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Sample records for breastfed term infants

  1. Significant weight loss in breastfed term infants readmitted for hyperbilirubinemia

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    De-Villegas Carlos A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss of greater than 7% from birth weight indicates possible feeding problems. Inadequate oral intake causes weight loss and increases the bilirubin enterohepatic circulation. The objective of this study was to describe the association between total serum bilirubin (TSB levels and weight loss in healthy term infants readmitted for hyperbilirubinemia after birth hospitalization. Methods We reviewed medical records of breastfed term infants who received phototherapy according to TSB levels readmitted to Caja Petrolera de Salud Clinic in La Paz, Bolivia during January 2005 through October 2008. Results Seventy-nine infants were studied (64.6% were males. The hyperbilirubinemia readmission rate was 5% among breastfed infants. Term infants were readmitted at a median age of 4 days. Mean TSB level was 18.6 ± 3 mg/dL. Thirty (38% had significant weight loss. A weak correlation between TSB levels and percent of weight loss was identified (r = 0.20; p 20 mg/dL was notably higher among infants with significant weight loss (46.7% vs. 18.4%; p Conclusions Significant weight loss could be a useful parameter to identify breastfed term infants at risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia either during birth hospitalization or outpatient follow-up visits in settings where routine pre-discharge TSB levels have not been implemented yet.

  2. Breastfed infants metabolize perchlorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelor, C Phillip; Kirk, Andrea B; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Kroll, Martina; Campbell, Catrina A; Choudhary, Pankaj K

    2012-05-01

    Bifidobacteria are the dominant intestinal bacteria in breastfed infants. It is known that they can reduce nitrate. Although no direct experiments have been conducted until now, inferred pathways for Bifidobacterium bifidum include perchlorate reduction via perchlorate reductase. We show that when commercially available strains of bifidobacteria are cultured in milk, spiked with perchlorate, perchlorate is consumed. We studied 13 breastfed infant-mother pairs who provided 43 milk samples and 39 infant urine samples, and 5 formula-fed infant-mother pairs who provided 21 formula samples and 21 infant urine samples. Using iodine as a conservative tracer, we determined the average urinary iodine (UI) to milk iodine (MI) concentration ratio to be 2.87 for the breastfed infants. For the same samples, the corresponding perchlorate concentration ratio was 1.37 (difference significant, p perchlorate is lost. For the formula fed infant group the same ratios were 1.20 and 1.58; the difference was not significant (p = 0.68). However, the small number of subjects in the latter group makes it more difficult to conclude definitively whether perchlorate reduction does or does not occur. PMID:22497505

  3. A prospective study of iron status in exclusively breastfed term infants up to 6 months of age

    OpenAIRE

    Rusia Usha; Faridi MMA; Raj Shashi; Singh Om

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Can exclusive breastfeeding until six months of age maintain optimum iron status in term babies? We evaluated iron status of exclusively breastfed term infants in relation to breast milk iron and lactoferrin. Methods In this prospective study in Delhi, India, during the period 2003–2004 normally delivered babies of non-anemic [(Hemoglobin (Hb) = 11 g/dl, n = 68] and anemic (Hb 7 – 10.9 g/dl, n = 61) mothers were followed until 6 months of age. Iron parameters were measured...

  4. A prospective study of iron status in exclusively breastfed term infants up to 6 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusia Usha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Can exclusive breastfeeding until six months of age maintain optimum iron status in term babies? We evaluated iron status of exclusively breastfed term infants in relation to breast milk iron and lactoferrin. Methods In this prospective study in Delhi, India, during the period 2003–2004 normally delivered babies of non-anemic [(Hemoglobin (Hb = 11 g/dl, n = 68] and anemic (Hb 7 – 10.9 g/dl, n = 61 mothers were followed until 6 months of age. Iron parameters were measured in the cord blood at 14 weeks and 6 months. Breast milk iron and lactoferrin were measured at the same intervals. Results Iron parameters in babies of both groups were within normal limits at birth, 14 weeks and 6 months. Mean breast milk iron and lactoferrin in non-anemic (day 1: 0.89, 6 months: 0.26 mg/l; day 1: 12.02, 6 months: 5.85 mg/ml and anemic mothers (day 1: 0.86, 6 months: 0.27 mg/l; day 1: 12.91, 6 months: 6.37 mg/ml were not different on day one or at other times. No relationship was found between breast milk iron, lactoferrin and iron status of the babies. Conclusion Exclusively breastfed infants of non-anemic and anemic mothers did not develop iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia by six months of age.

  5. Hypernatremic Dehydration in Breastfed Infants

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    Hacer Ergin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since it can cause life-threatening complications in newborns, diagnosis and treatment of hypernatremic dehydration associated with inadequate breastfeeding is important.Materials and Methods: Records of exclusively-breastfed newborns (37-42 weeks with hypernatremic dehydration (serum Na ≥150mEq/L admitted between 2006 and 2012 were reviewed retrospectively.Results: The mean gestational age, birth weight, weight loss, maternal age, and age at diagnosis of 26 newborns with hypernatremic dehydration were 38.8±1.1 weeks, 3292±458 gr, 13.5±5.5%, 27.6±4.9 years, and 3.9±3.5 days, respectively. The percentages of female patients, caesarean delivery, and primipar mothers were 57.6%, 61.6%, and 57.6% respectively. Admission complaints were fever (30.7%, poor feeding and jaundice (26.9%, restlessness and hypoactivity (7.6%. Hypernatremic dehydration frequency within first five days, in summer season, during hospitalization were 84.6%, 73%, and 42.3%, respectively. The mean serum BUN, creatinine, Na levels were found 45.6±64.1 mg/dl, 1.5±2.3mg/dl, and 157±11.9 mEq/L, respectively. Of 26 mothers, 57.6% had received breastfeeding education and 84% had inadequate fluid intake. Among four patients with seizures, three had prerenal failure, one had renal failure requiring dialysis, and brain edema developed in one. Serum Na levels were higher in infants who were baby of primipar mother (p=0.002, born in another hospital (p=0.012, from young mothers (p=0.035, from mothers with no breastfeeding education (p=0.007, and with delayed hospital admission (p<0.01. Serum Na concentrations ≥160mEq/L were associated with complications (p<0.01. Serum Na levels were negatively correlated with maternal age (p=0.035 and positively correlated with (p=0.016 weight loss.Conclusions: Hypernatremic dehydration can be prevented in newborns by close monitoring of weight loss and by teaching successful breastfeeding techniques and signs of dehydration to

  6. Hypernatremic Dehydration in Breastfed Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Hacer Ergin; Özlem Şahin; Melis Deniz Özmert; Muhammet Ali Özdemir; Kazım Küçüktaşçı; Celile Hatipoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Since it can cause life-threatening complications in newborns, diagnosis and treatment of hypernatremic dehydration associated with inadequate breastfeeding is important.Materials and Methods: Records of exclusively-breastfed newborns (37-42 weeks) with hypernatremic dehydration (serum Na ≥150mEq/L) admitted between 2006 and 2012 were reviewed retrospectively.Results: The mean gestational age, birth weight, weight loss, maternal age, and age at diagnosis of 26 newborns with hype...

  7. Lamotrigine Effects on Breastfed Infants

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    Hosein Dalili

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lamotrigine is a safe anti-epileptic drug among pregnant and lactating women. Some concerns exist regarding the safety of lamotrigine during breastfeeding and related neonatal complications. In this brief review, this matter was evaluated and discussed. In this review study, the medical literature available in search databases such as Embase, Scopus, PubMed, and Medline and even also local medical search engines were evaluated. The results indicated that lamotrigine is a safe anti-epileptic drug for breastfeeding women with rare and usually mild adverse effects among neonates exposed to high milk concentration of this drug and its metabolites. However, close periodical monitoring for infants whose mothers are utilizing lamotrigine is recommended to decrease the probability of severe side effects among them.

  8. Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants

    OpenAIRE

    M.K. Çaglar; I Özer; Altugan, F S

    2006-01-01

    Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and January 2005. Six of 18 infants who were eligible for the study had hypernatremia. Breast conditions associated with breast-feeding difficulties (P < 0.05), p...

  9. Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants

    OpenAIRE

    Çaglar M.K.; Özer I.; Altugan F.S.

    2006-01-01

    Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and January 2005. Six of 18 infants who were eligible for the study had hypernatremia. Breast conditions associated with breast-feeding difficulties (P < 0.05), ...

  10. Impact of maternal fasting during Ramadan on growth parameters of exclusively breastfed infants in Shahroud, 2012

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    Hossein Haratipour

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are many advantages in breastfeeding of infants. The impact of fasting of breastfeeding mothers during Ramadan, on their exclusively breastfed infants’ growth, is still unclear. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of maternal Ramadan fasting on growth parameters of exclusively breastfed infants. Methods: This cohort study was conducted on 55 healthy, exclusively breastfed infants, aged 1 to 6 months, during Ramadan and three months after it. 20 infants, whose mothers fasted throughout Ramadan (case group and 35 infants, whose mothers did not fast (control group, were enrolled in the study. All infants underwent periodic physical examinations, twice in Ramadan and 3 times in the first, second and the third months after Ramadan. The data analyses were done using a repeated measure analysis of variance. Statistical significance was defined as PFindings: The average age was 3.43±1.38 months in the case group and 2.31±1.45 months in the control group that presence no significant difference between. From the total number of infants, 23 cases (41.8% were males and the rest were females. All growth parameters increased during the study period (P< 0.05, with the same rate of increase for both groups (P=0.125. Conclusion: Ramadan fasting by breastfeeding mothers did not adversely affect the growth parameters of exclusively breastfed infants in short-term.

  11. Maturation of visual acuity is accelerated in breast-fed term infants fed baby food containing DHA-enriched egg yolk.

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    Hoffman, Dennis R; Theuer, Richard C; Castañeda, Yolanda S; Wheaton, Dianna H; Bosworth, Rain G; O'Connor, Anna R; Morale, Sarah E; Wiedemann, Lindsey E; Birch, Eileen E

    2004-09-01

    Between 6 and 12 mo of age, blood levels of the (n-3) long-chain PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in breast-fed infants typically decrease due to diminished maternal DHA stores and the introduction of DHA-poor solid foods displacing human milk as the primary source of nutrition. Thus, we utilized a randomized, clinical trial format to evaluate the effect of supplemental DHA in solid foods on visual development of breast-fed infants with the primary outcome, sweep visual-evoked potential (VEP) acuity, as an index for maturation of the retina and visual cortex. At 6 mo of age, breast-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive 1 jar (113 g)/d of baby food containing egg yolk enriched with DHA (115 mg DHA/100 g food; n = 25) or control baby food (0 mg DHA; n = 26). Gravimetric measures were used to estimate the supplemental DHA intake which was 83 mg DHA/d in the supplemented group and 0 mg/d in controls. Although many infants in both groups continued to breast-feed for a mean of 9 mo, RBC DHA levels decreased significantly between 6 and 12 mo (from 3.8 to 3.0 g/100 g total fatty acids) in control infants, whereas RBC DHA levels increased by 34% from 4.1 to 5.5 g/100 g by 12 mo in supplemented infants. VEP acuity at 6 mo was 0.49 logMAR (minimum angle of resolution) and improved to 0.29 logMAR by 12 mo in controls. In DHA-supplemented infants, VEP acuity was 0.48 logMAR at 6 mo and matured to 0.14 logMAR at 12 mo (1.5 lines on the eye chart better than controls). At 12 mo, the difference corresponded to 1.5 lines on the eye chart. RBC DHA levels and VEP acuity at 12 mo were correlated (r = -0.50; P = 0.0002), supporting the need of an adequate dietary supply of DHA throughout 1 y of life for neural development. PMID:15333721

  12. Feeding Patterns and Emotional Care in Breastfed Infants

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    Smith, Julie P.; Ellwood, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have suggested breastfed infants have improved bonding and attachment or cognitive development outcomes. However, mechanisms by which these differences might develop are poorly understood. We used maternal time use data to examine whether exclusively breastfeeding mothers spend more time in close interactive behaviors with…

  13. Iron and vitamin D status in breastfed infants and their mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Yu Sun; Kim, Joon Hwan; Ahn, Eun Hee; Yoo, Eun-Gyong; Kim, Moon Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We assessed the relationships between iron and vitamin D statuses in breastfed infants and their mothers and evaluated the determinants of iron and vitamin D deficiencies in breastfed infants. Methods Seventy breastfed infants aged 4-24 months and their mothers participated in this study from February 2012 to May 2013. Complete blood counts, total iron binding capacity, and levels of C-reactive protein, iron, ferritin, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D ...

  14. Vitamin Status among Breastfed Infants in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram K; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Henjum, Sigrun; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øivind; Shrestha, Prakash S; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Graybill, Lauren; Strand, Tor A

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin deficiencies are known to be common among infants residing in low- and middle-income countries but relatively few studies have assessed several biochemical parameters simultaneously. The objective of the study was to describe the status of vitamins (A, D, E, B₆, B12 and folate) in breastfed infants. We measured the plasma concentrations of trans retinol, 25 hydroxy vitamin D, α-tocopherol, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, cobalamin, folate, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein from 467 randomly selected infants. One in five (22%) was deficient in at least one vitamin. Mean (SD) plasma folate concentration was 73 (35) nmol/L, and no infant in the sample was folate deficient. Vitamin B₆ deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 22% and 17% of the infants, respectively. Elevated plasma methylmalonic acid or total homocysteine concentration was found in 82% and 62% of infants, respectively. Fifteen percent of infants were vitamin A deficient and 65% were marginally deficient in vitamin A. Fewer than 5% of infants had low plasma vitamin D concentration or vitamin E concentration (α-tocopherol <9.3 µmol/L). Our results illustrate the importance of continued supplementation campaigns and support the expansion of food fortification and dietary diversification programs that target children and women in Nepal. PMID:27005657

  15. Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Çaglar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and January 2005. Six of 18 infants who were eligible for the study had hypernatremia. Breast conditions associated with breast-feeding difficulties (P < 0.05, primiparity (P < 0.005, less than four stools (P < 0.001, pink diaper (P < 0.001, delay at initiation of first breast giving (P < 0.01, birth by cesarean section (P < 0.05, extra heater usage (P < 0.005, extra heater usage among mothers who had appropriate conditions associated with breast-feeding (P < 0.001, mean weight loss in neonates with pink diaper (P < 0.05, mean uric acid concentration in neonates with pink diaper (P < 0.0001, fever in hypernatremic neonates (P < 0.02, and the correlation of weight loss with both serum sodium and uric acid concentrations (P < 0.02 were determined. Excessive weight loss occurs in exclusively breast-fed infants and can be complicated by hypernatremia and other morbidities. Prompt initiation of breast-feeding after delivery and prompt intervention if problems occur with breast-feeding, in particular poor breast attachment, breast engorgement, delayed breast milk "coming in", and nipple problems will help promote successful breast-feeding. Careful follow-up of breast-feeding dyads after discharge from hospital, especially regarding infant weight, is important to help detect inadequate breast-feeding. Environmental factors such as heaters may exacerbate infant dehydration.

  16. Patterns of Daily Duration and Frequency of Breastfeeding among Exclusively Breastfed Infants in Shiraz, Iran, A 6-Month Follow-up Study Using Bayesian Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Despite numerous studies on the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding during the first half year of life, little information is available on actual breastfeeding practices in terms of daily duration and frequency of suckling. This study proposes to determine daily breastfeeding patterns among exclusively breastfed infants from birth to six months. Subject and Methods: An observational prospective follow-up study of daily feeding practices among exclusively breastfed infants was co...

  17. Staphylococcus epidermidis: A differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants

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    Fernández Leonides

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast milk is an important source of staphylococci and other bacterial groups to the infant gut. The objective of this work was to analyse the bacterial diversity in feces of breast-fed infants and to compare it with that of formula-fed ones. A total of 23 women and their respective infants (16 breast-fed and 7 formula-fed participated in the study. The 16 women and their infants provided a sample of breast milk and feces, respectively, at days 7, 14, and 35. The samples were plated onto different culture media. Staphylococcal and enterococcal isolates were submitted to genetic profiling and to a characterization scheme, including detection of potential virulence traits and sensitivity to antibiotics. Results The feeding practice had a significant effect on bacterial counts. A total of 1,210 isolates (489 from milk, 531 from breast-fed and 190 from formula-fed infants were identified. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the predominant species in milk and feces of breast-fed infants while it was less prevalent in those of formula fed-infants. Enterococcus faecalis was the second predominant bacterial species among the fecal samples provided by the breast-fed infants but it was also present in all the samples from the formula-fed ones. The biofilm-related icaD gene and the mecA gene were only detected in a low number of the S. epidermidis strains. Several enterococcal isolates were also characterized and none of them contained the cylA or the vanABDEG antibiotic-resistance genes. All were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion The presence of S. epidermidis is a differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants. Globally, the staphyloccal isolates obtained from milk and feces of breast-fed infants contain a low number of virulence determinants and are sensitive to most of the antibiotics tested.

  18. Staphylococcus epidermidis: A differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Leonides; Jariod Manel; García Natalia; Albújar Mar; Arroyo Rebeca; Maldonado Antonio; Delgado Susana; Jiménez Esther; Gómez Adolfo; Rodríguez Juan M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Breast milk is an important source of staphylococci and other bacterial groups to the infant gut. The objective of this work was to analyse the bacterial diversity in feces of breast-fed infants and to compare it with that of formula-fed ones. A total of 23 women and their respective infants (16 breast-fed and 7 formula-fed) participated in the study. The 16 women and their infants provided a sample of breast milk and feces, respectively, at days 7, 14, and 35. The samples...

  19. Fe deficiency but not anemia up-regulates Fe absorption in breast-fed Peruvian infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about homeostatic regulation of iron (Fe) absorption in infants. Using stable isotopes, we evaluated healthy breast-fed Peruvian infants to determine if they can compensate for their poor Fe status by increasing Fe absorption (abs). Two groups were recruited; Group 1 (G1) consisted...

  20. Breast Milk Iodine and Iodine Status of Breast-Fed Infants

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    Golam Morshed Molla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk is the only source of iodine for exclusively breast-fed infants. Iodine status of breast-fed infants depends on iodine in breast milk and also number of feeding in 24 hours. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess both have bad impact on infant’s health. Objective: To measure the iodine in breast milk and to evaluate iodine status of their breast-fed infants. Materials and method: This observational analytical study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka with active cooperation of Kumudini Women’s Medical College Hospital, Mirzapur, Tangail involving fifty lactating mothers and their exclusively breast-fed infants. Early morning urine and breast milk samples were collected in dry and clean plastic container free from any chemical contamination. Urinary iodine was used as indicator for assessing iodine status. All statistical analyses were done by using SPSS (statistical programme for social science 12 version software package for Windows. Results: The median (range urinary iodine concentration of lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants were 225.25 μg/L (61.50-530.00 and 225.75 μg/L (100.50-526.00 respectively. The median (range breast-milk iodine concentration was 157 μg/L (54.50-431.50 which was more than three times of recommended minimum concentration (50 μg/L. Only 2 (4% lactating mothers had mild biochemical iodine deficiency (UIE, 50-99 μg/L. There was no biochemical iodine deficiency of breast-fed infants. Iodine in breast milk of lactating mothers was positively correlated with their urinary iodine excretion (p<0.01. Infant’s urinary iodine was positively correlated with iodine concentration in breast milk (p<0.01 and with urinary iodine of lactating mothers (p<0.01. Conclusion: Lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants in this study were iodine sufficient. If iodine content of breast-milk is within normal range, 10-12 numbers of

  1. Complementary feeding with cow's milk alters sleeping metabolic rate in breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Wells, JCK; Coward, WA; Duro, D; Victora, CG; Vonk, RJ; Wright, A; Visser, GH

    2005-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that energy expenditure in infants is a function of feeding pattern, the mechanism behind this is not well understood. The objectives of this observational study were as follows: 1) to compare minimal observable energy expenditure (MOEE) between 2 subgroups of breast-f

  2. Dietary habits of partly breast-fed and completely weaned infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondolf, Ulla Holmboe; Tetens, Inge; Fleischer Michaelsen, Kim;

    2012-01-01

    breast-fed compared with the completely weaned infants. These differences appear to be caused primarily by differences in the type and amount of milk consumed, as the energy derived from sources other than milk was similar except for fatty spread and vegetables as a side dish. Only small differences were...

  3. Scleroderma-Like Esophageal Disease in Infants Breastfed by Mothers with Silicone Beast Implants

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    MH Moradi Nezhad

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available 11 infants whose mothers had silicone breast implants were admitted to the hospital for abdominal colic and vomiting. 8 of them were breast fed, the other 3 received formula. 6 of 8 breast-fed children showed esophagus motility disturbance in fluoroscopy, all of them had decreased motility in distal third of esophagus in esophagoscopy, and 1 of these infants showed abnormal pressure in cardiac manometry. Biopsy specimens of all 8 breastfed cases showed mild to severe esophagitis resembling pathologic scleroderma changes of esophagus with polymorphonuclear and lymphocytic infiltration and collagenous sedimentations. 6 infants who showed sever esophagitis had also hypochrome and microcytic anemia. Immunologic tests were normal in all patients and no antibodies could be detected. The 3 formula fed infants showed normal findings in endoscopy, fluoroscopy, manometry and histology as well as in clinical biochemistry.

  4. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in an exclusively breastfed 5-month-old Italian infant born to a mother receiving multivitamin supplementation during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Guez Sophie; Chiarelli Gabriella; Menni Francesca; Salera Simona; Principi Nicola; Esposito Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In infants, vitamin B12 deficiency may be due to an inborn error of absorption and metabolism, or nutritional problems. Case presentation An exclusively breastfed 5-month-old Italian male infant, who was born after a normal full-term pregnancy to a vegan mother who was apparently daily treated with a multivitamin oral preparation during the second and third trimester, was hospitalised because of poor weight gain, feeding difficulties, severe pallor, muscle hypotonia and so...

  5. ACUTE TOXOPLASMOSIS IN A BREASTFED INFANT WITH POSSIBLE TRANSMISSION BY WATER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Monica, Thais Cabral; Ferreira, Fernanda Pinto; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii transmission via breastfeeding has been discussed; however, no cases have been confirmed to date. This article describes a case of acute toxoplasmosis diagnosed in a mother and her six-month-old breastfed infant. The study accounts for the possibility of breast milk transmission and directs both clinicians and pediatricians to the hypothesis that both patients acquired toxoplasmosis via water ingestion. PMID:27049709

  6. ACUTE TOXOPLASMOSIS IN A BREASTFED INFANT WITH POSSIBLE TRANSMISSION BY WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Dario CAPOBIANGO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii transmission via breastfeeding has been discussed; however, no cases have been confirmed to date. This article describes a case of acute toxoplasmosis diagnosed in a mother and her six-month-old breastfed infant. The study accounts for the possibility of breast milk transmission and directs both clinicians and pediatricians to the hypothesis that both patients acquired toxoplasmosis via water ingestion.

  7. Aggravation of atopic dermatitis in breast-fed infants by tree nut-related foods and fermented foods in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Hisashi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Uehara, Masami

    2011-02-01

    Ninety-two exclusively breast-fed Japanese infants with atopic dermatitis were studied to see whether tree nut-related foods (chocolate and coffee) and fermented foods (cheese, yogurt, bread, soy sauce, miso soup and fermented soy beans) eaten by their mothers affected their skin condition. Of the 92 infants, 67 (73%) showed improvement of skin lesions when their mothers avoided these foods and showed aggravation of skin lesions when these foods were reintroduced. The predominant offending foods were chocolate, yogurt, soy sauce and miso soup. A long-term maternal exclusion of the trigger foods brought about progressive improvement of skin lesions in the majority of the infants. These findings suggest that tree nut-related foods and fermented foods are important offending foods of atopic dermatitis in breast-fed infants. PMID:21269309

  8. [Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in infants breastfed by vegans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roed, Casper; Skovby, Flemming; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

    2009-10-19

    Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy with cyanocobalamin was instituted with remission of symptoms. Since infants risk irreversible neurologic damage following severe vitamin B12 deficiency, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Vegan and vegetarian women should take vitamin B12 supplementation during the pregnancy and nursing period. PMID:19852900

  9. Allergic proctocolitis refractory to maternal hypoallergenic diet in exclusively breast-fed infants: a clinical observation

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    Frediani Simone

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic proctocolitis (APC in exclusively breast-fed infants is caused by food proteins, deriving from maternal diet, transferred through lactation. In most cases a maternal cow milk-free diet leads to a prompt resolution of rectal bleeding, while in some patients a multiple food allergy can occur. The aim of this study was to assess whether the atopy patch test (APT could be helpful to identify this subgroup of patients requiring to discontinue breast-feeding due to polisensitization. Additionally, we assessed the efficacy of an amino acid-based formula (AAF when multiple food allergy is suspected. amino acid-based formula Methods We have prospectively enrolled 14 exclusively breast-fed infants with APC refractory to maternal allergen avoidance. The diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopy with biopsies. Skin prick tests and serum specific IgE for common foods, together with APTs for common foods plus breast milk, were performed. After a 1 month therapy of an AAF all patients underwent a follow-up rectosigmoidoscopy. Results Prick tests and serum specific IgE were negative. APTs were positive in 100% infants, with a multiple positivity in 50%. Sensitization was found for breast milk in 100%, cow's milk (50%, soy (28%, egg (21%, rice (14%, wheat (7%. Follow-up rectosigmoidoscopy confirmed the remission of APC in all infants. Conclusions These data suggest that APT might become a useful tool to identify subgroups of infants with multiple gastrointestinal food allergy involving a delayed immunogenic mechanism, with the aim to avoid unnecessary maternal dietary restrictions before discontinuing breast-feeding.

  10. The prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency is more common in breastfed infants than their mothers in Bhaktapur, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Henjum, Sigrun; Ulak, Manjeswori; Andrew L. Thorne-Lyman; Ulvik, Rune Johan; Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Locks, Lindsey; FAWZI, Wafaie W.; Strand, Tor A.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Iron deficiency anemia is a widespread public health problem, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Maternal iron status around and during pregnancy may influence infant iron status. We examined multiple biomarkers to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among breastfed infants and explored its relationship with maternal and infant characteristics in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Subjects/Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, we randomly selected 50...

  11. Estimation of Ga-67 radiation dose to a breast-fed infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The quality assurance programs for the practice of nuclear medicine in Colombia include optimization of public exposure by the radioactive sources used in medical diagnosis and treatment. Precautionary measures notwithstanding, occasionally members of the public receive doses larger than expected; usually there is no direct data to evaluate dose. We briefly describe the process to estimate the radiation dose absorbed by a 5-month-old baby that was inadvertently breast-fed for 48 hours by his 22-year-old mother that was administered 296 MBq of radioactive Ga-67 citrate. After the intravenous administration, the Ga-67 is commonly observed in the intestine, and other organs, and in the breasts of lactating women, thus possibly leading to radiation exposure of the infant's lower intestine. We had 256x256 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images, and whole-body 1024 x 256 planar images, taken 48h and 72 h after Ga-67 intake. The images were obtained with a Siemens E-cam gamma camera, a 20% energy window was placed at the 93, 184 and 296 keV gamma photopeaks. From these images we calculated the concentration of Ga-67 in mother's milk (using Medical Internal Radiation Dose MIRD methodology). Hence, the dose absorbed by the baby. The radioactivity in breast milk per liter was 4% of the injected activity. The dose absorbed by the infant's lower intestine was 11 mGy. The effective dose to the infant was estimated as 7 mSv, which is above the annual limit to the general public (1 mSv/year). Hence, an infant breast-fed by a mother undergoing Ga-67 treatment may easily receive a radiation dose in excess of the annual upper limit. From the viewpoint of radiation protection it is extremely important to convey to the mother the necessity of abiding by the standard medical recommendation of discontinuing breast feeding for at least 2 weeks after Ga-67 intake. (author)

  12. Iron Stores of Breastfed Infants during the First Year of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekhard E. Ziegler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The birth iron endowment provides iron for growth in the first months of life. We describe the iron endowment under conditions of low dietary iron supply. Subjects were infants participating in a trial of Vitamin D supplementation from 1 to 9 months. Infants were exclusively breastfed at enrollment but could receive complementary foods from 4 months but not formula. Plasma ferritin (PF and transferrin receptor (TfR were determined at 1, 2, 4, 5.5, 7.5, 9 and 12 months. At 1 month PF ranged from 38 to 752 µg/L and was only weakly related to maternal PF. PF declined subsequently and flattened out at 5.5 months. PF of females was significantly higher than PF of males except at 12 months. TfR increased with age and was inversely correlated with PF. PF and TfR tracked strongly until 9 months. Iron deficiency (PF < 10 µg/L began to appear at 4 months and increased in frequency until 9 months. Infants with ID were born with low iron endowment. We concluded that the birth iron endowment is highly variable in size and a small endowment places infants at risk of iron deficiency before 6 months. Boys have smaller iron endowments and are at greater risk of iron deficiency than girls.

  13. Prevalence of bacterial respiratory pathogens in the nasopharynx in breast-fed versus formula-fed infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaleida, P H; Nativio, D G; Chao, H P; Cowden, S N

    1993-01-01

    In several studies, breast-feeding has been associated with decreased frequency or duration of otitis media episodes. If a causal relationship exists, the mechanism of protection of breast-feeding has not been established. We hypothesized that infants who are breast-fed, compared with infants who are formula-fed, have a lower prevalence of nasopharyngeal colonization with the bacterial respiratory pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcu...

  14. Appropriate timing for complementary feeding of the breast-fed infant. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, B A; Hofvander, Y

    1982-01-01

    The initiative for this review of appropriate timing for complementary feeding of the breastfed infant came from the Consultative Group on Maternal and Young Child Nutrition, an expert supportive group to the UN/ACC Subcommittee on Nutrition. Evidence assessing the duration of breastfeeding adequacy and the advantages and disadvantages of early versus later introduction of complementary foods is reviewed. Several years ago the Protein Advisory Group (PAG) recommended that complementary foods be provided between 4-6 months of age. In later studies, the variability of circumstances in different ecologies were reported to have a significant impact on the ability and desire of a woman to breastfeed and for how long. Hence the appropriate time to provide a breast milk complement is again under examination. Nutritionists, health professionals, and the baby food industry (their pro and antagonists) have renewed their interest in this issue, but differences in opinion and distorted claims among the interested groups have left many people confused. The appropriate time for the introduction of complementary feeding varies considerably in different sociocultural settings and among different socioeconomic groups. In developed countries very early complementation is usual not because of nutritional need, but because of social pressures, availability of convenient alternatives, and other considerations. In developing countries, early complementation may be needed in circumstances with a high prevalence of maternal malnutrition that may contribute to low milk output. Hazards accompany both too early and too late complementation. If a complement is introduced too early, there is the danger of diarrheal disease and food allergies. There is also an economic burden on poor families to purchase complementary food. In some underprivileged areas, cultural patterns in which the introduction of complementary food is too much delayed is the primary cause of faltering growth and

  15. Folate nutrition is optimal in exclusively breast-fed infants but inadequate in some of their mothers and in formula-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmenperä, L; Perheentupa, J; Siimes, M A

    1986-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of folate were studied in a group of exclusively breast-fed infants and their mothers (their numbers gradually decreased from 200 at birth to 7 at 12 months) and in infants completely weaned to a cow's milk formula (containing 35 micrograms of folate/L) and solid foods. The exclusively breast-fed infants were in no danger of folate deficiency; their plasma levels were elevated after the age of 2 months and, on average, were 2.0-3.3-fold higher than maternal levels throughout the study. None of these infants had an inadequate plasma concentration, whereas up to 5% of the mothers had values less than or equal to 3 micrograms/L, despite supplementation during lactation with 0.1 mg folate/day. In the formula-fed infants, 69-94% of the plasma folate concentrations lay below the lowest concentration for the breast-fed infants. Although no infant had signs of anemia or macrocytosis in red cell indices, the infants weaned earliest had the lowest hemoglobin concentrations (p = 0.09) and the highest mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values (p = 0.06) at 9 months of age. Thus, an infant fed a formula containing the recommended amount of folate runs a risk of folate deficiency. PMID:3958855

  16. Breast-fed and bottle-fed infant rhesus macaques develop distinct gut microbiotas and immune systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ardeshir, Amir; Narayan, Nicole R; Méndez-Lagares, Gema; Lu, Ding; Rauch, Marcus; Huang, Yong; Van Rompay, Koen K. A.; Lynch, Susan V.; Hartigan-O'Connor, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    Diet has a strong influence on the intestinal microbiota in both humans and animal models. It is well established that microbial colonization is required for normal development of the immune system and that specific microbial constituents prompt the differentiation or expansion of certain immune cell subsets. Nonetheless, it has been unclear how profoundly diet might shape the primate immune system or how durable the influence might be. We show that breast-fed and bottle-fed infant rhesus mac...

  17. Dry Cereals Fortified with Electrolytic Iron or Ferrous Fumarate Are Equally Effective in Breast-fed Infants123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ekhard E.; Fomon, Samuel J.; Nelson, Steven E.; Jeter, Janice M.; Theuer, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Precooked, instant (dry) infant cereals in the US are fortified with electrolytic iron, a source of low reactivity and suspected low bioavailability. Iron from ferrous fumarate is presumed to be more available. In this study, we compared a dry infant rice cereal (Cereal L) fortified with electrolytic iron (54.5 mg iron/100 g cereal) to a similar cereal (Cereal M) fortified with ferrous fumarate (52.2 mg Fe/100 g) for efficacy in maintaining iron status and preventing iron deficiency (ID) in breast-fed infants. Ascorbic acid was included in both cereals. In this prospective, randomized double-blind trial, exclusively breast-fed infants were enrolled at 1 mo and iron status was determined periodically. At 4 mo, 3 infants had ID anemia and were excluded. Ninety-five infants were randomized at 4 mo, and 69 (36 Cereal L, 33 Cereal M) completed the intervention at 9 mo. From 4 to 9 mo, they consumed daily one of the study cereals. With each cereal, 2 infants had mild ID, a prevalence of 4.2%, but no infant developed ID anemia. There were no differences in iron status between study groups. Iron intake from the study cereals was (mean ± SD) 1.21 ± 0.31 mg⋅kg−1⋅d−1 from Cereal L and 1.07 ± 0.40 mg⋅kg−1⋅d−1 from Cereal M. Eleven infants had low birth iron endowment (plasma ferritin < 55 μg/L at 2 mo) and 54% of these infants had ID with or without anemia by 4 mo. We conclude that electrolytic iron and ferrous fumarate were equally efficacious as fortificants of this infant cereal. PMID:21178077

  18. Dry cereals fortified with electrolytic iron or ferrous fumarate are equally effective in breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ekhard E; Fomon, Samuel J; Nelson, Steven E; Jeter, Janice M; Theuer, Richard C

    2011-02-01

    Precooked, instant (dry) infant cereals in the US are fortified with electrolytic iron, a source of low reactivity and suspected low bioavailability. Iron from ferrous fumarate is presumed to be more available. In this study, we compared a dry infant rice cereal (Cereal L) fortified with electrolytic iron (54.5 mg iron/100 g cereal) to a similar cereal (Cereal M) fortified with ferrous fumarate (52.2 mg Fe/100 g) for efficacy in maintaining iron status and preventing iron deficiency (ID) in breast-fed infants. Ascorbic acid was included in both cereals. In this prospective, randomized double-blind trial, exclusively breast-fed infants were enrolled at 1 mo and iron status was determined periodically. At 4 mo, 3 infants had ID anemia and were excluded. Ninety-five infants were randomized at 4 mo, and 69 (36 Cereal L, 33 Cereal M) completed the intervention at 9 mo. From 4 to 9 mo, they consumed daily one of the study cereals. With each cereal, 2 infants had mild ID, a prevalence of 4.2%, but no infant developed ID anemia. There were no differences in iron status between study groups. Iron intake from the study cereals was (mean ± SD) 1.21 ± 0.31 mg⋅kg(-1)⋅d(-1) from Cereal L and 1.07 ± 0.40 mg⋅kg(-1)⋅d(-1) from Cereal M. Eleven infants had low birth iron endowment (plasma ferritin < 55 μg/L at 2 mo) and 54% of these infants had ID with or without anemia by 4 mo. We conclude that electrolytic iron and ferrous fumarate were equally efficacious as fortificants of this infant cereal. PMID:21178077

  19. Post-natal maternal antiretroviral therapy and HIV prevalence among breast-fed infants in Benin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Imade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is an established mode of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection resulting in clash between socio-cultural values and medical practice. Aims: This study aims to determine the effect of post-natal maternal antiretroviral therapy on transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. Patients and Methods: A total of 318 pregnant women were followed from pregnancy to 6 months post- partum. The women were divided into breast-fed and those who did not breast-feed, while the breast-fed were further divided into those on antiretroviral (ARV and those not on ARV. After 6 months post-partum, dried blood spots were collected from infants born to these women and tested for HIV using polymerase chain reaction. Results: Generally, breast-feeding had 4 to 13 fold increase risk of transmission of HIV to infants (OR =7.079 95% CI = 3.768, 13.300; P <0.0001. However, among breast-fed infants, post-natal maternal ARV resulted in reduced prevalence of HIV compared to mothers who did not use ARV during breast-feeding (17.31% VS 92.00%; P<0.0001. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the effectiveness of post-natal maternal ARV. However, research into better feeding options to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV via breast-feeding is advocated.

  20. Post-natal maternal antiretroviral therapy and HIV prevalence among breast-fed infants in Benin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Imade

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is an established mode of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection resulting in clash between socio-cultural values and medical practice. Aims: This study aims to determine the effect of post-natal maternal antiretroviral therapy on transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. Patients and Methods: A total of 318 pregnant women were followed from pregnancy to 6 months post- partum. The women were divided into breast-fed and those who did not breast-feed, while the breast-fed were further divided into those on antiretroviral (ARV and those not on ARV. After 6 months post-partum, dried blood spots were collected from infants born to these women and tested for HIV using polymerase chain reaction. Results: Generally, breast-feeding had 4 to 13 fold increase risk of transmission of HIV to infants (OR =7.079 95% CI = 3.768, 13.300; P <0.0001. However, among breast-fed infants, post-natal maternal ARV resulted in reduced prevalence of HIV compared to mothers who did not use ARV during breast-feeding (17.31% v.s 92.00%; P<0.0001. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the effectiveness of post–natal maternal ARV. However, research into better feeding options to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV via breast-feeding is advocated.

