woman's safety and security needs. A sense of love and belonging is supported by the practice of an early first breastfeed, but antenatal breast milk expression is currently not recommended. The woman's self-esteem can be enhanced through informed multidisciplinary support. Finally, self-actualisation or success with breastfeeding has been achieved by women with diabetes. Common breastfeeding concerns rather than diabetes have been identified as reasons for cessation of breastfeeding. Practices that support women deal with these concerns are recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Robinson, Karen; VandeVusse, Leona; Foster, Jamarrah
To examine the influence of breastfeeding peer counseling on the breastfeeding experiences of African American mothers who participated in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Qualitative study using focus groups. Two WIC clinics in Southeast Wisconsin were used for recruitment and data collection. A convenience sample of nine African American mothers participated in one of two focus groups. The women responded to a series of open-ended questions about their breastfeeding experiences and the effect of breastfeeding peer counselors (BPCs). Content and thematic analyses were used to analyze patterns related to the influence of BPCs on breastfeeding. Four themes were categorized: Educating With Truth, Validating for Confidence, Countering Others' Negativity, and Supporting With Solutions. Mothers in this study expressed positive reactions to educational, emotional, and social support from BPCs. The mothers noted that the contact they had with BPCs had a direct positive influence on their breastfeeding experiences. However, the contact from BPCs varied between the two WIC clinics. The findings demonstrate the positive effects of BPCs on breastfeeding experiences among African American WIC participants. Findings from this study can guide future explorations using BPCs. Interventions are needed to develop standardized guidelines to bring about homogeneity of, better access to, and greater use of BPCs. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Stuckler, David
Promoting breastfeeding is major maternal and child health goal in India. It is unclear whether mothers receive additional food needed to support healthy breastfeeding. Using the latest National Family and Health Survey (2005-2006), we applied multilevel linear regression models to document correlates of nutrition for (n = 20,764) breastfeeding women. We then compared consumption of pulses, eggs, meat, fish, dairy, fruit, and vegetables across a sample of breastfeeding, non-breastfeeding/pregnant (NBP), and pregnant women (n = 3,409) matched within households and five-year age bands. We tested whether breastfeeding women had greater advantages in the 18 high-focus states of India's National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). Vegetarianism, caste, and religion were the strongest predictors of breastfeeding women's nutrition. Breastfeeding women had no nutritional advantage compared to NBP women, and were disadvantaged in their consumption of milk (b = -0.14) in low-focus states. Pregnant women were similarly disadvantaged in their consumption of milk in low-focus states (b = -0.32), but consumed vegetables more frequently (b = 0.12) than NBP women in high-focus states. Breastfeeding women do not receive nutritional advantages compared to NBP women. Targeted effort is needed to assess and improve nutritional adequacy for breastfeeding Indian women. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chapman, Donna J; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael
The gap between current breastfeeding practices and the Healthy People 2020 breastfeeding goals is widest for black women compared with all other ethnic groups. Also of concern, Hispanic and black women have the highest rates of formula supplementation of breast-fed infants before 2 d of life. These disparities must be addressed through the scale-up of effective interventions. The objective of this critical review is to identify and evaluate U.S.-based randomized trials evaluating breastfeeding interventions targeting minorities and highlight promising public health approaches for minimizing breastfeeding disparities. Through PubMed searches, we identified 22 relevant publications evaluating 18 interventions targeting minorities (peer counseling [n = 4], professional support [n = 4], a breastfeeding team [peer + professional support, n = 3], breastfeeding-specific clinic appointments [n = 2], group prenatal education [n = 3], and enhanced breastfeeding programs [n = 2]). Peer counseling interventions (alone or in combination with a health professional), breastfeeding-specific clinic appointments, group prenatal education, and hospital/Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children enhancements were all found to greatly improve breastfeeding initiation, duration, or exclusivity. Postpartum professional support delivered by nurses was found to be the least effective intervention type. Beyond improving breastfeeding outcomes, 6 interventions resulted in reductions in infant morbidity or health care use. Future research should include further evaluations of successful interventions, with an emphasis on determining the optimal timeframe for the provision of support, the effect of educating women's family members, and the impact on infant health care use and cost-effectiveness.
Spencer, Jeanne P
Mastitis occurs in approximately 10 percent of U.S. mothers who are breastfeeding, and it can lead to the cessation of breastfeeding. The risk of mastitis can be reduced by frequent, complete emptying of the breast and by optimizing breastfeeding technique. Sore nipples can precipitate mastitis. The differential diagnosis of sore nipples includes mechanical irritation from a poor latch or infant mouth anomalies, such as cleft palate or bacterial or yeast infection. The diagnosis of mastitis is usually clinical, with patients presenting with focal tenderness in one breast accompanied by fever and malaise. Treatment includes changing breastfeeding technique, often with the assistance of a lactation consultant. When antibiotics are needed, those effective against Staphylococcus aureus (e.g., dicloxacillin, cephalexin) are preferred. As methicillin-resistant S. aureus becomes more common, it is likely to be a more common cause of mastitis, and antibiotics that are effective against this organism may become preferred. Continued breastfeeding should be encouraged in the presence of mastitis and generally does not pose a risk to the infant. Breast abscess is the most common complication of mastitis. It can be prevented by early treatment of mastitis and continued breastfeeding. Once an abscess occurs, surgical drainage or needle aspiration is needed. Breastfeeding can usually continue in the presence of a treated abscess.
Whelan, Barbara; Kearney, John M
To examine women's experience of professional support for breast-feeding and health-care professionals' experience of providing support. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews among women with experience of breast-feeding and health-care professionals with infant feeding roles. Interviews with women were designed to explore their experience of support for breast-feeding antenatally, in hospital and postnatally. Interviews with health-care professionals were designed to explore their views on their role and experience in providing breast-feeding support. Interview transcripts were analysed using content analysis and aspects of Grounded Theory. Overarching themes and categories within the two sets were identified. Urban and suburban areas of North Dublin, Ireland. Twenty-two women all of whom had experience of breast-feeding and fifty-eight health-care professionals. Two overarching themes emerged and in each of these a number of categories were developed: theme 1, facilitators to breast-feeding support, within which being facilitated to breast-feed, having the right person at the right time, being discerning and breast-feeding support groups were discussed; and theme 2, barriers to breast-feeding support, within which time, conflicting information, medicalisation of breast-feeding and the role of health-care professionals in providing support for breast-feeding were discussed. Breast-feeding is being placed within a medical model of care in Ireland which is dependent on health-care professionals. There is a need for training around breast-feeding for all health-care professionals; however, they are limited in their support due to external barriers such as lack of time. Alternative support such as peer support workers should be provided.
... Adults Moms/ Moms-to-Be Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Feb 9, 2017 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...
Zhao, Ya; Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Redding, Sharon R
To explore Chinese mothers' experiences, emotions and expectations of breast-feeding in public places. Exploratory qualitative study. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants and face-to-face interviews were conducted. Themes were identified by content analysis. Two different geographical communities in Wuhan, Hubei Province, central China, March-May 2016. A total of twenty-seven mothers aged 23-33 years, who had one child under 3 years of age and had experience of breast-feeding in public places. Seven themes emerged from the interviews: struggling to balance infant's needs and personal feelings; embarrassed or natural emotion regarding breast-feeding in public places; effect of cultural and social norms; internalized concerns going beyond actual social reaction; measures to make breast-feeding in public places easier; desire for more public facilities; and expecting emotional support from society members. More positive social support, favourable policies and necessary facilities were desired to enable mothers to breast-feed in an appropriate public location. Women expected increased public acceptance of breast-feeding practices and support from government health officials to ensure women's success in breast-feeding in public settings.
... Size Email Print Share Things to Avoid When Breastfeeding Page Content Article Body Many women find the ... sodas in moderation is fine when you are breastfeeding. Breast milk usually contains less than 1 percent ...
Demirci, Jill; Caplan, Erin; Murray, Nora; Cohen, Susan
Our objective was to describe the early breastfeeding experience of primiparous women. Healthy, primiparous women intending to exclusively breastfeed downloaded a commercial infant feeding mobile application (app) during their postpartum hospitalization. Women free-texted breastfeeding thoughts and experiences through 8 weeks postpartum in the app's diary. Diary content was qualitatively coded. Thirty-five participants completed diaries and were included in analyses. The overarching theme was Seeking sustainability and validation. Mothers felt overwhelmed, anxious, and frustrated with the intensity and unpredictability of breastfeeding and inconsistent professional breastfeeding support. The ability to exclusively breastfeed was seen as a bellwether of maternal competence. Breastfeeding progress was primarily measured through external feedback (e.g., weight checks) and managed through strict adherence to provider feeding plans. As breastfeeding problems and intensity abated, women exhibited optimism and assumed greater independence in feeding decisions. The primiparous breastfeeding experience is fraught with internally imposed and externally reinforced pressure to produce and persevere despite inadequate breastfeeding support infrastructure. Copyright © 2017 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stage, E; Nørgård, Hanne; Damm, Peter
Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated.......Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the health benefits of breastfeeding are well established, early introduction of formula remains a common practice. Cultural beliefs and practices can have an important impact on breastfeeding. This paper describes some common beliefs that may discourage breastfeeding in Lebanon. Methods Participants were healthy first-time mothers recruited from hospitals throughout Lebanon to participate in a study on usage patterns of a telephone hotline for postpartum support. The hotline was available to mothers for the first four months postpartum and patterns of usage, as well as questions asked were recorded. Thematic analysis of the content of questions which referred to cultural beliefs and practices related to breastfeeding was conducted. Results Twenty four percent of the 353 women enrolled in the study called the hotline, and 50% of the calls included questions about breastfeeding. Mothers expressed concern about having adequate amounts of breast milk or the quality of their breast milk. Concerns that the mother could potentially harm her infant though breastfeeding were rooted in a number of cultural beliefs. Having an inherited inability to produce milk, having "bad milk", and transmission of abdominal cramps to infants through breast milk were among the beliefs that were expressed. Although the researchers live and work in Lebanon, they were not aware of many of the beliefs that are reported in this study. Conclusion There are a number of cultural beliefs that could potentially discourage breastfeeding among Lebanese women. Understanding and addressing local beliefs and customs can help clinicians to provide more culturally appropriate counselling about breastfeeding.
Street, Darlene Joyner; Lewallen, Lynne Porter
The purpose of this study was to examine how culture influenced breast-feeding decisions in African American and white women, using the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality as a framework. One hundred eighty-six participants responded to the following: The word culture means beliefs and traditions passed down by your family and friends. How has culture affected how you plan to feed your baby? Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories of responses were identified: influences of family, known benefits of breast-feeding, influences of friends, and personal choice. The findings suggest that race alone may not be as influential in infant feeding decisions as other factors. Although some women acknowledged the effect of their cultural background and experiences, most women reported that their culture did not affect their infant feeding decision. In this population, breast-feeding decisions were based on the influences of family, friends, self, and the perceived knowledge of breast-feeding benefits. Although breast-feeding statistics are commonly reported by race, cultural influences on infant feeding decisions may transcend race and include the influence of family and friends, learned information from impersonal sources, and information that is shared and observed from other people.
Semrau, Katherine; Kuhn, Louise; Brooks, Daniel R; Cabral, Howard; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M
The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between breastfeeding patterns, markers of maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, and woman's breast pathology. Secondary data analysis from a randomized breastfeeding trial including 947 HIV-infected women (n = 5982 visits) from breastfeeding initiation until 6 months postpartum; 1 month after breastfeeding cessation; or loss to follow-up or death. Generalized estimating equations assessed the effects of breastfeeding pattern and maternal HIV status on breast pathology. One hundred ninety women (20.1%) had a breast problem; 86 (9.1%) had mastitis; and 31 (3.3%) had abscess. After confounder adjustment, nonexclusively breastfeeding women had an increased risk of breast problems (odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-2.95) and mastitis (odds ratio, 2.87, 95% confidence interval, 1.69-4.88) compared with exclusive breastfeeders. Women with a CD4 count less than 200 cells/μL tended to have an increased risk of abscess. Nonexclusive breastfeeding significantly increased the risk of breast pathology. Exclusive breastfeeding is not only optimal for infant health but it also benefits mothers by reducing breast problems. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Kang, N.M.; Lee, J.E.; Bai, Y.; Achterberg, T. van; Hyun, T.
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine the factors associated with initiation and continuation of breastfeeding among Korean women in relation to their employment status. METHODS: Data were collected using a web-based self-administered questionnaire from 1,031 Korean mothers living in
Background: Infant malnutrition is a public health problem in developing countries. Objective: To determine the knowledge and attitude of women to exclusive breastfeeding in Ikosi district of Ikosi/Isheri Local Government Area. Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study which employed a multistage sampling ...
Brzezińska, Małgorzata; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata
Pregnant and breastfeeding women who eat vegetarian are a source of much controversy. This is the result of concern that eliminating some or all animal produce may lead to nutritional deficiencies and thus adversely affect the mother's and child's health. The American Dietetic Association's position is that appropriately planned vegan, lacto-vegetarian and lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets ensure a normal course of pregnancy and lactation. However, in practice the balancing of such a diet can pose certain difficulties, especially for individuals without the necessary experience or knowledge about nutrition. Nutrients to which particular attention needs to be paid to ensure their sufficient supply include: protein (essential amino acids), Omega-3 essential fatty acids, iron and calcium as well as vitamins D and B(12). The proper adherence to recommendations can be attained with a varied diet containing suitable plant products compensating for the nutritional value of the eliminated animal products. Supplementation with vitamin D and vitamin B(12) is also necessary. Research shows that infants born to vegetarian mothers are born at term and have normal birth weight. There is an increased risk of hypospadias in boys. The main difference in the composition of vegetarian mothers' milk compared to non-vegetarians' is lower content of docosahexaenoic acid and higher content of Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid. © 2016 MEDPRESS.
Goldade, Kate; Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Adrian, Shelly; Tesler, Laura; Muramoto, Myra
The benefits of breastfeeding for infants and mothers have been well established, yet rates of breastfeeding remain well below national recommendations in the United States and even lower for women who smoke during pregnancy. Primary goals of this study were to explore contextual factors that contribute to breastfeeding intentions and behavior and to examine how smoking status affected women's decision making about breastfeeding. This paper is based on a longitudinal qualitative study of smoking, pregnancy, and breastfeeding among 44 low-income women in the southwest U.S. who smoked during pregnancy. Each woman was interviewed 9 times; 6 times during pregnancy and 3 times postpartum using semistructured questionnaires. Interviews lasted 1 to 3 hours and were tape-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Despite 36 (82%) respondents stating that they intended to breastfeed for an average duration of 8 months, rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration were much lower than intentions. By 6 months postpartum, only two women were breastfeeding exclusively. Women perceived that a strong risk of harming the baby was posed by smoking while breastfeeding and received little encouragement to continue breastfeeding despite an inability to stop smoking. The perceptions of the toxic, addictive, and harmful effects of smoking on breastmilk constitution and quantity factored into reasons why women weaned their infants from breastfeeding much earlier than the recommended 6 months. The results indicate a need for more consistency and routine in educating women on the relationship between smoking and breastfeeding and in promoting breastfeeding in spite of smoking postpartum.
Bentley, Margaret E; Dee, Deborah L; Jensen, Joan L
Breastfeeding rates among African-American women lag behind all other ethnic groups. National data show that only 45% of African-American women reported ever breastfeeding compared to 66 and 68% of Hispanic and white women, respectively. Of African-American women who do choose to breastfeed, duration is short, with many discontinuing in the first days after birth. This report applies a social ecological framework to breastfeeding to investigate macrolevel-microlevel linkages. We posit that macrolevel factors, such as the media, aggressive marketing of breastmilk substitutes, welfare reform, hospital policy and breastfeeding legislation, interact with microlevel factors to influence a woman's decision to breastfeed. These microlevel factors include features of the community, neighborhoods, workplaces that support or discourage breastfeeding, social and personal networks and cultural norms and individual beliefs about breastfeeding. The report discusses how power operates at each level to influence women's choices and also emphasizes the value of ethnographic data in breastfeeding studies. Through a case study of a sample of low income, African-American women living in Baltimore, MD, where breastfeeding role models are few, beliefs that discourage breastfeeding are many, and where everyday life is full of danger and fear, it is understandable that breastfeeding is not considered practical. The narrative data provide important information that can be used to enhance intervention efforts. To reach the Surgeon General's Healthy People 2010 breastfeeding goals requires a shift in cultural norms and structures at all levels that will support breastfeeding for all women.
Mariano, Laura Marina Bandim; Monteiro, Juliana Cristina dos Santos; Stefanello, Juliana; Gomes-Sponholz, Flávia Azevedo; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Nakano, Ana Márcia Spanó
ABSTRACT This study aims to evaluate the practice of breastfeeding among women in intimate partner violence situation during the current pregnancy for the duration of exclusive breastfeeding, the level of self-efficacy in breastfeeding, related factors from the beginning, the establishment of breastfeeding and early weaning. Cross-sectional study. 63 women in intimate partner violence situation in the current pregnancy participated, identified by survey in antenatal service. Data collection w...
Herskin, Camilla W; Stage, Edna; Barfred, Charlotte
2 diabetes showed significantly lower prevalence of breastfeeding than the 105 women with type 1 diabetes (34% versus 61%, p independent positive predictor, whereas pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and smoking were independent negative......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of long-term breastfeeding among women with type 2 diabetes compared to women with type 1 diabetes and to identify predictors of long-term breastfeeding for women with pre-gestational diabetes. METHODS: In total, 149 women with diabetes were interviewed...... about long-term breastfeeding, defined as any breastfeeding 4 months postpartum. RESULTS: Ninety-eight percent of the women aimed to breastfeed. At time of discharge, any breastfeeding was frequent for both groups of women (86% versus 93%, p = 0.17). However, 4 months postpartum, the 44 women with type...
Chertok, Ilana R A; Sherby, Elissa
The purpose of the study was to examine the breastfeeding self-efficacy of women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Breastfeeding rates among women with GDM are often lower than rates of women without GDM, possibly related to early breastfeeding challenges that may negatively affect breastfeeding self-efficacy. The breastfeeding self-efficacy scale short form (BSES-SF) survey was used to compare breastfeeding self-efficacy of 32 women with GDM and 35 women without GDM who gave birth to singleton, term (≥37 weeks gestation) baby in an Israeli hospital. Linear regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with BSES-SF scores in the first week postpartum. In the final regression model, significant factors associated with higher BSES-SF scores were no perceived delayed lactogenesis II (beta = -0.24, p = 0.050) and earlier initiation of breastfeeding (beta = -0.31, p = 0.011). Factors significantly associated with BSES-SF scores can be addressed through encouragement and support of breastfeeding by healthcare providers. Lactation support in the early postpartum period should focus on facilitation of early and frequent breastfeeding and/or milk expression to decrease risk of delayed breastfeeding initiation and to minimize risk of perceived delayed lactogenesis II. Early lactation support is especially important among women at increased risk for delayed breastfeeding initiation or perceived delayed lactogenesis II such as women with GDM in pregnancy.
Oosterhoff, Alberta Tonnise
In the Netherlands, many women who start breastfeeding stop doing so in the first month after birth. Campaigns aiming to increase breastfeeding rates, focus on initiation as well as on continuation of breastfeeding, preferably until six months after birth. Little is known about women’s underlying
Herskin, Camilla W; Stage, Edna; Barfred, Charlotte; Emmersen, Pernille; Ladefoged Nichum, Vibeke; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R
To investigate the prevalence of long-term breastfeeding among women with type 2 diabetes compared to women with type 1 diabetes and to identify predictors of long-term breastfeeding for women with pre-gestational diabetes. In total, 149 women with diabetes were interviewed about long-term breastfeeding, defined as any breastfeeding 4 months postpartum. Ninety-eight percent of the women aimed to breastfeed. At time of discharge, any breastfeeding was frequent for both groups of women (86% versus 93%, p = 0.17). However, 4 months postpartum, the 44 women with type 2 diabetes showed significantly lower prevalence of breastfeeding than the 105 women with type 1 diabetes (34% versus 61%, p independent positive predictor, whereas pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and smoking were independent negative predictors of long-term breastfeeding. The prevalence of long-term breastfeeding among women with type 2 diabetes was considerably lower than in women with type 1 diabetes. Number of feedings in the first 24 h was positive and BMI and smoking were negative predictors of long-term breastfeeding in women with pre-gestational diabetes.
Full Text Available ... Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Addressing breastfeeding myths Finding ... wish they knew before they started breastfeeding and how to work through those new-to-breastfeeding jitters. Content ...
Fox, Rebekah; McMullen, Sarah; Newburn, Mary
Whilst 81 % of UK women initiate breastfeeding, there is a steep decline in breastfeeding rates during the early postnatal period, with just 55 % of women breastfeeding at six weeks. 80 % of these women stopped breastfeeding sooner than they intended, with women citing feeding difficulties and lack of adequate support. As part of efforts to increase breastfeeding continuation rates, many public and voluntary organisations offer additional breastfeeding support services, which provide practical support in the early postnatal period and beyond. This paper focuses on the qualitative experiences of UK users of Baby Café services to examine their experiences of breastfeeding and breastfeeding support. The study was based upon in-depth interviews and focus groups with users of eight Baby Café breastfeeding support groups across the UK. Thirty-six interviews and five focus groups were conducted with a total of fifty-one mothers using the service. Interviews and group discussions were analysed using N Vivo software to draw out key themes and discussions. Whilst each mother's infant feeding journey is unique, reflecting her own personal circumstances and experiences, several themes emerged strongly from the data. Many women felt that they had been given unrealistic expectations of breastfeeding by professionals keen to promote the benefits. This left them feeling unprepared when they encountered pain, problems and relentlessness of early infant feeding, leading to feelings of guilt and inadequacy over their feeding decisions. Mothers valued the combination of expert professional and peer support provided by Baby Café services and emphasised the importance of social support from other mothers in enabling them to continue feeding for as long as they wished. The research emphasises the need for realistic rather than idealistic antenatal preparation and the importance of timely and parent-centred breastfeeding support, particularly in the immediate postnatal weeks. The
Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Jackson, Kim; Watson, Jo
Leading health authorities all recommend exclusive breastfeeding to six months' postpartum. While most women initiate breastfeeding, many discontinue due to difficulties encountered rather than maternal choice. One common breastfeeding difficulty is painful nipples. Research has identified poor infant positioning or latch as a common cause of painful nipples. While many different interventions designed to reduce nipple pain in breastfeeding women have been evaluated, it is unclear which intervention is the most effective treatment. An understanding of nipple pain and treatment options are needed to improve breastfeeding duration and exclusivity rates and to address systematically one of the most frequent difficulties encountered by breastfeeding women. To assess the effects of all interventions in the resolution or reduction of nipple pain and the impact of the interventions on other outcomes such as nipple trauma, nipple infections, breast mastitis, breastfeeding duration, breastfeeding exclusivity, and maternal satisfaction. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2014) and scanned secondary references. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials designed to evaluate any intervention for treating nipple pain among breastfeeding women. Trials using a cluster-randomised design were eligible for inclusion. Cross-over trials were not eligible for inclusion. The following interventions were eligible for inclusion compared with each other or usual care (i.e. education only): pharmacological (e.g. antifungal creams); non-pharmacological topical treatments (e.g. lanolin); dressings (e.g. hydrogel dressings); nipple protection devices (e.g. breast shells), phototherapy, and expressed breast milk. Nipple pain in women who are feeding with expressed breast milk (i.e. women of infants in neonatal units) is associated with other methods of removing milk from the mother's breast such as manual expression and various
Smith, Paige Hall
Infant feeding occurs in the context of continued gender inequities and in the context of a feminist movement that left women vulnerable to a system that defined the male body and mind as the norm. This paper draws from a qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with women artists at the 2005 Mamapalooza music festival in New York City, and conference participants at the 2005 La Leche League International and International Lactation Consultant Association Conferences and at the 2007 Reproductive Freedom Conference to understand our collective alienation from breastfeeding and to outline a process for how we might repossess breastfeeding as a positive function in women's lives. These women find power in honoring and validating their own experiences, in claiming those experiences as legitimate feminist actions, and then drawing on these experiences to seek new meanings, customs and norms that similarly honor, value and support their rights to those experiences. They argue that we need a feminist movement that fully incorporates women's needs as biological and reproductive social beings, alongside their needs as productive beings, and a movement that defines the female body and mind as the norm.
Full Text Available Abstract Infant feeding occurs in the context of continued gender inequities and in the context of a feminist movement that left women vulnerable to a system that defined the male body and mind as the norm. This paper draws from a qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with women artists at the 2005 Mamapalooza music festival in New York City, and conference participants at the 2005 La Leche League International and International Lactation Consultant Association Conferences and at the 2007 Reproductive Freedom Conference to understand our collective alienation from breastfeeding and to outline a process for how we might repossess breastfeeding as a positive function in women's lives. These women find power in honoring and validating their own experiences, in claiming those experiences as legitimate feminist actions, and then drawing on these experiences to seek new meanings, customs and norms that similarly honor, value and support their rights to those experiences. They argue that we need a feminist movement that fully incorporates women's needs as biological and reproductive social beings, alongside their needs as productive beings, and a movement that defines the female body and mind as the norm.
Smith, Paige Hall
Infant feeding occurs in the context of continued gender inequities and in the context of a feminist movement that left women vulnerable to a system that defined the male body and mind as the norm. This paper draws from a qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with women artists at the 2005 Mamapalooza music festival in New York City, and conference participants at the 2005 La Leche League International and International Lactation Consultant Association Conferences and at the 2007 Reproductive Freedom Conference to understand our collective alienation from breastfeeding and to outline a process for how we might repossess breastfeeding as a positive function in women's lives. These women find power in honoring and validating their own experiences, in claiming those experiences as legitimate feminist actions, and then drawing on these experiences to seek new meanings, customs and norms that similarly honor, value and support their rights to those experiences. They argue that we need a feminist movement that fully incorporates women's needs as biological and reproductive social beings, alongside their needs as productive beings, and a movement that defines the female body and mind as the norm. PMID:18680579
Bahkali, Salwa; Alkharjy, Nora; Alowairdy, Maryam; Househ, Mowafa; Da'ar, Omar; Alsurimi, Khaled
Prolonged breastfeeding can prevent or limit the severity of a variety of diseases and conditions. Although evidence clearly shows that there are health benefits for breastfeeding, adherence to breastfeeding remains a key challenge facing maternal health providers in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of a social media platform (Twitter) to promote breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia. Between February 10 and March 25, 2015, a web-based questionnaire was administered to evaluate the impacts of a Twitter based educational campaign on the awareness, knowledge, and adherence to breastfeeding behavior for women in Saudi Arabia. The overall response rate among mothers with a newborn child was 83% (n=484). The results showed an increase in the knowledge and awareness of breastfeeding practices and adherence among Twitter followers. The initiation rate of breastfeeding had slightly increased among women who never had previously breastfed. More women reported their willingness to continue exclusive breastfeeding and to stop bottle-feeding. Results also show that an integration of professional breastfeeding support, public health education programs through social media could be an effective tool in promoting breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on designing and implementing a social media based educational outreach program to increase women's awareness, knowledge, and adherence to breastfeeding behavior in Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation En Español ... knew before they started breastfeeding and how to work through those new-to-breastfeeding jitters. Content last ...
Lin, Chien-Hui; Kuo, Su-Chen; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Chang, Tse-Yun
The aims of this study were: (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of a prenatal breastfeeding education programme for primigravida women who have elected caesarean section as a model of delivery and (2) to evaluate its effectiveness for encouraging a positive attitude to breastfeeding and rooming-in and to increase exclusive breastfeeding rates within hospital and at one month postpartum. Prenatal preparation for pregnant women about breastfeeding enhances their practical knowledge and skills about breastfeeding techniques, which prepares them when encountering possible difficulties. A quasi-experimental design was used. The targeted population was primigravidas at 36-39 weeks and who had chosen to deliver by caesarean section. The study consisted of approximately 100 individuals; the control group consisted of 46 subjects and the following 54 made up the experimental group. The study was conducted at a hospital in Taiwan. The results of the study show that the subjects of the experimental group exhibited a more positive breastfeeding attitude (88.9 vs. 79.8, t = 7.40, p education booklets, videos and telephone interview on breastfeeding prior to a caesarean delivery may contribute to breastfeeding attitude and improved rooming-in and exclusive breastfeeding rates. This breastfeeding education programme has proven to be successful in aiding women breastfeeding after a caesarean delivery and provides health care professionals with an evidence-based intervention.
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine factors related to breastfeeding and its perceived health benefits among Iranian mothers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using 240 postpartum women who were selected randomly from eight public health care centers in Hamadan, Iran, in 2012. Mothers who breastfed (BF and mothers who never breastfed (NBF were given a structured questionnaire to collect their demographic data and information regarding their health beliefs and attitude towards child-rearing. Descriptive and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: The mean length of breastfeeding was 11.6 (standard deviation=12.5 weeks. There was no difference in demographic variables, such as age, type of medical insurance, number of living children, employment, education, and household income (p>0.050, between mothers that breastfed and those that did not. Mothers’ perception of the severity of child illness was higher in those who breastfed than those who never breastfed (p=0.050. In contrast, BF mothers had higher perceived confidence of medical care to prevent diseases (p<0.050 and a higher perception of reverse parent-child roles than NBF mothers (p<0.050. Conclusion: Mothers’ health beliefs and attitude to parenting has a significant role in choosing to breastfeed. Physicians and healthcare providers may provide supportive information that influence a mother’s breastfeeding behavior.
Gallegos, Danielle; Vicca, Natalie; Streiner, Samantha
The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of breastfeeding among refugee women from Liberia, Sierra Leone, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo living in two major capital cities in Australia. Participants were recruited from their relevant community associations and via a snowballing technique. Thirty-one women took part in either individual interviews or facilitated group discussions to explore their experiences of breastfeeding in their home country and in Australia. Thematic analysis revealed four main themes: cultural breastfeeding beliefs and practices; stigma and shame around breastfeeding in public; ambivalence towards breastfeeding and breastfeeding support. Women who originated from these four African countries highlighted a significant desire for breastfeeding and an understanding that it was the best method for feeding their infants. Their breastfeeding practices in Australia were a combination of practices maintained from their countries of origin and those adopted according to Australian cultural norms. They exemplified the complexity of breastfeeding behaviour and the relationship between infant feeding with economic status and the perceived social norms of the host country. The results illustrate the need for policy makers and health professionals to take into consideration the environmental, social and cultural contexts of the women who are purportedly targeted for the promotion of breastfeeding. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the role of breastfeeding contraindications in breastfeeding practices. Our objectives were to 1 identify predictors of breastfeeding initiation and duration among a cohort of predominately low-income, inner-city women, and 2 evaluate the contribution of breastfeeding contraindications to breastfeeding practices. Methods Mother-infant dyads were systematically selected from 3 District of Columbia hospitals between 1995 and 1996. Breastfeeding contraindications and potential predictors of breastfeeding practices were identified through medical record reviews and interviews conducted after delivery (baseline. Interviews were conducted at 3–7 months postpartum and again at 7–12 months postpartum to determine breastfeeding initiation rates and duration. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify baseline factors associated with initiation of breastfeeding. Cox proportional hazards models were generated to identify baseline factors associated with duration of breastfeeding. Results Of 393 study participants, 201 (51% initiated breastfeeding. A total of 61 women (16% had at lease one documented contraindication to breastfeeding; 94% of these had a history of HIV infection and/or cocaine use. Of the 332 women with no documented contraindications, 58% initiated breastfeeding, vs. 13% of women with a contraindication. In adjusted analysis, factors most strongly associated with breastfeeding initiation were presence of a contraindication (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08–0.47, and mother foreign-born (AOR, 4.90; 95% CI, 2.38–10.10. Twenty-five percent of study participants who did not initiate breastfeeding cited concern about passing dangerous things to their infants through breast milk. Factors associated with discontinuation of breastfeeding (all protective included mother foreign-born (hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; 95% CI 0.39–0.77 increasing
Demirci, Jill R; Bogen, Debra L; Klionsky, Yael
Despite evidence of low transfer of methadone into breast milk and the potential physical and psychological benefits that breastfeeding offers for methadone-exposed mothers and infants, the rate of breastfeeding initiation in this population is about half that reported nationally. This study describes the perceptions surrounding breastfeeding decisions and management among pregnant and postpartum women taking methadone. Seven pregnant women and 4 postpartum women enrolled in methadone maintenance programs participated in semistructured, audiotaped interviews and focus groups, respectively, about their breastfeeding experiences. Transcripts were analyzed and coded using qualitative content analysis. Three major content categories were identified: (1) fears, barriers, and misconceptions about breastfeeding while taking methadone; (2) motivation and perceived benefits of breastfeeding; and (3) sources of information, support, and anxiety about general breastfeeding management and breastfeeding while taking methadone. Lack of support from the health care community and misinformation about the dangers of combining breastfeeding and methadone therapy represented significant, yet modifiable, barriers to breastfeeding success in methadone-exposed women. Interventions to increase the prevalence of breastfeeding among women taking methadone should address identified logistical, educational, and psychological barriers and consider inclusion of women themselves, partners, peers, and clinicians. In particular, clinicians who care for methadone-exposed mothers and infants should be educated on therapeutic communication, up-to-date breastfeeding contraindications, and the health benefits of breastfeeding in this population.
Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike
A postpartum questionnaire assessed influences of social support and acculturation on breast-feeding among 962 low-income immigrant women in New York. More acculturated women were two times less likely to intend to breast-feed but reported more social support. Predictors of breastfeeding were intent, nonsmoking, role models, and certain attitudes,…
Thomson, Gill; Crossland, Nicola; Dykes, Fiona
Breastfeeding peer support has been identified as a key intervention to help improve breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding rates. The World Health Organization, and, in the UK, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, recommend the implementation of sustainable peer support programmes. As part of an evaluation into a comprehensive breastfeeding peer support service in north-west England, in-depth interviews were conducted with 47 women who had received a breastfeeding peer support service. In this paper, we have drawn upon the work of Morse and colleagues to interpret the data in relation to behavioural manifestations of hope, together with insights into the strategies used by the peer supporters to augment hopefulness for women's breastfeeding goals. These theoretical and practice-based findings offer insights into how the breastfeeding peer supporters provided realistic assessments across varying situational contexts, formed strategies and plans to help women overcome any obstacles, made women aware of any negative outcomes, mobilised external and personal resources to facilitate goal attainment, provided evaluations and feedback on women's (and infants') progress, and through praise, reassurance and instilling calm, the peer supporters helped women to focus their energy to achieve their breastfeeding goals. Practice-based implications are considered. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Hegney, Desley; Fallon, Tony; O'Brien, Maxine L
The study investigated factors empowering women to continue breastfeeding despite experiencing extraordinary difficulties. The study documented the experiences and characteristics of women who continued to breastfeed (continuing cohort) and those who weaned (non-continuing cohort) despite extraordinary difficulties. Retrospective case control. The study was undertaken in south-east Queensland, Australia in 2004. Forty women (20 in each cohort) were recruited over six months. Both quantitative (breastfeeding knowledge questionnaire) and qualitative (semi-structured interviews) data were collected. This paper describes the qualitative data. Women from both cohorts expressed idealistic expectations about breastfeeding and experienced psychological distress due to their breastfeeding problems. Those who continued breastfeeding used coping strategies and exhibited personal qualities that assisted them to overcome the difficulties experienced. Women who continued to breastfeed were more likely to report relying on a health professional they could trust for support. This latter cohort were also more likely to report having peers with which they shared their experiences. Non-continuing women expressed feelings of guilt and inadequacy following weaning and were more likely to feel isolated. This study has highlighted the methods women use to deal with breastfeeding problems. It has also revealed modificable factors that can improve breastfeeding duration. The findings indicate that clinicians should: *Provide information which accurately reflects the breastfeeding experience; *Ensure systems are in place so that effective postnatal support for breastfeeding difficulties is available; *Consider screening to ascertain levels of psychological distress, sadness and disillusionment among breastfeeding women; *Design educational interventions with elements of cognitive skills, problem-solving and self-efficacy training to equip women with the skills to overcome any experienced
Kaso, Misato; Miyamoto, Keiko; Koyama, Emi; Nakayama, Takeo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate breastfeeding information in midwifery textbooks. Evaluation standards were developed in order to perform content analysis. A 3-round Delphi method using a panel of 32 midwives resulted in 36 evaluation items from the original 38 draft items based on 4 major international guidelines and statements on breastfeeding. Subsequently, breastfeeding descriptions in 4 midwifery textbooks most frequently used in Japan were examined using a 4-point scale (A, accurate and sufficient description; B, accurate but insufficient description; C, no description; and D, inaccurate or inconsistent description). Among the evaluation items, 40% were rated as A, 25% as C, 21% as B, and 15% as D across the 4 textbooks. In conclusion, a substantial proportion of breastfeeding information in these textbooks was found to be inaccurate, inconsistent, or insufficient in content.
Saha, Moni R.; Ryan, Kath; Amir, Lisa H.
The objectives of this article are to systematically review i) the extent of medicine use in postpartum women, and ii) the impact of maternal medicine use (excluding contraceptives and galactogogues) on breastfeeding outcomes (initiation and/or duration). PubMed, Medline (Ovid), Scopus (Elsevier), Cinahl (EBSCO), PsycINFO (Ovid), Embase (Ovid) and Web of Science (ISI) databases were searched to find original studies on medicine use in women after the birth. Additional studies were identified ...
Busck-Rasmussen, Marianne; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Norsker, Filippa Nyboe
was defined as parental socio-economic measures......, suggesting that acculturation did not favor breastfeeding. For all but the group of women who had migrated from Pakistan, adjustment for socio-demographic indicators (age, parity, education, attachment to labour market, and income) eliminated the increased risk of suboptimal breastfeeding...
Elham Charoghchian Khorasani
Full Text Available Introduction: Breastfeeding self-efficacy show self-confidence and the ability of mothers to perform breastfeeding and maternal health literacy, ability of women to gain access to, understand, and use information in ways that promote and maintain their health and their children. Aim: this study was Measuring Associations between self-efficacy breastfeeding and maternal health literacy. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Mashhad health center in 2015. 185 pregnant women with first experience were selected randomly. Data were collected through health literacy maternal questionnaire and self-efficacy breastfeeding Fox & Dennis questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and statistical tests in the SPSS/18. Results: The mean score of women's self-efficacy breastfeeding and standard deviation were 120.5 and 11.7 respectively and the mean maternal health literacy was 42.7±5.6. The results regression showed that the only variable that significantly associated with breastfeeding self-efficacy was maternal health literacy. Implications for practice: According to the results of this study, maternal health literacy must be raised to enhance breastfeeding self-efficacy, which could lead to an improvement in maternal breastfeeding in the society.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of the evidence supporting the importance of breastfeeding during the first year of life, data on breastfeeding practices remain limited in Canada. The study aimed to examine the prevalence and predictors of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding among Canadian women. Methods The analysis was based on the Maternity Experience Survey targeting women aged ≥ 15 years who had singleton live births between February 2006 - May 2006 in the Canadian provinces and November 2005 - February 2006 in the territories. The main outcome was exclusive breastfeeding based on the World Health Organization definition. Socioeconomic, demographic, maternal, pregnancy and delivery related variables were considered for a multivariate logistic regression using stepwise modeling. Bootstrapping was performed to account for the complex sampling design. Results The sample size in this study was 5,615 weighted to represent 66,810 Canadian women. While ever breastfeeding was 90.3%, the 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rate was 13.8%. Based on the regression model, having higher years of education, residing in the Northern territories and Western provinces, living with a partner, having had previous pregnancies, having lower pre-pregnancy body mass index and giving birth at older age were associated with increased likelihood of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding. Moreover, smoking during pregnancy, Caesarean birth, infant's admission to the intensive care unit and maternal employment status before 6 months of infant's age were negatively associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Mothers choosing to deliver at home were more likely to remain exclusively breastfeeding for 6 months (Odds Ratio: 5.29, 95% Confidence Interval: 2.95-9.46. Conclusions The 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rate is low in Canada. The study results constitute the basis for designing interventions that aim to bridge the gap between the current practices of breastfeeding and the World
Eni, Rachel; Phillips-Beck, Wanda; Mehta, Punam
In Canada, First Nations women are far less likely to breastfeed than other women. First Nations people have been subjected to massive health and social disparities and are at the lowest end of the scale on every measure of well-being. The purpose of this study is to understand the experiences, strengths, and challenges of breastfeeding for First Nations women. Central to the current research is the notion of an embodiment within indigenous women's health and, more specifically, breastfeeding perspectives. Guided by an indigenous feminist standpoint, our research study evolved through honest discussions and is informed by relevant public health literature on breastfeeding. We collected quantitative data through a survey on demographics and feeding practices, and we conducted focus groups in three Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Manitoba, and Ontario) over a period of 1 year (2010) from 65 women in seven First Nation communities. Three overarching themes are discussed: social factors, including perceptions of self; breastfeeding environments; and intimacy, including the contribution of fathers. The main findings are that breastfeeding is conducive to bed sharing, whereas a history of residential school attendance, physical and psychological trauma, evacuations for childbirth, and teen pregnancy are obstacles to breastfeeding. Also, fathers play a pivotal role in a woman's decision to breastfeed. Findings from this study contribute to informing public health by reconsidering simplistic health promotion and public health policies and, instead, educating First Nations communities about the complexity of factors associated with multiple breastfeeding environments.
Alexander, Ashley; O'Riordan, Mary Ann; Furman, Lydia
This study compared the breastfeeding intentions and attitudes of pregnant low-income inner-city teens (age ≤19 years) and non-teens (age ≥20) to determine if age is a significant determinant of intent to breastfeed in this population. We used structured interviews to examine the feeding intentions and attitudes of consecutive healthy pregnant women receiving obstetrical care at the Women's Health Center, MacDonald Women's Hospital, Cleveland, OH (June 1-July 31, 2007). The primary outcome measure was rate of intent to breastfeed among teen versus non-teen participants. Attitudes and self-assessed knowledge regarding breastfeeding were compared between teens and non-teens, and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of age on breastfeeding intent. We interviewed 176 pregnant women (95% African-American, 94% single marital status, median age 22 years [range, 15-41 years], 46 [26%] teens) at a median of 27 weeks of pregnancy. There were no significant differences between teens and non-teens in race, marital status, or timing of first prenatal visit or interview. Rate of intent to breastfeed and planned duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding, as well as most measured attitudes about breastfeeding including "back to work" plans, were not significantly different between groups. Significant determinants of feeding intent included primiparity, good self-assessed knowledge about breastfeeding, and having support from the father of the baby. In a population at high risk for choosing not to breastfeed, we found no significant explanatory effect of age on breastfeeding intention, implying that an inclusive targeted breastfeeding intervention program may be effective for both teens and non-teens in a low-income inner-city population. We also found that the support of the father of the baby significantly influenced breastfeeding intent among our participants, suggesting that paternal involvement will be integral to the success of
Meedya, Shahla; Fahy, Kathleen; Parratt, Jenny; Yoxall, Jacqui
Although the benefits of breastfeeding to six months are well-established, only about half of Australian women succeed. The factors associated with successful breastfeeding are rarely translated into effective interventions. A new educational and support program, called the Milky Way program has been demonstrated to be effective in supporting women to achieve prolonged breastfeeding. In the Milky Way program, breastfeeding is considered an embodied performance which requires an engaged combination of body, mind and spirit. This paper aims to explain how the two theories that informed the program were used to better enable women's long term breastfeeding success. The theory of self-efficacy is first described as a way to develop women's cognitive processes to organise and execute the course of actions to breastfeed for a longer period of time. Birth territory theory is then presented. This theory discusses women as embodied selves; an essential concept for breastfeeding success. Birth territory theory also describes the effects of the holistic environment on the woman and explores the effects of power that is used in the environment. This power can be used integratively to strengthen the woman's breastfeeding confidence and success or, disintergratively which reduces her confidence and undermines her success. Strategies based on self-efficacy theory are helpful, but are not sufficient to promote breastfeeding to six months. Health educators also need to foster the woman's connection to, and trust in, her body and her baby's body to breastfeed spontaneously. Being aware of environmental impacts on how the woman and baby breastfeed; and using one's own power integratively is crucial to women being able to achieve prolonged breastfeeding. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Promotional and educational programs relating to breastfeeding are important for reversing the decline in this practice. Most programs are centered exclusively on breastfeeding, although general knowledge about newborn healthcare may be important, especially among pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: To study pregnant women's knowledge about general healthcare of newborns, including breastfeeding aspects. TYPE OF STUDY: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Prof. Samuel Barnsley Pessoa Health School Center, Faculty of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: All pregnant women who were registered in the prenatal care program during six consecutive months. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Aspects of the current gestation, previous gestations and childbirths, knowledge of the general aspects of newborn healthcare and of breastfeeding practices. RESULTS: The results show that only a little over half of the pregnant women had received any information on newborn healthcare. Misinformation was clearly present regarding proper care of the umbilical stump and the nature of jaundice, and worst regarding how to treat oral thrush and jaundice, and about vaccination. In relation to breastfeeding, even though almost all the pregnant women declared their intention to breastfeed, less than half had a concrete response regarding how long to do it for. The low rates obtained in the topics dealing with the duration, nursing intervals and the attitude to be taken towards hypogalactia show unfamiliarity with the breastfeeding technique. The "weak milk" belief, the misinformation about contraceptive methods during breastfeeding and the cost of artificial formulas also have a negative impact on this practice. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women's knowledge of newborn healthcare is low, as much in the aspects of general care as in relation to the practice of breastfeeding. These findings must be taken into consideration in educative programs promoting breastfeeding.
Myer, Landon; Essajee, Shaffiq; Broyles, Laura N; Watts, D Heather; Lesosky, Maia; El-Sadr, Wafaa M; Abrams, Elaine J
Landon Myer and colleagues discuss viral load monitoring for pregnant HIV-positive women and those breastfeeding; ART treatments can suppress viral load and are key to preventing transmission to the child.
Cupul-Uicab, Lea A.; Gladen, Beth C.; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Longnecker, Matthew P.
Breastfed children have lower risk of infectious diseases, post-neonatal mortality and chronic diseases later in life. Because epidemiologic studies usually rely on reported history of previous breastfeeding, data on the accuracy and precision of recalled histories allow improved interpretation of the epidemiologic findings. We evaluated the reliability of two reported breastfeeding durations in 567 reproductive-aged women from Mexico using information obtained from nearly identical sets of questions applied at different times after weaning. We compared differences between reports, and examined the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for any and for exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the determinants of poor recall (difference between reports of >20%). The reliability of duration of any breastfeeding was high (ICC 0.94). Overall, differences between reports of duration were usually 2 months. The only predictor of better recall was greater age of the baby at weaning. The reliability of EBF duration was lower (ICC 0.49). In this population with a relatively long duration of breastfeeding, reliability of any breast-feeding duration was high. Age, education and previous breastfeeding were not important predictors of recall, in contrast to findings in earlier studies. Consistent with previous reports, however, parity and length of recall were associated with poorer recall of duration of any breastfeeding. Future studies that use reported breastfeeding duration may want to consider the effect of these variables on recall. PMID:19292747
Johnson, Angela; Kirk, Rosalind; Rosenblum, Katherine Lisa
Abstract The goals of this article are to provide a review of key interventions and strategies that impact initiation and duration of breastfeeding with particular focus on low-income African American mothers' maternal psychological vulnerabilities during the early postpartum period using a social ecological perspective as a guiding framework. Although modest gains have been achieved in breastfeeding initiation rates in the United States, a projected gap remains between infant feeding practices and national Healthy People breastfeeding goals set for 2020, particularly among African Americans. These disparities raise concerns that socially disadvantaged mothers and babies may be at increased risk for poor postnatal outcomes because of poorer mental health and increased vulnerability to chronic health conditions. Breastfeeding can be a protective factor, strengthening the relationship between mother and baby and increasing infant health and resilience. Evidence suggests that no single intervention can sufficiently address the multiple breastfeeding barriers faced by mothers. Effective intervention strategies require a multilevel approach. A social ecological perspective highlights that individual knowledge, behavior, and attitudes are shaped by interactions between the individual woman, her friends and family, and her wider historical, social, political, economic, institutional, and community contexts, and therefore effective breastfeeding interventions must reflect all these aspects. Current breastfeeding interventions are disjointed and inadequately meet all African American women's social and psychological breastfeeding needs. Poor outcomes indicate a need for an integrative approach to address the complexity of interrelated breastfeeding barriers mothers' experience across layers of the social ecological system. PMID:25423601
Johnson, Angela; Kirk, Rosalind; Rosenblum, Katherine Lisa; Muzik, Maria
The goals of this article are to provide a review of key interventions and strategies that impact initiation and duration of breastfeeding with particular focus on low-income African American mothers' maternal psychological vulnerabilities during the early postpartum period using a social ecological perspective as a guiding framework. Although modest gains have been achieved in breastfeeding initiation rates in the United States, a projected gap remains between infant feeding practices and national Healthy People breastfeeding goals set for 2020, particularly among African Americans. These disparities raise concerns that socially disadvantaged mothers and babies may be at increased risk for poor postnatal outcomes because of poorer mental health and increased vulnerability to chronic health conditions. Breastfeeding can be a protective factor, strengthening the relationship between mother and baby and increasing infant health and resilience. Evidence suggests that no single intervention can sufficiently address the multiple breastfeeding barriers faced by mothers. Effective intervention strategies require a multilevel approach. A social ecological perspective highlights that individual knowledge, behavior, and attitudes are shaped by interactions between the individual woman, her friends and family, and her wider historical, social, political, economic, institutional, and community contexts, and therefore effective breastfeeding interventions must reflect all these aspects. Current breastfeeding interventions are disjointed and inadequately meet all African American women's social and psychological breastfeeding needs. Poor outcomes indicate a need for an integrative approach to address the complexity of interrelated breastfeeding barriers mothers' experience across layers of the social ecological system.
Cupul-Uicab, Lea A; Gladen, Beth C; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Longnecker, Matthew P
Breastfed children have lower risk of infectious diseases, post-neonatal mortality and chronic diseases later in life. Because epidemiologic studies usually rely on reported history of previous breastfeeding, data on the accuracy and precision of recalled histories allow improved interpretation of the epidemiologic findings. We evaluated the reliability of two reported breastfeeding durations in 567 reproductive-aged women from Mexico using information obtained from nearly identical sets of questions applied at different times after weaning. We compared differences between reports, and examined the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for any and for exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the determinants of poor recall (difference between reports of >20%). The reliability of duration of any breastfeeding was high (ICC 0.94). Overall, differences between reports of duration were usually or =4 children, and time between reports of >2 months. The only predictor of better recall was greater age of the baby at weaning. The reliability of EBF duration was lower (ICC 0.49). In this population with a relatively long duration of breastfeeding, reliability of any breastfeeding duration was high. Age, education and previous breastfeeding were not important predictors of recall, in contrast to findings in earlier studies. Consistent with previous reports, however, parity and length of recall were associated with poorer recall of duration of any breastfeeding. Future studies that use reported breastfeeding duration may want to consider the effect of these variables on recall.
Full Text Available The purposes of this paper are to report the prevalence of breastfeeding to six months among women in Kuwait and to determine the factors that are associated with the duration of breastfeeding. A cohort of 373 women recruited from maternity wards in four hospitals in Kuwait city were followed from birth to 26 weeks postpartum. The association of any and full breastfeeding duration and predictor variables were explored using multivariate Cox’s proportional hazards models. At six months, 39% of all infants were receiving some breast milk and only 2% of infants had been fully breastfed to 26 weeks. Women born in other Arab countries were less likely to discontinue breastfeeding than women born in Kuwait. Other factors positively associated with breastfeeding duration were level of maternal education, higher parity, infant being demand fed in hospital and a preference for breastfeeding on the part of the infant’s father and maternal grandmother. The introduction of a pacifier before four weeks of age and the mother intending to return to work by six months were negatively associated with duration. These findings present a number of opportunities for prolonging breastfeeding duration in Kuwait.