  1. Isotopic evaluation of breast milk intake, energy metabolism, growth and body composition of exclusively breastfed infants in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable evidence to support the view that the current growth standards for infants, which are in-use globally, may be inappropriate. This is based on the observation that these were derived from largely formula-fed western populations and recent studies documenting that exclusively breastfed young infants exhibit a lower growth trajectory. However, there are few studies objectively evaluating energy metabolism, body composition and growth in exclusively breastfed infants, and none in developing countries. We evaluated the growth pattern and breast milk and fluid intake patterns longitudinally in a representative sample of exclusively breastfed newborn infants in Pakistan. These newborn infants were well characterized at birth and sequential measurements of growth, body composition and energy expenditure were made using bio-impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry. In addition, breast milk intake was quantified using deuterium administration to the mother in a standard dose (10g) and estimation of urinary enrichment in exclusively breastfed infants and correlated with weight gain and growth. A consecutive 112 mother baby pairs were studied longitudinally and breast milk intake was quantified in a subset of 12. The mean (± SD) maternal age was 27.5 ± 4.8 years and the weight 64.8 ± 7.9 kg, indicating the appropriate nutritional status of the population. The mean birth weight of the cohort was 3.13 ± 0.36 kg and the gestational age 3.13 ± 0.36 weeks. The mean body weight of the cohort at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age was 4.87 ± 0.63, 6.40 ± 0.6, 7.56 ± 0.69 and 11.18 ± 1.05 kg respectively, which was better or comparable to many developed country cohorts of breastfed infants. The mean breast milk intake at 2 weeks, 3 months and 6 months of age was 591.7 ± 144.2, 794 ± 133 and 677.6 ± 298.6 ml/day respectively representing a range of 73-133 ml/kg/day. The maternal fluid intake for these corresponding time periods was 4.19 ± 1.12, 4.15 ± 1

  2. Does supplementation of formula with evening primrose and fish oils augment long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status of low birthweight infants to that of breast-fed counterparts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A; Okken, A; Muskiet, FAJ

    1999-01-01

    We investigated whether formulae with evening primrose and fish oils raise long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in plasma cholesterol esters (CE), erythrocytes (RSC) and platelets (PLT) to levels encountered in breast-fed infants. Low birthweight infants (less than or equal to 2500 g) rec

  3. Prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in breastfed infants: lessons from the Dutch and Danish biliary atresia registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselt, P.M. van; Koning, T.J. de; Vries, E. de; Lundin, C.R.; Berger, R.; Kimpen, J.L.; Houwen, R.H.; Jorgensen, M.H.; Verkade, H.J.; Kvist, Nina Eva

    2008-01-01

    vitamin K at birth followed by 1 mg of weekly oral prophylaxis (Denmark, 1994 to May 2000), or 2 mg of intramuscular prophylaxis at birth (Denmark, June 2000-2005) or were fed by formula. We determined the absolute and relative risk of severe vitamin K deficiency and vitamin K deficiency bleeding on...... prophylaxis at birth, and in 1 of 98 formula-fed infants (P < .001). The relative risk of a bleeding in breastfed compared with formula-fed infants was 77.5 for 25 microg of daily oral prophylaxis, 7.2 for 1 mg of weekly oral prophylaxis, and 9.3 for 2 mg of intramuscular prophylaxis at birth. CONCLUSIONS: A......OBJECTIVE: Newborns routinely receive vitamin K to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding. The efficacy of oral vitamin K administration may be compromised in infants with unrecognized cholestasis. We aimed to compare the risk of vitamin K deficiency bleeding under different prophylactic regimens in...

  4. Growth of urban breastfed infants from low socio-economic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavapeddi, R; Ramachandran, P

    1993-12-01

    Breastfeeding has been considered the best mode of feeding the infant. In traditional countries like India, it has been the tradition among poor income groups of women and the universal adage breast feed as long as possible goes uncontested. However, the appropriate age at which supplementation should start is replete with controversy and varies between as early as 3-6 months. While the debate on when should supplementation be started continues, it is also important to know if the nutritional benefit is expressed in terms of growth of the infant, under the existing unhygienic conditions. This study was therefore undertaken. PMID:8133552

  5. Dietary Epicatechin Is Available to Breastfed Infants through Human Breast Milk in the Form of Host and Microbial Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khymenets, Olha; Rabassa, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Palmero, María; Rivero-Urgell, Montserrat; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Brandi, Pilar; Campoy, Cristina; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Polyphenols play an important role in human health. To address their accessibility to a breastfed infant, we planned to evaluate whether breast milk (BM) (colostrum, transitional, and mature) epicatechin metabolites could be related to the dietary habits of mothers. The polyphenol consumption of breastfeeding mothers was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and 24 h recalls. Solid-phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UPLC-MS/MS) was applied for direct epicatechin metabolite analysis. Their bioavailability in BM as a result of dietary ingestion was confirmed in a preliminary experiment with a single dose of dark chocolate. Several host and microbial phase II metabolites of epicatechin were detected in BM among free-living lactating mothers. Interestingly, a modest correlation between dihydroxyvalerolactone sulfate and the intake of cocoa products was observed. Although a very low percentage of dietary polyphenols is excreted in BM, they are definitely in the diet of breastfed infants. Therefore, evaluation of their role in infant health could be further promoted. PMID:27285570

  6. Organochlorine compounds in breast-fed vs. bottle-fed infants: preliminary results at six weeks of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) are ubiquitous compounds with carcinogenic and teratogenic properties. They are chemically very stable and lipophilic and, therefore, accumulate in our food-chain. They are prenatally transmitted from mother to foetus, and mother's milk due to its high lipid content is an elimination pathway of special importance. Therefore, breast-feeding has been held responsible for elevated concentrations of these organochlorine compounds as well as for harmful effects in children later in life. Methods: Blood samples (2.5 ml) were taken from each 10 breast-fed and bottle-fed infants at 6 weeks of age. Blood specimens were immediately centrifuged, and serum was stored in glass tubes at -20 degree sign C until analysis. Three higher chlorinated PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 138, 153 and 180), HCB, and the organic metabolite of DDT, p,p<<-DDE, were analysed with capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Reliability was tested with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: There were no differences between the study groups of breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with regard to sex distribution, gestational age, birth-weight, age of the mothers, and smoking behaviour of the parents. In contrast, serum concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were significantly higher (P<0.0001) in breast-fed than in bottle-fed infants (mean): PCB 138, 0.38 vs. 0.10 μg/l; PCB 153, 0.49 vs. 0.1 μg/l; PCB 180, 0.31 vs. 0.04 μg/l; ΣPCB, 1.19 vs. 0.29 μg/l; HCB, 0.13 vs. 0.04 μg/l; p,p<<-DDE, 1.05 vs. 0.18 μg/l. Conclusions: Breast-feeding significantly increases the pollution of our infants with different organochlorine compounds as early as at 6 weeks of age. The progress of the present study will show whether this pollution will further increase with longer duration of breast-feeding, and whether breast-feeding bears any health risks for our

  7. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Olsen, S.F.;

    2005-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the brain during the 1st and 2nd years of life. The objective of this study was to see if an increased content of DHA in breast-milk via maternal fish oil (FO)-supplementation affects mental development in term infants. one hundred twenty-two Danish mothers...... with a habitual fish intake below the population median were randomized to 4.5 g center dot d(-1) of FO or olive oil (OO) for the first four months of lactation. Fifty-three mothers with habitual fish intake in the highest quartile were included as reference group. The effect of the resulting increase...

  8. Exposure Assessment of Breast-Fed Infants in the Czech Republic to Indicator Pcbs and Selected Chlorinated Pesticides: Area-Related Differences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černá, M.; Bencko, V.; Brabec, Marek; Šmíd, J.; Krsková, A.; Jech, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 2 (2010), s. 160-168. ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : human milk * Czech Republic * PCBs and OCPs * breast-fed infant exposure * statistical modeling of exposure * Bayesian modeling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.155, year: 2010

  9. Slight Hydronephrosis in Newborns and Breast-fed Infants: Can the Presence of Vesicoureteral Reflux Be Predicted?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of slight-to moderate echo graphically detected hydronephrosis in newborns and breast-fed infants that might serve as indicator for Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), and to evaluate the necessity of performing micturating cystourethrougraphy (MCUG) in these patients. There were reviewed MCUG of 237 patients (174 boys and 63 girls between the ages of 0 and 18 months) with slight echo graphically detected hydronephrosis in order to evaluate the presence of primary VUR. Patients with secondary reflux or those that presented anomalies which made impossible an exact reflux gradind were excluded. However, normal kidneys with reflux which were contralateral to hydronephrotic kidneys were included in the study. For a statistical analysis of the data, each kidney was considered separately, thereby forming a total of 474 kidneys. Slight hydronephrosis was diagnosed when the renal pelvis anteroposterior diameter was observed to measure between 0.5 and 1.5 cm. The International Grading System was used to grade reflux during MCUG. Of the 474 kidneys evaluated, 306 showed slight hydromephrosis in the echography. Only 98 of these presented reflux (32%) (14 grade 1.50 grade II, 32 grade III and 2 grade IV). The echography was normal (i. e. hydronephrosis not present) in 52 kidneys with reflux (31%) which were contralateral to hydronephrotic kidneys, although 38 of these had reflux of grade II or higher. The echography showed slight hydronephrosis in 208 kidneys that did not have reflux during MCUG (68%). There were no significant differences in the incidence of VUR among normal or hydronephrotic kidneys. There is a poor correlation between slight hydronephrosis and presence or grade of reflux in newborns and breast-fed infants. The latter should not, therefore, be considered an indication for MCUC. (Author) 33 refs

  10. Measurements of breast milk intake in exclusively or predominantly breast-fed infants, and the impact of lactation counseling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a mirror sample of the Multicenter Growth Reference Study the deuterium dilution method was used to measure breast milk intake. The following hypotheses were tested: a) There is no statistically significant difference in breast milk intake between exclusively and predominantly breast-fed babies; b) Breast milk intake is higher in babies from mothers who get lactation support; and c) Mothers who report exclusive breast-feeding are not taking any other fluids or foods. Mothers were randomly assigned to an intervention group who received lactation counseling from birth to 4 months onwards, and a control group who did not receive lactation support. 142 mother and infant pairs were followed up. Preliminary results show that the sample was an exact mirror of the MGRS, and that at 4 months mothers who received lactation support were exclusively breast-feeding more frequently than those who did not receive support. Similarly, the number of infants weaned off the breast was smaller in the intervention than in the control group. At the time of writing of this report 72 mother-infant pairs were included in the deuterium study. Results on breast milk intake are awaiting completion of the study and sample analysis. (author)

  11. Iron deficiency, but not anemia, upregulates iron absorption in breast-fed Peruvian infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron absorption in adults is regulated by homeostatic mechanisms that decrease absorption when iron status is high. There are few data, however, regarding the existence of a similar homeostatic regulation in infants. We studied 2 groups of human milk-fed infants using (57)Fe (given as ferrous sulfat...

  12. Iodine nutrition in breast-fed infants is impaired by maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Nøhr, Susanne B; Pedersen, Klaus M;

    2004-01-01

    Lack of iodine for thyroid hormone formation during the fetal stage and/or the first years of life may lead to developmental brain damage. During the period of breastfeeding, thyroid function of the infant depends on iodine in maternal milk. We studied healthy, pregnant women admitted for deliver...

  13. Growth of Czech Breastfed Infants in Comparison with the World Health Organization Standards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vignerová, J.; Shriver, L.; Paulová, M.; Brabec, Marek; Schneidrová, D.; Růžková, R.; Procházka, B.; Riedlová, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2015), s. 32-38. ISSN 1210-7778 Grant ostatní: GA MZd(CZ) NS9974; Pedagogická fakulta UK(CZ) PRVOUK P02 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : breastfeeding * Czech * growth standards * infants * national references * WHO standards Subject RIV: FG - Pediatrics Impact factor: 0.533, year: 2014

  14. Nutrition for healthy term infants

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants is the new national statement on nutrition for infants from birth to 24 months, developed collaboratively by the Canadian Paediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada and Health Canada.

  15. Identification of Probiotic Strains from Human Milk in Breastfed Infants with Respiratory Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Neamtu Bogdan; Tita Ovidiu; Neamtu Mihai; Tita Mihaela; Hila Mirela; Maniu Ionela

    2014-01-01

    Isolation and industrial exploitation of probiotics from human milk is a goal for worldwide milk biotechnology centres because of their modulation effect on the immune system in infants and adults. In the proposed study we have analysed fermentation patterns of Lactobacilli isolated from human milk, the reliability of API 50 CH carbohydrate fermentation system and a possible link between lactose concentrations and fermentation profiles on carbohydrates. We had succesfully identified three spe...

  16. Identification of Probiotic Strains from Human Milk in Breastfed Infants with Respiratory Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamtu Bogdan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and industrial exploitation of probiotics from human milk is a goal for worldwide milk biotechnology centres because of their modulation effect on the immune system in infants and adults. In the proposed study we have analysed fermentation patterns of Lactobacilli isolated from human milk, the reliability of API 50 CH carbohydrate fermentation system and a possible link between lactose concentrations and fermentation profiles on carbohydrates. We had succesfully identified three species of Lactobacillus (paracasei ssp paracasei, fermentum, acidophilus and one unsatisfactory identification of Lactoccocus lactis ssp lactis. These strains had different carbohydrate fermentation patterns but with common characteristics and showed no statistically significant correlations between their carbohydrate metabolic trends and lactose concentrations in the milk samples.

  17. Safety Assessment of Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771 Isolated from Stools of Healthy Breast-Fed Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Leonor Fernández-Murga

    Full Text Available Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771 is a potential probiotic strain, originally isolated from the stools of healthy breast-feed infants. The strain showed pre-clinical efficacy in a mouse obesity model. The objective of this study was to evaluate its potential toxicity and translocation ability after acute oral administration to mice.A safety study was conducted in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed C57BL-6 mice. Both mouse groups (n = 10 per group were fed orally 2 x 10(9 colony forming units (cfu/day of B. uniformis CECT 7771 or placebo by gavage for 6 days. Throughout this time, feed and water intake and body weight were monitored. Afterwards, mice were sacrificed and biological samples were collected to analyze blood and urine biochemistry, inflammatory and immune markers; gut mucosal histology and bacterial translocation to peripheral tissues. The results demonstrated that acute ingestion of this Bacteroides strain had no adverse effects on the animals' general health status or food intake, nor did it affect biochemical indicators of liver, kidney and pancreatic function or gut mucosal histology. Findings also demonstrated that administration did not lead to bacterial translocation to blood, liver or mesenteric lymph nodes. B. uniformis CECT 7771 also downregulated gene and protein expression (iNOS and PPAR-γ and inflammatory cytokines induced by immunosuppression.The findings indicate that the acute oral consumption of B. uniformis CECT 7771 does not raise safety concerns in mice. Further studies in humans should be conducted.

  18. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in an exclusively breastfed 5-month-old Italian infant born to a mother receiving multivitamin supplementation during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guez Sophie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In infants, vitamin B12 deficiency may be due to an inborn error of absorption and metabolism, or nutritional problems. Case presentation An exclusively breastfed 5-month-old Italian male infant, who was born after a normal full-term pregnancy to a vegan mother who was apparently daily treated with a multivitamin oral preparation during the second and third trimester, was hospitalised because of poor weight gain, feeding difficulties, severe pallor, muscle hypotonia and somnolence. Upon admission, his weight, length and head circumference were below the third percentile, he had an enlarged liver and spleen, and showed a significant delay in developmental milestones and communicative reactions. He had a hemoglobin level of 4.7 g/dL with an MCV of 84.2 fL, a white blood cell count of 4,680/mm3, and a platelet count of 45,000/mm3. His serum vitamin B12 level was 57 pg/mL (normal value 180–500 pg/mL and serum folate level 12.8 ng/mL (normal value >3 ng/mL. The results of metabolic examinations excluded a cobalamin C disorder, whereas nutritional screening showed a serum iron concentration of 9 μg/dL and serum ferritin of 4 ng/mL. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed mild dilatation of the lateral ventricles with diffuse delayed myelination. The child was diagnosed as having vitamin B12 and iron deficiency due to nutritional inadequacy and was immediately treated with packed red blood cells, intramuscular vitamin B12 injections, and iron supplementation. A few days after the start of therapy, his hemoglobin levels and other hematological parameters rapidly improved, and a clinical improvement was observed within few weeks. There was an increase in his achievement of developmental milestones, but his development was still retarded seven months after the start of therapy. Conclusion This case underlines the importance of adequately controlling maternal vitamin B12 intake during pregnancy by means of

  19. Developmental Readiness of Normal Full Term Infants To Progress from Exclusive Breastfeeding to the Introduction of Complementary Foods: Reviews of the Relevant Literature Concerning Infant Immunologic, Gastrointestinal, Oral Motor and Maternal Reproductive and Lactational Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Audrey J., Ed.; Morrow, Ardythe L., Ed.

    This review of the developmental readiness of normal, full-term infants to progress from exclusive breastfeeding to the introduction of complementary foods is the result of the international debate regarding the best age to introduce complementary foods into the diet of the breastfed human infant. After a list of definitions, four papers focus on:…

  20. Anemia em lactentes de baixa renda em aleitamento materno exclusivo Anemia in low-income exclusively breastfed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio A. Torres

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Verificar o comportamento dos valores da hemoglobina e a prevalência de anemia entre lactentes de termo de 3 a 6 meses de idade em aleitamento materno exclusivo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal em 242 lactentes de 3 a 6 meses de idade com peso de nascimento superior a 2.500 g, em aleitamento materno exclusivo e em acompanhamento no Programa de Promoção do Crescimento e Desenvolvimento do Lactente do Programa Einstein na Comunidade de Paraisópolis. A dosagem de hemoglobina foi realizada por meio de punção digital entre o terceiro e o sexto meses de vida. Adotaram-se os valores de Hb OBJECTIVE: To verify the behavior of hemoglobin levels and anemia prevalence in full term infants, aged 3 to 6 months and on exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 242 infants aged 3 to 6 months with birth weights of more than 2,500 g, on exclusive breastfeeding and monitored by the Program for the Promotion of Infant Growth and Development, part of the Paraisópolis Einstein Community Program. Hemoglobin was assayed by finger prick between the third and sixth months of life. Anemia was defined as Hb < 10.3 g/dL (Saarinen or Hb < 10 g/dL (Brault-Dubuc for infants aged 3 to 5 months and as Hb < 11.0 g/dL (WHO for infants aged 6 months. RESULTS: Mean hemoglobin concentration was 11.3 and 11.4 g/dL at 3 and 4 months and 11.2 and 11.1 g/dL at 5 and 6 months, respectively. The percentage of anemic infants varied depending on age and the cutoff adopted, being 11.8, 10.2 and 8.3% at 3, 4 and 5 months, respectively, according to the Brault-Dubuc criteria, and 20.6, 14.8 and 10.4% by the Saarinen criteria. Anemia prevalence at 6 months was 37.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia prevalence rates observed among infants aged between 3 and 6 months varied from 8.3 to 37.5%, justifying increased attention on the part of pediatricians to the hemoglobin levels of infants who are on exclusive breastfeeding, come from low-income families and present risk factors

  1. Diet and the essential fatty acid status of term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, G; Sawatzki, G; van Biervliet, J P; Rosseneu, M

    1994-09-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids with 20 and 22 carbon atoms (LCPs) seem to play an important role during the rapid development of the infant brain in the late fetal and early postnatal period. These LCPs are integral constituents of biological membranes and they are involved in the regulation of functional properties like fluidity, permeability and activity of membrane-bound enzymes. Human milk contains LCPs in an amount of 0.5-3 wt% of total fatty acids, whereas commercially available infant formulae are almost free of them. Recently, several clinical trials, primarily with preterm infants, have reported that the content of LCPs in the blood and a functional parameter like visual acuity correlate with the content of LCPs in the diet. In this clinical trial we studied the effect of different diets on the fatty acid pattern of plasma and erythrocyte lipids of healthy term infants during the first 3 months of life. Breast-fed infants were compared with formula-fed babies who received a commercially available formula without LCPs or a new experimental formula enriched with LCPs that was similar to human milk. The results indicate that the introduction of milk feeding leads to marked differences in the blood lipid composition during the first months of life, independent of the feeding regimen. Secondly, the supplementation of a formula with LCPs seems to result in a blood lipid composition similar to infants fed with human milk. This supports the hypothesis that the newborn term infant has a limited desaturating capacity and depends on an exogenous supply of LCPs during the first months of life. PMID:7841626

  2. Dry Cereals Fortified with Electrolytic Iron or Ferrous Fumarate Are Equally Effective in Breast-fed Infants123

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Ekhard E.; Fomon, Samuel J.; Nelson, Steven E.; Jeter, Janice M.; Theuer, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    Precooked, instant (dry) infant cereals in the US are fortified with electrolytic iron, a source of low reactivity and suspected low bioavailability. Iron from ferrous fumarate is presumed to be more available. In this study, we compared a dry infant rice cereal (Cereal L) fortified with electrolytic iron (54.5 mg iron/100 g cereal) to a similar cereal (Cereal M) fortified with ferrous fumarate (52.2 mg Fe/100 g) for efficacy in maintaining iron status and preventing iron deficiency (ID) in b...

  3. Concentrations of phthalate metabolites in breast milk in Korea: estimating exposure to phthalates and potential risks among breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Jangwoo; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Cho, Geumjoon; Kim, Gun-Ha; Eun, So-Hee; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Suh, Eunsook; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Young Don; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Seunghyo; Eom, Soyong; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-03-01

    Phthalates have been associated with endocrine disruption and developmental effects in many experimental and epidemiological studies. Developing infants are among the most susceptible populations to endocrine disruption. However, limited information is available on phthalate exposure and its associated risks among breast-fed newborn infants. In the present study, breast milk samples were collected from 62 lactating mothers at 1 month post-partum from four cities of Korea in 2012 and were evaluated for six phthalate metabolites (mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP)). MEP was detected in all breast milk samples, with a median concentration of 0.37 μg/L, and MiBP, MnBP and MEHP were detected in 79-89% of samples, with median concentrations of 1.10, 1.70, and 2.08 μg/L, respectively. However, MEHHP and MEOHP, the oxidized forms of di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP), were detected in only one sample. For exposure assessment, the levels of phthalate diesters were estimated based on the parent:metabolite ratios in the breast milk that are reported elsewhere. For risk assessment, the endocrine-related toxicity of the monoester was assumed to be the same as that of its diester form. Median daily intake estimates of phthalates, including both monoester and diester forms, through breast milk consumption ranged between 0.91 and 6.52 μg/kg body weight (bw) for DEHP and between 0.38 and 1.43 μg/kg bw for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). Based on the estimated daily intake, up to 8% of infants exceeded the reference dose of anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) for DEHP, and 6% of infants exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for DnBP. Breast milk MiBP and MnBP concentrations showed significant positive associations with maternal consumption of whipped cream or purified water. Considering vulnerability of

  4. Copper, iron, zinc, and selenium dietary intake and status of Nepalese lactating women and their breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, P B; Reynolds, R D; Acharya, S; Howard, M P; Andon, M B; Lewis, S A

    1988-04-01

    The dietary intake of copper, iron, zinc, and selenium of 26 Nepalese lactating mothers was estimated from chemical analysis of 24-h food and beverage composites. Fasting blood and milk samples were obtained from the mothers and blood samples were obtained from the infants. The Nepalese mothers consumed significantly more Cu, significantly less Fe and Se, and similar amounts of Zn as compared with American lactating women. Blood Fe status indices and plasma concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Se were lower in the Nepalese mothers than in the American mothers. These lower values may in part be related to the high neutral detergent fiber and phytate content of the Nepalese diet, which could make these minerals less available for absorption. The high exposure to infections in Nepal may also depress Fe status indices and plasma Zn concentrations. The lower dietary Se intake of the Nepalese mothers was reflected in lower milk concentrations. PMID:3354498

  5. Safety and immunomodulatory effects of three probiotic strains isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants in healthy adults: SETOPROB study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Plaza-Diaz

    Full Text Available We previously described the isolation and characterization of three probiotic strains from the feces of exclusively breast-fed newborn infants: Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. These strains were shown to adhere to intestinal mucus in vitro, to be sensitive to antibiotics and to resist biliary salts and low pH. In the present study, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 100 healthy volunteers in three Spanish cities was carried out to evaluate the tolerance, safety, gut colonization and immunomodulatory effects of these three probiotics. Volunteers underwent a 15-day washout period, after which they were randomly divided into 5 groups that received daily a placebo, a capsule containing one of the 3 strains or a capsule containing a mixture of two strains for 30 days. The intervention was followed by another 15-day washout period. Patients did not consume fermented milk for the entire duration of the study. Gastrointestinal symptoms, defecation frequency and stool consistency were not altered by probiotic intake. No relevant changes in blood and serum, as well as no adverse events occurred during or after treatment. Probiotic administration slightly modified bacterial populations in the volunteers' feces. Intestinal persistence occurred in volunteers who received L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. Administration of B. breve CNCM I-4035 resulted in a significant increase in fecal secretory IgA content. IL-4 and IL-10 increased, whereas IL-12 decreased in the serum of volunteers treated with any of the three strains. These results demonstrate that the consumption of these three bacterial strains was safe and exerted varying degrees of immunomodulatory effects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01479543.

  6. Cranial sonography in term and near-term infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yikilmaz, Ali [Gevher Nesibe Hospital and Erciyes Medical School, Department of Radiology, Talas, Kayseri (Turkey); Taylor, George A. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Sonographic patterns of brain injury in the term and near-term infant are quite different from those in the premature infant. Although periventricular leukomalacia and germinal matrix hemorrhage are rarely seen in term infants, selective neuronal injury, parasagittal infarction, focal stroke, diffuse hypoxic-ischemic injury, and deep parenchymal hemorrhages are more common lesions. In addition, congenital brain tumors, hamartomatous lesions, such as hemimegalencephaly, and tuberous sclerosis can mimic ischemic and hemorrhagic injury. Sonography remains an important tool in the initial evaluation of intracranial abnormalities in critically ill term and near-term infants. An understanding of the differences in etiology, sonographic patterns, and limitations of sonography in the term infant is essential for accurate and effective diagnoses in this age group. (orig.)

  7. Changes in soluble transferrin receptor and hemoglobin concentrations in Malawian mothers are associated with those values in their exclusively breastfed, HIV-exposed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infant iron status at birth is influenced bymaternal iron status during pregnancy; however, there are limited data on the extent to which maternal iron status is associated with infant iron status during exclusive breastfeeding. We evaluated how maternal and infant hemoglobin and iron status [solubl...

  8. Slight Hydronephrosis in Newborns and Breast-fed Infants: Can the Presence of Vesicoureteral Reflux Be Predicted?; Hidronefrosis leve en neonatos y lactantes: puede predecirse la presencia del reflujo vesicoureteral?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrocal, T.; Pablo, T. de; Gutierrez, J.; Prieto, C.; Hoyo, M. L. del [Hospital Universitario La Paz. Madrid (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of slight-to moderate echo graphically detected hydronephrosis in newborns and breast-fed infants that might serve as indicator for Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), and to evaluate the necessity of performing micturating cystourethrougraphy (MCUG) in these patients. There were reviewed MCUG of 237 patients (174 boys and 63 girls between the ages of 0 and 18 months) with slight echo graphically detected hydronephrosis in order to evaluate the presence of primary VUR. Patients with secondary reflux or those that presented anomalies which made impossible an exact reflux gradind were excluded. However, normal kidneys with reflux which were contralateral to hydronephrotic kidneys were included in the study. For a statistical analysis of the data, each kidney was considered separately, thereby forming a total of 474 kidneys. Slight hydronephrosis was diagnosed when the renal pelvis anteroposterior diameter was observed to measure between 0.5 and 1.5 cm. The International Grading System was used to grade reflux during MCUG. Of the 474 kidneys evaluated, 306 showed slight hydromephrosis in the echography. Only 98 of these presented reflux (32%) (14 grade 1.50 grade II, 32 grade III and 2 grade IV). The echography was normal (i. e. hydronephrosis not present) in 52 kidneys with reflux (31%) which were contralateral to hydronephrotic kidneys, although 38 of these had reflux of grade II or higher. The echography showed slight hydronephrosis in 208 kidneys that did not have reflux during MCUG (68%). There were no significant differences in the incidence of VUR among normal or hydronephrotic kidneys. There is a poor correlation between slight hydronephrosis and presence or grade of reflux in newborns and breast-fed infants. The latter should not, therefore, be considered an indication for MCUC. (Author) 33 refs.

  9. Hypernatremic dehydratation in term infants

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Bülbül; Emrah Can; Sinan Uslu; Asiye Nuhoğlu

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The characteristic features of hypernatremic dehydration and the risk factors in tehe development of hypernatremic dehydration in our neonatal intensive care unit were evaluated.Material and Method: Term newborns recognized as hypernatremic dehydration between January 2006-December 2008 were included in the study. The patients clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, additional diagnoses, treatment modalities and periods were recorded prospectively. Results: A total of 33 babies we...

  10. Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics in infant formula for full term infants: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Mugambi Mary N; Musekiwa Alfred; Lombard Martani; Young Taryn; Blaauw Reneé

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics are being added to infant formula to promote growth and development in infants. Previous reviews (2007 to 2011) on term infants given probiotics or prebiotics focused on prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. This review focused on growth and clinical outcomes in term infants fed only infant formula containing synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled t...

  11. Changes in Soluble Transferrin Receptor and Hemoglobin Concentrations in Malawian Mothers Are Associated with Those Values in their Exclusively Breastfed, HIV-Exposed Infants123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, Elizabeth M.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Kayira, Dumbani; Chasela, Charles S.; Daza, Eric J.; Kacheche, Zebrone K.; Tegha, Gerald; Jamieson, Denise J.; Kourtis, Athena P.; van der Horst, Charles M.; Allen, Lindsay H.; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Adair, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    Infant iron status at birth is influenced by maternal iron status during pregnancy; however, there are limited data on the extent to which maternal iron status is associated with infant iron status during exclusive breastfeeding. We evaluated how maternal and infant hemoglobin and iron status [soluble transferrin receptors (TfR) and ferritin] were related during exclusive breastfeeding in HIV-infected women and their infants. The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study was a randomized controlled trial in Lilongwe, Malawi, in which HIV-infected women were assigned with a 2 × 3 factorial design to a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS), or no LNS, and maternal, infant, or no antiretroviral drug, and followed for 24 wk. Longitudinal models were used to relate postpartum maternal hemoglobin (n = 1926) to concurrently measured infant hemoglobin, adjusting for initial infant hemoglobin values. In a subsample, change in infant iron status (hemoglobin, log ferritin, log TfR) between 2 (n = 352) or 6 wk (n = 167) and 24 wk (n = 519) was regressed on corresponding change in the maternal indicator, adjusting for 2 or 6 wk values. A 1 g/L higher maternal hemoglobin at 12, 18, and 24 wk was associated with a 0.06 g/L (P = 0.01), 0.10 g/L (P < 0.001), and 0.06 g/L (P = 0.01), respectively, higher infant hemoglobin. In the subsample, a reduction in maternal log TfR and an increase in hemoglobin from initial measurement to 24 wk were associated with the same pattern in infant values (log TfR β = −0.18 mg/L, P < 0.001; hemoglobin β = 0.13 g/L, P = 0.01). Given the observed influence of maternal and initial infant values, optimizing maternal iron status in pregnancy and postpartum is important to protect infant iron status. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00164736. PMID:24381222

  12. Clinical review of 13 exclusively breast-fed infants with food allergy.,%纯母乳喂养婴儿食物过敏13例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢广清; 龙晓玲; 熊勇; 张泉山; 黄娟; 付四毛

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析纯母乳喂养婴儿食物过敏的临床特征,以提高对纯母乳喂养婴儿食物过敏的认识.方法 回顾分析我科2008-2010年收治的13例纯母乳喂养食物过敏婴儿的临床资料.结果 13例纯母乳喂养食物过敏婴儿中,年龄均小于6个月,9例小于3个月.12例有家族过敏史.临床表现多样:迁延性腹泻、血便、呕血、腹胀、生长发育落后、烦躁不安、特应性皮炎等.大便中可出现红细胞、白细胞和黏液.血生化检查可出现球蛋白下降和谷丙转氨酶(ALT)、谷草转氨酶(AST)升高.血清特异性免疫球蛋白可阳性,但阳性率不高.胃镜检查者6例,表现为糜烂性胃炎或(和)十二指肠球炎.胃镜检查者同时行胃黏膜活检,病理检查均为非特异性慢性炎症性改变,未见嗜酸细胞浸润.食物回避治疗,13例均有效;食物激发试验,13例均阳性.结论 纯母乳喂养婴儿也可发生食物过敏,临床表现多样,以消化道症状最为突出,内镜下胃黏膜有改变,食物特异性免疫球蛋白检测阳性率低,食物回避和激发试验是诊断的金标准,食物回避治疗疗效肯定.%Objective To analyze the clinical features of exclusively breast-fed infants with food allergy, and to enhance the understanding of this disease. Methods The clinical data of 13 exclusively breast-fed infants with food allergy, admitted to our department from 2008 to 2010, were retrospectively analyzed. Results All the cases were under 6 months old, in which 9 were under 3 months old. 12 cases had family history of food allergy. The clinical features are variant, such as diarrhea, bloody stool, hematemesis, abdominal distension, growth retardation, dysphoria, atopic dermatitis. Red blood cells, white blood cells and mucilage appeared in the stool. Blood biochemical examination revealed decreased globulin level and increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminottansferase (AST) level. Serum specific immune

  13. Anemia and Red Blood Cell Abnormalities in HIV-Infected and HIV-Exposed Breastfed Infants: A Secondary Analysis of the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study

    OpenAIRE

    Odhiambo, Collins; Zeh, Clement; Ondoa, Pascale; Omolo, Paul; Akoth, Benta; Lwamba, Humphrey; Lando, Richard; Williamson, John; Otieno, Juliana; Masaba, Rose; Weidle, Paul; Thomas, Timothy; ,

    2015-01-01

    Background Anemia results in increased morbidity and mortality, underscoring the need to better understand its pathophysiology amongst HIV-exposed and infected children in sub-Saharan Africa, the region where most infant HIV exposure and infections occur. Methods This analysis used samples obtained from children in the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study (KiBS). KiBS was a longitudinal phase IIB, open-label, one-arm clinical trial, designed to investigate the safety, tolerability and effectiveness of ...

  14. The transfer of L-selenomethionine-75Se to human milk and the potential radiation dose to a breast-fed infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the administration of L-selenomethionine-75Se for a pancreas scan of a lactating mother, it was shown that there was a rapid and high level of incorporation of 75Se into the breast milk and the milk proteins. Between 5 and 29 hours after injection, the 75Se concentration in the whole milk and the milk solids decreased by a factor of more than 2; from 29 to 123 hours the concentrations appeared to decrease exponentially with a biological half-time of 78 +- 6 hours. At 123 hours post injection the concentrations of 75Se in the milk was 68% of that in the maternal plasma. An estimate of the 75Se intake by the infant was made from the measurements made on the single urine sample obtained 41 hours after the last breast feed. A whole body radiation dose to the infant was estimated to be about 500 μGy, i.e. about one-tenth of the ICRP dose equivalent limit for a member of the general public. If breast feeding had been allowed to continue, the whole body radiation dose to the infant was calculated to be about 2.8 mGy. (U.K.)

  15. Short-Term Outcomes and Mortality of Late Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Cahide; Gürsoy, Tuğba; Ovalı, Fahri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Late preterm infants have increased rates of morbidity and mortality compared to term infants. Determining the risk factors in these infants leads to more comprehensive preventive and treatment strategies. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the morbidity rates such as respiratory system diseases, infections, congenital anomalies, hypoglycemia and hematologic abnormalities and mortality rates in a large group of patients at a referral center. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Medical records of late preterm and term infants who were managed at the referral center were analysed. Results: 41752 births were analysed in 3 years. 71.9% of all births were between 37–42 gestational weeks (i.e. term) and 16.1% were between 34–37 weeks (i.e. late preterm). Compared to term infants, late preterm infants had increased rates of short-term problems. The rate of mortality increased with decreased gestational age. The duration of hospitalization was significantly higher in the smallest late preterm infants. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the need that late preterm infants who have higher risk for morbidity and mortality, compared to term infants require close monitoring. The rate of mortality and hospitalization increased with decreased gestational age.

  16. Moderately Preterm, Late Preterm and Early Term Infant: Research Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, Tonse N.K.

    2013-01-01

    In spite of increased appreciation that all preterm infants and early term infants are at higher risk for mortality and morbidities compared to their term counterparts, there are many knowledge gaps affecting optimal clinical care for this vulnerable population. In this paper a research agenda is presented focusing on the systems biology, epidemiology and clinical and translational sciences on this topic.

  17. Evolução histórica dos utensílios empregados para alimentar lactentes não amamentados Historical evolution of utensils used to feed non breastfed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Diez Castilho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse artigo de revisão é descrever os utensílios empregados ao longo da história para alimentar lactentes não amamentados. O levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS e SciELO, de 1966 a 2007. Para a análise documental, foram processadas buscas na Internet, em enciclopédias, livros de arte, história e museus. Utensílios manufaturados com materiais e formas variadas, dependendo da disponibilidade, poder aquisitivo e cultura, foram empregados desde os primórdios da história para alimentar bebês que, por diferentes motivos, deixaram de ser amamentados. Muitos objetos coexistiram na mesma época e local, outros em tempos e pontos geográficos distantes. A aceitação de uma nova alternativa ocorria sem evidência que comprovasse ou apontasse para os benefícios da mudança. Alguns utensílios voltaram a ser empregados embora a mortalidade infantil fosse elevada à época em que foram utilizados. No início do século XX, as mamadeiras assumiram a forma cilíndrica cônica. A tecnologia trouxe avanços no sentido de melhorar a higienização e possibilitar o controle da contaminação. O vidro deu lugar ao plástico e os bicos de borracha, aos de silicone, mas a mamadeira, como a conhecemos hoje, é a mesma de cem anos atrás.The objective of this article is to describe the utensils used throughout history to feed non breastfed infants. The method used was article review, reference search on the MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO databases from 1966 to 2007 and documental analysis based on data from the internet, encyclopedias, art and history books, and museums. Utensils manufactured in a variety of materials and shapes, depending on availability, purchasing power and culture have been used since early history to feed babies who for different reasons were not breastfed. Many objects coexisted at the same time and place, others at distant sites and times. New alternatives have been accepted without

  18. "MOODY BLUES": Affect Interpretation of Infant Facial Expressions and Negative Affect in Mothers of Preterm and Term Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Hedwig J.A. van Bakel; Hoffenkamp, Hannah N.; Anneke Tooten; Ruby A.S. Hall; Merel ter Beek; Hartman, Esther E.; Vingerhoets, Ad. J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth places infants at increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes, with self- and affect regulation problems among the most important impairments. However, few studies have empirically examined maternal interpretation of infant affect in mothers of pre- and term infants. The current study examines how negative affect of mothers of preterm and term infants is associated with their interpretation of infant facial expressions.One hundred and sixty-eight mothers with their infants...

  19. Short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Natile, Miria; Ventura, Maria Luisa; Colombo, Marco; Bernasconi, Davide; Locatelli, Anna; Plevani, Cristina; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Tagliabue, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants (LPI) compared with those of term infants (TI). Methods A retrospective study conducted in a single third level Italian centre (2005–2009) to analyse the incidence and risk factors of composite respiratory morbidity (CRM), the need for adjunctive therapies (surfactant therapy, inhaled nitric oxide, pleural drainage), the highest level of respiratory support (mechanical ventilation – MV, nasal continuous positive air...

  20. Age of introduction of first complementary feeding for infants: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Qasem, Wafaa; Fenton, Tanis; Friel, James

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a World Health Organization recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding of all full-term infants to 6 months of age, it is not clear what the health implications may be. Breast milk alone may not meet the nutrition needs for all growing infants, leaving them at risk for deficiencies. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between moderate (4 months) versus late (6 months) introduction of complementary foods to the full-term breastfed infant on iron s...

  1. Infants long-term memory for complex music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz; Polka, Linda; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2002-05-01

    In this study we examined infants' long-term memory for two complex pieces of music. A group of thirty 7.5 month-old infants was exposed daily to one short piano piece (i.e., either the Prelude or the Forlane by Maurice Ravel) for ten consecutive days. Following the 10-day exposure period there was a two-week retention period in which no exposure to the piece occurred. After the retention period, infants were tested on the Headturn Preference Procedure. At test, 8 different excerpts of the familiar piece were mixed with 8 different foil excerpts of the unfamiliar one. Infants showed a significant preference for the familiar piece of music. A control group of fifteen nonexposed infants was also tested and showed no preferences for either piece of music. These results suggest that infants in the exposure group retained the familiar music in their long-term memory. This was demonstrated by their ability to discriminate between the different excerpts of both the familiar and the unfamiliar pieces of music, and by their preference for the familiar piece. Confirming previous findings (Jusczyk and Hohne, 1993; Saffran et al., 2000), in this study we suggest that infants can retain complex pieces of music in their long-term memory for two weeks.

  2. "MOODY BLUES": Affect Interpretation of Infant Facial Expressions and Negative Affect in Mothers of Preterm and Term Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig J.A. van Bakel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth places infants at increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes, with self- and affect regulation problems among the most important impairments. However, few studies have empirically examined maternal interpretation of infant affect in mothers of pre- and term infants. The current study examines how negative affect of mothers of preterm and term infants is associated with their interpretation of infant facial expressions.One hundred and sixty-eight mothers with their infants (64 term and 104 preterm participated. Seven days after birth, mothers completed the UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist (UMACL; Matthews, Jones, & Chamberlain, 1990 to assess maternal negative affect. During a home visit, six months after birth, mothers additionally completed a task developed to measure infant affect interpretation (Interpreting Facial Expressions of Emotions through Looking at Pictures task, IFEEL pictures task; Emde, Osofsky, & Butterfield, 1993.Mothers of preterm infants reported more negative affect than mothers of term infants. However, the relationship between infant birth status (i.e., term vs. preterm and maternal interpretation of infant facial expressions was moderated by the mother's own negative affectivity. Surprisingly, particularly mothers of term infants who also reported high levels of negative affect were found to interpret infant affect significantly more negatively.Prematurity itself does not seem to be a dominant factor in determining maternal infant affect interpretation, though maternal psychological negative mood does. Both theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  3. Disparity in circulating adiponectin multimers between term and preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Siahanidou, Tania; Garatzioti, Maria; Davradou, Maria; Apostolakou, Filia; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Mandyla, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To study circulating levels and distribution of adiponectin multimers [low molecular weight (LMW)-, medium molecular weight (MMW)- and high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin] in preterm and full-term infants. Methods: Total serum adiponectin and its multimers were measured in 40 healthy infants at the age of one month and associations with anthropometric parameters [body weight and length, body mass index (BMI)], weight gain and metabolic indices (glucose, insulin) were examined. Twen...

  4. Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics in infant formula for full term infants: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugambi Mary N

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics are being added to infant formula to promote growth and development in infants. Previous reviews (2007 to 2011 on term infants given probiotics or prebiotics focused on prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. This review focused on growth and clinical outcomes in term infants fed only infant formula containing synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs which compared term infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics to conventional infant formula with / without placebo among healthy full term infants. The mean difference (MD and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Where appropriate, meta-analysis was performed; heterogeneity was explored using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. If studies were too diverse a narrative synthesis was provided. Results Three synbiotic studies (N = 475, 10 probiotics studies (N = 933 and 12 prebiotics studies (N = 1563 were included. Synbiotics failed to significantly increase growth in boys and girls. Use of synbiotics increased stool frequency, had no impact on stool consistency, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Probiotics in formula also failed to have any significant effect on growth, stool frequency or consistency. Probiotics did not lower the incidence of diarrhoea, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Prebiotics in formula did increase weight gain but had no impact on length or head circumference gain. Prebiotics increased stool frequency but had no impact on stool consistency, the incidence of colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. There was no impact of prebiotics on the volume of formula tolerated, infections and gastrointestinal

  5. Normal Thymic Size and Low Rate of Infections in Human Donor Milk Fed HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants from Birth to 18 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the immune function in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU infants fed human donor milk. Methods. Ultrasound-obtained thymic index (Ti, T-lymphocyte subsets, and the number of infections were examined from birth to 18 months of age in 18 HIV-EU infants. The infants were compared to a cohort of 47 term, HIV-unexposed breastfed or formula-fed infants. Results. The thymic size at 12 months of age was not significantly different between the HIV-EU group and the control infants (P=0.56. At 4 months of age, the HIV-EU infants had significantly fewer infections than the control infants (P<0.001. Furthermore, in the control group, the infants exclusively breastfed at 4 months of age had significantly fewer infections at 8 months when compared to age-matched formula-fed infants (P=0.001. Conclusion. HIV-EU infants fed human donor milk have normal growth of thymus and contract fewer infections than other healthy infants. This finding along with fewer infections in exclusively breastfed infants compared to formula-fed infants supports the beneficial effect of human milk on the immune system. We suggest, when breastfeeding is not possible, that providing human donor milk to vulnerable groups of infants will be beneficial for their maturing immune system.

  6. Mothers of Pre-Term Infants in Neonate Intensive Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    In this study, eight mothers of pre-term infants under the care of nursing staff and neonatologists in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Children's Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, were observed and interviewed about their birth experience and their images of themselves as mothers during their stay. Patterns and themes in the…

  7. Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potential in Term and Premature Infants

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    Didoné, Dayane Domeneghini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The research in long latency auditory evokes potentials (LLAEP in newborns is recent because of the cortical structure maturation, but studies note that these potentials may be evidenced at this age and could be considered as indicators of cognitive development. Purpose To research the exogenous potentials in term and premature infants during their first month of life. Materials and Methods The sample consisted of 25 newborns, 15 term and 10 premature infants. The infants with gestational age under 37 weeks were considered premature. To evaluate the cortical potentials, the infants remained in natural sleep. The LLAEPs were researched binaurally, through insertion earphones, with frequent /ba/ and rare /ga/ speech stimuli in the intensity of 80 dB HL (decibel hearing level. The frequent stimuli presented a total of 80% of the presentations, and the rare, 20%. The data were statistically analyzed. Results The average gestational age of the term infants was 38.9 weeks (± 1.3 and for the premature group, 33.9 weeks (± 1.6. It was possible to observe only the potentials P1 and N1 in both groups, but there was no statistically significant difference for the latencies of the components P1 and N1 (p > 0.05 between the groups. Conclusion It was possible to observe the exogenous components P1 and N1 of the cortical potentials in both term and preterm newborns of no more than 1 month of age. However, there was no difference between the groups.

  8. Long latency auditory evoked potential in term and premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didoné, Dayane Domeneghini; Garcia, Michele Vargas; da Silveira, Aron Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The research in long latency auditory evokes potentials (LLAEP) in newborns is recent because of the cortical structure maturation, but studies note that these potentials may be evidenced at this age and could be considered as indicators of cognitive development. Purpose To research the exogenous potentials in term and premature infants during their first month of life. Materials and Methods The sample consisted of 25 newborns, 15 term and 10 premature infants. The infants with gestational age under 37 weeks were considered premature. To evaluate the cortical potentials, the infants remained in natural sleep. The LLAEPs were researched binaurally, through insertion earphones, with frequent /ba/ and rare /ga/ speech stimuli in the intensity of 80 dB HL (decibel hearing level). The frequent stimuli presented a total of 80% of the presentations, and the rare, 20%. The data were statistically analyzed. Results The average gestational age of the term infants was 38.9 weeks (± 1.3) and for the premature group, 33.9 weeks (± 1.6). It was possible to observe only the potentials P1 and N1 in both groups, but there was no statistically significant difference for the latencies of the components P1 and N1 (p > 0.05) between the groups. Conclusion It was possible to observe the exogenous components P1 and N1 of the cortical potentials in both term and preterm newborns of no more than 1 month of age. However, there was no difference between the groups. PMID:25992057

  9. Polyamines in human breast milk for preterm and term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Zamora, J; Sabater-Molina, M; Rodríguez-Palmero, M; Rivero, M; Bosch, V; Nadal, J M; Zamora, S; Larqué, E

    2013-08-28

    Maternal milk is the first source of exogenous polyamines for the newborn. Polyamines modulate gut maturation in neonates, but no studies are available on polyamine concentration in human milk of preterm babies, even though they could be important for their immature gut. The present study aimed to determine polyamine concentration in human breast milk of mothers with preterm or term infants during the first month of lactation. Human milk samples were obtained during the first month of lactation from twenty-seven mothers with preterm babies and twelve mothers with babies born at term. The polyamine concentration in human milk was quantified by HPLC. During the first month of lactation, the total polyamine concentration was significantly higher in preterm milk than in term milk samples (7590 (SD 4990) v. 4660 (SD 4830) nmol/l, respectively (P ¼ 0·034)), as well as individual polyamine concentrations. Polyamine concentration in mature milk for preterm babies was significantly higher than that in mature milk for babies at term, and a similar trend was observed in colostrum and transition human milk. The spermidine/spermine ratio was higher in transition milk in preterm v. term samples, while in mature milk, the ratio was significantly lower in preterm than in term babies. In conclusion, the polyamine concentration was significantly higher in human milk for preterm than for term infants. This and the different spermidine/spermine ratios could influence the gut development of premature babies. PMID:23286699

  10. The relationship between planned and reported home infant sleep locations among mothers of late preterm and term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Kristin P; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Brandon, Debra

    2015-07-01

    To compare maternal report of planned and practiced home sleep locations of infants born late preterm (34 0/7 to 36 6/7 gestational weeks) with those infants born term (≥37 0/7 gestational weeks) over the first postpartum month. Open-ended semi-structured maternal interviews were conducted in a US hospital following birth and by phone at 1 month postpartum during 2010-2012. Participants were 56 mother-infant dyads: 26 late preterm and 30 term. Most women planned to room share at home with their infants and reported doing so for some or all of the first postpartum month. More women reported bed sharing during the first postpartum month than had planned to do so in both the late preterm and term groups. The primary reason for unplanned bed sharing was to soothe nighttime infant fussiness. Those participants who avoided bed sharing at home commonly discussed their fear for infant safety. A few parents reported their infants were sleeping propped on pillows and co-sleeping on a recliner. Some women in both the late preterm and term groups reported lack of opportunity to obtain a bassinet prior to childbirth. The discrepancy between plans for infant sleep location at home and maternally reported practices were similar in late preterm and term groups. Close maternal proximity to their infants at night was derived from the need to assess infant well-being, caring for infants, and women's preferences. Bed sharing concerns related to infant safety and the establishment of an undesirable habit, and alternative arrangements included shared recliner sleep. PMID:25626714

  11. EFFECT OF INFANT FORMULA SUPPLEMENTED WITH OLIGOSACCHARIDES ON STOOL CHARACTERISTICS OF INFANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Ye-xuan; TANG Qing-ya; FENG Yi; CAI Wei

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine whether addition of oligosaccharides to a regular infant formula can lead to changes in the colonic function in vivo, particularly the fecal characteristics. Methods One hundred and two health full term infants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental formula groups: oligosaccharide formula (OF) group or regular formula (RF) group. Fifty breast-fed infants served as a control group during the same period. During the 3 weeks' study, stool characteristics, including stooling frequency, stool consistency, pH and color, were recorded daily by parents. Results The mean fecal frequency of the infants in the OF group was significantly more than those of the RF group ( P < 0. 05 ). The stools of the RF group were significantly harder than those in the OF group( P < 0. 001 ). Although the mean stool pH score and stool color score of infants in the OF group were not significantly different from that of infants in the RF group, it was much closer to that of breast-fed infants. Conclusion The addition of oligosaccharides to a normal infant formula could lead to improvements in fecal characteristics.

  12. Obstetric interventions and perinatal asphyxia in growth retarded term infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Lindmark, G

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The monitoring of fetal growth during pregnancy is usually justified because of the increased perinatal risk of these babies. METHODS: In 1552 infants from the Scandinavian Small for Gestational Age Study the need for obstetric interventions, risk of fetal asphyxia and immediate...... neonatal outcome at term have been studied in relation to different types of fetal growth retardation, including sub-groups with low ponderal index or low amount of subcutaneous fat. RESULTS: The need for obstetric intervention indicated by suspected fetal asphyxia before or during labor was increased 3...

  13. Evaluation of the Sodium Serum Level in Infants with Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Boskabadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate milk intake during the first year of neonate’s life can result in weight loss, severe hyperbilirubinemia, and sometimes hypernatremia. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between neonatal weight loss and hypernatremia in term breastfed infants with idiopathic jaundice, as well as the necessity of sodium concentration measurement in newborns with idiopathic jaundice via weight loss measurement. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we examined 273 infants with jaundice of unknown etiology at Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, in years 2008-2012. The study sample consisted of 226 infants in the control group (serum sodium concentration

  14. 维生素D对冬季母乳喂养婴儿血清25-羟维生素D水平的影响%Self-controlled study on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of breast-fed infants in winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金春华; 王晓燕; 吴建新

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解常规口服鱼肝油对纯母乳喂养婴儿冬季血清25-羟维生素D[25(OH) D]水平的影响.方法 采用自身对照方法,于2009年12月至2010年2月,以首都儿科研究所附属儿童医院各项检查正常孕妇分娩的新生儿为对象,取脐带血2 ml,分离血清.新生儿自出生后第15天开始补充鱼肝油,随访至4个月,采集纯母乳喂养婴儿的空腹静脉血2 ml,分离血清,与脐带血清同时检测25(OH)D.结果 共43例纯母乳喂养婴儿,其中男26例,女17例.脐带血清25(OH)D为(20.9±5.1) nmol/L (12.5 ~32.1 nmol/L),维生素D缺乏率为100%.第4个月婴儿静脉血清25(OH)D为(106.3±42.4) nmol/L (30.2~208.5 nmol/L),其中4例<50 nmol/L(维生素D缺乏率9.3%),7例50 ~ 75 nmol/L,25例75~150 nmol/L,7例>150 nmol/L.血清25 (OH)D水平与口服鱼肝油量呈正相关(r=0.530,P=0.001).鱼肝油漏服率(漏服时间/应服时间)平均为36.1%(39/108),血清25(OH)D与漏服时间呈负相关(r=-0.634,P=0.001).结论 北方冬季新生儿普遍存在维生素D缺乏,母乳喂养婴儿每日口服鱼肝油可显著提高血清25(OH)D水平,但漏服不能确保婴儿免于维生素D缺乏.%Objective To identify the effect of oral cod liver oil on serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25 (OH)D] level in breast-fed infants during winter.Methods Healthy newborn infants were recruited at Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatrics between December 2009 and February 2010 for the self-controlled study.Serum samples were obtained with 2 ml umbilical cord blood for each neonate.The neonates received vitamin D supplementation in the form of oral cod liver oil from 15 days to 4 months after birth.For each exclusively breastfed infant,2 ml fasting venous blood was collected at the end of postnatal 4 months to separate serum.Serum 25 (OH) D concentrations of the infants were determined with umbilical cord blood serum and venous blood serum.Results Altogether 43 exclusively breastfed

  15. Maternal Drug Use during Pregnancy: Are Preterm and Full-Term Infants Affected Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Josephine V.; Bakeman, Roger; Coles, Claire D.; Sexson, William R.; Demi, Alice S.

    1998-01-01

    Examined effects of prenatal drug exposure on infants born preterm and full-term to African American mothers. Found more extreme fetal growth deficits in later-born infants, and more extreme irritability increases in earlier-born infants. Gestation length did not moderate cardiorespiratory reactivity effects. Exposure effects occurred for…

  16. Persistent effects of early infant diet and associated microbiota on the juvenile immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Nicole R; Méndez-Lagares, Gema; Ardeshir, Amir; Lu, Ding; Van Rompay, Koen K A; Hartigan-O'Connor, Dennis J

    2015-07-01

    Early infant diet has significant impacts on the gut microbiota and developing immune system. We previously showed that breast-fed and formula-fed rhesus macaques develop significantly different gut microbial communities, which in turn are associated with different immune systems in infancy. Breast-fed animals manifested greater T cell activation and proliferation and harbored robust pools of T helper 17 (TH17) cells. These differences were sustained throughout the first year of life. Here we examine groups of juvenile macaques (approximately 3 to 5 y old), which were breast-fed or formula-fed in infancy. We demonstrate that juveniles breast-fed in infancy maintain immunologic differences into the fifth year of life, principally in CD8(+) memory T cell activation. Additionally, long-term correlation networks show that breast-fed animals maintain persistent relationships between immune subsets that are not seen in formula-fed animals. These findings demonstrate that infant feeding practices have continued influence on immunity for up to 3 to 5 y after birth and also reveal mechanisms for microbial modulation of the immune system. PMID:26177107

  17. A prospective study of cow's milk allergy in exclusively breast-fed infants. Incidence, pathogenetic role of early inadvertent exposure to cow's milk formula, and characterization of bovine milk protein in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Husby, S; Osterballe, O

    1988-01-01

    A cohort of 1,749 newborns in the municipality of Odense were followed prospectively for the development of cow's milk allergy (CMA) during their first year of life. Altogether 39 fulfilled the criteria for CMA (2.2%). Out of the 39 infants, 17 developed symptoms of CMA during breast-feeding, in ...

  18. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Aakre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0–6 months was performed (baseline study. In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L, respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight.

  19. Evaluation of the Sodium Serum Level in Infants with Jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Boskabadi; Gholamali Maamouri; Fatemeh Khatami; Mohammad Ali Kiani; Abbas Abdollahi; Maryam Zakerhamidi; Nafiseh Saghafi; Amirhosein Ghazizadeh Hashemi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inadequate milk intake during the first year of neonate’s life can result in weight loss, severe hyperbilirubinemia, and sometimes hypernatremia. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between neonatal weight loss and hypernatremia in term breastfed infants with idiopathic jaundice, as well as the necessity of sodium concentration measurement in newborns with idiopathic jaundice via weight loss measurement. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we examined 273 inf...

  20. Long-term exposure to indoor air pollution and wheezing symptoms in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Hermansen, M.N.; Loland, L.; Buchvald, F.; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Sørensen, M.; Loft, Steffen; Bisgaard, H.

    2010-01-01

    of an association between long-term exposure to indoor air pollution and wheezing symptoms in infants, suggesting that indoor air pollution is not causally related to the underlying disease. Practical Implications Nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde and fine particles were measured in the air in infants...... wheezing symptoms in diaries for a birth cohort of 411 infants. We measured long-term exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), NO(2), formaldehyde, PM(2.5) and black smoke in the infants' bedrooms and analyzed risk associations during the first 18 months of life by logistic regression with the dichotomous end......Long-term exposure to air pollution is suspected to cause recurrent wheeze in infants. The few previous studies have had ambiguous results. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of measured long-term exposure to indoor air pollution on wheezing symptoms in infants. We monitored...

  1. [Maltodextrin in a 13% solution as a supplement in the first 4 days of life in breast-fed mature newborn infants. Effect on drinking behavior, weight curve, blood picture, blood glucose and bilirubin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosegger, H

    1986-05-16

    200 mature healthy newborn infants (birthweight 3382 +/- 377 g) were randomly divided into 2 groups of 100 each: all were breast fed according to the guidelines recommended by 'La Leche League'. If possible breast feeding was commenced in the delivery room. When breast feeds did not suffice infants of group A were supplemented ad libitum with a fully adapted formula (67 kcal/dl), those of group B with a 13% maltodextrine solution (52 kcal, 160 mOsm/l). Total fluid intake was similar in both groups. Group A took less supplementary feeds on day 2, the caloric uptake, however, was not different from that of group B. On day 4 group A had a somewhat higher caloric uptake due to supplementation, whereas group B needed less supplementation but had a higher intake of breast milk. On day 5 all babies were entirely breast fed. No supplementation was handed over to the mothers for at home use. The frequency of breast meals and supplementary meals was almost equal for both groups, as were sucking activity, appetite and degree of saturation. 18.6% of the infants in both groups had no need for any supplementary feeding at all. Temperature, stools, weight loss, blood glucose and bilirubin (taken on day 4 simultaneously with the Guthrie test) were almost identical. The red blood cell count showed slightly higher values in group A. Supplementation with fully adapted formula was not advantageous over supplementation with 13% maltodextrine solution. The latter was, indeed, tolerated well in all cases and satisfied all infants who remained hungry after being breast fed; additional early exposure to cow-milk protein was, thus, avoided in all these cases. PMID:3727591

  2. Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study Findings in Full-Term and Preterm Infants With Dysphagia

    OpenAIRE

    Uhm, Kyeong Eun; Yi, Sook-Hee; Chang, Hyun Jung; Cheon, Hee Jung; Kwon, Jeong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the clinical characteristics and videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) findings in infants with suspected dysphagia and compare the clinical characteristics and VFSS findings between full-term and preterm infants. Methods A total of 107 infants (67 full-term and 40 preterm) with suspected dysphagia who were referred for VFSS at a tertiary university hospital were enrolled in this retrospective study. Clinical characteristics and VFSS findings were reviewed by a phys...

  3. Prebiotics in infant formula

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota ...

  4. Taste-Mediated Calming in Premature, Preterm, and Full-Term Human Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara A.; Blass, Elliott M.

    1996-01-01

    Preterm and term infants were given a sucrose solution, a glucose solution, or water during a test period in which the amount of their crying was measured. Sucrose reduced crying in preterm and term infants by 91% and 93%, respectively, and glucose by 86% and 81%, respectively. Water was ineffective in reducing crying in both preterm and term…

  5. Hydrolyzed Formula for Every Infant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, David M; Venter, Carina; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Presently, hydrolyzed formulas (HF) are used primarily in infants that cannot be exclusively breastfed, those with cow's milk allergy and for primary prevention of allergic disease, but HFs are increasingly being used worldwide, begging the question if they may be recommended as the optimal choice for all standard-risk, full-term, non-exclusively breastfed infants. Data regarding the nutritional adequacy of modern-day HFs are scarce and lack long-term data suggesting that growth in infants fed HF versus an intact protein formula (IPF) is different. While human breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for multiple reasons, a 2006 systematic review determined there were no comparable long-term studies regarding prolonged use of HFs versus breastfeeding. Meta-analyses of formula consumption and risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) have found that infants fed partially HF compared to IPF had a lower risk of AD, but there are significant limitations to these studies, making conclusions about the general use of HFs problematic. Costs should be considered in decision-making regarding the choice of the formula, but global comparison of this is difficult given large cost differences in different countries. Despite the issues raised here, the desire to provide concrete recommendations of widespread HF use needs to be balanced carefully in order not to overstate claims of benefit. Long-term studies are needed to investigate the feasibility of HF as a routine feeding option for healthy, standard-risk infants. Because of the paucity of data, routine use of HF as an equivalent option to breastfeeding or IPF cannot be supported at present based on available scientific evidence. PMID:27336594

  6. Current thoughts on healthy term infant nutrition: the first twelve months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Karen H

    2004-01-01

    Because nutrition plays a critical role in infant growth and development, healthcare providers need current and accurate information in order to address parental concerns about infant nutrition. Although the benefits of breastfeeding are well recognized, mothers may decide not to breastfeed, and parents may have concerns about when to introduce foods other than human milk or formula. Findings from several studies indicate that parents continue to have questions related to infant feeding throughout infancy. Because nurses interact with parents during pregnancy, labor, birth, the postpartum, and routine infant care visits, nurses are a natural choice for parents to gain information about their babies. This article presents an update on select issues related to term infant nutrition, and specifically examines formula feeding, nutrient supplementation, introduction of solids, the use of juices, the vegetarian mother and infant, and infant colic. PMID:15329633

  7. Breastfeeding and Short Sleep Duration in Mothers and 6 to 11 Month Old Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Demirci, Jill Radtke; Braxter, Betty J.; Chasens, Eileen R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined breastfeeding and sleep in 77 dyads of mothers and infants 6 to 11 months old. Data revealed no significant difference in sleep patterns between breastfed and non-breastfed infants. Controlling for variables including breastfeeding status, only infant nighttime sleep duration was significant in predicting maternal short sleep duration.

  8. Active Motor Training Has Long-term Effects on Infants' Object Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesen, Sarah E; Watkins, Rachel M; Needham, Amy Work

    2016-01-01

    Long-term changes in infants' behavior as a result of active motor training were studied. Thirty-two infants completed three visits to the laboratory. At the first visit, infants were 3 months old and completed an object exploration assessment. Then the experimenter demonstrated the motor training procedures appropriate for the infant's experimental condition, and parents took home custom infant mittens (either sticky or non-sticky) and a bag of lightweight toys to practice with their infants. Over the course of the following 2 weeks, infants participated in 10 sessions of either active (sticky) or passive (non-sticky) mittens training at home with their parents. Infants who participated in active mittens training wore mittens with the palms covered in Velcro, allowing them to pick up and move around small toys. Infants who participated in passive mittens training wore non-sticky mittens, and their parents moved the toys through their visual fields on their behalf. After completing the training, infants returned to the lab for the second visit. At visit two, infants participated in another object exploration assessment as well as a reaching assessment. Parents returned the training materials to the lab at the second visit, and were told not to continue any specific training regimen from this point forward. Two months later, when infants were about 5.5 months of age, they returned to the lab for a third visit. At the third visit, infants completed the same two assessments as during the second visit. The results of this study indicate that infants who participated in active motor training engaged in more sophisticated object exploration when compared to infants who received passive training. These findings are consistent with others in the literature showing that active motor training at 3 months of age facilitates the processes of object exploration and engagement. The current results and others reveal that the effects of early experience can last long after

  9. Oxygen consumption and resting energy expenditure during phototherapy in full term and preterm newborn infants

    OpenAIRE

    Fok, T; J Gu; Lim, C; Ng, P; Wong, H.; So, K

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine the effect of phototherapy on the oxygen consumption and resting energy expenditure of term and preterm newborn infants.
METHODS—A total of 202 infants (gestation 30-42 weeks; body weight 1270-4100 g) requiring phototherapy for the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia were enrolled in a randomised crossover study. In random sequence, the oxygen consumption and resting energy expenditure were measured twice in each infant by indirect calorimetry, ...

  10. Short-Term Neonatal Outcome in Late Preterm vs. Term Infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the short-term neonatal outcomes in late preterm infants (LPIs) as compared to term infants and their association with maternal risk factors. Study Design: A case control, descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from January to December 2009. Methodology: The study included 326 late preterm babies (defined as those born between 34 to 37 weeks of gestation) and equal number of term control babies at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Data, including obstetric history, maternal complications, neonatal morbidities, etc., was retrieved from patients medical records. The data was compared with the control group for complications, fetal morbidity and maternal morbidity. Results: Late preterm infants constituted 10.6% of all deliveries and 77% of all live preterm births during the study period. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (16.5% vs. 0.3%, p < 0.001), growth retardation (24.8% vs. 4%, p < 0.001), hyperbilirubinemia requiring phototherapy (37.9% vs. 11%, p < 0.001), and sepsis (4.9% vs. 0.3%, p < 0.001) were found to be the major morbidities in the study group. The need for resuscitation was 12.7 times higher in the study group as compared to the term babies (21.4% vs. 1.2%, p < 0.001). NICU admissions in the study group were also higher (18.8% vs. 2.4%, p < 0.001). Hypertension (12.5% vs. 1.5%, p < 0.001), diabetes (12.5% vs. 9.2%, p < 0.001), antenatal history of UTI (1.5% vs. 0.3%, p < 0.001), and prolong rupture of membrane (8.9% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) were significant maternal morbidities in the late preterm group. Conclusion: The late preterm group had greater morbidity, compared to term neonates. Prior awareness of the morbidities associated with late preterm babies is helpful for the health care providers to anticipate and manage potential complications in late preterm infants. (author)

  11. Developmental outcomes of newborn encephalopathy in the term infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, N; Keogh, J M; Dixon, G; Kurinczuk, J J

    2001-06-01

    Newborn encephalopathy is a clinically defined condition of abnormal neurological behaviours in the newborn period. Though most cases have their origin in the preconceptional and antepartum period, newborn encephalopathy represents a crucial link between intrapartum events and permanent neurological problems in the child. The birth prevalence of newborn encephalopathy ranges from 1.8 to 7.7 per 1000 term live births according to the definition used and the population to which it is applied. Few studies have investigated the outcomes of newborn encephalopathy other than for cases solely attributed to intrapartum hypoxia. These adverse outcomes range from death to cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, and less severe neurological disabilities such as learning and behavioural problems. Outcomes following newborn encephalopathy may vary from country to country with 9.1% of affected babies dying in the newborn period in Western Australia and 10.1% manifesting cerebral palsy by the age of two. These compare to a case fatality of 30.5% in Kathmandu and a cerebral palsy rate of 14.5% by one year of age. The study by Robertson et al which followed children with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy found an incidence of impairment of 16% among survivors assessed at 8 years with 42% requiring school resource room help or special classes. This review emphasises the great need for comprehensive clinical and educational assessment as these infants approach school entry to enable appropriate educational provisions to be made. PMID:11450384

  12. Lung volume, breathing pattern and ventilation inhomogeneity in preterm and term infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Latzin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Morphological changes in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD have functional consequences on lung volume, ventilation inhomogeneity and respiratory mechanics. Although some studies have shown lower lung volumes and increased ventilation inhomogeneity in BPD infants, conflicting results exist possibly due to differences in sedation and measurement techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 127 infants with BPD, 58 preterm infants without BPD and 239 healthy term-born infants, at a matched post-conceptional age of 44 weeks during quiet natural sleep according to ATS/ERS standards. Lung function parameters measured were functional residual capacity (FRC and ventilation inhomogeneity by multiple breath washout as well as tidal breathing parameters. Preterm infants with BPD had only marginally lower FRC (21.4 mL/kg than preterm infants without BPD (23.4 mL/kg and term-born infants (22.6 mL/kg, though there was no trend with disease severity. They also showed higher respiratory rates and lower ratios of time to peak expiratory flow and expiratory time (t(PTEF/t(E than healthy preterm and term controls. These changes were related to disease severity. No differences were found for ventilation inhomogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that preterm infants with BPD have a high capacity to maintain functional lung volume during natural sleep. The alterations in breathing pattern with disease severity may reflect presence of adaptive mechanisms to cope with the disease process.

  13. Associations between respiratory arrhythmia and fundamental frequency of spontaneous crying in preterm and term infants at term-equivalent age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinya, Yuta; Kawai, Masahiko; Niwa, Fusako; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated whether lower vagal function in preterm infants is associated with increased fundamental frequency (F0 ; frequency of vocal fold vibration) of their spontaneous cries. We assessed respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during quiet sleep as a measure of vagal function, and its relationship with the F0 of spontaneous cries in healthy preterm and term infants at term-equivalent age. The results showed that preterm infants have significantly lower RSA, and higher overall F0 than term infants. Moreover, lower RSA was associated with higher overall F0 in preterm infants, whereas higher RSA was positively associated with mean and maximum F0 , and a larger F0 range in term infants. These results suggest that individual differences in vagal function may be associated with the F0 of spontaneous cries via modulation of vocal fold tension in infants at an early developmental stage. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58:724-733, 2016. PMID:27037599

  14. The early effects of delayed cord clamping in term infants born to Libyan mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emhamed, Musbah Omar; van Rheenen, Patrick; Brabin, Bernard J

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the haematological effects of the timing of umbilical cord clamping in term infants 24 h after birth in Libya. Mother-infant pairs were randomly assigned to early cord clamping (within 10s after delivery) or delayed clamping (after the cord stopped pulsating). Ma

  15. Early vs delayed clamping of the umbilical cord in full term, preterm and very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, N.K.; Weber, T.

    2008-01-01

    Randomized studies from 2006 and two meta-analyses published in 2007 agree that clamping of the umbilical cord can be delayed. For the preterm and very preterm infant benefits include less need for blood transfusion and less morbidity, especially for the very preterm male infant. For the term...

  16. The Effects of Surfactant on Oxygenation in Term Infants with Respiratory Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar Beken; Canan Turkyilmaz; Esin Koc; Ibrahim Hirfanoglu; Nilgun Altuntas

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of exogenous surfactant on respiratory indices in term infants with respiratory failure.Methods: Consecutive 18 mechanically ventilated term infants, who received a single dose of exogenous surfactant were retrospectively included into the study. The respiratory outcome of surfactant rescue therapy was evaluated by comparing respiratory indices before and six hours after surfactant administration.Findings: Median oxygenation i...

  17. Effects of water supplementation on physiological jaundice in breast-fed babies.

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, M.; Hall, M.; Harvey, D

    1981-01-01

    The effect of water supplementation in normal, term, breast-fed babies with physiological jaundice was studied. Water supplementation was given to 120 babies and 55 received no extra fluids. There was no significant difference between the two groups when peak serum bilirubin levels and incidence of phototherapy were compared.

  18. Differences in walking attainment ages between low-risk preterm and healthy full-term infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. Restiffe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare gross motor development of preterm infants (PT without cerebral palsy with healthy full-term (FT infants, according to Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS; to compare the age of walking between PT and FT; and whether the age of walking in PT is affected by neonatal variables. METHODS: Prospective study compared monthly 101 PT and 52 FT, from the first visit, until all AIMS items had been observed. Results: Mean scores were similarity in their progression, except from the eighth to tenth months. FT infants were faster in walking attainment than PT. Birth weight and length and duration of neonatal nursery stay were related to walking delay. CONCLUSION: Gross motor development between PT and FT were similar, except from the eighth to tenth months of age. PT walked later than FT infants and predictive variables were birth weight and length, and duration of neonatal intensive unit stay.

  19. Long-term effects of a home-visiting intervention for depressed mothers and their infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten-Alvarez, L.E.; Hosman, C.M.H.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Hoefnagels, C.C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Whereas preventive interventions for depressed mothers and their infants have yielded positive short-term outcomes, few studies have examined their long-term effectiveness. The present follow-up of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) is one of the first to examine the longer-term effect

  20. Normal Thymic Size and Low Rate of Infections in Human Donor Milk Fed HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants from Birth to 18 Months of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Hoppe, Tine Ursula;

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the immune function in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) infants fed human donor milk. Methods. Ultrasound-obtained thymic index (Ti), T-lymphocyte subsets, and the number of infections were examined from birth to 18 months of age in 18 HIV-EU infants. The infants were compared...... infants (P < 0.001). Furthermore, in the control group, the infants exclusively breastfed at 4 months of age had significantly fewer infections at 8 months when compared to age-matched formula-fed infants (P = 0.001). Conclusion. HIV-EU infants fed human donor milk have normal growth of thymus and...... to a cohort of 47 term, HIV-unexposed breastfed or formula-fed infants. Results. The thymic size at 12 months of age was not significantly different between the HIV-EU group and the control infants (P = 0.56). At 4 months of age, the HIV-EU infants had significantly fewer infections than the control...

  1. The effect of massage by mothers on growth in healthy full term infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Bal Yılmaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of massage by mothers on growth in healthy full term infants.The research sample consisted of 60 healthy full term infants assigned with randomized controlled sampling technique. The control group consisted of 30 healthy infants who were cross-matched with a massage group of infants for gender, gestational age, birth weight, birth length and date of birth. Mothers in the massage group administered 15 minutes of massage to their infants daily for 14 weeks, starting on day 15 ±2 of life. Body weight and height were measured in the two groups at birth and at the end of 4th weeks and 16th weeks corrected gestational age. The study was conducted at a public health clinic in an urban area of İzmir, Turkey between August 2003 and May 2004. Body weight and height gains in the massage group after 2 weeks and after 14 weeks of massage were higher than the control group. These differences in weight and height parameters were statistically significant. However it was determined that the male infants were the source of these differences. This therapy would appear to be an easy, effective way for parents to enhance their infants’ growth. Massage application may have a potential to improve the growth in infants.