Park, Mi Kyoung; Moon, So Hyun
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of an individual breast-feeding promotion program to address breast-feeding knowledge, attitude, method and rate of practice for married immigrant women. A non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental design was used (experimental group=16, control group=17). The intervention consisted of 3 phases: (1) Within 2 hours of delivery - individual breast-feeding training through video/verbal/practical training education and demonstration (2) After 1~2 days - group training using video, model doll, and breast models (3) After 7 days - family visit, counseling, retraining and reinforcement training. The data were analyzed using non-parametric tests with the SPSS program. Married immigrant women who participated in the individual breast-feeding program scored high in knowledge, attitude, method and rate of practice compared to the control group. The results indicate that the individual breast-feeding program is very effective in increasing breast-feeding knowledge, attitude, method and rate of practicing breast feeding for married immigrant women. So, nurses are encouraged to aggressively utilize individual breast-feeding programs to help married immigrant women, who are exposed to vulnerability due to various situations.
Chapman, Donna J.; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael
The gap between current breastfeeding practices and the Healthy People 2020 breastfeeding goals is widest for black women compared with all other ethnic groups. Also of concern, Hispanic and black women have the highest rates of formula supplementation of breast-fed infants before 2 d of life. These disparities must be addressed through the scale-up of effective interventions. The objective of this critical review is to identify and evaluate U.S.-based randomized trials evaluating breastfeedi...
Mediano, Pilar; Fernández, Leónides; Juan M. Rodríguez; Marín, María
Background The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. Methods We conducted a case–control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that c...
Full Text Available Abstract Many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medicines, especially those available over-the-counter, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals such as general practitioners and pharmacists. The primary aim of this review therefore, was to investigate the literature relating to health professionals' and women's knowledge, attitudes and practices towards medication use and safety in breastfeeding. The limited literature that was uncovered identified that general practitioners and pharmacists have poor knowledge, but positive attitudes, and variable practices that are mostly guided by personal experience. They tend to make decisions about the use of a medicine whilst breastfeeding based on the potential 'risk' that it poses to the infant in terms of possible adverse reactions, rather than its 'compatibility' with breast milk. The decision-making process between health professionals and women is usually not a negotiated process, and women are often asked to stop breastfeeding whilst taking a medicine. Women, in turn, are left dissatisfied with the advice received, many choosing not to initiate therapy or not to continue breastfeeding. Some directions for future research have been suggested to address the issues identified in this critical area. This review is important from a societal perspective because many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medications, especially those available without prescription, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals, which is ultimately influenced by their knowledge, attitudes and practices. However, there is an absence of high quality evidence from randomised controlled trials on the safety of medications taken during breastfeeding, which naturally would hinder health professionals from appropriately advising women. It is equally important to know about women's experiences of advice received from health
Spiesser-Robelet, Laurence; Brunie, Vanida; de Andrade, Vincent; Gagnayre, Rémi
Breastfeeding is a major public health issue in terms of its benefits to both mothers and infants. Despite recommendations, breastfeeding initiation and duration are low in many industrialized countries. Although human milk is viewed as the most appropriate food for infants, when it is perceived as contaminated, doubts about its quality can lead to negative behaviors concerning breastfeeding. This is especially true when mothers are taking medication. Research aim: The aim of this review is to evaluate the data in the literature on the knowledge, representations, attitudes, and behaviors of women with regard to taking medication while breastfeeding. These elements should aid our understanding of how the mothers' behaviors are constructed in this situation. The authors conducted a scoping review to map and analyze the available data from literature sources regarding breastfeeding mothers' knowledge, representations, attitudes, and behaviors about medicines. A staged approach to the scoping review was used. Eighteen studies met the selection criteria. They described safety behaviors like noninitiation, duration reduction, breastfeeding cessation, and refusal to take medication in order to breastfeed. Most showed a conflict between taking medication and breastfeeding. Because the knowledge, representations, and attitudes behind such behaviors have received very little study, it is difficult to explain how these behaviors are constructed. The results of this review confirm the need for a qualitative study to explore the knowledge, representations, and attitudes of breastfeeding women faced with taking medications, so that we can understand their connection with observed behaviors and take appropriate educational action.
Kozhimannil, Katy B; Attanasio, Laura B; Hardeman, Rachel R; O'Brien, Michelle
Breastfeeding initiation rates in the United States have risen in recent years. However, there are notable disparities by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. Previous research has suggested that care from a doula (a trained professional who provides nonmedical support during the perinatal period) may increase breastfeeding initiation. The goal of this analysis was to study whether doula support may be associated with breastfeeding initiation among low-income, diverse women. We compared breastfeeding initiation rates (means and 95% confidence intervals) for 1069 women who received doula care from Everyday Miracles, a Minnesota-based organization that employs a diverse group of certified doulas, to a state-based sample of women with Medicaid coverage who gave birth in 2009 or 2010 and participated in the Minnesota Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey (weighted n = 51,721). Women who had doula-supported births had near-universal breastfeeding initiation (97.9%), compared with 80.8% of the general Medicaid population. Among African American women, 92.7% of those with doula support initiated breastfeeding, compared with 70.3% of the general Medicaid population. These results suggest that access to culturally appropriate doula care may facilitate higher rates of breastfeeding initiation. When supported in their nonmedical needs by birth doulas, the diverse, low-income patients of midwives and other maternity care providers may have a greater likelihood of initiating breastfeeding and experiencing the maternal and infant health benefits associated with breastfeeding. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Chapman, Donna J.; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael
The gap between current breastfeeding practices and the Healthy People 2020 breastfeeding goals is widest for black women compared with all other ethnic groups. Also of concern, Hispanic and black women have the highest rates of formula supplementation of breast-fed infants before 2 d of life. These disparities must be addressed through the scale-up of effective interventions. The objective of this critical review is to identify and evaluate U.S.-based randomized trials evaluating breastfeeding interventions targeting minorities and highlight promising public health approaches for minimizing breastfeeding disparities. Through PubMed searches, we identified 22 relevant publications evaluating 18 interventions targeting minorities (peer counseling [n = 4], professional support [n = 4], a breastfeeding team [peer + professional support, n = 3], breastfeeding-specific clinic appointments [n = 2], group prenatal education [n = 3], and enhanced breastfeeding programs [n = 2]). Peer counseling interventions (alone or in combination with a health professional), breastfeeding-specific clinic appointments, group prenatal education, and hospital/Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children enhancements were all found to greatly improve breastfeeding initiation, duration, or exclusivity. Postpartum professional support delivered by nurses was found to be the least effective intervention type. Beyond improving breastfeeding outcomes, 6 interventions resulted in reductions in infant morbidity or health care use. Future research should include further evaluations of successful interventions, with an emphasis on determining the optimal timeframe for the provision of support, the effect of educating women’s family members, and the impact on infant health care use and cost-effectiveness. PMID:22332107
Hoddinott, Pat; Kroll, Thilo; Raja, Amalraj; Lee, Amanda Jane
Vicarious experience gained through seeing women breastfeed may influence infant feeding decisions and self-efficacy. Our aim was to measure the attributes of seeing breastfeeding and to investigate how these relate to feeding intention (primary outcome) and behaviour (secondary outcome). First, we developed a Seeing Breastfeeding Scale (SBS), which consisted of five attitudes (Cronbach's alpha of 0.86) to most recently observed breastfeeding: 'I felt embarrassed'; 'I felt uncomfortable'; 'I did not know where to look'; and 'It was lovely' and 'It didn't bother me'. Test-retest reliability showed agreement (with one exception, kappas ranged from 0.36 to 0.71). Second, we conducted a longitudinal survey of 418 consecutive pregnant women in rural Scotland. We selected the 259 women who had never breastfed before for further analysis. Following multiple adjustments, women who agreed that 'It was lovely to see her breastfeed' were more than six times more likely to intend to breastfeed compared with women who disagreed with the statement [odds ratio (OR) 6.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.85-15.82]. Women who completed their full-time education aged 17 (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.41-6.77) or aged 19 (OR 7.41 95% CI 2.51-21.94) were more likely to initiate breastfeeding. Women who reported seeing breastfeeding within the preceding 12 months were significantly more likely to agree with the statement 'It was lovely to see her breastfeed' (P = 0.02). Positive attitudes to recently seen breastfeeding are more important determinants of feeding intention than age of first seeing breastfeeding, the relationship to the person seen and seeing breastfeeding in the media.
Newby, R M; Davies, P S W
Australian guidelines recommend infants be breast-fed for at least their first year of life; however, for a variety of reasons many mothers cease breast-feeding before this age. The objective of this study was to determine the reasons why women stop breast-feeding their infant completely, in relation to the age of the infant. Primiparous Australian women aged between 18 and 40 years underwent a self-administered questionnaire-based birth cohort study on infant-feeding attitudes, behaviours and feeding patterns. Data were extracted from the demographic questionnaire and from questionnaires administered at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of infant age between October 2010 and September 2011. Breast-feeding initiation in this cohort was 97%; however, by 52 weeks of infant age 46% of mothers had completely ceased breast-feeding. In those mothers who had ceased breast-feeding before 26 weeks the most common reason was 'I did not have enough milk'. In those mothers who had completely stopped breast-feeding between 26 and 52 weeks the most common reason reported as being very important in the decision to cease breast-feeding was 'My baby lost interest'. Maternal concerns regarding breast trauma, milk supply and infant satiety were central mediators of breast-feeding duration among these Queensland women. Further research into the antecedents of sucking pathologies and reasons for nipple trauma is indicated. Health professionals can assist women to recognise cues of hunger and satiety in their infants and understand the dynamics and natural history of breast-feeding to prolong breast-feeding relationships.
Sulaiman, Zaharah; Liamputtong, Pranee; Amir, Lisa H
Nearly half of the working population in Malaysia are women, and with only a short period of maternity leave, they may struggle to achieve the recommended 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. The aim of this paper was to explore the relationship between the timing of return to work and beliefs and breastfeeding practices among women in urban Malaysia. A qualitative inquiry based on a phenomenological framework and multiple methods was used: face-to-face interview, participant diary and researcher field notes. Data collection took place in Penang and the Klang Valley, Malaysia, from March to September 2011. Eligible participants were purposely identified at randomly selected recruitment sites. A thematic analysis method was used to develop the typologies and categories of the findings. A total of 40 working women with a mean age of 32 years (SD 3.4) were interviewed and 15 participated in the diary writing. Most women (75%) returned to work between 2 and 3 months. Only 10% returned to work 4 months or later postpartum, and 15% had an early return to work (defined here as less than 2 months). The women fell into three groups: Passionate women with a strong determination to breastfeed, who exclusively breastfed for 6 months; Ambivalent women, who commenced breastfeeding but were unable to sustain this after returning to work; and Equivalent women, who perceived formula feeding as equally nutritious as breast milk. Although longer maternity leave was very important for Ambivalent women to maintain breastfeeding, it was not as important for the Equivalent or Passionate women. In conclusion, returning earlier was not an absolute barrier to continuing breastfeeding. Instead, a woman's beliefs and perceptions of breastfeeding were more important than the timing of her return to work in determining her ability to maintain breastfeeding or breast milk feeding. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Espey, Eve; Ogburn, Tony; Leeman, Larry; Reddy, Shilpa; Lee, Carisa; Qualls, Clifford
National and international contraceptive guidelines reflect expert opinion that recommends against the use of estrogen-containing hormonal contraception in the early postpartum period. This study was undertaken to estimate providers' practices in prescribing hormonal contraception to breastfeeding women. A 19-item survey was mailed to 397 obstetrician gynecologists, midwives and family physicians in the state of New Mexico. The survey included items covering attitudes about the impact of hormonal contraception on breastfeeding and prescribing practices. One hundred ninety-nine (50%) providers completed the survey. The majority (70%) of providers prescribe progestin-only contraceptive methods to breastfeeding women within the first 6 weeks. Despite these recommendations, a sizable minority of providers prescribe combined pills in the early postpartum period: 27% of providers have prescribed combined pills and 13% of providers, mostly those in a university setting, routinely recommend them within the first 6 weeks postpartum. Most providers follow expert recommendations regarding the initiation of hormonal contraception for breastfeeding women.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Exclusive breastfeeding is the most effective way of feeding infants until 6 months of age. The present study aimed to determine the beliefs of pregnant women in Qom city about exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age based on constructs of theory of planned behavior. : In this descriptive cross-sectional study, after designing a questionnaire to measure the constructs of theory of planned behavior, including behavioral, normative, and control beliefs, and also determining its validity and reliability, 240 pregnant women in Qom were selected using cluster sampling and completed the questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: More emotional relationship with infants was the most important positive behavioral belief, and belief in breast malformation and fatigue was negative behavioral beliefs about exclusive breastfeeding among the pregnant women. The opinion of physicians and health care providers about exclusive breastfeeding was reported as the most important normative belief, and urging of relatives, especially mother or mother-in-law to use sweet water or powdered milk was the most important control beliefs among the mothers, which made exclusive breastfeeding difficult. Conclusion: Promoting positive beliefs and correcting wrong beliefs about exclusive breastfeeding, along with consideration of the role of health care providers and husband would help pregnant mothers to accept the choice of exclusive breastfeeding until the end of 6 months of age.
Keely, Alice; Lawton, Julia; Swanson, Vivien; Denison, Fiona C
to explore the factors that influence breast-feeding practices in obese women who had either stopped breast-feeding or were no longer exclusively breast-feeding 6-10 weeks following the birth of their babies, despite an original intention to do so for 16 weeks or longer. Specifically (i) to identify the barriers to successful breast-feeding and reasons for introducing formula and/or stopping breast-feeding, and (ii) to explore the women׳s views and experiences of current breast-feeding support services. descriptive, qualitative study comprising semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. participants recruited from one large maternity unit in Scotland and interviewed in their homes. 28 obese women at 6-10 weeks following birth. three major themes emerged from the data analysis: the impact of birth complications, a lack of privacy, and a low uptake of specialist breast-feeding support. Impact of birth complications: 19 of 28 women had given birth by caesarean section and some felt this led to feeling 'out of it' post-operatively, a delay in establishing skin-to-skin contact, and in establishing breast-feeding. Lack of privacy; several women described reluctance to breast feed in front of others, difficulties in achieving privacy, in hospital, at home and in public. Low uptake of postnatal breast-feeding support; despite experiencing problems such as physical difficulties during breast-feeding or a perception of low milk supply, breast-feeding support services were underused by this sample of women. A small number of the women in this study used breast-feeding clinics and reported finding these useful. A further small number felt they benefitted from the support of a friend who was successfully breast-feeding. midwives should be mindful of the presence of additional factors alongside maternal obesity, such as caesarean delivery, physical difficulties when breast-feeding
Garg, Rajesh; Deepti, ShyamSunder; Padda, Avtar; Singh, Tejbir
Irrespective of the fact that breastfeeding in India is almost universal, psychosocial and cultural barriers still exists to early breastfeeding. The exact reasons for this delay are not clearly known. Hence we conducted this study to assess breastfeeding knowledge and practices and the factors influencing them among women in rural Punjab, India. We interviewed 1,000 women in a community-based analytical cross-sectional study that was carried out in 20 villages of the District of Amritsar, Punjab, India, in 2005-2006 by standard cluster sampling. Time at initiation of breastfeeding and variables like understanding about the importance of colostrum, nutrition during lactation, and motivation by health workers were assessed. Statistical analysis was done by percentages compared with the χ² test. Two hundred twenty-five respondents (23.8%) started breastfeeding their babies on the first day of birth, but in terms of early breastfeeding only 128 (13.5%) respondents put their babies on the breast within 4 hours of birth. Of the 1,000 respondents, 356 (35.6%) of the respondents were unaware of the importance of colostrum, 733 (77.6%) were not given advice on benefits of breastfeeding/weaning, and 306 (33.5%) of respondents had not increased their diet during lactation. Early breastfeeding knowledge and practices were suboptimal among the mothers in rural Punjab. Health education on breastfeeding and nutrition remains the dark area. Research and public health efforts like one-to-one "breastfeeding counseling and health education on nutrition" to the mother by health workers should be promoted.
Chertok Ilana R
Full Text Available Abstract Breast milk has been shown to have multiple benefits to infant health and development. Therefore, it is important that maternal contraceptive choices consider the effects on lactation. Women who observe traditional Jewish law, halakha, have additional considerations in deciding the order of preference of contraceptive methods due to religious concerns including the use of barrier and spermicidal methods. In addition, uterine bleeding, a common side effect of hormonal methods and IUD, can have a major impact on the quality of intimacy and marital life due to the laws of niddah. This body of Jewish laws prohibits any physical contact from the onset of uterine bleeding until its cessation and for an additional week. Health care professionals should understand the issues of Jewish law involved in modern contraceptive methods in order to work in tandem with the halakha observant woman to choose a contraceptive method that preserves the important breastfeeding relationship with her infant and minimizes a negative impact on intimacy with her husband.
Hye-Jin Kim, MSN, RN
Conclusions: This study found that postpartum breastfeeding may play a significant role in reducing the risk of metabolic syndrome and also that childbearing is associated with a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome among women in their 30s. For women in their 40s, the risk of metabolic syndrome did not significantly differ depending on the breastfeeding experience. This study indicated that breastfeeding can be a way to reduce metabolic health burdens in women in their 30s.
Rigaud, Marion; Sevalho Corçao, Camila; Perrier, Erica T; Boesen-Mariani, Sabine
Pregnant and breastfeeding women experience great changes in their total body water content and water dynamics. To support the accretion of total body water during pregnancy and compensate for the water lost through breast milk during breastfeeding, increased adequate intakes (AI) for total water have been established by various health authorities. Despite this widespread advice, several studies suggest that pregnant and breastfeeding women do not meet the AI for total water, suggesting the need to raise women's awareness on the importance of adequate water intake, particularly during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as well as to provide them with a simple means of monitoring their hydration on a day-to-day basis. A urine color (UC) scale recently has been validated for hydration monitoring in pregnant and breastfeeding women. We sought to develop a version of a tool based on the UC scale, using only images or illustrations, which could be understood by users of various nationalities and spoken languages. Pregnant and breastfeeding women (n = 1,275) from Brazil, Mexico, and Poland were shown 3 versions of the tool. Understanding, appreciation, simplicity and intent to use were evaluated using a questionnaire consisting of 26 items. Key Messages: Among the 3 versions tested, one tool emerged as the most highly understood (88% spontaneous understanding) and was highly appreciated by users (mean [SD]: 8.40 [2.20] out of 10). There were no differences between countries. Furthermore, 83% reported being very likely to use the tool daily. These results suggest that a simple tool based on the UC scale will help pregnant and breastfeeding women meet the AI for total water. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Amir, Lisa H; Forster, Della A; Lumley, Judith; McLachlan, Helen
Mastitis is one of the most common problems experienced by women who are breastfeeding. Mastitis is an inflammation of breast tissue, which may or may not result from infection. The aims of this paper are to compare rates of mastitis in primiparous women receiving public hospital care (standard or birth centre) and care in a co-located private hospital, and to use multivariate analysis to explore other factors related to mastitis. Data from two studies (a randomised controlled trial [RCT] and a survey) have been combined. The RCT (Attachment to the Breast and Family Attitudes to Breastfeeding, ABFAB) which was designed to test whether breastfeeding education in mid-pregnancy could increase breastfeeding duration recruited public patients at the Royal Women's Hospital at 18-20 weeks gestation. A concurrent survey recruited women planning to give birth in the Family Birth Centre (at 36 weeks gestation) and women in the postnatal wards of Frances Perry House (private hospital). All women were followed up by telephone at 6 months postpartum. Mastitis was defined as at least 2 breast symptoms (pain, redness or lump) AND at least one of fever or flu-like symptoms. The 6 month telephone interview was completed by 1193 women. Breastfeeding rates at 6 months were 77% in Family Birth Centre, 63% in Frances Perry House and 53% in ABFAB. Seventeen percent (n = 206) of women experienced mastitis. Family Birth Centre and Frances Perry House women were more likely to develop mastitis (23% and 24%) than women in ABFAB (15%); adjusted odds ratio (Adj OR) ~1.9. Most episodes occurred in the first 4 weeks postpartum: 53% (194/365). Nipple damage was also associated with mastitis (Adj OR 1.7, 95% CI, 1.14, 2.56). We found no association between breastfeeding duration and mastitis. The prevention and improved management of nipple damage could potentially reduce the risk of lactating women developing mastitis. Trial registration (ABFAB): Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN21556494.
In 2006, the Australian Government introduced the Family Law Amendment (Shared Parental Responsibility) Act 2006 (Cth), which put in place a legal presumption of shared parental responsibility for children after separation and which emphasizes "equal-time" parenting arrangements regardless of the child's age. A qualitative approach was taken to investigate breastfeeding women's experiences of the implementation of the act and its impact on their ability to maintain breastfeeding. Fifteen women responded to questions related to their breastfeeding and their engagement with the family law system. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed, and data were then analyzed thematically. These women experienced inconsistent advice from all facets of legal services, including opinions about the inappropriateness of breastfeeding for infants over 6 months of age. Breastfeeding was considered only as nutrition, without recognition of its immunological and cognitive benefits and the security and comfort it provides. Many participant women felt that they had been persuaded against discussing breastfeeding in the legal system, resulting in a sense of disempowerment.
Martin, Sarah E; Drake, Emily; Yoder, Laura; Gibson, Mary; Litke, Carrie Ann
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current perceptions of breast-feeding support for active duty women serving in the U.S. Armed Forces. An online survey based on the Workplace Breastfeeding Support Scale (WBSS) was used to collect data from active duty military mothers. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS software to evaluate active duty women's perceptions of breast-feeding support in the military. 318 active duty women participated in the online survey. The average WBSS scores for active duty women was 50.20 (SD = 15.75). Comparing WBSS scores and branch of service, women in the Army had significantly lower WBSS scores (M = 45.85) then women in the Air Force (M = 53.96, p < 0.001). Enlisted women had significantly lower scores (M = 47.12) than officers (M = 54.62, p < 0.001). Also noted were significantly lower scores of active duty women who were Hispanic (M = 44.30) and women who had lower levels of education (M = 46.90, p = 0.006). The Department of Defense may be able to improve breast-feeding rates for all active duty mothers by implementing and adhering to lactation policies and focusing support efforts for enlisted women in all branches of service. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Hauff, Laura E; Demerath, Ellen W
To test differences in breastfeeding duration by prepregnant maternal weight status, and determine whether body image concerns mediate any differences. A prospective longitudinal cohort of primiparous women was followed from pregnancy to, at minimum, 6 months postpartum. Questionnaire responses on body concerns were obtained during pregnancy and at 4 months postpartum. Kaplan-Meier curves compared breastfeeding duration in overweight/obese and normal weight groups. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine whether body image variables mediated the relationship between maternal weight and duration. Although intended duration was similar between groups, overweight/obese women had a shorter median duration of any breastfeeding (38.6 weeks) compared to normal weight women (48.9 weeks) (P confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-2.01; P body comfort/confidence postpartum more frequently than normal BMI women (P body comfort/confidence postpartum was negatively associated with duration after adjusting for maternal BMI (P = 0.01). Thus, the effect of BMI on duration was reduced by this variable (HR = 1.31; CI = 0.93, 1.86; P = 0.13), suggesting mediation. Women with high prepregnant BMI have reduced lactation duration that is mediated by lack of comfort/confidence with one's body. Further research into the interplay between body image, weight status, and breastfeeding outcomes may point to behavioral targets amenable to intervention and modification that may in turn improve breastfeeding outcomes for overweight/obese women and their infants. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
, and obesity, and hypertension later on in life, and it reduces the cost of food for the family and the country. Appropriate practices that support exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months reduce childhood morbidity and mortality.
Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Karmaliani, Rozina
Pakistan has the second highest child mortality rate in South Asia. Breastfeeding can promote infant health, prevent infection and possibly mortality. However, a gradual decline in breastfeeding is reported for Pakistan; especially among urban, educated, employed women. Little research exists regarding the experiences of professional women in Pakistan who are breastfeeding and employed. To describe the experiences of urban, professional women who breastfeed and are employed, as related to facilitators and barriers of breastfeeding. Using a qualitative descriptive design, nine full-time employed women were recruited through purposive sampling from a private tertiary care health setting in Karachi, Pakistan. A pre-tested, semi-structured interview guide was used for an in-depth interview of 40-45min with each participant. Most women spoke about the challenges of combining breastfeeding with employment, which resulted in early cessation of breastfeeding. The study indicated that positive maternal attributes such as knowledge about breastfeeding, planning, self-commitment, and open communication, as well as availability of social and workplace support is essential to enable urban, professional women in Pakistan to continue breastfeeding while employed. Pakistan has high infant and child mortality rate and decreasing prevalence of breastfeeding, especially among employed professional women. Our findings indicate an urgent need for lactation support programs that include integrated interventions for lactating women that offer informational support, social support, and formal workplace support. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pituch, Aleksandra; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Zdanowski, Konrad
Taking into account the negative impact of stimulants, including alcohol, nicotine and excessive consumption of caffeine on the baby and his mother, a very important is to stop or to restrict their use, especially during pregnancy and lactation. Purpose of the study was to evaluate alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, tobacco smoke exposure and caffeine consumption in breastfeeding women from Masovian Province. The survey was conducted from September 2010 till March 2011. The study group consisted of 102 breastfeeding women aged 19-38 years. Information on alcohol consumption, smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke was obtained by questionnaire interview. The results about caffeine intake were obtained using 3-day dietary records method and food frequency questionnaire method. Source of information about the caffeine content in products were the published literature, in the case of energy drinks the manufacturer's label. Among all women surveyed (n = 102), up 17% of respondents declared alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking of 6% and 15% of passive exposure to tobacco smoke. The average caffeine consumption in a group called "caffeine consumers" (n = 94) was 127.4 +/- 76.0 mg/person/day for 3-day dietary records method and 163.4 +/- 100.6 mg/person/day for the food frequency questionnaire method. The correlation coefficient between the used methods was r = 0.71 (p caffeine, regardless of the method of data collection were: black tea, which provided about 60% of caffeine and ground coffee (about 20%) and instant coffee (about 13%). Despite general knowledge about the harmful effects of smoking cigarette/tobacco smoke exposure and the consumption of alcohol and foods high in caffeine, some respondents did not halt the use of these stimulants during lactation, indicating a need for an education in this field.
Chia-Fen lisien, BSc, RN, NSP
Conclusions: Breastfeeding in a comfortable condition is a key factor of precipitating breast milk secretion, so early suckling on the operating table may result in discomfort and stress of the woman and interfere with the secretion or production of breast milk. Additionally, it is a crucial factor of the success in breastfeeding that the nursing personnel can provide women help in maintaining breast milk production and secretion, taking care of a baby, and reminding women's families (especially their husbands of giving their assistance, encouragement and praises to relieve women's postpartum stress.
... you Breadcrumb Home Pregnancy, Breastfeeding and Bone Health Pregnancy, Breastfeeding and Bone Health Both pregnancy and breastfeeding ... for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women For Your Information Pregnancy and Bone Health During pregnancy, the baby growing ...
Busck-Rasmussen, Marianne; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Mortensen, Laust; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo
The objective of this study was to describe breastfeeding practices and to compare the risk of suboptimal breastfeeding of women living in Denmark according to country of origin, and further to examine how socio-economic position and duration of stay in the country affected this risk. Information on breastfeeding of 42,420 infants born 2002-2009 and living in eighteen selected Danish municipalities was collected from the Danish Health Visitor's Child Health Database. The data was linked with data on maternal socio-demographic information from Danish population-covering registries. Suboptimal breastfeeding was defined as breastfeeding as described by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority. We used logistic regression to model the crude associations between suboptimal breastfeeding and country of origin, and taking maternal age and parity, and a variety of parental socio-economic measures into account. Suboptimal breastfeeding was more frequent among non-Western migrant women than among women of Danish origin. Women who were descendants of Turkish and Pakistani immigrants had a higher risk of suboptimal breastfeeding as compared to the group of women who had migrated from the same countries, suggesting that acculturation did not favor breastfeeding. For all but the group of women who had migrated from Pakistan, adjustment for socio-demographic indicators (age, parity, education, attachment to labour market, and income) eliminated the increased risk of suboptimal breastfeeding. There was no evidence for differences in the breastfeeding support provided at hospital level according to migrant status. Suboptimal breastfeeding was more frequent among women who were non-Nordic migrants and descendants of migrants than among women with Danish origin.
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Saha, Moni R; Ryan, Kath; Amir, Lisa H
The objectives of this article are to systematically review i) the extent of medicine use in postpartum women, and ii) the impact of maternal medicine use (excluding contraceptives and galactogogues) on breastfeeding outcomes (initiation and/or duration). PubMed, Medline (Ovid), Scopus (Elsevier), Cinahl (EBSCO), PsycINFO (Ovid), Embase (Ovid) and Web of Science (ISI) databases were searched to find original studies on medicine use in women after the birth. Additional studies were identified by searching Google Scholar, Wiley Online Library, Springer Link, selected journals and from the reference list of retrieved articles. Observational studies with information about postpartum women's use of any type of medicine either for chronic or acute illnesses with or without breastfeeding information were included. The majority of relevant studies suggest that more than 50 % of postpartum women (breastfeeding or not) required at least one medicine. Due to the lack of uniform medication use reporting system and differences in study designs, settings and samples, the proportion of medicine use by postpartum women varies widely, from 34 to 100 %. Regarding the impact of postpartum women's medicine use on breastfeeding, a few studies suggest that women's use of certain medicines (e.g. antiepileptics, propylthiouracil, antibiotics) during lactation can reduce initiation and/ or duration of breastfeeding. These studies are limited by small sample size, and with one exception, all were conducted in Canada more than a decade ago. Large scale studies are required to establish the relationship between maternal medicine use and breastfeeding, considering type of illness, period of use and total duration of medicine use.
Gribble, Karleen D; McGrath, Marie; MacLaine, Ali; Lhotska, Lida
Women have the right to support that enables them to breastfeed. Supporting breastfeeding in emergencies is important because artificial feeding places mothers and children at risk. In emergencies, artificial feeding is dangerous to the infant, difficult and requires substantial resources. In contrast, breastfeeding guards infant health. It is also protective against postpartum haemorrhage, maternal depletion, maternal anaemia and closely spaced births and should therefore concern not only nutritionists, but also those involved in reproductive health. However, it is common for women's ability to breastfeed to be undermined in emergencies by the indiscriminate distribution of breast-milk substitutes and the absence of breastfeeding support. Controlling the distribution of breast-milk substitutes, providing supportive environments, and appropriate medical and practical assistance to breastfeeding women safeguards the health and well-being of mothers and babies. Greater collaboration between the nutrition and reproductive health sectors is required to promote best practice in protecting breastfeeding women and their children in emergencies. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.
This prospective study aims at elucidating the patterns of breastfeeding among rural Moslem women in Israel. A total of 429 parturient women living in four villages in the remote northern part and in the central, densely populated region of the country were interviewed about their breastfeeding behavior 3 and 6 months postpartum. Notwithstanding a generally strong adherence to traditional and religious norms that promote long duration of breastfeeding, only 43% persisted in suckling their infants for > or = 6 months. Bottle feeding (formula) was started by 46% of the cohort when the baby was less than 4 weeks old. The data indicate that the western lifestyle of the surrounding Jewish population has impacted on lactating rural Moslem women.
Why do mothers fail to breastfeed their babies?\\ud \\ud The majority of mothers know breastfeeding gives their baby the best start in life: improved health, superior intelligence, and closer emotional attachment are just a few of the crucial benefits. Yet a mere 17% of mothers are still breastfeeding when their babies are three months old. Why?\\ud \\ud There are plenty of books out there that offer excuses. Tiredness, sore nipples, low milk supply, breasts too big, breasts too small, excess mar...
Slater, Mackenzie; Stringer, Elizabeth M; Stringer, Jeffrey S A
Breastfeeding remains a common practice in parts of the world where the burden of HIV is highest and the fewest alternative feeding options exist. The impossible dilemma faced by HIV-positive mothers is whether to breastfeed their infants in keeping with cultural norms but in doing so risk transmitting the virus through breast milk, or to pursue formula feeding, which comes with its own set of risks, including a higher rate of infant mortality from diarrheal illnesses, while reducing transmission of HIV. Treatment of mothers and/or their infants with antiretroviral drugs is a strategy that has been employed for several decades to reduce HIV transmission through pregnancy and delivery, but the effect of these agents when taken during breastfeeding is a newer field of study. In this article we evaluate the latest clinical research, from trials that encourage exclusive breastfeeding to trials of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for either the mother or infant, in an attempt to prevent transmission of HIV through breast milk. Additionally, we discuss research that is in progress, with results anticipated in the next few years that will further shape clinical guidelines and practice. Exclusive breastfeeding is much safer than mixed feeding (the supplementation of breastfeeding with other foods), and should be encouraged even in settings where ART for either the mother or infant is not readily available. The research published regarding maternal treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during pregnancy and the breastfeeding period has all been non-randomized with relatively little statistical power, but suggests maternal HAART can drastically reduce the risk of transmission of HIV. Infant prophylaxis has been intensively studied in several trials and has been shown to be as effective as maternal treatment with antiretrovirals, reducing the transmission rate after 6 weeks to as low as 1.2%. Research that is in progress will provide us with more answers
Full Text Available Overweight and obesity is prevalent among women of reproductive age (42% BMI > 25 kg/m2 and parity is associated with risk of weight gain. Weight gain greater than that recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM is also associated with lower rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration in women. The aim of this pilot randomised controlled trial is to examine the feasibility of recruiting and maintaining a cohort of pregnant women with the view of reducing postpartum weight retention and improving breastfeeding outcomes. Women (BMI of 25–35 kg/m2 (n = 36 were recruited from the John Hunter Hospital antenatal clinic in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were stratified by BMI and randomised to one of three groups with follow-up to six months postpartum. Women received a dietary intervention with or without breastfeeding support from a lactation consultant, or were assigned to a wait-list control group where the dietary intervention was issued at three months postpartum. Feasibility and acceptability was assessed by participation rates and questionnaire. Analysis of variance and covariance was conducted to determine any differences between groups. Sixty-nine per cent of the participants were still enrolled at six months postpartum. This pilot demonstrated some difficulties in recruiting women from antenatal clinics and retaining them in the trial. Although underpowered; the results on weight; biomarkers and breastfeeding outcomes indicated improved metabolic health.
Rasmussen, Bodil; Skouteris, Helen; Berg, Marie; Nagle, Cate; Morris, Heather; Nankervis, Alison; Sparud-Lundin, Carina
Women with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) face many challenges during their pregnancy, birth and in the postnatal period, including breastfeeding initiation and continuation while maintaining stable glycaemic control. In both Sweden and Australia the rates of breastfeeding initiation are high. However, overall there is limited information about the breastfeeding practices of women with T1DM and the factors affecting them. Similarities in demographics, birth rates and health systems create bases for discussion. The aim of this paper is to discuss psychosocial factors, policies and practices that impact on the breastfeeding practices of women with T1DM. Swedish research indicates that the overall breastfeeding rate in women with T1DM remains significantly lower than in women without diabetes in the first 2 and 6 months after childbirth with no differences in exclusive breastfeeding. Breastfeeding initiation and continuation among women with T1DM in Sweden has been shown to be influenced by health services delivery, supportive breastfeeding policies and socio-economic factors, particular perceived support from social networks and health professionals. There is limited research on the impact of attitudes towards breastfeeding, emotional and social well-being and diabetes-related stress on the decision of women with T1DM to initiate and continue to breastfeed for at least 6 months. A more comprehensive understanding of the breastfeeding practices and psychosocial factors operating during the first 6 months after birth for women with T1DM will be instrumental in the future design of interventions promoting initiation and continuation of breastfeeding in Sweden, Australia and elsewhere. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lau, Ying; Chan, Kin Sun
The objectives of the study were to (1) investigate the relationship between breast-feeding initiation and duration and patterns of perinatal depressive symptoms and (2) identify the sociodemographic correlates of such initiation and duration. A sample of 2365 women in their second and third trimesters and 6 weeks postdelivery was recruited via systematic sampling from 6 regional public hospitals in Hong Kong. The women were identified as having perinatal depressive symptoms, using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Their sociodemographic variables were investigated using the empirical evidence. A total of 285 (47.66%) of the participants were found to have initiated breast-feeding, of whom 222 had breast-fed for more than 3 weeks. Logistic regression analysis revealed a monthly family income less than HK$5000 to be significantly associated with breast-feeding initiation and that housewives or part-time workers with antenatal depressive symptoms at 32 weeks of gestation were significantly more likely to breast-feed for longer duration. These findings help explicate breast-feeding practices among Chinese women and indicate that effective breast-feeding promotion should consider sociodemographic correlates and perinatal depressive symptoms. The study's limitations and implications are discussed.
Ku, Ching-Man; Chow, Susan K Y
The purpose of this article is to explore the relationships between breastfeeding knowledge, self-efficacy and demographic factors on breastfeeding patterns among Hong Kong Chinese primiparous women. Background. There is substantial evidence showing that maternal education, social class, ethnic background and religion are related to the decision to initiate as well as continue breastfeeding. Nevertheless, not much is known about how the controllable factors are able to influence the practice with the Hong Kong Chinese population. A cross-sectional and correlational design. A convenience sample of 82 subjects who had normal vaginal delivery in the maternity unit of a regional hospital in Hong Kong was recruited. Linear regression analysis showed that subjects who lived with their mothers-in-law, had higher household income and higher gravida would be associated with a higher score in the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale. On the other hand, decisions to breastfeed made later in the pregnancy, father-in-law to 'pei-yue' (the Chinese practice whereby the new mother is expected to stay at home and to avoid all household chores and social activities during the first month after giving birth) and older in age would be associated with a lower score. Pei-yue is Chinese ritual of which the woman who has delivered should stay at home for one month and being taken care by others (this Chinese term is used throughout the article to indicate the time period described). Generalised estimating equations model revealed that women who had searched through the Internet for breastfeeding information, who had husbands to 'pei yue', lived in private housing, were married, had a domestic helper to 'pei yue' and who had attained higher education were more likely to practice exclusive breastfeeding. The social support from the family and breastfeeding self-efficacy have implications for continuing the practice of breastfeeding for primiparous women. Future efforts aimed at promoting
Mennella, Julie A; Pepino, Marta Yanina
Many motivated new mothers fail to reach public health goals for breastfeeding, highlighting the need to identify risk factors. Because having a family history of alcoholism is associated with blunted prolactin responses to an alcohol challenge in nonlactating individuals, this study aimed to identify associations in family history of alcoholism, prolactin, and breastfeeding behaviors in lactating women. This was a 2-day experimental study that used within-subject alcohol or control beverage consumption and between-subject family history of alcoholism factors. The participants were non-alcohol-dependent lactating women; 7 were family history-positive (FHP) for alcohol dependence, and 21 were family history-negative (FHN). Consumption of 0.4 g/kg alcohol or nonalcoholic beverage occurred in separate randomized sessions, followed by use of a breast pump. Basal and suckling-induced prolactin, blood alcohol concentrations, milk yield, self-reported drug effects, neophobia, and breastfeeding patterning were measured. Although no group differences in alcohol pharmacokinetics were detected, FHP women exhibited blunted prolactin to breast stimulation after drinking the control and alcohol beverage and felt more of the stimulant-like effects of alcohol than did FHN women. FHP women reported more frequent daily breastfeeding than did FHN women. This is the first evidence that family history of alcoholism is associated with a blunted magnitude, rapidity, and duration of the prolactin response to breast stimulation and an alcohol challenge in lactating women. More frequent breastfeeding by FHP women suggests behavioral compensation for perceived and/or actual poor lactation. Alcohol did not enhance lactational performance, further disputing the lore that alcohol is a galactagogue.
Linares, Ana M; Rayens, Mary K; Gomez, Maria L; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Dignan, Mark B
Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is the most efficacious form of infant feeding and nutrition. Hispanic mothers in the US are more likely than mothers of other racial/ethnic groups to supplement with formula in the first 2 days of life. The purpose of this study was to explore infant feeding intentions during the prenatal period as a predictor of EBF at postpartum discharge in a sample of Hispanic women (n = 99). At discharge, 51 % of the women were EBF, 44 % were breastfeeding and supplementing with formula, and 5 % were feeding only formula. Intention to breastfeed was found to be a strong and potentially modifiable predictor of breastfeeding behavior, showing a significant association with EBF upon discharge from the hospital after birth when linked with acceptance of pregnancy and method of delivery. Prenatal care offers a unique opportunity to enhance intentions to breastfeed that may lead to improved EBF in this health vulnerable population.
Wang, Wenru; Lau, Ying; Chow, Aloysius; Chan, Kin Sin
to (1) estimate the breast-feeding intention, initiation and duration rate; (2) identify the reasons to initiate and wean breast feeding and (3) explore predictors of breast-feeding duration. a prospective longitudinal study antenatal clinics of five regional hospitals from four clusters in Hong Kong a population-based sample of 2098 women in the second trimester of pregnancy was recruited with a systematic sampling method. three different sets of self-administered questionnaires were used to measure the breast-feeding intention, initiation and duration, demographic, socio-economic, obstetric, complications of pregnancy and intrapartum variables at three time points. Reasons for initiating and weaning breast feeding, the formal and informal supportive resources of participants during breast feeding were collated at the third time points. the rates of artificial feeding and breast feeding were 41.1% and 58.9%, whereas breast-feeding intention and initiation rates were 85.3% and 67.0%, respectively. The breast-feeding duration rates were 11.1%, 10.3%, 10.7% and 26.7%, for the 'within 3-6 weeks' and '>6 weeks' groups. The common reasons for initiating breast feeding were that breast feeding is beneficial for both the baby (89.8%) and mother (39.7%). Reasons for weaning breast feeding were insufficient breast milk (32.7%), tiredness and fatigue (39.7%) and return to work (29.6%). Partner, relatives and nurse midwives were important supportive resource during breast feeding. Ordinal logistic regression analysis identified five predictive factors of breast-feeding duration. Participants who were working part-time or were housewives (p=0.037), had monthly family income of breast-feeding intention (p=0.001) and early breast feeding within the first hour (pbreast feeding than their counterparts. mothers in Hong Kong do not meet the recommendation of the international standards for breast feeding. Understanding of reasons for initiation, weaning and predictors of breast-feeding
Busck-Rasmussen, Marianne; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Mortensen, Laust; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo
The objective of this study was to describe breastfeeding practices and to compare the risk of suboptimal breastfeeding of women living in Denmark according to country of origin, and further to examine how socio-economic position and duration of stay in the country affected this risk. Information on breastfeeding of 42,420 infants born 2002–2009 and living in eighteen selected Danish municipalities was collected from the Danish Health Visitor’s Child Health Database. The data was linked with ...
Forster Della A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is one of the most common problems experienced by women who are breastfeeding. Mastitis is an inflammation of breast tissue, which may or may not result from infection. The aims of this paper are to compare rates of mastitis in primiparous women receiving public hospital care (standard or birth centre and care in a co-located private hospital, and to use multivariate analysis to explore other factors related to mastitis. Methods Data from two studies (a randomised controlled trial [RCT] and a survey have been combined. The RCT (Attachment to the Breast and Family Attitudes to Breastfeeding, ABFAB which was designed to test whether breastfeeding education in mid-pregnancy could increase breastfeeding duration recruited public patients at the Royal Women's Hospital at 18–20 weeks gestation. A concurrent survey recruited women planning to give birth in the Family Birth Centre (at 36 weeks gestation and women in the postnatal wards of Frances Perry House (private hospital. All women were followed up by telephone at 6 months postpartum. Mastitis was defined as at least 2 breast symptoms (pain, redness or lump AND at least one of fever or flu-like symptoms. Results The 6 month telephone interview was completed by 1193 women. Breastfeeding rates at 6 months were 77% in Family Birth Centre, 63% in Frances Perry House and 53% in ABFAB. Seventeen percent (n = 206 of women experienced mastitis. Family Birth Centre and Frances Perry House women were more likely to develop mastitis (23% and 24% than women in ABFAB (15%; adjusted odds ratio (Adj OR ~1.9. Most episodes occurred in the first 4 weeks postpartum: 53% (194/365. Nipple damage was also associated with mastitis (Adj OR 1.7, 95% CI, 1.14, 2.56. We found no association between breastfeeding duration and mastitis. Conclusion The prevention and improved management of nipple damage could potentially reduce the risk of lactating women developing mastitis. Trial registration
Wiersma, T.; Daemers, D.O.A.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Flikweert, S.
In 2000, the Health Council of the Netherlands produced new dietary reference values for the intake of several vitamins, including vitamin D. These stated that pregnant and breast-feeding women without usual exposure to sunlight should consume at least 10 micrograms of vitamin D per day, while for
Jarlenski, Marian; McManus, Jenny; Diener-West, Marie; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Yeung, Edwina; Bennett, Wendy L
Obese women are less likely to initiate and continue breastfeeding. We described barriers to breastfeeding and examined the association between support from a health professional and breastfeeding knowledge and practices, by prepregnancy obesity status. Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a cohort of U.S. women (N = 2,997), we performed descriptive statistics to describe barriers to breastfeeding by prepregnancy obesity status. We conducted multivariable regression to examine the association of breastfeeding support from a physician or nonphysician health professional with knowledge of the recommended duration of breastfeeding, breastfeeding initiation, and breastfeeding duration, and whether breastfeeding support had different associations with outcomes by prepregnancy obesity status. Average marginal effects were calculated from regression models to interpret results as percentage-point changes. Believing that formula was as good as breast milk was the most commonly cited reason for not initiating breastfeeding, and milk supply concerns were cited as reasons for not continuing breastfeeding. Physician breastfeeding support was associated with a 9.4 percentage-point increase (p women, although no increase was observed among nonobese women. Breastfeeding support from a physician or nonphysician health professional was associated with a significantly increased probability of breastfeeding initiation (8.5 and 12.5 percentage points, respectively) and breastfeeding for 6 months (12.5 and 8.4 percentage points, respectively), without differential associations by prepregnancy obesity. Support for exclusive breastfeeding is an important predictor of breastfeeding initiation and duration among obese and nonobese women. Health educational interventions tailored to obese women might improve their breastfeeding initiation and continuation. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.
Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert
As both employed and breastfeeding mothers increase, more women are facing the decision of whether and how to combine the behaviors. This paper examines three hypotheses for a sample of low-income women: 1) Mothers who expect to return to work after the birth of their baby will be less likely to initiate breastfeeding; 2) The timing of the return to work and quitting breastfeeding will coincide; 3) Mothers in professional jobs and Stay-at-Home (SAH) Moms will breastfeed for longer durations than mothers with other types of jobs. The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a sample of mostly low-income, unmarried U.S. mothers, offers a unique opportunity to study this issue, as there is reason to believe that employment may impact breastfeeding differently for low-income women. Logistic regression determines the relationship between the expectation of work and breastfeeding initiation, and discrete-time logit models examine breastfeeding duration, the timing of the return to work, and occupation type. Expecting to work in the year after the baby's birth does not impact breastfeeding initiation. The timing of quitting breastfeeding and the return to work are closely and powerfully linked, and mothers in administrative and manual positions quit earlier than other women. Interestingly, women in service occupations do not differ in breastfeeding duration from SAH mothers or professionals. This research demonstrates that low-income women are having difficulty combining work and breastfeeding, which has important health implications for their infants, and that women working in administrative and manual occupations may face special constraints.
Holowko, Natalie; Jones, Mark; Koupil, Ilona; Tooth, Leigh; Mishra, Gita
Breast-feeding is associated with positive maternal and infant health and development outcomes. To assist identifying women less likely to meet infant nutritional guidelines, we investigated the role of socio-economic position and parity on initiation of and sustaining breast-feeding for at least 6 months. Prospective cohort study. Australia. Parous women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (born 1973-78), with self-reported reproductive and breast-feeding history (N 4777). While 89 % of women (83 % of infants) had ever breast-fed, only 60 % of infants were breast-fed for at least 6 months. Multiparous women were more likely to breast-feed their first child (~90 % v. ~71 % of primiparous women), and women who breast-fed their first child were more likely to breast-feed subsequent children. Women with a low education (adjusted OR (95 % CI): 2·09 (1·67, 2·62)) or a very low-educated parent (1·47 (1·16, 1·88)) had increased odds of not initiating breast-feeding with their first or subsequent children. While fewer women initiated breast-feeding with their youngest child, this was most pronounced among high-educated women. While ~60 % of women breast-fed their first, second and third child for at least 6 months, low-educated women (first child, adjusted OR (95 % CI): 2·19 (1·79, 2·68)) and women with a very low (1·82 (1·49, 2·22)) or low-educated parent (1·69 (1·33, 2·14)) had increased odds of not breast-feeding for at least 6 months. A greater understanding of barriers to initiating and sustaining breast-feeding, some of which are socio-economic-specific, may assist in reducing inequalities in infant breast-feeding.
O'Brien, E; Myles, P; Pritchard, C
Exclusive breastfeeding is the best start an infant can receive. However, in many high-income countries breastfeeding rates are low and this may be a reflection of social norms which in turn may be influenced by the media. This study therefore explored the portrayal of infant feeding in women's general interest magazines. The five top selling women's weekly magazines in Britain and Ireland for 2013 over a 4-month period were included. A quantitative and qualitative content analysis was conducted for both written and visual content. In 58 magazines, there were 90 references to infant feeding with an average of 1.5 (range: 0-5) per magazine. Breastfeeding and formula feeding references were present in equal number and both were predominantly portrayed positively. There was only 1 visual representation of breast feeding compared with 11 of bottle feeding. Potential drivers for breastfeeding included its role in post-pregnancy weight loss and celebrity endorsement while family routine, the role of males in the house and concerns about adverse health effects were identified as barriers to breastfeeding. An improvement in visual representations of breast feeding and factual information in women's weekly magazines may be helpful in re-defining social norms regarding infant feeding. Keywords: food and nutrition, health promotion, public health.