  2. The influence of a formula supplemented with dairy lipids and plant oils on the erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid profile in healthy full-term infants: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannì Maria

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human milk is the optimal nutrition for infants. When breastfeeding is not possible, supplementation of infant formula with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids appears to promote neurodevelopmental outcome and visual function. Plant oils, that are the only source of fat in most of infant formulas, do not contain specific fatty acids that are present in human and cow milk and do not encounter milk fat triglyceride structure. Experimental data suggest that a mix of dairy lipids and plant oils can potentiate endogenous synthesis of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. This trial aims to determine the effect of an infant formula supplemented with a mixture of dairy lipids and plant oils on the erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid profile in full-term infants (primary outcome. Erythrocyte membrane long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and fatty acids content, the plasma lipid profile and the insulin-growth factor 1 level, the gastrointestinal tolerance, the changes throughout the study in blood fatty acids content, in growth and body composition are evaluated as secondary outcomes. Methods/Design In a double-blind controlled randomized trial, 75 healthy full-term infants are randomly allocated to receive for four months a formula supplemented with a mixture of dairy lipids and plant oils or a formula containing only plant oils or a formula containing plant oils supplemented with arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Twenty-five breast-fed infants constitute the reference group. Erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid profile, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and the other fatty acids content, the plasma lipid profile and the insulin-growth factor 1 level are measured after four months of intervention. Gastrointestinal tolerance, the changes in blood fatty acids content, in growth and body composition, assessed by means of an air displacement plethysmography system, are also evaluated throughout the study

  3. "The effect of fluid supplementation on serum bilirubin level during phototerapy in term infants "

    OpenAIRE

    Torkaman M; Afsharpeyman SH; Khalili Matinzadeh Z; Amirsalary S; Kavehmanesh Z; Hashemi S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Jaundice is a common and benign problem in neonatal period. Several therapeutic procedures for decreasing of serum bilirubin level has been recommended. phototherapy is most common them. Our goal Form this study is the evaluation of serum therapy effects in decreasing of serum bilirubin concentration in icteric infants that are treated with phototherapy. Methods: This is a prospective clinical trial in Najmeih Hospital in 2002. In this study 80 term icteric infants with bilirubin ...

  4. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Coret CD; Suero MB; Tierney NK

    2014-01-01

    Catherine D Coret, Michael B Suero, Neena K Tierney Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, Skillman, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods: Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30), a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30), or a lightly fragran...

  5. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, Neena

    2014-01-01

    Catherine D Coret, Michael B Suero, Neena K Tierney Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, Skillman, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods: Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30), a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30), or a lightly...

  6. Batista Procedure for a Coronary Anomaly in an Infant: Long-Term Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, María-Teresa; Cuenca-Peiró, Victorio; Castillo-Martín, Rafael; Zabala-Argüelles, Juan-Ignacio; Gil-Jaurena, Juan-Miguel

    2016-08-01

    A partial left ventriculectomy (Batista operation) is extremely unusual in infants. Follow-up data are unknown. We report the findings at long-term follow-up in an infant after the Batista procedure, following reimplantation of an anomalous coronary artery. The initial approach and options for management are discussed, along with late cardiac remodeling. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12775 (J Card Surg 2016;31:556-558). PMID:27345819

  7. Optimizing Early Protein Intake for Long-Term Health of Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Atul

    2016-01-01

    The idea that early protein intake may influence, or program, long-term health in preterm infants is strongly supported by decades of research starting from the early 1980s. At this time, it was recognized that preterm infants required a high protein intake to achieve postnatal growth closer to the intrauterine growth rate of a normal fetus of the same postconceptional age, a goal regarded optimal for short- and long-term health. Subsequently, follow-up of preterm infants randomized to different neonatal diets demonstrated that those receiving higher protein intakes that promoted growth had benefits for brain structure and function up to 16 years later, but also detrimental effects on cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance and adiposity. These effects of early growth on risk of metabolic disease, termed the 'growth acceleration' hypothesis, have been demonstrated in randomized and observational studies in infants born preterm and at term. Nevertheless, on balance, current nutrition policy for preterm infants is based on the consensus that supporting optimal neurodevelopment is the neonatologist's highest priority. Therefore, this policy appropriately favors early administration of a high protein intake to benefit neurodevelopment, irrespective of any increase in cardiovascular risk. The current review will consider the evidence underlying this policy. PMID:27336311

  8. The Effects of Surfactant on Oxygenation in Term Infants with Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Beken

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of exogenous surfactant on respiratory indices in term infants with respiratory failure.Methods: Consecutive 18 mechanically ventilated term infants, who received a single dose of exogenous surfactant were retrospectively included into the study. The respiratory outcome of surfactant rescue therapy was evaluated by comparing respiratory indices before and six hours after surfactant administration.Findings: Median oxygenation index (OI, mean alveolar pressure (MAP and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 values were significantly decreased (P<0.001; median arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 and PaO2/FiO2 values were significantly increased six hours after surfactant treatment (P<0.001.Conclusion: Rescue therapy with surfactant was found to be effective in the improvement of early respiratory indices in term infants with respiratory failure.

  9. Palatal development of preterm and low birthweight infants compared to term infants – What do we know? Part 2: The palate of the preterm/low birthweight infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehmer Ulrike

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Well-designed clinical studies on the palatal development in preterm and low birthweight infants are desirable because the literature is characterized by contradictory results. It could be shown that knowledge about 'normal' palatal development is still weak as well (Part 1. The objective of this review is therefore to contribute a fundamental analysis of methodologies, confounding factors, and outcomes of studies on palatal development in preterm and low birthweight infants. Methods An electronic literature search as well as hand searches were performed based on Cochrane search strategies including sources of more than a century in English, German, and French. Original data were recalculated from studies which primarily dealt with both preterm and term infants. The extracted data, especially those from non-English paper sources, were provided unfiltered for comparison. Results Seventy-eight out of 155 included articles were analyzed for palatal morphology of preterm infants. Intubation, feeding tubes, feeding mode, tube characteristics, restriction of oral functions, kind of diet, cranial form and birthweight were seen as causes contributing to altered palatal morphology. Changes associated with intubation concern length, depth, width, asymmetry, crossbite, and contour of the palate. The phenomenon 'grooving' has also been described as a complication associated with oral intubation. However, this phenomenon suffers from lack of a clear-cut definition. Head flattening, pressure from the oral tube, pathologic or impaired tongue function, and broadening of the alveolar ridges adjacent to the tube have been raised as causes of 'grooving'. Metrically, the palates of intubated preterm infants remain narrower, which has been examined up to the age of the late mixed dentition. Conclusion There is no evidence that would justify the exclusion of any of the raised causes contributing to palatal alteration. Thus, early orthodontic and

  10. Protective Effects of Breast Milk on Central Nervous System and the Incidence of Febrile Convulsion in Breast-Fed Children

    OpenAIRE

    A Tayarani Bathayi; KH Farivar

    1999-01-01

    It is known that central nervous system is well protected in breast-fed children, recognized in decreased incidence of multiple sclerosis, infectious and malignant diseases of the central nervous system, sudden infant death syndrome, 5th day convulsion, and botulism as well as an increase in IQ rates. In this retrospective study we have found also an indirect correlation between in incidence of febrile convulsion and length of breast-feeding. Among 270 cases of febrile convulsion 144 (53.3%) ...

  11. Development of resting cardiovascular activity during the first 2 years of life differs in breastfed and formula-fed boys and girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate whether early infant diet influences cardiovascular development we recorded resting heart-rate (HR) at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 mo in awake healthy children who were breastfed (BF) or fed milk formula (MF) or soy formula (SF) during infancy (n = 83-146/group/age). HR, and indices of autono...

  12. Icterus Neonatorum in Near-Term and Term Infants: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Rehan Ali; Shakeel Ahmed; Maqbool Qadir; Khalil Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal jaundice is the yellowish discoloration of the skin and/or sclerae of newborn infants caused by tissue deposition of bilirubin. Physiological jaundice is mild, unconjugated (indirect-reacting) bilirubinaemia, and affects nearly all newborns. Physiological jaundice levels typically peak at 5 to 6 mg/dL (86 to 103 μmol/L) at 72 to 96 hours of age, and do not exceed 17 to 18 mg/dL (291–308 μmol/L). Levels may not peak until seven days of age in Asian infants, or in infants born at 35 to...

  13. Evaluation of risk factors for development of severe hyperbilirubinemia in term and near term infants in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bulbul, Ali; Cayonu, Nihal; Sanli, Merve Emecen; Uslu, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine clinical features, etiology and risk factors in term and near term newborns with severe hyperbilirubinemia. Methods: During ten years period (2000 - 2009), infants of ≥ 35 gestational weeks who received phototherapy were evaluated retrospectively. The study population was divided into two groups and clinical features, etiology and risk factors were compared. Group 1 defined by those who had bilirubin level ≥25 mg/dl (severe hyperbilirubinemia) and group 2 defined by bi...

  14. Crescimento do perímetro cefálico nos primeiros seis meses em crianças em aleitamento materno exclusivo Crecimiento del perímetro cefálico en los primeros 6 meses en niños en lactancia materna exclusiva Head circumference growth of exclusively breastfed infants during the first six months of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça M Jaldin

    2011-12-01

    crecimiento satisfactorio del perímetro cefálico, en conformidad con el percentil 50 del estándar WHO/2006 y de la referencia NCHS/1977.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the head circumference growth of exclusively breastfed children from birth to the sixth month of life using, as references, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS/1977 as well as the World Health Organization/2006 international standard (WHO/2006. METHODS: A longitudinal research carried out at the Mother and Child University Hospital of the Federal University of Maranhão (Northeast Brazil, from October 2007 to November 2008. A non-probabilistic sample of 328 singleton full term neonates, with birthweight >2500g and <4000g was enrolled, being all neonates exclusively breastfed from birth to the sixth month of life; 181 children (95 females and 86 males completed the follow-up. The head circumference was estimated by average, standard deviation and percentiles 5, 50 and 95. Percentile results were compared taking as references the NCHS/1977 and the WHO/2006 standards. RESULTS: There was an average of 1.5cm in head circumference growth for males and 1.4cm for females per month during the first six months of life. Head circumference followed the 50th percentile of the WHO/2006 standard for both genders. Regarding the NCHS/1977 standard, males presented head circumference following the 50th percentile throughout the six months, except at birth, and females followed the 50th percentile from birth until six months of life. CONCLUSIONS: Exclusively breastfed children presented a satisfactory head circumference growth up to the sixth month of life, in accordance with the 50th percentile of WHO/2006 and NCHS/1977 standards.

  15. Estimation of tidal ventilation in preterm and term newborn infants using electromagnetic inductance plethysmography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidal volume (VT) measurements in newborn infants remain largely a research tool. Tidal ventilation and breathing pattern were measured using a new device, FloRight, which uses electromagnetic inductive plethysmography, and compared simultaneously with pneumotachography in 43 infants either receiving no respiratory support or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Twenty-three infants were receiving CPAP (gestational age 28 ± 2 weeks, mean ± SD) and 20 were breathing spontaneously (gestational age 34 ± 4 weeks). The two methods were in reasonable agreement, with VT (r2 = 0.69) ranging from 5 to 23 ml (4–11 ml kg−1) with a mean difference of 0.4 ml and limit of agreement of −4.7 to + 5.5 ml. For respiratory rate, minute ventilation, peak flow and breathing pattern indices, the mean difference between the two methods ranged between 0.7% and 5.8%. The facemask increased the respiratory rate (P < 0.001) in both groups with the change in VT being more pronounced in the infants receiving no respiratory support. Thus, FloRight provides an easy to use technique to measure term and preterm infants in the clinical environment without altering the infant's breathing pattern

  16. Effect of Formulated Nutrients on Bone Mineral Density and Immunoglobulin Level of Breast-fed Infants%配方营养素对母乳喂养婴儿骨密度和免疫球蛋白水平的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德春; 徐能潮; 王军

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨配方营养素对母乳喂养婴儿骨密度( BMD )和免疫球蛋白水平的影响。方法选取2012年1—5月在武义县妇幼保健院接生的婴儿74例,采用随机数字表法分为A (n=25)、 B (n=28)、 C (n=21)3组, A组采取组方喂养方案(即母乳喂养联合配方营养素), B组进行单纯性的母乳喂养, C组在母乳喂养的基础上补充外源性维生素D (VD);分别于出生时及6、12月龄时,检测血清1,25-二羟维生素D3〔1,25(OH)2D3〕、免疫球蛋白( IgA、 IgG、 IgM)水平及测定T细胞亚群( CD3+、 CD4+、 CD8+)比例、 BMD水平,并进行比较分析。结果 A组婴儿6、12月龄时血清1,25(OH)2D3、 IgA、 IgG、 IgM水平和CD3+、 CD4+T淋巴细胞比例及BMD水平均高于B、C组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。 C组婴儿6月龄时血清1,25(OH)2D3、 IgA、 IgG、 IgM水平及CD3+、 CD4+T淋巴细胞比例均高于B组,12月龄时仅血清1,25(OH)2D3水平高于B组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);而6、12月龄时BMD水平与B组比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论单纯性的母乳喂养婴儿表现出较低的维生素水平和BMD;补充单一的VD虽然能够提高婴儿的血清1,25(OH)2D3水平,但对免疫球蛋白和BMD的作用相对受限;而配方营养素可同时提高婴儿的免疫球蛋白和 BMD水平,具有良好的应用前景。%Objective To explore the effect of formulated nutrients on bone mineral density and immunoglobulin level of breast-fed infants.Methods We enrolled 74 newborns in Maternal and Child Care Service Centre of Wuyi County .Using random number table method, the infants were divided into three groups: group A (n=25), group B (n=28) and group C (n=21) .The group A was fed with breast milk combined with formulated nutrients , the group B was purely fed with breast milk, and group C was fed with breast milk

  17. Comparative analysis of fecal microflora of healthy full-term Indian infants born with different methods of delivery (vaginal vs cesarean): Acinetobacter sp. prevalence in vaginally born infants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prashant Kumar Pandey; Pankaj Verma; Himanshu Kumar; Ashish Bavdekar; Milind S Patole; Yogesh S Shouche

    2012-12-01

    In this study fecal microflora of human infants born through vaginal delivery (VB) and through cesarean section (CB) were investigated using culture-independent 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing approach. The results obtained clearly revealed that fecal microbiota of VB infants distinctly differ from those in their counterpart CB infants. The intestinal microbiota of infants delivered by cesarean section appears to be more diverse, in terms of bacteria species, than the microbiota of vaginally delivered infants. The most abundant bacterial species present in VB infants were Acinetobacter sp., Bifidobacterium sp. and Staphylococcus sp. However, CB infant’s fecal microbiota was dominated with Citrobacter sp., Escherichia coli and Clostridium difficile. The intestinal microbiota of cesarean section delivered infants in this study was also characterized by an absence of Bifidobacteria species. An interesting finding of our study was recovery of large number of Acinetobacter sp. consisting of Acinetobacter pittii (former Acinetobacter genomic species 3), Acinetobacter junii and Acinetobacter baumannii in the VB infants clone library. Among these, Acinetobacter baumannii is a known nosocomial pathogen and Acinetobacter pittii (genomic species 3) is recently recognized as clinically important taxa within the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus–Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) complex. Although none of the infants had shown any sign of clinical symptoms of disease, this observation warrants a closer look.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging at term and neuromotor outcome in preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkama, A.M.; Paeaekkoe, E.L.E.; Vainionpaeae, L.K.; Lanning, F.P.; Ilkko, E.A.; Koivisto, M.E

    2000-07-01

    In order to evaluate the value of neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prediction neuro motor outcome in very low birthweight (VLBW) preterm infants, 51 such infants with gestational age less than 34 wk underwent brain MRI at term age. Myelination, parenchymal lesions (haemorrhage, leukomalacia, infarction, reduction of white matter), parenchymal lesions without subependymal haemorrhage, ventricular/brain ratios and widths of the extra cerebral spaces were assessed. The MRI findings were compared with cranial ultrasound (US) performed at term. Infants' neuro motor development was followed up until 18 mo corrected age. Parenchymal lesions seen in MRI at term predicted cerebral palsy (CP) with 100 % sensitivity and 79 % specificity, the corresponding figures for US being 67 % and 85 %, respectively. Parenchymal lesions in MRI, excluding subependymal haemorrhages, predicted CP with a sensitivity of 82 % and specificity of 97 %, the corresponding figures for US being 58 % and 100 % respectively. Delayed myelination, ventricular/brain ratios and widths of the extra cerebral spaces failed to predict CP. Term age is a good time for neuroradiological examinations in prematurely born high-risk infants. Parenchymal lesions seen in MRI are reliable predictors for CP.

  19. Effect of tilting on cerebral hemodynamics in preterm and term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pichler, G; van Boetzelar, MC; Muller, W; Urlesberger, B

    2001-01-01

    Tilting is known to cause changes in hemodynamics due to hydrostatic pressure. The present study is an analysis of changes in cerebral hemodynamics measured by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) following tilting up and down in preterm and term infants. A significantly different effect of tilting up

  20. Fractured long bones in a term infant delivered by cesarian section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M.; Dollberg, M.; Wajntraub, G.; Itzchaki, M.

    1987-03-01

    A term infant was delivered uneventfully by repeat cesarian section. At the age of 1 week there was clinical and radiographic evidence of fractures of the left tibia and right radius. The fractures most likely occurred during the cesarian section. Birth trauma should not be excluded on the basis of cesarian section delivery.

  1. Long-Term Memory for Music: Infants Remember Tempo and Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J.; Wu, Luann; Tsang, Christine D.

    2004-01-01

    We show that infants' long-term memory representations for melodies are not just reduced to the structural features of relative pitches and durations, but contain surface or performance tempo- and timbre-specific information. Using a head turn preference procedure, we found that after a one week exposure to an old English folk song, infants…

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging at term and neuromotor outcome in preterm infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the value of neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prediction neuro motor outcome in very low birthweight (VLBW) preterm infants, 51 such infants with gestational age less than 34 wk underwent brain MRI at term age. Myelination, parenchymal lesions (haemorrhage, leukomalacia, infarction, reduction of white matter), parenchymal lesions without subependymal haemorrhage, ventricular/brain ratios and widths of the extra cerebral spaces were assessed. The MRI findings were compared with cranial ultrasound (US) performed at term. Infants' neuro motor development was followed up until 18 mo corrected age. Parenchymal lesions seen in MRI at term predicted cerebral palsy (CP) with 100 % sensitivity and 79 % specificity, the corresponding figures for US being 67 % and 85 %, respectively. Parenchymal lesions in MRI, excluding subependymal haemorrhages, predicted CP with a sensitivity of 82 % and specificity of 97 %, the corresponding figures for US being 58 % and 100 % respectively. Delayed myelination, ventricular/brain ratios and widths of the extra cerebral spaces failed to predict CP. Term age is a good time for neuroradiological examinations in prematurely born high-risk infants. Parenchymal lesions seen in MRI are reliable predictors for CP

  3. Cerebellar Volume and Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at Term, and Neurodevelopment at 2 Years of Age in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kooij, Britt J. M.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Anbeek, Petronella; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; de Vries, Linda S.; Groenendaal, Floris

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess the relation between cerebellar volume and spectroscopy at term equivalent age, and neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age in preterm infants. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed around term equivalent age in 112 preterm infants (mean gestational age 28wks 3d [SD 1wk 5d]; birthweight 1129g [SD 324g]).…

  4. Quality of maternal care: A comparison of preterm infants in Kangaroo mother care and full- term infants in regular care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Alicia Carbonell

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the potential impact of an intervention program (Kangaroo Mother Care, KMC on maternal sensitivity in a sample of high-risk adolescent mothers. Two mother-infant groups were compared: adolescent mothers with their preterm baby in kangaroo care and adolescent mothers with their full-term baby in regular care. Naturalistic observations at the home environment were conducted to assess maternal quality of care. No significant differences were found between both groups of dyads. Results are in line with the notion that KMC seems to play a protective role for adolescent mothers and their premature babies, given the additional risk factor of prematurity when compared to the full term group. These preliminary findings are stimulating and support further inquiry into the effects of KMC on maternal sensitivity particularly in high-risk populations.

  5. Precursors of social emotional functioning among full-term and preterm infants at 12 months: Early infant withdrawal behavior and symptoms of maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Vibeke; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Slinning, Kari; Vannebo, Unni Tranaas; Guedeney, Antoine; Heimann, Mikael; Rostad, Anne Margrethe; Smith, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This study forms part of a longitudinal investigation of early infant social withdrawal, maternal symptoms of depression and later child social emotional functioning. The sample consisted of a group of full-term infants (N=238) and their mothers, and a group of moderately premature infants (N=64) and their mothers. At 3 months, the infants were observed with the Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) and the mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). At 12 months, the mothers filled out questionnaires about the infants' social emotional functioning (Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-Social Emotional). At 3 months, as we have previously shown, the premature infants had exhibited more withdrawal behavior and their mothers reported elevated maternal depressive symptoms as compared with the full-born group. At 12 months the mothers of the premature infants reported more child internalizing behavior. These data suggest that infant withdrawal behavior as well as maternal depressive mood may serve as sensitive indices of early risk status. Further, the results suggest that early maternal depressive symptoms are a salient predictor of later child social emotional functioning. However, neither early infant withdrawal behavior, nor gestational age, did significantly predict social emotional outcome at 12 months. It should be noted that the differences in strength of the relations between ADBB and EPDS, respectively, to the outcome at 12 months was modest. An implication of the study is that clinicians should be aware of the complex interplay between early infant withdrawal and signs of maternal postpartum depression in planning ports of entry for early intervention. PMID:27429050

  6. Spontaneous Heterotopic Pregnancy with Term Delivery of a Live Infant

    OpenAIRE

    Yeral, İlkin; Şimşek, Yavuz; Seçkin, Doğa; Danişman, Nuri

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this report is to present a case of heterotopic pregnancy occurring in spontaneous cycle and ended up in term delivery. Case: A 21 year-old primigravida admitted to the emergency clinic with the complaints of amenorrhea, abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. Transvaginal ultrasound scan showed an 8 weeks old live intrauterine pregnancy and a left tubal ectopic pregnancy. Laparoscopic salpingostomy was performed for ectopic pregnancy and intrauterine pregnancy was cont...

  7. Premature infants display increased noxious-evoked neuronal activity in the brain compared to healthy age-matched term-born infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Rebeccah; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Worley, Alan; Meek, Judith; Boyd, Stewart; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2010-08-15

    This study demonstrates that infants who are born prematurely and who have experienced at least 40days of intensive or special care have increased brain neuronal responses to noxious stimuli compared to healthy newborns at the same postmenstrual age. We have measured evoked potentials generated by noxious clinically-essential heel lances in infants born at term (8 infants; born 37-40weeks) and in infants born prematurely (7 infants; born 24-32weeks) who had reached the same postmenstrual age (mean age at time of heel lance 39.2+/-1.2weeks). These noxious-evoked potentials are clearly distinguishable from shorter latency potentials evoked by non-noxious tactile sensory stimulation. While the shorter latency touch potentials are not dependent on the age of the infant at birth, the noxious-evoked potentials are significantly larger in prematurely-born infants. This enhancement is not associated with specific brain lesions but reflects a functional change in pain processing in the brain that is likely to underlie previously reported changes in pain sensitivity in older ex-preterm children. Our ability to quantify and measure experience-dependent changes in infant cortical pain processing will allow us to develop a more rational approach to pain management in neonatal intensive care. PMID:20438855

  8. Use of probiotics and prebiotics in infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Randi J; Jensen, Elizabeth T; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2016-02-01

    Gut colonization by beneficial bacteria in early life is necessary for establishing the gut mucosal barrier, maturation of the immune system and preventing infections with enteric pathogens. Mode of delivery, prematurity, breastfeeding, and use of antibiotics are some of many factors that have been described to influence early life colonization. Dysbiosis, the absence of normal colonization, is associated with many disease conditions. Pre- and probiotics are commonly used as supplementation in infant formula, such as prebiotic oligosaccharides for stimulation of Bifidobacterium growth aiming to mimic the high levels of these commensal bacteria in the gut of breastfed infants. Studies suggest that probiotic supplementation may be beneficial in prevention and management of disease (e.g., reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants and treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children). Although these studies show promising beneficial effects, the long-term risks or health benefits of pre- and probiotic supplementation are not clear. PMID:27048895

  9. Short-Term Effects of Pacifier Texture on NNS in Neurotypical Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin L. Oder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dense representation of trigeminal mechanosensitive afferents in the lip vermilion, anterior tongue, intraoral mucosa, and temporomandibular joint allows the infant’s orofacial system to encode a wide range of somatosensory experiences during the critical period associated with feed development. Our understanding of how this complex sensorium processes texture is very limited in adults, and the putative role of texture encoding in the infant is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term effects of a novel textured pacifier experience in healthy term infants (N=28. Nonnutritive suck (NNS compression pressure waveforms were digitized in real time using a variety of custom-molded textured pacifiers varying in spatial array density of touch domes. MANCOVA, adjusted for postmenstrual age at test and sex, revealed that infants exhibited an increase in NNS burst attempts at the expense of a degraded suck burst structure with the textured pacifiers, suggesting that the suck central pattern generator (sCPG is significantly disrupted and reorganized by this novel orocutaneous experience. The current findings provide new insight into oromotor control as a function of the oral somatosensory environment in neurotypically developing infants.

  10. [Somatometry in the full-term newborn infant (preliminary report)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Galván, R; Díaz Graham, C; Martí Torroella, G; Pinal, A M

    1977-01-01

    As a preliminary comunication, the authors report a somatometric study carried out in 315 full term newborns from different socioeconomic situation; 152 were born at the Hospital General, S.S.A. and 163, in a private hospital where middle and high class families are attended. The information is grouped on whether measurements are related to physical growth, th state of nutrition or to physical development. Several conditions which necessarily must be taken as independent variables in a study of this sort, such as the age of the parents, but specially of the mother, the period of gestation and of course, the socioeconomic level, were analyzed. The finding of up to 17% of case with height under 47 cm. and/or weight under 2,500 g., outstands the necessity to study the homeorrhesis phenomenon as a very important detail in this type of material. PMID:843406

  11. Posterior fossa abnormalities in high-risk term infants: comparison of ultrasound and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steggerda, S.J.; Smits-Wintjens, V.E.H.J.; Verbon, P.; Walther, F.J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Neonatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Bruine, F.T. de [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Wezel-Meijler, G. van [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Isala Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2015-09-15

    We aimed to assess the characteristics of posterior fossa (PF) abnormalities in a cohort of high-risk term neonates, as well as the diagnostic performance of cranial ultrasound (CUS) with additional mastoid fontanelle (MF) views for the detection of these abnormalities, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) being the reference standard. In this retrospective study, 113 term neonates with CUS and subsequent MRI were included. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of routine CUS and CUS with MF views were calculated. Posterior fossa abnormalities were diagnosed on CUS in 46 of 113 infants. MRI confirmed these findings in 43 and showed additional abnormalities in 32 infants. The sensitivity and specificity of anterior fontanelle views for major PF abnormalities as seen on MRI were 16 % and 99 %. Adding MF views increased the sensitivity of US to 82 %. The sensitivity and specificity of MF views for the detection of any (major or minor) PF abnormality were 57 % and 95 %. Especially acute hypoxic-ischemic injury and small subdural and punctate cerebellar haemorrhage remained undetected by CUS. PF abnormalities are frequent in high-risk term infants. MF-CUS enables early diagnosis of major PF abnormalities. We therefore advocate to perform MF-CUS in high-risk term neonates. (orig.)

  12. Parental perceptions and experiences after childbirth: a Comparison between mothers and fathers of term and preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tooten, A.; Hoffenkamp, H.R.; Hall, R.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.; Bakel, van H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Parents experience a lot of positive and negative feelings and emotions after birth. The main purpose of this study was to compare perceptions and experiences of mothers and fathers with term, moderately and very preterm infants. Methods We included 202 infants with both parents, divided

  13. Very Pre-Term Infants' Behaviour at 1 and 2 Years of Age and Parental Stress Following Basic

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pal, Sylvia M.; Maguire, Celeste M.; Bruil, Jeanet; le Cessie, Saskia; van Zwieten, Paul; Veen, Sylvia; Wit, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the effects of basic developmental care on the behaviour of very pre-term infants and parental stress at 1 and 2 years of corrected age. A randomized controlled trial was done to compare basic Developmental Care (standardized nests and incubator covers) and controls (standard care). Parents of infants born less than 32 weeks of…

  14. Short-, Medium-, and Long-Term Consequences of Poor Infant Health: An Analysis Using Siblings and Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, Philip; Stabile, Mark; Walld, Randy; Roos, Leslie L.

    2008-01-01

    We use administrative data on a sample of births between 1978 and 1985 to investigate the short-, medium-, and long-term consequences of poor infant health. Our findings offer several advances to the existing literature on the effects of early infant health on subsequent health, education, and labor force attachment. First, we use a large sample…

  15. Anxiety, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Social Supports Among Parents of Premature and Full-Term Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Maryam; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Shams, Jamal; Alavi-Majd, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Premature birth is one of the most important unresolved reproductive health problems. Premature birth is often traumatic and a source of distress for parents. Increased parental stress during the first year of their infant's life is a risk factor for later behavioral problems in infants. Objectives: This study was designed to compare anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and social supports in parents of premature and mature infants. Patients and Methods: This was a comparative descriptive study conducted at healthcare centers of Qom city, in 2012. In this study, 82 couples (164 parents) divided into two groups including parents who have preterm and term infants. Questionnaires including items such as demographic characteristics, obstetric and post-traumatic stress disorders, Spielberger anxiety and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were completed two months after childbirth. Data were analyzed using χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, Mann-Whitney test, independent t-test, and regression logistic using SPSS18 software. Results: The levels of anxiety was not significantly different in mothers and fathers in the two groups, but the trait anxiety level of mothers (P < 0.001) and fathers who had preterm infants (P = 0.01) was significantly greater than the parents of full-term infants. Post-traumatic stress disorder was significantly greater in mothers of preterm infants than those of term infants (P = 0.03), but this amount was not significantly different between the two groups of fathers. Mothers' social support did not differ significantly (P = 0.08), however, it was significantly different in fathers (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Premature infants' parents are more at risk of mental disorders than term infants' parents. This result shows the need of interventions, so these parents can better deal with the problems of premature infants. PMID:24829766

  16. Inadvertent Intramuscular Administration of High Dose Bacillus Calmette Guerin Vaccine in a Pre-term Infant

    OpenAIRE

    Banu, Asima; Loganathan, Eswari

    2013-01-01

    This case report examined the natural course of reaction after accidental intramuscular administration of high dose Bacille Calmette-Guιrin (BCG) vaccine into the anterolateral aspect of thigh of a pre-term infant as a part of routine vaccination instead of intra-dermal injection into the arm. There is no consensus on the best management of this complication, although in this case healing was prolonged but was spontaneous without anti-tubercular chemotherapy.

  17. High-density diffuse optical tomography of term infant visual cortex in the nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Steve M.; Ferradal, Silvina L.; White, Brian R.; Gregg, Nicholas; Inder, Terrie E.; Culver, Joseph P.

    2012-08-01

    Advancements in antenatal and neonatal medicine over the last few decades have led to significant improvement in the survival rates of sick newborn infants. However, this improvement in survival has not been matched by a reduction in neurodevelopmental morbidities with increasing recognition of the diverse cognitive and behavioral challenges that preterm infants face in childhood. Conventional neuroimaging modalities, such as cranial ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, provide an important definition of neuroanatomy with recognition of brain injury. However, they fail to define the functional integrity of the immature brain, particularly during this critical developmental period. Diffuse optical tomography methods have established success in imaging adult brain function; however, few studies exist to demonstrate their feasibility in the neonatal population. We demonstrate the feasibility of using recently developed high-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT) to map functional activation of the visual cortex in healthy term-born infants. The functional images show high contrast-to-noise ratio obtained in seven neonates. These results illustrate the potential for HD-DOT and provide a foundation for investigations of brain function in more vulnerable newborns, such as preterm infants.

  18. Long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants born late preterm: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi T

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tanya Tripathi,1 Stacey C Dusing2,3 1Rehabilitation and Movement Science Program, Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Physical Therapy, 3Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Richmond, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Purpose: Late preterm (LPT births constitute a large proportion of the preterm births in the USA. Over the last few decades, there has been an increase in research focusing on the neurodevelopment of infants born LPT. The purpose of this research was to systematically review the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in LPT infants. Materials and methods: We identified studies by using PubMed, ERIC, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases. The references of included papers were reviewed for additional papers that met the inclusion criteria. Included papers compared motor, cognitive, language development, or academic performance outcomes between individuals born LPT and a term control group assessed between 12 months and 18 years of age. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standards for systematic reviews were utilized including a two-step, two-investigator review process. Results: Of the 4,720 studies found in the initial search, 20 studies met the inclusion criteria. Approximately 75% of the 16 studies that assessed cognitive outcomes reported cognitive delay in the LPT group when compared to their full-term counterparts. More than 50% of the seven studies that assessed motor outcomes suggested a delay in motor development in the LPT group in comparison to full-term. Fewer papers assessed academic performance and language in children born LPT; however, the majority identified borderline differences when LPT infants were compared to those born full-term. Conclusion: Evidence suggests that infants born LPT are at an increased risk of neurodevelopmental delay between 1 and 18 years of life when compared to those born at term. The delay is most evident in the cognitive

  19. Neonatal Pain in Very Preterm Infants: Long-Term Effects on Brain, Neurodevelopment and Pain Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Eckstein Grunau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of early life psychosocial adversity have received a great deal of attention, such as maternal separation in experimental animal models and abuse/neglect in young humans. More recently, long-term effects of the physical stress of repetitive procedural pain have begun to be addressed in infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care. Preterm infants are more sensitive to pain and stress, which cannot be distinguished in neonates. The focus of this review is clinical studies of long-term effects of repeated procedural pain-related stress in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU in relation to brain development, neurodevelopment, programming of stress systems, and later pain sensitivity in infants born very preterm (24–32 weeks’ gestational age. Neonatal pain exposure has been quantified as the number of invasive and/or skin-breaking procedures during hospitalization in the NICU. Emerging studies provide convincing clinical evidence for an adverse impact of neonatal pain/stress in infants at a time of physiological immaturity, rapidly developing brain microstructure and networks, as well as programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Currently it appears that early pain/stress may influence the developing brain and thereby neurodevelopment and stress-sensitive behaviors, particularly in the most immature neonates. However, there is no evidence for greater prevalence of pain syndromes compared to children and adults born healthy at full term. In addressing associations between pain/stress and outcomes, careful consideration of confounding clinical factors related to prematurity is essential. The need for pain management for humanitarian care is widely advocated. Non-pharmacological interventions to help parents reduce their infant’s stress may be brain-protective.

  20. Delayed cord clamping for prevention of iron deficiency anemia in term infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rasiyanti Siregar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Iron deficiency anemia (IDA during infancy and childhood is a concern due to its potentially detrimental effects on development, some of which may be irreversible even after iron treatment. Delayed cord clamping may prevent IDA by increasing an infant’s iron reserve at birth. Objective We aimed to evaluate the effect of delayed umbilical cord clamping at birth on the iron status in newborns at age 24 hours of life. Methods This randomized, single-blind study was conducted from March to May 2009, at two general hospitals in Medan, North Sumatera Province. Eligible newborn infants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: early cord clamping (ECC performed 15 seconds after delivery or delayed cord clamping (DCC performed 2 minutes after delivery. Infants were placed on their mothers’ abdomens before the umbilical cords were clamped. Hematologic status was determined from umbilical cord blood. Results Sixty-three subjects were included in our study, consisting of 31 infants in the ECC group and 32 infants in the DCC group. We found that mean neonatal hemoglobin level was higher in the DCC group than in the ECC group (18.4 g% and 16.2 g%, respectively, P=0.0001. Also, mean ferritin level was higher in the DCC group than in the ECC group (556 mg/dL and 329 mg/dL, respectively, P=0.015. Other hematological status indicators, including mean hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume (MCV level, were also higher in the DCC group. However, mean red blood cell levels were not significantly different between the two groups. Nor was there a significant difference in mean bilirubin level between the DCC and ECC groups. Conclusion Delayed cord clamping may improve iron status and prevent IDA in term infants.

  1. Metabolic fate of milk glycosaminoglycans in breastfed and formula fed newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Francesca; Mantovani, Veronica; Gabrielli, Orazio; Carlucci, Antonio; Zampini, Lucia; Galeazzi, Tiziana; Galeotti, Fabio; Coppa, Giovanni V; Volpi, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the content, structure and residual percentages of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the feces of seven breastfed newborns after ingesting a known amount of milk were studied. A comparison was made with five newborns fed with formula milk. Characterization of GAGs from milk and feces samples was performed according to previous methodology. Compared to the ingested GAGs present in milk, residual feces GAGs of breastfed newborns were 99 % of human milk GAGs are utilized as opposed to ~96 % of formula milk. Hyaluronic acid utilization was found to be fairly similar contrary to chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate, which were found to be ~10-18 times lower in formula milk fed children. Our new results further demonstrate that the elevated content of human milk GAGs passes undigested through the entire digestive system of newborns, possibly protecting the infant from infections. In the distal gastrointestinal tract, these complex macromolecules are catabolized by a cohort of bacterial enzymes and constituent monosaccharides/oligosaccharides utilized for further metabolic purposes potentially useful for bacteria metabolism or internalized by intestinal cells. Thanks to their elevated structural heterogeneity, milk GAGs are used differently depending on their distinct primary structure. Finally, a different utilization and availability was observed for human milk GAGs compared to formula milk due to their various composition and structural heterogeneity. PMID:26873820

  2. The effect of airway pressure and oscillation amplitude on ventilation in pre-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedema, Martijn; de Jongh, Frans H; Frerichs, Inez; van Veenendaal, Mariette B; van Kaam, Anton H

    2012-08-01

    We determined the effect of lung recruitment and oscillation amplitude on regional oscillation volume and functional residual capacity (FRC) in high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) used in pre-term infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Changes in lung volume, oscillation volume and carbon dioxide levels were recorded in 10 infants during a stepwise recruitment procedure, and an increase in pressure amplitude of 5 cmH(2)O was measured using electrical impedance tomography and transcutaneous monitoring. The pressures at maximal respiratory system compliance, maximal oscillation volume and minimal carbon dioxide levels were determined. Impedance data were analysed for the chest cross-section and predefined regions of interest. Despite the fixed pressure amplitude, the oscillation volume changed during the incremental pressure steps following a parabolic pattern, with an inverse relationship to the carbon dioxide pressures. The pressures corresponding with maximal compliance, maximal oscillation volume and minimal carbon dioxide were similar and highly correlated. Regional analysis showed similar findings. The increase in pressure amplitude resulted in increased oscillation volumes and decreased carbon dioxide levels, while FRC remained unchanged. In HFV pre-term infants with RDS, oscillation volumes are closely related to the position of ventilation in the pressure-volume envelope and the applied pressure amplitude. Changes in pressure amplitude do not seem to affect FRC. PMID:22362852

  3. Formula-fed full term infants have lower fractional but greater total calcium absorption than human milk-fed infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The fatty acid (FA) profile of infant formula resembles the FA profile of human milk (HM), but the % of palmitic acid in the sn-2 or beta position of the triglyceride in infant formula is lower than that of HM, and this may limit calcium (Ca) absorption. This is important to consider in ...

  4. Ophthalmological long term follow up of preterm infants: a population based, prospective study of the refraction and its development

    OpenAIRE

    Holmstrom, G; el Azazi, M; Kugelberg, U

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Numerous studies have reported an increased risk of refractive errors in prematurely born infants, but only few have been long term and strictly population based.
METHODS—A 3.5 year ophthalmological long term follow up of 248 preterm infants was performed. The infants had been included in a previous epidemiological study of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (birth weight ⩽ 1500 grams). The incidence of refractive errors and development of refraction were studied, based on retinoscop...

  5. Body Composition Is Normal in Term Infants Born to Mothers With Well-Controlled Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Au, Cheryl P.; Raynes-Greenow, Camille H; Turner, Robin M; Carberry, Angela E.; Jeffery, Heather E

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study aims to describe body composition in term infants of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared with infants of mothers with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This cross-sectional study included 599 term babies born at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Neonatal body fat percentage (BF%) was measured within 48 h of birth using air-displacement plethysmography. Glycemic control data were based on third-trimester HbA1c ...

  6. Radiologic differences in white matter maturation between preterm and full-term infants: TBSS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widespread white matter (WM) pathology in preterm children has been proposed. The purpose of this study was to investigate maturational differences of WM between preterm infants with thinning of the corpus callosum and full-term infants. A total of 18 preterm children and 18 full-term children were divided into three subgroups according to the corrected age at the time of diffusion tensor imaging scanning. Tract-based spatial statistics was used for assessing differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) between preterm and full-term children, and between each age-related subgroup in preterm and in full-term children. In the preterm group, FA values of overall WM showed an increase with age. This trend indicates that WM maturation is a gradual occurrence during a child's first 2 years. In the full-term group, most WM structures had reached maturation at around 1 year of age; however, centrum semiovale level showed sustained maturation during the first 2 years. Results of our study demonstrate radiologic maturational differences of WM and provide evidence of the need for therapeutic intervention within 2 years of birth to prevent specific functional impairment and to improve clinical outcome in preterm children. (orig.)

  7. Radiologic differences in white matter maturation between preterm and full-term infants: TBSS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ah Young; Jang, Sung Ho; Ahn, Sang Ho; Cho, Hee Kyung; Jo, Hae Min; Son, Su Min [Yeungnam University, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eunsil [Yeungnam University, Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Widespread white matter (WM) pathology in preterm children has been proposed. The purpose of this study was to investigate maturational differences of WM between preterm infants with thinning of the corpus callosum and full-term infants. A total of 18 preterm children and 18 full-term children were divided into three subgroups according to the corrected age at the time of diffusion tensor imaging scanning. Tract-based spatial statistics was used for assessing differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) between preterm and full-term children, and between each age-related subgroup in preterm and in full-term children. In the preterm group, FA values of overall WM showed an increase with age. This trend indicates that WM maturation is a gradual occurrence during a child's first 2 years. In the full-term group, most WM structures had reached maturation at around 1 year of age; however, centrum semiovale level showed sustained maturation during the first 2 years. Results of our study demonstrate radiologic maturational differences of WM and provide evidence of the need for therapeutic intervention within 2 years of birth to prevent specific functional impairment and to improve clinical outcome in preterm children. (orig.)

  8. Bioactive Proteins in Human Milk: Health, Nutrition, and Implications for Infant Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Breast milk confers many benefits to the newborn and developing infant. There is substantial support for better long-term outcomes, such as less obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, in breastfed compared with formula-fed infants. More short-term outcomes, such as incidence and duration of illness, nutrient status, and cognitive development during the first year of life also demonstrate benefits of breastfeeding. Several proteins in breast milk, including lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, milk fat globule membrane proteins, and osteopontin, have been shown to have bioactivities that range from involvement in the protection against infection to the acquisition of nutrients from breast milk. In some cases, bovine counterparts of these proteins exert similar bioactivities. It is possible by dairy technology to add protein fractions highly enriched in these proteins to infant formula. PMID:27234410

  9. Radionuclide scintigraphy in the evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux in symptomatic and asymptomatic pre-term infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is very common in pre-term infants. The diagnosis based on symptoms is always questionable. The incidence of GER in symptomatic babies varies from 22% to 85%, but literature regarding the incidence of reflux in asymptomatic pre-term infants is lacking. We used radionuclide scintigraphy to evaluate the incidence of GER in symptomatic as well as asymptomatic pre-term neonates and to assess whether symptoms have any relation with positive scintigraphy. We studied 106 pre-term infants (52 symptomatic, 54 asymptomatic) of less than 34 weeks of gestation, who fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Babies were considered symptomatic in the presence of vomiting, regurgitation, apnea, de-saturations, unexplained bradycardia and recurrent lung collapses. Radionuclide scintigraphy was conducted at post-conceptional age of 32-34 weeks when they were clinically stable for 72 h. Feeding was avoided for 2 h preceding the study. 99mTc sulphur colloid was administered in a dose of 1.85 MBq (0.05 mCi) in 1 ml, followed by milk (full feed) through an orogastric tube, prior to imaging under a gamma camera. Reflux was graded as low or high, and reflux episodes during the study were counted. The incidence of GER in the symptomatic group was 71.2% and in asymptomatic babies 61.1% (p=0.275). High-grade reflux was more common (71.4%) than low-grade (28.6%) in both groups (p=0.449). Mean number of reflux episodes in 20 min was 4.4±2.4 in symptomatic babies and 4.9 ±2.2 in asymptomatic babies (p=0.321). Babies with positive scintigraphy were similar in birth weight, gestation, time to achieve full feeds, weight and age at discharge to those with negative scintigraphy. GER is common in pre-term infants of less than 34 weeks gestation. The incidence of positive scintigraphy and grade of reflux is not significantly different in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic babies. Though radionuclide scintigraphy is a simple, quick and non-invasive investigation in suspected cases

  10. Radionuclide scintigraphy in the evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux in symptomatic and asymptomatic pre-term infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morigeri, C.; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Narang, A. [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Chandigarh (India); Bhattacharya, A.; Mittal, B.R. [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chandigarh (India)

    2008-09-15

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is very common in pre-term infants. The diagnosis based on symptoms is always questionable. The incidence of GER in symptomatic babies varies from 22% to 85%, but literature regarding the incidence of reflux in asymptomatic pre-term infants is lacking. We used radionuclide scintigraphy to evaluate the incidence of GER in symptomatic as well as asymptomatic pre-term neonates and to assess whether symptoms have any relation with positive scintigraphy. We studied 106 pre-term infants (52 symptomatic, 54 asymptomatic) of less than 34 weeks of gestation, who fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Babies were considered symptomatic in the presence of vomiting, regurgitation, apnea, de-saturations, unexplained bradycardia and recurrent lung collapses. Radionuclide scintigraphy was conducted at post-conceptional age of 32-34 weeks when they were clinically stable for 72 h. Feeding was avoided for 2 h preceding the study. {sup 99m}Tc sulphur colloid was administered in a dose of 1.85 MBq (0.05 mCi) in 1 ml, followed by milk (full feed) through an orogastric tube, prior to imaging under a gamma camera. Reflux was graded as low or high, and reflux episodes during the study were counted. The incidence of GER in the symptomatic group was 71.2% and in asymptomatic babies 61.1% (p=0.275). High-grade reflux was more common (71.4%) than low-grade (28.6%) in both groups (p=0.449). Mean number of reflux episodes in 20 min was 4.4{+-}2.4 in symptomatic babies and 4.9 {+-}2.2 in asymptomatic babies (p=0.321). Babies with positive scintigraphy were similar in birth weight, gestation, time to achieve full feeds, weight and age at discharge to those with negative scintigraphy. GER is common in pre-term infants of less than 34 weeks gestation. The incidence of positive scintigraphy and grade of reflux is not significantly different in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic babies. Though radionuclide scintigraphy is a simple, quick and non-invasive investigation in

  11. LONG TERM NEURODEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME IN A COHORT OF PRETERM INFANTS BORN AT GESTATIONAL AGE <32 WEEKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Gatti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in perinatal care have led to an increase in survival of preterm children but have also increased the risk of long-term sequelae, like neurodevelopmental impairment and behavioral or emotional disturbance. To investigate neurodevelopmental patterns of preterm infants born at S. Maria alle Scotte Hospital, Siena, Italy. 128 babies with gestational age (GA ≤32 weeks were admitted in 2006-2008 to Siena Hospital; 105 infants survived and were followed until three years of age, corrected for prematurity. Neurodevelopmental follow up was performed using Bayley scale of Infant and Toddler Development IIIed that consisted of five scales: Cognitive (CS, Language (LS, Motor (MS, Social-Emotional (SES and Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS. Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH was associated with lower motor score (P<0,001. Babies with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP showed a lower score in CS, LS, MS and SES Bayley’s items (respectively p≤0,01; p≤0,05; p≤0,01; p≤0,05. Multiple regression analysis indicated as predictors of neurological outcome: gestational age (GA for poor cognitive (p=0,016, language (p=0,004 and social-emotional development (p<0,0001, IVH for poor motor (p<0,0001 and adaptive behavior development (p<0,0001, twinship for better language (p=0,001 and social-emotional development (p=0,003. Bronchopulmoanry dyspasia (BPD and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA had a negative effect on respectively cognitive development (p=0,049 and social-emotional development (p=0,023. ROP, BPD, IVH, PDA, and GA significantly contributes to poor neurological outcome in preterm infants. BPD and IVH are the best predictors being associated with the lowest scores at Bayley scales. Surprisingly, twinship appeared to be a protective factor.

  12. 76 FR 59885 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Implementation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... donations, Grant programs--Social programs, Indians, Nutrition education, Public assistance programs, WIC... breastfeeding promotion and support, consistent with the State agency's nutrition education component of Program... breastfed infants; sharing nutrition education materials with institutions participating in the......

  13. Cranial ultrasound abnormalities in full term infants in a postnatal ward: outcome at 12 and 18 months

    OpenAIRE

    Haataja, L; Mercuri, E.; Cowan, F; Dubowitz, L

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate whether cranial ultrasound abnormalities found in low risk full term infants had any influence on neurodevelopmental outcome.
METHODS—For 103 infants who had a neurological assessment, a cranial ultrasound examination, and for whom antenatal and perinatal data were collected within 48 hours of delivery, neurodevelopmental status was evaluated at 12 and 18 months. The results of a scored neurological examination and the Griffiths mental developmental ...

  14. Urinary tract infection in full-term newborn infants: risk factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcão Mário Cícero

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlation of risk factors to the occurrence of urinary tract infection in full-term newborn infants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study (1997 including full-term infants having a positive urine culture by bag specimen. Urine collection was based on: fever, weight loss > 10% of birth weight, nonspecific symptoms (feeding intolerance, failure to thrive, hypoactivity, debilitate suction, irritability, or renal and urinary tract malformations. In these cases, another urine culture by suprapubic bladder aspiration was collected to confirm the diagnosis. To compare and validate the risk factors in each group, the selected cases were divided into two groups: Group I - positive urine culture by bag specimen collection and negative urine culture by suprapubic aspiration, and Group II - positive urine culture by bag specimen collection and positive urine culture by suprapubic aspiration . RESULTS: Sixty one infants were studied, Group I, n = 42 (68.9% and Group II, n = 19 (31.1%. The selected risk factors (associated infectious diseases, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, renal and urinary tract malformations, mechanical ventilation, parenteral nutrition and intravascular catheter were more frequent in Group II (p<0.05. Through relative risk analysis, risk factors were, in decreasing importance: parenteral nutrition, intravascular catheter, associated infectious diseases, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, mechanical ventilation, and renal and urinary tract malformations. CONCLUSION: The results showed that parenteral nutrition, intravascular catheter, and associated infectious diseases contributed to increase the frequency of neonatal urinary tract infection, and in the presence of more than one risk factor, the occurrence of urinary tract infection rose up to 11 times.

  15. Supplementation of milk formula with galacto-oligosaccharides improves intestinal micro-flora and fermentation in term infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BEN Xiao-ming 贲晓明; ZHOU Xiao-yu 周晓玉; ZHAO Wei-hua 赵卫华; YU Wen-liang 喻文亮; PAN Wei 潘伟; ZHANG Wei-li 张伟利; WU Sheng-mei 吴圣楣; Christien M.Van Beusekom; Anne Schaafsma

    2004-01-01

    Background Oligosaccharides in human milk may protect infants by improving the intestinal micro-flora and fermentation. This study was to investigate effects of infant formula milk consisting of galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) on intestinal microbial populations and the fermentation characteristics in term infants in comparison with that of human milk. Methods The test formula (Frisolac H, Friesland, Netherland) was supplemented with GOS at a concentration of 0.24 g/dl. Human milk and another formula without oligosaccharides (Frisolac H, Friesland, Netherland) were used as positive and negative control respectively. Growth, stool characteristics, and side effects of the recruited infants were recorded after 3 and 6 months' follow-up, and the fecal species were collected for the analysis of intestinal micro-flora, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and pH.Results At the end of 3- and 6-month feeding period, intestinal Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli were significantly increased in infants fed with GOS supplemented formula and human milk when compared with infants fed with negative control formula; however, there was no statistically significant difference between GOS supplemented formula and human milk groups. Stool characteristics were influenced by the supplement and main fecal SCFA (acetic), and stool frequency were significantly increased in infants fed with GOS supplemented formula and human milk, while the fecal pH was significantly decreased as compared with that of negative control (P<0.05). Supplementation had no influence on incidence of side effects (including crying, regurgitation and vomiting). Conclusions Supplementing infant formula with GOS at a concentration of 0.24 g/dl stimulates the growth of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli in the intestine and stool characteristics are similar to in term infants fed with human milk.

  16. Cranial computed tomography and real-time sonography in full-term neonates and infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of cranial ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were compared in 52 full-term neonates and young infants. The chief indications for examination included: increasing head size, dysmorphic features, myelomeningocele, inflammatory disease, and asphyxia. Disorders detected included hydrocephalus, parenchymal abnormalities, intracranial hemorrhage, extraparenchymal fluid collections, and vascular and other developmental malformations. CT and US essentially were equivalent in detecting hydrocephalus, moderate to large intraventricular hemorrhages or subdural collections, and large focal parenchymal lesions, although CT was somewhat better in determining the level and cause of obstruction in patients with hydrocephalus and characterizing parenchymal abnormalities. CT was more sensitive than ultrasound in detecting subarachnoid hemorrhage (100% vs. 0%), diffuse parenchymal abnormality (100% vs. 33%), and small intraventricular hemorrhages (100% vs. 0%) but these lesions often were not clinically significant. The results suggest that US should be used as the primary neuroradiological examination in term infants; CT probably should be reserved for further investigation after US in those patients with a history of hypoxia and progressive clinical deterioration

  17. Infants with complex congenital heart diseases show poor short-term memory in the mobile paradigm at 3 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Harrison, Tondi; Heathcock, Jill

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine learning, short-term memory and general development including cognitive, motor, and language domains in infants with Complex Congenital Heart Defects (CCDH). Ten infants with CCHD (4 males, 6 females) and 14 infants with typical development (TD) were examined at 3 months of age. The mobile paradigm, where an infant's leg is tethered to an overhead mobile, was used to evaluate learning and short-term memory. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development 3rd edition (Bayley-III) was used to evaluate general development in cognitive, motor, and language domains. Infants with CCHD and infants with TD both showed learning with significant increase in kicking rate (pshort-term memory (p=0.017) in the mobile paradigm. There were no differences on cognitive, motor, and language development between infants with CCHD and infants with TD on the Bayley-III. Early assessment is necessary to guide targeted treatment in infants with CCHD. One-time assessment may fail to detect potential cognitive impairments during early infancy in infants with CCHD. Supportive intervention programs for infants with CCHD that focuses on enhancing short-term memory are recommended. PMID:25919428

  18. Gaze Behaviors of Preterm and Full-Term Infants in Nonsocial and Social Contexts of Increasing Dynamics: Visual Recognition, Attention Regulation, and Gaze Synchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Hagar; Gordon, Ilanit; Geva, Ronny; Feldman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Although research has demonstrated poor visual skills in premature infants, few studies assessed infants' gaze behaviors across several domains of functioning in a single study. Thirty premature and 30 full-term 3-month-old infants were tested in three social and nonsocial tasks of increasing complexity and their gaze behavior was micro-coded. In…

  19. The Relationship Between Thyroxine Level and Short Term Clinical Outcome Among Sick Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Kadivar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature and critically sick infants frequently experience several interventions, including blood transfusions, parentral nutrition, and prescriptions during hospitalization that could affect the result of thyroid function test. This study aims to investigate the correlation between thyroxine level and clinical short term outcome among the newborn infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. We assessed serum levels of thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone of 99 neonates who were admitted in the NICU from September 1st 2004 to March 30th 2005. Number of patients with low thyroxin level (less than 6.5 µg/dl was determined and the relation between serum total thyroxine level and birth weight, gestational age, duration of hospitalization, clinical diagnosis, and final outcome was investigated. Short term outcome was considered as duration of hospitalization and discharge alive from hospital. Prevalence of hypothyroxinemia was 26 percent. Later assessment of thyroxine level within 3 weeks revealed normal level of this parameter (8.12 µg/dl ±1.36. Patients with lower gestational age and lower birth weight had lower thyroxine level (7.15 µg/dl ±2.56, and P=0.03, 6.72 µg/dl ±3.03, and P=0.08. Low thyroxine level was not associated with adverse short-term clinical outcome (mortality rates; 3(11% and 9(12%, and duration of hospitalization among 17.7±9.8 vs 16.7± 13.0 in patients with hypothyroxinemia and low thyroxine level respectively. Hypothyroxinemia has considerable prevalence in neonatal intensive care setting and is related with lower birth weight and gestational age. Whether thyroxin levels are a marker or mediator of short term clinical outcome remains to be determined by further studies.

  20. Low-fat, high calorie parenteral nutrition (PN), reverses liver affection in long term PN dependent infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte; Hørby Jørgensen, Marianne; Husby, Steffen;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) is a complication of long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). Removal of lipids may reverse PNAC but compromises the energy to ensure infant growth. The purpose of this study was to test whether a low-fat, high-carbohydrate PN regimen......, which prevents and reverses PNAC in adults, could do the same in infants. This regimen could potentially avoid the problem of diminished energy input after removing nutritional lipids. METHODS: Infants developing PNAC over a 2-year period were started on a low-fat PN regimen with calories primarily from......-fat, high-carbohydrate PN regimen together with enteral feeding is well tolerated and may be used in reversing liver disease in PN-dependent infants without compromising growth....

  1. Mechanisms of gastro-oesophageal reflux in preterm and term infants with reflux disease

    OpenAIRE

    Omari, T.I.; Barnett, C P; Benninga, M A; Lontis, R.; Goodchild, L.; Haslam, R.R.; Dent, J; Davidson, G P

    2002-01-01

    Background: Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation (TLOSR) is the predominant mechanism of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in healthy infants but the mechanisms of GOR in infants with GOR disease (GORD) are poorly understood.

  2. "The effect of fluid supplementation on serum bilirubin level during phototerapy in term infants "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torkaman M

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Jaundice is a common and benign problem in neonatal period. Several therapeutic procedures for decreasing of serum bilirubin level has been recommended. phototherapy is most common them. Our goal Form this study is the evaluation of serum therapy effects in decreasing of serum bilirubin concentration in icteric infants that are treated with phototherapy. Methods: This is a prospective clinical trial in Najmeih Hospital in 2002. In this study 80 term icteric infants with bilirubin level greater than 17 mg/dl were randomized in two groups, both groups underwent phototherapy and in the case group intravenous fluid supplementation was added. There were no significant differences in the mean gestational age, birth weight, hemoglobin, and also in total serum bilirubin level at admission in the two groups. Results: There were no significant differences in the mean rate of of serum bilirubin level decline during first 24 and 48 hours of hospitalization and also the time of bilirubin decreasing to less than 15 mg/dl and the length of hospitalization in two groups. Conclution: Our study showed intravenous fluid supplementation could be limited to special cases of neonatal icter such as moderate to severe dehydration.

  3. Effects of dietary nucleotides on the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane lipids in term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucchi, C; Pita, M L; Faus, M J; Molina, J A; Uauy, R; Gil, A

    1987-01-01

    Human milk contains relatively high amounts of acid-soluble nucleotides, mainly CMP, AMP, UMP, IMP, and UDP sugars, and lacks orotate. On the contrary, cow's milk and adapted formulas contain high amounts of orotate and very low amounts of CMP and AMP. Nucleotides may be modulators of metabolic functions in gut and liver. To evaluate the possible role of dietary nucleotides in newborn fatty acid metabolism, we studied the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids in 58 term infants at 30 days of age. Twenty of them were fed human milk (HM), 19 an adapted formula (MF), and 19 with the same formula supplemented with nucleotides (NMF) in an amount similar to that present in HM. Relative content of omega 6 and 3 PUFA greater than 18 carbon atoms was significantly reduced especially in phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine for infants fed regular MF compared with those fed HM or NMF. Unsaturation index of red blood cell phospholipids showed a similar effect. These results suggest that dietary nucleotides play a role in the in vivo desaturation and elongation of essential fatty acids to long chain PUFA during early life for the human newborn. PMID:3430266

  4. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coret CD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Catherine D Coret, Michael B Suero, Neena K Tierney Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, Skillman, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods: Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30, a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30, or a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=32 were assessed over 2 weeks. In study 2, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash and a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=33 were assessed as a regimen over 4 weeks. The wash and shampoo were used three or more times per week, but not more than once daily. Lotions were applied in the morning or after a bath. Clinicians assessed the arms, legs, torso, or scalp for erythema, dryness, peeling/flakiness (study 1 only, tactile roughness, edema (study 1 only, rash/irritation (study 2 only, and overall skin condition (study 2 only at baseline, week 1, and weeks 2 or 4. Parents completed skin assessment questionnaires. In study 2, stratum corneum hydration was measured. Subjects were monitored for adverse events. Results: No significant changes in clinical grading scores were observed, indicating that all products were well tolerated. By the end of each study, >90% of parents/caregivers believed each product was mild and gentle. In study 2, improvement in stratum corneum hydration was observed (+37% at week 1 and +48% at week 4, P<0.05 for both. In study 1, one baby experienced mild erythema on the neck and scalp after using the shampoo (possibly related to treatment. In study 2, there were no product-related adverse events. Conclusion: The natural baby skin-care products were well tolerated by infants and toddlers when used alone or as part of a skin-care regimen. Keywords: bath, cleanser, natural, infant, lotion, shampoo

  5. α—Tocopherol Concentrations in Human Milk from Mothers of Preterm and Full—term Infants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGMing-Gi; ZHANGGuo-Feng; 等

    1993-01-01

    α-Tocopherol content in breast milk of 28 mothers who delivered peterm infants (preterm milk)and 43 mothers who delivered full-trm infants(term milk)were measured.α-Tocopherol concentration in preterm milk did not diffe significantly from that of term milk in the first 12 days of lactation(P>0.05).There is a higher α-tocopherol concentration in the early colostrum,however,it decreases with the lactational days significantly.The investigation suggests that early breast-feedin would be beneficial to the improvement of vitamin Eintake in neonates during the early life.

  6. Early second trimester maternal plasma choline and betaine are related to measures of early cognitive development in term infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T F Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of maternal dietary choline for fetal neural development and later cognitive function has been well-documented in experimental studies. Although choline is an essential dietary nutrient for humans, evidence that low maternal choline in pregnancy impacts neurodevelopment in human infants is lacking. We determined potential associations between maternal plasma free choline and its metabolites betaine and dimethylglycine in pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment at 18 months of age. METHODOLOGY: This was a prospective study of healthy pregnant women and their full-term, single birth infants. Maternal blood was collected at 16 and 36 weeks of gestation and infant neurodevelopment was assessed at 18 months of age for 154 mother-infant pairs. Maternal plasma choline, betaine, dimethylglycine, methionine, homocysteine, cysteine, total B12, holotranscobalamin and folate were quantified. Infant neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III. Multivariate regression, adjusting for covariates that impact development, was used to determine the associations between maternal plasma choline, betaine and dimethylglycine and infant neurodevelopment. RESULTS: The maternal plasma free choline at 16 and 36 weeks gestation was median (interquartile range 6.70 (5.78-8.03 and 9.40 (8.10-11.3 µmol/L, respectively. Estimated choline intakes were (mean ± SD 383 ± 98.6 mg/day, and lower than the recommended 450 mg/day. Betaine intakes were 142 ± 70.2 mg/day. Significant positive associations were found between infant cognitive test scores and maternal plasma free choline (B=6.054, SE=2.283, p=0.009 and betaine (B=7.350, SE=1.933, p=0.0002 at 16 weeks of gestation. Maternal folate, total B12, or holotranscobalamin were not related to infant development. CONCLUSION: We show that choline status in the first half of pregnancy is associated with cognitive development among healthy term gestation infants. More work

  7. Risk of respiratory morbidity in term infants delivered by elective caesarean section: cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Kirkeby; Wisborg, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels;

    2007-01-01

    tachypnoea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn) and serious respiratory morbidity (oxygen therapy for more than two days, nasal continuous positive airway pressure, or need for mechanical ventilation). RESULTS: 2687 infants were delivered by...... 39 weeks' gestation (1.9, 1.2 to 3.0). The increased risks of serious respiratory morbidity showed the same pattern but with higher odds ratios: a fivefold increase was found at 37 weeks (5.0, 1.6 to16.0). These results remained essentially unchanged after exclusion of pregnancies complicated by...... diabetes, pre-eclampsia, and intrauterine growth retardation, or by breech presentation. CONCLUSION: Compared with newborns delivered vaginally or by emergency caesarean sections, those delivered by elective caesarean section around term have an increased risk of overall and serious respiratory morbidity...

  8. Age of Equalization of Head and Chest Circumference in Term Normal and Small for Gestational Age Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Bhalla

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the timing of equalization of the head and chest circumference in full-term 74 normal Punjabi and 200 small for gestational age (SGA infants of the two sexes born to parents representing upper socio-economic strata was serially studied. A regular increase in both the head and chest circumference of normal Punjabi and SGA infants of the two sexes was noticed between 1 to 12 months of age. Normal Punjabi infants of the two sexes as compared to their SGA counterparts possessed significantly (p=0.001 larger head and chest circumference during first year of life. In general, both Punjabi and SGA male infants possessed greater head and chest circumference values than their respective female peers throughout the study span. Amongst normal male and female Punjabi infants equalization of head and chest circumference took place by 4 and 5 months of age respectively. While, the equalization of head and chest circumference never occurred amongst SGA of both the sexes between 1 to 12 months of age. This clearly shows that SGA infants as compared to normal Punjabi peers remain undernourished during infancy and failed to compensate for the effect of earlier nutritional insult experienced by them during pre-natal life.

  9. Fatores associados à anemia em lactentes nascidos a termo e sem baixo peso Anemia-associated factors in infants born at term with normal weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pereira Netto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os fatores envolvidos na gênese da anemia ferropriva em lactentes. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, no qual foram avaliadas 104 crianças no segundo ano de vida, que nasceram a termo e sem baixo peso, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Foi aplicada entrevista aos pais, realizado recordatório 24 horas e avaliação antropométrica. Os exames laboratoriais foram eritrograma, ferritina e retinol sérico. O estudo foi aprovado pelos Comitês de Ética com seres humanos da UFMG e UFV. As análises estatísticas foram conduzidas no Epi Info e SPSS. O Modelo de Regressão Linear generalizado de Poisson, com resultados expressos como razões de prevalências, foi utilizado para verificar a associação da anemia com as variáveis do estudo. RESULTADOS: A deficiência de vitamina A e a anemia estiveram presentes em 9,6% e 26% das crianças, respectivamente. A anemia dos lactentes se associou ao uso de composto ferroso no pós-parto pela mãe, uso anterior de composto ferroso pela criança, início do pré-natal, tempo de aleitamento materno predominante e condição de trabalho do pai. Assim, no segundo ano de vida, os lactentes filhos de mulheres que iniciaram o pré-natal tardiamente e não usaram o composto ferroso após o parto, com pais em situação de desemprego, que nunca receberam composto ferroso e que mantiveram o aleitamento materno predominante por mais de quatro meses, apresentaram significantemente maior prevalência de anemia. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstraram a importância da nutrição durante a gestação e durante a infância na prevenção da anemia em crianças.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors involved in the genesis of infant iron deficiency anemia. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, which evaluated 104 children in their second year of life who were born at term with adequate weight in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. An interview, a 24-hour recall to parents, and

  10. Effects of Joint Attention on Long-Term Memory in 9-Month-Old Infants: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Franziska; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-01-01

    Joint attention develops during the first year of life but little is known about its effects on long-term memory. We investigated whether joint attention modulates long-term memory in 9-month-old infants. Infants were familiarized with visually presented objects in either of two conditions that differed in the degree of joint attention (high…

  11. Failure to Thrive in the Term and Preterm Infants of Mothers Depressed in the Postnatal Period: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewett, Robert; Blair, Peter; Emmett, Pauline; Emond, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To examine the relationship between failure to thrive in preterm and term infants and postnatal depression in their mothers. Method: In a whole population birth cohort of 12,391 infants (excluding those born after term or with major congenital abnormalities) failure to thrive over the first nine months was identified using a conditional…

  12. Normative Data for Bone Mass in Healthy Term Infants from Birth to 1 Year of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Gallo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For over 2 decades, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA has been the gold standard for estimating bone mineral density (BMD and facture risk in adults. More recently DXA has been used to evaluate BMD in pediatrics. However, BMD is usually assessed against reference data for which none currently exists in infancy. A prospective study was conducted to assess bone mass of term infants (37 to 42 weeks of gestation, weight appropriate for gestational age, and born to healthy mothers. The group consisted of 33 boys and 26 girls recruited from the Winnipeg Health Sciences Center (Manitoba, Canada. Whole body (WB as well as regional sites of the lumbar spine (LS 1–4 and femur was measured using DXA (QDR 4500A, Hologic Inc. providing bone mineral content (BMC for all sites and BMD for spine. During the year, WB BMC increased by 200% (76.0±14.2 versus 227.0±29.7 g, spine BMC by 130% (2.35±0.42 versus 5.37±1.02 g, and femur BMC by 190% (2.94±0.54 versus 8.50±1.84 g. Spine BMD increased by 14% (0.266±0.044 versus 0.304±0.044 g/cm2 during the year. This data, representing the accretion of bone mass during the first year of life, is based on a representative sample of infants and will aid in the interpretation of diagnostic DXA scans by researchers and health professionals.

  13. Prevalence of urinary tract infection in 2-8-week-old infants with jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partini P. Trihono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infections (UTI in infants may manifest in various ways and often appear without symptoms. Previous studies have reported that jaundice has been observed in infants aged less than reported that jaundice has been observed in study in the prevalence of UTI in infants with jaundice aged 2-8 weeks is warranted in order to improve diagnosing capability and provide prompt treatment. Objective To investigate the prevalence and profiles of UTI in infants with jaundice aged 2-8 weeks. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in June-December 2011 in infants with jaundice aged 2-8 weeks, Subjects were patients from the Epartment of Child Health, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital (CMS, as well as the Pediatric Polyclinics of Budi Kemuliaan and Thamrin Hospitals. All subjects underwent total, direct and indirect bilirubin examinations, urinalyses and urine cultures. Results Of the 110 subjects recruited, the prevalence of UTI was 18.2%. More boys than girl had UTIs (13 boys, 7 girls. The microorganism found in subjects with UTIs were Escherichia coli (10/20Klebsiella pneumoniae (8/20, and Enterobacter aerogenes (2/20. Indirect hyperbilirubenia was found in 5/20 subjects. There were more subjects with UTIs in the non-exclusively breastfed (8/20 and non-breastfed (8/20 groups than in the exclusively breastfed group (4/20, the full term gestational age (GA group (17/20 than the preterm GA group (3/20, and the normal birth weight group (15/20 than the low birth weight group (5/20. The median age of jaundice onset was 3.5 days (range 1-40 days, and the median duration of jaundice was 13.5 days (range 3-56 days. Conclusion The prevalence of UTI in infants aged 2-8 weeks with jaundice was 18.2%. More boys than girls had UTIs. The most common infecting microorganism found in our subjects was Escherichia coli. In daily medical practice, infants with prolonged jaundice of more than 2 weeks should be tested by urinalysis and urine cultures

  14. Electroencephalogram abnormalities in full term infants with history of severe asphyxia

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    Susanti Halim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ingtool used to determine developmental and electrical problemsin the brain. A history of severe asphyxia is a risk factor for thesebrain problems in infants.Objective To evaluate the prevalence of abnormal EEGs infull term neonates and to assess for an association with severeasphyxia, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE, and spontaneousdelivery.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at thePediatric Outpatient Department of Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar,from November 2013 to January 2014. Subjects were fullterminfants aged 1 month who were delivered and/or hospitalized atSanglah Hospital. All subjects underwent EEG. The EEGs wereinterpreted by a pediatric neurology consultant, twice, with aweek interval between readings. Clinical data were obtainedfrom medical records. Association between abnormal ECG andsevere asphyxia were analyzed by Chi-square and multivariablelogistic analyses.Results Of 55 subjects, 27 had a history of severe asphyxia and 28were vigorous babies. Forty percent (22/55 of subjects had abnormalEEG findings, 19/22 of these subjects having history of severeasphyxia, 15/22 had history of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy(HIE, and 20/22 were delievered vaginally. There were strongcorrelations between the prevalence of abnormal EEG and historyof severe asphyxia, HIE, and spontaneous delivery.Conclusion Prevalence of abnormal EEG among full-term neonatesreferred to neurology/growth development clinic is around40%, with most of them having a history of severe asphyxia. AbnormalEEG is significantly associated to severe asphyxia, HIE, andspontaneous delivery.

  15. Foetal and neonatal intracranial haemorrhage in term newborn infants: Hacettepe University experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavil, Betül; Korkmaz, Ayşe; Bayhan, Turan; Aytaç, Selin; Unal, Sule; Kuskonmaz, Baris; Yigit, Sule; Cetin, Mualla; Yurdakök, Murat; Gumruk, Fatma

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, causes and clinical management of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) diagnosed during foetal life or in the first month of life in term neonates with a discussion of the role of haematological risk factors. This study included term neonates (gestational age 37-42 weeks) with ICH diagnosed, treated and followed up in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey, between January 1994 and January 2014. Medical follow-up was obtained retrospectively from hospital files and prospectively from telephonic interviews and/or clinical visits. During the study period, 16 term neonates were identified as having ICH in our hospital. In six (37.5%) neonates, ICH was diagnosed during foetal life by obstetric ultrasonography, and in 10 (62.5%) neonates, it has been diagnosed after birth. Haemorrhage types included intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) in eight (50.0%), intraparenchymal haemorrhage in six (37.5%), subarachnoid haemorrhage in one (6.2%) and subdural haemorrhage in one (6.2%) neonate. IVH was the most common (n = 5/6, 83.3%) haemorrhage type among neonates diagnosed during foetal life. Overall, haemorrhage severity was determined as mild in three (18.7%) neonates, moderate in three (18.75%) neonates and severe in 10 (62.5%) neonates. During follow-up, one infant was diagnosed as afibrinogenemia, one diagnosed as infantile spasm, one cystic fibrosis, one orofaciodigital syndrome and the other diagnosed as Friedrich ataxia. Detailed haematological investigation and search for other underlying diseases are very important to identify the reason of ICH in term neonates. Furthermore, early diagnosis, close monitoring and prompt surgical interventions are significant factors to reduce disabilities. PMID:26829281

  16. Stent implantation of left main coronary artery stenosis in an infant: Effective long-term treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Paech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery stenosis is a rare phenomenon in children. Coronary stent implantation is generally not considered a standard treatment option due to technical difficulties and potential complications in this group of patients. Nevertheless, several pediatric cases reporting successful implantation with acceptable short-term experiences have been described. The following case presents a successful stent implantation for left main coronary artery (LMCA stenosis early after surgery for anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ALCAPA at the age of 6 months. The excellent mid-term results and notably the procedure′s potential as a long-term treatment in small children are highlighted. A 6-month-old infant underwent surgery for ALCAPA. Due to sudden postoperative deterioration, cardiac catheterization was performed. Coronary angiography revealed severe (90% ostial LMCA stenosis. A PROMUS drug-eluting stent (Promus Element AL3.0 Χ 8 mm, Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts, USA was implanted. The procedure was performed without complications. Antiplatelet therapy with acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel was initiated. Subsequently, cardiac function improved slowly. Cardiac catheterization 3 years 8 months after stent implantation showed no restenosis with a proximal LMCA diameter still at the 50 th percentile for age. Neither were signs of heart failure reported at the last follow-up at 7 years of age. Presupposing normal growth, the implanted stent would thus provide sufficient myocardial perfusion with a LMCA lumen at the 40 th percentile at the age of 16 years. In selected cases, coronary stent implantation may be an effective mid- to long-term treatment of coronary artery stenosis even in very young children.

  17. Decreased memory B cells and increased CD8 memory T cells in blood of breastfed children: the generation R study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A E Jansen

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding provides a protective effect against infectious diseases in infancy. Still, immunological evidence for enhanced adaptive immunity in breastfed children remains inconclusive.To determine whether breastfeeding affects B- and T-cell memory in the first years of life.We performed immunophenotypic analysis on blood samples within a population-based prospective cohort study. Participants included children at 6 months (n=258, 14 months (n=166, 25 months (n=112 and 6 years of age (n=332 with both data on breastfeeding and blood lymphocytes. Total B- and T-cell numbers and their memory subsets were determined with 6-color flow cytometry. Mothers completed questionnaires on breastfeeding when their children were aged 2, 6, and 12 months. Multiple linear regression models with adjustments for potential confounders were performed.Per month continuation of breastfeeding, a 3% (95% CI -6, -1 decrease in CD27+IgM+, a 2% (95 CI % -5, -1 decrease in CD27+IgA+ and a 2% (95% CI -4, -1 decrease in CD27-IgG+ memory B cell numbers were observed at 6 months of age. CD8 T-cell numbers at 6 months of age were 20% (95% CI 3, 37 higher in breastfed than in non-breastfed infants. This was mainly found for central memory CD8 T cells and associated with exposure to breast milk, rather than duration. The same trend was observed at 14 months, but associations disappeared at older ages.Longer breastfeeding is associated with increased CD8 T-cell memory, but not B-cell memory numbers in the first 6 months of life. This transient skewing towards T cell memory might contribute to the protective effect against infectious diseases in infancy.