Background and aims: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with adverse fetal and maternal outcomes. It identifies women at risk of pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular risk in later life. Recent studies have suggested that breastfeeding may confer a beneficial effect on postpartum maternal glucose tolerance in both women with GDM and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy.\\r\
Ogwu, Anthony; Moyo, Sikhulile; Powis, Kathleen; Asmelash, Aida; Lockman, Shahin; Moffat, Claire; Leidner, Jean; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Max; Shapiro, Roger
Infants born to HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) can be breastfed through at least 6 months with very low risk of HIV acquisition. We aimed to identify demographic and cultural factors that may influence mothers' willingness to breastfeed for the recommended duration. We evaluated factors associated with early cessation of breastfeeding (i.e. before 5 months post-partum) in a randomized clinical trial evaluating different ART regimens used for prevention of mother-to-child transmission during breastfeeding in Botswana. Univariate and multivariable Cox regressions were used to describe predictors of early exclusive BF cessation. Among 677 women who started breastfeeding, the median time to breastfeeding cessation was 178 days (IQR 150-181) and 25.1% weaned early. In multivariable analysis, urban location (aHR = 1.86 95%CI 1.27-2.73; P = 0.002), salaried employment or being a student (aHR = 2.78 95% CI 1.63-4.75; P women who are receiving ART prophylaxis to breastfeed longer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Joshi, Ashish; Amadi, Chioma; Meza, Jane; Aguire, Trina; Wilhelm, Sue
To evaluate the impact of an interactive, computer based, bi-lingual breastfeeding educational program on breastfeeding knowledge, self-efficacy and intent to breastfeed among rural Hispanic women living in Scottsbluff, Nebraska. A two-group, repeated measures quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a breastfeeding intervention. Forty six rural Hispanic women between ages 18 and 38 years were enrolled at the Regional West Medical Center in Scottsbluff, Nebraska. Study participants were randomized into intervention and control groups, with the intervention group (n=23) receiving bi-lingual (English and Spanish) breastfeeding education on a touch screen computer program, while the control group received printed educational material. Study participants were enrolled during their last six weeks of pregnancy, with follow up assessments conducted post-partum at days 3 and 7, weeks 2 and 6, and months 3 and 6. The study protocol was approved by the University of Nebraska Medical Center Institutional Review Board (IRB protocol #430-12-EP) and City University of New York Institutional Review Board (IRB protocol # 642980-1). A significant improvement in the breastfeeding knowledge and intent to breastfeed scores was seen over a 6 month period among all the study participants (peducational program. Results show week 6 and month 3 to be the critical time points of intervention so that women continue to breastfeed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Whitford, Heather M; Wallis, Selina K; Dowswell, Therese; West, Helen M; Renfrew, Mary J
There are rising rates of multiple births worldwide with associated higher rates of complications and more hospital care, often due to prematurity. While there is strong evidence about the risks of not breastfeeding, rates of breastfeeding in women who have given birth to more than one infant are lower than with singleton births. Breastfeeding more than one infant can be more challenging because of difficulties associated with the birth or prematurity. The extra demands on the mother of frequent suckling, coordinating the needs of more than one infant or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit can lead to delayed initiation or early cessation. Additional options such as breast milk expression, the use of donor milk or different methods of supplementary feeding may be considered. Support and education about breastfeeding has been found to improve the duration of any breastfeeding for healthy term infants and their mothers, however evidence is lacking about interventions that are effective to support women with twins or higher order multiples. To assess effectiveness of breastfeeding education and support for women with twins or higher order multiples. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 June 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov (30 June 2016), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (1 July 2016), the excluded studies list from the equivalent Cochrane review of singletons, and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing extra education or support for women with twins or higher order multiples were included. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We planned to assess the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach, but were unable to analyse any data. We found 10 trials (23 reports) of education and support for breastfeeding that included women with twins or higher order
Tengku Ismail, Tengku Alina; Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan; Bakar, Mohd Isa
The purpose of this study is to utilize an extended Theory of Planned Behavior in identifying predictors of exclusive breastfeeding intention and behavior among women in Kelantan, Malaysia. A prospective cohort study was conducted, recruiting pregnant womenthrough two-stage cluster sampling. Their exclusive breastfeeding intention, attitude, perceived norm, perceived behavioral control and past behavior were obtained at baseline through interviewer-guided questionnaire. At one month after delivery, another interview was conducted to determine the two additional variables in the extended theory, which were their postpartum support and breastfeeding difficulty. The behavior, which was the actual duration of exclusive breastfeeding, was obtained from the second follow-up at six months. Pearson correlation and two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted. A total of 200 women completed the study follow-up. Their median intended exclusive breastfeeding duration was 4.0 (IQR 5) months, and the median actual duration was 1.0 (IQR 4) month. The Theory of Planned Behavior explained 51.0% of the variance in intention, with perceived behavioral control and attitude were the significant predictors. It also explained 10.0% of the variance in behavior, but the addition of postpartum support and breastfeeding difficulty increased the amount of explained variance in behavior by 6.0%. The significant predictors of exclusive breastfeeding behavior were intention, postpartum support and breastfeeding difficulty. The extended Theory of Planned Behaviorhad a good predictive ability in explaining exclusive breastfeedingintention and behavior. The women's intention to practice exclusive breastfeeding may be improved by improving their perceived behavioral control and attitude. Providing correct postpartum support and skills to handle breastfeeding difficulties after delivery will improve their exclusive breastfeeding behavior.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Weighing breastfed babies has been the subject of some controversy as the previous international growth chart was largely based on data from infants fed infant formula. The concern that professionals may be misled by the charts into suggesting to mothers that they supplement unnecessarily was a major impetus for the World Health Organization's investment in a new growth chart. Evidence of interpretation in practice has been scant. Methods An ethnographic study was conducted in a town in the Northwest of England to investigate this issue. In the first phase, women and health visitors were observed in the well-child clinic during clinic sessions and breastfeeding group meetings. In the second phase, longitudinal interviews with 14 women were conducted. Each woman was interviewed up to three times in the first six months after the birth of her baby, with a total of 35 interviews. Results Mothers and health visitors focussed on weight gain with frequent weighing and attention to even minor fluctuations of the plotted line being evident. Women felt it important to ensure their baby's weight followed a centile, and preferred for this to be the fiftieth centile. Interventions included giving infant formula and solids as well as changing what the mother ate and drank. Women also described how they worried about their baby's weight. Little effective support by health professionals with breastfeeding technique was observed. Conclusion Babies were weighed more often than officially recommended, with weighing and plotting being at the core of each clinic visit. The plotted weight chart exerted a powerful influence on both women's and health visitors' understanding of the adequacy of breastfeeding. They appeared to rate the regular progression of weight gains along the chart centiles more highly than continued or exclusive breastfeeding. Thus weighing and visual charting of weight constituted a form of surveillance under the medical gaze
Schmied, Virginia; Beake, Sarah; Sheehan, Athena; McCourt, Christine; Dykes, Fiona
Breastfeeding conveys significant health benefits to infants and mothers yet in many affluent nations breastfeeding rates continue to decline across the early months following birth. Both peer and professional support have been identified as important to the success of breastfeeding. What is not known are the key components or elements of support that are effective in increasing the duration of breastfeeding? The aim of this meta-synthesis was to examine women's perceptions and experiences of breastfeeding support, either professional or peer, in order to illuminate the components of support that they deem 'supportive'. A secondary aim was to describe any differences between components of Peer and Professional support. Both primiparous and multiparous women who initiated breastfeeding were included in the study. Studies that included a specific demographic sub-group, such as adolescents, were included. Studies focused on a specific clinical sub-group, such as women post-caesarean, were not included. This meta-synthesis focused on maternal experiences of breastfeeding support. The meta-synthesis included both formal or 'created' peer and professional support for breastfeeding women but excluded studies of family or informal support for breastfeeding. Primarily qualitative studies were included in the review. Studies such as large scale surveys were also included if they reported in sufficient detail the analysis of qualitative data gathered through open ended responses or included in depth interviews. Only studies published or available in English, in peer reviewed journals and undertaken between 1990 and December 2007 were included. Key data bases were searched. The following search terms were individually added to the main keyword - breastfeeding: qualitative research, breast feeding support, peer support, professional support, postnatal support, post-natal support, volunteer support, lay support, breastfeeding counsellors, lactation consultants, social support
Wren, Hilary M; Solomons, Noel W; Chomat, Anne Marie; Scott, Marilyn E; Koski, Kristine G
Among indigenous Mam-Mayan women, breastfeeding practices may be intertwined with cultural influences during the early postpartum period. Our study explored whether beliefs regarding transmission of emotions through breast milk, the feeding of agüitas or temascal (traditional sauna) use were associated with achievement of the World Health Organization infant feeding recommendations and if these cultural practices served as moderators of the relationship between optimal breastfeeding practices and infant anthropometry. We recruited 190 mother-infant dyads at infant age < 46 days. Data on breastfeeding and cultural practices were collected via questionnaire. Infant length, weight, and head circumference were measured and z scores were calculated. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine determinants of initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour, breastfeeding frequency, breastfeeding exclusivity, and infant weight-for-age z score (WAZ). Mothers who delivered at the traditional midwife's house (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5) and those who did not believe in the transmission of susto (fright) through breast milk (OR = 2.4) were more likely to initiate breastfeeding within 1 hour postpartum. Higher breastfeeding frequency was observed among mothers who spent more time in the temascal. Initiating early breastfeeding within 1 hour postpartum was the sole infant feeding practice positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding and WAZ. Our investigation in the Western Highlands of Guatemala has highlighted the link between cultural practices and beliefs during lactation, breastfeeding practices and infant growth. Public health practitioners need to understand how local cultural practices influence early initiation of breastfeeding to promote adequate infant weight. © The Author(s) 2014.
Background Breastfeeding is a critical component of interventions to reduce child mortality. Exclusive breastfeeding practice is extremely low in South Africa and there has been no improvement in this over the past ten years largely due to fears of HIV transmission. Early cessation of breastfeeding has been found to have negative effects on child morbidity and survival in several studies in Africa. This paper reports on determinants of early breastfeeding cessation among women in South Africa. Methods This is a sub group analysis of a community-based cluster-randomized trial (PROMISE EBF) promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three South African sites (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal) between 2006 and 2008 (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150). Infant feeding recall of 22 food and fluid items was collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks postpartum. Women’s experiences of breast health problems were also collected at the same time points. 999 women who ever breastfed were included in the analysis. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for site, arm and cluster, was performed to determine predictors of stopping breastfeeding by 12 weeks postpartum. Results By 12 weeks postpartum, 20% of HIV-negative women and 40% of HIV-positive women had stopped all breastfeeding. About a third of women introduced other fluids, most commonly formula milk, within the first 3 days after birth. Antenatal intention not to breastfeed and being undecided about how to feed were most strongly associated with stopping breastfeeding by 12 weeks (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR 5.6, 95% CI 3.4 – 9.5 and AOR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6 – 10.8, respectively). Also important was self-reported breast health problems associated with a 3-fold risk of stopping breastfeeding (AOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.7 – 5.7) and the mother having her own income doubled the risk of stopping breastfeeding (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3 – 2.8). Conclusion Early
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a critical component of interventions to reduce child mortality. Exclusive breastfeeding practice is extremely low in South Africa and there has been no improvement in this over the past ten years largely due to fears of HIV transmission. Early cessation of breastfeeding has been found to have negative effects on child morbidity and survival in several studies in Africa. This paper reports on determinants of early breastfeeding cessation among women in South Africa. Methods This is a sub group analysis of a community-based cluster-randomized trial (PROMISE EBF promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three South African sites (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal between 2006 and 2008 (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150. Infant feeding recall of 22 food and fluid items was collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks postpartum. Women’s experiences of breast health problems were also collected at the same time points. 999 women who ever breastfed were included in the analysis. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for site, arm and cluster, was performed to determine predictors of stopping breastfeeding by 12 weeks postpartum. Results By 12 weeks postpartum, 20% of HIV-negative women and 40% of HIV-positive women had stopped all breastfeeding. About a third of women introduced other fluids, most commonly formula milk, within the first 3 days after birth. Antenatal intention not to breastfeed and being undecided about how to feed were most strongly associated with stopping breastfeeding by 12 weeks (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR 5.6, 95% CI 3.4 – 9.5 and AOR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6 – 10.8, respectively. Also important was self-reported breast health problems associated with a 3-fold risk of stopping breastfeeding (AOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.7 – 5.7 and the mother having her own income doubled the risk of stopping breastfeeding (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3 – 2
Rozga, Mary R; Kerver, Jean M; Olson, Beth H
Peer counselling (PC) programmes have been shown to improve breast-feeding outcomes in populations at risk for early discontinuation. Our objective was to describe associations between programme components (individual and combinations) and breast-feeding outcomes (duration and exclusivity) in a PC programme for low-income women. Secondary analysis of programme data. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine associations between type and quantity of peer contacts with breast-feeding outcomes. Types of contacts included in-person (hospital or home), phone or other (e.g. mail, text). Quantities of contacts were considered 'optimal' if they adhered to standard programme guidelines. Programme data collected from 2005 to 2011 in Michigan's Breastfeeding Initiative Peer Counseling Program. Low-income (n 5886) women enrolled prenatally. For each additional home, phone and other PC contact there was a significant reduction in the hazard of discontinuing any breast-feeding by 6 months (hazard ratio (HR)=0·90 (95% CI 0·88, 0·92); HR=0·89 (95% CI 0·87, 0·90); and HR=0·93 (95% CI 0·90, 0·96), respectively) and exclusive breast-feeding by 3 months (HR=0·92 (95% CI 0·89, 0·95); HR=0·90 (95% CI 0·88, 0·91); and HR=0·93 (95% CI 0·89, 0·97), respectively). Participants receiving greater than optimal in-person and less than optimal phone contacts had a reduced hazard of any and exclusive breast-feeding discontinuation compared with those who were considered to have optimum quantities of contacts (HR=0·17 (95% CI 0·14, 0·20) and HR=0·28 (95% CI 0·23, 0·35), respectively). Specific components of a large PC programme appeared to have an appreciable impact on breast-feeding outcomes. In-person contacts were essential to improving breast-feeding outcomes, but defining optimal programme components is complex.
Sedigheh Amir Ali Akbari
Full Text Available Background: Nipple fissure is a common disorder during breastfeeding. With high prevalence of nipple fissures and its impacts on breastfeeding, as well as the existence of evidence in favor of the application of peppermint as an antiinflammatory and antiinfection herb, the purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Menthol essence on improving nipple fissures in the primiparous breastfeeding women. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted using a clinical trial method. Samples were divided randomly into two groups of 55 women. The women in the peppermint group applied four drops of Menthol essence on their nipple and areola after each feeding. The control group applied four drops of their own milk on the nipple and areola after each feeding. Then, the two groups were studied on days 10 and 14 postpartum. For intensity of pain, the visual analog scale (0-10 cm and to measure the severity of damage, Amir scale (1-10 cm were applied and the existence or lack of nipple discharge was also recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS 17 software. Results: The mean intensity of pain and nipple fissure before treatment (8.55 ± 1.74 and day 10 after delivery (4.26 ± 1.57 and before treatment and day 14 after delivery in the case group (1.32 ± 1.02 had a significant difference (P < 0.001. Nipple discharge between the two groups, before treatment (%75.2 and day 10 after delivery (%31.6 and before treatment and day 14 after delivery (%15.7, the case group had a significant difference (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Menthol essence can improve nipple fissures in the primiparous breastfeeding women.
Navarro-Ibarra, María Jossé; Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Ortega-Vélez, María Isabel; Bolaños-Villar, Adriana Verónica; Saucedo-Tamayo, María Del Socorro
Breast cancer (BC) is considered a global public health problem, and is the most frequently type diagnosed in Mexican women. Therefore, it is important to study the risk factors associated to this neoplasia in order to establish prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hormonal contraceptives and hormone therapy (HT) use and period of use, breastfeeding practice, abdominal obesity and weight gain in adulthood, on the risk of BC in adult women from Northwest Mexico. This was a case-control study that included 162 women (81 cases and 81 controls). A sociodemographic and health questionnaire, and a survey history of body weight were applied to participants. Measurements of body weight, height and waist circumference were performed. To assess the association between BC risk and exposing factors, a multivariate logistic regression model was used. Average age of cases and controls were 51.8 ± 11.7 and 51.4 ± 11.3 years, respectively. No significant association was found between the use and period of use of hormonal contraceptives and HT with the risk of BC. The practice of breastfeeding (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.12- 0.92) and the time of exclusive breastfeeding (OR=0.64, 95%CI: 0.42-0.97; crude) were protective against the risk of BC. Abdominal obesity (OR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.90-0.97) and weight gain in early adulthood (OR=0.90, 95%CI: 0.85-0.95) were inversely associated to the risk of BC. In conclusion, the practice of breastfeeding may help prevent BC in Mexican women. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Shaheen Premani, Zahra; Kurji, Zohra; Mithani, Yasmin
This is an exploratory study that explores the experiences of lactating women in initiating, continuing, or discontinuing breastfeeding in an urban area of Karachi, Pakistan. Objectives. To explore the experiences of lactating women and to understand their support and hindering mechanisms in initiating and maintaining breastfeeding. Methods. This is an exploratory design assisting in exploring the participant's experiences of initiating and maintaining breastfeeding to better understand their world. Purposive sampling was used, and data was analyzed through manual thematic analysis. Results. The data revealed that mother's knowledge, sociocultural environment, breastfeeding decision, and self- and professional support acted as driving forces for the participants. However, sociocultural environment, physiological changes, time management, and being a housewife to breastfeed their children were all challenges and barriers that the participants thought hindered their breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. Conclusion. Breastfeeding is a natural but taxing phenomenon, and breastfeeding mothers experience supporting and hindering factors in initiating and maintaining breastfeeding.
Hutchinson, Susan; Marmura, Michael J; Calhoun, Anne; Lucas, Sylvia; Silberstein, Stephen; Peterlin, B Lee
Breast-feeding has important health and emotional benefits for both mother and infant, and should be encouraged. While there are some data to suggest migraine may improve during breast-feeding, more than half of women experience migraine recurrence with 1 month of delivery. Thus, a thorough knowledge base of the safety and recommended use of common acute and preventive migraine drugs during breast-feeding is vital to clinicians treating migraine sufferers. Choice of treatment should take into account the balance of benefit and risk of medication. For some of the medications commonly used during breast-feeding, there is not good evidence about benefits. A list of commonly used migraine medications was agreed upon by the 6 authors, who treat migraine and other headaches on a regular basis and are members of the Women's Special Interest Section of the American Headache Society. Each medication was researched by the first author utilizing widely accepted data sources, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics publication "The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk; Thomas Hale's manual Medications and Mothers Milk; Briggs, Freeman, and Yaffe's reference book Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation; and the National Library of Medicine's Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) - a peer-reviewed and fully referenced database available online. Many commonly used migraine medications may be compatible with breast-feeding based on expert recommendations. Ibuprofen, diclofenac, and eletriptan are among acute medications with low levels in breast milk, but studies of triptans are limited. Toxicity is a concern with aspirin due to an association with Reye's syndrome; sedation or apnea is a concern with opioids. Finally, preventive medications not recommended include zonisamide, atenolol, and tizanidine. Several excellent resources are available for clinicians making treatment decisions in breast-feeding women. Clinicians treating migraine should discuss both acute and
Hutchinson, Susan; Marmura, Michael J.; Calhoun, Anne; Lucas, Sylvia; Silberstein, Stephen; Peterlin, B. Lee
Background Breast-feeding has important health and emotional benefits for both mother and infant, and should be encouraged. While there are some data to suggest migraine may improve during breast-feeding, more than half of women experience migraine recurrence with 1 month of delivery. Thus, a thorough knowledge base of the safety and recommended use of common acute and preventive migraine drugs during breast-feeding is vital to clinicians treating migraine sufferers. Choice of treatment should take into account the balance of benefit and risk of medication. For some of the medications commonly used during breast-feeding, there is not good evidence about benefits. Methods A list of commonly used migraine medications was agreed upon by the 6 authors, who treat migraine and other headaches on a regular basis and are members of the Women's Special Interest Section of the American Headache Society. Each medication was researched by the first author utilizing widely accepted data sources, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics publication “The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk; Thomas Hale's manual Medications and Mothers Milk; Briggs, Freeman, and Yaffe's reference book Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation; and the National Library of Medicine's Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) – a peer-reviewed and fully referenced database available online. Results Many commonly used migraine medications may be compatible with breast-feeding based on expert recommendations. Ibuprofen, diclofenac, and eletriptan are among acute medications with low levels in breast milk, but studies of triptans are limited. Toxicity is a concern with aspirin due to an association with Reye's syndrome; sedation or apnea is a concern with opioids. Finally, preventive medications not recommended include zonisamide, atenolol, and tizanidine. Conclusions Several excellent resources are available for clinicians making treatment decisions in breast-feeding women. Clinicians
Morrison, Susan; John-Stewart, Grace; Egessa, John J; Mubezi, Sezi; Kusemererwa, Sylvia; Bii, Dennis K; Bulya, Nulu; Mugume, Francis; Campbell, James D; Wangisi, Jonathan; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M
During an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial in East Africa, we observed 16 cases of primary HIV-1 infection in women coincident with pregnancy or breastfeeding. Nine of eleven pregnant women initiated rapid combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), despite having CD4 counts exceeding national criteria for ART initiation; breastfeeding women initiated ART or replacement feeding. Rapid ART initiation during primary HIV-1 infection during pregnancy and breastfeeding is feasible in this setting.
Full Text Available During an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial in East Africa, we observed 16 cases of primary HIV-1 infection in women coincident with pregnancy or breastfeeding. Nine of eleven pregnant women initiated rapid combination antiretroviral therapy (ART, despite having CD4 counts exceeding national criteria for ART initiation; breastfeeding women initiated ART or replacement feeding. Rapid ART initiation during primary HIV-1 infection during pregnancy and breastfeeding is feasible in this setting.
Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang:Di Indonesia proporsi ibu-ibu yang melaksanakan pemberian air susu ibu (ASI eksklusif selama enam bulan masih rendah. Pada tulisan ini disajikan beberapa faktor risiko yang berkaitan dengan pemberian ASI eksklusif 6 bulan. Metode: Analisis naskah ini memakai sebagian data Survei Demografi Kesehatan Indonesia (SDKI 2012 di 33 provinsi di Indonesia berdasarkan desain stratified sampling. Pada analisis ini sub-sampel ialah wanita berumur 15-49 tahun yang mempunyai bayi lahir tunggal hidup berumur 6 bulan, mempunyai bayi hidup bersama ibunya, dan mempunyai data lengkap untuk keperluan analisis ini. Jumlah ibu yang mempunyai anak <2 tahun serta hidup bersama anaknya sebanyak 1040, dan 325 di antaranya yang mempunyai anak 6 bulan serta lengkap datanya.Hasil:Ibu-ibu yang memberi ASI eksklusif hingga 6 bulan sebanyak 3,7%. Pemakaian kontrasepsi serta pendidikan merupakan dua faktor dominan terhadap kemungkinan pemberian ASI eksklusif. Dibandingkan dengan ibu yang memakai kontrasepsi hormonal, ibu yang tidak memakai kontrasepsi non hormonal serta yang tidak memakai kontrasepsi 7,3 kali lipat dan 9,1 kali lipat lebih tinggi memberikan ASI eksklusif [masing-masing risiko relatif (RRa = 7,25; P = 0,031; dan RRa = 9,08; P = 0,004]. Ditinjau dari segi pendidikan ibu, ibu yang yang berpendidikan rendah dibandingkan dengan ibu berpendidikan tinggi/menengah 4.2 kali lipat memberikan ASI eksklusif (RRa = 4,19; P = 0,027.Kesimpulan:Ibu-ibu yang memberikan ASI eksklusif hingga 6 bulan lebih sering terdapat di antara ibu-ibu yang tidak memakai kontrasepsi serta yang berpendidikan rendah. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:17-22Kata kunci: ASI eksklusif, pendidikan ibu, kontrasepsi AbstractBackground: Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months among Indonesian women is very low. This paper aimed to assess several factors related to exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months in Indonesia. Methods: This paper used part of the data from
Fenger-Grøn, Jesper; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Blunck, Charlotte Holst
of insulin and glucose in breast milk of women with diabetes, possibly increasing risks to the children. Previous studies may have low retention rates or mix GDM and pre-GDM, and often knowledge of confounders like maternal body mass index (BMI), level of hyperglycemia and feeding patterns is lacking. Data......Background Offspring from women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at risk for later overweight, and the aim of treatment regimens is to normalize their prognosis. While the general concept is that breastfeeding is protective and should be promoted, some studies report increased levels...
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence on the use of the Snoezelen concept for maternity clients. Snoezelen, a Dutch concept, initiated in the 1970s as a leisure activity for severely disabled people, involves creating an indoor environment using controllable stimuli to enhance comfort and relaxation. These specially designed rooms expose the user to multiple sensory stimulations combining vision, touch, sounds and aromas. The aim of this study was to provide insight into breastfeeding women's experience of using a Snoezelen room during hospitalisation. Methods A qualitative exploratory design was chosen to reveal women's perceptions of using the Snoezelen room. Osborne Park Hospital, the study setting is the second largest public provider of obstetric services in Western Australia. A purposive sample was drawn from breastfeeding women who used the Snoezelen room during their postpartum stay from March 2006 to March 2007. Saturation was achieved after eleven breastfeeding women were interviewed six weeks post discharge. Data analysis involved the constant comparison method. Results Participants entered the room feeling tired and emotional with an unsettled baby and breastfeeding issues aggravated by maternal stress and anxiety. All women indicated they were able to achieve relaxation while in the room and would recommend its use to other breastfeeding mothers. Two key themes revealed how the Snoezelen room facilitated maternal relaxation, which ultimately enhanced the breastfeeding experience. The first theme, "Finding Relaxation for the Breastfeeding Mother" incorporates three subthemes: 'Time out' for mother; Control in own personal space; and a Quiet/calm environment with homelike atmosphere. The second theme, "Enabling Focus on Breastfeeding", occurred after relaxation was achieved and involved four subthemes: Able to get one-on-one attention; Not physically exposed to others; Away from prying, judgemental eyes and Able to safely
Hauck, Yvonne L; Summers, Lisa; White, Ellie; Jones, Cheryl
There is limited evidence on the use of the Snoezelen concept for maternity clients. Snoezelen, a Dutch concept, initiated in the 1970s as a leisure activity for severely disabled people, involves creating an indoor environment using controllable stimuli to enhance comfort and relaxation. These specially designed rooms expose the user to multiple sensory stimulations combining vision, touch, sounds and aromas. The aim of this study was to provide insight into breastfeeding women's experience of using a Snoezelen room during hospitalisation. A qualitative exploratory design was chosen to reveal women's perceptions of using the Snoezelen room. Osborne Park Hospital, the study setting is the second largest public provider of obstetric services in Western Australia. A purposive sample was drawn from breastfeeding women who used the Snoezelen room during their postpartum stay from March 2006 to March 2007. Saturation was achieved after eleven breastfeeding women were interviewed six weeks post discharge. Data analysis involved the constant comparison method. Participants entered the room feeling tired and emotional with an unsettled baby and breastfeeding issues aggravated by maternal stress and anxiety. All women indicated they were able to achieve relaxation while in the room and would recommend its use to other breastfeeding mothers. Two key themes revealed how the Snoezelen room facilitated maternal relaxation, which ultimately enhanced the breastfeeding experience. The first theme, "Finding Relaxation for the Breastfeeding Mother" incorporates three subthemes: 'Time out' for mother; Control in own personal space; and a Quiet/calm environment with homelike atmosphere. The second theme, "Enabling Focus on Breastfeeding", occurred after relaxation was achieved and involved four subthemes: Able to get one-on-one attention; Not physically exposed to others; Away from prying, judgemental eyes and Able to safely attempt breastfeeding alone knowing help is nearby. Insight
Wall, Kristin M; Kilembe, William; Haddad, Lisa; Vwalika, Bellington; Lakhi, Shabir; Khu, Naw Htee; Brill, Ilene; Chomba, Elwyn; Mulenga, Joseph; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan
Some studies suggest that hormonal contraception, pregnancy, and/or breastfeeding may influence rates of HIV disease progression. From 1994 to 2012, HIV discordant couples recruited at couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing centers in Lusaka were followed 3-monthly. Multivariate survival analyses explored associations between time-varying contraception, pregnancy, and breastfeeding and 2 outcomes among HIV-positive women: (1) time to death and (2) time to antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Among 1656 female seropositive, male seronegative couples followed for 3359 person-years (PY), 224 women died [6.7/100 PY; 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.8 to 7.6]. After 2003, 290 women initiated ART (14.5/100 PY; 95% CI: 12.9 to 16.2). In a multivariate model of time to death, hormonal implant [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.98] and injectable (aHR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.97) were significantly protective relative to nonhormonal method use, whereas oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use was not (aHR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.57) controlling for baseline HIV disease stage, time-varying pregnancy, time-varying breastfeeding, and year of enrollment. In a multivariate model of time-to-ART initiation, implant was significantly protective (aHR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.31 to 0.95), whereas OCP (aHR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.44 to 1.10) and injectable (aHR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.55 to 1.32) were not relative to nonhormonal method use controlling for variables above, woman's age, and literacy. Pregnancy was not significantly associated with death (aHR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.68 to 1.66) or ART initiation (aHR = 1.24; 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.86), whereas breastfeeding was protective for death (aHR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.62) and ART initiation (aHR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.85). Hormonal implants and injectables significantly predicted lower mortality; implants were protective for ART initiation. OCPs and pregnancy were not associated with death or ART initiation, whereas
Eshelman, Jill; Edwards, Roger A; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Mainello, Kristen; Colchamiro, Rachel; Forgit, Julie; Tolan, Ellen; Nordstrom, Christina
Few studies have analyzed patient education materials provided at discharge. To the best of our knowledge, there are no comprehensive studies analyzing and reporting the content of breastfeeding discharge packets within the United States. This study analyzed the extent to which patient education materials provided at discharge from maternity facilities in Massachusetts cover topics that support successful breastfeeding. We collected discharge packets from all 48 maternity hospitals/birth centers. Topics for analysis were based on recommendations associated with the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative and content identified for discharge packets generally. Materials were reviewed independently and scored according to 39 criteria that we assembled from various sources for optimal breastfeeding information at discharge. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to explore if any hospital characteristics predicted presence of breastfeeding education topics in written information provided at discharge. An average of 25.4 of 39 criteria (65.2%, ranging from 30.7%-97.4%) were included in packets submitted by all 48 facilities. Exploratory multivariate analyses did not show relationships of hospital characteristics to contents of packets. Each facility received a 2-page report noting strengths, suggestions for improvement, and individual scores on all 39 criteria. Discharge packet contents varied widely; whereas some institutions' information met and/or exceeded recommended content, others were limited and/or missing information. These analyses provide a thorough review of discharge packet content for all facilities in Massachusetts; however, further study is needed to identify the implications of such variation for breastfeeding outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.
Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Su, Min; Redding, Sharon R
exclusive breast feeding in China is relatively low and no research has been conducted to explore the difficulties and desires of Chinese lactating mothers. Currently, Chinese women turn to massage therapists to increase breastmilk volume, implying that many breast-feeding women faced problems but had few support mechanisms.This study aimed to explore the difficulties and desires of Chinese breast-feeding women and to propose strategies for increasing the rate of exclusive breast feeding. three hundred and seventy-five primiparous women were recruited from two randomized cluster communities in Wuhan following ethical approval. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 76 of the participants to collect data on their infants' feeding status, duration of exclusive breast feeding, reasons for stopping, difficulties encountered, and sources of support for lactation. the breast feeding initiation rate was 93.6%, but exclusive breast feeding was only 6.2% at six months. The most frequently cited reason for giving up exclusive breast feeding was perceived breastmilk insufficiency. Women cited a desire for professional and individualised instruction from following resources: (1) lactation consultants in hospital and communities; (2) Qualified cuirushi; (3) breast feeding website;(4) Relatives, friends and peers;(5) Telephone hotline. to improve the rate and duration of exclusive breast feeding in China, effective and available resources must be available. Timely,professional and face-to-face lactation counselling such as lactation consultant, qualified cuirushin is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background: Exclusive breast feeding (EBF) is an effective tool of child survival. While many mothers understand the importance of breast feeding, some circumstances may hinder the practice. Objective: To determine the pattern and factors influencing EBF among women attending a private health facility in Lagos, Nigeria.
Robinson, Karen M; VandeVusse, Leona
Examining prenatal breast-feeding self-efficacy and infant feeding decisions among African American women using a mixed-method approach. A black feminist philosophy was used to keep women's experiences as the central research focus. The Prenatal Breast-feeding Self-efficacy Scale was used to determine differences between intended breast-feeders and formula users among 59 women. Seventeen narrative interviews were conducted to analyze postpartum accounts of actual feeding practices. Both groups (intended breast- or formula-feeders) demonstrated confidence in their ability to breast-feed. Women planning to breast-feed (M = 82.59, SD = 12.53) scored significantly higher than anticipated formula users (M = 70, SD = 15.45), P = .001 (2-tailed). Four of the six themes emerging from narrative analysis were similar to categories of self-efficacy: performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasions, and physiological reactions. In addition, themes of social embarrassment and feelings of regret were identified. Although African American women in this study rated themselves overall as confident with breast-feeding, several narratives about actual feeding choices indicated ambivalence. Women planning to breast-feed need continued support from their healthcare providers throughout the childbearing year. Furthermore, prenatal and immediate postpartum opportunities may exist for nurses to encourage breast-feeding among individuals who initially plan formula use.
Witt, Ann M.; Burgess, Kelly; Thomas R Hawn; Zyzanski, Steven
Background: Although breast pain remains a common cause of weaning, controversy exists regarding the etiology of chronic pain. Prospective studies are needed to define optimal treatment regimens. We evaluated patient history, exam, and bacterial cultures in breastfeeding women with chronic breast pain. We compared pain resolution and breastfeeding complications in patients responding to conservative therapy (CTX) (n=38) versus those in patients failing CTX and receiving oral antibiotic treatm...
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Azaiza, F; Palti, H
To characterize breast feeding patterns among rural Moslem women in Israel, a cohort of 429 women were interviewed 3 and 6 months after delivery. The study participants were randomly recruited from four exclusively Moslem villages in Israel's northern and central districts and represented 10% of new mothers in the study area. Although 96% initiated breast feeding, only 57% continued beyond 6 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that breast feeding for more than 6 months was significantly associated with high religiosity (odds ratio (OR), 2.31), existence of sons in the family (OR, 1.75), low social class as defined by husband's occupation (OR, 1.71), a strong nationalistic orientation (OR, 1.72), traditional attitudes and practices (OR, 1.68), and less than 9 years of education (OR, 1.64). The trend of restricted breast feeding documented in this study resembles that occurring in rural areas of developing countries that are undergoing economic development and modernization.
Gilmour, Carole; Monk, Hilary; Hall, Helen
Working women need to juggle work, child care and family to continue to breastfeed. This qualitative study's aim was to explore women's experiences of returning to work following the birth of their baby. Focus groups were held with women within one multi-campus university, who had commenced breastfeeding at birth and had returned to work or study within 12 months. In addition, educators working with babies in childcare centres on two of the campuses were interviewed. Thematic analysis was employed used Rogoff's (2003) three planes of analysis, the individual, the interpersonal and the cultural-institutional. Three themes, proximity, flexibility, and communication, were identified relating to the factors impacting on women and their choices to breastfeed or wean on returning to work. From a socio-cultural perspective these themes can be understood as situated within the interrelated contexts of workplace, child care and family. Limitations of the study include the small number of participants and recruitment from one university.
de Morais, Ana Márcia Bustamante; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; de Almeida, Maria Irismar
This study aimed to understand the experience of women staff employed in a textile industry from Ceara State, Brazil, after returning to work, compared to the process of breastfeeding or weaning. Qualitative research carried out in June 2007 with five working mothers. The stories of these women, from a set of open-ended questions revealed difficulties in reconciling work and breast feeding, because of their beliefs and lack of social and institutional support. The poor conditions of work which these women are exposed are also determining factors in the continuation or discontinuation of breast feeding, being necessary to extend the improvements in institutions with childcare, milk collection places and escorting permanently of these women, when produce their return to work.
McLelland, Gayle; Hall, Helen; Gilmour, Carole; Cant, Robyn
to explore the views of midwives and maternal-child health nurses regarding factors that influence breast feeding initiation and continuation, focusing on how support for women could be improved to increase breast feeding duration. a focus group study. hospital or domiciliary (home-visiting) midwives and community-based maternal and child health (MCH) nurses in one region of Victoria, Australia. twelve MCH nurses and five midwives who provided supportive services to women in the immediate postnatal period attended one of three audio-recorded focus groups. Thematic findings were identified. four key themes were: 'Guiding women over breast-feeding hurdles', 'Timing, and time to care'; 'Continuity of women's care' and 'Imparting professional knowledge'. Given the a pattern of hospital discharge of mother and infant on day one or day two after birth, participants thought the timing of immediate postnatal breast-feeding support was critical to enable women to initiate and continue breast feeding. Community-based MCH nurses reported time gaps in uptake of new mother referrals and time-pressured face-to-face consultations. Both groups perceived barriers to continuity of women's care. health services subscribe to the Baby Friendly Health Initiative and government policies which support breast feeding, however providers described time pressures and a lack of continuity of women's care, including during transition from hospital to community services. there is a need to examine administration of service delivery and how domiciliary and community nurses can collaborate to establish and maintain supportive relationships with breast feeding women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zahra Shaheen Premani; Zohra Kurji; Yasmin Mithani
This is an exploratory study that explores the experiences of lactating women in initiating, continuing, or discontinuing breastfeeding in an urban area of Karachi, Pakistan. Objectives. To explore the experiences of lactating women and to understand their support and hindering mechanisms in initiating and maintaining breastfeeding. Methods. This is an exploratory design assisting in exploring the participant's experiences of initiating and maintaining breastfeeding to better understand their...
Full Text Available Background: The feeding of an infant with breast milk only, to the exclusion of all other feeds - liquids or solids, including water - except prescribed medications; within the first half year of life is referred to as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF. Despite its numerous benefits, not many mothers practiced it because of one barrier or the other. This study estimated the prevalence of EBF established the major barriers thereof and determined the link between socio-demographic characteristics and the practice of EBF among women living in the rural suburbs of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. Methodology: This study was descriptive cross-sectional in design. Results: Among the 370 subjects, 49% practiced EBF. None of the respondents made PNC visit specifically for the purpose of learning or asking questions about breastfeeding. Nonetheless, 18.5% received breastfeeding education during PNC visit. A large proportion of the subjects did not practice EBF because they were not aware (21.1% of it. Medical reasons, which included HIV positive mothers and those with breast disease constituted the least barriers (1.3%. EBF was prominently linked with maternal education, type of work, delivery place, skilled attendance at birth, husband’s education, and occupation (p<0.05. Conclusion: Capacity building for healthcare personnel on breast feeding, establishment of facilities as close to the communities as possible with their active participation in the planning, implementation and monitoring of EBF practice is recommended. Emphasis should be laid on the need for breastfeeding during antenatal period and then postnatal just before discharge.
Barbosa, Gessandro Elpídio Fernandes; Silva, Victor Bruno da; Pereira, Janeide Mendes; Soares, Marianne Silva; Medeiros, Rosemberg Dos Anjos; Pereira, Luciana Barbosa; Pinho, Lucinéia de; Caldeira, Antônio Prates
To investigate the prevalence of difficulties in adopting initial breastfeeding techniques and their association with breast disorders in postpartum women. The cross-sectional study was carried out with 276 randomly selected mother-baby pairs in rooming-in in 3 hospitals in a city of Minas Gerais State (southeast Brazil). An assessment protocol was established to evaluate the breastfeeding technique used. The association between the variables studied and breast disorders was determined by the chi-square test followed by logistic regression, with significance level set at 0.05. The main factors indicating difficulties to initiate the breastfeeding techniques were inadequate attachment of the baby to the breast (25%), baby response to the contact with the breast (26.1%) and breast disorders (28.3%). Variables associated with postparturm breast disorders were: adolescent mothers (OR 3.35; 95%CI 1.51-7.44; p=0.003); maternal schooling ≤8 years (OR 2.07; 95%CI 1.01-4.23; p=0.048); and supplement provision to the newborn at the hospital (OR 2.36; 95%CI 1.40-4.92; p=0.003). Mothers working outside the household (OR 0.31; 95%CI 0.16-0.61; p=0.001) served as as protective factor on the multivariate model. The main difficulties in initial breastfeeding were associated with breast disorders, and the factors associated with this problem included demographic and social, variables, as well as others related to the care routine adopted by maternity hospitals.
... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Breastfeeding After Cesarean Delivery Page Content Article Body A ... delivered vaginally. It is especially important to begin breastfeeding as soon as you are able and to ...
Ferracini, Amanda Canato; Rodrigues, Aline Teotonio; Visacri, Marília Berlofa; Stahlschmidt, Rebeca; Silva, Nice Maria Oliveira da; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Mazzola, Priscila Gava
Introduction In the pregnancy-puerperal cycle, women may develop complications that require admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Thus, special attention to pharmacotherapy is necessary, particularly to potential drug interactions (PDIs) and to the effect of the drugs on the fetus and newborn. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the profile of PDIs and the potential risk of drugs used during pregnancy and breastfeeding among patients admitted to the ICU. Methods We conducted an observational, cross-sectional and prospective study, including pregnant and breastfeeding women admitted to the ICU at the Women's Hospital of a university in the city of Campinas, Brazil, for one year. Online databases were used to identify and classify the PDIs and the potential risk of the drugs used during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Results We evaluated 305 prescriptions of 58 women, 31 pregnant and 27 breastfeeding, and 284 (91%) prescriptions presented PDIs. A total of 175 different combinations of PDIs were identified in the prescriptions, and adverse effects caused by the simultaneous use of drugs were not actually observed in the clinical practice. A total of 26 (1.4%) PDIs were classified as contraindicated. We identified 15 (13.8%) drugs prescribed with risk D, and 2 (1.8%) with risk X for pregnant women, as well as 4 (4.9%) drugs prescribed with high risk for breastfeeding women. Conclusions This study demonstrates that there is a high incidence of PDIs in prescriptions. Most drugs used by pregnant and breastfeeding women at the ICU did not present serious risks to their fetus and newborns, but sometimes drugs with risk D or X are necessary in the course of the treatment. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Michaelsen, Kim F; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
maternal obesity, was modified by gestational weight gain, and still existed when there was greater social support for breastfeeding. DESIGN: Study participants (37 459 women) were drawn from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The association of prepregnant BMI and gestational weight gain......BACKGROUND: An association between high prepregnant body mass index (BMI) and early termination of breastfeeding has been observed, but this finding may have depended on the sociocultural context. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine whether this association was stronger with increasing...... with the termination of full or any breastfeeding by 1, 16, or 20 wk postpartum was assessed with logistic regression analyses, and the risk of early termination of full and any breastfeeding during the first 18 mo postpartum was assessed with Poisson regression analyses. RESULTS: The risk of early termination of any...
Mediano, Pilar; Fernández, Leónides; Rodríguez, Juan M; Marín, María
The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. We conducted a case-control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that could be involved in mastitis. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the relationship between mastitis and these factors. The variables significantly- and independently-associated with mastitis were cracked nipples (P mastitis in previous lactations (P = 0.0014), breast milk coming in later than 24 h postpartum (P = 0.0016), history of mastitis in the family (P = 0.0028), mother-infant separation longer than 24 h (P = 0.0027), cream on nipples (P = 0.0228) and throat infection (P = 0.0224). Valuable factors related to an increased risk of infectious mastitis have been identified. This knowledge will allow practitioners to provide appropriate management advice about modifiable risk factors, such as the use of pumps or inappropriate medication. They also could identify before delivery those women at an increased risk of developing mastitis, such as those having a familial history of mastitis, and thus develop strategies to prevent this condition.
Background The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. Methods We conducted a case–control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that could be involved in mastitis. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the relationship between mastitis and these factors. Results The variables significantly- and independently-associated with mastitis were cracked nipples (P mastitis in previous lactations (P = 0.0014), breast milk coming in later than 24 h postpartum (P = 0.0016), history of mastitis in the family (P = 0.0028), mother-infant separation longer than 24 h (P = 0.0027), cream on nipples (P = 0.0228) and throat infection (P = 0.0224). Conclusions Valuable factors related to an increased risk of infectious mastitis have been identified. This knowledge will allow practitioners to provide appropriate management advice about modifiable risk factors, such as the use of pumps or inappropriate medication. They also could identify before delivery those women at an increased risk of developing mastitis, such as those having a familial history of mastitis, and thus develop strategies to prevent this condition. PMID:24902596
Ever-increasing populations of women in their childbearing years are choosing to become employed. Breastfeeding provides unique health advantages to both the infant and mother. A breastfeeding-friendly workplace might be an important factor for predicting breastfeeding rates among working women. To explore the impact of breastfeeding-friendly support on the intention of working mothers to continue breastfeeding, we conducted a survey at a female labor-intensive electronics manufacturer in Taiwan. A structured questionnaire survey was administered to 715 working mothers employed in an electronics manufacturing plant in Tainan Science Park in Southern Taiwan. Questionnaire content included female employee demographics, employment characteristics, continued breastfeeding behavior after returning to work, access to lactation rooms, and employee perception of the breastfeeding policy and support when raising their most recently born child. A higher education level (odds ratio [OR]=2.66), lower work load (8 work hours/day) (OR=2.66), lactation room with dedicated space (OR=2.38), use of breast pumping breaks (OR=61.6), and encouragement from colleagues (OR=2.78) and supervisors (OR=2.44) to use breast pumping breaks were significant predictors of continued breastfeeding for more than 6 months after returning to work. The findings of the present study suggest that to encourage and increase the rate of continued breastfeeding, workplaces should establish dedicated breastfeeding rooms and maintain a comfortable and clean environment. Furthermore, employers should provide encouragement and support for working mothers to continue breastfeeding after returning to work.
Beake, Sarah; Bick, Debra; Narracott, Cath; Chang, Yan-Shing
Rates of breastfeeding uptake are lower after a caesarean birth than vaginal birth, despite caesarean rates increasing globally over the past 30 years, and many high-income countries reporting overall caesarean rates of above 25%. A number of factors are likely to be associated with women's infant feeding decisions following a caesarean birth such as limited postoperative mobility, postoperative pain, and ongoing management of medical complications that may have triggered the need for a caesarean birth. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate evidence of interventions on the initiation and duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding among women who had a planned or unplanned caesarean birth. Seven studies, presenting quantitative and qualitative evidence, published in the English language from January 1994 to February 2016 were included. A limited number of interventions were identified relevant to women who had had a caesarean birth. These included immediate or early skin-to-skin contact, parent education, the provision of sidecar bassinets when rooming-in, and use of breast pumps. Only one study, an intervention that included parent education and targeted breastfeeding support, increased initiation and continuation of breastfeeding, but due to methodological limitations, findings should be considered with caution. There is a need to better understand the impact of caesarean birth on maternal physiological, psychological, and physical recovery, the physiology of lactation and breastfeeding and infant feeding behaviors if effective interventions are to be implemented. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yeo, Ui Hyang; Choi, Chang Jin; Choi, Whan Seok; Kim, Kyung Soo
Breast-feeding has the deleterious effect of hypoestrogenemia coupled with loss of calcium in the maternal bone mass. It is not clear whether changes in bone metabolism in lactating women lead to changes in maternal bone mineral density (BMD) over a longer period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the duration of breast-feeding and BMD in healthy South Korean women. We analyzed data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean citizens. A total of 1342 women older than 19 years were selected for analysis. In postmenopausal women, the duration of breast-feeding per child was associated with low lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, and daily intake of calcium and calories (P breast-feeding for more than 1 year per child was associated with a deleterious effect on lumbar spine BMD compared with never breast-feeding or a shorter duration of breast-feeding (P breast-feeding per child is negatively correlated with lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. Although the cause of the different results between postmenopausal and premenopausal women is not clear, our findings suggest that proper protective strategies should be recommended during prolonged breast-feeding to maintain bone health later in life.
Akbari, Atieh; Razzaghi, Zahra; Homaee, Fatemeh; Khayamzadeh, Maryam; Movahedi, Mohammad; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil
Breast cancer (BC) is the most prevalent cancer in Iranian women and the fifth most common cause of cancer-related death in Iran. Among predicting factors and preventive measures for BC, the parity and breastfeeding (BF) are controversial issues. We therefore conducted this case-control study to find out the relation of parity and BF to incidence and risk of BC. A structured questionnaire that covered demographic criteria and BC risk factors was completed for case (376 cases) and control (425 subjects) groups, both matched in terms of demographic variants, reproductive issues, and socioeconomic status. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed as measures of association from the logistic models. All p values reported are two-sided. Parity significantly reduces the risk of BC (p parity and 24 months BF and mean duration of 18-24 months per child (p = 0.037, OR 0.7, CI 0.5-0.98). On the basis of breast anatomical and physiological changes during pregnancy, and parity and breastfeeding, full-term pregnancies and parities with efficient BF significantly reduced the risk of breast cancer compared with nonpregnant and nulliparous women or those who never breastfed. The number of children should ideally be limited to 1-3, and the cumulative duration of BF not less than 25-36 months. We would recommend 1-3 pregnancies and a BF duration not less than 18 months, with best results being achieved with 24 months per child.
Henry, Lydia; Hayman, Rebecca
This article contrasts two very different experiences of one mother breastfeeding her two sons to demonstrate the potential impact of ankyloglossia on breastfeeding. When too restrictive, ankyloglossia, also known as tongue-tie, can cause the newborn to ineffectively suckle at the breast. Breastfeeding difficulties can occur, such as long feedings or damaged nipples. When nurses, lactation consultants and other providers recognize this situation, they can refer women for further care and treatment, which can ultimately lead to breastfeeding success. © 2014 AWHONN.
Amir Lisa H
Full Text Available Abstract Breastfeeding women often need to take medicines, and therefore health professionals need to consider the effects of medication on lactation and the breastfed infant, and any associated risks. This commentary discusses the tragic case of a young woman with a history of mental illness who committed suicide in the postpartum period. She was determined to be a 'good mother' and breastfeed, and to avoid any potential adverse effects of medication on her breastfed infant. The final outcome was fatal for both mother and child. We argue that if women require medication during lactation, all risks need to be considered – the risk of not treating the maternal medical condition may greatly outweigh the potential risk to the breastfed infant.
Denman-Vitale, S; Murillo, E K
Across the United States, advance practice nurses (APNs) are increasingly encountering recently immigrated Latin American populations. This article provides an overview of the situation of Latin Americans in the United States and discusses aspects of Latin American culture such as, respeto (respect), confianza (confidence), the importance of family, and the value of a personal connection. Strategies that will assist practitioners to incorporate culturally holistic principles in the promotion of breastfeeding among Latin American women who are new arrivals in the United States are described. If practitioners are to respond to the increasing numbers of Latin American women who need health care services, and also provide thorough, holistic health care then health care activities must be integrated with cultural competence.
McDonald, Karalyn; Amir, Lisa H; Davey, Mary-Ann
The perceived risk/benefit balance of prescribed and over-the-counter (OTC) medicine, as well as complementary therapies, will significantly impact on an individual's decision-making to use medicine. For women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, this weighing of risks and benefits becomes immensely more complex because they are considering the effect on two bodies rather than one. Indeed the balance may lie in opposite directions for the mother and baby/fetus. The aim of this paper is to generate a discussion that focuses on the complexity around risk, responsibility and decision-making of medicine use by pregnant and breastfeeding women. We will also consider the competing discourses that pregnant and breastfeeding women encounter when making decisions about medicine. Women rely not only on biomedical information and the expert knowledge of their health care professionals but on their own experiences and cultural understandings as well. When making decisions about medicines, pregnant and breastfeeding women are influenced by their families, partners and their cultural societal norms and expectations. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are influenced by a number of competing discourses. "Good" mothers should manage and avoid any risks, thereby protecting their babies from harm and put their children's needs before their own - they should not allow toxins to enter the body. On the other hand, "responsible" women take and act on medical advice - they should take the medicine as directed by their health professional. This is the inherent conflict in medicine use for maternal bodies. The increased complexity involved when one body's actions impact the body of another - as in the pregnant and lactating body - has received little acknowledgment. We consider possibilities for future research and methodologies. We argue that considering the complexity of issues for maternal bodies can improve our understanding of risk and public health education.
Nickerson, Lauren E; Sykes, Abby C; Fung, Teresa T
To examine mothers' experience of support received from fathers for breast-feeding. We conducted in-depth in-person interviews with women with recent breast-feeding experience. Interview transcripts were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Interviews were designed to explore the mothers' perception of role of fathers in breast-feeding, education on breast-feeding that fathers received and their perception of the fathers' view on breast-feeding. Urban and suburban community. Nineteen women from a metropolitan area in the north-eastern USA. Ten themes emerged, these involved practical and emotional support provided by fathers, especially during times of unexpected breast-feeding challenges. In addition, mothers perceived fathers may benefit from more peer and professional support, lactation consultant service and breast-feeding education. Mothers appreciated the support from fathers for breast-feeding continuation, including encouragement and understanding. These results may be useful for health-care practitioners to promote breast-feeding continuation by supporting fathers in their role in the breast-feeding process.