  18. Factors associated with weaning practices in term infants: a prospective observational study in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2010-11-01

    The WHO (2001) recommends exclusive breast-feeding and delaying the introduction of solid foods to an infant\\'s diet until 6 months postpartum. However, in many countries, this recommendation is followed by few mothers, and earlier weaning onto solids is a commonly reported global practice. Therefore, this prospective, observational study aimed to assess compliance with the WHO recommendation and examine weaning practices, including the timing of weaning of infants, and to investigate the factors that predict weaning at ≤ 12 weeks. From an initial sample of 539 pregnant women recruited from the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dublin, 401 eligible mothers were followed up at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Quantitative data were obtained on mothers\\' weaning practices using semi-structured questionnaires and a short dietary history of the infant\\'s usual diet at 6 months. Only one mother (0.2%) complied with the WHO recommendation to exclusively breastfeed up to 6 months. Ninety-one (22.6%) infants were prematurely weaned onto solids at ≤ 12 weeks with predictive factors after adjustment, including mothers\\' antenatal reporting that infants should be weaned onto solids at ≤ 12 weeks, formula feeding at 12 weeks and mothers\\' reporting of the maternal grandmother as the principal source of advice on infant feeding. Mothers who weaned their infants at ≤ 12 weeks were more likely to engage in other sub-optimal weaning practices, including the addition of non-recommended condiments to their infants\\' foods. Provision of professional advice and exploring antenatal maternal misperceptions are potential areas for targeted interventions to improve compliance with the recommended weaning practices.

  19. Effectiveness of zinc supplementation to full term normal infants: a community based double blind, randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Radhakrishna

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: The study was aimed to test whether zinc supplementation, if initiated early, can prevent stunting and promote optimum body composition in full term infants. For this, full term pregnant women from low income urban community were enrolled and were followed-up for 24 months postpartum. Body mass index (BMI was calculated from maternal weight and height that were collected one month after delivery. Infants' weight, and length, head, chest and mid upper arm circumferences and skin fold thicknesses at triceps, biceps and subscapular area were collected at baseline (before randomization and once in three months up till 24 months. Three hundred and twenty four infants were randomized and allocated to zinc (163 or placebo (161 groups respectively. Supplementation of zinc was initiated from 4 months of age and continued till children attained 18 months. The control (placebo group of children received riboflavin 0.5 mg/day, whereas the intervention (zinc group received 5 mg zinc plus riboflavin 0.5 mg/day. When infants were 18 months old, dietary intakes (in 78 children were calculated by 24 hour diet recall method and hemoglobin, zinc, copper and vitamin A were quantified in blood samples collected from 70 children. The results showed prevalence of undernutrition (body mass index <18.5 in 37% of the mothers. Mean±SD calorie consumption and zinc intakes from diets in infants were 590±282.8 Kcal/day and 0.97±0.608 mg/day respectively. Multiple linear regression models demonstrated maternal weight as a strong predictor of infants' weight and length at 18 months of age. As expected, diarrhea duration impacted infants' linear growth and weight gain adversely. Zinc supplementation for a mean period of 190 days, starting from 4 months up to 18 months of age, in full term normal infants, consuming an average energy of 590 Kcal/day, had significant effect on the skin fold thicknesses, but not on their linear growth. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical

  20. Music Cognition in Early Infancy: Infants' Preferences and Long-Term Memory for Ravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz; Polka, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Listening preferences for two pieces, Prelude and Forlane from "Le tombeau de Couperin" by Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), were assessed in two experiments conducted with 8-month-old infants, using the Headturn Preference Procedure (HPP). Experiment 1 showed that infants, who have never heard the pieces, could clearly make a distinction between the…

  1. HBV携带产妇的血清及乳汁HBV-DNA载量的差异与母乳喂养安全性的研究%Load of HBV DNA in serum and breast milk of HBV carried mother and safety of breast-fed infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马力; 王兆荃; 赵桂珍; 梁争论; 王心竹

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨HBV携带产妇的血清、乳汁中HBV-DNA不同裁量与实施母乳喂养安全性的关系及对母婴传播阻断效果的影响.方法 应用荧光定量聚合酶链反应和酶免疫测定(EIA)技术对91例HBsAg、HBeAg双阳性产妇血清、乳汁及婴儿24月龄血标本进行HBV-DNA定量和HBVM检测.32例婴儿采用母乳喂养,59例采用人工喂养.对两种喂养方式的婴儿做3(T3)、9(T9)、12(T12)、24(T24)个月追踪检测观察.结果 HBsAg、HBeAg双阳性产妇的血清、乳汁中HBV-DNA阳性率为100%、49.45%(P<0.005),HBV-DNA平均含量(拷贝数/毫升的对数,(-x)±s)为(7.43±1.81)、(4.02±1.01);初乳HBV-DNA的检出率随母血HBV-DNA载量的增加而增加,两者呈正相关.母乳和人工两种方式喂养的婴儿HBV感染率为15.63%和13.56%,统计学处理X2=0.022,P>0.05差异无显著性;母乳喂养组抗体几何平均滴度(GMT)明显高于人工喂养组;发生HBV-DNA感染的13例婴儿T24血标本HBV-DNA载量为(3.24±0.23).结论 HBsAg、HBeAg双阳性产妇血清HBV-DNA载量大于109cps/mL的婴儿是母婴传播的高危易感人群.HBV感染的婴儿HBV-DNA水平较低,病毒载量<104cps/mL.乳汁HBV-DNA阳性率和病毒载量明显低于血清,HBV携带产妇的婴儿接受正规乙肝基因工程疫苗(Hbice)全程免疫或Hbice和HBIG(乙肝免疫球蛋白)的主、被动联合免疫后,母乳喂养不影响母婴传播阻断效果,母乳喂养有助于提高婴儿抗-HBs的GMT水平.%[Objective]To investigate the relationship between the load of HBV-DNA in serum and breast milk of pregnant women carrying HBV and the safety of breast-feeding and to explore the blocking effect on the mother-infant transmission of HBV.[Methods]Content of HBV-DNA and/or HBVM in serum and breast milk specimens of 91 pregnant women with positive HBsAg and HBeAg and in serum specimens of their 24 month old infants were detected by Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RQ-PCR)and/or EIA at

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Urinary Phthalate Excretion in 58 Full-Term and 67 Preterm Infants from Birth through 14 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Kuiri-Hänninen, Tanja; Main, Katharina M.; Dunkel, Leo; Sankilampi, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some phthalates have shown antiandrogenic effects in rat offspring. Premature infants may be exposed to high amounts of specific phthalates during hospitalization, and thus are potentially at risk. Objective: We evaluated longitudinal phthalate exposure and metabolism in full-term (FT) and preterm (PT) infants. Methods: Fifty-eight FT and 67 PT (gestational age, 24.7–36.6 weeks) infants were recruited at birth and followed until 14 months (nine times). Urinary concentrations of me...

  3. Risk of HBV transmission between breast-fed and artificial fed infants with HBV mothers after immunoprophylaxis: A Meta-analysis%乙肝病毒携带母亲喂养方式对阻断免疫后婴儿母婴传播影响Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪娟; 李筱青; 冯晨晨; 马岩; 黄芬; 陈红; 叶冬青

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨对婴儿采取免疫措施后,乙肝病毒(HBV)携带母亲采用不同的喂养方式对母婴HBV传播的影响.方法 检索PubMed、Medline、Embase、Cochrane图书馆、中国期刊全文数据库、维普中文科技期刊数据库和万方数据库等,对免疫干预后比较母乳喂养和人工喂养婴儿HBV感染率的前瞻性研究进行Meta分析.结果 10篇随机对照试验满足纳入条件进入Meta分析,其中母乳喂养组婴儿873例,人工喂养组751例.在对婴儿进行免疫于预后,母乳喂养组与人工喂养组的6~ 12月龄婴儿乙肝表面抗原或HBV DNA阳性率差异无统计学意义(7个研究:OR=0.86,95%CI=0.51 ~1.45,P=0.56;I2 =0,P=0.99);母乳喂养组与人工喂养组6~12月龄婴儿的乙肝表面抗体阳性率差异无统计学意义(8个研究:OR=0.98,95% CI=0.69~1.40,P=0.93;I2 =0,P=0.99).结论 HBV携带者母亲采用不同的喂养方式对免疫于预措施阻断母婴HBV传播没有影响,HBV携带产妇母乳喂养并不增加HBV母婴传播的风险.%Objective To compare the risk of hepatitis B vims (HBV) transmission between breastfeeding group and artificial feeding group in infants with HBV mothers after combination immunoprophylaxis. Methods Comprehensive computerized literature search of PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, National Science Digital Library, and China Biological Medicine Database were conducted. A meta-analysis of prospective studies exploring the role of breastfeeding in mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HBV in infants who had HBV mothers was performed. Results Ten Randomized controlled trials (RCT) were included, involving 751 infants in the breastfeeding group and 873 infants in the artificial feeding group. There was no significant differences of positive rates of HBsAg/HBV DNA(OR=0.86,95%Cl=0.51-1. 45,P=0.56;l2 =0,P=0.99) and surface antibodies(OR=0.98,95%Cl=0.69-1.40,P=0.93;I2 =0,P = 0.99) among the infants by different feeding patterns

  4. Short- and Long-Term Follow-Up of Ophthalmological Findings in Preterm Infants and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Eva

    2004-01-01

    In a prospective population-based study in Stockholm County, 1998-2000, the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was investigated and was found to be 36% in prematurely-born infants with a birth weight of ≤ 1500 grams. Compared to a study performed ten years ago, the overall incidence was unchanged, but was reduced in “mature” infants and increased in immature ones. The incidence of ROP was 25% in infants with a gestational age of ≤ 32 weeks at birth. The main risk factors for ROP we...

  5. Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, Eugene

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of banked preterm milk compared with banked term milk regarding growth and developmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (infants weighing less than 1500 g). SEARCH STRATEGY: We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, including a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group specialized register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, January 2010). We searched the computerised bibliographic databases MEDLINE (1966 to February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to February 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to February 2010). We searched reference lists of all selected articles, review articles and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We also searched abstracts from neonatal and pediatric meetings (PAS electronic version from 2000 to 2009, ESPR hand search from 2000 to 2009). We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing banked donor preterm milk with banked donor term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We planned to perform assessment of methodology regarding blinding of randomisation, intervention and outcome measurements as well as completeness of follow-up. We planned to evaluate treatment effect using a fixed-effect model using relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) for categorical data and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We planned an evaluation of heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: No studies met the inclusion criteria. AUTHORS

  6. Intracranial haemorrhage: an incidental finding at magnetic resonance imaging in a cohort of late preterm and term infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirgiovanni, Ida; Groppo, Michela; Bassi, Laura; Passera, Sofia; Schiavolin, Paola; Fumagalli, Monica; Mosca, Fabio [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Clinical Science and Community Health, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan (Italy); Avignone, Sabrina; Cinnante, Claudia; Triulzi, Fabio [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Neuroradiology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan (Italy); Lista, Gianluca [V. Buzzi Children' s Hospital, ICP, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Milan (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) in term newborns has been increasingly recognised but the occurrence in late preterm infants and the clinical presentation are still unclear. To investigate the appearance of intracranial haemorrhage at MRI in a cohort of infants born at 34 weeks' gestation or more and to correlate MRI findings with neonatal symptoms. We retrospectively reviewed neonatal brain MRI scans performed during a 3-year period. We included neonates ≥34 weeks' gestation with intracranial haemorrhage and compared findings with those in babies without intracranial haemorrhage. Babies were classified into three groups according to haemorrhage location: (1) infratentorial, (2) infra- and supratentorial, (3) infra- and supratentorial + parenchymal involvement. Intracranial haemorrhage was observed in 36/240 babies (15%). All of these 36 had subdural haemorrhage. Sixteen babies were included in group 1; 16 in group 2; 4 in group 3. All infants in groups 1 and 2 were asymptomatic except one who was affected by intraventricular haemorrhage grade 3. Among the infants in group 3, who had intracranial haemorrhage with parenchymal involvement, three of the four (75%) presented with acute neurological symptoms. Uncomplicated spontaneous vaginal delivery was reported in 20/36 neonates (56%), vacuum extraction in 4 (11%) and caesarean section in 12 (33%). Babies with intracranial haemorrhage had significantly higher gestational age (38 ± 2 weeks vs. 37 ± 2 weeks) and birth weight (3,097 ± 485 g vs. 2,803 ± 741 g) compared to babies without intracranial haemorrhage and were more likely to be delivered vaginally than by caesarian section. Mild intracranial haemorrhage (groups 1 and 2) is relatively common in late preterm and term infants, although it mostly represents an incidental finding in clinically asymptomatic babies; early neurological symptoms appear to be related to parenchymal involvement. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of Neutrophil Apoptosis by the Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Exotoxins between Healthy Individuals and Term Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Khazaei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be colonized in different human tissues and result in some infections potentially. Thus, considering that these bacteria are resistance to most of the current antibiotics, an examination on pathogenesis mechanisms of such bacteria can be effective in controlling the infections developed by it.Materials and Methods: In this project, among 40 blood samples (20 healthy persons, 20 infants, an amount of 5 ml (2 ml in the infants heparinized blood was collected form each and then neutrophils were isolated by a standard method and were counted by neubauer lam. After culturing Pseudomonas bacteria in broth medium, some tubes with densities of 1, 2, 3 and 4 McFarland were prepared and the bacteria were isolated by centrifuge method with 3000rpm for 10 minutes and then its exotoxin were exposed to neutrophils of the groups under study. The effect of time and the bacteria count on the amount of the secreted toxin and in adjacency to neutrophils was measured.Results: There were 11 men and 9 women in the health group and the infants group consisted of 12 boys and 8 girls. Death cell percentage of neutrophils was 100% in the health group and 8.90% in the infants group. Percentage of bacterial growth in the medium 1 and 2 McFarland was zero; in the medium 3 McFarland, it was 12.5% in the healthy group and 1% in the infants group (p<0.10. The average rate of cell death in the minute 15th was different in two groups (68.5% in health group vs. 92.5% in the infants (p<0.0005. Conclusion: This study showed the effect of Pseudomonas bacteria on the development of early cell death in the infants very well. As it was shown, this effect is time-dependent and this cell death (apoptosis is occurred in the infants earlier than health people.

  8. A longitudinal study of urinary phthalate excretion in 58 full-term and 67 preterm infants from birth through 14 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Kuiri-Hänninen, Tanja; Main, Katharina M;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some phthalates have shown antiandrogenic effects in rat offspring. Premature infants may be exposed to high amounts of specific phthalates during hospitalization, and thus are potentially at risk. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated longitudinal phthalate exposure and metabolism in full-term (FT......) and preterm (PT) infants. METHODS: Fifty-eight FT and 67 PT (gestational age, 24.7-36.6 weeks) infants were recruited at birth and followed until 14 months (nine times). Urinary concentrations of metabolites of diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate isomers (DiBP and DnBP), butylbenzyl phthalate......% of FT infants, and after M2, in 30% of all infants. The excretion pattern of DEHP and DiNP metabolites changed with age. CONCLUSION: Most PT infants and approximately one-third of healthy FT newborns were exposed to phthalates during early life at a potentially harmful level according to the European...

  9. Perception of optic flow and random visual motion in preterm and full-term infants: A longitudinal EEG study

    OpenAIRE

    Straume, Liv Ragnhild

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) was used in preterm and full-term infants at 5 and 12 months of age to longitudinally study brain electrical activity as a function of perception of structured forward optic flow, structured reversed optic flow, and non-structured random visual motion. This study aimed to investigate how developments in neuronal maturation and locomotion are related to changes in brain activity. Analyses of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and temporal spectral evolution (TSE, time-d...

  10. Hábitos alimentares de crianças menores de 1 ano amamentadas e não-amamentadas Feeding habits of breastfed and non-breastfed children up to 1 year old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciete O. Vieira

    2004-01-01

    calculated. Statistical significance was determined using the chi-square test. RESULTS: Non-breastfed children aged four months or younger were 8.2 and 6.7 times more likely to receive the family food (95% CI: 3.23-20.66 or vegetable soup (95% CI: 3.84-11.78, respectively. In the same age group, the prevalence of non-breastfed children receiving water, juice, and fruit was significantly higher in relation to breastfed children (70.7 vs 19.7%, 63.3 vs 26.7%, 33.3 vs 4.9% and 14.4 vs 1.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Breastfed children had healthier habits than non-breastfed children in terms of the introduction of complementary foods.

  11. Irreversible Respiratory Failure in a Full-Term Infant with Features of Pulmonary Interstitial Glycogenosis as Well as Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maresa E. C. Jiskoot-Ermers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis (PIG is a rare interstitial lung disease in the newborns. We report on the clinical presentation and pathological findings of a full-term male infant with pulmonary hypertension requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO. An open lung biopsy demonstrated interstitial changes resembling pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis as well as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, without convincing evidence of maturational arrest, infection, alveolar proteinosis, or alveolar capillary dysplasia. The boy was treated with glucocorticoids and, after a few days, was weaned from ECMO. A few hours later, the patient died due to acute severe pulmonary hypertension with acute right ventricular failure. The etiology and underlying pathogenic mechanisms of PIG are unknown. The clinical outcomes are quite varied. Deaths have been reported when PIG exists with abnormal lung development and pulmonary vascular growth and congenital heart disease. No mortality has been reported in PIG together with BPD in full-term infants. In this article, we reported on a full-term infant with interstitial changes resembling PIG and BPD who expired despite no convincing evidence of an anatomical maturational arrest or congenital heart disease.

  12. Irreversible Respiratory Failure in a Full-Term Infant with Features of Pulmonary Interstitial Glycogenosis as Well as Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiskoot-Ermers, Maresa E C; Antonius, Tim A J; Looijen-Salamon, Monika G; Wijnen, Marc H W A; Loza, Bettina F; Heijst, Arno F J van

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis (PIG) is a rare interstitial lung disease in the newborns. We report on the clinical presentation and pathological findings of a full-term male infant with pulmonary hypertension requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). An open lung biopsy demonstrated interstitial changes resembling pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis as well as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), without convincing evidence of maturational arrest, infection, alveolar proteinosis, or alveolar capillary dysplasia. The boy was treated with glucocorticoids and, after a few days, was weaned from ECMO. A few hours later, the patient died due to acute severe pulmonary hypertension with acute right ventricular failure. The etiology and underlying pathogenic mechanisms of PIG are unknown. The clinical outcomes are quite varied. Deaths have been reported when PIG exists with abnormal lung development and pulmonary vascular growth and congenital heart disease. No mortality has been reported in PIG together with BPD in full-term infants. In this article, we reported on a full-term infant with interstitial changes resembling PIG and BPD who expired despite no convincing evidence of an anatomical maturational arrest or congenital heart disease. PMID:26495172

  13. Change in the body temperature of healthy term infant over the first 72 hours of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng-xia (李萌霞); SUN Ge (孙革); NEUBAUER Henning

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the range of body temperature in a group of healthy Chinese term neonates over the first 72 hours of life and to assess the influence of body weight, gestational age and route of delivery. Method: All 200 consecutive cases of neonates delivered at our hospital from March to August 2001 were included in this retrospective study. Temperatures were measured immediately after delivery, after 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 8 hours and 15 hours and on the 2nd and 3rd day. Axillary temperatures ranging from 36.5 oC to 37 oC were regarded as normal. No cases of maternal fever or systemic infection of the newborns were discovered. All infants were discharged in good general condition. Results: The mean rectal temperature at birth was 37.19 ℃. The lowest average temperature was reached at 1 hour after delivery (36.54 ℃) with a significant difference between natural delivery (36.48 ℃) and section (36.59 ℃) (P<0.05). Temperature subsequently rose to 36.70 ℃ at 8 hours and 36.78 ℃ at 15 hours (P<0.05). Hypothermia was seen in 51.8% and hypothermia in 42.5% of the patients. On the 3rd day after delivery, 96% of all temperatures were in the normal range. A significant relation was found between hypothermia and both low birth weight (P<0.001) and low gestational age (P<0.05). Conclusion: The reference range presently used did not include all physiological temperatures in the first 72 hours of life. Considering other factors, such as birth weight, route of delivery, gestational age and body temperature on the 2nd and 3rd day of life, may help to correctly assess the significance of temperatures beyond the reference range.

  14. Change in the body temperature of healthy term infant over the first 72 hours of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萌霞; 孙革; NEUBAUERHenning

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To determine the range of body temperature in a group of healthy Chinese term neonates over the first 72 hours of life and to assess the influence of body weight, gestational age and route of delivery.Method: All 200 consecutive cases of neonates delivered at our hospital from March to August 2001 were included in this retrospective study.Temperatures were measured immediately after delivery, after 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 8 hours and 15 hours and on the 2nd and 3rd day. Axillary temperatures ranging from 36.5℃ to 37℃ were regarded as normal. No cases of maternal fever or systemic infection of the newborns were discovered. All infants were discharged in good general condition. Results:The mean rectal temperature at birth was 37.19℃. The lowest average temperature was reached at 1 hour after delivery (36.54℃) with a significant difference between natural delivery (36.48℃) and section (36.59℃) (P<0.05).Temperature subsequently rose to 36.70℃ at 8 hours and 36.78℃ at 15 hours (P<0.05).Hypothermia was seen in 51.8% and hypothermia in 42.5% of the patients.On the 3rd day after delivery, 96% of all temperatures were in the normal range. A significant relation was found between hypothermia and both low birth weight (P<0.001) and low gestational age (P<0.05).Conclusion: The reference range presently used did not include all physiological temperatures in the first 72 hours of life. Considering other factors,such as birth weight, route of delivery,gestational age and body temperature on the 2nd and 3rd day of life, may help to correctly assess the significance of temperatures beyond the reference range.

  15. Role of Zinc in Stunting of Infants and Children in Rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Umeta, M.

    2003-01-01

    Stunting is highly prevalent in children in Ethiopia with 57% of infants aged 6-11 mo being affected. The reasons for stunting are poorly understood but zinc deficiency may play a role in its aetiology. The research described in this thesis was carried out in a rural area of Ethiopia. It comprised a cross-sectional study of 305 breastfed infants aged 5-11 mo and their mothers; a double-blind randomised controlled zinc supplementation trial on growth of 200 breastfed infants aged 6-12 mo for 6...

  16. Short-term measurement of linear growth in preterm infants: validation of a hand-held knemometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, K F; Skov, L; Badsberg, J H; Jørgensen, M

    1991-11-01

    A hand-held electronic knemometer, resembling a pair of callipers, for measuring knee-heel length in preterm infants was developed to improve the accuracy of measuring linear growth velocity in infants. The measuring system is based on a magnetic encoder and has a resolution of 0.01 mm. The knee-heel length is recorded automatically when the pressure applied on the heel reaches a preset value. The result of a measurement sequence is expressed as the average of five sequential readings. The error of one measurement sequence was 0.82 mm, corresponding to a coefficient of variation of 0.8% or 2 d of growth in knee-heel length. It includes the technical error and an error component due to the correlation of the readings within a series. The estimated error on the measurement of the knee-heel growth velocity (expressed as mm/d), measured over a 3-wk period, was 0.04 mm, corresponding to a coefficient of variation of 8%. Longitudinal growth data from 11 healthy preterm infants (birth weight 918-1482 g) are presented. Knee-heel length velocity from birth until day of regained birth weight was similar to the velocity during the following weeks, showing that there was no deceleration of growth immediately after birth. In conclusion, the method is accurate and gentle in measuring linear growth velocity over short periods and can be useful in monitoring the progress of ill infants and in growth studies of preterm and mature infants, in which linear growth is a more relevant short-term outcome than weight gain. PMID:1754302

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of the Commensal Enterococcus faecalis 62, Isolated from a Healthy Norwegian Infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brede, Dag Anders; Snipen, Lars Gustav; Ussery, David;

    2011-01-01

    The genome of Enterococcus faecalis 62, a commensal isolate from a healthy Norwegian infant, revealed multiple adaptive traits to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) environment and the milk-containing diet of breast-fed infants. Adaptation to a commensal existence was emphasized by lactose and other...

  18. Hydrolysed Formula Is a Risk Factor for Vitamin K Deficiency in Infants With Unrecognised Cholestasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hasselt, P. M.; de Vries, W.; de Vries, E.; Kok, K.; Cranenburg, E. C. M.; de Koning, T. J.; Schurgers, L. J.; Verkade, H. J.; Houwen, R. H. J.; Havinga, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Vitamin K deficiency (VKD) may cause life-threatening haemorrhages, especially in breast-fed infants with unrecognised cholestasis. Interestingly, hypoallergenic formulas appear overrepresented in reported cases of VKD bleeding (VKDB) in formula-fed infants. We therefore assessed whether

  19. Isolated acute non-cystic white matter injury in term infants presenting with neonatal encephalopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barrett, Michael Joseph

    2013-03-01

    We discuss possible aetiological factors, MRI evolution of injury and neuro-developmental outcomes of neonatal encephalopathy (NE). Thirty-six consecutive infants diagnosed with NE were included. In this cohort, four infants (11%) were identified with injury predominantly in the deep white matter on MRI who were significantly of younger gestation, lower birthweight with higher Apgars at one and five minutes compared to controls. Placental high grade villitis of unknown aetiology (VUA) was identified in all four of these infants. Our hypothesis states VUA may induce white matter injury by causing a local inflammatory response and\\/or oxidative stress during the perinatal period. We underline the importance of continued close and systematic evaluation of all cases of NE, including examination of the placenta, in order to come to a better understanding of the clinical presentation, the patterns of brain injury and the underlying pathophysiological processes.

  20. Postural control of small for gestational age infants born at term Controle postural de lactentes nascidos a termo pequenos para a idade gestacional

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, D.; DCC Santos; VMG Gonçalves; MIL Montebelo; MMF Goto; C Gabbard

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study compared the postural control of small (SGA) and appropriate (AGA) for gestational age infants born at term, at the ages of 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. METHOD: This was a cohort study of infants born at term, with birth weight less than the 10th percentile for the SGA group and between the 10th and 90th percentiles for the AGA group. Infants with genetic syndromes, malformations, congenital infections and internment in neonatal intensive care unit were excluded. The evaluatio...

  1. Validation of transcutaneous bilirubin nomogram for identifying neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in healthy Chinese term and late-preterm infants: a multicenter study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhangbin Yu; Shuping Han; Jinxia Wu; Mingxia Li; Huaiyan Wang; Jimei Wang; Jiebo Liu; Xinnian Pan; Jie Yang; Chao Chen

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to prospectively validate a previously constructed transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) nomogram for identifying severe hyperbilirubinemia in healthy Chinese term and late-preterm infants. METHODS: this was a multicenter study that included 9,174 healthy term and late-preterm infants in eight hospitals of China. TcB measurements were performed using a JM-103 bilirubinometer. TcB values were plotted on a previously developed TcB nomogram, to identify the predictive ability for subseq...

  2. MR imaging of term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy as a predictor of neurodevelopmental outcome and late MRI appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twomey, Eilish; Ryan, Stephanie [Children' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Twomey, Anne; Murphy, John [National Maternity Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Dublin (Ireland); Donoghue, Veronica B. [National Maternity Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Children' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2010-09-15

    detailed neurodevelopmental assessment at 2 years of age, infants were classified into two groups according to whether they had a favourable or unfavourable outcome. Of the 26 infants, 6 infants died before formal assessment at the age of 2 years. A further 5 infants had moderate to severe cerebral palsy in addition to severe cognitive impairment. The remaining 15 infants were categorized in the favourable outcome group. The US appearance performed well in terms of predicting final outcome (P = 0.005). The pattern of ischaemia seen on early MRI was a significant predictor of outcome (P < 0.0001). The BG, BG/W and S scores of the diffusion imaging were significantly associated with outcome (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0005 respectively). DWI was predictive of outcome group (P < 0.0001), as were the early T1- and T2-W sequences (P = 0.002) and cranial US (P = 0.005). Assessment of the PLIC in infants with watershed or atypical patterns of ischaemia was found to be less reliable in predicting outcome. The measured ADC value in the PLIC was significantly reduced in those children who had an unfavourable outcome (P = 0.03). While early MRI performed better than cranial US, the sonography findings were useful. The pattern of ischaemia on early MRI was a good predictor of prognosis. All infants with watershed or atypical patterns had a favourable outcome. The majority of infants with central patterns of ischaemia had an unfavourable outcome and all infants with a diffuse pattern had an unfavourable outcome. DWI was predictive of outcome group, as were early T1- and T2-W sequences and cranial US. (orig.)

  3. MR imaging of term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy as a predictor of neurodevelopmental outcome and late MRI appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    detailed neurodevelopmental assessment at 2 years of age, infants were classified into two groups according to whether they had a favourable or unfavourable outcome. Of the 26 infants, 6 infants died before formal assessment at the age of 2 years. A further 5 infants had moderate to severe cerebral palsy in addition to severe cognitive impairment. The remaining 15 infants were categorized in the favourable outcome group. The US appearance performed well in terms of predicting final outcome (P = 0.005). The pattern of ischaemia seen on early MRI was a significant predictor of outcome (P < 0.0001). The BG, BG/W and S scores of the diffusion imaging were significantly associated with outcome (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0005 respectively). DWI was predictive of outcome group (P < 0.0001), as were the early T1- and T2-W sequences (P = 0.002) and cranial US (P = 0.005). Assessment of the PLIC in infants with watershed or atypical patterns of ischaemia was found to be less reliable in predicting outcome. The measured ADC value in the PLIC was significantly reduced in those children who had an unfavourable outcome (P = 0.03). While early MRI performed better than cranial US, the sonography findings were useful. The pattern of ischaemia on early MRI was a good predictor of prognosis. All infants with watershed or atypical patterns had a favourable outcome. The majority of infants with central patterns of ischaemia had an unfavourable outcome and all infants with a diffuse pattern had an unfavourable outcome. DWI was predictive of outcome group, as were early T1- and T2-W sequences and cranial US. (orig.)

  4. Repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect in infants with down syndrome: outcomes and long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanyan, Margarita R; Filaretova, Olga V; Chechneva, Vera V; Gulasaryan, Ruben S; Butrim, Iuliia V; Bockeria, Leo A

    2015-01-01

    In clinical practice, the combination of congenital heart disease (CHD) with malformations of other organs occurs in about 10 % of cases, including chromosomal disease with heart defects, which are observed mainly with certain syndromes. In the Bakoulev SCCS (Moscow, Russian Federation), from 01.2005 to 01.2011, complete atrioventricular septal defect (CAVSD) repair was performed on 163 patients (5.6 ± 3.0 months) with Down Syndrome (DS) using the single-patch (n = 40) and the two-patch (n = 123) methods. The control group consisted of 214 infants aged 6.49 ± 3.03 months with CAVSD and normal karyotype. A retrospective cohort study was made, as well as a comparative analysis of the immediate (up to 30 days) and long-term (12-75 months, at the average of 56 ± 15) results of the repair of CAVSD in infants with DSand normal karyotype/chromosome set (NK). During the hospital treatment period, we registered the following complications: pulmonary hypertensive crises in 6 % (n = 9) of patients with DS and in 10 % (n = 21) of infants with NK, infectious complications in 21% (n = 34) of patients with DS and in 8% (n = 17) of infants with NK. Squeal structures in groups were differentiated. The doses and duration of cardiotonic support in the NK patients were significantly higher in comparison with the DS patients (7.5 ± 2.1 days vs 3.4 ± 1.15 days, p Down syndrome. Concerning the long-term results, there was no significant difference (Gehan-Wilcoxon test) in actuarial freedom from reoperation after repair of CAVSD between DS and NK groups (p Down Syndrome in patients significantly increases the risk of severe co-morbidities that have a significant impact on the recovery period, as well as on life expectancy even after successful CHD correction. PMID:25099029

  5. Length Normalized Indices for Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass in Preterm and Term Infants during the First Six Months of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipsita Goswami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Postnatal tissue accretion in preterm infants differs from those in utero, affecting body composition (BC and lifelong morbidity. Length normalized BC data allows infants with different body lengths to be compared and followed longitudinally. This study aims to analyze BC of preterm and term infants during the first six months of life. Methods: The BC data, measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, of 389 preterm and 132 term infants from four longitudinal studies were combined. Fat-mass/length2 (FMI and fat-free mass/length2 (FFMI for postmenstrual age were calculated after reaching full enteral feeding, at term and two further time points up to six months corrected age. Results: Median FMI (preterm increased from 0.4 kg/m2 at 30 weeks to 2.5, 4.3, and 4.8 kg/m2 compared to 1.7, 4.7, and 6 kg/m2 in term infants at 40, 52, and 64 weeks, respectively. Median FFMI (preterm increased from 8.5 kg/m2 (30 weeks to 11.4 kg/m2 (45 weeks and remained constant thereafter, whereas term FFMI remained constant at 11 kg/m2 throughout the tested time points. Conclusion: The study provides a large dataset of length normalized BC indices. Followed longitudinally, term and preterm infants differ considerably during early infancy in the pattern of change in FMI and FFMI for age.

  6. Developmental Follow-Up of Long-Term Infant Tracheostomy: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Lynn Twarog; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Tracheostomized infants tended to be white, male, and premature, with moderate to severe medical illness. The majority of survivors presented with multiple physical and mental handicaps. Follow-up of survivors without other major handicapping conditions suggested an association with impaired physical and emotional development, even when cognitive…

  7. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A premature infant is a baby born before 37 completed weeks of gestation (more than 3 weeks before the ... baby is classified as one of the following: Premature (less than 37 weeks gestation) Full term (37 ...

  8. Infant and Young Child Feeding in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Mandana; Frongillo, Edward A.; Avula, Rasmi; Mangasaryan, Nune

    2012-01-01

    Feeding practices are important determinants of growth and development of children. Using infant and young child feeding indicators and complementary feeding guidelines, 7 practices in 28 countries are described, showing substantial variation across countries. Only 25% of 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed, and only half of 6- to…

  9. Effects of selective dropout on infant growth standards.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2010-01-01

    Exclusively breastfed (EBF) infants have higher weight gain during the first 2 months, and lower thereafter. The explanation for this phenomenon is not clear. Longitudinal data from the Social Medical Survey of Children Attending Child Health Clinics study with a cohort of 2,151 Dutch children were

  10. Exclusive breastfeeding rate and factors associated with infant feeding practices in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovita Ananta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast milk is the ideal food for infants. According to the 2007 Indonesian National Household Health Survey, only 23% of mothers exclusively breastfeed for six months. Objectives To determine the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia, to evaluate factors associated with infant feeding practices, and to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively-breastfed and formula-fed infants. Methods A survey was conducted in hospitals located in 17 provinces in Indonesia. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding was calculated. Many variables were investigated as potential predictors for exclusive breastfeeding using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Further analysis was performed to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively breastfed and formula-fed infants at the time of survey. Results From 1,804 infant subjects, the overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 46.3%, ranging from 10.5% in East Java to 66.9% in Jambi. Predominant breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and formula feeding rates were 14.3%, 8.6%, and 30.7%, respectively. Maternal unemployment was associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding (P=0.000. There were significantly more formula-fed infants who were undernourished compared to exclusively-breastfed infants (14% vs. 8%, P=0.001. There were also significantly more infants in the formula-fed group who had abnormal head circumference compared to those in the exclusively-breastfed group (9% vs. 6%, P=0.031. Child development, as assessed by the Pre-screening Developmental Questionnaire, was similar between the two groups (P=0.996. Conclusion The overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia is 46.3%. Maternal unemployment is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfed infants have significant better growth and head circumference compared toformula fed infants, while the development is similar between the two groups.

  11. Exclusive breastfeeding rate and factors associated with infant feeding practices in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovita Ananta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast milk is the ideal food for infants. According to the 2007 Indonesian National Household Health Survey, only 23% of mothers exclusively breastfeed for six months.Objectives To determine the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia, to evaluate factors associated with infant feeding practices, and to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively-breastfed and formula-fed infants.Methods A survey was conducted in hospitals located in 17 provinces in Indonesia. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding was calculated. Many variables were investigated as potential predictors for exclusive breastfeeding using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Further analysis was performed to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively breastfed and formula-fed infants at the time of survey.Results From 1,804 infant subjects, the overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 46.3%, ranging from 10.5% in East Java to 66.9% in Jambi. Predominant breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and formula feeding rates were 14.3%, 8.6%, and 30.7%, respectively. Maternal unemployment was associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding (P=0.000. There were significantly more formula-fed infants who were undernourished compared to exclusively-breastfed infants (14% vs. 8%, P=0.001. There were also significantly more infants in the formula-fed group who had abnormal head circumference compared to those in the exclusively-breastfed group (9% vs. 6%, P=0.031. Child development, as assessed by the Pre-screening Developmental Questionnaire, was similar between the two groups (P=0.996.Conclusion The overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia is 46.3%. Maternal unemployment is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfed infants have significant better growth and head circumference compared to formula fed infants, while the development is similar between the two groups.