Edwards, M E; Jepson, R G; McInnes, R J
to explore women's and midwives' expectations, knowledge and experiences of breastfeeding initiation using Social Cognitive Theory. a qualitative study using focus group discussions and individual interviews. Breastfeeding initiation was defined for this study as a process within the first 48hours after birth. Data were analysed using qualitative inductive analysis then further deductive analysis using Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). a purposefully selected sample of primigravid antenatal and postnatal women (n=18) and practising midwives (n=18) from one Health Board area in Scotland. attachment of the baby to the breast at birth was hindered by sleepy babies and the busy unfamiliar hospital environment. These resulted in mothers struggling to maintain their motivation to breastfeed and to develop low self-efficacy. Instinctive attachment was rare. Midwives who considered it was normal for babies to be sleepy and unable to attach or feed at birth did not facilitate instinctive baby behaviour. Midwives sometimes experienced lack of autonomy and environmental circumstances that made women centred care difficult. Furthermore caring for high numbers of women, dependent on their help, resulted in reduced self-efficacy for providing effective breastfeeding support. interviewing both women and midwives specifically about initiation of breastfeeding has allowed for deeper insights into this critical period and enabled a comparison between the data obtained from mothers and midwives. The findings suggest that instinctive attachment is not an expectation of either mothers or midwives and results in a loss of breastfeeding confidence in both. to facilitate initiation there is a need for more research to develop appropriate maternal and midwifery skills, and make changes to the cultural environment in hospitals. Social Cognitive Theory could be used as a framework in both the antenatal and immediate postnatal period to develop strategies and materials to increase women's and
Flax, Valerie L; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Negerie, Mekebeb; Yakubu, Danjuma; Leatherman, Sheila; Bentley, Margaret E
As part of a breastfeeding promotion intervention trial in Nigeria, we provided one cell phone per group of 5-7 microcredit clients and instructed the group's cell phone recipient to share weekly breastfeeding voice and text messages with group members. We measured the feasibility and acceptability of using group cell phones by conducting semi-structured exit interviews with 195 microcredit clients whose babies were born during the intervention (target group), in-depth interviews with eight phone recipients and nine non-phone recipients, and 16 focus group discussions with other microcredit clients. Women in the target group said the group phone worked well or very well (64%). They were motivated to try the recommended practices because they trusted the information (58%) and had support from others (35%). Approximately 44% of target women reported that their groups met and shared messages at least once a week. Women in groups that met at least weekly had higher odds of exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.6, 19.7) than women in groups that never met. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions indicated that non-phone recipients had positive feelings towards phone recipients, the group phone met participants' needs, and messages were often shared outside the group. In conclusion, group cell phone messaging to promote breastfeeding among microcredit clients is feasible and acceptable and can be part of an effective behaviour change package. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kamoun, Camilia; Spatz, Diane
Little is known regarding the influence of religion on breastfeeding in African American communities. In particular, whether Islamic traditions influence breastfeeding beliefs and practices among African American Muslims has not been studied. Research aim: This study sought to gain understanding of breastfeeding attitudes, rates, and education among African American Muslims in West Philadelphia and to examine if engaging Islamic teachings in breastfeeding education can positively influence breastfeeding attitudes. Open-ended, in-person, digitally recorded qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 community leaders and analyzed by conventional content analysis. A study tool distributed to a convenience sample of 44 community members and 11 leaders was used to gather information about education received from community leaders, breastfeeding attitudes and practices, and the potential for Islamic teachings to positively affect breastfeeding attitudes and practices. To obtain further data on this last topic, preliminary data analysis guided the creation of an education pamphlet, about which feedback was gathered through another study tool. Education surrounding Islamic perspectives on breastfeeding was not prevalent. African American Muslims in West Philadelphia view breastfeeding favorably and have higher rates of breastfeeding than African Americans as a whole. Community education about breastfeeding that engaged Islamic teachings improved respondents' breastfeeding attitudes. Increasing education among providers and African American Muslims about Islamic perspectives on breastfeeding may improve breastfeeding exclusivity and duration. Healthcare providers who care for Muslim women should be aware of Islam's tradition of positive attitudes toward breastfeeding and partner with Muslim leaders to improve breastfeeding rates and duration among such women.
Full Text Available Introduction:There are conflicting evidences about the effects of breastfeeding on postpartum maternal sexual functioning. With regard to the methodological weaknesses of previous studies and cultural differences affecting their issue, the present study aims to evaluate sexual functions of lactating women and its components. Methods:This is a descriptive study in which 200 eligible postpartum women were selected from eight health centers of Tabriz (25 from each center. The eligible women were called and invited to attend the health center. The evaluation was performed using the Persian version of normalized questionnaire of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. The participants’ sexual function scores above 28 were considered desirable (regarding the cut-off point mentioned in the Persian version of the questionnaire. Results:Almost all of the lactating women suffered from sexual dysfunctions. Regarding the sexual performance’s components the lowest scores were for libido and sexual arousal. Conclusion:According to the findings of the studies, in order to prevent the effects of sexual dysfunction on lactating women and their family members it is necessary to develop sexual health programs in health centers.
Tenfelde, Sandi; Zielinski, Ruth; Heidarisafa, Rebecca L
.... The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine maternal sociodemographic and time factors related to the reason for discontinuing breastfeeding for 238 WIC participants who initiated breastfeeding...
Nava, Luis Eduardo Romero; Gómez, Aurora Belmont; González, Victor Manuel Vidal
Patients are receiving anticoagulants during postpartum. Literature data still is controversy in milk excretion of acenocoumarin; there are conducts in favor and against. Because of the benefits of maternal milk it's necessary to probe if acenocoumarin is excreted by human milk. To determine the milk excretion of acenocoumarin in different periods of the postpartum and the milk excretion index in anticoagulant women. It's an observational, descriptive and prospective study. The milk and plasma concentrations of acenocoumarin were determined in breast-feeding mothers with anticoagulation during the postpartum. ANOVA was used to determine the differences in pharmacokinetic constants in the different days of study. Two patients required light anticoagulation, nine moderate and five intense. The 37.5% of the new born were full term hypotrophy and the 18.75% were preterm. The highest plasma average concentration of acenocoumarin was found in day 45th postpartum (0.21 microg/mL). Acenocoumarin present in milk was found until day 30th; the average concentrations were low 0.011 microg/mL. The value of the maternal milk excretion index was 0.057 in day 45, what represents that approximately the 5% of acenocoumarin is eliminated by milk. The calculated dose of acenocoumarin that a new born could receive through maternal milk was lower than the recommended doses (1.79 microg/kg/day). These results allowed us to recommend breastfeeding in patients who are been anticoagulated with acenocoumarin.
Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Bromley, Rebecca L.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.
IMPORTANCE Breastfeeding is known to have beneficial effects, but concern exists that breastfeeding during maternal antiepileptic drug (AED) therapymay be harmful.We previously noted no adverse effects of breastfeeding associated with AED use on IQ at age 3 years, but IQ at age 6 years is more predictive of school performance and adult abilities. OBJECTIVES To examine the effects of AED exposure via breastfeeding on cognitive functions at age 6 years. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospec...
Lau, Ying; Htun, Tha Pyai; Lim, Peng Im; Ho-Lim, Sarah Su Tin; Chi, Claudia; Tsai, Cammy; Ong, Kai Wen; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee
Identifying the factors influencing breastfeeding attitude is significant for the implementation of effective promotion policies and counselling activities. To our best knowledge, no previous studies have modelled the relationships among breastfeeding attitude, health-related quality of life and maternal obesity among multi-ethnic pregnant women; the current study attempts to fill this research gap. This study investigated the relationships among maternal characteristics, health-related quality of life and breastfeeding attitude amidst normal weight and overweight/obese pregnant women using a multi-group structural equation modelling approach. Exploratory cross-sectional design was used. Antenatal clinics of a university-affiliated hospital PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women were invited to participate; 708 (78.8%) agreed to participate in the study. We examined a hypothetical model on the basis of integrating the concepts of a breastfeeding decision-making model, theory of planned behaviour-based model for breastfeeding and health-related quality of life model among 708 multi-ethnic pregnant women in Singapore. The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey were used to measure breastfeeding attitude and health-related quality of life, respectively. Two structural equation models demonstrated that better health-related quality of life, higher monthly household income, planned pregnancy and previous exclusive breastfeeding experience were significantly associated with positive breastfeeding attitude among normal and overweight/obese pregnant women. Among normal weight pregnant women, those who were older with higher educational level were more likely to have positive breastfeeding attitude. Among overweight/obese pregnant women, Chinese women with confinement nanny plan were less likely to have positive breastfeeding attitude. No significant difference existed between normal weight and overweight/obese pregnant women concerning
Vinter, Christina Anne; Jensen, Dorte Møller; Ovesen, Per Glud
OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of lifestyle intervention in pregnancy on weight retention 6 months postpartum among obese women from the "Lifestyle in Pregnancy" (LiP) study, and to determine associations between breastfeeding with postpartum maternal weight. DESIGN: Six months postpartum follow...... of breastfeeding mothers was higher among women with postpartum weight retention ≤5 kg compared with those with weight retention > 5 kg (94% vs. 85%, p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: We could not detect sustained weight control at 6 months postpartum despite a lower gestational weight gain for obese women during pregnancy...... up after a randomized controlled intervention trial. SETTING: Two university hospitals in Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 360 women with pregestational body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) . METHODS: The intervention involved lifestyle changes (diet and exercise) during pregnancy. The control group received...
In 2002, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children(WIC) introduced an innovative approach for breastfeeding mothers and their spouses. The Pilot Peer Dad Program targeted fathers to promote and support their spouse in breastfeeding. This study evaluated duration of...
Full Text Available Although breastfeeding is associated with many health benefits in children and mothers, and World Health Organization (WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding until 2 years of age, overall breastfeeding rates remain low. Italian rates of exclusive breastfeeding do not differ from international data. The aim of this review is to evaluate evidence of breastfeeding promotion interventions and the remaining problems to achieve them. We found that breastfeeding support is a complex system of interventions, including individual, structural and environmental factors. Many systematic reviews report evidence that breastfeeding support offered to women increases duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding, both in full term healthy newborns and in preterm infants. Political and economic efforts should be made to ensure breastfeeding support to all women in the different settings, assuming it as a collective target.
Murimi, Mary; Dodge, Candace Mire; Pope, Janet; Erickson, Dawn
Although human milk provides optimal nutrition for infants, fewer than one third of US infants are breastfed exclusively for 6 months or more. The objectives of this study were to determine the factors that have the greatest impact on the decisions to breastfeed, and to determine the effect of formula provided by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on the initiation and duration of breastfeeding among WIC participants in a rural parish in central Louisiana. A cross-sectional study was done between September 2007 and March 2008 among 130 WIC participants. Approximately half (51%) of the participants reported breastfeeding their youngest child for a mean of 15.7+/-14.9 weeks, with more white mothers breastfeeding than did African-American mothers or other races (Paffect their decision to breastfeed than those who said incentives affected their decision to breastfeed (Peffective and clear education about the benefits of breastfeeding, and that this advice influenced their decision to breastfeed their children. These findings underscore the importance of emphasizing the health benefits of breastfeeding to increase initiation and duration rates among WIC participants. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gisbert, Javier P; Chaparro, María
Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) drugs are an effective therapeutic option in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, data regarding their safety during pregnancy and breastfeeding are scarce. The aim of this study was to critically review available data on the safety of anti-TNF therapy during pregnancy and breastfeeding in women with IBD. Bibliographical searches (MEDLINE) up to January 2013. The studies included provided data from 462 women with IBD exposed to anti-TNF agents during pregnancy. Although these drugs cross the placenta from the end of the second trimester, they are low-risk in the short term. The use of anti-TNF agents after the second trimester leads to intra-uterine exposure. An increase in infections has recently been observed in infants exposed to immunomodulators plus anti-TNF drugs in utero, thus raising concerns about the consequences for the development of the immune system. Accordingly, it has recently been suggested that anti-TNF drugs should be stopped during the second trimester. Certolizumab is a Fab fragment of an anti-TNF monoclonal antibody, and, therefore, it may not be necessary to stop it during pregnancy. Anti-TNF drugs have been detected in breast milk, although in miniscule amounts. Case reports do not suggest toxicity; however, the effects of exposure on the neonate merit further investigation. Anti-TNF drugs can cross the placenta from the latter part of the second trimester of gestation, although they seem to be safe, at least in the short term. Miniscule amounts of anti-TNF drugs are transferred in breast milk; therefore, a deleterious effect of this exposure on the neonate, although unlikely, cannot be excluded.
Thorlton, Janet; Ahmed, Azza; Colby, David A
Breastfeeding women may experience disrupted sleep schedules and be tempted to turn to popular energy drinks to reduce fatigue and enhance alertness, prompting the question: What are the maternal and child health implications for breastfeeding mothers consuming energy drinks? Caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks contain a variety of herbal ingredients and vitamins; however, ingredient amounts may not be clearly disclosed on product labels. Interactions between herbal ingredients and caffeine are understudied and not well defined in the literature. Some infants can be sensitive to caffeine and display increased irritability and sleep disturbances when exposed to caffeine from breastmilk. Breastfeeding women who consume energy drinks may be ingesting herbal ingredients that have not undergone scientific evaluation, and if taking prenatal vitamins, may unknowingly exceed the recommended daily intake. Caffeinated products are marketed in newer ways, fueling concerns about health consequences of caffeine exposure. We present implications associated with consumption of caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks among breastfeeding women. Product safety, labeling, common ingredients, potential interactions, and clinical implications are discussed. Healthcare providers should encourage breastfeeding women to read product labels for ingredients, carbohydrate content, serving size, and to discourage consumption of energy drinks when breastfeeding and/or taking prenatal vitamins, to avoid potential vitamin toxicity.
Huo, D; Adebamowo, C A; Ogundiran, T O; Akang, E E; Campbell, O; Adenipekun, A; Cummings, S; Fackenthal, J; Ademuyiwa, F; Ahsan, H; Olopade, O I
As the relation between reproductive factors and breast cancer risk has not been systematically studied in indigenous women of sub-Saharan Africa, we examined this in a case-control study in Nigeria. In-person interviews were conducted using structured questionnaires to collect detailed reproductive history in 819 breast cancer cases and 569 community controls between 1998 and 2006. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared with women with menarcheal ageor=17 years was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.54-0.95, P=0.02). Parity was negatively associated with risk (P-trend=0.02) but age at first live birth was not significant (P=0.16). Importantly, breast cancer risk decreased by 7% for every 12 months of breastfeeding (P-trend=0.005). It is worth noting that the distribution of reproductive risk factors changed significantly from early to late birth cohorts in the direction of increasing breast cancer incidence. Our findings also highlight the heterogeneity of breast cancer aetiology across populations, and indicate the need for further studies among indigenous sub-Saharan women.
Zadrozny, Sabrina; Westreich, Daniel; Hudgens, Michael G; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J; Martinson, Francis; Zimba, Chifundo; Tegha, Gerald; Hoffman, Irving; Miller, William C; Pence, Brian W; King, Caroline C; Kourtis, Athena P; Msungama, Wezi; van der Horst, Charles
The relationship between mastitis and antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive, breast-feeding women is unclear. In the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study, conducted in Lilongwe, Malawi, 2369 mother-infant pairs were randomized to a nutritional supplement group and to one of three treatment groups: maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART), infant nevirapine (NVP) or standard of care for 24 weeks of exclusive breast-feeding and 4 weeks of weaning. Among 1472 HIV-infected women who delivered live infants between 2004 and 2007, we estimated cumulative incidence functions and sub-distribution hazard ratios (HR) of mastitis or breast inflammation comparing women in maternal ART (n = 487) or infant nevirapine (n = 492) groups to the standard of care (n = 493). Nutritional supplement groups (743 took, 729 did not) were also compared. Through 28-weeks post-partum, 102 of 1472 women experienced at least one occurrence of mastitis or breast inflammation. The 28-week risk was higher for maternal ART (risk difference (RD) 4.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9, 8.1) and infant NVP (RD 3.6, 95% CI 0.3, 6.9) compared to standard of care. The hazard of late-appearing mastitis or breast inflammation (from week 5-28) was also higher for maternal ART (HR 6.7, 95% CI 2.0, 22.6) and infant NVP (HR 5.1, 95% CI 1.5, 17. 5) compared to the standard of care. Mastitis or breast inflammation while breast-feeding is a possible side effect for women taking prophylactic ART and women whose infants take NVP, warranting additional research in the context of postnatal HIV transmission. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Garner, Christine D; Ratcliff, Stephannie L; Thornburg, Loralei L; Wethington, Elaine; Howard, Cynthia R; Rasmussen, Kathleen M
Breastfeeding rates in the United States are suboptimal. Health professionals (HPs) have a unique opportunity to support breastfeeding because of the frequency and timing of their visits with mothers and infants as well as their call by professional organizations to do so. The objective of this study was to understand HPs' perceived roles and experiences with providing breastfeeding-related care. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 34 HPs (obstetricians, midwives, pediatricians, nurses, and lactation consultants) who care for pregnant or lactating women. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and verified for accuracy; content analysis was used to identify themes using a grounded theory approach. The overarching theme was discontinuity in breastfeeding care across the continuum. Most HPs relied on other HPs to provide breastfeeding care, which resulted from and contributed to problematic gaps in care that were reported. A minority of HPs attempted to bridge gaps in breastfeeding care or improve continuity. Contributing to the discontinuity were a lack of time, lack of skills, inconsistent messages, and low communication across stages of care. HPs were unsure whether their help was effective and whether required follow-up was completed. Despite HPs' recognition of breastfeeding as the best choice for infant feeding, breastfeeding care may be disjointed and a barrier to achieving breastfeeding recommendations. These problems should be investigated and systemically addressed in future research so that maternal-infant dyad breastfeeding care can be improved.
Associations Between Peer Counseling and Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration: An Analysis of Minnesota Participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC).
McCoy, Marcia Burton; Geppert, Joni; Dech, Linda; Richardson, Michaela
Background Peer counseling (PC) has been associated with increased breastfeeding initiation and duration, but few analyses have examined the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) model for peer counseling or the continuation of breastfeeding from birth through 12 months postpartum. Objectives Identify associations between Minnesota WIC Peer Breastfeeding Support Program services and breastfeeding initiation and continuation. Methods Retrospective analysis of observational data from the Minnesota WIC program's administrative database of women who gave birth in 2012 and accepted a PC program referral prenatally (n = 2219). Multivariate logistic regression and Cox regression models examined associations between peer services and breastfeeding initiation and continuation of any breastfeeding. Results Among women who accepted referral into a PC program, odds of initiation were significantly higher among those who received peer services (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.66; 95% CI 1.19-2.32), after adjusting for confounders. Women who received peer services had a significantly lower hazard of breastfeeding discontinuation from birth through 12 months postpartum than women who did not receive services. (Hazard Ratio (HR) month one: 0.45; 95% CI 0.33-0.61; months two through twelve: 0.33; 95% CI 0.18-0.60). The effect of peer counseling did not differ significantly by race and ethnicity, taking into account mother's country of origin. Conclusion for practice Receipt of peer services was positively associated with breastfeeding initiation and continued breastfeeding from birth through 12 months postpartum. Making peer services available to more women, especially in communities with low initiation and duration, could improve maternal and child health in Minnesota.
Escasa-Dorne, Michelle J
This project investigates the relationship between lactation and female sexual functioning and relationship commitment among partnered women in urban Manila. Previous literature suggests that the time after giving birth is often rife with lower sexual functioning and relationship dissatisfaction. Given the important role of caregiving by multiple individuals in humans, the current cross-sectional study suggests that female sexuality may decline immediately after giving birth but then may increase afterwards. Non-cycling, breastfeeding (n = 86); cycling, breastfeeding (n = 48); and nulliparous, regularly cycling (n = 105) women were recruited from neighborhood health centers in Manila to complete questionnaires that assessed sexual functioning and relationship satisfaction, along with demographic variables. Cycling, breastfeeding women report the highest sexual functioning scores and commitment scores. Females undergoing life history trade-offs between mating effort and parenting effort during the postpartum phase may employ a strategy in which they continue investment both in their offspring and in a romantic relationship. Variations in self-reported sexual functioning, level of commitment in a relationship, and love toward her current partner may indicate that breastfeeding women engage in sexual activities as part of a relationship maintenance strategy. Cultural and life history factors will serve as a framework for the findings. The current findings suggest women in Manila may experience a post-birth increase in sexual functioning that may be higher than pre-pregnancy levels. Future studies should incorporate a longitudinal component or a memory recall on pre-pregnancy and post-birth sexual functioning levels.
Abe, Sarah K; Balogun, Olukunmi O; Ota, Erika; Takahashi, Kenzo; Mori, Rintaro
Globally, more than two billion people are estimated to be deficient in key vitamins and minerals, particularly iodine, iron and zinc. The majority of these people live in low-income settings and are typically deficient in more than one micronutrient. However, micronutrient deficiency among breastfeeding mothers and their infants also remains an issue in high-income settings, specifically among women who avoid meat and/or milk, women who may lack sufficient supplies of vitamin B12 and vitamin D, and/or women who are iron-deficient. Young children, pregnant and lactating women are particularly vulnerable to micronutrient deficiencies. They not only have a relatively greater need for vitamins and minerals because of their physiological state, but are also more susceptible to the harmful consequences of deficiencies. Multiple-micronutrient supplementation might be an option to solve these problems. The objective of this review was to evaluate the effects of multiple-micronutrient supplementation in breastfeeding mothers on maternal and infant outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials of multiple-micronutrient supplementation of three or more micronutrients versus placebo, no supplementation or supplementation with two or fewer micronutrients, irrespective of dosage of micronutrients, in breastfeeding mothers. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We found no studies that compared multiple-micronutrient supplementation (with three or more micronutrients) versus supplementation with two or fewer micronutrients.Two small studies (involving a total of 52 women) were included. One study compared multiple micronutrients with placebo and the other study compared multiple micronutrients with a group who received no supplementation. The studies were carried
Mello-Neto, Julio; Rondó, Patricia Helen Carvalho; Oshiiwa, Marie; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Zacari, Cristiane Zago; dos Santos, Mariana Lima
This study evaluated the influence of iron supplementation in pregnancy and breastfeeding on iron status of lactating women from a Brazilian Human Milk Bank. Blood and mature breast milk samples were collected from 145 women for assessment of iron status, as well as copper and zinc status. Haemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin were determined, respectively, by electronic counting, colorimetry and chemiluminescence. Transferrin and ceruloplasmin were analysed by nephelometry. Serum copper and zinc were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and serum alkaline phosphatase was measured by a colorimetric method. Iron, zinc and copper in breast milk were determined by spectrometry. Mean values of iron, copper and zinc (blood and breast milk) were compared by ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test. Iron supplementation was beneficial to prevent anaemia in pregnancy but not effective to treat anaemia. During breastfeeding, iron supplementation had a negative effect on maternal copper status, confirming an interaction between these micronutrients.
Meedya, Shahla; Fernandez, Ritin; Fahy, Kathleen
Long-term breastfeeding, including exclusive breastfeeding for six months and continuation of breastfeeding with complementary food until two years of age, has been recommended by the World Health Organization. However, despite the clear benefits of long-term breastfeeding (six months and beyond), the rates of breastfeeding still continue to remain low. Although there are some individual interventional studies that aimed to increase prolonged breastfeeding rates among both multiparous and primiparous women, there is no systematic review or meta-analysis to examine the effectiveness of those interventions among primiparous women who had no previous breastfeeding experience. The aim of this review was to identify the effects of professional educational and support interventions on breastfeeding rates at six months and up to two years postpartum compared to the standard care among primiparous women. Studies that included primiparous women aged 18 and over who intended to breastfeed. Studies that investigated the effect of educational and support interventions provided by health professionals during the antenatal, postnatal period or both. Randomized controlled trials. Studies with reported breastfeeding rates at six months or up to two years postpartum. A three-step search strategy was utilized in this review. The search was conducted in Cochrane, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases. Only trials that met the inclusion criteria and published in English were considered for this review. Databases were searched from their commencement year to May 2016. Two independent reviewers selected the papers using the standardized critical appraisal tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data was extracted using the standardized Joanna Briggs Institute data extraction instrument. Quantitative data were, where possible, pooled in statistical meta-analysis using RevMan v5.3 (Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Cochrane). In the absence of trials comparing the same outcomes, meta
Pepino, M. Yanina; Mennella, Julie A.
Objective To explore the types of advice that women in Argentina received from health professionals, family members, and friends about drinking alcoholic beverages and about alcohol usage during pregnancy and lactation. Methods In December 2001 and December 2002, structured interviews were conducted with a total of 167 women who were then breast-feeding or who had recently breast-fed their infant. Mothers were asked about the type of advice, if any, that they had received about the use of alcohol from health professionals and from family members and friends. Also included were questions related to the usage of the traditional Argentine beverage “mate” (an infusion widely consumed in South America that is prepared from the leaves of the Ilex paraguayensis plant) and the types of advice the women had received about breast-feeding and neonatal care in general. Results Of the 167 women studied, 96.4% of them reported that their physician had advised them to breast-feed their infant. In addition, 93.4% of the women said they had treated their infant’s umbilical cord stump with alcohol. Fewer than half of the women (46.7%) reported that their physician had advised them about drinking alcoholic beverages during pregnancy, and even fewer (25.7%) received such advice during lactation. Family and friends were about equally likely to give advice about the consumption of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy (42.6%) and during lactation (47.9%). However, the type of advice changed, with the family and friends being significantly more likely to encourage drinking when the women were lactating than when they were pregnant (P embarazo y la lactancia. Métodos En diciembre de 2001 y diciembre de 2002 se llevaron a cabo entrevistas estructuradas con un total de 167 mujeres que estaban amamantando o que habían amamantado recientemente. A las madres se les preguntó qué tipo de consejos, en caso de haberlos, les dieron los profesionales de la salud y sus parientes y amistades
McKenzie, Shanice A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Garner, Christine D
Women face societal and cultural barriers to breastfeeding. These challenges have been investigated in international studies and U.S. public opinion polls; however, mothers' experiences with breastfeeding in public in the United States remain unexplored. Research aim: The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of obese and normal-weight women with breastfeeding in public in central New York. Pregnant women ( N = 26) in central New York who intended to breastfeed and were either normal weight or obese were enrolled during their third trimester. A longitudinal, qualitative study was conducted to obtain information about women's experiences from birth through 3 to 6 months postpartum. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and verified for accuracy. Transcripts were analyzed iteratively using conventional content analysis. The concept of "public" was situational rather than a set of physical places; women experienced challenges while breastfeeding around others in private locations that were indistinguishable from those they encountered in places typically considered public. Women experienced social and physical awkwardness including perceived lack of acceptability, fear of confrontation, exposure, and positioning difficulties. They used strategies to reduce awkwardness, for example, being "discreet" and minimizing breastfeeding around other people. Obese women experienced similar challenges but to a greater degree than normal-weight women. "Breastfeeding around others" described mother's experiences more accurately than "breastfeeding in public" and was experienced as awkward both socially and physically, particularly by obese women. Strategies are needed to normalize breastfeeding in the United States and to prepare mothers for the challenges of breastfeeding around others.
To explore the nature of interactions between midwives and breast-feeding women within postnatal wards. A critical ethnographic study using participant observation and focused interviews. Two maternity units in Northern England, UK. 61 postnatal women and 39 midwives. The interactions between midwives and women were encompassed by the global theme of 'taking time and touching base'. However, most encounters were characterised by an absence of 'taking time' or 'touching base'. This related to midwives' experiences of temporal pressure and inability to establish relationality with women due to their working patterns. The global theme was underpinned by five organising themes: 'communicating temporal pressure'; 'routines and procedures'; 'disconnected encounters'; 'managing breast feeding'; and 'rationing information'. The organisational culture within the postnatal wards contributed to midwives experiencing profound temporal pressures and an inability to establish relationality with women. Within this context, the needs of breast-feeding women for emotional, esteem, informational and practical support were largely unmet. Transformative action is required to dramatically reorganise the provision of hospital-based, postnatal ward midwifery care in parts of the UK. This should include a re-conceptualisation of caring time, with recognition that midwives need sufficient time in order to give time to others. This, in turn, requires recognition that caring time is cyclical and rhythmical, allowing for relationality, sociability, mutuality and reciprocity. The midwifery staffing structure in postnatal wards needs to be reviewed, as it is unacceptable to midwives and service users for staff to be rapidly relocated according to other demands within the institution. Most radically, it is argued that now is the time to reconsider the suitability of the hospital as the place and space within which women commence their breast-feeding journey.
Castrucci, Brian C; Piña Carrizales, Leticia E; D'Angelo, Denise V; McDonald, Jill A; Foulkes, Hillary; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Gossman, Ginger L; Acuña, Juan; Erickson, Tracy; Clatanoff, Kathy; Lewis, Kayan; Mirchandani, Gita; Smith, Brian
The US-Mexico border region has a growing population and limited health care infrastructure. Preventive health behaviors such as breastfeeding ease the burden on this region's health care system by reducing morbidity and health care costs. We examined correlates of attempted breastfeeding before hospital discharge on each side of the US-Mexico border and within the border region. The cross-sectional study included women who delivered a live infant in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico (n = 489), and Cameron County, Texas (n = 457), which includes Brownsville, Texas. We interviewed women before hospital discharge from August 21 through November 9, 2005. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate the odds of attempted breastfeeding before hospital discharge in Cameron County, Texas, the municipality of Matamoros, Mexico, and the 2 communities combined. Prevalence of attempted breastfeeding before hospital discharge was 81.9% in Matamoros compared with 63.7% in Cameron County. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of attempted breastfeeding before hospital discharge were 90% higher in Matamoros than in Cameron County (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.84 for the combined model). In the 2 communities combined, odds of attempted breastfeeding before hospital discharge were higher among women who had a vaginal delivery than among women who had a cesarean delivery (AOR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.43-2.75) and were lower among women who delivered infants with a low birth weight than among women who delivered infants with a normal birth weight (AOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.15-0.44). The rate of attempted breastfeeding in Matamoros was significantly higher than in Cameron County. Additional breastfeeding support and messages on the US side of the US-Mexico border are needed.
Simard, Isabel; O'Brien, Huguette Turgeon; Beaudoin, André; Turcotte, Daniel; Damant, Dominique; Ferland, Suzanne; Marcotte, Marie-Josée; Jauvin, Nathalie; Champoux, Lyne
The factors that influence the actual initiation and duration of breastfeeding were studied among low-income women followed by the Canada Prenatal Nutrition Program (CPNP). A group of 196 pregnant women were selected at random from a sample of 6223 pregnant women who registered with the CPNP. Two 24-hour recalls and information regarding lifestyle habits, peer support, and infant-feeding practices were obtained between 26 and 34 weeks of gestation and 21 days and 6 months after birth. Women who received a university education (completed or not completed) versus women with < or = high school education (odds ratio [OR], 8.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-69.50), women born outside Canada (OR,8.81; 95% CI, 3.34-23.19), and women of low birth weight infants (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16-0.96) were more likely to initiate breastfeeding. Late introduction of solid foods (P = .004), nonsmoking (P = .005), multiparity (P = .012), and a higher level of education (P = .049) were positively associated with the duration of breastfeeding among initiators. Understanding factors associated with initiation and duration of breastfeeding among low-income women is critical to better target breastfeeding promotion.
Huang, Pan; Ren, Jianhua; Liu, Yi; Luo, Biru; Zhao, Xiufang
Abstract Breastfeeding is beneficial for both infant and mother, but discontinuation of breastfeeding is very common. To investigate maternal breastfeeding intention and the rate of breastfeeding based on the theory of reasoned action, and analyze the predominant factors associated with breastfeeding and breastfeeding problems. This observational study was conducted in 3 hospitals. Three researchers recruited women at 3 time points in the hospitals: initial documentation of pregnancy at the o...
Vinter, Christina Anne; Jensen, Dorte Møller; Ovesen, Per; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Tanvig, Mette; Lamont, Ronald F; Jørgensen, Jan Stener
To study the effects of lifestyle intervention in pregnancy on weight retention 6 months postpartum among obese women from the "Lifestyle in Pregnancy" (LiP) study, and to determine associations between breastfeeding with postpartum maternal weight. Six months postpartum follow up after a randomized controlled intervention trial. Two university hospitals in Denmark. A total of 360 women with pregestational body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) . The intervention involved lifestyle changes (diet and exercise) during pregnancy. The control group received routine pregnancy care. Both groups received standard postnatal care. Gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention and breastfeeding. Follow up was completed in 238 women of whom 46% in the intervention group and 57% in the control group had retained weight 6 months postpartum (p = 0.088). Women with gestational weight gain ≤9 kg, (recommended by the Institute of Medicine), retained less postpartum weight compared with those who exceeded 9 kg (median -0.7 vs. 1.5, p 5 kg (94% vs. 85%, p = 0.034). We could not detect sustained weight control at 6 months postpartum despite a lower gestational weight gain for obese women during pregnancy who received a lifestyle intervention rather than standard care. Women who adhered to gestational weight gain recommendations had significantly lower postpartum weight retention. Breastfeeding for 6 months was negatively associated with postpartum weight retention. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Hunt, Louise; Thomson, Gill
Lack of support is reported as a key reason for early breastfeeding cessation. While breastfeeding peer support (BPS) is a recommended intervention to increase breastfeeding rates, a number of studies identify that engagement with BPS is problematic. Due to paucity of research in this area, this study explores why breastfeeding women do not access BPS in South-West England. Utilising a constructionist grounded theory approach, 33 participants (women (n = 13), health professionals (n = 6) and peer supporters (n = 14)) participated in a semi-structured interview (n = 22) or focus group (n = 11). Analysis involved open coding, constant comparisons and focussed coding. One core category and three main themes explicating non-access were identified. The core category concerns women's experiences of pressure and judgement around their feeding decisions within a dichotomous landscape of infant feeding language and support. Theme one, 'place and space of support', describes the contrast between perceived pressure to breastfeed and a lack of adequate and appropriate support. Theme two, 'one way or no way', outlines the rules-based approach to breastfeeding adopted by some health professionals and how women avoided BPS due to anticipating a similar approach. Theme three, 'it must be me', concerns how lack of embodied insights could lead to 'breastfeeding failure' identities. A background of dichotomised language, pressure and moral judgement, combined with the organisation of post-natal care and the model of breastfeeding adopted by health professionals, may inhibit women's access to BPS. A socio-cultural model of breastfeeding support providing clear messages regarding the value and purpose of BPS should be adopted. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Prameela Kannan Kutty
Full Text Available The anticancer potential by breastfeeding is not fully tapped in the light of the present knowledge of the subject. Literature indicates that breastmilk has anticancer action but may underestimate its full capacity. The protective spectrum within breastmilk hints on the need for a more comprehensive understanding of it as an anticancer tool. Exclusive breastfeeding could confer protection from carcinogenesis with a greater impact than realised. A literature review was conducted using four electronic databases. Selected areas were extracted after thorough perusal of the articles. The uninitiated would take exclusive breastfeeding seriously if actively counselled as an anticancer tool. Advice on details of the breastfeeding process and holistic information on breastfeeding may endow a greater impact among the skeptics. Counselling the breastfeeding mother on information sometimes not imparted, such as on maternal nutrition, details of the process of breastfeeding, benefits of direct breastfeeding versus milk expression and her psychosocial well being may make a difference in optimising anticancer action that exists in breastmilk. Additionally, its anticancer potential provides a platform to universally improve physical and psychosocial well being of women who breastfeed. Statistics of protection by breastfeeding in some maternal and childhood cancers are evident. “Bio-geno-immuno-nutrition” of breastmilk may shield the mother and infant from carcinogenesis in more ways than appreciated. The molecular basis of mother-to-infant signals and their “energies” need to be researched. Breastfeeding as a modifiable behaviour provides cost effective nutrition with potential for both cancer immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy.
Bond, Diana M.; Morris, Jonathan M; Nassar, Natasha
Background Mastitis and accompanying pain have been associated with the cessation of breastfeeding. Mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the breast and may be a result of decreased immunity and a lowered resistance to infection. Mastitis affects up to one in five breastfeeding women with most episodes occurring in the first 6?8 weeks postpartum. Antibiotics are often used in the treatment of mastitis, but have not been popular or proven effective as a preventative agent. The WHO has highl...
Johnson, Angela; Kirk, Rosalind; Rosenblum, Katherine Lisa; Muzik, Maria
The goals of this article are to provide a review of key interventions and strategies that impact initiation and duration of breastfeeding with particular focus on low-income African American mothers' maternal psychological vulnerabilities during the early postpartum period using a social ecological perspective as a guiding framework. Although modest gains have been achieved in breastfeeding initiation rates in the United States, a projected gap remains between infant feeding practices and na...
Stigma is a significant barrier to breastfeeding. Internationally, mothers have reported stigma surrounding public breastfeeding. In the United Kingdom, the Equality Act 2010 gives women the right to breastfeed in public, including within private businesses. In April 2014, a woman who was breastfeeding in a UK sports shop was asked to leave, resulting in a localized protest by breastfeeding mothers. This resulted in the issue of public breastfeeding being highlighted in local, national, and social media. To examine online opinion regarding breastfeeding in public and protesting about the right to breastfeed in public within the context of a single case. Online user-generated content relating to the case of Wioletta Komar was downloaded from Twitter and the comments section of a UK online news source, Mail Online. Data comprised 884 comments and 1210 tweets, collected within 24 hours of the incident. Semiotic and thematic analysis was facilitated by NVivo 10. Comments from Twitter were supportive (76%) or neutral (22%) regarding the protesting women and public breastfeeding. Conversely, Mail Online comments were mostly negative (85%). Mail Online posters questioned the legality of public breastfeeding, while Twitter comments acknowledged and supported women's legal right to breastfeed publicly. Many Mail Online commenters stated that they found it uncomfortable to watch breastfeeding or thought it was unnecessary to breastfeed in public. If the UK government is serious about increasing breastfeeding, interventions to promote public support for public breastfeeding are urgently required. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Objective: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF is strongly recommended by the World Health Organization during the first six months of life. Breastfeeding should continue up to two years or more for optimal growth, development and health while it is suggested to start supplementary foods beginning from seventh month. The study aimed to determine frequency and examine the affecting factors of EBF in infants who were admitted to a pediatric outpatient clinic in Ankara, Turkey.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in six months period among 603 breastfeeding mothers, with infants aged 6–24 months, who attended to the well-baby clinic. Mothers’ perceptions about breastfeeding, complementary feeding practices and demographic characteristics were collected by interviewing with mothers.Results: Six months EBF rate was 38%. Median week of EBF was 16 weeks (1-40 weeks. Mothers giving birth at younger (≤19 or older (≥35 ages, and mothers having chronic diseases had shorter median week of EBF (p<0.05. Median duration of breastfeeding was 9 months (0-24 months. When mothers who interrupted EBF were asked why they had introduced supplementary foods early, the most frequent reason was mother’s perceptions of having inadequate breast milk (42.5%.Conclusions: The study indicates that frequency of 6 month EBF (38% and median duration of breastfeeding (16 weeks are low in our region, in Ankara. We must develop a local strategy to overcome mothers’ negative perceptions about EBF.
Bardosono, Saptawati; Prasmusinto, Damar; Hadiati, Diah R; Purwaka, Bangun T; Morin, Clementine; Pohan, Rizki; Sunardi, Diana; Chandra, Dian N; Guelinckx, Isabelle
During pregnancy and lactation, the adequate intake (AI) for total water intake is increased. This cross-sectional survey aimed to assess Total Fluid Intake (TFI; sum of drinking water and all other fluids) of 300 pregnant and 300 breastfeeding women in Indonesia. A seven-day fluid specific record was used to assess TFI. Mean TFI of pregnant and breastfeeding women were 2332 ± 746 mL/day and 2525 ± 843 mL/day, respectively. No significant difference in TFI between pregnancy trimesters was observed, while TFI of women breastfeeding for 12-24 months postpartum (2427 ± 955 mL/day) was lower than that of the two other groups (0-5 months: 2607 ± 754 mL/day; 6-11 months: 2538 ± 807 mL/day, respectively). Forty-two and 54% of the pregnant and breastfeeding subjects, respectively, did not reach the AI of water from fluids. These AI were actually known by only 14% and 23% of the pregnant and breastfeeding subjects. However, having the knowledge about the AI did not increase the odds of reaching the AI. Concluding that a high proportion of the pregnant and breastfeeding subjects did not reach the AI of water from fluid, it seems pertinent to further assess the fluid intake, as well as their hydration status, in other countries.
Witt, Ann M; Burgess, Kelly; Hawn, Thomas R; Zyzanski, Steven
Although breast pain remains a common cause of weaning, controversy exists regarding the etiology of chronic pain. Prospective studies are needed to define optimal treatment regimens. We evaluated patient history, exam, and bacterial cultures in breastfeeding women with chronic breast pain. We compared pain resolution and breastfeeding complications in patients responding to conservative therapy (CTX) (n=38) versus those in patients failing CTX and receiving oral antibiotic treatment (OTX) (n=48). We prospectively enrolled 86 breastfeeding women with breast pain lasting greater than 1 week and followed up patients through 12 weeks. Higher initial breast (p=0.012) and nipple pain severity (p=0.004), less response to latch correction (p=0.015) at baseline visit, and breastmilk Staphylococcus aureus growth (p=0.001) were associated with failing CTX. Pain type was not associated with failure of CTX. When culture results were available at 5 days, breast pain remained higher (pantibiotics. OTX patients then had more rapid breast pain reduction between 5 and 14 days (score of 3.1 vs. 1.3; p<0.001). By 4 weeks there was no difference (1.8/10 vs. 1.4/10; p=0.088) in breast pain level between groups. Median length of OTX was 14 days. At 12 weeks, weaning frequency (17% vs. 8%; p=0.331) was not statistically different. Initial pain severity and limited improvement to latch correction predicts failure of CTX. S. aureus growth is more common in women failing CTX. For those women not responding to CTX, OTX matched to breastmilk culture may significantly decrease their pain and is not associated with increased complications.
Amir Lisa H
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Breastfeeding Education and Support Services (BESS is a unit of The Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia, staffed by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs, providing day/short-stay and an outpatient clinic for mothers and infants with breastfeeding problems. It is important to measure women's experience of visiting the service as part of quality assurance. The aim of this project was to conduct an anonymous postal survey of clients' satisfaction with BESS. Methods An anonymous survey was posted on 16 November 2005 and again on 31 January 2006, to all women who had attended BESS in September 2005. Results The response rate was 60.5% (78/129. Eighty percent (62/78 of respondents attended day-stay, 33% (26/78 attended short-stay and 15% (12/78 attended the outpatient clinic. The percentage of women who responded "strongly agree" to the statement "Overall, I am satisfied with the services" was 49% (35/72 and 50% (6/12 for those who went to day/short-stay and the outpatient clinic respectively. Overall, 56% of all respondents responded that the quality of BESS was "better than expected". The most common breastfeeding problem reported was difficulty attaching the baby to the breast, followed by nipple damage, low milk supply and painful feeding. Conclusion BESS seems to have provided a satisfactory service to most clients. Most respondents were clearly satisfied with the support given by the IBCLCs and have also responded that the staff were professional and knowledgeable in their field of work.
Michelle Araújo Moreira
Full Text Available Breastfeeding, sociocultural complex and multifaceted process, allows women of the same or of different generations within a group, parental experience and/or develop multiple meanings that can be modified or not depending on the social time in which they lived. Therefore, breastfeeding contributes to the interaction between family members, especially grandmothers, daughters and granddaughters when new generations appreciate lessons learned from the wisdom of a more experienced group. Therefore, it is a qualitative study, descriptive, exploratory-type literature review that had timeless selection for books, dissertations and theses, as series of articles from 1998 to 2008. The objective was to discuss the interface between family, generation and breastfeeding, underscoring the importance of aging and experience of older generations in the process of teaching and learning about breastfeeding to new generations. The literature review was done in the databases SciELO, LILACS and MEDLINE plus books, dissertations and theses, with the keywords: breastfeeding, family and generation. We identified 20 articles, 14 books, dissertations 4, 6 and 2 academic papers theses that were submitted to content analysis. In the analysis, it was noticed that the generations have a close relationship with each other, revealing that aging and maturity of the first generations contribute to greater acquisition of knowledge to be transmitted to younger generations of mothers who breastfeed. We conclude, believing that this study will look amplified, not only of health and related fields, but for those who want to analyze the possibilities of breastfeeding from intergenerational understanding it from the perspective of policymaker’s agents.
Dawodu, Adekunle; Tsang, Reginald C.
There are increasing reports of rickets and vitamin D deficiency worldwide. Breastfeeding without adequate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation are the major risk factors. In view of the drive to promote and increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding, the relationship among maternal vitamin D status, vitamin D concentration of human milk, and hence vitamin D status of breastfeeding infants deserves reassessment. This review provides current information on the interrelationship be...
Is being resolute better than being pragmatic when it comes to breastfeeding? Longitudinal qualitative study investigating experiences of women intending to breastfeed using the Theoretical Domains Framework.
Jardine, E E; McLellan, J; Dombrowski, S U
In the UK, initiating then discontinuing breastfeeding before two weeks post-partum is common. The aim of this longitudinal qualitative study was to explore which psychosocial factors may influence discontinuation. A sample of 10 pregnant women intending to breastfeed were recruited. A longitudinal qualitative design was used to capture views prior to and two weeks following birth. Semi-structured interviews were conducted underpinned by the Theoretical Domains Framework to explore a comprehensive list of psychosocial factors. Four women discontinued breastfeeding at the time of the second interview. Pre-partum differences were identified between maintainers and discontinuers; discontinuers appeared to have stronger intentions to breastfeed based on their self-determination, self-confidence and perception of fewer barriers to breastfeeding. Post-partum, discontinuers highlighted how they felt physically unable to carry on; their feeding experiences elicited negative emotions and pain. Negative emotions appeared to be exacerbated by original breastfeeding beliefs and advice given by healthcare professionals. The women in this study who discontinued breastfeeding showed less cognitive flexibility, which appeared to exacerbate post-partum emotional distress, when they encountered difficulties. Women with strong intentions and self-determination might benefit from support in anticipating potential barriers and identifying ways of overcoming them.
Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Stern, Ariel Dora; Gillman, Matthew W.
Objectives Despite the passage of state laws promoting breastfeeding, a formal evaluation has not yet been conducted to test whether and/or what type of laws may increase breastfeeding. The enactment of breastfeeding laws in different states in the US creates a natural experiment. We examined the impact of state breastfeeding laws on breastfeeding initiation and duration as well as on disparities in these infant feeding practices. Methods Using data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, we conducted differences-in-differences models to examine breastfeeding status before and after the institution of laws between 2000 and 2008 among 326,263 mothers from 32 states in the US. For each mother we coded the presence of two types of state breastfeeding laws. Mothers reported whether they ever breastfed or pumped breast milk (breastfeeding initiation) and if so, how long they continued. We defined breastfeeding duration as continuing to breastfeed for ≥4 weeks. Results Breastfeeding initiation was 1.7 percentage points higher in states with new laws to provide break time and private space for breastfeeding employees (p=0.01), particularly among Hispanic mothers (adjusted coefficient 0.058). While there was no overall effect of laws permitting mothers to breastfeed in any location, among Black mothers we observed increases in breastfeeding initiation (adjusted coefficient 0.056). Effects on breastfeeding duration were in the same direction, but slightly weaker. Conclusions State laws that support breastfeeding appear to increase breastfeeding rates. Most of these gains were observed among Hispanic and Black women and women of lower educational attainment suggesting that such state laws may help reduce disparities in breastfeeding. PMID:23087383
Méndez Jacobo, Névedy; García Rojas Vazquez, Luisa Estefanía; Reyes Barretero, Diana Yolanda; Trujano Ramos, Luis Alfredo
there are certain factors that influence the early cessation of breastfeeding among which are the demographic, cultural, biological and psychological. to analyze sociodemographic factors influencing the abandonment of breastfeeding in a support group to it. descriptive, prospective, observational, cross-sectional study at the Hospital for Women in Morelia Michoacán, from September to November 2014, a total of 86 women in the postpartum period gynecology floor. the reasons why the LME is abandoned are: age under 25 years (19.1%), urban locality (16.9%), and marital cohabitation (15.7%), and work (9%). most of the women had that age, education level and location are the main factors that influence as to abandon breastfeeding before the recommended time. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Cupul-Uicab, Lea A.; Gladen, Beth C.; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Longnecker, Matthew P
Breastfed children have lower risk of infectious diseases, post-neonatal mortality and chronic diseases later in life. Because epidemiologic studies usually rely on reported history of previous breastfeeding, data on the accuracy and precision of recalled histories allow improved interpretation of the epidemiologic findings.
Kornides, Melanie; Kitsantas, Panagiota
We examined how prenatal exposure to breastfeeding information from various media sources, maternal knowledge of benefits, family and clinician support, and peer practices influence breastfeeding outcomes in early infancy. Initiation of breastfeeding, any breastfeeding at two months, and exclusivity of breastfeeding at two months were examined in a cohort of US women using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II. Descriptive statistics, chi-square analyses and logistic regression were conducted. Approximately 85 percent of the women initiated breastfeeding. At two months, 63.8 percent continued breastfeeding, while only 38.1 percent breastfed exclusively. Mothers with greater knowledge about breastfeeding benefits were 11.2 (95% CI: 6.87-18.45) times more likely to initiate breastfeeding and 5.62 (95% CI: 4.19-7.54) times more likely to breastfeed at two months than those with lower levels of knowledge. Women whose families prenatally supported exclusive breastfeeding were 8.21(5.12-13.2) times more likely to initiate and continue breastfeeding (OR 3.21, 95% CI: 2.51-4.11). Clinicians who supported breastfeeding only also increased the odds of a woman initiating breastfeeding (OR 1.95, 95% CI: 1.31-2.88). Interventions to increase maternal knowledge of breastfeeding benefits and family and clinician support of breastfeeding in the prenatal period may help increase breastfeeding rates. The encouragement of breastfeeding needs to be a priority among health care providers to improve the health of mothers and infants.
Fabiyi, Camille; Peacock, Nadine; Hebert-Beirne, Jennifer; Handler, Arden
Objective To explore nativity differences and the role of attitudes, social norms, and behavioral control perceptions surrounding breastfeeding initiation and duration among middle-class African-American (AA) and African-born (AB) mothers in the US. Methods Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 20 middle-class AA and AB mothers in central Ohio from December 2012 to February 2013. Interview questions were developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Interviews were analyzed for salient themes by TPB constructs. Differences in themes were examined by nativity status. Results All study participants had initiated breastfeeding or bottle-feeding with expressed breast milk, noting the benefits it conferred as well as the persuasive encouragement they received from others. Persistent encouragement was often cited as a factor for sustaining breastfeeding. More AA mothers had discontinued breastfeeding by the time of the interview, which was often attributed to health, lactation, and work challenges. Inconsistent support from health providers, dissuasive remarks from others, ambivalent breastfeeding attitudes, and diminished family support led some mothers to begin formula supplementation. Analysis of maternal narratives revealed nativity differences across sources of encouragement. Specifically, important sources of encouragement were health providers for AA mothers and family, friends, partners and culture for AB mothers. Only AB mothers expressed concerns about difficulty they encountered with breastfeeding due to the lack of proximal family support. Conclusions Findings reveal that both groups of mothers may be susceptible to unsupportive breastfeeding norms in the US and also highlight the need for intervention in health care settings and workplaces to improve AA women's breastfeeding rates.
Nishihara, Kyoko; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Eto, Hiromi; Uchida, Sunao; Honda, Makoto
The power spectra of night sleep EEGs of 12 breast-feeding 9-13 week postpartum mothers were analyzed and compared with those of 12 non-pregnant women. The power spectra in the delta and theta frequency range during NREM sleep for breast-feeding mothers were significantly higher than those for non-pregnant women. In addition, the all-night sleep patterns of the mothers were classified into two groups - interrupted sleep due to taking care of their infants and non-interrupted sleep - in order to observe the influence of partial sleep deprivation. The power spectra in the delta and theta frequency range were not significantly different between them. This result suggests that increased delta and theta power spectra during postpartum sleep do not result from partial sleep deprivation. The role of prolactin in breast-feeding mothers' sleep is also discussed.
Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace
Infant feeding policies for HIV-infected women in developing countries differ from policies in developed countries. This article summarizes the epidemiologic data on the risks and benefits of various infant feeding practices for HIV-infected women living in different contexts. Artificial feeding can prevent a large proportion of mother-to-child HIV transmission but also is associated with increases in morbidity and mortality among exposed-uninfected and HIV-infected children. Antiretroviral drugs can be used during lactation and reduce risks of transmission. For most of the developing world, the health and survival benefits of breastfeeding exceed the risks of HIV transmission, especially when antiretroviral interventions are provided. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Forman, M R; Fetterly, K; Graubard, B I; Wooton, K G
Questions about infant feeding practices after birth were included in 1969 and 1980 National Natality Surveys (NNS). At 3-6 mo postpartum, NNS questionnaires were mailed to mothers of live infants born in wedlock, and responses were weighted to permit national estimates. Based on the NNS, the proportion of women who were exclusively breast-feeding newborns in the United States was significantly lower in 1969 (19% of white women, 9% of black women) compared with 1980 (51% of white women, 25% of black women). In 1969, the highest percentages of exclusive breast-feeding were observed among white women less than or equal to 34 yr, of parity less than or equal to 3 and greater than 7, and of higher than lower socioeconomic groups; and among black women greater than or equal to 30 yr, of parity greater than or equal to 4, and of lower than higher socioeconomic groups. Among women in both races in 1980, more primiparae than multiparae and the more highly educated were breast-feeding. More white than black women exclusively breast-fed within each birthweight and each sociodemographic characteristic in 1980; therefore, the racial differences remained across these factors. These findings are compared with results of the Ross Laboratories surveys of infant feeding.
Morris, Kasey Lynn; Goldenberg, Jamie L; Heflick, Nathan A
Research and theorizing suggest that objectification entails perceiving a person not as a human being but, quite literally, as an object. However, the motive to regard the self as an object is not well understood. The current research tested the hypothesis that literal self-objectification can serve a terror management function. From this perspective, the female body poses a unique existential threat on account of its role in reproduction, and regarding the self as an object is posited to shield women from this threat because objects, in contrast to humans, are not mortal. Across 5 studies, 3 operationalizations of literal self-objectification were employed (a denial of essentially human traits to the self, overlap in the explicit assignment of traits to the self and objects, and implicit associations between self and objects using an implicit association test) in response to 3 aspects of women's bodies involved in reproduction (pregnancy, menstruation, and breastfeeding). In each study, priming mortality led women (but not men, included in Studies 1, 3, 4, and 5) to literally self-objectify in conditions where women's reproductive features were salient. In addition, literal self-objectification was found to mediate subsequent responsiveness to death-related stimuli (Study 4). Together, these findings are the first to demonstrate a direct link between mortality salience, women's role in reproduction, and their self-objectification, supporting an existential function of self-objectification in women.
Full Text Available Due to its peculiar nutritional and non-nutritional contents, which include long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids (LC-PUFA, prebiotics, immunological factors, hormones and growth factors, breast milk shows significant advantages over infant formulas in nourishing preterm infants. Better neurocognitive outcomes, which are reported to persist far beyond the early childhood, have been largely observed in breastfed preterm infants; a role of LC-PUFA in promoting neural and retinal development is assumed. As far as the gastrointestinal tract is concerned, several evidences have reported a dose-related reduction in NEC incidence among preterm infants fed on human milk. Moreover, the higher amount of immunological factors as secretory IgA within preterm breast milk might play a remarkable role in reducing the overall infections. Despite breastfeeding in preterm infants is generally linked with lowered growth rates which might potentially affect neurocognitive outcomes, the beneficial effects of human milk on neurodevelopment prevail. Fortified human milk might better fulfill the particular nutritional needs of preterm infants. However, as breast milk fortification is difficult to carry out after the achievement of full oral feeding, some concerns on the nutritional adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding during hospitalization as well as after discharge have been raised. Finally, breastfeeding also entails maternal psychological beneficial effects, as promoting the motherhood process and the mother-child relationship, which could be undermined in those women experiencing preterm delivery. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research
Bond, Diana M; Morris, Jonathan M; Nassar, Natasha
Mastitis and accompanying pain have been associated with the cessation of breastfeeding. Mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the breast and may be a result of decreased immunity and a lowered resistance to infection. Mastitis affects up to one in five breastfeeding women with most episodes occurring in the first 6-8 weeks postpartum. Antibiotics are often used in the treatment of mastitis, but have not been popular or proven effective as a preventative agent. The WHO has highlighted significant concerns relating to adverse harms of antibiotic use with the production of antibiotic-resistant strains of disease organisms. Increasing research suggests that specific probiotic bacteria possess significant anti-inflammatory properties and supports their potential use as immunomodulatory agents. While animal studies have shown promising results in the use of probiotics for preventing mastitis, their use in human trials has had limited investigation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of oral probiotics for the prevention of mastitis in breastfeeding women. APProve (CAn Probiotics ImProve Breastfeeding Outcomes?) is a double-blind randomised controlled trial designed to assess outcomes between breastfeeding women ingesting a probiotic versus a placebo daily for 8 weeks following birth. A total of 600 women (300 to each arm) who intend to breastfeed will be randomised after the birth of a term, healthy infant. Daily and weekly surveys for 8 weeks and follow-up surveys at 2, 6 and 12 months after birth will assess the primary outcome of mastitis in the first 8 weeks following birth as well as secondary maternal outcomes of breastfeeding duration (total/partial), antibiotic use, maternal health and well-being, and treatment compliance; and infant outcomes including gastroenteritis, infant health and well-being and growth and development. The acceptability and compliance using a novel mobile phone application system will also be evaluated. There is
Zanardo, Vincenzo; Volpe, Francesca; Giustardi, Arturo; Canella, Alessandra; Straface, Gianluca; Soldera, Gino
The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the relationship between body image perception and breastfeeding in puerperae with postpartum depression symptoms. The participants (147 healthy puerperae) completed The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT-A and BUT-B), investigating body image perception and specific worries about particular body parts or functions. One month after discharge, new mothers participated in telephone interview concerning postpartum lactation practices. The subset of puerperae with EPDS score >9 also participated in psychological EPDS and BUT 6-month follow up. Mothers with EPDS score >9 (28/147, 19.04 %) had significantly higher scores on BUT-A Global Severity Index (0.69 ± 0.64 versus 0.37 ± 0.31, p depression were more likely (1:2) to interrupt full breastfeeding in the first month postpartum. At the 6-month follow up, the subset of new mothers with depression symptoms maintained elevated BUT-A and BUT-B scores, while EPDS >9 persisted in one-third of these. In conclusion, mothers with symptoms of depression have longlasting negative body image perception, persistent depressive symptoms, and they interrupt early full breastfeeding.
Tarrant, R C
To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers.
Edwards, Roger A; Colchamiro, Rachel; Tolan, Ellen; Browne, Susan; Foley, Mary; Jenkins, Lucia; Mainello, Kristen; Vallu, Rohith; Hanley, Lauren E; Boisvert, Mary Ellen; Forgit, Julie; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Nordstrom, Christina
Lack of health professional support is an important variable affecting mothers' achievement of breastfeeding goals. Online continuing education is a recognized pathway for disseminating content for improving clinicians' knowledge and supporting efforts to change practices. At the time we developed our project, free, accredited continuing education for physicians related to breastfeeding management that could be easily accessed using portable devices (via tablets/smartphones) was not available. Such resources were in demand, especially for facilities pursuing designation through the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. We assembled a government, academic, health care provider, and professional society partnership to create such a tutorial that would address the diverse content needed for supporting breastfeeding mothers postdischarge in the United States. Our 1.5-hour-long continuing medical and nursing education was completed by 1606 clinicians (1172 nurses [73%] and 434 physicians [27%]) within 1 year. More than 90% of nurses and over 98% of physicians said the tutorial achieved its 7 learning objectives related to breastfeeding physiology, broader factors in infant feeding decisions and practices, the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statement, and breastfeeding management/troubleshooting. Feedback received from the tutorial led to the creation of a second tutorial consisting of another 1.5 hours of continuing medical and nursing education related to breast examination and assessment prior to delivery, provision of anticipatory guidance to pregnant women interested in breastfeeding, maternity care practices that influence breastfeeding outcomes, breastfeeding preterm infants, breastfeeding's role in helping address disparities, and dispelling common myths. The tutorials contribute to achievement of 8 Healthy People 2020 Maternal, Infant and Child Health objectives. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kornides, Melanie; Kitsantas, Panagiota
We examined how prenatal exposure to breastfeeding information from various media sources, maternal knowledge of benefits, family and clinician support, and peer practices influence breastfeeding outcomes in early infancy. Initiation of breastfeeding, any breastfeeding at two months, and exclusivity of breastfeeding at two months were examined in a cohort of US women using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II. Descriptive statistics, chi-square analyses and logistic regression were...
Full Text Available Abstract Background For mothers with diabetes, breastfeeding is a great challenge due to their struggle with potentially unstable blood glucose levels. This paper explores breastfeeding attitudes and impact of breastfeeding on the daily life of mothers with type 1 diabetes compared with non-diabetic mothers. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study of 108 mothers with type 1 diabetes and a reference group of 104 mothers in the west of Sweden. Data were collected through medical records and structured telephone interviews at 2 and 6 months after childbirth. Results Women in both the diabetes group and the reference group had high levels of confidence (84% and 93% respectively in their breastfeeding capacity before childbirth, and 90% assessed breastfeeding as a positive and an important experience during the six months of follow-up. About 80% assessed breastfeeding as influencing daily life ‘very much’ or ‘quite a lot’ at 2 months as did 60% at 6 months, with no difference between the groups. In mothers with diabetes, the impact of breastfeeding on the priority of other duties decreased over time, as did feelings of time pressure and negative effects on patterns of sleep. Compared to the reference group, mothers with diabetes at 6 months remained more affected by disruptions in daily life and they felt more worried about their health both at 2 and 6 months after childbirth. For the reference group mothers’ sensitivity to unexpected disruptions in daily routines decreased between 2 and 6 months after childbirth, and they expressed a greater need to organize their time than mothers with diabetes. Conclusion Mothers with diabetes type 1 express more worry for own health and are more sensitive to distruptions. To balance their everyday life and to reduce the risk of stress and illhealth they are therefor, compared to other mothers, likely to need additional professional and peer support.
Nguyen, Thu T; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne
This study systematically examined state-level laws protecting breastfeeding, including their current status and historical development, as well as identified gaps across US states and regions. The National Conference of State Legislatures summarised breastfeeding laws for 50 states and DC as of September 2010, which we updated through May 2011. We then searched LexisNexis and Westlaw to find the full text of laws, recording enactment dates and definitions. Laws were coded into five categories: (1) employers are encouraged or required to provide break time and private space for breastfeeding employees; (2) employers are prohibited from discriminating against breastfeeding employees; (3) breastfeeding is permitted in any public or private location; (4) breastfeeding is exempt from public indecency laws; and (5) breastfeeding women are exempt from jury duty. By May 2011, 1 state had enacted zero breastfeeding laws, 10 had one, 22 had two, 12 had three, 5 had four and 1 state had laws across all five categories. While 92% of states allowed mothers to breastfeed in any location and 57% exempted breastfeeding from indecency laws, 37% of states encouraged or required employers to provide break time and accommodations, 24% offered breastfeeding women exemption from jury duty and 16% prohibited employment discrimination. The Northeast had the highest proportion of states with breastfeeding laws and the Midwest had the lowest. Breastfeeding outside the home is protected to varying degrees depending on where women live; this suggests that many women are not covered by comprehensive laws that promote breastfeeding. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available ... Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation En Español Skip top navigation ... youtube-nocookie.com/embed/FlP4wibDzGA Find out what women wish they knew before they started breastfeeding and ...
Simpson, Emma; Garbett, Andrew; Comber, Rob; Balaam, Madeline
To examine how the breastfeeding experience is represented by users of FeedFinder (a mobile phone application for finding, reviewing and sharing places to breastfeed in public). Content analysis using FeedFinder database. FeedFinder, UK, September 2013-June 2015. Reviews obtained through FeedFinder over a period of 21 months were systematically coded using a conventional content analysis approach, average review scores were calculated for the rating criteria in FeedFinder (comfort, hygiene, privacy, baby facilities) and review texts were analysed for sentiment. We used data from Foursquare to describe the type of venues visited and cross-referenced the location of venues with the Indices of Multiple Deprivation. A total of 1757 reviews were analysed. Of all the reviews obtained, 80% of those were classified as positive, 15.4% were classified as neutral and 4.3% were classified as negative. Important factors that were discussed by women include facilities, service, level of privacy available and qualities of a venue. The majority of venues were classified as cafes (26.4%), shops (24.4%) and pubs (13.4%). Data on IMD were available for 1229 venues mapped within FeedFinder, 23% were located within the most deprived quintile and 16% were located in the least deprived quintile. Women create content that is positive and informative when describing their breastfeeding experience in public. Public health bodies and business owners have the potential to use the data from FeedFinder to impact on service provision. Further work is needed to explore the demographic differences that may help to tailor public health interventions aimed at increasing breastfeeding rates in the UK. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF for the first six months of infants' lives is a cost effective intervention in saving children's lives and can avert 13 - 15% of the 9 million deaths of children under 5 years old in resource poor settings. However, EBF rates have been shown to be low in resource poor settings, ranging between 20 and 40%. In Tanzania, the prevalence of EBF among infants under 6 months is 41%, with limited information on predictors of EBF. The aim of the study was to determine prevalence of EBF and its predictors in Kigoma Municipality, Western Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in March to May 2010 among 402 consenting women, with infants aged 6 to 12 months, from randomly selected households. A questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, knowledge of EBF, infant feeding practices, and on HIV status. Results The prevalence of EBF among women in Kigoma Municipality was 58%. Knowledge of EBF was relatively higher (86% compared to the practice. In the multivariable analysis, women with adequate knowledge of EBF (AOR 5.4, women who delivered at health facilities (AOR 3.0 and women who had no problems related to breasts, like engorgement/cracked nipples (AOR 6.6 were more likely to exclusively breastfeed compared to others. Conclusions Prevalence of EBF in Kigoma municipality was slightly higher than the national figure of 41%, however it was way below the EBF prevalence of 90% recommended by the WHO. Strategies that target improving knowledge and skills for lactation management among women, as well as strategies to improve health facility delivery, may help to improve EBF in this setting.
Marshall, Joyce L; Godfrey, Mary; Renfrew, Mary J
Breastfeeding is not simply a technical or practical task but is part of the transition to motherhood, the relationship between mother and baby and the everyday experience of living with a new baby. Discussion of breastfeeding must therefore include the individual's personal and social context. This paper explores how women in England who have chosen to breastfeed their baby accomplish this task during the early stages of motherhood and the relative weight attached to different factors, which impinge on decision-making. Our findings, based on observing 158 interactions between breastfeeding women and midwives or health visitors from one Primary Care Trust in the north of England, UK, and in-depth interviews with a sample of 22 of these women, illustrate the dynamic between breastfeeding, becoming and being a 'good mother' and merging multiple identities as they embrace motherhood. In this context, the value attached to breastfeeding as synonymous with being a 'good mother' is questioned. In managing the balance between ensuring a healthy, contented baby and the reality of their daily lives, women negotiate the moral minefield that defines 'good mothering' and the diverse conceptions and influences that shape it--including health professionals, their social networks and the wider social and structural context of their lives. The implications for policy and practice are discussed.
Hill, P D
This study investigated effects of a prenatal breastfeeding education program on the success of breastfeeding among low-income pregnant women. The sample population was comprised of 64 subjects who delivered at a university hospital in the Midwest. A pretest and posttest were used to measure breastfeeding knowledge in the treatment group. Six weeks following delivery the subjects completed the Telephone Interview Survey (TIS) to determine their method of infant feeding and their perception of success at breastfeeding. Subjects in the treatment group were more knowledgeable about breastfeeding after instruction. However, there was no difference in breastfeeding duration and perception of success between subjects in the treatment and control groups.
Marina Ferreira Rea
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Pesquisas sobre a amamentação e a questão do trabalho da mulher são de difícil comparabilidade. A prática de amamentar entre mulheres com um emprego formal no Brasil tem sido pouco estudada, em que pesem as mudanças havidas como a extensão da licença maternidade para 120 dias. Decidiu-se realizar estudo com o objetivo de descrever o padrão de amamentação de mulheres empregadas em empresas, as limitações que elas enfrentam e que fatores contribuem para que elas possam conciliar trabalho e amamentação. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo exploratório realizado em 13 indústrias de São Paulo em 1994, onde todas as mulheres no terceiro trimestre da gestação (76 foram entrevistadas e reentrevistadas (69 na volta ao trabalho (em torno de 5,4 meses pós-parto. RESULTADOS: Iniciaram a amamentação 97% das mulheres, apresentando uma duração mediana de 150 dias; quanto ao Aleitamento Materno Exclusivo, a duração mediana foi de 10 dias, e à Amamentação Predominante, a mediana foi de 70 dias. As mulheres de melhor nível socioeconômico e as que tinham creche no local de trabalho ou sala de coleta e estocagem de leite materno, foram as que amamentaram por mais tempo. A possibilidade de flexibilizar seu horário e não trabalhar na linha de produção também mostraram ser fatores significantes que levam as mulheres dessas indústrias a amamentar mais. CONCLUSÕES: A licença-maternidade tem sido útil e usada pela maioria das trabalhadoras para amamentar, mas há outros fatores que são fundamentais para que a manutenção da lactação seja facilitada, tais como aqueles que permitem a proximidade mãe-criança e/ou a retirada periódica de leite materno durante a jornada de trabalho.INTRODUCTION: Studies carried out on breastfeeding and working women are difficult to compare. Breastfeeding practices among formally employed women in Brazil have not been much studied, despite important changes in public policies such as the
Ki, Eun Young; Han, Kyung Do; Park, Yong Gyu
Breast-feeding is associated with maternal health, such as electrolyte metabolism, lipid profile and body component change. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between duration of breast-feeding and obesity in postmenopausal women. We analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012, a cross-sectional study in a Korean population. A total of 6621 postmenopausal women were analyzed. Body mass index and waist circumference were greater in women who had breast-fed for 6 months or more than in those who had not (BMI: 23.7±0.1 vs 24.5±0.1, Pbreast-feeding tended to increase with increasing BMI and WC (P for trend, 0.001 for each). The proportions of women with greater BMI and WC increased with increasing duration of breast-feeding (27.3% in ≤6 months vs 41.2% in >18months, Pbreast-feeding may be associated with greater BMI and WC among postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tuthill, Emily L; Butler, Lisa M; Pellowski, Jennifer A; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Cusson, Regina M; Gable, Robert K; Fisher, Jeffrey D
Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) provides optimal nutrition for infants and mothers. The practice of EBF while adhering to antiretroviral medication decreases the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV from approximately 25 % to less than 5 %. Thus the WHO recommends EBF for the first 6 months among HIV-infected women living in resource-limited settings; however, EBF rates remain low. In the present study our aim was to design and implement a pilot intervention promoting EBF among HIV-infected women. The Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) model was applied in a brief motivational interviewing counselling session that was tested in a small randomized controlled trial. Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, at two comparable rural public health service clinics. Sixty-eight HIV-infected women in their third trimester were enrolled and completed baseline interviews between June and August 2014. Those randomized to the intervention arm received the IMB-based pilot intervention directly following baseline interviews. Follow-up interviews occurred at 6 weeks postpartum. While not significantly different between trial arms, high rates of intention and practice of EBF at 6-week follow-up were reported. Findings showed high levels of self-efficacy being significantly predictive of breast-feeding initiation and duration regardless of intervention arm. Future research must account for breast-feeding self-efficacy on sustaining breast-feeding behaviour and leverage strategies to enhance self-efficacy in supportive interventions. Supporting breast-feeding behaviour through programmes that include both individual-level and multi-systems components targeting the role of health-care providers, family and community may create environments that value and support EBF behaviour.
Swerts, Marlies; Westhof, Ellen; Bogaerts, Annick; Lemiengre, Joke
In 2003 the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that infants should be fed exclusively with breast milk until the age of six months. However, breast feeding rates remain lower than recommended. The crucial period for breast feeding support is the first two weeks after birth. During this period breast feeding support from the midwife is needed. The aim of this paper is to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of midwives in their support of breast-feeding women, from their own perspective. Two researchers independently conducted a systematic and comprehensive literature search. Studies needed an empirical qualitative research design (1), had to focus on the role of the midwife in the support of the breast-feeding woman from the midwife's perspective (2), and had to be published between January 2005 and December 2014 (3) in order to be included. Language restrictions were English, Dutch, German and French. Eight qualitative research studies were included, using mainly focus group and in-depth interview studies, which were reported in 11 papers representing 231 midwives and 24 maternity nurses. All but one study concerned midwives working in hospital settings. A critical appraisal was performed of each study. Midwives value breast feeding education and breast feeding support as a significant part of their role as a postnatal midwife. However, the ways in which a midwife approaches and supports the breast-feeding woman vary. We distinguished two perspectives: 'the midwife as technical expert' and 'the midwife as a skilled companion'. The 'technical expert' midwife is mainly breast centred, focuses on techniques, uses the hands on approach and sees a woman as a novice. The 'skilled companion' midwife is woman centred, focuses on the mother - infant relationship and uses a hands off approach during the breast feeding support. The midwives working in a hospital setting face many barriers when performing breast feeding support, such as time restraints, which
Forough Mortazavi; Seyed Abbas Mousavi; Reza Chaman; Ahmad Khosravi
Objectives. This study was conducted to determine whether maternal quality of life (QOL) and breastfeeding difficulties influence the continuation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Methods. In a survey, 358 consecutive pregnant women filled out a quality of life questionnaire in the third trimester of pregnancy and the breastfeeding experience scale at 4 weeks postpartum. We assessed breastfeeding practices every month up to 6 months postpartum. Results. Only 11.8% of women continued EBF at s...
Snyder, Kailey; Hansen, Kelli; Brown, Sara; Portratz, Amy; White, Kate; Dinkel, Danae
The majority of women are returning to work full-time after childbirth, and support within their place of employment may influence intention and duration for breastfeeding, but more research is needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the influence of employment type on breastfeeding duration upon return to work by examining informal (i.e., verbal encouragement) and direct (i.e., lactation space, flexible time) factors of support. This was a retrospective survey of women's returning-to-work experiences while breastfeeding. Survey contents included respondent demographics as well as questions surrounding perceptions of employer support, work environment, and goal/satisfaction regarding breastfeeding. Data were analyzed via crosstabs and chi-square goodness of fit tests. A total of 1,002 women completed the survey. Significant differences were seen across different employment types. Women within the professional/management industry were most likely to receive informal and direct support for breastfeeding upon return to work. Women within the service industry and production/transportation industry reported receiving the lowest levels of informal and direct support. Workplace support varies by employment type and women in the service and production/transportation industry appear to be at a disadvantage compared with other employment types. There is a need for more breastfeeding support programs to be developed that target specific workplace characteristics.
Lisa H. Amir
Full Text Available Table of contents A1. Infant feeding and poverty: a public health perspective in a global context Lisa H. Amir A2. Mothers’ experiences with galactagogues for lactation: an exploratory cross sectional study Alessandra Bazzano, Shelley Thibeau, Katherine P. Theall A3. The motherhood journey and breastfeeding: from self-efficacy to resilience and social stigma Anna Blair, Karin Cadwell A4. Breastfeeding as an evolutionary adaptive behavior Emily A. Bronson A5. Conflict-of-interest in public health policy: as real as that logo on your website Elizabeth C. Brooks A6. Co-opting sisterhood and motherhood: behind the scenes of Similac’s aggressive social media campaigns Jodine Chase A7. The exclusion of women from the definition of exclusive breastfeeding Ellen Chetwynd, Rebecca Costello, Kathryn Wouk A8. Healthy maternity policies in the workplace: a state health department’s experience with the “Bring Your Infant to Work” program Lindsey Dermid-Gray A9. Implications for a paradigm shift: factors related to breastfeeding among African American women Stephanie Devane-Johnson, Cheryl Woods Giscombe, Miriam Labbok A10. Social experiences of breastfeeding: building bridges between research and policy: an ESRC-funded seminar series in the UK Sally Dowling A11. Manager’s perspectives of lactation breaks Melanie Fraser A12. The challenging second night: a dialogue from two perspectives Jane Grassley, Deborah McCarter-Spaulding, Becky Spencer A13. The role of lactation consultants in two council breastfeeding services in Melbourne, Australia – some preliminary impressions Jennifer Hocking, Pranee Liamputtong A14. Integrating social marketing and community engagement concepts in community breastfeeding programs Sheree H. Keitt, Harumi Reis-Reilly A15. What happens before and after the maternity stay? Creating a community-wide Ten Steps approach Miriam Labbok A16. #RVABREASTFEEDS: cultivating a breastfeeding-friendly community Leslie Lytle A17
Kohlhuber, Martina; Rebhan, Barbara; Schwegler, Ursula; Koletzko, Berthold; Fromme, Hermann
Breastfeeding is the recommended feeding for all healthy infants. The aim of our study was to assess the current state of breastfeeding prevalence, duration and behaviour in Bavaria, Germany as a basis for targeting breastfeeding promotion measures. The Bavarian Breastfeeding Study is a prospective cohort study of 3822 mothers who delivered in April 2005 in Bavaria, Germany. Breastfeeding duration and determinants such as socioeconomic status, attitudes towards breastfeeding, birth mode and breastfeeding problems were assessed by questionnaires 2-6 d after birth and 2, 4, 6, and 9 months after birth. The initial breastfeeding rate was 90 %. After 4 months 61 % still breastfed (any breastfeeding). In the multivariate analyses the main influencing factor reducing breastfeeding initiation was the partner's negative attitude towards breastfeeding (OR 21.79; 95 % CI 13.46, 35.27). No initial breastfeeding was also associated with lower education, maternal grandmother's negative attitude and pre-term birth. Protective factors were primary breastfeeding experience and information on breastfeeding before birth. Breastfeeding duration breastfeeding problems (OR 7.56; 95 % CI 6.21, 9.19), smoking, lower education, partner's negative attitude and Caesarean section. Since the attitude of family members is an important influencing factor on breastfeeding rates, breastfeeding promotion should also target the partners of pregnant women and the families of newborn infants. Public health interventions such as more effective support for the management of breastfeeding problems, especially in lower social status families, should be implemented and their effectiveness should be critically evaluated.
Huang, Pan; Ren, Jianhua; Liu, Yi; Luo, Biru; Zhao, Xiufang
Breastfeeding is beneficial for both infant and mother, but discontinuation of breastfeeding is very common.To investigate maternal breastfeeding intention and the rate of breastfeeding based on the theory of reasoned action, and analyze the predominant factors associated with breastfeeding and breastfeeding problems.This observational study was conducted in 3 hospitals. Three researchers recruited women at 3 time points in the hospitals: initial documentation of pregnancy at the outpatient department, prenatal admission, and postpartum discharge. SPSS version 21 was used for statistical analyses. Significance was set at P breastfeeding problems. The multivariate analysis showed that nonsuccessful breastfeeding was associated with neonatal birth length, food intake before breastfeeding, infrequent sucking, the intention of breastfeeding, understanding level of the benefits of breastfeeding and that breastfeeding problems were related with the understanding level of the benefits of breastfeeding, neonatal birth length, normal vaginal delivery, breast size, the experience of breastfeeding, use of pacifier and the needs of family member's support in breastfeeding.Most mothers who intended to practice exclusive breastfeeding initially chose to add formula and had breastfeeding problems when discharged from hospital. Successful breastfeeding depends on antenatal and postnatal breastfeeding education and on support provided by healthcare professionals.
Sokol, Jennifer; Wackowski, Olivia; Lewis, M J
To examine the prevalence and content of pharmaceutical ads in demographically different women's magazines. A content analysis was conducted using one year's worth of 5 different women's magazines of varying age demographics. Magazines differed in the proportion of drug ads for different health conditions (eg, cardiovascular) and target audience by age demographic. Use of persuasive elements (types of appeals, evidence) varied by condition promoted (eg, mental-health drug ads more frequently used emotional appeals). Ads placed greater emphasis on direction to industry information resources than on physician discussions. Prevalence of pharmaceutical advertising in women's magazines is high; continued surveillance is recommended.
Full Text Available ... Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Addressing breastfeeding myths ... wish they knew before they started breastfeeding and how to work through those new-to-breastfeeding jitters. ...
Maria José Duarte Osis
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os fatores relacionados à decisão das mulheres em amamentar e a duração planejada e, de fato observada, do aleitamento exclusivo entre trabalhadoras que dispõem de creche na empresa. MÉTODOS: Estudo qualitativo no qual se comparou um grupo de 15 trabalhadoras cujos bebês estavam sendo alimentados apenas com leite materno quando começaram a freqüentar a creche da empresa com outro similar que incluía mulheres cujos bebês que, ao ingressar, já estavam recebendo, além do leite materno, outros alimentos. Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas e grupos focais. RESULTADOS: Evidenciaram-se como fatores relacionados à decisão de iniciar a amamentação e mantê-la ao retornar ao trabalho: o desejo de amamentar, embasado no valor que as mulheres dos dois grupos atribuíam ao aleitamento materno, bem como seus maridos e outras pessoas significativas (por exemplo: mãe, irmã, amigas. A duração do aleitamento exclusivo relacionou-se principalmente à orientação do pediatra que cuidava do bebê, que foi distinta em cada um dos grupos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: A existência da creche no local de trabalho aparece como elemento relevante para a manutenção do aleitamento após a licença de maternidade, especialmente o materno exclusivo. A decisão sobre quanto tempo amamentar de forma exclusiva esteve relacionada às informações recebidas acerca do assunto antes e durante a gestação, e no pós-parto. A diferença entre os dois grupos estudados foi que as mulheres que mantiveram o aleitamento exclusivo por quase seis meses acreditavam que quanto mais tempo dessem somente o leite materno, mais benefícios o bebê teria, enquanto as mulheres do outro grupo acreditavam que três meses de aleitamento exclusivo eram suficientes.OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors related to the decision of exclusive breastfeeding, and the planned and the actual duration among working women with free daycare available at workplace
Background: The prevalence of breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding is low globally in both developing and developed countries despite the promotion interventions on breastfeeding rates in early infancy. In Ethiopia, the proportion of women who practiced early breastfeeding initiation (EBI) and exclusive ...
Tsvetov, Gloria; Levy, Sigal; Benbassat, Carlos; Shraga-Slutzky, Ilana; Hirsch, Dania
Pregnancy and lactation have been associated with decline in bone mineral density (BMD). It is not clear if there is a full recovery of BMD to baseline. This study sought to determine if pregnancy or breast-feeding or both have a cumulative effect on BMD in premenopausal and early postmenopausal women. We performed single-center cohort analysis. Five hundred women aged 35-55 years underwent routine BMD screening from February to July 2011 at a tertiary medical center. Patients were questioned about number of total full-term deliveries and duration of breast-feeding and completed a background questionnaire on menarche and menopause, smoking, dairy product consumption, and weekly physical exercise. Weight and height were measured. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure spinal, dual femoral neck, and total hip BMD. Associations between background characteristics and BMD values were analyzed. Sixty percent of the women were premenopausal. Mean number of deliveries was 2.5 and mean duration of breast-feeding was 9.12 months. On univariate analysis, BMD values were negatively correlated with patient age (p=0.006) and number of births (p=0.013), and positively correlated with body mass index (pfeeding duration, but not number of deliveries, was significantly correlated to a low BMD (p=0.008). An effect was noted only in postmenopausal women. The spine was the most common site of BMD decrease. Prolonged breast-feeding may have a deleterious long-term effect on BMD and may contribute to increased risk of osteoporosis later in life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wong, Kevin; Patel, Punam; Cohen, Michael B; Levi, Jessica R
Breastfeeding difficulty from ankyloglossia can affect both the mother and baby in a breastfeeding dyad. With renewed emphasis in today's culture on breast milk, mothers may feel increasing pressure to breastfeed, and the inability for some to do so may cause significant distress. Recently, online parenting forums have seen exponential growth; these forums allow mothers to connect with peers undergoing similar life transitions. The purpose of this study was to review online discussions regarding ankyloglossia to understand mothers' experiences with breastfeeding. We performed an ethnographic content analysis of 76 online threads and 501 posts regarding ankyloglossia based on six domains: (1) initial expectations, (2) breastfeeding complications, (3) questions, (4) diagnosis, (5) treatment, and (6) outcomes. About one-fourth of women who participated in online forum discussions had initial expectations to breastfeed, however, many found it impossible due to poor latch or pain. Concerns were frequently exacerbated by healthcare providers who reportedly missed or overlooked ankyloglossia. Although these complications made breastfeeding a challenging experience, mothers often described both subjective and physical improvements after frenotomy. Breastfeeding difficulty was a commonly voiced concern in online ankyloglossia forums. Forum analysis is an effective way to gain insight into patients' experiences, which allows providers to anticipate concerns and provides more effective counseling.
Atabay, Efe; Moreno, Gonzalo; Nandi, Arijit; Kranz, Gabriella; Vincent, Ilona; Assi, Tina-Marie; Winfrey, Elise Marie Vaughan; Earle, Alison; Raub, Amy; Heymann, S Jody
Mothers who work away from home tend to stop breastfeeding earlier than their nonworking counterparts due to workplace barriers. Barriers to breastfeeding discriminate against women and may lead to inequities in children's health outcomes. Guaranteeing paid breastfeeding breaks at work is 1 mechanism that can improve mothers' opportunity to breastfeed in the workplace. This study aimed to assess the trends in the share of countries guaranteeing breastfeeding breaks in the workplace and paid maternal leave that lasts until the infant is 6 months old (the World Health Organization recommended duration for exclusive breastfeeding), between 1995 and 2014. Legislation and secondary source data were collected and reviewed for 193 United Nations member states. Legislation was analyzed for content on breastfeeding breaks and maternal leave guarantees. Fifty-one countries (26.7%) in 2014 did not guarantee breastfeeding breaks in any form and 4 countries provided only unpaid breaks or breaks that did not cover the first 6 months of life; since 1995, around 15 countries (10.2%) legislated for such a policy. In 2014, out of 55 countries that did not guarantee paid breastfeeding breaks for the first 6 months after birth, 7 countries guaranteed paid maternal leave for the same duration; 48 countries (25.1%) provided neither paid maternal leave nor paid breastfeeding breaks. Progress in the number of countries guaranteeing breastfeeding breaks at work is modest. Adopting measures to facilitate breastfeeding at work can be a critical opportunity for countries to increase breastfeeding rates among the growing number of women in the labor force. © The Author(s) 2014.
Hagmann, Stefan H F; Rao, Sowmya R; LaRocque, Regina C; Erskine, Stefanie; Jentes, Emily S; Walker, Allison T; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Chen, Lin H; Hamer, Davidson H; Ryan, Edward T
To study characteristics and preventive interventions of adult pregnant and breastfeeding travelers seeking pretravel health care in the United States. This cross-sectional study analyzed data (2009-2014) of pregnant and breastfeeding travelers seen at U.S. travel clinics participating in Global TravEpiNet. Nonpregnant, nonbreastfeeding adult female travelers of childbearing age were used for comparison. We evaluated the prescription of malaria chemoprophylaxis and antibiotics for this population as well as the administration of three travel-related vaccines: hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever. We also evaluated use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis and influenza vaccines, because these are widely recommended in pregnancy. Of 21,138 female travelers of childbearing age in Global TravEpiNet, 170 (0.8%) were pregnant and 139 (0.7%) were breastfeeding. Many traveled to destinations endemic for mosquito-borne illnesses, including malaria (pregnant: 95%; breastfeeding: 94%), dengue (pregnant: 87%; breastfeeding: 81%), or yellow fever (pregnant: 35%; breastfeeding: 50%). Compared with nonpregnant, nonbreastfeeding adult female travelers, eligible pregnant travelers were less likely to be vaccinated against hepatitis A (28% compared with 51%, P<.001) and typhoid (35% compared with 74%, P<.001). More than 20% of eligible pregnant travelers did not receive influenza vaccination. Yellow fever vaccine was occasionally provided to pregnant and breastfeeding travelers traveling to countries entirely endemic for yellow fever (6 [20%] of 30 pregnant travelers and 18 [46%] of 39 breastfeeding travelers). Half of pregnant travelers and two thirds of breastfeeding travelers preparing to travel to malaria-holoendemic countries received a prescription for malaria prophylaxis. Most pregnant and breastfeeding travelers seen for pretravel health consultations traveled to destinations with high risk for vector-borne or other travel-related diseases
Lord, Sarah J; Bernstein, Leslie; Johnson, Karen A; Malone, Kathleen E; McDonald, Jill A; Marchbanks, Polly A; Simon, Michael S; Strom, Brian L; Press, Michael F; Folger, Suzanne G; Burkman, Ronald T; Deapen, Dennis; Spirtas, Robert; Ursin, Giske
Background Early age at first birth and multiparity reduce the risk of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor (ERPR) positive breast cancer, whereas breastfeeding reduces the risk of both ERPR-positive and ERPR-negative cancers. Methods We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to investigate whether age at first birth (parity on risk of ERPR-positive and ERPR-negative cancer using 1457 incident breast cancer cases and 1455 controls aged ≥ 55 years who participated in the Women's Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences Study. Results Women who gave birth before age 25 years had a 36% reduced risk of breast cancer compared to nulligravida that was not observed for women who started their families at an older age (P heterogeneity=0.0007). This protective effect was restricted to ERPR-positive breast cancer (P heterogeneity=0.004). Late age at first birth increased the risk of ERPR-negative cancers. Additional births reduced the risk of ERPR-positive cancers among women with an early first birth (P trend=0.0001) and among women who breastfed (P trend=0.004), but not among older mothers or those who never breastfed. In women with a late first birth who never breastfed, multiparity was associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Conclusions These findings suggest that the effect of parity on a woman's long-term risk of breast cancer is modified by age at first full-term pregnancy and possibly by breastfeeding. PMID:18628424
Lord, Sarah J; Bernstein, Leslie; Johnson, Karen A; Malone, Kathleen E; McDonald, Jill A; Marchbanks, Polly A; Simon, Michael S; Strom, Brian L; Press, Michael F; Folger, Suzanne G; Burkman, Ronald T; Deapen, Dennis; Spirtas, Robert; Ursin, Giske
Early age at first birth and multiparity reduce the risk of estrogen receptor-progesterone receptor (ERPR)-positive breast cancer, whereas breastfeeding reduces the risk of both ERPR-positive and ERPR-negative cancers. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to investigate whether age at first birth ( or =25 years) and breastfeeding (ever/never) modify the long-term effect of parity on risk of ERPR-positive and ERPR-negative cancer using 1,457 incident breast cancer cases and 1,455 controls ages > or =55 years who participated in the Women's Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences Study. Women who gave birth before age 25 years had a 36% reduced risk of breast cancer compared with nulligravida that was not observed for women who started their families at an older age (P(heterogeneity) = 0.0007). This protective effect was restricted to ERPR-positive breast cancer (P(heterogeneity) = 0.004). Late age at first birth increased the risk of ERPR-negative cancers. Additional births reduced the risk of ERPR-positive cancers among women with an early first birth (P(trend) = 0.0001) and among women who breastfed (P(trend) = 0.004) but not among older mothers or those who never breastfed. In women with a late first birth who never breastfed, multiparity was associated with increased risk of breast cancer. These findings suggest that the effect of parity on a woman's long-term risk of breast cancer is modified by age at first full-term pregnancy and possibly by breastfeeding.
Hauff, Laura E; Leonard, Stephanie A.; Rasmussen, Kathleen M
Background: Psychosocial factors influence breastfeeding outcomes, but little is known about these characteristics and how they influence breastfeeding behavior of obese women, who are a group that experiences poor breastfeeding outcomes.
Hall- Lord Marie
Full Text Available Abstract Background Women's perceptions of quality of care during episodes of breast inflammation have been scantily explored. It was the objective of the present study to describe a cohort of breastfeeding women with inflammatory symptoms of the breast during lactation regarding demographical variables, illness history and symptoms at first contact with a breastfeeding clinic and to explore their physical health status, psychological well-being and perceptions of quality of care received, at a six-week postal follow-up. Methods This is a descriptive study set at a midwife-led breastfeeding clinic in Sweden, which included a cohort of women with 210 episodes of breast inflammation. The women had taken part in a RCT of acupuncture and care interventions and were recruited between 2002 and 2004. Of the total cohort, 176 (84 % responded to a postal questionnaire, six weeks after recovery. Results Of the 154 women for whom body temperature was recorded at the first visit, 80 (52% had fever ranging from 38.1°C to 40.7°C. There was no significant difference between those with favourable outcomes (5 or less contact days and those with less favourable outcomes (6 or more contact days for having fever or no fever at first contact. Thirty-six percent of women had damaged nipples. Significantly more women with a less favourable outcome (6 or more contact days had damaged nipples. Most women recovered well from the episode of breast inflammation and 96% considered their physical health and 97% their psychological well-being, to be good, six weeks after the episode. Those whose illness lasted 6 days or more showed less confidence in the midwives and in the care given to them. Twenty-one (12% women contacted health care services because of recurring symptoms and eight of the 176 responders (4.5% were prescribed antibiotics for these recurring symptoms. A further 46 women (26% of the responders reported recurring symptoms that they managed without recourse
Smith, Julie P
This introduction to a special issue on the economics of breastfeeding draws attention to the lack of economic justice for women. Human milk is being bought and sold. Commodifying and marketing human milk and breastfeeding risk reinforcing social and gender economic inequities. Yet there are potential benefits for breastfeeding, and some of the world?s poorest women might profit. How can we improve on the present situation where everyone except the woman who donates her milk benefits? Breastf...
Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L
BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding......) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: GWG was positively (P ... by that time in women with GWG values of approximately 12 kg, and that the possibility of major weight gain (>or=5 kg) could be reduced in all but the heaviest women. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding was associated with lower PPWR in all categories of prepregnancy BMI. These results suggest that, when combined...
Coetzee, Bronwynè; Tomlinson, Mark; Osawe, Sophia; Abimiku, Alash'le; Kagee, Ashraf
Objectives In Nigeria adherence to exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practices is currently suboptimal and a better understanding of the factors affecting adherence to EBF is needed. We sought to identify and delineate the barriers to and facilitators of adherence to EBF amongst HIV-infected and uninfected women in Nigeria. Methods We explored the barriers and facilitators to EBF amongst 37 (25 HIV-infected and 12 HIV-uninfected) pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Jos, Nigeria. In-depth interviews were conducted with each of the pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy and again 1 month after giving birth. Results The themes that emerged were mothers' feeding intentions, significant role players in the decision to breastfeed, perceived barriers (e.g. physiological issues, stigma, employment) and perceived facilitators (e.g. pleasure and enjoyment derived from breastfeeding, natural milk from God, disclosure and family support) associated with EBF. Conclusions Most women preferred EBF and offered it to their infants. However, more efforts are needed to improve support structures at home and at work to accommodate women who choose to do EBF.
Full Text Available Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC. Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breastfeeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breastfeeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.
Sharp, Mary; Campbell, Catherine; Chiffings, Debbie; Simmer, Karen; French, Noel
The extensive health benefits of breastfeeding preterm infants for both mother and infant have been widely reported. However, establishing and maintaining breastfeeding for very preterm (VP) infants remain challenging. The aim of this study was to examine changes in breastfeeding of VP infants over time. Breastfeeding questionnaires were administered to two cohorts of parents of VP infants (breastfeeding in C2 compared with those in C1 (65.6%) (pbenefits of breastfeeding were endorsed by more women in C2 (45.8%) compared with C1 (11.4%) (pbreastfeeding of the VP infant over time. This improvement was associated with attitudinal shifts in mothers about the benefits of breastfeeding.
Heymann, Sally Jody
Models the survival outcomes of children in developing countries born to women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are breast-fed, bottle-fed, and wet-nursed. Uses decision analysis to assess the relative risk of child mortality from HIV transmission and non-HIV causes associated with different methods of feeding. (FMW)
Females dominated the labour force in the electronics industries consisting of 72.3% compared to only 27.7% males. The most important aspect of this project is its eventual implications for policy and program formulation and industry evaluation. Keywords: Women Workers, Electronic Industry, Hazard Exposure, Content of ...
Hammer, Tonya R.
A feminist content analysis of 81 films was conducted as a means to assist mental health practitioners in guiding the career choices of young women and to explore the possibilities for change through this medium. The review of the 117 lead female characters revealed themes including: the idea that relationships should be secondary to careers in…
Al Ghazal, Hessa; Rashid, Shehnaz; Ruf, Evelyne
Breastfeeding promotion, protection, and support are one of the most cost-effective public health interventions to advance maternal and child health. The World Health Organization, the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, and numerous health organizations have recommended exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, which is a key indicator of breastfeeding promotion programs worldwide. Despite the recommendations and various initiatives to promote breastfeeding, most women do not reach the exclusive breastfeeding target in both developed and developing countries. Such has been the case in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Therefore, based on the decree for breastfeeding promotion, protection, and support by the ruler of the Emirate of Sharjah, UAE, H.H. Sheikh Doctor Sultan Al Qasimi, a multisectorial, multidirectional breastfeeding campaign--the Sharjah Baby-Friendly Campaign--was launched in March 2012 by H.E. Sheikha Bodour Al Qasimi, under her patronage. It consisted of four initiatives-namely, Baby-Friendly Health Facility, Mother-Friendly Workplace, Breastfeeding-Friendly Nursery, and Mother-Baby Friendly Public Place. Once an organization met the criteria for any of these initiatives, it was awarded the designation or accreditation of that initiative. The campaign initiatives worked through capacity building of healthcare workers, provided professional support and facilitation for the accreditation process, developed breastfeeding education content and resources, and organized and conducted breastfeeding promotion seminars in health facilities and community, as well as community outreach through social media and an innovative mobile mother' room. The positive impact of the campaign on breastfeeding promotion, protection, and support is evident by the increased exclusive breastfeeding rate at 6 months and decreased bottle feeding rates at both 4 and 6 months.
Pee, de, Saskia
Micronutrient deficiencies seriously hinder mental and physical development and are still an important cause of death in developing countries. Therefore, goals have been set worldwide for the year 2000: to eliminate deficiencies of vitamin A and iodine and to reduce prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in women by onethird of 1990 levels. Food-based approaches for the control of micronutrient deficiencies, using foods naturally rich in micronutrients and/or fortified foods, are pre...
May 20, 2015 ... Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV through breastfeeding and the Centers for Disease. Control's initial recommendation that HIV-infected women avoid breastfeeding their infants, threatened this key child health-promoting activity. Support for breastfeeding by HIV-infected women is steadily being ...
Monshi, Babak; Stockinger, Theresa; Vigl, Kornelia; Richter, Leo; Weihsengruber, Felix; Rappersberger, Klemens
Women who have undergone bariatric surgery are susceptible to nutritional deficiencies in subsequent pregnancies. We highlight the importance of dermatologists in the early recognition of cutaneous signs of malnutrition occurring in this specific clinical setting. We compare clinical characteristics of two young women with dermatological signs of combined post-gestational nutritional deficiencies following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Patient 1 exhibited follicular papules on the extremities, perianal eczema, perlèche, alopecia, and depigmentation of hair. Patient 2 showed erythematous plaques in genitoanal and acral areas, perlèche, diffuse alopecia, and depigmentation of hair. Based on clinical and histopathological findings, decreased vitamin A (patient 1) and zinc levels (patient 2), we diagnosed phrynoderma and acquired acrodermatitis enteropathica, respectively. Comparison of the two patients revealed that both (i) were lacking follow-up after gastric bypass surgery, (ii) developed skin lesions as primary symptoms with (iii) mixed clinical manifestations due to combined deficiencies, and (iv) experienced initial symptoms during lactation suggesting a causal relationship. Our observations highlight the potentially increased risk of women to develop post-gestational dermatological manifestations of malnutrition following bariatric surgery. The awareness of dermatologists with respect to this emerging, susceptible patient group may help avert damage to mother and child. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Karina Camillo Carrascoza
Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar e analisar a percepção de mães, que amamentaram seus filhos até que estes completassem seis meses de vida, em relação à prática do aleitamento materno. Foi realizado estudo quantitativo-qualitativo. A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio de entrevista semiestruturada e consulta aos prontuários clínicos de 101 mães participantes de um programa de incentivo ao aleitamento. A análise compreensiva dos discursos foi efetuada com base na técnica de análise de conteúdo, e como referencial metodológico utilizou-se a teoria das representações sociais. A experiência de amamentação demonstrou-se por meio de diversas facetas, agrupadas em cinco categorias: (1 "Realização/Satisfação", (2 "Apego", (3 "Crescimento/Saúde", (4 "Medo do desmame" e (5 "Paciência". As mães se referiram com maior frequência a situações relacionadas à sua realização e satisfação pessoal. Sendo assim, pode-se dizer que a experiência de amamentação, aos olhos das mães deste estudo, não se mostrou focada na criança. O trabalho pode fornecer subsídios para a compreensão do fenômeno da amamentação sob a percepção da mulher-mãe-nutriz, possibilitando a reformulação de atividades de incentivo ao aleitamento.The aim of the study was to characterize and to analyse mothers' perception of the breastfeeding practice among women who breastfed their children until six months of age. A quantitative-qualitative study was conducted. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and consultation to records of 101 mothers assisted by interdisciplinary program on breastfeeding promotion. The comprehensive analysis of the speeches was based on the Content Analysis and the Social Representation Theory was used as methodological reference. The breastfeeding experience representations were grouped in five categories such as: (1 "Fulfillment/Satisfaction", (2 "Attachment", (3 "Growth/Health", (4 "Fear of
Parkinson, Joy; Russell-Bennett, Rebekah; Previte, Josephine
This article demonstrates how social marketing insights were used to influence women's loyalty to breastfeeding. The article reports on a social marketing campaign undertaken by the Australian Breastfeeding Association and a government health department, which used a product development strategy in order to increase breastfeeding loyalty. Seeking new approaches to support breastfeeding behaviors is critical and timely, because while initiation rates of breastfeeding are high in developed countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and the United States, duration rates are significantly lower. Results indicate that a product- focused strategy influences pregnant women's loyalty to exclusively breastfeeding.
Full Text Available ... Overcoming breastfeeding challenges Dealing with lack of family support Is my baby getting enough milk? Breastfeeding in ... get a good latch Addressing breastfeeding myths Finding support Fitting it into your life My breastfeeding story ...
Full Text Available ... challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding support ... challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch View more ...
Ahmed, Azza; Bantz, Diana; Richardson, Clara
To assess breastfeeding knowledge among senior nursing students and identify the types of breastfeeding knowledge the students have. We also investigated the relationship between the different types of breastfeeding knowledge. An exploratory descriptive design used a convenience sample of 115 students from two schools of nursing in two Midwestern universities. Students who completed maternal/child nursing didactic and clinical courses were eligible to participate. A Breastfeeding Knowledge Questionnaire adapted from Brodribb, Fallon, Jackson, and Hegney (2008) was used. The questionnaire consisted of 24 items covering knowledge about benefits of breastfeeding, physiology of lactation, and breastfeeding management. Content and face validity were considered, and Cronbach's α for internal consistency was 0.70. Eligible students completed the questionnaire in class. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to describe student knowledge and to test the differences in breastfeeding knowledge. Findings revealed a mean knowledge score of 17 ± 2.9 (total possible score 24). There was a significant difference in the students' knowledge regarding physiology of lactation and benefits of breastfeeding (t = -3.615, p = .000) and between benefits and breastfeeding management (t = 5.255, p = .000). There was a positive relationship between knowledge of physiology of lactation and breastfeeding management (r = 0.369, p = .000). Strategies are warranted to improve breastfeeding education in the nursing curriculum, focusing on breastfeeding management skills.
Francisca Márcia Pereira Linhares
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study identified strategies for promoting breastfeeding involving pregnant women, breastfeeding women and actors of the social support network for the breastfeeding process. METHODS: This qualitative study was guided by action research and the focal group technique to collect data. Focal Group 1 consisted of four pregnant and six breastfeeding women; Focal Group 2 consisted of six family members; and Focal Group 3 consisted of thirteen health professionals. The focal groups were guided by the following questions: What breastfeeding promotion and support actions should be done? How should they be performed? Who should perform them? The conversation sunder went thematic content analysis and were interpreted in the light of Paulo Freire's theoretical constructs: dialogue, ethics and problematization. RESULTS: Four themes were emerged from the conversations: dialogue-based educational actions involving the social support network during the vital cycle; educational actions in schools; educational actions in the media; ongoing counseling at Family Health Units. CONCLUSION: The constructed strategies were centered on dialogue and active listening. Both should be present during the entire vital cycle and in the Family Health Strategy, and involve all actors of the social support network. These strategies may disrupt the unidirectional transmission of the educational practices that promote breastfeeding.
Breastfeeding behaviour is explored in Kenya using data collected in the town of Eldoret, Kenya. This paper specifically examines duration of exclusive breastfeeding among young mothers below 20 years of age as compared to older cohorts. Additionally, focus is laid on the effect of first time motherhood and breastfeeding difficulties on exclusive breastfeeding. Results show that Eldoret mothers are aware of benefits of breastfeeding; nevertheless, the mean duration for exclusive breastfeeding in this sample is 2.4 months. Higher durations of exclusive breastfeeding are associated with increasing age and first time motherhood. Predictably, breastfeeding difficulties bear a negative association with exclusive breastfeeding. While HIV is transmissible through breastfeeding, breast milk remains a vital source of nourishment for infants in Sub-Saharan Africa. More research on mothering should examine the changing socio-economic milieu and its influence on women's infant feeding decisions
Leeming, Dawn; Williamson, Iain; Johnson, Sally; Lyttle, Steven
Many women report difficulties with breastfeeding and do not maintain the practice for as long as intended. Although psychologists and other researchers have explored some of the difficulties they experience, fuller exploration of the relational contexts in which breastfeeding takes place is warranted to enable more in-depth analysis of the challenges these pose for breastfeeding women. The present paper is based on qualitative data collected from 22 first-time breastfeeding mothers through t...
Full Text Available Objective: Painful nipple fissure is a troublesome problem for breastfeeding mothers. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of saqez (Pistacia atlantica ointment on the improvement of nipple fissure in breastfeeding women during one-month follow-up. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 100 eligible women who visited the selected health centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, from July 2015 to December 2015 during their postpartum period. A total of 100 subjects were randomly divided into two equal groups of 50 women grouped as saqez ointment group and breast milk group, and followed-up for one month. Both groups received face-to-face instructions on breastfeeding techniques. For severity of nipple fissure, Storr scale and to measure the intensity of pain, visual analog scale (VAS were used. Results: The results showed that the two groups were matched in terms of demographic and obstetric characteristics. Mean of nipple fissure severity in ointment group (42.62 was lower than that of the control group (48.02, that was significantly different between the two groups (p=0.047. In addition, Mean nipple pain intensity in ointment group (40.57 was lower than that of the control group (49.81, but there was no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.056. Conclusion: The present study showed that saqez ointment was more effective than breast milk in healing and controlling nipple fissures during one-month follow-up, without resulting in any side effects.
Nichols, Jeni; Schutte, Nicola S.; Brown, Rhonda F.; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Price, Ian
Maternal self-efficacy for breast-feeding may contribute to success in breast-feeding. This study aimed to increase breast-feeding self-efficacy and actual breast-feeding through an intervention based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory. A total of 90 pregnant women participated in the study. The women who were assigned to a breast-feeding…
Ishak, Shareena; Adzan, Nur Azeanny M; Quan, Lee K; Shafie, M Hasli; Rani, Nor Azila; Ramli, Kazzoma G
A cross-sectional prospective study was performed to assess knowledge and attitude toward breastfeeding among mothers in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia and its influence on their breastfeeding practices. Two hundred thirteen women who had delivered healthy babies at term were enrolled. A structured questionnaire containing demographic data and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were used, followed by a telephone interview after 8 weeks to determine the feeding outcome. Women of Malay ethnicity with higher education level who had received breastfeeding counseling had a significantly more favorable attitude toward breastfeeding. Ethnicity was found to be a significant determinant in the success of breastfeeding, whereas returning to work was a major reason for discontinuing breastfeeding. In ensuring a successful breastfeeding practice, apart from knowledge and attitude, issues surrounding culture and traditions as well as improving deliverance of readily available support should be addressed.
Forhan, Sara E; Modi, Surbhi; Houston, James C; Broyles, Laura N
: In 2015, the WHO recommended universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all people living with HIV after two randomized controlled trials revealed lower rates of mortality and serious illnesses among people living with HIV receiving immediate ART compared with those receiving deferred ART. Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa rapidly adopted this guidance and are implementing 'test and start' programs.As this work begins, lessons learned from prevention of mother-to-child transmission Option B+ programs can inform decisions for new universal HIV treatment programs. The Option B+ approach involved initiation of lifelong treatment for all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women. Since its inception in Malawi in 2011 and WHO endorsement in 2012, widespread scale-up of Option B+ prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs in most resource-limited countries has resulted in a dramatic increase in ART coverage for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women.Despite the overall success of the Option B+ universal lifelong treatment approach, program and operational research data highlight the need for additional focus on strategies to retain women in care. In this commentary, we highlight program considerations and lessons learned from Option B+ implementation experience in resource-limited countries, which may help guide decisions and enhance the quality of general 'test and start' programing.
Chadambuka, Addmore; Katirayi, Leila; Muchedzi, Auxilia; Tumbare, Esther; Musarandega, Reuben; Mahomva, Agnes I; Woelk, Godfrey
Zimbabwe's Ministry of Health and Child Care (MOHCC) adopted 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) guidelines recommending initiation of HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women (PPBW) on lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) irrespective of clinical stage (Option B+). Option B+ was officially launched in Zimbabwe in November 2013; however the acceptability of life-long ART and its potential uptake among women was not known. A qualitative study was conducted at selected sites in Harare (urban) and Zvimba (rural) to explore Option B+ acceptability; barriers, and facilitators to ART adherence and service uptake. In-depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted with PPBW, healthcare providers, and community members. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated; data were coded and analyzed in MaxQDA v10. Forty-three IDIs, 22 FGDs, and five KIIs were conducted. The majority of women accepted lifelong ART. There was however, a fear of commitment to taking lifelong medication because they were afraid of defaulting, especially after cessation of breastfeeding. There was confusion around dosage; and fear of side effects, not having enough food to take drugs, and the lack of opportunities to ask questions in counseling. Participants reported the need for strengthening community sensitization for Option B+. Facilitators included receiving a simplified pill regimen; ability to continue breastfeeding beyond 6 months like HIV-negative women; and partner, community and health worker support. Barriers included distance of health facility, non-disclosure of HIV status, poor male partner support and knowing someone who had negative experience on ART. This study found that Option B+ is generally accepted among PPBW as a means to strengthen their health and protect their babies. Consistent with previous literature, this study demonstrated the
Hitt, Rose; Zhuang, Jie; Anderson, Jennifer
Despite numerous health benefits for babies and mothers, many women do not either initiate or continue breastfeeding for the recommended duration, and increasing breastfeeding is a national priority. It is important to understand media messages on the topic, given that breastfeeding is influenced by many environmental factors and that perceived norms, social support, and perceptions of difficulties predict breastfeeding. The current study analyzes how media covers (1) breastfeeding in general, (2) public breastfeeding, and (3) extended breastfeeding (past 1 year). Guided by the theory of planned behavior, this study analyzes 318 news articles sampled from 10 of the most commonly read mainstream newspapers from 2008-2013. This sample covers a wide range of topics related to breastfeeding, including health benefits, societal reform efforts, social/human interest stories, parenting choices, and stories about pumped breast milk and formula. The results indicate approving social norms by public health officials and medical professionals about breastfeeding in general. A significantly larger number of articles discussed positive behavioral beliefs associated with breastfeeding rather than negative behavioral beliefs. However, articles more often presented barriers, rather than factors that facilitate breastfeeding. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Garry, Aur?lia; Rigourd, Virginie; Amirouche, Ammar; Fauroux, Val?rie; Aubry, Sylvie; Serreau, Rapha?l
Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Zimbabwe’s Ministry of Health and Child Care (MOHCC adopted 2013 World Health Organization (WHO prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT guidelines recommending initiation of HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women (PPBW on lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART irrespective of clinical stage (Option B+. Option B+ was officially launched in Zimbabwe in November 2013; however the acceptability of life-long ART and its potential uptake among women was not known. Methods A qualitative study was conducted at selected sites in Harare (urban and Zvimba (rural to explore Option B+ acceptability; barriers, and facilitators to ART adherence and service uptake. In-depth interviews (IDIs, focus group discussions (FGDs and key informant interviews (KIIs were conducted with PPBW, healthcare providers, and community members. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated; data were coded and analyzed in MaxQDA v10. Results Forty-three IDIs, 22 FGDs, and five KIIs were conducted. The majority of women accepted lifelong ART. There was however, a fear of commitment to taking lifelong medication because they were afraid of defaulting, especially after cessation of breastfeeding. There was confusion around dosage; and fear of side effects, not having enough food to take drugs, and the lack of opportunities to ask questions in counseling. Participants reported the need for strengthening community sensitization for Option B+. Facilitators included receiving a simplified pill regimen; ability to continue breastfeeding beyond 6 months like HIV-negative women; and partner, community and health worker support. Barriers included distance of health facility, non-disclosure of HIV status, poor male partner support and knowing someone who had negative experience on ART. Conclusions This study found that Option B+ is generally accepted among PPBW as a means to strengthen their health and protect their babies
Chomchai, Chulathida; Chomchai, Summon; Kitsommart, Ratchada
Methamphetamine (MA) use by pregnant women remains a growing problem in South East Asia. After delivery, a negative maternal urine MA assay is assumed to reflect the absence of MA in breast milk and marks breastfeeding initiation. To date, no data exist that describe the relationship between the peripartum and postpartum transfer of MA into breast milk and its urinary excretion in women, following recreational use by smoking. This study aimed to determine the pharmacokinetic of smoked MA in breast milk and its relationship to urinary MA excretion in postpartum women who tested positive for MA before delivery. Timed urine and breast milk samples of 33 women who had positive urine drug screens for MA prior to delivery were analyzed for MA using Acquity Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (Waters, Milford, Massachusetts, USA) with the ACQUITY UPLC Photodiode Array Detector (Waters). Those participants with 4 or more timed breast milk samples were included for pharmacokinetic calculation using log-linear trapezoidal rule. Pharmacokinetic data from 2 women were analyzed. The half-life values for MA in the breast milk were 11.3 and 40.3 hours. The absolute infant doses were 21.3 and 51.7 µg/kg/day. Methamphetamine disappears from breast milk approximately 1 day before the maternal urine MA becomes negative. Smoked MA shows a similar breast milk pharmacokinetic pattern to previously reported intravenous MA. Breastfeeding can be safely initiated in mothers whose urine MA screen has turned negative for ≥ 24 hours. However, concurrent maternal substance use treatment and screening is necessary for continued promotion of lactation. © The Author(s) 2015.
Thomas-Jackson, Shera C; Bentley, Gail E; Keyton, Kristina; Reifman, Alan; Boylan, Mallory; Hart, Sybil L
Research continues to demonstrate that formula feeding is associated with numerous long-term negative outcomes for a mother and her infant. However, many women cease breastfeeding sooner than intended and recommended. Breastfeeding has been found to be related to demographics, maternal mood, and returning to work outside the home. This study aimed to shed light on the woman's perception of the effect of working on intended breastfeeding duration. This study used intentions to return to work and in-hospital breastfeeding to predict breastfeeding intentions. Women (N = 160) were surveyed during the first 48 hours postdelivery of healthy, full-term infants. Survey instruments included demographics (socioeconomic status, maternal age, education, and marital status), depression, fetal attachment, current exclusive breastfeeding status, as well as breastfeeding and return-to-work intentions for the next year. A path analysis was used to explore relationships and predictors of breastfeeding intentions. The model had a good fit and breastfeeding intentions were predicted by exclusive breastfeeding in the hospital (β = 0.21, P work (β = -0.18, P work influence how long a mother intends to breastfeed. Attention to these areas can be provided immediately postpartum to support exclusive breastfeeding and provide informational support on continuing to breastfeed/express milk upon return to work if the mother intends to return to work.
Kenneth K Mugwanya
Full Text Available As pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP becomes more widely used in heterosexual populations, an important consideration is its safety in infants who are breastfed by women taking PrEP. We investigated whether tenofovir and emtricitabine are excreted into breast milk and then absorbed by the breastfeeding infant in clinically significant concentrations when used as PrEP by lactating women.We conducted a prospective short-term, open-label study of daily oral emtricitabine-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate PrEP among 50 HIV-uninfected breastfeeding African mother-infant pairs between 1-24 wk postpartum (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02776748. The primary goal was to quantify the steady-state concentrations of tenofovir and emtricitabine in infant plasma ingested via breastfeeding. PrEP was administered to women through daily directly observed therapy (DOT for ten consecutive days and then discontinued thereafter. Non-fasting peak and trough samples of maternal plasma and breast milk were obtained at drug concentration steady states on days 7 and 10, and a single infant plasma sample was obtained on day 7. Peak blood and breast milk samples were obtained 1-2 h after the maternal DOT PrEP dose, while maternal trough samples were obtained at the end of the PrEP dosing interval (i.e., 23 to 24 h after maternal DOT PrEP dose. Tenofovir and emtricitabine concentrations were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS assays. Of the 50 mother-infant pairs enrolled, 48% were ≤12 wk and 52% were 13-24 wk postpartum, and median maternal age was 25 y (interquartile range [IQR] 22-28. During study follow-up, the median (IQR daily reported frequency of infant breastfeeding was 15 times (12 to 18 overall, 16 (14 to 19 for the ≤12 weeks, and 14 (12 to 17 for the 13-24 wk infant age groups. Overall, median (IQR time-averaged peak concentrations in breast milk were 3.2 ng/mL (2.3 to 4.7 for tenofovir and 212.5 ng/mL (140.0 to 405.0 for
Jordyn T. Wallenborn
Full Text Available Introduction. Breastfeeding is recognized as one of the best ways to decrease infant mortality and morbidity. However, women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM may have breastfeeding barriers due to the increased risk of neonatal and pregnancy complications. While the prevalence of GDM is increasing worldwide, it is important to understand the full implications of GDM on breastfeeding outcomes. The current study aims to investigate the (1 direct effect of GDM on breastfeeding duration and (2 indirect effect of GDM on breastfeeding duration through perceived benefits of breastfeeding. Methods. Prospective cohort data from the Infant Feeding and Practices Study II was analyzed (N=4,902. Structural equation modeling estimated direct and indirect effects. Results. Perceived benefits of breastfeeding directly influenced breastfeeding duration (β=0.392, p≤0.001. GDM was not directly associated with breastfeeding duration or perceived benefits of breastfeeding. Similarly, GDM did not have an indirect effect on breastfeeding duration through perceived benefits of breastfeeding. Conclusions. Perceived benefits of breastfeeding are an important factor associated with breastfeeding duration. Maternal and child health care professionals should enhance breastfeeding education efforts.
Grzunov Letinić, Judita; Matek Sarić, Marijana; Piasek, Martina; Jurasović, Jasna; Varnai, Veda Marija; Sulimanec Grgec, Antonija; Orct, Tatjana
Pregnant and lactating women and infants are vulnerable population groups for adverse effects of toxic metals due to their high nutritional needs and the resultant increased gastrointestinal absorption of both, essential and toxic elements. Although breastfeeding is recommended for infants worldwide, as human milk is the best source of nutrients and other required bioactive factors, it is also a pathway of maternal excretion of toxic substances including toxic metals and thus a source of infant exposure. The aim of this research was to assess health risks in breastfeeding women in the coastal area of the Republic of Croatia and their infants (N=107) due to maternal exposure to Cd and Pb via cigarette smoking, and Hg via seafood and dental amalgam fillings, and their interaction with essential elements. Biological markers of exposure were the concentrations of main toxic metals Pb, Cd and Hg in maternal blood and three types of breast milk throughout lactation stages. Biological markers of effects were the levels of essential elements Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in maternal serum and breast milk. With regard to cigarette smoking as a source of exposure to Cd and Pb, there were effects of smoking on Cd concentration in blood and correlations between the smoking index and Cd concentrations in maternal blood (ρ=0.593; Pwomen and their infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Giles, Audrey R; Phillipps, Breanna; Darroch, Francine E; McGettigan-Dumas, Roisin
Elite female distance runners lack guidelines regarding breastfeeding while training at a high intensity. The purpose of this research was to understand how elite female distance runners manage breastfeeding. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 women who had had at least one pregnancy within the past 5 years and had achieved a minimum of the USA Track and Field 2012 Olympic Trials "B" entry standard for running for the marathon or equivalent performance for 1,500 m or longer. Using thematic analysis, we identified the following themes: breastfeeding as a barrier to training and competition, limited access to relevant breastfeeding information, and concerns for the baby's health. Our findings show that despite the considerable barriers with which these women contend, they breastfed at higher rates and for longer duration than members of the general public. Based on our findings, we argue that elite female distance runners' experiences of breastfeeding would be enhanced if more research were conducted on breastfeeding practices while training and competing at an elite level.
Sandes, Ana Rita; Nascimento, C; Figueira, J; Gouveia, R; Valente, S; Martins, S; Correia, S; Rocha, E; Da Silva, L J
Breastfeeding is the best way of feeding the baby for the first six months of life. However, in Portugal the abandonment rate of breastfeeding is very high during the baby first's months of life. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of breastfeeding and to identify related factors during the six months after delivery, as socio demographic variables and life styles. We conducted a cohort study at the Maternity of the Hospital Santa Maria. A standard questionnaire was applied to 475 women after delivery, at three and six months postpartum. We studied socio demographics aspects, life styles and the way of feeding during the six months after delivery. Multivariate analysis was performed. The women studied (mean age of 29.8 +/- 5,4 years), 52.2% were primiparous, 86.1% were Caucasian, 40% had a high school degree and 33% had a University degree. Four hundred and sixty (96.8%) received prenatal care. The mean gestational age was 38.8 +/- 2 weeks and the birth weight was 3198.3 +/- 545.3 g. At the discharge 91% were breastfeeding (77% exclusively), 54.7% at third month and 34.1% at sixth month. The main causes pointed for abandoning breastfeeding were insufficient milk production, bad sucking and return to work. The milk formula introduction was in 68.6% cases by medical recommendation. The decision in maintenance breastfeeding at third and sixth months was correlated with a previous positive breastfeed experience, high educational level, healthy lifestyles, as non-smoking, regular physical activity, and information about advantage of breastfeed for mother health. Information about breastfeeding was received by media, friends, family and only 9% by health professionals. Fifty (13%) women had no information about breastfeeding. Although breastfeeding rate at discharge was high, there was an important rate of abandonment at third and sixth month. Healthy lifestyles, high educational level, a previous positive breastfeed experience had a positive influence in
Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen; Cong, Zhen; Hale, Thomas W
Women with a history of sexual assault are at increased risk for sleep difficulties and depression in their first year of motherhood. Breastfeeding improves sleep parameters and lowers risk of depression for women in general. However, it is unknown whether breastfeeding is related to maternal depression, sleep quality, and maternal well-being in sexual assault survivors. We examined the association between sexual assault and several indices of sleep, depression, and maternal well-being in a large sample of sexual assault survivors in the first year postpartum. We also explored whether feeding method was related to our outcome variables for both sexually assaulted and non-assaulted women. A sample of 6,410 mothers of infants 0-12 months old participated in the online Survey of Mothers' Sleep and Fatigue; 994 women had a history of sexual assault. As predicted, women with a history of sexual assault had a number of sleep difficulties, increased risk of depression, and overall poorer subjective well-being than their non-assaulted counterparts. However, sexual assault survivors who were breastfeeding were at lower risk on all of the sleep and depression parameters than sexual assault survivors who were mixed or formula feeding. Sexual assault has a pervasive negative effect on new mothers' sleep quality and risk of depression. However, these negative effects were less severe for the breastfeeding mothers than they were for the mixed- or formula-feeding mothers.
that was extracted from the women's database. Results: The overall rates of exclusive and full breastfeeding were 49.0% and 68.2% respectively. Maternal ... atopic eczema, and allergy during childhood (2, 5, 6). In resource poor countries, where the negative impact of. HIV/AIDS is high, exclusive breastfeeding for the first.
Sipsma, Heather L; Magriples, Urania; Divney, Anna; Gordon, Derrick; Gabzdyl, Elizabeth; Kershaw, Trace
Despite a substantial amount of evidence on breastfeeding among non-adolescent mothers, research and strategies uniquely designed to target adolescent mothers are critical because their rates of breastfeeding are disproportionately low and their transition to parenthood is often unlike that of older mothers. Literature to date, however, offers limited evidence for designing effective interventions. Therefore, we aimed to fill this gap in the literature by examining breastfeeding behaviors among a cohort of female adolescents as they transition to parenthood. Data were derived from a longitudinal cohort of pregnant adolescent females (ages 14-21 years) and their male partners, observed from pregnancy through 6 months postpartum. Means and frequencies were used to describe breastfeeding experiences, breastfeeding behaviors, and sociodemographic characteristics. We used multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models to identify factors independently associated with breastfeeding initiation, exclusive breastfeeding, and breastfeeding duration. Approximately 71% initiated breastfeeding. Intending to breastfeed, having had complications in labor and delivery, and lower social support were associated with greater odds of breastfeeding initiation. Of the adolescent mothers who initiated breastfeeding, 84% had stopped by 6 months postpartum; among those, average breastfeeding duration was 5 weeks. Participants who exclusively breastfed had longer breastfeeding duration, and participants who had experienced intimate partner violence had shorter breastfeeding duration. Obese women and women who had more difficulty breastfeeding had lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding. Enhanced clinical support and the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding should be considered when designing interventions to improve breastfeeding rates among adolescent mothers. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jordyn T. Wallenborn; Perera, Robert A.; Masho, Saba W.
Introduction. Breastfeeding is recognized as one of the best ways to decrease infant mortality and morbidity. However, women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may have breastfeeding barriers due to the increased risk of neonatal and pregnancy complications. While the prevalence of GDM is increasing worldwide, it is important to understand the full implications of GDM on breastfeeding outcomes. The current study aims to investigate the (1) direct effect of GDM on breastfeeding duration ...
Full Text Available The South African Department of Health is justified in withdrawing support for free infant formula. By so doing, it recognises that any intervention that might detract from breast feeding poses a serious threat to infant survival. Since evidence is now strong that antiretroviral drugs used during lactation prevent transmission of infection from a seropositive mother, strategies that promote breastfeeding can now be recommended for enhancing the health of mothers and infants.
Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is the unique source of nutrition and it plays an important role in the growth, development and survival of the infants. The initiation of breastfeeding within one hour and continuation of only breast milk up to six months ensure maximum benefits. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Bangladesh is 56% which is low. We designed this study to find out the factors influencing the duration of breastfeeding in Bangladeshi population. Objective: To study the factors influencing noncompliance to exclusive breastfeeding. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Dhaka Shishu Hospital during the period January to June 2011. It includes 125 infant (1–12 months-mother pairs randomly selected from the inpatient and outpatient departments of Dhaka Shishu Hospital. Mother-infant pairs were divided into two groups based on continuation of only breastfeeding up to six months. Outcomes were compared between two groups. Results: In this study exclusive breastfeeding was found in 27.2% and nonexclusive breastfeeding was in 72.8% cases. It was found that in most cases (40% termination of breastfeeding was at 3--4 months. The study revealed that insufficient milk production due to poor position and attachment, social factors such as influence of husband and other family members, joining to service etc act as barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. Mass media and advice from health professionals had a higher influence on lower rate of exclusive breastfeeding. Women who were multiparous, housewives were more likely to maintain optimal breastfeeding. Conclusion: The present study reveals some important factors contributing to low rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Bangladesh.
Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Dieterich, Christine M; Zelek, Sarah T; Altabet, Jaime D; Kjolhede, Chris L
Maternal obesity is associated with poor breastfeeding outcomes, yet no intervention has been developed to improve them. To ascertain whether increased breastfeeding support or provision of a breast pump is a feasible, effective intervention to improve breastfeeding, we enrolled obese women who intended to breastfeed in two randomized trials. In Bassett Improving Breastfeeding Study (BIBS) 1, 40 women received targeted breastfeeding support in the hospital and via telephone or usual care. Information regarding breastfeeding was collected via telephone for 7 days after delivery and at 30 and 90 days postpartum. In BIBS 2, 34 obese mothers received a manual or electric breast pump to use for 10-14 days or no pump; data collection was similar. In both experiments, randomization failed to distribute women of differing postpartum body mass index adequately among the treatment groups. When analyses were adjusted for this, there was no difference in BIBS 1 between targeted and usual care groups and in BIBS 2 among the treatment groups in the proportion of women still breastfeeding at the times studied. In future studies of obese women, stratified randomization may be necessary. Further development of interventions to help obese women achieve optimal breastfeeding outcomes is required.
Eric Nagaonlé Somé
Full Text Available Breastfeeding is recommended for infants born to HIV-infected women in low-income settings. Both breastfeeding and HIV-infection are energy demanding. Our objective was to explore how exclusive and predominant breastfeeding changes body mass index (BMI among breastfeeding HIV1-positive women participating in the ANRS12174 trial (clinical trial no NCT0064026.HIV-positive women (n = 1 267 with CD4 count >350, intending to breastfeed HIV-negative infants were enrolled from Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia and counselled on breastfeeding. N = 1 216 were included in the analysis. The trial compared Lamivudine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir as a peri-exposure prophylaxis. We ran a linear mixed-effect model with BMI as the dependent variable and exclusive or predominant breastfeeding duration as the key explanatory variable.Any breastfeeding or exclusive/predominant breastfeeding was initiated by 99.6% and 98.6% of the mothers respectively in the first week after birth. The median (interquartile range: IQR duration of the group that did any breastfeeding or the group that did exclusive /predominant breastfeeding were 9.5 (7.5; 10.6 and 5.8 (5.6; 5.9 months, respectively. The median (IQR age, BMI, CD4 count, and HIV viral load at baseline (day 7 were 27 (23.3; 31 years, 23.7 (21.3; 27.0 kg/m2, 530 (432.5; 668.5 cells/μl and 0.1 (0.8; 13.71000 copies/mL, respectively. No major change in mean BMI was seen in this cohort over a 50-week period during lactation. The mean change between 26 and 50 weeks after birth was 0.7 kg/m2. Baseline mean BMI (measured on day 7 postpartum and CD4 count were positively associated with maternal BMI change, with a mean increase of 1.0 kg/m2 (0.9; 1.0 per each additional baseline-BMI kilogram and 0.3 kg/m2 (0.2; 0.5 for each additional CD4 cell/μl, respectively.Breastfeeding was not negatively correlated with the BMI of HIV-1 infected Sub-Saharan African mothers. However, a higher baseline BMI and a CD4 count >500
Background: This paper describes and compares breastfeeding outcomes of the Delta Healthy Sprouts participants during gestational and postnatal periods. Of specific interest was whether breastfeeding intent, knowledge, and beliefs changed from early to late gestational period. Additionally, breas...
Beake, Sarah; Pellowe, Carol; Dykes, Fiona; Schmied, Virginia; Bick, Debra
Joanna Briggs Institute. Two independent reviewers conducted critical appraisal and data extraction. Twenty-six articles were included; one randomised controlled trial, two non randomised trials, one cross-sectional study, five systematic reviews, 15 cohort studies and two descriptive studies. Due to the poor quality of evidence presented and clinical and methodological heterogeneity of study designs, including definitions of breastfeeding and duration of follow-up, it was not possible to combine studies or individual outcomes in meta-analyses, therefore findings are presented in a narrative form.In most studies the structured programme of interest reflected some or all of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative 'Ten Steps'. Most studies found a statistically significant improvement in initiation of breastfeeding following introduction of a structured breastfeeding programme, although effect sizes varied widely.The impact of introducing a structured programme on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and duration of any breastfeeding was also evident, although not all studies found statistically significant differences. At hospital discharge or within the first week post-birth, implementation of a structured programme appeared to increase duration of exclusive breastfeeding and the duration of any breastfeeding compared with usual care. After hospital discharge and up to six months post-birth, use of structured programmes also appeared to support continued duration of exclusive and any breastfeeding although differences in outcomes were not reported across all included studies. At six months, three of five studies which included data on longer-term outcomes showed women were statistically significantly more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding. Only one of these studies compared outcomes following implementation of BFHI. Despite the poor overall quality of studies, structured programmes, regardless of content, compared with standard care appear to influence the uptake
Camila Daiane Silva
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the representational contents of domestic violence against women among nursing students. This is a qualitative research, based on the Theory of Social Representations. We collected the data from August to November/2014 by semi-structured interviews, analyzed by software. Thirty-three students participated, 16 from the initial grades and 17 from the final grades. We identified two categories: representational content acquired in the pre-university and university years. The initial grades listed high school, cases with family members and colleagues. Among the final grades, knowledge was acquired during academic weeks, research groups, practical activities, and internships. The knowledge of common sense is constant, especially between the students of initial grades and the reified, between the final series. The actions of the future professional life can base on personal experiences, reified common sense knowledge, and practical knowledge generated during graduation. It highlights the impact on training to provide assistance to women/persons in situations of violence.
Ahmed, Saeed; Kim, Maria H; Abrams, Elaine J
Considerable debate has emerged on whether Option B+ (B+), initiation of lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women, is the best approach to achieving elimination of mother-to-child-transmission. However, direct evidence and experience with B+ is limited. We review the current evidence informing the proposed benefits and potential risks of the B+ approach, distinguishing individual health concerns for mother and child from program delivery and public health issues. For mothers and infants, B+ may offer significant benefits for transmission prevention and maternal health. However, several studies raise concerns about the safety of ART exposure to fetuses and infants, as well as adherence challenges for pregnant and breastfeeding mothers. For program delivery and public health, B+ presents distinct advantages in terms of transmission prevention to uninfected partners and increased simplicity potentially improving program feasibility, access, uptake, and retention in care. Despite being more costly in the short-term, B+ will likely be cost effective over time. This review provides a detailed analysis of risks and benefits of B+. As national programs adopt this approach, it will be critical to carefully assess both short-term and long-term maternal and infant outcomes.
I. Yu. Kapralova
Full Text Available Study objective: to study the adipokines content and echocardiography indicators of women with hypothyroidism.Materials and methods. 30 women with hypothyroidism were included into the study with the average age of 55.2 ± 2.2 years old and the duration of disease of 8.53 ± 0.84 years. Anthropometric parameters of all patients were measured. Levels of leptin, resistin, adiponectin were investigated with enzyme multiplied immunoassay. Morphometric parameters of the left ventricle (LV were assessed with echocardiography.Results. The examined patients with hypothyroidism displayed increased concentration of leptin and resistin, as well as decreased concentration of adiponectin. Concentric and eccentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle is revealed in more than half of cases with patients with the hypofunction of the thyroid gland.Conclusion. Evident decreasing of the level of adiponektin and increasing of the level of leptin and resistin was revealed with examined patients on the background of the excessive body weight. Hypertrophy of the left ventricle and diastolic dysfunction of the myocard with its relatively preserved contractile ability was revealed with women that suffer from hypothyroidism. Age, excessive body weight, increasing of arterial blood pressure, and hypoadiponectinemia play a significant role in the left ventricle myocardial remodeling.
I. Yu. Kapralova
Full Text Available Study objective: to study the adipokines content and echocardiography indicators of women with hypothyroidism.Materials and methods. 30 women with hypothyroidism were included into the study with the average age of 55.2 ± 2.2 years old and the duration of disease of 8.53 ± 0.84 years. Anthropometric parameters of all patients were measured. Levels of leptin, resistin, adiponectin were investigated with enzyme multiplied immunoassay. Morphometric parameters of the left ventricle (LV were assessed with echocardiography.Results. The examined patients with hypothyroidism displayed increased concentration of leptin and resistin, as well as decreased concentration of adiponectin. Concentric and eccentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle is revealed in more than half of cases with patients with the hypofunction of the thyroid gland.Conclusion. Evident decreasing of the level of adiponektin and increasing of the level of leptin and resistin was revealed with examined patients on the background of the excessive body weight. Hypertrophy of the left ventricle and diastolic dysfunction of the myocard with its relatively preserved contractile ability was revealed with women that suffer from hypothyroidism. Age, excessive body weight, increasing of arterial blood pressure, and hypoadiponectinemia play a significant role in the left ventricle myocardial remodeling.
... topics covered in each of the materials. FATHERS CAN SUPPORT BREASTFEEDING Poster - FNS 354 Be a Part ... following topics: Why Should Fathers Encourage Breastfeeding? How Can Fathers Be a Part of the Breastfeeding Team? ...
Full Text Available ... size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work ... Enter email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural > Planning ahead The benefits of breastfeeding YouTube embed video: ...
... milk ducts; Nipple soreness when breastfeeding; Breastfeeding - overcoming problems; Let-down reflex ... few minutes before breastfeeding can help avoid this problem. A clean, wet washcloth from the refrigerator works ...
Srinivas, Ganga L; Benson, Mary; Worley, Sarah; Schulte, Elaine
Whereas breastfeeding initiation rates have risen in all groups throughout the country, rates of breastfeeding duration have changed more slowly. Peer counseling has had some success in sustaining breastfeeding, but with intensive programs and variable effects. We aimed to improve rates of any and exclusive breastfeeding at 1 and 6 months using a low-intensity peer counseling intervention beginning prenatally. We also planned to study the interaction of breastfeeding attitude and self-efficacy with the intervention. One hundred twenty prenatal women underwent stratified randomization based on breastfeeding attitude, measured by the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS). The peer counselor contacted the intervention group by telephone or in clinic up to 4 months postdelivery. Study groups were compared on breastfeeding outcomes, adjusting for IIFAS strata, and on interactions with self-efficacy. One hundred three women were followed to at least 1 month. Women with positive attitudes had significantly higher rates of initiation (93% vs 61%) and breastfeeding at 1 and 6 months (79% vs 25% and 12% vs 0%, respectively) than those with negative attitudes, regardless of intervention. After adjusting for self-efficacy, women who received peer counseling had significantly higher breastfeeding rates at 1 month (odds ratio = 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-9.8). The intervention group was marginally more likely to achieve their breastfeeding goal (43% vs 22%, P = .073). Breastfeeding rates in all women improved during the study period. Breastfeeding attitude was more strongly associated with breastfeeding behavior than peer support. Peer counseling supported women with low self-efficacy and helped women achieve their breastfeeding goals. © The Author(s) 2014.
Sanchez, Ninive; Jones, Hillary
Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major public health problem that affects women?s physical and mental health. According to the US National Institutes of Health Office of Disease Prevention, there is a need to improve public awareness of the syndrome among health care providers and the public. Women?s magazines are a type of ?edutainment? that publish health content in addition to beauty, fashion, and entertainment content. These media have the potential to expose primarily fem...
Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per
While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5-6% of the weight-adjusted maternal dose, and even in a theoretical case of binge drinking, the children would not be subjected to clinically relevant amounts of alcohol. Newborns metabolize alcohol at approximately half the rate of adults. Minute behavioural changes in infants exposed to alcohol-containing milk have been reported, but the literature is contradictory. Any long-term consequences for the children of alcohol-abusing mothers are yet unknown, but occasional drinking while breastfeeding has not been convincingly shown to adversely affect nursing infants. In conclusion, special recommendations aimed at lactating women are not warranted. Instead, lactating women should simply follow standard recommendations on alcohol consumption. © 2013 Nordic Pharmacological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Milk not being enough was the main reason why women did not exclusively breastfeed. The preferred duration of breastfeeding was 18 months in 58% of the women and the main source of information was the health facilities for 48% of the women. The results from this study showed that women have increased knowledge ...
Jeanie L. Flood
Before any breastfeeding promotion effort, an understanding of the existing breastfeeding patterns is essential. Hawai‘i County is a rural, ethnically diverse, medically underserved community. The purpose of this study was to describe the breastfeeding patterns of women living in Hilo, Hawai‘i. Data from several existing national, state, and local data sets were accessed to identify and describe the breastfeeding patterns of women in this community. Available breastfeeding data about women in...
Mathews, Meagan E; Leerkes, Esther M; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Labban, Jeffrey D
Many US women fall short of meeting the recommendations on breastfeeding. Whereas prenatal demographic factors have been well researched in relation to breastfeeding, psychosocial maternal characteristics are less understood but could be important predictors of breastfeeding initiation and duration. This study examined primiparous maternal psychosocial characteristics and temperamentally based negative infant affect as predictors of breastfeeding initiation and duration while accounting for depression and sociodemographic covariates. Prenatally, 237 primiparous women were administered the Adult Attachment Interview and completed a measure of beliefs related to infant crying. At 6 months postpartum, negative infant affect was assessed via mother report. Breastfeeding was assessed at 6 months and 1 year postpartum via mother report. Results indicated that younger, low income, less educated, single, ethnic minority mothers and mothers with elevated depressive symptoms were less likely to initiate breastfeeding and breastfed for a shorter period than other women. Women who initiated breastfeeding tended to have higher adult attachment coherence scores (more secure attachment) than those who did not initiate breastfeeding (median score of 6.00 vs 4.00). An interaction was observed between negative infant affect and beliefs about crying related to spoiling, such that earlier cessation of breastfeeding was observed among mothers who reported high levels of negative infant affect and strongly endorsed the belief that responding to cries spoils infants (hazard ratio = 1.71, P breastfeeding over and above covariates, the results suggest some novel approaches to promote breastfeeding. © The Author(s) 2014.
employed women. However, little is known about working mothers' views, experiences and barriers of breastfeeding practice from employment perspective. The objective of this study was to examine knowledge, attitude and practice about optimal ...
... Control and Prevention. (2015). Preterm Birth . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children . Sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and breastfeeding > A-Z Health Topics ...
Remigio Rafael Gorrita Pérez
Full Text Available Introducción: la lactancia materna es la única forma natural de alimentar al bebé, y una forma inigualable de facilitar el alimento ideal para su crecimiento y desarrollo. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, para evaluar deseos, aptitudes y conocimientos sobre lactancia materna en el tercer trimestre de 114 gestantes del Policlínico "Mártires del 9 de Abril", de San José de las Lajas. Entre marzo de 2010 y de 2011 se valoraron sus historias de salud individual y familiar, y se aplicó a tal efecto un cuestionario con 22 preguntas. Resultados: la información se incorporó a una base de datos y se utilizó para el análisis el estadígrafo chi cuadrado, que se consideró significativo con pIntroduction: breastfeeding is the only natural way of feeding the baby and an unparallel form of providing him with the ideal food for adequate growth and development. Methods: a cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the desires, the aptitudes and the knowledge about breastfeeding of 114 women in their third trimester of pregnancy from "Martires del 9 de Abril" polyclinics in San José de las Lajas. From March 2010 to March 2011, their individual and family health histories were assessed through a 22-interrogation questionnaire. Results: data were introduced in a database and chi square statistic was used for statistical analysis, the level of significance was p< 0,05. All the participants expressed their desire to breastfeed their offspring. Two thirds were considered prepared or well-prepared to do so, with the required knowledge to attain this objective; but just over one fifth did prove that they had it. Most of the future mothers aged 20 to 35 years; the schooling was mostly technician or high school education (60 for 52.6 %; the marital status of 45.6 % was cohabitation, 40.3 % were married and 13.2 % (15 were singles. These are aspects that undoubtedly influence the results. Conclusions: in addition
Farooq, Ayesha; Rauf, Shahid; Hassan, Uzma; Sadiq, Naushaba
The effect of multiple pregnancies, a very common pattern in reproductive lifestyle of Pakistani women, needs to be addressed to see if it affects the iron content and hence cause iron deficiency. Recognising this deficiency prior to development of anaemia can prevent disastrous consequences that can complicate the life of the mother and foetus especially in developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the effect that the stress of multiple pregnancies has on the iron status of the body. This comparative study was conducted in a focus group of female population. Two hundred subjects were selected by convenient sampling and grouped depending on their parity status. Data regarding diet, and socioeconomic history was collected on pre-designed questionnaire. Serum Ferritin was used to assess iron deficiency using the Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay (ECLIA). Data was statistically analysed using SPSS-17. Mean value of serum Ferritin in the nulliparous group was 76.52 +/- 4.92 etag/mL with 16% of nulliparous subjects showing lower than normal values. Thirty-six percent of uniparous subjects showed low serum Ferritin values, mean value-being 45.74 +/- 4.51 etag/mL. Seventy-two percent of the multiparous subjects showed iron deficiency with Ferritin levels of etag/mL. Mean serum Ferritin in this group was 25.21 +/- 2.75 etag/mL. The differences between the Ferritin levels of the study groups were highly significant (p < 0.01). Multiparous women had lower serum Ferritin levels than the control group suggesting that the stress of multiple pregnancies takes its toll on the iron content of the body.
Implementation of Antiretroviral Therapy for Life in Pregnant/Breastfeeding HIV+ Women (Option B+) Alongside Rollout and Changing Guidelines for ART Initiation in Rural Zimbabwe: The Lablite Project Experience.
Ford, Deborah; Muzambi, Margaret; Nkhata, Misheck J; Abongomera, George; Joseph, Sarah; Ndlovu, Makosonke; Mabugu, Travor; Grundy, Caroline; Chan, Adrienne K; Cataldo, Fabian; Kityo, Cissy; Seeley, Janet; Katabira, Elly; Gilks, Charles F; Reid, Andrew; Hakim, James; Gibb, Diana M
Lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B+) was rolled out in Zimbabwe from 2014, with simultaneous raising of the CD4 treatment threshold to 500 cells per cubic millimeter in nonpregnant/breastfeeding adults and children 5 years and over. Lablite is an implementation project in Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Uganda evaluating ART rollout. Routine patient-level data were collected for 6 months before and 12 months after Option B+ rollout at a district hospital and 3 primary care facilities in Zimbabwe (2 with outreach ART and 1 with no ART provision before Option B+). Between September 2013 and February 2015, there were 1686 ART initiations in the 4 facilities: 91% adults and 9% children younger than 15 years. In the 3 facilities with established ART, initiations rose from 300 during 6 months before Option B+ to 869 (2.9-fold) and 463 (1.5-fold), respectively, 0-6 months and 6-12 months after Option B+. Post-Option B+, an estimated 43% of pregnant/breastfeeding women needed ART for their own health, based on World Health Organization stage 3/4 or CD4 ≤350 per cubic millimeter (64% for CD4 ≤500). Seventy-four men (22%) and 123 nonpregnant/breastfeeding women (34%) initiated ART with CD4 >350 after the CD4 threshold increase. Estimated 12-month retention on ART was 79% (69%-87%) in Option B+ women (significantly lower in younger women, P = 0.01) versus 93% (91%-95%) in other adults (difference P ART initiations in all patient groups after implementation of World Health Organization 2013 guidelines. Retention of Option B+ women was poorer than retention of other adults; younger women require attention because they are more likely to disengage from care.
The aim of this study was to explore the construction of breastfeeding in public, as depicted in the stories and the opinions of women participating in discussions on public forums. There were 8 discussion forums selected, from which 769 messages were subjected to a narrative analysis further informed by recurrent themes identified in the literature and across messages. The emerging narratives were grouped based on their valence, and three broader categories of themes were formed, highlighting the predominant tone towards breastfeeding in public. The three broader themes, 'public restraint of breast(feeding) as acknowledgement of the cultural status-quo', 'permission within boundaries' and 'breast(feeding) as a human right', depict various meanings and experiences associated with public breastfeeding. People seeing breasts as mainly a cultural symbol of sexuality were more against public breastfeeding and more in favour of covering up or striving to discretion. Those arguing that breastfeeding is no more than exercising a fundamental right and pleading for breast as a primary maternal symbol were more in favour of breastfeeding in public. Aiming to understand personal and social perspectives on public breastfeeding is informative for understanding cultural differences in breastfeeding rates but also for designing effective interventions to promote it.
Kestler-Peleg, Miri; Shamir-Dardikman, Merav; Hermoni, Doron; Ginzburg, Karni
In the current social climate, breastfeeding is regarded as the "gold standard" of babies' nutrition and optimal mothering. It is not surprising, therefore, that the vast majority of contemporary women begin breastfeeding after they give birth. This paper presents two separate quantitative studies conducted in Israel which examined breastfeeding motivation and its association with maternal well-being as derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT). In Study I, a new breastfeeding motivation scale reflecting the various SDT-informed motivations was developed. Study II sought to validate the structure of the scale and to examine the hypotheses derived from SDT. In Study I, which took place in 2007, 130 mothers of at least one child under the age of eight years old filled out the Breastfeeding Motivation Scale. In Study II, which took place during the years 2008-2010, a different sample of 236 women were followed at three different time points: during the third trimester of pregnancy, at eight weeks postnatal, and at five months postnatal. The participants completed the Breastfeeding Motivation Scale and maternal well-being, maternal self-efficacy and maternal attachment questionnaires. The findings supported the structure of the Breastfeeding Motivation Scale according to SDT. As predicted, autonomous motivation was positively correlated with maternal well-being and self-efficacy, while controlled motivations were positively associated with distress and inversely correlated with self-efficacy. Anxious attachment predicted both controlled and autonomous breastfeeding motivations. The findings support the validity of the SDT for breastfeeding motivations, and highlight the role of these motivations as differentiating between positive and negative subjective well-being, among breastfeeding women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Setrakian, Haig V; Rosenman, Marc B; Szucs, Kinga A
The Bahá'í Sacred Writings reference breastfeeding literally and symbolically and provide guidance as to its practice. Breastfeeding is endorsed as the ideal form of infant nutrition. The importance of breastfeeding is underscored by the exemption of breastfeeding women from fasting, as well as by the identification of breastfeeding as being linked to the moral development of children. Several of the central principles of the Bahá'í Faith, such as the equality of women and men and the harmony of science and religion, may engender attitudes that support the practice of breastfeeding. The implications of the Bahá'í Writings with regard to breastfeeding are explored and summarized here.
.... However, many mothers do not breastfeed their infants excusively. The possible modifi able factors to improve breastfeeding rates are breastfeeding self effi cacy and effective breastfeeding behavior...
Abstract Aim To explore associations among breastfeeding duration, maternal personality and maternal attitudes and experiences of breastfeeding. Background Understanding influences on breastfeeding initiation and duration is critical to increasing breastfeeding rates and supporting new mothers. Maternal characteristics such as self‐efficacy, knowledge and confidence are known to enable women to breastfeed, but little is known about the influence of maternal trait personality on breastfeeding....
Balogun, Olukunmi O; O'Sullivan, Elizabeth J; McFadden, Alison; Ota, Erika; Gavine, Anna; Garner, Christine D; Renfrew, Mary J; MacGillivray, Stephen
Despite the widely documented risks of not breastfeeding, initiation rates remain relatively low in many high-income countries, particularly among women in lower-income groups. In low- and middle-income countries, many women do not follow World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations to initiate breastfeeding within the first hour after birth. This is an update of a Cochrane Review, first published in 2005. To identify and describe health promotion activities intended to increase the initiation rate of breastfeeding.To evaluate the effectiveness of different types of breastfeeding promotion activities, in terms of changing the number of women who initiate breastfeeding.To evaluate the effectiveness of different types of breastfeeding promotion activities, in terms of changing the number of women who initiate breastfeeding early (within one hour after birth). We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (29 February 2016) and scanned reference lists of all articles obtained. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with or without blinding, of any breastfeeding promotion intervention in any population group, except women and infants with a specific health problem. Two review authors independently assessed trial reports for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion and a third review author was involved when necessary. We contacted investigators to obtain missing information. Twenty-eight trials involving 107,362 women in seven countries are included in this updated review. Five studies involving 3,124 women did not contribute outcome data and we excluded them from the analyses. The methodological quality of the included trials was mixed, with significant numbers of studies at high or unclear risk of bias due to: inadequate allocation concealment (N = 20); lack of blinding of outcome assessment (N = 20); incomplete outcome data (N = 19); selective reporting (N = 22) and bias from other
... Awareness Day National Women's Health Week Supporting Nursing Moms at Work Popular Topics Autoimmune diseases Breastfeeding Carpal tunnel syndrome ... Awareness Day National Women's Health Week Supporting Nursing Moms at Work Popular Topics Autoimmune diseases Breastfeeding Carpal tunnel syndrome ...
Schirm, Eric; Schwagermann, M.P.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina
Objective: To survey drug use by breastfeeding women, and to compare this with nonbreastfeeding women. In addition, we were interested whether drug use was of influence on the decision to give breastfeeding, and the other way around. Design and setting: During a 6-week period in 2002, a
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the efficacy of topical curcumin in reducing breast inflammation in women suffering from lactational mastitis. Methods: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study including 63 breastfeeding women with lactational mastitis were randomly assigned to receive curcumin topical cream, one pump every 8 hours for 3 days (n=32 or topical moisturizer as placebo (n=31. Using an index for severity of breast inflammation, all of the patients had moderate breast inflammation before entering the study. The outcome of treatment was evaluated using the same index at 24, 48 and 72 hours of starting the treatment. Results: There was no significant difference between two study groups regarding the baseline characteristics such as age (p=0.361 and duration of lactation (p=0.551. After 72-hour of therapy, patients in curcumin groups had significantly lower rate of moderate (p=0.019 and mild (p=0.002 mastitis. Patients in curcumin group had significantly lower scores for tension (p<0.001, erythema (p<0.001 and pain (p<0.001, after 72-hour of treatment. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that topical preparation of curcumin successfully decrease the markers of lactational mastitis such as pain, breast tension and erythema within 72 hours of administration without side effects. Thus, topical preparation of curcumin could be safely administered for those suffering from lactational mastitis after excluding infectious etiologies.
Ibanez, Gladys; de Reynal de Saint Michel, Cyrille; Denantes, Mady; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Ringa, Virginie; Magnier, Anne-Marie
Given the benefits of breastfeeding (BF), health care institutions recommend that a child should be breastfed for the first 6 months of its life. However, differences between social groups as regards BF behaviour are very prevalent. To identify effective programmes that can be implemented by GPs to promote BF in low-income women. A review of the literature was based on the Medline, Cochrane and Public Health databases (1985-2009), using index terms relating to BF, general medicine and social inequalities in health. Randomized controlled trials were included in our analysis. Two people independently selected which studies would be used by rating the quality of the articles. The results of these studies were presented in raw form and in terms of a pooled relative risk. We analysed 10 studies (of the 343 articles originally selected) involving a population of 1445 'mother and child' pairs. The studies that assessed ways of encouraging the initiation of any form of BF showed that educational programmes are effective [relative risk (RR) for starting BF, 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-2.08]. As regards the studies that involved ways to encourage mothers to continue BF, the programmes used showed significant success rates after 3-month postpartum (RR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.30). The successful programmes usually involved multiple 'short' follow-up appointments (effective in promoting BF in low-income women.