  12. Diffuse excessive high signal intensity in low-risk preterm infants at term-equivalent age does not predict outcome at 1 year: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Yael [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Centre, Child Development Centre, Dana-Dwek Children' s Hospital, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Weinstein, Maya [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Centre, Functional Brain Centre, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bar Ilan University, Department of Psychology, Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Research Centre, Ramat-Gan (Israel); Myers, Vicki [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Centre, Functional Brain Centre, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Uliel, Shimrit; Geva, Karen [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Centre, Child Development Centre, Dana-Dwek Children' s Hospital, Tel Aviv (Israel); Berger, Irit; Marom, Ronella [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Centre, Department of Neonatology, Lis Maternity Hospital, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bashat, Dafna Ben [Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv (Israel); Ben-Sira, Liat [Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Tel Aviv (Israel); Geva, Ronny [Bar Ilan University, Department of Psychology, Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Research Centre, Ramat-Gan (Israel); Gross-Tsur, Varda [Shaare-Zedek Medical Centre, Neuropediatric Unit, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2014-08-15

    The outcome of premature infants with only diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) is not clear. We explored the relationship between DEHSI, white matter (WM) diffusion characteristics, perinatal characteristics, and neurobehavioral outcome at 1 year in a homogenous group of preterm infants without major brain abnormalities. Fifty-eight preterm infants, gestational age 29 ± 2.6 weeks, underwent an MRI at term-equivalent age (TEA). Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales, neurological assessment, and Parental Stress Index (PSI) were performed at 1 year corrected age. These measures were compared between preterm infants according to DEHSI classification (none, mild, moderate). Diffusion tensor imaging was used in major WM volumes of interest to objectively measure the degree of WM maturation. No significant differences were detected in the perinatal risk characteristics, neurobehavioral outcome, and PSI at 1 year between infants with different DEHSI classifications. In infants with DEHSI, increased axial and radial diffusivities were detected in the optic radiations, centrum semiovale, and posterior limb of the internal capsule, indicating less advanced maturation of the WM. Significant correlations were detected between the time interval from birth to MRI and the WM microstructure in infants without DEHSI. DEHSI in premature infants is neither a predictive measure for short-term adverse neurobehavioral outcome nor related to perinatal risk characteristics. Extrauterine exposure time had a differential effect on WM maturational trajectories in infants with DEHSI compared to those without. We suggest DEHSI may represent an alteration in WM maturational characteristics. Further follow-up studies may verify later consequences of DEHSI in premature infants. (orig.)

  13. Diffuse excessive high signal intensity in low-risk preterm infants at term-equivalent age does not predict outcome at 1 year: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outcome of premature infants with only diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) is not clear. We explored the relationship between DEHSI, white matter (WM) diffusion characteristics, perinatal characteristics, and neurobehavioral outcome at 1 year in a homogenous group of preterm infants without major brain abnormalities. Fifty-eight preterm infants, gestational age 29 ± 2.6 weeks, underwent an MRI at term-equivalent age (TEA). Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales, neurological assessment, and Parental Stress Index (PSI) were performed at 1 year corrected age. These measures were compared between preterm infants according to DEHSI classification (none, mild, moderate). Diffusion tensor imaging was used in major WM volumes of interest to objectively measure the degree of WM maturation. No significant differences were detected in the perinatal risk characteristics, neurobehavioral outcome, and PSI at 1 year between infants with different DEHSI classifications. In infants with DEHSI, increased axial and radial diffusivities were detected in the optic radiations, centrum semiovale, and posterior limb of the internal capsule, indicating less advanced maturation of the WM. Significant correlations were detected between the time interval from birth to MRI and the WM microstructure in infants without DEHSI. DEHSI in premature infants is neither a predictive measure for short-term adverse neurobehavioral outcome nor related to perinatal risk characteristics. Extrauterine exposure time had a differential effect on WM maturational trajectories in infants with DEHSI compared to those without. We suggest DEHSI may represent an alteration in WM maturational characteristics. Further follow-up studies may verify later consequences of DEHSI in premature infants. (orig.)

  14. Physically Developed and Exploratory Young Infants Contribute to Their Own Long-Term Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2013-01-01

    A developmental cascade defines a longitudinal relation in which one psychological characteristic uniquely affects another psychological characteristic later in time, separately from other intrapersonal and extrapersonal factors. Here, we report results of a large-scale (N = 374), normative, prospective, 14-year longitudinal, multivariate, multisource, controlled study of a developmental cascade from infant motor-exploratory competence at 5 months to adolescent academic achievement at 14 year...

  15. Long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants born late preterm: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi T; Dusing SC

    2015-01-01

    Tanya Tripathi,1 Stacey C Dusing2,3 1Rehabilitation and Movement Science Program, Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Physical Therapy, 3Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Richmond, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Purpose: Late preterm (LPT) births constitute a large proportion of the preterm births in the USA. Over the last few decades, there has been an increase in research focusing on the neurodevelopment of infants born LPT. The purpose of...

  16. Long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants born late preterm: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dusing, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Tanya Tripathi,1 Stacey C Dusing2,3 1Rehabilitation and Movement Science Program, Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Physical Therapy, 3Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Richmond, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Purpose: Late preterm (LPT) births constitute a large proportion of the preterm births in the USA. Over the last few decades, there has been an increase in research focusing on the neurodevelopment of infants born LPT. The purpos...

  17. Formula-fed full term infants have lower fractional absorption but greater total calcium absorption than human milk-fed infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The fatty acid (FA) profile of infant formula resembles the FA profile of human milk (HM), but the % of palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of the triglyceride in infant formula is lower than that of HM, and this may limit calcium (Ca) absorption. Objective: We sought to evaluate the effe...

  18. Early feeding and neonatal hypoglycemia in infants of diabetic mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero, Leandro; Ramesh, Shilpa; Hillier, Kirsty; Giannone, Peter J.; Nankervis, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effects of early formula feeding or breast-feeding on hypoglycemia in infants born to 303 A1-A2 and 88 Class B-RF diabetics. Methods: Infants with hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 40 mg/dL) were breast-fed or formula-fed, and those with recurrences were given intravenous dextrose. Results: Of 293 infants admitted to the well-baby nursery, 87 (30%) had hypoglycemia, corrected by early feeding in 75 (86%), while 12 (14%) required intravenous dextrose. In all, 98 infants ...

  19. Oligosaccharides Released from Milk Glycoproteins Are Selective Growth Substrates for Infant-Associated Bifidobacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Karav, S; Le Parc, A; Leite Nobrega de Moura Bell, JM; Frese, SA; Kirmiz, N; Block, DE; Barile, D.; Mills, DA

    2016-01-01

    Milk, in addition to nourishing the neonate, provides a range of complex glycans whose construction ensures a specific enrichment of key members of the gut microbiota in the nursing infant, a consortium known as the milk-oriented microbiome. Milk glycoproteins are thought to function similarly, as specific growth substrates for bifidobacteria common to the breast-fed infant gut. Recently, a cell wall-associated endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (EndoBI-1) found in various infant-borne bifidobact...

  20. A fermented formula in pre-term infants: clinical tolerance, gut microbiota, down-regulation of faecal calprotectin and up-regulation of faecal secretory IgA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeotto, Florence; Suau, Antonia; Kapel, Nathalie; Magne, Fabien; Viallon, Vivian; Ferraris, Laurent; Waligora-Dupriet, Anne-Judith; Soulaines, Pascale; Leroux, Bernard; Kalach, Nicolas; Dupont, Christophe; Butel, Marie-José

    2011-06-28

    Intestinal bacterial colonisation in pre-term infants is delayed compared with full-term infants, leading to an increased risk of gastrointestinal disease. Modulation of colonisation through dietary supplementation with probiotics or prebiotics could decrease such a risk. The present study evaluated clinical tolerance, the effects on gut microbiota, and inflammatory and immunological mucosal responses to an infant formula adapted for pre-term infants that included in its manufacturing process a fermentation step with two probiotic strains, Bifidobacterium breve C50 and Streptococcus thermophilus 065, inactivated by heat at the end of the process. A total of fifty-eight infants (gestational age: 30-35 weeks), fed either the fermented pre-term formula or a standard pre-term formula, were followed up during their hospital stay. Clinical tolerance, faecal microbiota using a culture and a culture-independent method (temporal temperature gel electrophoresis), faecal calprotectin and secretory IgA were analysed weekly. No difference was observed regarding anthropometric data and digestive tolerance, except for abdominal distension, the incidence of which was lower in infants fed the fermented formula for 2 weeks. Bacterial colonisation was not modified by the type of feeding, particularly for bifidobacteria. Faecal calprotectin was significantly lower in infants fed the fermented formula for 2 weeks, and secretory IgA increased with both mother's milk and the fermented formula. The fermented formula was well tolerated and did not significantly modulate the bacterial colonisation but had benefits on inflammatory and immune markers, which might be related to some features of gastrointestinal tolerance. PMID:21426607

  1. Neonatal physiological correlates of near-term brain development on MRI and DTI in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Rose, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Results suggest that at near-term age, thalamus WM microstructure may be particularly vulnerable to certain neonatal risk factors. Interactions between albumin, bilirubin, phototherapy, and brain development warrant further investigation. Identification of physiological risk factors associated with selective vulnerability of certain brain regions at near-term age may clarify the etiology of neurodevelopmental impairment and inform neuroprotective treatment for VLBW preterm infants.

  2. 晚期早产儿和足月儿 RDS 的临床分析%Clinical analysis of RDS in late preterm infants and full-term infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨峻

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate high risk factors and clinical characteristics of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in late preterm infants and full-term infants. Methods A total of 106 hospitalized newborn with RSD were divided by gestational age into preterm infants group (34 weeks) with 44 cases. Their characteristics were retrospectively analyzed. Results Selective cesarean section, chorioamnionitis, and gestational diabetes mellitus were the high risk factors for RDS in the late preterm infants/full-term infants group (P0.05) and higher proportion of mechanical ventilation (P34周)44例,回顾分析其特点。结果选择性剖宫产、绒毛膜羊膜炎、妊娠期糖尿病是晚期早产儿/足月儿组 RDS 的高危因素(P0.05),需要机械通气比例高(P<0.05);晚期早产儿/足月儿组 RDS 更易并发气胸(P<0.05)。结论①选择性剖宫产和绒毛膜羊膜炎、妊娠期糖尿病是晚期早产儿/足月儿 RDS 的高危因素;②晚期早产儿/足月儿 RDS 症状更危重,气胸发生率高。

  3. Epidemiology of respiratory distress and the illness severity in late preterm or term infants: a prospective multi-center study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-lu; YI Bin; SHI Jing-yun; DU Li-zhong; XU Xue-feng; CHEN Chao; YAN Chao-ying; LIU Ya-ming; LIU Ling; XIONG Hong; SUN Hui-qing; LAI Jian-pu

    2010-01-01

    Background The severity of respiratory distress was associated with neonatal prognosis. This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics, therapeutic interventions and short-term outcomes of late preterm or term infants who required respiratory support, and compare the usage of different illness severity assessment tools.Methods Seven neonatal intensive care units in tertiary hospitals were recruited. From November 2008 to October 2009, neonates born at ≥34 weeks' gestational age, admitted at <72 hours of age, requiring continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or mechanical ventilation for respiratory support were enrolled. Clinical data including demographic variables, underlying disease, complications, therapeutic interventions and short-term outcomes were collected. All infants were divided into three groups by Acute care of at-risk newborns (ACoRN) Respiratory Score <5, 5-8, and >8.Results During the study period, 503 newborn late preterm or term infants required respiratory support. The mean gestational age was (36.8±2.2) weeks, mean birth weight was (2734.5±603.5) g. The majority of the neonates were male (69.4%), late preterm (63.3%), delivered by cesarean section (74.8%), admitted in the first day of life (89.3%) and outborn (born at other hospitals, 76.9%). Of the cesarean section, 51.1% were performed electively. Infants in the severe group were more mature, had the highest rate of elective cesarean section, Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes and resuscitated with intubation, the in-hospital mortality increased significantly. In total, 58.1% of the patients were supported with mechanical ventilation and 17.3% received high frequency oscillation. Adjunctive therapies were commonly needed.Higher rate of infants in severe group needed mechanical ventilation or high frequency oscillation, volume expansion,bicarbonate infusion or vasopressors therapy (P <0.05). The incidence of complications was also increased significantly in severe group (P

  4. Linear and ponderal growth trajectories in well-nourished, iron-sufficient infants are unimpaired by iron supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahagan, Sheila; Yu, Sunkyung; Kaciroti, Niko; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy

    2009-11-01

    Iron deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and supplementation is recommended during periods of high risk, including infancy. However, questions have been raised about possible adverse effects of iron on growth in iron-sufficient (IS) infants and the advisability of across-the-board iron supplementation. This study examined whether short- or long-term growth was impaired in IS infants who received iron supplementation. From a longitudinal study of healthy, breast-fed, low- to middle-income Chilean infants randomly assigned to iron supplementation or usual nutrition at 6 or 12 mo, we retrospectively identified infants meeting criteria for iron sufficiency at the time of random assignment (n = 273). Using multilevel analysis, ponderal and linear growth were modeled before, during, and after iron supplementation up to 10 y in 3 comparisons: 1) iron supplementation compared with usual nutrition from 6 to 12 mo; 2) iron supplementation compared with usual nutrition from 12 to 18 mo; and 3) 15 mg/d of iron as drops compared with iron-fortified formula (12 mg/L). Growth trajectories did not differ during or after supplementation indicating no adverse effect of iron in any comparison. These results suggest that, at least in some environments, iron does not impair growth in IS infants. PMID:19776186

  5. Usefulness of short-term urine collection in the nutritional monitoring of low birthweight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, G; Wiener, M; Schmidt, C; Ungethüm, A; Ungethüm, B; Moro, G

    1998-03-01

    To establish adequacy of urine collection times shorter than 24h in the metabolic monitoring of low birthweight infants, we collected urine for 24 h in 39 LBW infants during the third and fourth week of life. All urine voidings over the 24-h period were separately collected, the volume of each sampling and the time of voiding were recorded, and 20% of the volume was removed for pooling. All individual and pooled samples were analysed for total nitrogen, urea and ammonia, alpha-amino nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus, and for each compound the ratio to 1 mol creatinine was established. Individual sample results were "pooled" to obtain 3-, 6- and 12-h period excretion and than related to the 24-h excretion as measured in the pooled 24-h sample. As the volume of urine obtained in any 6-h collecting period depended on the time of sampling (06:00-12:00 h, 17.5+/-3.1% of total; 12:00-18:00 h, 31.6+/-5.1% of total; 18:00-24:00 h, 25.6+/-3.1% of total; and 0:00-06:00h, 25.3+/-2.9% of total), calculations were based on samples obtained from 18:00 to 06:00 h. The correlation between results of 3- and 24 h-collection periods was weakest, while results of the 6-h collection correlated highly with the total daily excretion (r = between 0.82 and 0.93 for the different compounds) and the correlation was only slightly better when the 12-h collection period was considered. The correlation between the mean molar substrate/creatinine ratio of all individual samples of a 24-h collecting period and the and total daily excretion of the respective substrate was weaker (r = between 0.46 and 0.76 for the different compounds) than the correlation between the results of a 6-h collecting period and the daily excretion is not as stable than in later life. The data indicate that 6-h urine sampling may be sufficient for metabolic monitoring of LBW infants. By contrast, urinary substrate/creatinine ratios are not good markers of the daily excretions of the respective

  6. EVALUATION OF MEAT AS A FIRST COMPLEMENTARY FOOD FOR BREASTFED INFANTS: IMPACT ON IRON INTAKE & GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Hambidge, K Michael; Krebs, Nancy F.; Sheng, Xiaoyang; Jiang, Tianjiang; Mazariegos, Manolo; Garces, Ana; Li, Dinghua; Westcott, Jamie; Tshefu, Antoinette; Sami, Neelofar; Chomba, Elwyn; Pasha, Omrana; Lokangaka, Adrien; Goco, Norman; Manasyan, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The rationale is considered for promoting the availability of local, affordable, non-fortified food sources of bioavailable iron in developing countries. Intakes of iron from the regular consumption of meat from the age of six months are evaluated with respect to physiological requirements. The paper includes a description of two major randomized controlled trials of meat as a first and regular complementary food that are currently in progress. These trials involve poor communities in Guatema...

  7. The Effect of Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion and Soybean Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion on Cholestasis Associated with Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leilei; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Jiejin; Qian, Yan; Ling, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To retrospectively study the effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsion and soybean oil-based lipid emulsion on cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. Methods. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsion and fish oil-based lipid emulsion had been applied in our neonatology department clinically between 2010 and 2014. There were 61 qualified premature infants included in this study and divided into two groups. Soybean oil group was made up of 32 premature infants, while fish oil group was made up of 29 premature infants. Analysis was made on the gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, age at which feeding began, usage of lipid emulsions, and incidence of cholestasis between the two groups. Results. There were no statistical differences in terms of gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, and age at which feeding began. Besides, total incidence of cholestasis was 21.3%, and the days of life of occurrence of cholestasis were 53 ± 5.0 days. Incidence of cholestasis had no statistical difference in the two groups. Conclusion. This study did not find the different role of fish oil-based lipid emulsions and soybean oil-based lipid emulsions in cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants.

  8. The clinical effect of a new infant formula in term infants with constipation: a double-blind, randomized cross-over trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taminiau Jan AJM

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrilon Omneo (new formula; NF contains high concentration of sn-2 palmitic acid, a mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides and partially hydrolyzed whey protein. It is hypothesized that NF positively affects stool characteristics in constipated infants. Methods Thirty-eight constipated infants, aged 3–20 weeks, were included and randomized to NF (n = 20 or a standard formula (SF; n = 18 in period 1 and crossed-over after 3 weeks to treatment period 2. Constipation was defined by at least one of the following symptoms: 1 defecation frequency Results Period 1 was completed by 35 infants. A significant increase in defecation frequency (NF: 3.5 pre versus 5.6/week post treatment; SF 3.6 pre versus 4.9/week post treatment was found in both groups, but was not significantly different between the two formulas (p = 0.36. Improvement of hard stool consistency to soft stool consistency was found more often with NF than SF, but did not reach statistical significance (90% versus 50%; RR, 1.8; 95% CI, 0.9–3.5; p = 0.14. No difference was found in painful defecation or the presence of an abdominal or rectal mass between the two groups. Twenty-four infants completed period 2. Only stool consistency was significantly different between the two formulas (17% had soft stools on NF and hard stools on SF; no infants had soft stools on SF and hard stools on NF, McNemar test p = 0.046. Conclusion The addition of a high concentration sn-2 palmitic acid, prebiotic oligosaccharides and partially hydrolyzed whey protein resulted in a strong tendency of softer stools in constipated infants, but not in a difference in defecation frequency. Formula transition to NF may be considered as treatment in constipated infants with hard stools.

  9. Effect of Breastfeeding Duration on Cognitive Development in Infants: 3-Year Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungmin; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Lee, Boeun; Lee, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Kim, Yangho

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the association between breastfeeding and cognitive development in infants during their first 3 years. The present study was a part of the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, which was a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. A total of 697 infants were tested at age 12, 24, and 36 months using the Korean version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (K-BSID-II). The use and duration of breastfeeding and formula feeding were measured. The relationship between breastfeeding and the mental development index (MDI) score was analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. The results indicated a positive correlation between breastfeeding duration and MDI score. After adjusting for covariates, infants who were breastfed for ≥ 9 months had significantly better cognitive development than those who had not been breastfed. These results suggest that the longer duration of breastfeeding improves cognitive development in infants. PMID:27051242

  10. Breastfeeding the preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Corvaglia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its peculiar nutritional and non-nutritional contents, which include long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids (LC-PUFA, prebiotics, immunological factors, hormones and growth factors, breast milk shows significant advantages over infant formulas in nourishing preterm infants. Better neurocognitive outcomes, which are reported to persist far beyond the early childhood, have been largely observed in breastfed preterm infants; a role of LC-PUFA in promoting neural and retinal development is assumed. As far as the gastrointestinal tract is concerned, several evidences have reported a dose-related reduction in NEC incidence among preterm infants fed on human milk. Moreover, the higher amount of immunological factors as secretory IgA within preterm breast milk might play a remarkable role in reducing the overall infections. Despite breastfeeding in preterm infants is generally linked with lowered growth rates which might potentially affect neurocognitive outcomes, the beneficial effects of human milk on neurodevelopment prevail. Fortified human milk might better fulfill the particular nutritional needs of preterm infants. However, as breast milk fortification is difficult to carry out after the achievement of full oral feeding, some concerns on the nutritional adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding during hospitalization as well as after discharge have been raised. Finally, breastfeeding also entails maternal psychological beneficial effects, as promoting the motherhood process and the mother-child relationship, which could be undermined in those women experiencing preterm delivery. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Urinary Phthalate Excretion in 58 Full-Term and 67 Preterm Infants from Birth through 14 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiri-Hänninen, Tanja; Main, Katharina M.; Dunkel, Leo; Sankilampi, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some phthalates have shown antiandrogenic effects in rat offspring. Premature infants may be exposed to high amounts of specific phthalates during hospitalization, and thus are potentially at risk. Objective: We evaluated longitudinal phthalate exposure and metabolism in full-term (FT) and preterm (PT) infants. Methods: Fifty-eight FT and 67 PT (gestational age, 24.7–36.6 weeks) infants were recruited at birth and followed until 14 months (nine times). Urinary concentrations of metabolites of diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate isomers (DiBP and DnBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) were measured in 894 samples. Daily intake and a hazard index for antiandrogenic effects were estimated, and excretion patterns of DEHP and DiNP metabolites were analyzed. Results: Metabolites of BBzP, DiNP, and DEHP were 5–50 times higher at day 7 (D7) and month 1 (M1) in PT than in FT infants. Thereafter, metabolite concentrations were similar between the two groups. The estimated hazard index for combined DiBP, DnBP, BBzP, and DEHP exposures 7 days after birth exceeded the antiandrogenic threshold in > 80% of PT and > 30% of FT infants, and after M2, in 30% of all infants. The excretion pattern of DEHP and DiNP metabolites changed with age. Conclusion: Most PT infants and approximately one-third of healthy FT newborns were exposed to phthalates during early life at a potentially harmful level according to the European Food Safety Authority’s recommended limits of daily exposure. Changes in the relative proportions of secondary phthalate metabolites over time were consistent with maturation of infant metabolic pathways during the first year of life. Further research is needed on the health effects of phthalate exposures and the influence of changes in metabolic capacity in neonates and infants. Citation: Frederiksen H, Kuiri-Hänninen T, Main KM, Dunkel L, Sankilampi U. 2014. A longitudinal

  12. Thymic size in uninfected infants born to HIV-positive mothers and fed with pasteurized human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Hasselbalch, H; Ersbøll, A K;

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To examine the size of the thymus in uninfected infants born to HIV-positive mothers and to study the effects of feeding by human donor milk on the size of the thymus in these infants. METHODS: The absolute and relative thymic size was assessed by sonography as thymic index (Ti), and the Ti...... the size of the thymus was smaller in uninfected infants of HIV-positive mothers compared with infants of HIV-negative mothers but when birthweight was taken into account this difference disappeared. Feeding by human donor milk seemed to result in an increased size of the thymus at 4 mo of age....../weight-ratio (Ti/w) at birth and at 4 mo of age in 12 healthy uninfected infants born to HlV-infected mothers. All infants were exclusively fed pasteurized donor milk. The results were compared with those obtained from a previous cohort of exclusively breastfed, partially breastfed and exclusively formula...

  13. Short term outcome of therapeutic hypothermia in term infants with moderate to severe hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy; the Sungai Buloh experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, K C; Jamal, S J Syed; Chiam, M L

    2012-06-01

    This analysis is a case-series to document the outcome of term newborns with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE), enrolled into total body hypothermia therapy, in a tertiary neonatal unit in Malaysia. The method used to achieve total body hypothermia is a novel method using just environmental temperature, without the need of expensive equipment. A total of 17 babies were eligible to be included in this study, from the 1st of January 2010 to the 31st of December 2010. 14 out of 15 babies who had Stage 2 HIE had no neurological deficit at follow-up. All Stage 3 HIE babies passed away. Allowing for the small sample size, we can conclude that total body hypothermia therapy is feasible and is a safe treatment modality for HIE Stage 2 babies in a Malaysian setting, by manipulating environmental temperature to achieve therapeutic hypothermia. Further work is needed to determine the long-term outcome of passive cooling total body hypothermia in Stage 2 HIE babies in Malaysia. PMID:23082414

  14. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, and SO2. Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger (≤24 years) and older (≥40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  15. Tolerance and safety of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei in combination with Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis in a prebiotic-containing infant formula: a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieger, A.M.; Robroch, A.H.; Van Buuren, S.; Kiers, J.; Rijkers, G.; Benninga, M.A.; te Biesebeke, R.

    2009-01-01

    The addition of probiotics to infant formula has been shown to be an efficient way to increase the number of beneficial bacteria in the intestine in order to promote a gut flora resembling that of breast-fed infants. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety and tolerance of a co

  16. Tolerance and safety of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp paracasei in combination with Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis in a prebiotic-containing infant formula: a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Vlieger; A. Robroch; S. van Buuren; J. Kiers; G. Rijkers; M.A. Benninga; R. te Biesebeke

    2009-01-01

    The addition of probiotics to infant formula has been shown to be an efficient way to increase the number of beneficial bacteria in the intestine in order to promote a gut flora resembling that of breast-fed infants. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety and tolerance of a co

  17. Diet and gender are important factors modulating low frequency EEG activity during processing of language sounds in 3 month old infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about how early postnatal diet affects brain processes related to cognitive function in healthy infants. To address this question we examined EEG activity recorded from 3 month old infants [breastfed (BF: n = 104, 55 males), milk-based formula fed (MF: n = 114, 57 males) or soy for...

  18. Late umbilical cord-clamping as an intervention for reducing iron deficiency anaemia in term infants in developing and industrialised countries : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rheenen, Patrick; Brabin, Bernard J

    2004-01-01

    This review evaluates the potential of delayed cord-clamping for improving iron status and reducing anaemia in term infants and for increasing the risk of polycythaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia. We applied a strict search protocol to identify controlled trials of early vs late cord-clamping. Four tri

  19. Short- and long-term outcome of infants born after maternal (pre)-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and thrombophilia a retrospective, cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.F. Boomsma; R.A. van Lingen; J. van Eyck; P. Tamminga; B.J. Kollen; R.M. van Elburg

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the short- and long-term outcome of children born from mothers with pre-eclampsia eclampsia and/or HELLP syndrome and to determine the differences between children born from mothers with and without underlying thrombophilic disorder Study design Four hundred and nine infant

  20. Antibiotic pressure mediated selection of non-biofilm forming strain of Elizabethkingia meningosepticum causing fatal nosocomial meningitis in a term infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a fatal case of hospital acquired meningitis in a term infant due to the antibiotic pressure mediated selection of Elizabethkingia meningosepticum. The antibiotics were administered for multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection. The strain was also phenotypically characterized for beta lactamase production, biofilm forming capability and resistance to in use disinfectants.

  1. EFFECTS OF PRONE AND SUPINE POSITION ON HEART-RATE, RESPIRATORY RATE AND MOTOR-ACTIVITY IN FULL-TERM NEWBORN-INFANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AMEMIYA, F; VOS, JE; PRECHTL, HFR

    1991-01-01

    Polygraphic recordings were obtained for 24 normal full-term neonates on their 4th or 5th day of life. Thirteen of the infants were first fed, laid supine for 3 hours, fed again around noon and laid prone for 3 more hours. The other 11 were first laid prone and then supine. The awake state was obser

  2. Pituitary gland signal in pre-term infants during the first year of life: an MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Xydis, V.; Zikou, A.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Dept. of Physiology, Univ. of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Pantou, K.; Andronikou, S. [Neonatology Clinic, Child Health Dept., Univ. of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece)

    2004-12-01

    Our purpose was to determine the pituitary gland signal of premature neonates and infants. We retrospectively measured, in a midline sagittal T1-weighted MRI scan, the pituitary signal of 121 premature infants (mean gestational age: 32.8 weeks, mean chronological age:6.9 months, mean corrected age:5.2 months). The relative signal intensity of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis was measured as (A-V)/V and (P-V)/V, respectively (where A, P, V are the mean signal intensities of the adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis and vermis white matter, respectively). On visual inspection the adenohypophysis was rated relative to the vermis white matter (VWM) and scored as hyperintense (grade 3), isointense (grade 2) and hypointense (grade 1). (A-V)/V and (P-V)/V had a negative correlation with chronological age (r = -0.38, r = -0.35, respectively, P < 0.01) and corrected age (r = -0.42, r = -0.40, respectively, P < 0.01). The (A-V)/V was different in the three grade groups; significant difference was found between grades 3 and 2 and grades 3 and 1. The adenohypophysis was bright in 93% of babies under 2 months of chronological age. In five babies of mean gestational age 29.1 weeks a hyperintense adenohypophysis was observed at 2.9-3.7 months of chronological age (corrected age 0.37-2 months). We conclude that in pre-term babies the adenohypophysis appears in hypersignal that may persist up to 2 months of corrected age. The adenohypophyseal and neurohypophyseal signals decrease with age. (orig.)

  3. Pituitary gland signal in pre-term infants during the first year of life: an MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to determine the pituitary gland signal of premature neonates and infants. We retrospectively measured, in a midline sagittal T1-weighted MRI scan, the pituitary signal of 121 premature infants (mean gestational age: 32.8 weeks, mean chronological age:6.9 months, mean corrected age:5.2 months). The relative signal intensity of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis was measured as (A-V)/V and (P-V)/V, respectively (where A, P, V are the mean signal intensities of the adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis and vermis white matter, respectively). On visual inspection the adenohypophysis was rated relative to the vermis white matter (VWM) and scored as hyperintense (grade 3), isointense (grade 2) and hypointense (grade 1). (A-V)/V and (P-V)/V had a negative correlation with chronological age (r = -0.38, r = -0.35, respectively, P < 0.01) and corrected age (r = -0.42, r = -0.40, respectively, P < 0.01). The (A-V)/V was different in the three grade groups; significant difference was found between grades 3 and 2 and grades 3 and 1. The adenohypophysis was bright in 93% of babies under 2 months of chronological age. In five babies of mean gestational age 29.1 weeks a hyperintense adenohypophysis was observed at 2.9-3.7 months of chronological age (corrected age 0.37-2 months). We conclude that in pre-term babies the adenohypophysis appears in hypersignal that may persist up to 2 months of corrected age. The adenohypophyseal and neurohypophyseal signals decrease with age. (orig.)

  4. Arachidonic acid needed in infant formula when docosahexaenoic acid is present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the European Food Safety Authority asserted that arachidonic acid (ARA) is an optional nutrient for the term infant even when docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is present. The brief rationale is based on an explicit, widespread misapplication of the concept of "essential fatty acids" to linoleic acid that implies it is uniquely required as a nutrient per se. Linoleic acid prevents acute clinical symptoms caused by polyunsaturated fatty acid-deficient diets and is the major precursor for ARA in most human diets. Experimental diets with ARA as the sole n-6 similarly prevent symptoms but at a lower energy percentage than linoleic acid and show ARA is a precursor for linoleic acid. The absence of consistent evidence of ARA benefit from randomized controlled trials is apparently an issue as well. This review highlights basic and clinical research relevant to ARA requirements as an adjunct to DHA in infancy. ARA is a major structural central nervous system component, where it rapidly accumulates perinatally and is required for signaling. Tracer studies show that ARA-fed infants derive about half of their total body ARA from dietary preformed ARA. Clinically, of the 3 cohorts of term infants studied with designs isolating the effects of ARA (DHA-only vs DHA+ARA), none considered ARA-specific outcomes such as vascular or immune function; the study with the highest ARA level showed significant neurocognitive benefit. All breastfed term infants of adequately nourished mothers consume both DHA and ARA. The burden of proof to substantially deviate from the composition of breastmilk is greater than that available from inherently empirical human randomized controlled trial evidence. Infant formulas with DHA but without ARA risk harm from suppression of ARA-mediated metabolism manifest among the many unstudied functions of ARA. PMID:27013482

  5. B Vitamins in Breast Milk: Relative Importance of Maternal Status and Intake, and Effects on Infant Status and Function12

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2012-01-01

    Infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life. However, maternal deficiency of some micronutrients, conveniently classified as Group I micronutrients during lactation, can result in low concentrations in breast milk and subsequent infant deficiency preventable by improving maternal status. This article uses thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and choline as examples and reviews the evidence for risk of inadequate intakes by infants in the first 6 mo of life. F...

  6. Does Breast Feeding Protect the Hypothyroid Infant Diagnosed by Newborn Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovet, Joanne F.

    Because breast milk contains small quantities of thyroid hormones not found in commercial formula preparations, it was hypothesized that breast feeding may provide some protective benefit to the hypothyroid infant before medical treatment is begun. Of 108 children with congenital hypothyroidism, breast-fed children had higher thyroid hormone…

  7. Breast milk and complementary food intake in Brazilian infants according to socio-economic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romulus-Nieuwelink, Johanna J. C.; Doak, Colleen; Albernaz, Elaine; Victora, Cesar G.; Haisma, Hinke

    2011-01-01

    Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast mi

  8. The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Hospital Stay and Morbidity due to Various Diseases in Infants under 6 Months of Age: A Prospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amarpreet; Singh, Karnail; Pannu, M. S.; Singh, Palwinder; Sehgal, Neeraj; Kaur, Rupinderjeet

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mother's milk is the best for the babies. Protective and preventive role of breast milk was evaluated in this study by assessing the relation of type of feeding and duration of hospital stay or morbidity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and 232 infants in the age group of 14 weeks to 6 months formed the sample. There are two groups of infants, that is, one for breastfed and one for top fed infants. Statistical analysis was done and results were calculated up to 95% to 99% level of significance to find effect of feeding pattern on hospital stay due to various diseases and morbidity. Results. Prolonged hospital stay, that is, >7 days, was lesser in breastfed infants and results were statistically significant in case of gastroenteritis (p value < 0.001), bronchopneumonia (p value = 0.0012), bronchiolitis (p value = 0.005), otitis media (p value = 0.003), and skin diseases (p value = 0.047). Lesser morbidity was seen in breastfed infants with gastroenteritis (p value 0.0414), bronchopneumonia (p value 0.03705), bronchiolitis (p value 0.036706), meningitis (p value 0.043), and septicemia (p value 0.04). Conclusions. Breastfed infants have shorter hospital stay and lesser morbidity in regard to various diseases as compared to top fed infants.

  9. Do Differences in Childhood Diet Explain the Reduced Overweight Risk in Breastfed Children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; Gast, Gerrie-Cor M.; Hoekstra, Maarten O.; De Jongste, Johan C.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Seidell, Jaap C.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2008-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been associated with a reduced risk of overweight later in life. This study investigates whether differences in diet and lifestyle at 7 years of age between breastfed and formula-fed children can explain the difference in overweight prevalence at 8 years of age. We studied 2,043 Du

  10. Ambient Air Pollution and Birth Weight in Full-Term Infants in Atlanta, 1994–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Klein, Mitchel; Strickland, Matthew J; Mulholland, James A.; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2010-01-01

    Background An emerging body of evidence suggests that ambient levels of air pollution during pregnancy are associated with fetal growth. Objectives We examined relationships between birth weight and temporal variation in ambient levels of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone, particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM10), ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), 2.5 to 10 μm (PM2.5–10), and PM2.5 chemical component measurements for 406,627 full-term births occurring between 1994 and ...

  11. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... CPR is best done by someone trained in an accredited CPR course. The newest techniques emphasize compression ...

  12. Isotopic evaluation of breast milk intake, energy metabolism, growth and body composition of exclusively breast fed infants in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable evidence to support the view that the current growth standards for infants, which are in-use globally, may be inappropriate. This is based on the observation that these were derived from largely formula-fed western populations and recent studies documenting that exclusively breastfed young infants exhibit a lower growth trajectory. However, there are few studies objectively evaluating energy metabolism, body composition and growth in exclusively breastfed infants, and none in developing countries. We propose to evaluate this longitudinally in an appropriate sample of exclusively breast fed newborn infants in Pakistan. These newborn infants will be well characterized at birth and sequential measurements of breast milk intake and energy expenditure will be made using doubly labeled water, big-impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry. (author)

  13. The principal fucosylated oligosaccharides of human milk exhibit prebiotic properties on cultured infant microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zhuo-Teng; Chen, Ceng; Kling, David E.; Liu, Bo; McCoy, John M; Merighi, Massimo; Heidtman, Matthew; Newburg, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Breast-fed infant microbiota is typically rich in bifidobacteria. Herein, major human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS) are assessed for their ability to promote the growth of bifidobacteria and to acidify their environment, key features of prebiotics. During in vitro anaerobic fermentation of infant microbiota, supplementation by HMOS significantly decreased the pH even greater than supplementation by fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic positive control. HMOS elevated lactate concentrations,...

  14. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of cow's milk protein allergy in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Brueton, Martin; Dupont, Christophe; Hill, David; Isolauri, Erika; Koletzko, Sibylle; Oranje, Arnold P; Staiano, Annamaria

    2007-01-01

    Our aim was to develop guidance for general paediatricians and primary care physicians in diagnosing and managing cow’s milk protein allergy in infants. The guidelines were developed by discussion based on existing national recommendations and standards, clinical experience and, whenever possible, evidence from the literature. Separate algorithms cover breast-fed and formula-fed infants. The recommendations emphasise the importance of comprehensive history taking and c...

  15. Effects of Iron in Neonates and Young Infants: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential to erythrocyte oxygen transport and is a catalyst for oxidative metabolism in all cells. Iron is absorbed by the duodenum and requires an acidic environment for optimal absorption. Iron is found for 70% in erythrocytes, and 30% in storage, and a small amount in myoglobin and cytochromes. Iron supplementation reduces anemia in breastfed infants and increases in significant dose-dependent effects hemoglobin and ferritin levels, transferrin saturation, mean cell volume, and tra...

  16. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... those who take care of children should learn infant and child CPR. See www.americanheart.org for ...

  17. Effects of diet on early stage cortical perception and discrimination of syllables differing in voice-onset time: A longitudinal ERP study in 3 and 6 month old infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of infant diet on early stage cortical processing of syllables was examined in 239 healthy infants who were breastfed (BF) or fed milk-based formula (MF) or soy formula (SF). Using an oddball paradigm, event-related potentials to consonant-vowel syllables differing in voice-onset time ...

  18. Effect of induction of meconium evacuation using per rectal laxatives on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in term infants: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Ravisha Srinivasjois; Ajay Sharma; Prakesh Shah; Maina Kava

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficacy of early meconium evacuation using per rectal laxatives on the level of serum bilirubin and the need for phototherapy in healthy term infants. Materials and Methods: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials comparing per rectal laxatives versus no intervention was conducted using English language articles identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Ovid, and CINAHL databases and bibliographies of selected articles. Eli...