Sâmia Jamylle Santos de Azevedo
Full Text Available The male participation in the process of breastfeeding needs to be encouraged as it can contribute significantly to the prevention of early weaning. In this sense, this research aimed to identify a parent's knowledge about breastfeeding. This is an exploratory and descriptive study with a qualitative approach, performed in the Family Health Strategy in Bom Jesus, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. Data were collected through semi-structured interview with the guiding question: what is your understanding of breastfeeding? The population was 15 men with aged over 18 years old and preserved mental faculties, who lived with his wife and the child under one year of age and performed development and growth consultations in the Family Health Strategy. The interviews were conducted in place previously defined parent. The information was organized as content analysis Bardin, giving rise to two categories and analyzed according to the symbolic interacionism. It was observed that parents of participating antenatal clinics have more knowledge about it and recognize the benefits of breastfeeding in this way can encourage their wives in order to exclusive breastfeeding.
Craig, Leone; Maclennan, Graeme; Boyers, Dwayne; Vale, Luke
Objective To assess the feasibility of implementing a dedicated feeding support team on a postnatal ward and pilot the potential effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of team (proactive) and woman-initiated (reactive) telephone support after discharge. Design Randomised controlled trial embedded within a before-and-after study. Participatory approach and mixed-method process evaluation. Setting A postnatal ward in Scotland. Sample Women living in disadvantaged areas initiating breast feeding. Methods Eligible women were recruited to a before-and-after intervention study, a proportion of whom were independently randomised after hospital discharge to intervention: daily proactive and reactive telephone calls for ≤14 days or control: reactive telephone calls ≤ day 14. Intention-to-treat analysis compared the randomised groups on cases with complete outcomes at follow-up. Main outcome measures Primary outcome: any breast feeding at 6–8 weeks assessed by a telephone call from a researcher blind to group allocation. Secondary outcomes: exclusive breast feeding, satisfaction with care, NHS costs and cost per additional woman breast feeding. Results There was no difference in feeding outcomes for women initiating breast feeding before the intervention (n=413) and after (n=388). 69 women were randomised to telephone support: 35 intervention (32 complete cases) and 34 control (26 complete cases). 22 intervention women compared with 12 control women were giving their baby some breast milk (RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.92 to 2.40) and 17 intervention women compared with eight control women were exclusively breast feeding (RR 1.73, 95% CI 0.88 to 3.37) at 6–8 weeks after birth. The incremental cost of providing proactive calls was £87 per additional woman breast feeding and £91 per additional woman exclusively breast feeding at 6–8 weeks; costs were sensitive to service organisation. Conclusions Proactive telephone care delivered by a dedicated feeding team shows
Full Text Available In 2013, Uganda updated its prevention of maternal-to-child transmission of HIV program to Option B+, which requires that all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women be started on lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART regardless of CD4 count. We describe retention in care and factors associated with loss to follow-up (LTFU among women initiated on Option B+ as part of an evaluation of the effectiveness of the national program.We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of data abstracted from records of 2,169 women enrolled on Option B+ between January and March 2013 from a representative sample of 145 health facilities in all 24 districts of the Central region of Uganda. We defined retention as "being alive and receiving ART at the last clinic visit". We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to estimate retention in care and compared differences between women retained in care and those LTFU using the chi-squared test for dichotomized or categorical variables.The median follow-up time was 20.2 months (IQR 4.2-22.5. The proportion of women retained in HIV care at 6, 12 and 18 months post-ART initiation was 74.2%, 66.7% and 62.0%, respectively. Retention at 18 months varied significantly by level of health facility and ranged from 70.0% among those seen at hospitals to 56.6% among those seen at lower level health facilities. LTFU was higher among women aged less than 25 years, 59.3% compared to those aged 25 years and above, 40.7% (p = 0.02; among those attending care at lower level facilities, 44.0% compared to those attending care at hospitals, 34.1% (p = 0.01, and among those who were not tested for CD4 cell count at ART initiation, 69.4% compared to those who were tested, 30.9% (p = 0.002.Retention of women who were initiated on Option B+ during the early phases of roll-out was only moderate, and could undermine the effectiveness of the program. Identifying reasons why women drop out and designing targeted interventions for improved retention
Sjödin, Anders Mikael
Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to provide a supplementary dietary exposure and safety assessment of synthetic L-ergothioneine for those groups of the population which had been excluded by the applicant...... in the original application, i.e. infants and young children (i.e. toddlers), pregnant and breastfeeding women. Thus, intake estimates were calculated for these population groups and the following maximum anticipated daily intakes of L-ergothioneine from the NF, in addition to the background diet, were calculated......: 2.82 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day for infants, 3.39 mg/kg bw per day for toddlers and 1.31 mg/kg bw per day for adults including pregnant and breastfeeding women. The Panel considers that based on the overall toxicological data the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 800 mg/kg bw per day...
Lucas Amaral Martins
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to determine the knowledge on breastfeeding acquired by women during the pregnant and puerperal period and to check if the breastfeeding benefits for the environment preservation were referred by the mothers. METHODS: this is a documental, descriptive and quantitative by nature research, with secondary data, collected from records of “Vamos amamentar, mamãe?” ("Let's breastfeed, mom?" extension project, resultant from the mothers monitoring during the 2008 year, with a total of 116 mothers. RESULTS: most mothers are in the age group from 14 to 18 years (31.89%; 57.75% have only primary level; 62.06% have stable relationship/married; 92.24% report having received information about breastfeeding during prenatal care, among which the highlights were: exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months (45.68%; pregnant women feeding (47.41%; breasts care 28 (24.13%, while: milking, myths’ clarification and non-use of bottles and pacifiers each submitted, only (0.86%, noting also that breastfeeding as an environment preservation factor was not mentioned. CONCLUSION: the mothers hold a reasonable knowledge of breastfeeding. Health professionals have an important role in stimulating and implementing new works focused on a practice that considers this subject from a multidimensional perspective, considering the complex bio-psycho-socio-culturalenvironmental-emotional factors involving breastfeeding.
Lucas Amaral Martins
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to determine the knowledge on breastfeeding acquired by women during the pregnant and puerperal period and to check if the breastfeeding benefits for the environment preservation were referred by the mothers. METHODS: this is a documental, descriptive and quantitative by nature research, with secondary data, collected from records of “Vamos amamentar, mamãe?” ("Let's breastfeed, mom?" extension project, resultant from the mothers monitoring during the 2008 year, with a total of 116 mothers. RESULTS: most mothers are in the age group from 14 to 18 years (31.89%; 57.75% have only primary level; 62.06% have stable relationship/married; 92.24% report having received information about breastfeeding during prenatal care, among which the highlights were: exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months (45.68%; pregnant women feeding (47.41%; breasts care 28 (24.13%, while: milking, myths’ clarification and non-use of bottles and pacifiers each submitted, only (0.86%, noting also that breastfeeding as an environment preservation factor was not mentioned. CONCLUSION: the mothers hold a reasonable knowledge of breastfeeding. Health professionals have an important role in stimulating and implementing new works focused on a practice that considers this subject from a multidimensional perspective, considering the complex bio-psycho-socio-cultural-environmental-emotional factors involving breastfeeding.
Kronborg, Hanne; Harder, Ingegerd; Hall, Elisabeth O C
Despite efforts to improve continued breastfeeding, the percentages of exclusively breastfeeding remain low. To help the breastfeeding mother and reshape professional practice, we need more knowledge of maternal experiences of breastfeeding in the first months. The objective was to explore mothers' early breastfeeding experiences. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse data from 108 Danish first time mothers who had answered an open-ended question 6 months after birth. All the mothers started breastfeeding. We identified three overlapping phases presented as dominant themes: (1) on shaky ground, characterised by breastfeeding interwoven with mothering, painful breastfeeding, and conflicting advice, (2) searching for a foothold, characterised by reading the baby's cues, concerns about milk production, for or against breastfeeding, and looking for professional support, and (3) at ease with choice of feeding, characterised by a thriving baby, trust in breastfeeding capability, and approval of feeding preference. Together these themes and subthemes constituted the overall theme: being on a breastfeeding-bonding trajectory. Supporting the new breastfeeding mother should include facilitation of the transition to motherhood, learning to read the baby's cues, developing a sense of the right attachment at the breast, and building up the mother's confidence in her capability to care for the baby and produce a sufficient milk supply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Romano, Megan E.; Xu, Yingying; Calafat, Antonia M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Chen, Aimin; Webster, Glenys M.; Eliot, Melissa N.; Howard, Cynthia R.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Braun, Joseph M.
Background Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may affect breast development and decrease duration of breastfeeding, thus interfering with the health benefits of breastfeeding. We investigated the association between maternal PFAS exposure and breastfeeding duration. Methods We measured PFAS concentrations in maternal serum collected during pregnancy in 2003–2006. After delivery, women (n=336) completed standardized breastfeeding surveys every 3 months until ending breastfeeding or 36 months postpartum. We estimated relative risks (RRs) for ending any breastfeeding within 3 or 6 months postpartum by Poisson regression, adjusted for relevant confounding factors. Results Women in the 4th quartile of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) serum concentration had 1.77 times the risk of ending any breastfeeding by 3 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 2.54; p-trend=0.003) and 1.41 times the risk of ending any breastfeeding by 6 months (95%CI: 1.06, 1.87; p-trend=0.038), compared with women in the first quartile. Women in the 4th quartile of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid serum concentration had a marginally increased risk of discontinuing any breastfeeding by 3 months (RR=1.32; 95%CI: 0.97, 1.79; p-trend=0.065). Conclusions Maternal serum PFOA concentrations were inversely related to duration of any breastfeeding in this cohort, even after controlling for prior breastfeeding. These findings suggest that PFOA exposure may adversely affect breastfeeding duration and highlight the need to consider the potential adverse effects of maternal environmental chemical exposure on breastfeeding. PMID:27179585
Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50302 women with breast cancer and 96973 women without the disease. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer
van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; et, al.
BACKGROUND: Although childbearing is known to protect against breast cancer, whether or not breastfeeding contributes to this protective effect is unclear. METHODS: Individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries that included information on breastfeeding patterns and other aspects
Amir, Lisa H; Bearzatto, Anita
Women who are breastfeeding often consult their general practitioner (GP) with concerns about nipple and breast pain, or the adequacy of their milk supply. Common concerns for their breastfed infant include slow weight gain, 'fussiness' with breastfeeding and 'funny stools'. This article offers suggestions for clinicians to support breastfeeding women and their infants. Good attachment to the breast is important to reduce nipple pain and trauma, and to ensure adequate breast drainage and ongoing milk supply. Other causes of nipple pain include vasospasm, dermatitis and infection. Breast pain may be due to blocked ducts, mastitis or abscess. Very early mastitis may be treated by improved emptying. Slow weight gain in a breastfed infant may indicate a medical problem or low supply of breast milk. Some infants have breastfeeding challenges because they are small or premature, or from anatomical issues affecting feeding. In such cases, further help from a lactation consultant may be beneficial.
Aline Alves Brasileiro
el municipio de Piracicaba, SP. Entre las participantes, 100 dúos madre-lactante recibieron orientaciones y apoyo para la práctica de la lactancia en un programa de prevención en salud bucal y los otros 100 dúos fueron abordados en una campaña de vacunación infantil. Se realizó análisis de regresión logística múltiple para identificar variables relacionadas al destete al cuarto mes de vida. RESULTADOS: La mayor parte de las participantes era primípara, pasó por cesárea, inició el amamantamiento en menos de cuatro horas posterior al parto y permaneció con su hijo en alojamiento conjunto. Tuvieron mayor probabilidad de parar el amamantamiento: madres no participantes del programa de incentivo (OR= 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85], madres que no tenían intervalo de 30 minutos durante la jornada laboral (OR= 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26] y madres cuyos hijos utilizaban chupete (OR= 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83] o tetero (OR= 14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]. CONCLUSIONES: Las madres que participaron en el grupo de incentivo de la lactancia, no ofrecieron chupete y tetero a los hijos y tenían intervalo durante el trabajo pararon el amamantamiento posterior al cuarto mes. Apoyo, informaciones sobre el manejo de la lactancia y sobre sus derechos garantizados por ley, en conjunto con la ampliación del tiempo de licencia maternidad, podrán tener un papel importante en el mantenimiento de la práctica de la lactancia materna.OBJECTIVE: To analyze employment benefits and factors associated with the maintenance of breastfeeding indexes among working mothers. METHODS: The sample was constituted by 200 formal women workers who returned to work before the child had reached six months of life, in the city of Piracicaba (Southeastern Brazil. Among the participants, 100 mother-infant dyads received guidance and support for the practice of breastfeeding within an oral health prevention program, and the other 100 dyads were addressed in a child vaccination campaign. Multiple logistic regression
Social representations about support for breastfeeding in a group of breastfeeding women Las representaciones sociales de un grupo de mujeres/amamantadoras sobre el apoyo a la lactancia materna Representações sociais de um grupo de mulheres/nutrizes sobre o apoio à amamentação
Fabiana Swain Müller
Full Text Available This study aimed to get to know the social representations about support for breastfeeding in a group of breastfeeding women, as well as to identify the actions in their social environment these women perceive as supportive in their breastfeeding processes. Data were collected through a qualitative approach, using recorded semistructured interviews, organized in accordance with the Collective Subject Discourse and analyzed under the premises of Social Representations Theory. Results showed that the representations of women in this study about support for breastfeeding consist of actions available in the hospital, family and work contexts. In these women's perspective, support is a broad phenomenon that involves aspects of encouragement, promotion and protection to breastfeeding.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer las representaciones sociales de un grupo de amamantadoras sobre el apoyo para amamantar y, también, identificar las acciones del entorno social que son percibidas por esas mujeres, como apoyo en sus procesos de amamantar. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de un abordaje cualitativo, en entrevista semiestructurada grabada, y organizados conforme la propuesta del Discurso del Sujeto Colectivo y analizados según las concepciones de la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales. Los resultados mostraron que las representaciones de las mujeres de este estudio, sobre el apoyo para amamantar, son constituidas por las acciones disponibles en el contexto hospitalario, familiar y de trabajo. Bajo la óptica de la mujer, el apoyo es un fenómeno de gran amplitud que engloba aspectos de incentivo, de promoción y de protección al amamantamiento.Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer as representações sociais de um grupo de nutrizes sobre o apoio para amamentar e, também, identificar as ações do entorno social que são percebidas por essas mulheres, como apoio em seus processos de amamentação. Os dados foram coletados por meio de
Tanguay, K. E.; McBean, M. R.; Jain, E.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors that predispose breastfeeding mothers to nipple candidiasis. DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study of women attending the Calgary Breastfeeding Clinic. SETTING: Ambulatory breastfeeding referral centre. PARTICIPANTS: All women (105) who attended the clinic during a 3.5-month study period. All were referred for problems with breastfeeding; 27 (the case group) had positive diagnostic criteria for nipple candidiasis. The other 78 formed a control group. MAI...
Levin, Dana S; Woodford, Michael R; Gutiérrez, Lorraine M; Luke, Katherine P
Social work faculty play an important role in preparing students to address sexism and engage in culturally competent practice with women. This study examines the nature of U.S. and Anglo-Canadian graduate social work faculty's support for content on women and on sexism. Although support appears high for both content areas, results suggest that faculty endorsement for content on women is significantly greater than that for sexism. Further, bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that the nature of support differs for each content area. Implications for social work education are discussed.
Casal, Corrine S; Lei, Ann; Young, Sera L; Tuthill, Emily L
Breastfeeding provides beneficial health outcomes for infants and their mothers, and increasing its practice is a national priority in many countries. Despite increasing support to exclusively breastfeed, the prevalence at 6 months remains low. Breastfeeding behavior is influenced by a myriad of determinants, including breastfeeding attitudes, knowledge, and social support. Effective measurement of these determinants is critical to provide optimal support for women throughout the breastfeeding period. However, there are a multitude of available instruments measuring these constructs, which makes identification of an appropriate instrument challenging. Research aim: Our aim was to identify and critically examine the existing instruments measuring breastfeeding attitudes, knowledge, and social support. A total of 16 instruments was identified. Each instrument's purpose, theoretical underpinnings, and validity were analyzed. An overview, validation and adaptation for use in other settings was assessed for each instrument. Depth of reporting and validation testing differed greatly between instruments. Content, construct, and predictive validity were present for most but not all scales. When selecting and adapting instruments, attention should be paid to domains within the scale, number of items, and adaptation.
Tarrant, Marie; Dodgson, Joan E; Wu, Kendra M
Although more than 85% of all new mothers in Hong Kong now initiate breast feeding, few exclusively breast feed and the overall duration is short. More than one-third stop breast feeding within the first month post partum. To explore the breast-feeding experiences of Hong Kong Chinese mothers who prematurely discontinue breast feeding and to identify contributing factors that might be remediated to help women breast feed longer. Qualitative exploratory study. In-depth, exploratory interviews were carried out with 24 new mothers who stopped breast feeding within one month after birth, and content analysis was used to analyse the data. Five core themes emerged from the data: unnatural expectations, left to figure it out, uncertainty, unfulfilling experiences, and guilt versus relief. Because breast feeding is 'natural' participants expected that it would come naturally and thus be easy. When breast feeding did not happen naturally, however, midwives were too busy to provide breast-feeding support and mothers were left to figure it out on their own. Participants also reported difficulty in gauging whether the infant was getting adequate nutrition from their breastmilk. Few participants had positive breast-feeding experiences; while the decision to stop breast feeding caused guilt for most participants, others expressed relief at stopping breast feeding. Greater postnatal breast-feeding support, both in the hospital and after the mother returns home, would likely increase the mother׳s confidence and enhance her mothering experience. Further antenatal and postnatal education on the realistic breast-feeding expectations and the amount of breastmilk required by babies is also important. More research is needed to test professional and peer support breast-feeding interventions to provide guidance to policy makers on the most effective breast-feeding support strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Castello Branco, H
An example of the potential power of mass media in helping implement health programs, Brazil conducted a highly successful advertising campaign aimed at increasing the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding. The advertising campaign formed part of the 1981-84 breastfeeding program, which included -- among other things -- implementing maternity laws, establishing support groups for breastfeeding mothers, and disseminating information to policymakers. While several methods to inform parents had been tried, all had encountered resistance. An intensive mass media campaign changed all that. In 1982, 100 television channels began airing frequent, prime- time commercials -- an effort supplemented by radio sports, posters, and print advertisements. The airing of commercials followed extensive research and pretesting of the material, and were intended to help break down social barrier to breastfeeding, which included: women's fears that their breast size made then incapable of breastfeeding; employers' lack of support for working mothers; the lack of unity among doctors that breastfeeding is right for every child; and "machismo" -- men's attitude that the breast is only a sexual object. In order to establish a common goal, all spots ended with the slogan: "Breastfeeding -- 6 months that build up a life." And to establish credibility, the commercials featured well-known Brazilian celebrities. A spot aimed at facilitating the act for other women showed a popular actress breastfeeding her own child; another commercial showed a well- known singer and male role model asking fathers to support breastfeeding. An evaluation conducted in 1987 indicated significant positive changes due to the advertising campaign, demonstrating the potential of mass media in raising public awareness.
Wren, Hilary; Chambers, Lori
To conduct a knowledge, attitudes and practices study of breastfeeding in the province of Krong Kep, Cambodia. Mothers' breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes and practices were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered in Khmer to women with at least one child less than 60 months of age. Women meeting the eligibility requirements (N = 141) answered questions regarding their infant feeding practices, including initiation and duration of breastfeeding. In Cambodia, the decision to breastfeed is rooted in a history of poverty. Twenty-five percent of women sampled initiated breastfeeding within the first hour post-delivery. In total, 82% of women initiated breastfeeding within the first 24 hours post-delivery, and 53% of women breastfed exclusively for exactly the recommended 6 months' duration. Nine women who reported exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months did not initiate breastfeeding within the first 24 hours post-delivery, likely because of the cultural practice of "roasting." Professional breastfeeding support programs do not exist in Krong Kep, Cambodia.
Despite the evidence that there are considerable benefits of breastfeeding, there are still gaps in understanding why many women have difficulties initiating and maintaining breastfeeding. In this prospective longitudinal study, the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding were expanded to include attachment representations, which are known to influence health behaviors as well as one's ability to cope with stressful situations. Participants (n = 460) completed attachment and depression questionnaires during a prenatal clinic appointment, and in the postpartum period, mothers reported on their mood and breastfeeding behaviors. Consistent with attachment theory and previous research, women with attachment approach orientations were more likely to breastfeed, breastfeed longer, and continue breastfeeding when they experienced initial difficulties. The results of this study demonstrate that it is important to look beyond demographics to understand breastfeeding initiation and duration and provide further evidence that attachment representations influence health decisions.
Cecilia S Obeng
Full Text Available There are health benefits to breastfeeding for both mothers and their children. The preventive health effects of breastfeeding continue into adulthood, lowering rate of various chronic illnesses. African American women, especially of lower socioeconomic status, are less likely to breastfeed in comparison to their racial and ethnic counterparts. The purpose of this study was to explore how African American women experience breastfeeding in the early stages of postpartum care. Two focus groups (N=20, 10 in each group were conducted with African American mothers. Results revealed that participants felt that there were health benefits to breastfeeding, and organizations such as WIC provided support. However, participants stated that lack of information, negative perceptions, and unforeseen circumstances were barriers to breastfeeding. This study proposes support and interventions for this group to increase breastfeeding among this population.
Waldmiro Antônio Diégues Serva
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To observe postpartum migraine recurrence among migraine sufferers before pregnancy, its classifications and associated factors and to compare women, who were exclusively breastfeeding, with those that used other forms of infant feeding. METHODS: Out of 686 consecutively assisted women, at the first postnatal week, 266 were identified as migraine sufferers before pregnancy. Among those, one in five that were exclusively breastfeeding (53 and all the ones consecutively using others forms of infant feeding (40 were interviewed at the first and forth postpartum weeks. RESULTS: After multivariable analysis, exclusive breastfeeding, no breastfeeding problems, and low income were associated with decrease in migraine recurrence at the first postpartum week. At the fourth week, exclusive breastfeeding continued to be a protective factor. CONCLUSIONS: A decrease in postpartum migraine recurrence seems to be another advantage of exclusive breastfeeding.
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González-de Cossío, Teresita; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia; González-Castell, Dinorah; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A
To evaluate the effect of exclusive breastfeeding in Breastfeeding indicators from WHO-2008 were calculated. We estimated the effect modifier EBFBreastfeeding promotion, protection and support must be targeted mainly at the most vulnerable, food insecure families.
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Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace
Infant feeding policies for HIV-infected women in developing countries differ from policies in developed countries. Here we summarize the epidemiologic data on the risks and benefits of various infant feeding practices for HIV-infected women living in different contexts. Artificial feeding can prevent a large proportion of mother-to-child HIV transmission but also is associated with increases in morbidity and mortality among both exposed-uninfected and HIV-infected children. Antiretroviral dr...
Considerable progress has been made in the past decade in developing comprehensive support systems to enable more women to reach their breastfeeding goals. Given that most women in the United States participate in some breastfeeding, it is essential that each of these support systems be rigorously tested and if effective replicated. Additional research is needed to determine the best methods of support during the preconception period to prepare women to exclusively breastfeed as a cultural norm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Russell, Katherine; Ali, Amira
In Ontario, Canada, breastfeeding in public is a protected right, yet even with these laws, attitudes toward breastfeeding in public can serve as a barrier to breastfeeding. Research aim: This study assesses public support for breastfeeding in public among adults in Ottawa, Ontario, and examines sociodemographic associations with negative attitudes toward public breastfeeding. Data from the 2015 Rapid Risk Factor Surveillance System (RRFSS), a population health telephone survey, were obtained for Ottawa. Adults ages 18 years and older were asked whether it was acceptable for a mother to breastfeed her baby in a restaurant and shopping mall ( n = 1,276). Descriptive statistics and regression were used to describe sociodemographic characteristics associated with negative attitudes. Overall, 75% of respondents agreed that it was acceptable for a mother to breastfeed her baby in both a restaurant and shopping mall (restaurant: 78%; shopping mall: 81%). Respondents who did not have children at home, were less educated, had a mother tongue language other than French or English and who were retirees were less likely to support breastfeeding in restaurants and shopping malls. In addition, women and immigrants living in Canada for more than 15 years were less likely to support breastfeeding in shopping malls. Despite a law to support public breastfeeding in Ontario, there is room to improve attitudes toward public breastfeeding. Increased public support for public breastfeeding can support women and children to achieve their feeding goals, particularly for those wanting to exclusively breastfeed.
DeVane-Johnson, Stephanie; Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl; Thoyre, Suzanne; Fogel, Cathie; Williams, Ronald
Human milk has widespread health benefits for infants, mothers, and society. However, not all populations of women, particularly African American women, engage in human milk feeding at high rates. Research aim: The purpose of this integrative literature review is twofold: (a) to examine factors that influence low rates of human milk feeding among African American women and (b) to introduce a need for a methodological paradigm shift to develop culturally relevant and effective interventions. The authors searched four electronic social science databases for peer-reviewed journal articles pertaining to human milk among African American women published from 1990 to 2015. Both coauthors independently assessed these articles using thematic analysis and validation. The database search yielded 47 peer-reviewed articles. Three main themes emerged explaining the human milk feeding disparity: (a) the social characteristics of women likely not to feed human milk (e.g., low socioeconomic status, single); (b) women's perceptions of human milk feeding; and (c) the quality of human milk feeding information provided by health care providers (i.e., limited human milk information). Current literature does include sociohistorical factors that have shaped current norms. Adding sociohistorical frameworks, paying particular attention to the embodied experience of historical trauma, could lead to the development of new evidence-based, culturally sensitive interventions to enhance human milk feeding in the African American community.
Bartelink, Imke H.; Savic, Rada M.; Mwesigwa, Julia; Achan, Jane; Clark, Tamara; Plenty, Albert; Charlebois, Edwin; Kamya, Moses; Young, Sera L.; Gandhi, Monica; Havlir, Diane; Cohan, Deborah; Aweeka, Francesca
Pregnancy and food insecurity may impact antiretroviral (ART) pharmacokinetics (PK), adherence and response. We sought to quantify and characterize the PK of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and efavirenz (EFV) by pregnancy and nutritional status among HIV-infected women in Tororo, Uganda. In 2011, 62/225 ante-partum/post-partum single dried blood spot samples DBS and 43 post-partum hair samples for LPV/r were derived from 116 women, 51/194 ante-/post-partum DBS and 53 post-partum hair samples for EFV from 105 women. 80% of Ugandan participants were severely food insecure, 26% lost weight ante-partum, and median BMI post-partum was only 20.2 kg/m2. Rich PK-data of normally nourished (pregnant) women and healthy Ugandans established prior information. Overall, drug exposure was reduced (LPV −33%, EFV −15%, ritonavir −17%) compared to well-nourished controls [p underweight women, compared to well-nourished women. Much variability in plasma-exposure was quantified using hair concentrations. Addressing malnutrition as well as ART-PK in this setting should be a priority. PMID:24038035
Iacovou, Maria; Sevilla Sanz, Almudena; Borra Marcos, Cristina
Context The benefits of breastfeeding for both the mother and the child are well documented, as are the negative health consequences of perinatal depression. Objective To explore causality in the relationships between breastfeeding and perinatal depression. In particular the causal effect of breastfeeding on postpartum maternal mental health was investigated together with the causal effect of antenatal maternal wellbeing on breastfeeding intentions, prevalence, and duration....
Introduction: Breastfeeding has been identifi ed as the optimal source of nutrition for infants. However, many mothers do not breastfeed their infants excusively. The possible modifi able factors to improve breastfeeding rates are breastfeeding self effi cacy and effective breastfeeding behavior. The aim of this study was to analyze the breastfeeding support package to improve breastfeeding self effi cacy and impact on effective breastfeeding behavior. Method: This study was a quasy experimen...
Tuthill, Emily L.; McGrath, Jacqueline M.; Graber, Melanie; Cusson, Regina M.; Young, Sera L.
Increasing breastfeeding rates in the United States is a national priority. Yet, initiation and duration of breastfeeding remains below national targets. Breastfeeding self-efficacy has been shown to be a strong predictor of both breastfeeding initiation and duration and is therefore an important characteristic to be able to measure. However, there is currently a myriad of instruments for measuring breastfeeding self-efficacy, which makes selection of an appropriate instrument difficult. Thus, our aim was to identify, compare, and critically review available breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments. In a systematic review, 6 breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments were identified. The instruments’ purposes, theoretical framework, final scale development, and application in 5 most recent settings were analyzed. The 6 breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments apply a number of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in their development, with Bandura’s social cognitive theory being most common. Content, construct, and predictive validity were strong for most scales. Some, but not all, have been successfully adapted to novel settings. In sum, there are several measurements of breastfeeding self-efficacy that can and should be employed to better understand reasons for suboptimal breastfeeding rates and the effects of interventions on breastfeeding self-efficacy. Instrument selection should be based on domains of primary interest, time available, peripartum timing, and assessment of previous adaptations. Failure to apply appropriate measures in research may garner results that are inconclusive, inaccurate, or nonrepresentative of true study effects. PMID:26319113
Rollins, Nigel C; Becquet, Renaud; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Phiri, Sam; Hayashi, Chika; Baller, April; Shaffer, Nathan
The prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) "cascade" describes the programmatic steps for pregnant and breastfeeding women that influence HIV transmission rates. To this end, HIV-infected pregnant women and mothers need access to health services and adhere to antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis or lifetime treatment. Within the cascade, the concept of "retention-in-care" is commonly used as a proxy for adherence to ARV interventions and, even, viral suppression. Yet surprisingly, there is no standard definition of retention-in-care either for the purposes of HIV surveillance or implementation research. Implicit to the concept of retention-in-care is the sense of continuity and receipt of care at relevant time points. In the context of PMTCT, the main challenge for surveillance and implementation research is to estimate effective coverage of ARV interventions over a prolonged period of time. These data are used to inform program management and also to estimate postnatal MTCT rates. Attendance of HIV-infected mothers at clinic at 12-month postpartum is often equated with full retention in PMTCT programs over this period. Yet, measurement approaches that fail to register missed visits, or inconsistent attendance or other missing data in the interval period, fail to capture patterns of attendance and care received by mothers and children and risk introducing systematic errors and bias. More importantly, providing only an aggregated rate of attendance as a proxy for retention-in-care fails to identify specific gaps in health services where interventions to improve retention along the PMTCT cascade are most needed. In this article, we discuss how data on retention-in-care can be understood and analyzed, and what are the implications and opportunities for programs and implementation research.
Veiby, Gyri; Bjørk, Marte; Engelsen, Bernt A; Gilhus, Nils Erik
The objective of this paper is to provide a synopsis of benefits and potential harmful effects of exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) via breastmilk, and present recommendations for breastfeeding in women with epilepsy. The article is based on a discretionary selection of English language articles retrieved by a literature search in the PubMed database, the LactMed database, and the authors' clinical experience. Breastfeeding is associated with benefits for the infant, including nutrition, protection against infectious and immunological disease, and promotion of development and psychological attachment. Exposure to AEDs via breastmilk could potentially produce side effects or negatively affect development. Most studies on AED transfer through breastmilk report infant serum levels well below the limit of an expected pharmacological effect. Some drugs have the potential to reach significant serum levels in breastfed infants, such as barbiturates, benzodiazepines, lamotrigine, and ethosuximide. Thus, breastfed infants should be monitored for side effects. Still, adverse symptoms are rarely reported in breastfed infants of mothers taking AEDs, and prospective studies have failed to demonstrate any negative developmental effects in children that have been exposed to AEDs via breastmilk. The nursing infant's degree of drug exposure can be minimized by breastfeeding when drug concentrations in the milk are low, reducing maternal AED dosage to prepregnancy levels, and administering mixed nutrition. Most AEDs are considered safe or moderately safe during breastfeeding. Mothers with epilepsy should be encouraged to breastfeed, provided careful monitoring of the infant. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Avery, Alexis; Zimmermann, Kristine; Underwood, Patricia W; Magnus, Jeanette H
The characteristics that distinguish women who breastfeed successfully from those who do not are just beginning to be identified in breastfeeding literature. The objective of this study was to identify the processes contributing to breastfeeding decisions among Caucasian and African American women. Data were initially collected through 24 focus groups consisting of separate groups of African American and Caucasian pregnant women, and breastfeeding and formula-feeding mothers from three major United States cities. The focus group study was initiated by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to obtain data on salient messages that would inform a national campaign to promote breastfeeding. This study was a secondary analysis of those data using a modified grounded theory approach. The process that emerged associated with successful breastfeeding was labeled "confident commitment." This process included several components: a) confidence in the process of breastfeeding, b) confidence in their ability to breastfeed, and c) commitment to making breastfeeding work despite obstacles. Contrary to popular conceptions, breastfeeding appears to be a learned skill. If mothers achieved a level of "confident commitment" before the birth, they were able to withstand lack of support by significant others and common challenges that occurred as they initiated breastfeeding. Without the element of "confident commitment," a decision to breastfeed appeared to fall apart once challenged.
Social marketing involves the application of commercial marketing principles to advance the public good. Social marketing calls for much more than health communications campaigns. It involves four interrelated tasks: audience benefit, target behavior, essence (brand, relevance, positioning), and developing the "4Ps" (product, price, place, promotion) marketing mix. The ongoing U.S. Department of Agriculture "Loving Support Makes Breastfeeding Work" campaign was launched in 1997 based on social marketing principles to increase breastfeeding initiation rates and breastfeeding duration among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Since then there have been improvements in breastfeeding duration in the country, and the majority of WIC women now initiate breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in public places is still not well accepted by society at large, and any and exclusive breastfeeding durations remain exceedingly low. Lessons learned from "Loving Support" and other campaigns indicate that it is important to design social marketing campaigns to target the influential societal forces (e.g., family and friends, healthcare providers, employers, formula industry, legislators) that affect women's decision and ability to breastfeed for the recommended amount of time. This will require formative research that applies the social-ecological model to different population segments, taking and identifying the right incentives to nudge more women to breastfeed for longer. Any new breastfeeding campaign needs to understand and take into account the information acquisition preferences of the target audiences. The vast majority of WIC women have mobile devices and are accessing social media. The Brazilian experience indicates that making breastfeeding the social norm can be done with a solid social marketing strategy. This is consistent with the recently released "Six Steps to Achieve Breastfeeding Goals for WIC Clinics," which identifies
Schafer, Robyn; Genna, Catherine Watson
Early initiation of breastfeeding has numerous benefits for maternal-child health. Maternity care providers have been shown to play a significant role in establishing breastfeeding, yet there is limited research about clinical approaches that support breastfeeding initiation in the immediate postpartum. Traditional methods that focused on position and attachment have not demonstrated consistent, positive effects on breastfeeding outcomes. Contemporary approaches to breastfeeding initiation emphasize innate maternal and neonatal breastfeeding abilities and the importance of breastfeeding self-efficacy, dyad-centered care, and a supportive breastfeeding environment free from unnecessary interventions. Recommendations for clinical practice for physiologic breastfeeding initiation are provided. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
A vivência de amamentar para trabalhadoras e estudantes de uma universidade pública La experiencia de la amamantación para mujeres trabajadoras y estudiantes de una universidad pública Breast-feeding experience for women workers and students from a public university
Isilia Aparecida Silva
Full Text Available Este estudo qualitativo teve como objetivo conhecer os principais elementos interferentes no processo de amamentação vivenciado por trabalhadoras e estudantes de uma universidade pública do Estado de São Paulo, no qual participaram 65 mulheres trabalhadoras e alunas, cujas entrevistas foram analisadas segundo os pressupostos de Taylor e Bogdan e do Interacionismo Simbólico. Os resultados demonstram que o processo de amamentar, para essas mulheres, mostrou-se delineado pelas condições seus ambientes doméstico, do trabalho ou de estudo. O ambiente físico, as relações entre seus familiares, superiores e seus pares exercem forte influência em sua determinação de manter a amamentação.Este estudio cualitativo tuvo como objetivo conocer los principales elementos de interferencia en el proceso de amamantamiento vivenciado por trabajadoras y estudiantes de una universidad pública, cuyos sujetos son las mujeres trabajadoras y alumnas de una universidad pública del Estado de São Paulo. Los datos se coletaron a través de entrevista, que se analizaron según los presupuestos de Taylor e Bogdan y bajo la óptica del Interaccionismo Simbólico. Los resultados apuntan que el proceso de amamantamiento para esas mujeres se mostró condicionado y delineado por las situaciones que surgen en su ambiente doméstico, de trabajo o estudio y las relaciones entre sus familiares, superiores y sus similares, ejercen fuerte influencia en la determinación de mantener la amamantacion.This qualitative research aimed to know the main interfering elements in the breast-feeding process as experienced by professional women and by students, that was carried out with 65 professional women and students from a public university in São Paulo state. The data collection was proceeded by interviews which contents were analyzed according to Taylor and Bogdan and Symbolic Interactionism approaches. Results indicated that the breast-feeding process for these women
Barnes, Margaret; Cox, Julie; Doyle, Bronwyn; Reed, Rachel
The benefits of breastfeeding for infant, mother, family, and community are well recognized, and increasing breastfeeding rates is considered an important health-promotion strategy. Improving breastfeeding knowledge and practice among individuals caring for breastfeeding women is considered an important aspect of this strategy. The practice-development initiative described in this article aimed to improve hospital-based breastfeeding rates through the implementation of The Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The initiative included the development and implementation of an education program aimed at changing and improving breastfeeding practices. The program was evaluated in three ways: changes in breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge; client preparation for breastfeeding and satisfaction during the postnatal period; and staff knowledge and skills.
Bernardi, S; Londero, A P; Bertozzi, S; Driul, L; Marchesoni, D; Petri, R
Benign breast disease (BBD) is very common among women in their fertile age, but its correlation with breast reproductive function remains unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the relation between BBD and breast-feeding. We collected data on 105 women with BBD and 98 controls, focusing on their reproductive history and breast-feeding. We analysed data by R (version 2.12.1) considering p feeding was not significantly different between controls and BBD types (p = NS). Selecting women with fibroadenoma breast-feeding duration directly correlated with the number of benign lesions (p feeding among BBDs types, but lactation may influence the number of fibroadenomas. Moreover, prospective studies would better define the correlation between lactation and BBDs.
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer o nível de informação sobre amamentação entre as mulheres que participam do programa de pré-natal na Maternidade-Escola da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. A amostra totalizou 135 puérperas que responderam a questionário estruturado, contendo perguntas objetivas sobre aspectos práticos e teóricos do aleitamento materno. Os resultados mostraram que as mulheres iniciaram o pré-natal, em média, com 16 semanas de gravidez e realizaram cerca de oito consultas. Dentre elas, 53,3% afirmaram ter recebido informações sobre aleitamento materno durante o acompanhamento pré-natal e a informação mais lembrada por 22,2% foi a de amamentar até os seis meses de vida do bebê. Quanto ao momento ideal para a primeira mamada, 50,4% consideraram ser logo após o parto e 47,4% apontaram o leite materno como benéfico para proteger o bebê contra doenças. Embora as mães tenham conhecimentos básicos sobre aleitamento materno, questões como o momento ideal para a primeira mamada, a importância do colostro e aspectos nutricionais relacionados à nutriz ainda precisam ser melhor esclarecidos durante o pré-natal e no período pós-parto imediato.The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge of breastfeeding issues among post-partum women who had participated in a prenatal program at the Rio de Janeiro Federal University (UFRJ Maternity Teaching Hospital. The sample totaled 135 post-partum women who answered a structured questionnaire with objective questions about practical and theoretical aspects of breastfeeding. The women had begun prenatal care at the 16th week of gestation on average, with an average of 8 medical consultations. Some 53.3% stated having received information about breastfeeding during prenatal care, and 22.2% stated that the information they remembered the best was that they should breastfeed for the first 6 months. Regarding the best moment for the first feeding, 50
Full Text Available Changes of bone during pregnancy and during lactation evaluated by bone mineral density (BMD may have implications for risk of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied BMD in women of differing ages, parity, and lactation histories immediately postpartum for BMD, T-scores, and Z-scores. Institutional Review Board approval was received. All women while still in hospital postpartum were asked to participate. BMD was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA machine at femoral neck (FN and lumbar spine (LS by a single technician. Of 132 participants, 73 (55.3% were ≤30 years; 27 (20.5% were primiparous; 36 (27.3% were grand multiparous; 35 (26.5% never breast fed. Mean FN T-scores and Z-scores were higher than respective mean LS scores, but all means were within the normal limits. Mean LS T-scores and Z-scores were highest in the grand multiparas. There were only 2 (1.5% outliers with low Z-scores. We conclude that, in a large cohort of Israeli women with BMD parameters assessed by DXA within two days postpartum, mean T-scores and Z-scores at both the LS and FN were within normal limits regardless of age (20–46 years, parity (1–13 viable births, and history of either no or prolonged months of lactation (up to 11.25 years.
Women's social space and the reference for breastfeeding practice El espacio social de mujeres y su referencia para el cuidado en la práctica de la lactancia O espaço social das mulheres e a referência para o cuidado na prática da amamentação
Ana Márcia Spanó Nakano
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify agents or institutions taken as reference by women when breastfeeding. A qualitative study was carried out on 20 primiparous who were assisted, for reasons not related to breastfeeding, in the five health services selected by this study. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews carried out in the participants' households and were analyzed by content analysis in the thematic mode. We identified that health professionals play a standardize role of breastfeeding based on scientific knowledge. In the daily breastfeeding routine, the family is the first reference for women, transmitting beliefs, habits and behaviors. We believe in the valorization of the family context by the health professional, in which actions and interactions in the breastfeeding issue are developed in order to constitute the foundations for a new care model in breastfeeding. This model should, therefore, consider the practice diversity, adapting actions to the multiple roles of being mother/fortress/wife/worker in the social context.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los agentes o instituciones consideradas como referencia por las madres lactantes en la práctica de amamatación. Investigación cualitativa con 20 puérperas quienes buscaron por razones ajenas a la lactancia una de las 5 unidades básicas de salud seleccionadas en este estudio. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas semi-estructuradas realizadas en su domicilio; su análisis se apoyó en el análisis de contenido, modalidad temática. Fue identificado que el profesional de salud asume un rol normativo en este proceso, apoyándose en conocimientos científicos. Dentro del proceso de amamantar, la familia ocupa el primer lugar de referencia para las mujeres, transmitiendo creencias, hábitos y conductas. Se cree que la valorización del contexto familiar por el profesional de salud, al desarrollar acciones e interacciones durante la lactancia, se
Van Acker, Frederik; Bakker, Esther
Although health and other benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child have been repeatedly shown, there is still a large proportion of women who do not initiate or continue breastfeeding. The aim of the current study is to analyze the contribution of the presentation of advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding in developing an attitude…
Mullinax, Margo; Herbenick, Debby; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Reece, Michael
Research increasingly shows that genital attitudes have an impact on sexual well-being and health-seeking behaviours. This study explored what women and men like and dislike about women's genitals. Data are from open-ended items, part of a cross-sectional internet-based survey anonymously completed by 496 women and 198 men. Overall, both women and…
Conclusion: Poor knowledge and inaccessibility to health facilities were the main obstacles to postnatal care while the practice of exclusive breastfeeding was limited by the stress and mothers refusal. Keywords: Exclusive breastfeeding, postnatal care, southeastern Nigeria, urban women. Nigerian Medical Journal | Vol.
Background: Breastfeeding is surely the best way to feed an infant at least in the first six months of life. Objective: To investigate the social determinants of breastfeeding behaviors among Italian women. Methods: Data for this study were drawn from the Italian Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) survey conducted in 2005 which ...
... health care provider. Poorly nourished mothers, those on vegan diets or other special diets, and those with certain health conditions may require a supplement of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in addition to multivitamins to ensure complete nutrition for breastfeeding. 4 Women who are breastfeeding may ...
Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Men Towards Breastfeeding Women in Mongomo, Guinea Equatorial. ... The Study aims to evaluate how Men's Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) affect successful lactation and breastfeeding in Mongomo town and its environs. A prospective study of 262 randomly selected ...
Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Petersen, Maria Skaalum
a doubling was associated with a reduction in total breastfeeding of 1.4 (95% CI: 0.6; 2.1) months and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) where a doubling was associated with a reduction in exclusive breastfeeding of 0.5 (0.3; 0.7) months. The associations were evident among both primiparous and multiparous women...
In Swaziland, 41.1% of pregnant women live with HIV, while only 32% of Swazi mothers (including HIV negative mothers) currently practice exclusive breastfeeding among infants less than six months of age. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding decreases with an increase in the infant's age, as only 17% of infants aged four ...
Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad
Breast milk is well recognised as the best food source for infants. The impact of antenatal breastfeeding (BF) education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. To assess the effectiveness of antenatal breastfeeding (BF) education for increasing BF initiation and duration. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register on 1 March 2016, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to 1 March 2016) and Scopus (January 1985 to 1 March 2016). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on the duration of BF. We included RCTs that only included antenatal interventions and excluded those that combined antenatal and intrapartum or postpartum BF education components. Cluster-randomised trials were included in this review. Quasi-randomised trials were not eligible for inclusion. We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. This review update includes 24 studies (10,056 women). Twenty studies (9789 women) contribute data to analyses. Most studies took place in high-income countries such as the USA, UK, Canada and Australia. In the first five comparisons, we display the included trials according to type of intervention without pooling data. For the 'Summary of findings' we pooled data for a summary effect.Five included studies were cluster-randomised trials: all of these adjusted data and reported adjustments as odds ratios (OR). We have analysed the data using the generic inverse variance method and presented results as odds ratios, because we were
Wang, Hong-Jiao; Hua, Chun-Zhen; Ruan, Li-Li; Hong, Li-Quan; Sheng, Shao-Qin; Shang, Shi-Qiang
... stages.Sialic acid and iron content of colostrum, transitional milk, mature milk, and involutional milk were determined using a neuraminidase assay kit and the ferrozine method, respectively in 88 lactating women (58 Term, 30 Preterm).The mean (SD...
Gathron, Erika L
Breastfeeding, a health behavior that provides well-known benefits for mothers, infants, and children, is an essential strategy to improve public health. Breastfeeding can reduce the incidence of infant illness and death and provides both short- and longterm physiological benefits to mothers. National and international government agencies and grassroots organizations supporting breastfeeding include the World Health Organization, the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the La Leche League. In the United States, breastfeeding of infants was the norm until the late 1890s when the Progressive Era's emphasis on science and modernity led to the transition of childbirth from residential in-home births to community-based hospital births and the aggressive rise of the baby formula industry. By 1966, only 18% of mothers were exclusively breastfeeding their infants at hospital discharge. This drastic decrease in breastfeeding reduced the percentage of mothers and grandmothers who could share their breastfeeding knowledge and experience. Nurses who provide care for women and infants are essential stakeholders in bridging the breastfeeding knowledge gap by offering education on the short- and long-term health benefits of breastfeeding to both mother and baby and timely encouragement to mothers during the most significant time for establishing lactation.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores maternos, laborales y de los servicios de salud que influyen en el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna en madres trabajadoras. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre noviembre de 1998 y marzo de 1999 se efectuó un estudio transversal comparativo con madres derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social de Ensenada, Baja California, México. A 265 madres se les aplicó un cuestionario entre los tres y nueve meses posparto. Se distribuyeron en: grupo I: madres con abandono temprano de la lactancia materna; grupo II: madres que prolongaron la lactancia materna por más de tres meses. Para identificar los factores asociados con el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna, se utilizó regresión logística. RESULTADOS: El 42.3% (112 de las madres abandonaron temprano la lactancia materna. Los factores de riesgo fueron: tener conocimientos malos sobre lactancia materna, OR 5.97 (IC 95% 1.67-20.67, la ausencia del antecedente de haberla practicado en un hijo previo OR 2.98 (IC 95% 1.66-5.36, tener un plan de duración de la misma de 0 a 3 meses, OR 16.24 (IC 95% 5.37-49.12, y la falta de facilidades en el trabajo para efectuarla, OR 1.99 (IC 95% 1.12-3.56. CONCLUSIONES: Los principales factores asociados con el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna fueron maternos. El único factor laboral fue la ausencia de facilidades para amamantar. Es probable que la calidad de los conocimientos, la experiencia previa con ella y tener facilidades laborales influyan en la decisión de prolongarla.OBJECTIVE:To identify the maternal, work, and health services factors associated with a short duration of breast-feeding in working mothers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out between November 1998 and March 1999, among 265 mothers medically insured by (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS Mexican Institute of Social Security, who completed a questionnaire when their babies were 3 to 9 months old
Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A; Demidov, Vasily A; Serebryansky, Eugeny P; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V
The primary objective of the current study was to estimate the hair toxic metal content in adults in relation to body mass index. A total of 1,229 persons including 719 women and 510 men were examined. All subjects were divided into two age groups: 1 and 2 periods of adulthood. All men and women were also subdivided into groups in relation to their values of body mass index (BMI): underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. Hair aluminium (Al), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and tin (Sn) content was evaluated using mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. It has been shown that increase in body weight is accompanied by elevated hair cadmium content in women. At the same time, no significant alteration of hair cadmium concentration was observed in males. Higher values of scalp hair mercury and lead content were observed in men and women with increased body mass index independently of their age. BMI-related elevation of hair tin content was registered only in men of the first period of adulthood. A significant correlation between hair metal content and the values of BMI was observed for mercury independently of the gender of the subjects, whereas BMI values correlated significantly with hair cadmium levels in women and lead and tin levels in men. It has been also estimated that hair cadmium, mercury and lead levels in men exceed the respective values in women.
Background Research indicates that there are benefits to both the mother and infant of breastfeeding. Campaigns have been launched in the UK with some efficacy in increasing the numbers reporting an intention to breastfeed, however, breastfeeding continuation rates remain relatively low. It is known that women’s expectations of breastfeeding are important when considering breastfeeding continuation. It is also recognised, that for women there is the potential of impact on postnatal mood an...
the infant and herself by breastfeeding. Many health benefits are also possible to mothers who breastfeed. Breastfeeding increases oxytocin levels...breastfeed their infants for more than one year more often than do full-time workers. Women who return to work soon after childbirth have to work hard to...flag to give up breastfeeding. One participant contrasted breastfeeding education and support with childbirth education and support, noting that
Elliot, T C; Agunda, K O; Kigondu, J G; Kinoti, S N; Latham, M C
An Infant Feeding Practices Study (IFPS) in 1982 in Kenya, which included a cross-sectional survey of a weighted sample of 980 low and middle income Nairobi mothers who had given birth in the previous 18 months, found that most women breastfeed their infants for long periods, but many introduce alternate feeding, especially infant formula, in the 1st 4 months (86 and 50% of the infants were breastfed at 6 and 15 months respectively, but 50% of the 2 month-olds and 63% of the 4 month-olds were receiving substitutes, mostly formula). This is done largely out of the belief that infant formula is an additional health benefit. A workshop to discuss the findings of the IFPS and other available data, and to make policy recommendations urged the adoption of a policy of protection, support and promotion of breastfeeding. Since breastfeeding is already widely prevalent in Kenya, protection of breastfeeding should receive the 1st priority in policy related to infant feeding. Attention should be directed at at least 2 influences which help undermine breastfeeding: widespread availability and promotion of breast milk substitutes. Support for breastfeeding is viewed as the 2nd policy priority. Situations where support can play a helpful role are, women's paid employment outside the home, hospital practices, maternal morbidity, and difficulties in breastfeeding. Since promotion is the least cost effective of the 3 options, and most Kenyan women are already motivated to breastfeed, this should be the last priority. Promotion includes reeduction of mothers to make them better aware of the benefits of breastfeeding. The workshop recommended the dissemination of appropriate information, consisting of standarized messages based on clearcut guidelines, using mass media techniques.
Priscila Bomfim Costa
Full Text Available The aim of this study was at developing and validating an educational manual promoting breastfeeding. It was a methodological study in which 17 illustrations and their respective captions were developed based on existing literature. A validation of appearance and content was conducted by five health professionals and validation of appearance by 17 women in their postpartum period who were being attended to in a maternity ward in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, from March to May 2009. Regarding the degree of relevance of the figures and captions, the Content Validity Index was calculated, with an excellent rate of 0.97 after modifications and exclusions as suggested during the evaluation. The final version of the manual consisted of 13 figures and captions. The use of this manual both during the pre-natal and postpartum phases is believed to facilitate nursing in that it represents an illustrated medium that can provide answers for the mothers’ questions, promoting breastfeeding.
Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Stern, Ariel Dora; Gillman, Matthew W
Despite the passage of state laws promoting breast feeding, a formal evaluation has not yet been conducted to test whether and/or what type of laws may increase breast feeding. The enactment of breastfeeding laws in different states in the USA creates a natural experiment. We examined the impact of state breastfeeding laws on breastfeeding initiation and duration as well as on disparities in these infant feeding practices. Using data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, we conducted differences-in-differences models to examine breastfeeding status before and after the institution of laws between 2000 and 2008 among 326 263 mothers from 32 states in the USA. For each mother, we coded the presence of two types of state breastfeeding laws. Mothers reported whether they ever breast fed or pumped breast milk (breastfeeding initiation) and, if so, how long they continued. We defined breastfeeding duration as continuing to breast feed for ≥4 weeks. Breastfeeding initiation was 1.7 percentage points higher in states with new laws to provide break time and private space for breastfeeding employees (p=0.01), particularly among Hispanic mothers (adjusted coefficient 0.058). While there was no overall effect of laws permitting mothers to breast feed in any location, among Black mothers we observed increases in breastfeeding initiation (adjusted coefficient 0.056). Effects on breastfeeding duration were in the same direction, but slightly weaker. State laws that support breast feeding appear to increase breastfeeding rates. Most of these gains were observed among Hispanic and Black women and women of lower educational attainment suggesting that such state laws may help reduce disparities in breast feeding.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. Methods We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Results Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Conclusions Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.
Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.
Ann M. Dozier
Full Text Available Stressful life events during pregnancy negatively affect maternal and infant outcomes including breastfeeding initiation. Their impact on breastfeeding duration is uncertain. Given breastfeeding's important health benefits we analyzed stressful life event types and cessation of any and exclusive breastfeeding by 4 and 13 weeks. Methods. We collected self-administered survey data at 5–7 months postpartum from over 700 primarily urban low-income US mothers. Data covered prepregnancy, prenatal, and postpartum periods including 14 stressful life events (categorized into financial, emotional, partner-associated, traumatic. Analyses included only mothers initiating breastfeeding (. Logistic regressions controlled for maternal characteristics including a breastfeeding plan. Results. All four stress categories were associated with shorter duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding. In the adjusted models, statistically significant relationships remained for financial stress (4 weeks cessation of any breastfeeding duration and traumatic stress (13 weeks exclusive breastfeeding cessation. Controlling for stress, a longer breastfeeding plan was significantly associated with a shorter breastfeeding duration (all models as was depression during pregnancy and current smoking (several models. Conclusions. Among low-income women, impact of stressful life events on cessation of breastfeeding may differ by stress type and interfere with achievement of breastfeeding goal. Among these stressed mothers, breastfeeding may serve as a coping mechanism.
Hughes, Kimberly N; Rodriguez-Carter, Jann; Hill, Jennifer; Miller, Dena; Gomez, Crystal
Evidence shows that early formula supplementation leads to early weaning from exclusive breastfeeding. We implemented an evidence-based practice project on skin-to-skin contact (SSC) for healthy term newborns at a large military treatment facility in an effort to decrease formula supplementation in the early postpartum period. Military women face unique challenges when it comes to breastfeeding. SSC in the early postpartum period is an effective intervention to increase exclusive breastfeeding during the hospital stay and foster future positive breastfeeding outcomes. Through this project, staff knowledge of the benefits of SSC to women and newborns improved and the hospital's exclusive breastfeeding rate increased by 20 percent. © 2015 AWHONN.
Smith, Julie P
This introduction to a special issue on the economics of breastfeeding draws attention to the lack of economic justice for women. Human milk is being bought and sold. Commodifying and marketing human milk and breastfeeding risk reinforcing social and gender economic inequities. Yet there are potential benefits for breastfeeding, and some of the world's poorest women might profit. How can we improve on the present situation where everyone except the woman who donates her milk benefits? Breastfeeding is a global food production system with unsurpassed capacity to promote children's food security and maternal and child health, but it is side-lined by trade negotiators who seek instead to expand world markets for cow's milk-based formula. Regulators focus on potential risks of feeding donated human milk, rather than on health risks of exposing infants and young children to highly processed bovine milk. Similarly, policymakers aspire to provide universal health care access that may be unaffordable when two thirds of the world's children are not optimally nourished in infancy, resulting in a global double burden of infectious and chronic disease. Universal breastfeeding requires greater commitment of resources, but such investment remains lacking despite the cost effectiveness of breastfeeding protection, support and promotion in and beyond health services. Women invest substantially in breastfeeding but current policy - epitomised by the G20 approach to the 'gender gap' - fails to acknowledge the economic value of this unpaid care work. Economic incentives for mothers to optimally breastfeed are dwarfed by health system and commercial incentives promoting formula feeding and by government fiscal policies which ignore the resulting economic costs. 'The market' fails to protect breastfeeding, because market prices give the wrong signals. An economic approach to the problem of premature weaning from optimal breastfeeding may help prioritise global maternity protection as
Thompson, Chalmer E.; And Others
Exposed black women (n=100) to black or white female counselor who used verbal statements reflective of cultural or universal content orientation. Counselor content orientation related significantly to depth of disclosure and willingness to self-refer, with participants revealing more intimately and reporting greater willingness to return to…
Empirically observes psychotherapeutic content themes in two distinct group psychotherapies (cognitive treatment following Beck's theory and behavioral treatment following Lewinsohn's model) conducted with 16 Puerto Rican women. Reveals no significant differences in findings between treatment groups. Discusses content themes in context of Puerto…
Women's preferences regarding infant or maternal antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV during breastfeeding and their views on Option B+ in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The WHO 2010 guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV recommended prophylactic antiretroviral treatment (ART either for infants (Option A or mothers (Option B during breastfeeding for pregnant women with a CD4 count of >350 cell/µL in low-income countries. In 2012, WHO proposed that all HIV-infected pregnant women should receive triple ART for life (B+ irrespective of CD4 count. Tanzania has recently switched from Option A to B+, with a few centers practicing B. However, more information on the real-life feasibility of these options is needed. This qualitative study explored women's preferences for Option A vs B and their views on Option B+ in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted four focus group discussions with a total of 27 pregnant women with unknown HIV status, attending reproductive and child health clinics, and 31 in-depth interviews among HIV-infected pregnant and post-delivery women, 17 of whom were also asked about B+. RESULTS: Most participants were in favor of Option B compared to A. The main reasons for choosing Option B were: HIV-associated stigma, fear of drug side-effects on infants and difficult logistics for postnatal drug adherence. Some of the women asked about B+ favored it as they agreed that they would eventually need ART for their own survival. Some were against B+ anticipating loss of motivation after protecting the child, fearing drug side-effects and not feeling ready to embark on lifelong medication. Some were undecided. CONCLUSION: Option B was preferred. Since Tanzania has recently adopted Option B+, women with CD4 counts of >350 cell/µL should be counseled about the possibility to "opt-out" from ART after cessation of breastfeeding. Drug safety and benefits, economic concerns and available resources for laboratory monitoring and evaluation should be addressed during B+ implementation to enhance long-term feasibility and effectiveness.
Spear, Hila J.
School nurses and middle and high school teachers (N = 107) participated in a survey that explored their attitudes and behaviors related to the inclusion of breastfeeding content to highlight the scientific and exceptional health advantages of breastfeeding and to promote a breastfeeding culture. Although some participants believed that…
Magnusson, Brianna M; Thackeray, Callie R; Van Wagenen, Sarah A; Davis, Siena F; Richards, Rickelle; Merrill, Ray M
Men's attitudes toward public breastfeeding may influence a woman's decisions about breastfeeding and her perceived comfort with public breastfeeding. Research aim: This study aimed to evaluate factors associated with men's visual perception of images of public breastfeeding. A 95-item online survey was administered to 502 U.S. men ages 21 to 44. Respondents were presented with four images of women breastfeeding and asked to evaluate agreement with 15 adjectives describing each image. Based on factor analysis, 13 of these adjectives were combined to create the Breastfeeding Images Scale for each image. An 8-item Situational Statements Scale and the 17-item Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) were used to assess breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes. Multiple regression was used to evaluate the association between breastfeeding attitudes and knowledge and the Breastfeeding Images Scale. The image depicting a woman breastfeeding privately at home had the highest mean score of 71.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) [70.69, 73.22], on the Breastfeeding Images Scale, compared with 61.93, 95% CI [60.51, 63.36], for the image of a woman breastfeeding in a public setting. The overall mean scale score for the IIFAS was 56.99, 95% CI [56.27, 57.70], and for the Situational Statements Scale was 28.80, 95% CI [27.92, 29.69]. For all images, increasing breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes measured by the IIFAS and the Situational Statements Scale were associated with a more positive perception of the image. Images of public breastfeeding are viewed less favorably by men in the sample than are images of private breastfeeding. Knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding are positively associated with perception of breastfeeding images.
Full Text Available Lactation is production and secretion of breast milk. It is a known fact that breast milk is unique nutrient for babies to support the development of the baby properly. It is important that there should be no breastfeeding gap in order to continue breastfeed newborns and gradually increase the breastfeeding rates. Breastfeeding can be restarted (relactation in cases of insufficient milk production, baby's rejection of breast-feeding, breast problems, diseases in infants and mothers, and mental changes in mothers experiencing breastfeeding and adaptation problems. This article was written to emphasize the importance of uninterrupted breastfeeding or relactation for the health of the newborn. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(1.000: 113-117
Breastfeeding is the biological norm for infant feeding but is also a social construct. As such, its rates and practices are determined by the same social determinants that shape health inequalities and inequities. In the past 30 years, several reports have drawn attention to the changing pattern of breastfeeding inequalities across countries and population groups. Breastfeeding rates tend to fall and rise following a similar pattern everywhere, although at different times and speed. The role of women within families and societies, the routines of maternity hospitals and other healthcare services, and the pressure exerted by the baby food industry are among the factors that influence the time and speed of changes in breastfeeding rates and practices across countries and population groups. Inequities (i.e., inequalities considered unfair and avoidable by reasonable action) can be redressed by interventions for the protection, promotion, and support of breastfeeding. Evidence-based and quality-implemented support and promotion activities, if applied without an equity lens, may increase inequities. Activities for the protection of breastfeeding (e.g., implementation and enforcement of the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes; legislations, regulations, and policies to remove obstacles and barriers to good-quality breastfeeding support and to protect women and mothers in the workforce; elimination of obstacles and barriers to breastfeeding anywhere, anyhow, and anytime mothers want) apply to all women and are less dependent on take up by the target population. If well designed and enforced, protective interventions contribute to reducing inequalities and inequities and to delivering promotion and support activities more effectively.
Ludvigsson Jonas F
Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the attitudes of the mother and her family towards breastfeeding and the actual feeding pattern in a Bolivian population. A second objective was to study the relationship between breastfeeding information, specified according to source and timing, and feeding pattern. Methods Cross-sectional interviews with 420–502 Bolivian mothers with an infant less than or equal to 1 year of age. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding, use of prelacteal food and/or colostrum were the main outcome measures. Results The attitudes of the mother, her partner (the infant's father and the infant's grandmother towards breastfeeding did not influence the infant feeding pattern. Women who had received breastfeeding information from health care personnel before birth or on the maternity ward breastfed exclusively for a longer duration (adjusted p = 0.0233 and avoided prelacteal food to a greater extent (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 0.42; 95% confidence interval for adjusted odds ratio (95% CI AOR = 0.23–0.72. Information from a doctor before birth or on the maternity ward was associated with less use of prelacteal food (AOR = 0.53; 95% CI AOR = 0.31–0.93, an increased use of colostrum (AOR = 3.30; 95% CI AOR = 1.16–9.37, but was not linked to the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (p = 0.1767. Conclusion The current study indicates that breastfeeding information delivered by health care personnel in a non-trial setting may affect the infant feeding pattern including the use of prelacteal foods and colostrum. There was no evidence that the attitudes of the mother, or the infant's father or grandmother influenced actual feeding behavior. The lack of a "negative or neutral attitude" towards breastfeeding in the participants of the current study does, however, diminish the chances to link attitude to feeding behavior.
Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad
Background Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (21 April 2010), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2010) and SCOPUS (January 1985 to April 2010). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. We updated the search of the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register on 28 September 2011 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. Data collection and analysis We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. Main results We included 17 studies with 7131 women in the review and 14 studies involving 6932 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not do any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison. Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation. Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF. Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not
Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad
Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (2 December 2011), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1966 to 30 November 2011) and Scopus (January 1985 to 30 November 2011). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We included 19 studies with 8506 women in the review and 16 studies involving 8262 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not carry out any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison.Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation.Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF.Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not significantly better than a single intervention in initiating or increasing BF duration. However, in one trial a combined BF education significantly reduced nipple pain and trauma.One study compared different combinations of interventions. There was a marginally
Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A; Mastergeorge, Ann M; Hansen, Robin L; Cullum, Arlene S; Dewey, Kathryn G
To examine associations between doula care, early breastfeeding outcomes, and breastfeeding duration. Prospective cohort. Regional hospital in northern California. Low-income, full gestation primiparae receiving doula care (n=44) or standard care (n=97). Birth outcomes and newborn feeding data obtained from the hospital record. Follow-up interviews conducted at day 3 to record the timing of onset of lactogenesis and breastfeeding behavior and at 6 weeks to obtain current breastfeeding status. Adjusting for baseline differences, women receiving doula care were significantly more likely to have a short stage II labor, a noninstrumental vaginal delivery, and to experience onset of lactogenesis within 72 hours postpartum (timely onset of lactogenesis). Overall, 68% of women receiving doula care and 54% of women receiving standard care were breastfeeding at 6 weeks. In the subset with a prenatal stressor (n=63), the doula care group was more than twice as likely to be breastfeeding at 6 weeks (89% vs. standard care, 40%). Breastfeeding at 6 weeks was also significantly associated with timely onset of lactogenesis and maternal report that the infant "sucked well" at day 3. Doula care was associated with improved childbirth outcomes and timely onset of lactogenesis. Both directly and as mediated by timely onset of lactogenesis, doula care was also associated with higher breastfeeding prevalence at 6 weeks.
Witte, P M; van der Lei, B; van der Biezen, J J; Spronk, C A
To determine if it is possible to successfully breastfeed after reduction mammaplasty with intact continuity between papilla and glandular tissue. Retrospective by use of a written questionnaire. Between 1986 and 2000, 994 women under the age of 35 underwent a reduction mammaplasty at the Medical Centre in Leeuwarden, The Netherlands. They were all sent a questionnaire of which 585 were completed correctly and returned. Of the 585 women, 215 had had one or more children and 90 had started breastfeeding, 57 of whom were successful (63%). In non-operated women this figure is 69%. The advice to try to breastfeed was associated with a higher percentage of success than the advice not to try--78% and 42% respectively. It appears to be justified to encourage women who have had a breast reduction to attempt to breastfeed after the birth of a child.
Ikeda, Masayuki; Moriguchi, Jiro; Sakuragi, Sonoko; Ohashi, Fumiko
Cd absorption may be enhanced in association with iron (Fe) deficiency. Women have increased risks of Fe loss at the time of child birth as well as breast-feeding of children. Possible effects of these two factors were investigated in the present study. Data were drawn from previous publications from this group on Cd and tubular dysfunction markers (i.e., α1-microglobulin, β2-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase) in urine of adult women in non-polluted areas in Japan. Information including age, smoking, number of children, and types of child feeding was obtained by self-administered questionnaires at the time of urine sampling. In practice, 17,468 cases were available, from which 12,869 cases were employed in the present analyses after exclusion of smokers, former or current patients of anemia or hypertension, and those with incomplete answers. Lactation burden was scored after coding of breast, mixed, and bottle feeding with 2, 1, and 0 for each child followed by summation for all children born to a mother. In order to exclude possible effect of aging, women were stratified by 5 years of age to randomly select equal numbers of cases and controls, followed by summation for all ages for comparison. The arithmetic mean age and the geometric mean Cd (as observed) were 49.7 years and 1.13 μg/l urine. The number of children was 0-7, and lactation burden score ranged from 0-12. Multiple regression analyses were conducted with age and either number of children or lactation burden scores as independent variables and Cd as a dependent variable. The results showed that age was an influential variable. Comparison after matching for age showed that having 1, 2, or 3 children or lactation burden score up to 2 were associated with a significant increase in Cd. Lactation burden score up to 2 was also associated with increased Cd in urine and such trend persisted up to the highest score of 5-12. The results of trend tests were generally in agreement with these
Swanson, Vivien; Keely, Alice; Denison, Fiona C
Obese women have lower breastfeeding initiation and maintenance rates than healthy weight women. Research generally focuses on biomedical explanations for this. Psychosocial factors including body image and well-being after childbirth are less well understood as predictors of breastfeeding. In obese and healthy weight women, we investigated changes in body image between 72 hrs post-delivery and 6-8 weeks post-natal, studying how women's body image related to breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. We also investigated how psychological distress was related to body image. Longitudinal semi-structured questionnaire survey. Body image and psychological distress were assessed within 72 hrs of birth and by postal questionnaire at 6-8 weeks, for 70 obese and 70 healthy weight women initiating exclusive (breastmilk only) breastfeeding or mixed feeding (with formula milk) in hospital. Breastfeeding was re-assessed at 6-8 weeks. Obese women were less likely to exclusively breastfeed in hospital and maintain breastfeeding to 6-8 weeks. Better body image was related to maintaining breastfeeding and to lower post-natal psychological distress for all women, but education level was the most significant predictor of maintenance in multivariate regression including body image and weight status. Body image mediated, but did not moderate the relationship between weight and breastfeeding maintenance. Body image was lower overall in obese women, but all women had low body image satisfaction around childbirth, reducing further at 6-8 weeks. Health professionals should consider women's body image when discussing breastfeeding. A focus on breast function over form may support breastfeeding for all women. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Obesity can negatively affect breastfeeding initiation and maintenance, but there is little information about how psychosocial factors affect this relationship. Body image may be an important factor, but has not
Gerçek, Emine; Sarıkaya Karabudak, Seher; Ardıç Çelik, Nigar; Saruhan, Aynur
This study investigates the relationship between breastfeeding self-efficacy and LATCH scores and affecting factors in Turkish mothers. The benefits of breastfeeding for newborns and mothers are well documented. Type of birth, maternal and neonatal complications; lack of support from healthcare professionals during breastfeeding, hospital routines, time and duration of mother-newborn attachment; and insufficiency of husband and family support are the most significant factors affecting breastfeeding initiation and mothers' breastfeeding self-efficacy in early postpartum period. Therefore, it is important to determine how all these factors affect breastfeeding. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. The sample of the study consisted of 303 postpartum women who were recruited at the obstetrics clinic of maternity hospital in one of the three largest city of Turkey. The data were obtained using Personal Identification Form, Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form and LATCH Breastfeeding Assessment Tool to determine breastfeeding success. The mean, standard deviation, frequency, percentages, correlation analysis and Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis were used in data collection. The main finding of the study was a weak positive correlation between average LATCH scores and average Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form scores of women in the postpartum period. The women becoming pregnant four times or more got significantly higher average Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form and average LATCH scores, and the women married for 11 years or longer and the mothers starting to breastfeed their babies within 30 minutes of their birth got significantly higher average LATCH scores. The results of the present research affirm the beneficial role of high self-efficacy in successful breastfeeding. It is of great importance that midwives and obstetric nurses routinely evaluate breastfeeding self-efficacy and the capability of breastfeeding for early
Britton, John R; Britton, Helen L; Gronwaldt, Virginia
Our goal was to test the hypothesis that breastfeeding is associated with enhanced infant-mother attachment and its antecedent maternal sensitivity. Breastfeeding intent and practice were assessed by questionnaires administered to 152 mothers between 32 weeks of gestation and 12 months postpartum. Early maternal sensitivity was measured by the Sensitivity to Cues subscale of the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Feeding Scale at 3 months, and quality of the mother-infant interaction was measured by the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Feeding Scale at 6 months. Security of attachment was evaluated by the Ainsworth Strange Situation at 12 months. A direct relationship between attachment security and breastfeeding practice was not identified. The quality of the mother-infant interaction at 6 months, rather than the type of feeding, predicted security of attachment. However, mothers who chose to breastfeed displayed greater sensitivity in dyadic interactions with their infants 3 months postnatally than those who chose to bottle feed, and intended breastfeeding duration prenatally correlated with sensitivity 3 months postpartum. Although a path analysis failed to demonstrate contributions of early breastfeeding duration to either sensitivity or security, it did substantiate a significant path between prenatal breastfeeding intent and attachment security mediated by sensitivity. In addition, multivariate analyses revealed that early sensitivity among breastfeeding mothers was an independent predictor of the duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding during the first year. Although the quality of the dyadic interaction in infancy, rather than feeding type, is predictive of attachment security, mothers who choose to breastfeed display enhanced sensitivity during early infancy that, in turn, may foster secure attachment. Among breastfeeding mothers, higher sensitivity is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding during the first postpartum year
Foss, Katherine A
Breastfeeding has been recognized as one of the key determinant in one's future health. Yet although most people are aware of the benefits, many women do not breastfeed their babies past the first few months. These low rates can be partially explained by negative cultural attitudes toward breastfeeding, which have been reinforced by media messages. This research explored representations of breastfeeding in entertainment media-an area that has been overlooked. A textual analysis was conducted on 53 fictional television breastfeeding representations, ranging in genre and audience, from Beavis and Butthead to Criminal Minds. Findings indicate that breastfeeding depictions are generally positive, but limited in scope to educated, older, Caucasian women breastfeeding newborns, with little discussion about how to overcome problems. Extended breastfeeding and nursing in public were conveyed as socially unacceptable, making other characters uncomfortable, often within the same storylines that sexualized breasts. While the frequency of representations in recent years was encouraging, the narrow definition of the "normal" nursing experience excluded many types of women and breastfeeding experiences. And, by failing to address breastfeeding challenges and conveying that extended breastfeeding or nursing in public is abnormal or obscene, these depictions reinforce myths about the ease of breastfeeding and may discourage women from breastfeeding past the newborn phase, and outside the privacy of their homes. These portrayals may help explain why breastfeeding has not been "normalized," despite an international consensus that it is the best health choice for babies.
Natland Siv Tone
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the health benefits from breastfeeding often rely on maternal recall of breastfeeding. Although short-term maternal recall has been found to be quite accurate, less is known about long-term accuracy. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of long-term maternal recall of breastfeeding duration. Methods In a prospective study of pregnancy and birth outcome, detailed information on breastfeeding during the child’s first year of life was collected from a cohort of Norwegian women who gave birth in 1986–88. Among 374 of the participants, data on breastfeeding initiation and duration were compared to recalled data obtained from mailed questionnaires some 20 years later. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, Bland-Altman plot, and Kappa statistics were used to assess the agreement between the two sources of data. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of misreporting breastfeeding duration by more than one month. Results Recorded and recalled breastfeeding duration were strongly correlated (ICC=0.82, p Conclusion Breastfeeding duration was recalled quite accurately 20 years after mothers gave birth in a population where breastfeeding is common and its duration long.
Baño-Piñero, Isabel; Martínez-Roche, María Emilia; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel; Carrillo-García, César; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban
The rates of breastfeeding worldwide are slowly improving since 1996. Europe is still trailing behind the global breastfeeding incidence and prevalence rates. Thus, breastfeeding promotion, protection, prolongation and support have become an important challenge as breastfeeding sharply decreases in the first six months of life. The aim of this project is to determine, assess and identify the real impact of breastfeeding support networks in Murcia (Spain). After searching unsuccessfully for a validated questionnaire, a specific one was developed and validated for measuring the impact of formal and informal support networks through five dimensions: satisfaction, consultation, experience, problems and support. The questionnaire was provided to 500 mothers with experience in breastfeeding, who brought their children to baby paediatricians between 2 June and 27 November 2014. Upon completion of the survey and fieldwork, a detailed statistical analysis was conducted. The degree of satisfaction perceived by the users of the services of support breastfeeding networks is remarkable. In addition, mothers who clarified their doubts and discussed their problems with health professionals and/or breastfeeding support networks were more likely to breastfeed for a longer duration compared to those who did not (p=0.005). Furthermore, mothers who sought support in breastfeeding are more likely to breastfeed for more than 6 months (psupport networks have a positive influence in the duration of a women's decision to breastfeed. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fernanda Demutti Pimpão Martins
Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the approaches on breastfeeding promotion in primary education. This is an integrative review carried out on BVS, PUBMED, SCOPUS, CINAHL, COCHRANE and SciELO, which found 1,598 publications with seven of them selected for the final sample. Categories identified - Approaches to knowledge, perceptions, beliefs and experiences of breastfeeding from children's perspective: the interviews revealed knowledge and beliefs unfavorable to breastfeeding; - Approach to the breastfeeding promotion content in primary education: the content is superficially addressed in textbooks and educators state they do not teach it in class. The approach to breastfeeding in primary education has been varied, although reduced, especially in relation to educational interventions. Nurses need to expand this approach, with active and playful methodologies, with a view to impacting the future of the next generations.
Rouw, Elien; Hormann, Elizabeth; Scherbaum, Veronika
The economic value of breastfeeding to the society at large is under researched and its importance as a preventive public health strategy is underestimated. What little research there is indicates that considerable savings would accrue from following the WHO/UNICEF advice to breastfeed exclusively for six months and continue breastfeeding along with complementary foods for two years or more. Despite relatively high breastfeeding initiation in Germany, neither exclusive breastfeeding nor breastfeeding duration come close to international recommendations. Breastfeeding is mostly regarded as a woman's personal choice and the government has been slow to engage in breastfeeding promotion, support and research. Some structures in Germany do offer support for breastfeeding women - including the growing number of Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) certified hospitals and a comprehensive maternity leave policy. However, the costs of breastfeeding are mostly borne by the mothers and those for breastfeeding training mostly by the individual health care workers or hospital, while the health insurance companies and society-at-large are profiting from the financial savings from exclusive and long-term breastfeeding. Factors which might improve breastfeeding rates and duration in this country include broad expansion of and financial support for both BFHI hospitals as well as training for the health care personnel who support the mother-infant dyad during the breastfeeding period.
Altamimi, Eyad; Al Nsour, Reem; Al Dalaen, Duaa; Almajali, Neyaf
Breast milk is the ideal food for human infants, with benefits to mothers and babies. However, working mothers are more likely to choose not to breastfeed or to interrupt breastfeeding prematurely. This study assessed breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes among working mothers in South Jordan. Four hundred cross-sectional, self-administered Arabic surveys were distributed to working mothers at their workplaces. In addition to measuring mothers' knowledge of and attitudes toward breastfeeding, barriers that prevented continuing breastfeeding beyond 6 months were also explored. Three hundred forty-four (80%) completed questionnaires were returned. The breastfeeding initiation rate was 72.4%, but only 20.9% were exclusively breastfeeding by 6 months. The participants showed satisfactory knowledge about breastfeeding and had positive attitudes toward breastfeeding. Most of the women who initiated breastfeeding reported ending breastfeeding prematurely. Approximately 30% of the mothers attributed premature cessation of breastfeeding to work. The results of this study could be useful for health care providers and policy makers when planning effective breastfeeding promotion programs and creating breastfeeding-friendly workplaces.
Dinour, Lauren M; Szaro, Jacalyn M
Many mothers experience barriers to maintaining a breastfeeding relationship with their infants upon returning to work and, consequently, terminate breastfeeding earlier than recommended or intended. As such, employers are in a unique position to help further increase breastfeeding rates, durations, and exclusivity. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature regarding employer-based programs, policies, and interventions to support breastfeeding among working mothers. A systematic literature search was conducted for peer-reviewed articles published before April 2016. Studies were included if they focused on workplace-based lactation/breastfeeding support programs, policies, or interventions to promote breastfeeding among employees. For inclusion, articles must have measured at least one outcome, such as breastfeeding duration, breastfeeding exclusivity, or employee satisfaction. Twenty-two articles were included, representing 10 different countries and both public- and private-sector employers, including governmental offices, schools, hospitals, manufacturing/industrial companies, and financial settings, among others. Providing a lactation space was the most common employer-based support accommodation studied, followed by breastfeeding breaks and comprehensive lactation support programs. The majority of studies analyzing these three support types found at least one positive breastfeeding and/or nonbreastfeeding outcome. This review suggests that maintaining breastfeeding while working is not only possible but also more likely when employers provide the supports that women need to do so. Although some employers may have more extensive breastfeeding support policies and practices than others, all employers can implement a breastfeeding support program that fits their company's budget and resources.
Leeming, Dawn; Williamson, Iain; Lyttle, Steven; Johnson, Sally
Many women report difficulties with breastfeeding and do not maintain the practice for as long as intended. Although psychologists and other researchers have explored some of the difficulties they experience, fuller exploration of the relational contexts in which breastfeeding takes place is warranted to enable more in-depth analysis of the challenges these pose for breastfeeding women. This article is based on qualitative data collected from 22 first-time breastfeeding mothers through two phases of interviews and audio-diaries which explored how the participants experienced their relationships with significant others and the wider social context of breastfeeding in the first five weeks postpartum. Using a thematic analysis informed by symbolic interactionism, we develop the overarching theme of 'Practising socially sensitive lactation' which captures how participants felt the need to manage tensions between breastfeeding and their perceptions of the needs, expectations and comfort of others. We argue that breastfeeding remains a problematic social act, despite its agreed importance for child health. While acknowledging the limitations of our sample and analytic approach, we suggest ways in which perinatal and public health interventions can take more effective account of the social challenges of breastfeeding in order to facilitate the health and psychological well-being of mothers and their infants.
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Full Text Available Introduction: Breastfeeding has been identifi ed as the optimal source of nutrition for infants. However, many mothers do not breastfeed their infants excusively. The possible modifi able factors to improve breastfeeding rates are breastfeeding self effi cacy and effective breastfeeding behavior. The aim of this study was to analyze the breastfeeding support package to improve breastfeeding self effi cacy and impact on effective breastfeeding behavior. Method: This study was a quasy experiment pre-post test non equivalent control group design. Samples were 20 respondents recruited using consecutive sampling in Navy Hospital Dr. Ramelan who met the inclusion criteria. Instruments that used in this study were breastfeeding self effi cacy short form and LATCH assessment tool. Results: The score of breastfeeding self effi cacy on experiment group was improve higher than control group. But, the hypothesis test showed that there were no difference score between experiment and control group after intervention (p = 0.104. The correlation between breastfeeding self effi cacy and effective breastfeeding behavior was not signifi cant (p = 0.976. Analisis and Discussion: The antecedent of breastfeeding self effi cacy were not only the information resources but also job and education level. Breastfeeding self effi cacy was not an antecedent of effective breastfeeding behavior. Keywords: breastfeeding self effi cacy, effective breastfeeding, intervention
Prevalência do aleitamento materno e fatores associados à interrupção da amamentação em mulheres militares Prevalencia de la lactancia materna y factores asociados a la interrupción de la amamantación en mujeres militares Prevalence of breastfeeding and factors associated with weaning from breastfeeding among military women
Tatiana Caroline S. B. Freitas
compuesto por 100 madres militares con niños de hasta 24 meses. Se recogieron datos sobre frecuencia de la lactancia materna, perfil socioeconómico, carrera militar, asistencia a la salud y hábito materno infantil. El análisis de regresión logística fue realizado para verificar la asociación entre interrupción de la lactancia materna a las variables del estudio. Las pruebas de Mann Whitney y prueba T fueron utilizadas para verificar el tiempo de lactancia exclusiva y de la lactancia materna. RESULTADOS: La lactancia materna tuvo ocurrió en 94% de los casos y su duración mediana fue de 7,2 meses. No hubo diferencia significativa de la lactancia materna entre madres militares de acuerdo con la patente, el nivel educacional y la actividad operacional. El análisis multivariado presentó asociación positiva entre el destete y las variables: situación civil de la madre (casada, información sobre la importancia de la amamantación en el prenatal y utilización de la leche no humana. La variable que se relacionó positivamente con una duración más grande de la lactancia materna exclusiva fue madres con dos hijos previos. CONCLUSIONES: La actividad operacional no interfirió en la prevalencia de la lactancia materna entre madres militares. Los autores especulan que durante el seguimiento prenatal la planificación de acciones dirigidas para la información de la importancia de la amamantación puede mejorar la prevalencia y la duración de la lactancia materna en esta población.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of breastfeeding and risk factors associated with weaning among military women in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a convenience sample including 100 military mothers with children aged up to 24 months. Data were collected on the frequency of breastfeeding, socioeconomic profile, military career, health care, and maternal and child habits. The logistic regression analysis was
Despite the widely documented health advantages of breastfeeding over formula feeding, initiation rates remain relatively low in many high-income countries, particularly among women in lower income groups. To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions which aim to encourage women to breastfeed in terms of changes in the number of women who start to breastfeed. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (July 2007), handsearched the Journal of Human Lactation, Health Promotion International and Health Education Quarterly from inception to 15 August 2007, and scanned reference lists of all articles obtained. Randomized controlled trials, with or without blinding, of any breastfeeding promotion intervention in any population group except women and infants with a specific health problem. One review author independently extracted data and assessed trial quality, checked by a second author. We contacted investigators to obtain missing information. Main results: Eleven trials were included. Statistical analyses were conducted on data from eight trials (1553 women). Five studies (582 women) on low incomes in the USA with typically low breastfeeding rates showed breastfeeding education had a significant effect on increasing initiation rates compared to standard care (risk ratio (RR) 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15 to 2.15, P = 0.005). Subgroup analyses showed that one-to-one, needs-based, informal repeat education sessions and generic, formal antenatal education sessions are effective in terms of an increase in breastfeeding rates among women on low incomes regardless of ethnicity and feeding intention. Needs-based, informal peer support in the antenatal and postnatal periods was also shown to be effective in one study conducted among Latina women who were considering breastfeeding in the USA (RR 4.02, 95% CI 2.63 to 6.14, P interventions can result in some improvements in the number of women beginning to breastfeed. Findings from
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the widely documented health advantages of breastfeeding over formula feeding, initiation rates remain relatively low in many high-income countries, particularly among women in lower income groups. OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions which aim to encourage women to breastfeed in terms of changes in the number of women who start to breastfeed. METHODS : Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (July 2007, handsearched the Journal of Human Lactation, Health Promotion International and Health Education Quarterly from inception to 15 August 2007, and scanned reference lists of all articles obtained. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials, with or without blinding, of any breastfeeding promotion intervention in any population group except women and infants with a specific health problem. Data collection and analysis: One review author independently extracted data and assessed trial quality, checked by a second author. We contacted investigators to obtain missing information. MAIN RESULTS: Main results: Eleven trials were included. Statistical analyses were conducted on data from eight trials (1553 women. Five studies (582 women on low incomes in the USA with typically low breastfeeding rates showed breastfeeding education had a significant effect on increasing initiation rates compared to standard care (risk ratio (RR 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.15 to 2.15, P = 0.005. Subgroup analyses showed that one-to-one, needs-based, informal repeat education sessions and generic, formal antenatal education sessions are effective in terms of an increase in breastfeeding rates among women on low incomes regardless of ethnicity and feeding intention. Needs-based, informal peer support in the antenatal and postnatal periods was also shown to be effective in one study conducted among Latina women who were considering breastfeeding in the USA (RR 4.02, 95% CI
Edficher Margotti; Matias Epifanio
This study aimed at determining the factors related to the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and to associate them to the scores of the Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale. 300 mother-baby binomials were studied, from the capital cities of the southern region of Brazil in 2012, using the Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale during postpartum period and with intervals from 15 to 120 days after delivery. The average of the score of breastfeeding was 36 points. The risk factors for breastfeeding we...
Public Health Agency
This leaflet aims to encourage breastfeeding mothers to continue breastfeeding after they have returned to work. It highlights the benefits of continuing to breastfeed, sets out the options for combining breastfeeding and work, explains the rights breastfeeding mothers have to support from their employer, and outlines what facilities and equipment mothers will need to express milk at work.
Puapompong, Pawin; Raungrongmorakot, Kasem; Manolerdtewan, Wichian; Ketsuwan, Sukwadee; Wongin, Sinutchanan
Teenage pregnancy is an important health issue globally and in Thailand Younger age mothers decide on the breastfeeding practices ofthe first 6-month. To find the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices of teenage mothers and compare them with the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices in mothers who are 20 years of age or more. Three thousand five hundred sixty three normal, postpartum women, who delivered without complications at the HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center in the Nakhon Nayok Province between 2010 and2013 were included in this study. At the second daypostpartum, the data of latch scores and the data of the practice of exclusive breastfeeding were collected Telephone follow-ups on the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth postpartum days and at the second, fourth, and sixth month postpartum month were collected and used for exclusive breastfeeding data following discharge. Demographic data included the maternal age, parity, gestational age, marital status, occupation, religion, route ofdelivery, estimated blood loss, body mass index, nipple length, and the childs birth weight. The collected data was analyzed by the t-test, Chi-square, and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. The percentage of teenage pregnancies was at 14.8% (527 cases). On postpartum day 2, the percentage of latch scores of 8 or less was 66.4%. At the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth day and at the second, fourth, and sixth months postpartum, the exclusive breastfeeding rates were 88.5, 78.5, 57.6, 43.1, 32.9, and27.0%, respectively. Comparison of the 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rates between teenage mothers and mothers 20 years ofage or older were not statistically significant (pteenage mothers was at 27.0% and had no significant differences from the rates of mothers 20 years of age or more.
Varanoske, Alyssa N.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Church, David D.; Baker, Kayla M.; Dodd, Sarah J.; Coker, Nicholas A.; Oliveira, Leonardo P.; Dawson, Virgil L.; Stout, Jeffrey R.
Carnosine is a naturally occurring intramuscular dipeptide that is thought to attenuate fatigue during high-intensity exercise. Carnosine content is influenced by various factors, including gender and diet. Despite research reporting that carnosine content is lower in women compared to men and lower in vegetarians compared to omnivores, no investigations have examined carnosine content in women based on dietary protein intake and its effect on muscle fatigue. Twenty recreationally active women were assigned to either a high (HI; n = 5), moderate (MOD; n = 10), or low (LO; n = 5) group based upon intramuscular carnosine content of the vastus lateralis. Each participant underwent two unilateral maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) of the knee extensors separated by an isokinetic exercise protocol consisting of five sets of 50 repeated maximal unilateral contractions. Magnitude-based inferences were used to analyze group differences. Percent decline in rate of force development and peak torque (PT) during the MVICs and changes in PT and mean torque during the muscle-fatiguing protocol were lower in HI compared to both MOD and LO. Additionally, absolute and relative dietary protein intake were greater in HI compared to MOD or LO. Results indicated that greater intramuscular carnosine content was reflective of greater dietary protein intake and that individuals with higher carnosine content displayed a greater attenuation of fatigue compared to those with lower carnosine. PMID:28880219
Díaz Meneses, Gonzalo
The proposed objective of this research is twofold: (1) it examines the significance of emotions to the breastfeeding experience in relation to cognition, and (2) it analyzes the extent to which emotions and cognition are connected to breastfeeding. An empirical research work has been carried out based on a questionnaire that was administered in a maternity hospital in the autumn of 2008, in order to gather information regarding cognitive and emotional aspects of breastfeeding behavior. The final sample comprised 311 breastfeeding mothers, and the sampling error was 5.55%. The research shows that breastfeeding is not only more of an emotional reaction than a rational decision, but also demonstrates that the emotional development of breastfeeding is independent from the cognitive process. A new approach in the literature of breastfeeding is put forward in which the predominant cognitive techniques and theories are complemented by highlighting the importance of understanding the target group and implementing suitable and affective actions. Specific practical implications are provided for social marketing campaigns as well as future lines of research.
Flidel-Rimon, O; Shinwell, E S
Human breast milk is the best nutrition for human infants. Its advantages over the milk of other species, such as cows, include both a reduced risk for infections, allergies and chronic diseases, together with the full nutritional requirements for growth and development. Breast-feeding is as important for multiples as for singletons. Despite the advantages, multiples receive less breast-feeding than singletons. Common reasons for not breast-feeding multiples include the fear of not fulfilling the infants' needs and the difficulty of coping with the demands on the mother's time. In addition, many multiples are delivered prematurely and by Caesarean section. Maternal pain and discomfort together with anxiety over the infants' condition are not conducive to successful breast-feeding. During lactation, the mother needs to add calories to her daily diet. It has been recommended to add approximately 500-600 kcal/day for each infant. Thus, between eating, nursing and sleeping, life is very busy for the mother of multiples. However, there is evidence that, with appropriate nutrition, one mother can nourish more than one infant. Also, simultaneous breast-feeding can save much time. Combined efforts of parents, close family, friends and the medical team can help to make either full or partial breast-feeding of multiples possible. However, when breast-feeding is not possible, health care workers need to carefully avoid judgmental approaches that may induce feelings of guilt.
Tao, Xing-Yong; Huang, Kun; Yan, Shuang-Qin; Zuo, A-Zhu; Tao, Rui-Wen; Cao, Hui; Gu, Chun-Li; Tao, Fang-Biao
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) on initiation and duration of infant breast-feeding in a prospective birth cohort study. Breast-feeding information was collected at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. The association of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with delayed lactogenesis II and termination of exclusive breast-feeding was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The risk of early termination of any breast-feeding during the first year postpartum was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models. Urban city in China. Women with infants from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study (n 3196). The median duration of any breast-feeding in this cohort was 7·0 months. Pre-pregnancy obese women had higher risks of delayed lactogenesis II (risk ratio=1·89; 95 % CI 1·04, 3·43) and early termination of any breast-feeding (hazard ratio=1·38; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·75) adjusted for potential maternal and infant confounders, when compared with normal-weight women. No differences in breast-feeding initiation or duration of exclusive breast-feeding according to pre-pregnancy BMI were found. Moreover, GWG was not associated with any poor breast-feeding outcomes. The present study indicated that pre-pregnancy obesity increases the risks of delayed lactogenesis II and early termination of any breast-feeding in Chinese women.
Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata
To explain why breastfeeding is associated with children's cognitive development. By using a nationally representative longitudinal survey of early childhood (N = 7500), we examined how breastfeeding practices, the early introduction of solid foods, and putting an infant to bed with a bottle were associated with cognitive development across early childhood. We also explored whether this link can be explained by parenting behaviors and maternal education. There is a positive relationship between predominant breastfeeding for 3 months or more and child reading skills, but this link is the result of cognitively supportive parenting behaviors and greater levels of education among women who predominantly breastfed. We found little-to-no relationship between infant feeding practices and the cognitive development of children with less-educated mothers. Instead, reading to a child every day and being sensitive to a child's development were significant predictors of math and reading readiness outcomes. Although breastfeeding has important benefits in other settings, the encouragement of breastfeeding to promote school readiness does not appear to be a key intervention point. Promoting parenting behaviors that improve child cognitive development may be a more effective and direct strategy for practitioners to adopt, especially for disadvantaged children. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Alexis J Hure
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To report on the proportion and characteristics of Australian infants who are fed, and mothers who feed, in accordance with the national and international breastfeeding duration targets of six, 12 and 24 months. Furthermore, to examine the longitudinal breastfeeding duration patterns for women with more than one child. METHODS: Breastfeeding duration data for 9773 children have been self-reported by a national sample of 5091 mothers aged 30-36 years in 2009, participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. RESULTS: Only 60% of infants received the minimum recommended 6 months of breast milk, irrespective of breastfeeding exclusivity. Less than 30% of infants received any breast milk at 12 months, and less than 3% were breastfed to the international target of 24 months. Young, less educated, unmarried or low-income women were at an increased risk of premature breastfeeding cessation. For women with three or more children, nearly 75% of women who breastfed their first child for at least six months reached this breastfeeding duration target for their next two children. CONCLUSION: While national breastfeeding rates are typically evaluated in relation to the infant, a novel component of our study is that we have assessed maternal adherence to breastfeeding duration targets and the longitudinal feeding practices of women with more than one child. Separate evaluations of maternal and infant breastfeeding rates are important as they differ in their implications for public health policy and practice.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Women's return to work can be a significant barrier to continued breastfeeding. Workplace policies and practices to promote and support continued, and longer duration of, breastfeeding are important. In the context of the introduction of a new breastfeeding policy for Area Health Services in New South Wales, Australia, a baseline survey was conducted to describe current practices and examine women's reports of perceived organisational support on breastfeeding intention and practice. Methods A cross sectional survey of female employees of the Sydney South West Area Health Service was conducted in late 2009. A mailed questionnaire was sent to 998 eligible participants who had taken maternity leave over the 20-month period from January 2008 to August 2009. The questionnaire collected items assessing breastfeeding intentions, awareness of workplace policies, and the level of organisational and social support available. For those women who had returned to work, further questions were asked to assess the perceptions and practices of breastfeeding in the work environment, as well as barriers and enabling factors to combining breastfeeding and work. Results Returning to work was one of the main reasons women ceased breastfeeding, with 60 percent of women intending to breastfeed when they returned to work, but only 40 percent doing so. Support to combine breastfeeding and work came mainly from family and partners (74% and 83% respectively, with little perceived support from the organisation (13% and human resources (6%. Most women (92% had received no information from their managers about their breastfeeding options upon their return to work, and few had access to a room specially designated for breastfeeding (19%. Flexible work options and lactation breaks, as well as access to a private room, were identified as the main factors that facilitate breastfeeding at work. Conclusions Enabling women to continue breastfeeding at work has
Sophie C. Schalla
Full Text Available Breastfeeding rates in the UK are low. Efforts to promote breastfeeding typically include the known health benefits for mother and child, many of which are not immediate. Gaining immediate benefits can be effective motivators of behaviour. Body-related changes resulting from breastfeeding could be an immediate benefit. This study explored breastfeeding mothers’ reports of body-related changes as benefits of breastfeeding. Mothers (N = 182 who currently, or had recently, breastfed an infant completed a survey detailing their infant feeding choices and the perceived benefits of breastfeeding on their bodies. Half of the mothers felt that breastfeeding had a positive effect on their body. Benefits were grouped into five themes: (1 Returning to pre-pregnancy body shape; (2 Health benefits; (3 Physical benefits; (4 Eating benefits; (5 Psychological benefits. These themes highlight the numerous body-related benefits that mothers identified as resulting from breastfeeding and suggest that immediate, personal, and appearance-related gains of breastfeeding are highly valued. These findings indicate that interventions would likely benefit from emphasising the more immediate physical and psychological benefits of breastfeeding, alongside the health and bonding benefits, as a way to promote breastfeeding initiation and continuation in more women. This may be particularly effective for groups such as young mothers, where breastfeeding rates are low and whose emphasis on body image may be greater.
Meedya, Shahla; Fahy, Kathleen; Kable, Ashley
What modifiable factors positively influence breastfeeding duration to 6 months postpartum? This question was posed in order to be able to develop a midwifery intervention aimed at prolonging breastfeeding. An online literature search was conducted in Medline, CINAHL, Maternity and Infant Care, and Cochrane Database of systematic reviews. The search strategy included the following keywords: breastfeeding, duration, initiation, cessation, factors, intervention, education, partner, intention, confidence, self-efficacy and support. Additional studies were located and extracted from online publications of New South Wales Department of Health, Australia. Bio-psycho-social factors that are positively associated with breastfeeding duration were identified. Modifiable factors that influence women's breastfeeding decisions are: breastfeeding intention, breastfeeding self-efficacy and social support. Existing midwifery breastfeeding promotion strategies often include social support but do not adequately address attempts to modify breastfeeding intention and self-efficacy. The modifiable factors that are positively associated with breastfeeding duration are the woman's breastfeeding intention, her breastfeeding self-efficacy and her social support. Intervention studies to date have focussed on modifying these factors individually with variable results. No interventional studies have been conducted with the aim of positively modifying all three factors simultaneously. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grubesic, Tony H; Durbin, Kelly M
Clinical lactation professionals, breastfeeding peer counseling, and mother-to-mother support are important sources of information and guidance for helping mothers initiate and maintain breastfeeding in the early weeks, months, and years postpartum. However, there is limited information concerning the geographic barriers that mothers face when seeking this support. Research aim: This study aimed to identify the geographic barriers to breastfeeding support, delineate gaps in access, assess inequities in the distribution of local support, and highlight the underlying differences in access and equity for different demographic and socioeconomic groups. The locations of formal breastfeeding support resources were collected for the state of Ohio for 2016 and were combined with demographic and socioeconomic estimates and derived transportation catchment areas to conduct an analysis of spatial access and equity. Significant geographic gaps in formal breastfeeding support exist within the state of Ohio. Although urban areas benefit from a higher density of support options, including a wide variety of clinical experts and mother-to-mother support groups, inequities in exurban and rural areas were more strongly aligned with socioeconomic status than geography. In particular, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children offices in rural Ohio offer breastfeeding support to income-qualifying mothers but cannot address the needs of mothers who do not qualify. Spatial analytical approaches facilitate a more nuanced view of access and equity to breastfeeding support options, helping to both decompose important structural differences in the state of Ohio and identify locations that could benefit from additional breastfeeding support resources.
Anstey, Erica H; Coulter, Martha; Jevitt, Cecilia M; Perrin, Kay M; Dabrow, Sharon; Klasko-Foster, Lynne B; Daley, Ellen M
Addressing suboptimal breastfeeding initiation and duration rates is a priority in the United States. To address challenges to improving these rates, the voices of the providers who work with breastfeeding mothers should be heard. Research aim: The purpose of this study was to explore lactation consultants' perceived barriers to managing early breastfeeding problems. This qualitative study was conducted with a grounded theory methodological approach. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 International Board Certified Lactation Consultants across Florida. Lactation consultants were from a range of practice settings, including hospitals, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children clinics, private practice, and pediatric offices. Data were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in Atlas.ti. A range of barriers was identified and grouped into the following categories/themes: indirect barriers (social norms, knowledge, attitudes); direct occupational barriers (institutional constraints, lack of coordination, poor service delivery); and direct individual barriers (social support, mother's self-efficacy). A model was developed illustrating the factors that influence the role enactment of lactation consultants in managing breastfeeding problems. Inadequate support for addressing early breastfeeding challenges is compounded by a lack of collaboration among various healthcare providers and the family. Findings provide insight into the professional management issues of early breastfeeding problems faced by lactation consultants. Team-based, interprofessional approaches to breastfeeding support for mothers and their families are needed; improving interdisciplinary collaboration could lead to better integration of lactation consultants who are educated and experienced in providing lactation support and management of breastfeeding problems.
Simondon, K B; Simondon, F
Breastfeeding, when prolonged beyond infancy, is a risk factor for low nutritional status in most cross-sectional samples from less developed countries. Therefore, it has been suggested that prolonged breastfeeding impairs growth. To test whether, on the contrary, breastfeeding is prolonged because the child is already undernourished, nutritional status prior to weaning was compared according to age at weaning. Precise dates of birth and weaning were collected weekly through continuous demographic surveillance in a rural area of Senegal. Weight and length at 9-10 months were measured during vaccination sessions (coverage: 78%) from 1989 to 1996. Eight infants weaned before 9 months were excluded, and the duration of breastfeeding of the remaining 4515 children was compared according to nutritional status at 9-10 months by survival analysis. Length-for-age during infancy was associated with duration of breastfeeding: the median duration was 25.0 months for z-scores 0 (P for trend <0.0001). Weight-for-length during infancy was also associated with duration of breastfeeding (P for trend <0.0001), though the differences among groups were smaller. The relationships remained at the same significance levels after adjustment for season of birth, mother's age, parity, height, occupation and education. Duration of breastfeeding is not determined by characteristics of the mothers only.