  19. Validation of transcutaneous bilirubin nomogram for identifying neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in healthy Chinese term and late-preterm infants: a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangbin Yu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to prospectively validate a previously constructed transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB nomogram for identifying severe hyperbilirubinemia in healthy Chinese term and late-preterm infants. METHODS: this was a multicenter study that included 9,174 healthy term and late-preterm infants in eight hospitals of China. TcB measurements were performed using a JM-103 bilirubinometer. TcB values were plotted on a previously developed TcB nomogram, to identify the predictive ability for subsequent significant hyperbilirubinemia. RESULTS: in the present study, 972 neonates (10.6% developed significant hyperbilirubinemia. The 40th percentile of the nomogram could identify all neonates who were at risk of significant hyperbilirubinemia, but with a low positive predictive value (PPV (18.9%. Of the 453 neonates above the 95th percentile, 275 subsequently developed significant hyperbilirubinemia, with a high PPV (60.7%, but with low sensitivity (28.3%. The 75th percentile was highly specific (81.9% and moderately sensitive (79.8%. The area under the curve (AUC for the TcB nomogram was 0.875. CONCLUSIONS: this study validated the previously developed TcB nomogram, which could be used to predict subsequent significant hyperbilirubinemia in healthy Chinese term and late-preterm infants. However, combining TcB nomogram and clinical risk factors could improve the predictive accuracy for severe hyperbilirubinemia, which was not assessed in the study. Further studies are necessary to confirm this combination.

  20. The comparison of development quotient between preterm infants and full-term infants in Yuexiu District.%越秀区早产儿与足月儿发育商测评结果对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉春; 林丽军; 黄春

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To compare the birth weight,gender,labor presentation and development quotient between preterm infants and full -term infants,in order to study the development of infants. Methods:To check the gross motor,fine motion ability,adaptability,language competence,individual - social behavior of two - month - old infants by the measurement Scale for Neuropsychological development of infants between 0-3 years old, then calculated the development quotient. Professionals trained by the maternal and child health institution in Guangzhou were responsible for the measurement. Results:The average birth weight and average development quotient between two groups were statistically different,but the gender and labor presentation between two groups were not statistically different. Conclusion: The birth weight and development of preterm infants are worse than full - term infants. In order to improve the physical and intellectual development of preterm infants, we should measure the development quotient in early childhood,improve the family and community environment,and adopt corresponding educational methods.%目的:通过对早产儿和足月儿出生体重、性别、产式、发育商的测评和对比分析,了解婴幼儿的发育状况.方法:采用首都儿科研究所"0~3岁小儿神经精神发育检查量表",测查1 ~2月龄两组小儿的大运动、精细动作、适应能力、语言、个人-社交行为,计算发育商数.由经过广州市级妇幼保健机构专业培训并通过考核优秀的专职人员进行测试.结果:两组小儿平均出生体重之间的差异具有统计学意义,平均发育商之间的差异具有统计学意义,两组小儿性别之间、产式与发育商之间的差异没有统计学意义.结论:早产儿的体重和各项能力发育情况均较足月儿差,为了使早产儿的体格及智能发育得以正常发展,应该及早通过发育商的测评,积极指导改善社区家庭环境,采取恰当的科学教

  1. Baby massage ameliorates neonatal jaundicein full-term newborn infant%婴儿出生后早期抚触对新生足月儿黄疸的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凤会; 钱雷; 孙长虹; 王登艾

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of gentle baby massage on neonatal jaundice in full -term newborn infant. Methods Breastfed newborns without phototherapy were recruited in this study: 106 in massage group and 57 in control group. The mean stool frequency on dayl and day 2 were observed. The transcutaneous bilirubin levels on the second to the fifth day and serum total bilirubin levels on the fourth day were measured respectively. Results The mean stool frequency on day 1 and day 2 (4. 6 and 4.3) was significantly higher than that of the control group (3. 2 and 2.6)(P<0.05). The transcutaneous bilirubin levels on the second to the fifth day and serum total bilirubin levels on the fourth day were significantly decreased in the massage group, compared with the control group. Conclusion Baby massage at early stage after birth could reduce neonatal jaundice levels and is helpful in ameliorating neonatal jaundice.%目的 研究婴儿出生后早期抚触对新生足月儿黄疸的影响.方法 研究对象为母乳喂养的健康新生足月儿,对106例进行婴儿抚触护理,同时设60例未经抚触的新生足月儿对照组.观察出生后前2d排便频率,经皮黄疽检测仪检测出生后5d经皮胆红素值,出生后第4天生化分析仪检测血清胆红素.结果 抚触组新生儿大便频率第1天为4 6次/d,第2天为4.3次/d,比对照组的3.3次/d和2.6次/d显著升高(P<0.05).与正常对照组相比,经抚触新生儿皮肤的胆红素水平在出生后第2天至第5天显著下降(P<0 05).血清胆红素水平在第4天显著下降(P<0 05).结论 新生儿出生后早期阶段抚触能够减轻新生儿胆红素水平,对改善新生儿黄疽具有一定的临床意义.

  2. Desenvolvimento motor de crianças prematuras e a termo: uso da Alberta Infant Motor Scale Desarrollo motor de niños prematuros y a término: uso de la Alberta Infant Motor Scale Motor development of preterm and term infants: using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Candeia Maia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar o desenvolvimento motor de crianças nascidas pré-termo e a termo aos quatro e seis meses de idade, aplicando a Alberta Infant Motor Scale-AIMS na versão brasileira. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal, comparativo, realizado em Fortaleza-Ceará, entre novembro/ 2009 e maio/2010. amostragem por conveniência, foi constituída por 24 crianças pré-termo e 24 a termo. RESULTADOS: Nas crianças de quatro meses, verificou-se diferença estatisticamente significante na posição em pé (p=0,014 e, nas de seis meses, em todas as posições (prono, supina, sentada, em pé e escores totais. Quanto ao percentil, aos quatro e seis meses, respectivamente, 37,5% das crianças pré-termo mostraram desempenho excelente e 54,2%, normais. CONCLUSÃO: A análise estatística do desempenho motor grosso entre os grupos de crianças estudadas mostrou diferenças no desenvolvimento e evolução dos percentis da AIMS.OBJETIVOS: Comparar el desarrollo motor de niños nacidos pretérmino y a término a los cuatro y seis meses de edad, aplicando la Alberta Infant Motor Scale-AIMS en la versión brasileña. MÉTODOS: Estudio longitudinal, comparativo, realizado en Fortaleza-Ceará, entre noviembre/2009 y mayo/2010. La muestra por conveniencia, estuvo constituída por 24 niños pretérmino y 24 a término. RESULTADOS: En los niños de cuatro meses, se verificó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la posición podálica (p=0,014 y, en las de seis meses, en todas las posiciones (prona, supina, sentada, podálica y scores totales. En cuanto al percentil, a los cuatro y seis meses, respectivamente, el 37,5% de los niños pretérmino mostraron desempeño excelente y el 54,2%, normales. CONCLUSIÓN: El análisis estadístico del desempeño motor grueso entre los grupos de niños estudiados mostró diferencias en el desarrollo y evolución de los percentiles de la AIMS.OBJECTIVES: To compare the motor development of infants born preterm and term at

  3. Breast milk supplementation and preterm infant development after hospital discharge: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Desterro e Silva da Cunha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To assess the effect of maternal breast milk supplementation on the development of exclusively breast-fed very low birth weight preterm infants at 12 months of corrected age. Methods: A randomized clinical trial with 53 infants followed-up after discharge from the neonatal unit until a corrected gestational age of 12 months. Newborns in the intervention group were breastfed exclusively with maternal milk and received 2 g of a multinutrient supplement (Pré-Nan®, Nestlé, Vevey, Switzerland added to expressed breast milk twice a day until a corrected age of 4–6 months. The control group was exclusively breastfed without supplementation. After monthly follow-up, developmental assessment was performed using the Bayley III Scale. Results: There was no statistically significant difference on the Bayley III Scale between the intervention and control groups in any of the assessed domains: motor, cognitive, and communication. However, scores in the three domains were always higher in the group that received the supplement. There were a similar number of cases of developmental delay in both groups: seven (28% in the group that received the supplement and nine (33.3% in the group that was exclusively breastfed. Conclusions: The results failed to show an association between post-discharge multinutrient supplementation and development in the assessed infants.

  4. Infant diet, gender and the normative development of vagal tone and heart period during the first two years of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relationships between early postnatal diet and the development of cardiac regulation were studied using resting vagal tone and heart period measures obtained quarterly during infancy and at 2 years in 158 breast-fed, 159 milk formula-fed, and 148 soy formula-fed infants. Both measures increased acro...

  5. Progress in promoting breast-feeding, combating malnutrition, and composition and use of infant formula, 1981-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 90% of women in developing countries and 50 to 90% of women in industrialized countries now initiate breast-feeding, a marked improvement from 25 y ago. The duration of breast-feeding has lengthened, but fewer than 35% of infants worldwide are still exclusively breast-fed at 4 mo of age. C...

  6. Functional interpretation of metabolomics data as a new method for predicting long-term side effects: treatment of atopic dermatitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seul Ji; Woo, Sung-il; Ahn, Soo Hyun; Lim, Dong Kyu; Hong, Ji Yeon; Park, Jeong Hill; Lim, Johan; Kim, Mi-kyeong; Kwon, Sung Won

    2014-01-01

    Topical steroids are used for the treatment of primary atopic dermatitis (AD); however, their associated risk of serious complications is great due to the presence of vulnerable lesions in young children with AD. Topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs) are steroid-free, anti-inflammatory agents used for topical AD therapy. However, their use is prohibited in infants pimecrolimus cream with 0.05% desonide cream. We performed urinary metabolomics to predict long-term side effects. The 1% pimecrolimus cream displayed similar efficacy and exceptional safety compared with the 0.05% desonide cream. Metabolomics-based long-term toxicity tests effectively predicted long-term side effects using short-term clinical models. This applicable method for the functional interpretation of metabolomics data sets the foundation for future studies involving the prediction of the toxicity and systemic reactions caused by long-term medication administration. PMID:25491116

  7. Does CT scan performed at one week of age help predict neurodevelopmental outcome following perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic injury in term infants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cerebral imaging may be used as an adjunct to clinical assessment to help prognostician following a perinatal hypoxic ischaemic insult. A good correlation has been shown between MRI and neurologic outcome but data obtained using CT is less clear. The aim of this study was to determine whether CT of the brain performed at one week of age was prognostic for neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. Term infants with an umbilical artery pH<7.1 or Apgar score <6 at 5 minutes plus evidence of encephalopathy and no evidence of major congenital anomalies were reviewed and data obtained. Nearly all of the infants in the study (35) were part of a trial of selective head cooling. CT scans were randomised and reviewed independently by three practising neuroradiologists on two occasions. The CTs were graded as 0) normal; 1) white matter oedema; 2a) mild watershed infarction; 2b) moderate watershed infarction; 3) severe generalised infarction; 4) involvement of basal ganglia. Follow up neurological examination was performed at regular intervals, until 18 months of age, by a neonatologist. Developmental testing at 18 months using the revised Bailey Scales of Infant Development was performed by a psychologist. The study group consisted of 36 infants. Mean birth weight was 3555 (SD+/- 510)g, gestational age was 39.7 (+/- 1.4) weeks, umbilical or first arterial pH was 6.9 (+/- 0.2) and 5 min Apgar scores was 4.3 (+/- 1.9). Neurological outcome was designated as cerebral palsy (7), tone abnormalities before 12 months but only mild abnormality or normal examination at 18 months (2), developmental delay but normal physical examination (1) and functionally normal at 18 months (24). In 27% of infants the images were with normal limits. In only 17% there was overt basal ganglia damage and in 56% there was some degree of white matter abnormality. Overall, an abnormal CT had a sensitivity of 78%, and a specificity of 91% for the prediction

  8. Immunisation of premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Bonhoeffer, J; Siegrist, C‐A; Heath, P T

    2006-01-01

    Premature infants are at increased risk of vaccine preventable infections, but audits have shown that their vaccinations are often delayed. Early protection is desirable. While the evidence base for immunisation of preterm infants is limited, the available data support early immunisation without correction for gestational age. For a number of antigens the antibody response to initial doses may be lower than that of term infants, but protective concentrations are often achieved and memory succ...

  9. Early MRI in term infants with perinatal hypoxic–ischaemic brain injury: Interobserver agreement and MRI predictors of outcome at 2 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To compare diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and non-DWI magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and clinical biomarkers for prediction of 2 year developmental outcome in term infants with perinatal hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Materials and methods: Nineteen infants ≥36 weeks gestation with HIE were recruited and MRI performed day 3–7 (mean = 5). MRI was scored independently by three radiologists using a standardized scoring system. Lactate-to-N-acetylaspartate ratio (Lac:NAA) in the lentiform nucleus was calculated. Developmental assessment was performed at 2 years using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III). Interobserver agreement about abnormality in 10 brain regions was measured. Univariate analysis was performed to determine variables associated with adverse outcome (i.e., death or Bayley score for any domain <70). Results: Good interobserver agreement (kappa = 0.61–0.69) on scores for DWI was obtained for the cortex, putamen, and brainstem, but not for any region on non-DWI. A significant association was found between outcome and Lac:NAA (p < 0.003) and DWI scores for lentiform nucleus, thalamus, cortex, posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC), and paracentral white matter (p = 0.001–0.013), but for non-DWI score only in the vermis or brainstem. A combination of Lac:NAA ≥0.25 or DWI/apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) signal abnormality in the PLIC had 100% specificity and sensitivity for poor outcome. Conclusion: Interobserver agreement for non-DWI performed during the first week is poor. Agreement by three radiologists about the presence of abnormal signal within the PLIC on ADC/DWI images or elevation of Lac:NAA above 0.25 improved sensitivity without reducing the prognostic specificity of MRS in the 19 patients, but this requires validation in a larger group of infants with HIE who have been treated with hypothermia

  10. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preterm infant; Preemie; Premie ... The infant may have trouble breathing and keeping a constant body temperature. ... A premature infant may have signs of the following problems: Anemia Bleeding into the brain or damage to the brain's white ...

  11. Avaliação neurológica pelo método Dubowitz em recém-nascidos prematuros com idade corrigida de termo comparada a de nascidos a termo Neonatal neurological assessment by the Dubowitz method in preterm infants at term corrected age compared with term infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ortega Golin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a avaliação neurológica de recém-nascidos pré-termo em idade de termo com a de recém-nascidos a termo e verificar a presença de associação entre alterações na avaliação neurológica e características e intercorrências clínicas nos prematuros. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de 60 nascidos a termo e 30 prematuros do Hospital Estadual Mário Covas, em Santo André (SP, avaliados pelo método Dubowitz. Os pontos de corte da pontuação total foram 30,5 e 26 para comparar recém-nascidos pré-termo e a termo, respectivamente. Os prematuros foram avaliados com idade correspondente ao termo, na 37ª semana, e os do grupo controle, 48 horas após o nascimento. Todos os neonatos foram avaliados pela mesma examinadora, entre as mamadas, nos estágios 4 e 5 de sono e vigília. Para análise estatística, utilizaram-se testes de associação. RESULTADOS: 90% dos nascidos pré-termo não atingiram a pontuação esperada para a idade de termo (pOBJECTIVE: To compare neonatal neurological assessment of preterm newborn infants at term corrected age with term infants, and to identify the presence of association between neurologic abnormalities in preterm infants and demographic characteristics and neonatal clinical conditions. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 60 term and 30 preterm infants born at the Mario Covas State Hospital in Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. The Dubowitz method was applied to assess neurobehavior. The total score cut-offs of 30.5 and 26 were used to compare respectively preterm and term infants and to analyze the variables related to performance in the preterm group. Preterm newborns were evaluated at 37 post-conceptual weeks and the control group was evaluated 48 hours after birth. All newborns were evaluated by the same neurologist, between feedings and at sleep-awake stages 4 or 5. Statistical analysis was performed by association tests. RESULTS: 90% of the preterm infants did not reach the

  12. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals. PMID:755160

  13. Effects of breast-feeding compared with formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pan; Zhou, Jianghua; Yin, Yanan; Jing, Wenjuan; Luo, Biru; Wang, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effect of breast-feeding and formula-feeding on body composition of preterm infants. We searched the literature using PubMed, Cochrane Central Library Issue, Ovid (Medline), Embase and other resources such as Google Scholar, electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant articles; two reviewers collected and extracted data independently. All the authors assessed risk of bias independently using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). A fixed-effects meta-analysis was undertaken with RevMan 5 software (The Cochrane Collaboration) using the inverse variance method (P≥0·05; χ 2 test). In contrast, a random-effects meta-analysis was carried out. Altogether, 630 articles were identified using search strategy, and the references within retrieved articles were also assessed. A total of six studies were included in this systematic review. In formula-fed infants, fat mass was higher at term (mean difference 0·24 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·31) kg), fat-free mass was higher at 36 weeks of gestational (mean difference 0·12 (95 % CI 0·04, 0·21) kg) and the percentage of fat mass was higher at 36 weeks of gestation (mean difference 3·70 (95 % CI 1·81, 5·59) kg) compared with breast-fed infants. Compared with breast-feeding, formula-feeding is associated with altered body composition from birth to term in preterm infants. The effects of formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition from term to 12-month corrected age are inconclusive in our study. Well-designed studies are required in the future to explore the effects of formula-feeding compared with breast-feeding. PMID:27181767

  14. Long-term survival rates of gravity-assisted, adjustable differential pressure valves in infants with hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Anna-Felicitas; Schulz, Matthias; Schwarz, Karin; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The use of adjustable differential pressure valves with gravity-assisted units in shunt therapy of children with hydrocephalus was reported to be feasible and promising as a way to avoid chronic overdrainage. In this single-center study, the authors' experiences in infants, who have higher rates of shunt complications, are presented. METHODS All data were collected from a cohort of infants (93 patients [37 girls and 56 boys], less than 1 year of age [mean age 4.1 ± 3.1 months]) who received their first adjustable pressure hydrocephalus shunt as either a primary or secondary implant between May 2007 and April 2012. Rates of valve and shunt failure were recorded for a total of 85 months until the end of the observation period in May 2014. RESULTS During a follow-up of 54.2 ± 15.9 months (range 26-85 months), the Kaplan-Meier rate of shunt survival was 69.2% at 1 year and 34.1% at 85 months; the Kaplan-Meier rate of valve survival was 77.8% at 1 year and 56% at 85 months. Survival rates of the shunt were significantly inferior if the patients had previous shunt surgery. During follow-up, 44 valves were exchanged in cases of infection (n = 19), occlusion (n = 14), dysfunction of the adjustment unit (n = 10), or to change the gravitational unit (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS Although a higher shunt complication rate is observed in infant populations compared with older children, reasonable survival rates demonstrate the feasibility of using this sophisticated valve technology. The gravitational unit of this valve is well tolerated and its adjustability offers the flexible application of opening pressure in an unpredictable cohort of patients. This may adequately address overdrainage-related complications from early in treatment. PMID:26799410

  15. Survival of infants born to HIV-positive mothers, by feeding modality, in Rakai, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kagaayi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data comparing survival of formula-fed to breast-fed infants in programmatic settings are limited. We compared mortality and HIV-free of breast and formula-fed infants born to HIV-positive mothers in a program in rural, Rakai District Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred eighty two infants born to HIV-positive mothers were followed at one, six and twelve months postpartum. Mothers were given infant-feeding counseling and allowed to make informed choices as to whether to formula-feed or breast-feed. Eligible mothers and infants received antiretroviral therapy (ART if indicated. Mothers and their newborns received prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT if they were not receiving ART. Infant HIV infection was detected by PCR (Roche Amplicor 1.5 during the follow-up visits. Kaplan Meier time-to-event methods were used to compare mortality and HIV-free survival. The adjusted hazard ratio (Adjusted HR of infant HIV-free survival was estimated by Cox regression. Seventy-five infants (41% were formula-fed while 107 (59% were breast-fed. Exclusive breast-feeding was practiced by only 25% of breast-feeding women at one month postpartum. The cumulative 12-month probability of infant mortality was 18% (95% CI = 11%-29% among the formula-fed compared to 3% (95% CI = 1%-9% among the breast-fed infants (unadjusted hazard ratio (HR = 6.1(95% CI = 1.7-21.4, P-value < 0.01. There were no statistically significant differentials in HIV-free survival by feeding choice (86% in the formula-fed compared to 96% in breast-fed group (Adjusted RH = 2.8[95%CI = 0.67-11.7, P-value = 0.16] CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Formula-feeding was associated with a higher risk of infant mortality than breastfeeding in this rural population. Our findings suggest that formula-feeding should be discouraged in similar African settings.

  16. How Much Iron is Needed for Breastfeeding Infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Frank R

    2015-01-01

    The iron requirement for breastfed infants remains controversial. Given the impact of iron on neurodevelopmental outcomes and the questionable impact of iron supplements after iron deficiency has occurred, its importance as a nutrient in this population cannot be down played. Infants are born with relatively large body stores of iron that are marginally related to maternal iron status in developed countries. Delayed cord clamping may increase these fetal stores, but at the present time this is only recommended for preterm infants who are born with low iron stores. The diagnosis of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) remains problematic though new laboratory tests (measures of reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration and serum transferrin receptor) hold promise in developed countries. The present evidence supports the potential benefits of iron supplementation of exclusively breastfed infants after 4 months of age, by which time the iron stores present at birth are depleted. This deficit cannot be made up even if the small amounts of iron in human milk are completely absorbed. PMID:26239113

  17. The Challenge of Meeting Nutrient Needs of Infants and Young Children during the Period of Complementary Feeding: An Evolutionary Perspective 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2013-01-01

    Breast-fed infants and young children need complementary foods with a very high nutrient density (particularly for iron and zinc), especially at ages 6–12 mo. However, in low-income countries, their diet is usually dominated by cereal-based porridges with low nutrient density and poor mineral bioavailability. Complementary feeding diets typically fall short in iron and zinc and sometimes in other nutrients. These gaps in nutritional adequacy of infant diets have likely been a characteristic o...

  18. Sun Exposure and Vitamin D Supplementation in Relation to Vitamin D Status of Breastfeeding Mothers and Infants in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study

    OpenAIRE

    Adekunle Dawodu; Barbara Davidson; Woo, Jessica G.; Yong-Mei Peng; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M.; Maria de Lourdes Guerrero; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2015-01-01

    Although vitamin D (vD) deficiency is common in breastfed infants and their mothers during pregnancy and lactation, a standardized global comparison is lacking. We studied the prevalence and risk factors for vD deficiency using a standardized protocol in a cohort of breastfeeding mother-infant pairs, enrolled in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study, designed to examine longitudinally the effect of environment, diet and culture. Mothers planned to provide breast milk for at least three m...

  19. Tolerance and safety of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei in combination with Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis in a prebiotic-containing infant formula: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Vlieger, A.M.; Robroch, A.; van Buuren, S; Kiers, J; Rijkers, G.; Benninga, M A; Biesebeke, R. te

    2009-01-01

    The addition of probiotics to infant formula has been shown to be an efficient way to increase the number of beneficial bacteria in the intestine in order to promote a gut flora resembling that of breast-fed infants. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety and tolerance of a combination of two probiotic strains in early infancy. A group of 126 newborns were randomised to receive a prebiotic-containing starter formula supplemented with Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracas...

  20. Infant feeding practices among mildly wasted children: a retrospective study on Nias Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inayati Dyah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the infant feeding practices of participating mothers who were recruited into a research project aimed at improving the nutritional status of mildly wasted children (-scores aged ≥ 6 to Methods Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers of the index children (n = 215 who were admitted to the community program for mildly wasted children in the study area. Four focus groups and twenty in-depth interviews were conducted to explore further information on infant feeding practices in the study area. Results Retrospective results indicated that 6% of the mothers never breastfed. Fifty two percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding within six hours of birth, but 17% discarded colostrum. Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age was practiced by 12%. Seventy-four percent of the mothers offered supplementary liquids besides breast milk within the first 7 days of life, and 14% of infants received these supplementary liquids from 7 days onwards until 6 months of age. Moreover, 79% of the infants were given complementary foods (solid, semi-solid, or soft foods before 6 months of age. About 9% of the children were breastfed at least two years. Less than one in five of the mildly wasted children (19% were breastfed on admission to the community program. Qualitative assessments found that inappropriate infant feeding practices were strongly influenced by traditional beliefs of the mothers and paternal grandmothers in the study areas. Conclusion Generally, suboptimal infant feeding was widely practiced among mothers of mildly wasted children in the study area on Nias Island, Indonesia. To promote breastfeeding practices among mothers on Nias Island, appropriate nutrition training for community workers and health-nutrition officers is needed to improve relevant counseling skills. In addition, encouraging public nutrition education that promotes breastfeeding, taking into account social

  1. Persistent organic pollutants in Swedish first-time mothers and effects on infant health

    OpenAIRE

    Lignell, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    Humans are exposed to a variety of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that have been spread to the environment because of various human activities. Food is the main source of exposure to most POPs. Many POPs are lipi d - soluble, accumulate in the hu man body and are easily transferred to the fetus and to breastfed infants through breast milk. POPs have been shown to cause a number of adv erse effects in animals, includ ing effects on reproducti...

  2. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF INFANT FEEDING PRACTICES AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN EASTERN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ratan; Amitava

    2015-01-01

    Poor infant feeding practices and their consequences are one of the world's major problems and a serious obstacle to social and economic development. Breastfeeding is one of the most important determinants of child survival , birth spacing , and the prevent ion of childhood infections. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding depend on its initiation , duration , and the age at which the breastfed child is weaned. Breastfeeding practices vary among differ...

  3. Impact of adherence to WHO infant feeding recommendations on later risk of obesity and non-communicable diseases: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Bland, Ruth M; Connelly, Andrew; Reilly, John J

    2016-07-01

    Adherence to WHO infant feeding recommendations has short-term benefits and may also help in the prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study reviewed the evidence on whether adherence to all elements of the WHO infant feeding recommendations (comparison group those exclusively breastfed to 6 months, introduced to appropriate complementary feeding from 6 months, with continued breastfeeding to at least 24 months; exposure group characterised by non-adherence to any of the three recommendations) is associated with reduced risk of later obesity or cardiometabolic disease. The population of interest was children not classified as very low weight (weight-for-age z-score >-3.0). MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, CINAHL plus, ProQuest Dissertations and Thesis were systematically searched from 2001 to July 2014, manual reference searching of a birth cohort register (http://www.birthcohorts.net/) as well as papers identified in the search and selected journals was carried out. The database search yielded 9050 records, 275 English-language full-text articles were screened, but no studies were eligible, failing to meet the following criteria: comparison (213); exposure (14); population (3); relevant outcome (5); outcome before 24 months (9); insufficient information provided (30); plus one study was qualitative. Eight studies met the inclusion criterion of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months, but did not meet the other inclusion criteria. The present study has revealed an important gap in the evidence on NCD prevention, and suggestions for addressing this evidence gap are provided. PMID:26259927

  4. Thymic size in uninfected infants born to HIV-positive mothers and fed with pasteurized human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Hasselbalch, H; Ersbøll, A K;

    2003-01-01

    -fed infants. RESULTS: At birth the Ti was reduced in infants born to HIV-infected mothers in comparison with that in control infants but this difference disappeared when their birthweights were taken into consideration (Ti/w-ratio). At 4 mo of age the geometric mean Ti of infants fed donor milk was 23.8 and......AIM: To examine the size of the thymus in uninfected infants born to HIV-positive mothers and to study the effects of feeding by human donor milk on the size of the thymus in these infants. METHODS: The absolute and relative thymic size was assessed by sonography as thymic index (Ti), and the Ti....../weight-ratio (Ti/w) at birth and at 4 mo of age in 12 healthy uninfected infants born to HlV-infected mothers. All infants were exclusively fed pasteurized donor milk. The results were compared with those obtained from a previous cohort of exclusively breastfed, partially breastfed and exclusively formula...

  5. The influence of impact delivery mode, lactation time, infant gender, maternal age and rural or urban life on total number of Lactobacillus in breast milk Isfahan - Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Mansoureh; Mirlohi, Maryam; Poursina, Farkhondeh; Madani, Golnoush; Khoshhali, Mehri; Bahreini, Nimah; Safaei, Hajieh Ghasemian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast milk is known as the most crucial postpartum issue in metabolic and immunologic programming of neonatal health. Human milk microbial changes over Lactation. The factors influencing the milk microbiome as well as potential impact of microbes on infant health have not yet been discovered. The objective was to identify pre- and post-natal factors that can potentially influence the bacterial communities inhabiting human milk. Materials and Methods: Breast milk samples (n = 40) with all full-term breastfed infants were collected from lactating randomized. Information on personal characteristics, dietary habits, information about infants were collected after birth. The samples were plated with serial dilutions on three selective culture media man rogosa sharp and then colonies were counted. Colonies tested for catalase reaction, Gram-staining and microscopic examination. Results: The result of this study showed that the overall incidence of positive Lactobacillus in mother's milk was 87.5%. The results based on (infant gender, mode of delivery, rural or urban and lactation time) rural or urban and lactation time were significant (P < 0.05). The results showed that all of the variables were significant in this regression model (P < 0.001). The median of log10 Lactobacillus counts in rural mothers, vaginal delivery, infant male gender and Lactation time for first 3-month were meaningfully high. Conclusions: The findings of this study about the breast milk Lactobacillus potential probiotic bacteria of healthy Iranian mothers, suggested that the breast milk microbiome is significantly influenced by several factors, mode of delivery, rural or urban and lactation time. PMID:26322289

  6. Bilirubin nomograms for identification of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in healthy term and late-preterm infants:a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang-Bin Yu; Shu-Ping Han; Chao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hyperbilirubinemia occurs in most healthy term and late-preterm infants, and must be monitored to identify those who might develop severe hyperbilirubinemia. Total serum bilirubin (TSB) or transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) nomograms have been developed and validated to identify neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. This study aimed to review previously published studies and compare the TcB nomograms with the TSB nomogram, and to determine if the former has the same predictive value for signifi cant hyperbilirubinemia as TSB nomogram does. Methods: A predefined search strategy and inclusion criteria were set up. We selected studies assessing the predictive ability of TSB/TcB nomograms to identify significant hyperbilirubinemia in healthy term and latepreterm infants. Two independent reviewers assessed the quality and extracted the data from the included studies. Meta-Disc 1.4 analysis software was used to calculate the pooled sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio of TcB/TSB nomograms. A pooled summary of the receiver operating characteristic of the TcB/TSB nomograms was created. Results: After screening 187 publications from electronic database searches and reference lists of eligible articles, we included 14 studies in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Eleven studies were of medium methodological quality. The remaining three studies were of low methodological quality. Seven studies evaluated the TcB nomograms, and seven studies assessed TSB nomograms. There were no differences between the predictive abilities of the TSB and TcB nomograms (the pooled area under curve was 0.819 vs. 0.817). Conclusions: This study showed that TcB nomograms had the same predictive value as TSB nomograms, both of which could be used to identify subsequent signifi cant hyperbilirubinemia. But this result should be interpreted cautiously because some methodological limitations of these included studies were identifi ed in this review.

  7. Anemia em lactentes de baixa renda em aleitamento materno exclusivo Anemia in low-income exclusively breastfed infants

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio A. Torres; Josefina A.P. Braga; José Augusto A.C. Taddei; Fernando J. Nóbrega

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO:Verificar o comportamento dos valores da hemoglobina e a prevalência de anemia entre lactentes de termo de 3 a 6 meses de idade em aleitamento materno exclusivo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal em 242 lactentes de 3 a 6 meses de idade com peso de nascimento superior a 2.500 g, em aleitamento materno exclusivo e em acompanhamento no Programa de Promoção do Crescimento e Desenvolvimento do Lactente do Programa Einstein na Comunidade de Paraisópolis. A dosagem de hemoglobina foi realizada p...

  8. Hypernatremic dehydration due to lactation failure in an exclusively breastfed neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ahmed Zaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 13-day-old exclusively breastfed neonate, admitted with a history of fever, poor feeding, lethargy and decreased urine output. The mother had history of lactation failure. The neonate had severe hypernatremia, acute renal failure and metabolic acidosis. Renal ultrasound was normal, but the sodium level in mother′s milk was 96 mEq/L (normal 7 ± 2 mEq/L. The neonate required peritoneal dialysis on the second day of admission. The biochemical investigations gradually returned to normal and the neonate was discharged on day 12 of admission. We highlight the importance of lactation management and supportive counseling to prevent complications like hypernatremic dehydration due to lactation failure.

  9. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations in infant growth monitoring - a collaboration with WHO (partly RCA). Report on the first research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Coordinated Research Project (CRP) came about as an initiative to collaborate with the WHO Multicenter Growth Reference Study (MGRS) to generate new growth reference data for breastfed babies using stable isotopes. The WHO MRGS measures growth using anthropometric measurements (e.g. height and weight) in healthy infants and young children in different countries and continents. All participants are fed according to strict criteria regarding duration and frequency of breast-feeding. The MGRS' main goal is to develop a truly international growth standard to look at growth pattern of healthy breast-fed babies. Nevertheless, the composition of the growth (fat/lean tissue) and the nutrient intake that produced the standard growth were not originally included in the study. In order to address these and other important issues related to the baby's body composition and growth, a fruitful collaboration between the WHO and the IAEA has been established. The Agency technical experts and consultants will assist developing countries to carry out isotopic work to measure infant's growth using the in vivo kinetics technique. The objective of this CRP is to measure breast milk intake, using stable isotopes in a subgroup of breast-fed infants growing normally, and to assess their nutrient intakes. Furthermore, the results from the participating projects will provide new and valuable information on the nutrient requirement of healthy breast-fed babies, who were fed according to the WHO standard protocols

  10. Exclusive Breastfeeding among Preterm Low Birth Weight Infants at One Month Follow-up after Hospital Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishrat Jahan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Establishment and maintenance of breastfeeding in preterm low birth weight (PT LBW neonates after discharge from hospital is challenging and may be affected by multiple factors. We designed this study to find out the association of these factors with breastfeeding in our population. Objectives: To observe the rate of exclusive breasrfeeding (EBF among the PT LBW neonates at one month follow up and to identify the factors that are related with the maintenance of EBF. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted during the period from July 2009 to October 2011 in Enam Medical College Hospital (EMCH. Preterm infants ≤ 34 wks gestation, stayed in the NICU for >3 days and discharged home were eligible. Mothers were interviewed at one month follow-up after discharge. Infants who were given only breast milk up to 4 weeks were termed as “Exclusively breastfed (EBF” and who were given formula milk in addition were labeled as “Nonexclusively breastfed (NEBF”. Baseline information regarding maternal demography, delivery of the baby, feeding during discharge was taken from database of neonatal ward. Results: Among 89 infants, 37 (42% were female and 52 (58% were male, including 5 twins. Gestational age ranged from 29 to 34 weeks (mean 32±2, and birth weight ranged from 1100 to 2200 grams (mean 1763±20 g. At one month follow up visit 19% (17/89 were found to be NEBF and 81% were EBF. Factors significantly associated with EBF were shorter duration of hospital stay (p=0.001, method of feeding at discharge (p=0.001, mode of delivery (p=0.004, below average socio-economic status (p=0.03, maternal education (p=0.02, number of antenatal visits (p=0.02 and larger birth weight (p=0.038. Conclusion: A variety of factors may affect EBF in PT LBW babies. Extensive counseling of the mothers during antenatal visits, counseling of the family members regarding the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding is necessary. Support should be

  11. Protein needs early in life and long-term health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, Kim F; Greer, Frank R

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this review was to summarize selected health aspects of protein intake during the first 2 y of life. During this period there is a marked increase in protein intake from an intake of ∼ 5% of energy from protein (PE%) in an exclusively breastfed infant to ∼ 15 PE% when complementary foods have been introduced. At this age, mean protein intake is ∼ 3 times as high as the physiologic requirement, but some children receive 4-5 times their physiologic requirement. Protein from cow milk constitutes a main part of protein intake in toddlers and seems to have a specific effect on insulin-like growth factor I concentrations and growth. Meat has a high protein content, but the small amounts of meat needed to ensure good iron status have less impact on total protein intake. The difference in protein intake between breastfed and formula-fed infants is likely to play a role in the difference between breastfed and formula-fed infants. There is emerging evidence that high protein intake during the first 2 y of life is a risk factor for later development of overweight and obesity. It therefore seems prudent to avoid a high protein intake during the first 2 y of life. This could be accomplished by decreasing the upper allowable limit of the protein content of infant formulas for the first year of life and limiting the intake of cow milk in the second year of life. PMID:24452233

  12. Selenium deficiency and the effects of supplementation on preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Germano B. O. N. Freitas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to review the literature about blood concentrations of selenium associated with gestational age, feeding, supplementation and related clinical features in preterm infants. Data sources: Systematic review in the following databases: MEDLINE, PubMed, Google academics, SciELO. org, ScienceDirect (Elsevier and CINAHL-Plus with Full Text (EBSCO. Articles published up to January 2013 with the keywords "selenium deficiency", "selenium supplementation", "neonates", "infants", "newborn" and "preterm infants" were selected. Data synthesis: The studies reported that low blood selenium levels are associated with increased risk of respiratory diseases. Preterm infants, especially with low birth weight, presented lower selenium levels. Selenium deficiency has also been associated with the use of oral infant formula, enteral and parenteral nutrition (with or without selenium addition. The optimal dose and length of selenium supplementation is not well-established, since they are based only on age group and selenium ingestion by breastfed children. Furthermore, the clinical status of the infant affected by conditions that may increase oxidative stress, and consequently, selenium requirements is not taken into account. Conclusions: Prematurity and low birth weight can contribute to low blood selenium in premature infants. Selenium supplementation seems to minimize or prevent clinical complications caused by prematurity.

  13. Assay of ghrelin concentration in infant formulas and breast milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Savino; Elisa Petrucci; Maria Maddalena Lupica; Giuliana Eva Nanni; Roberto Oggero

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To test if total ghrelin is present in infant formulas. METHODS: Using a radioimmunoassay, we measured total ghrelin concentrations in 19 samples of commercial infant formulas and in 20 samples of human milk. We also determined ghrelin concentration in the serum of infants and lactating mothers. RESULTS: Ghrelin concentrations were significantly higher in artificial milk (2007.1 ± 1725.36 pg/mL) than in human milk (828.17 ± 323.32 pg/mL) (P = 0.005). The mean ghrelin concentration in infant serum (n = 56) was 1115.86 ± 42.89 pg/mL, and was significantly higher (P = 0.023) in formula-fed infants (1247.93 ± 328.07 pg/mL) than in breast-fed infants (1045.7 ± 263.38 pg/mL). The mean serum ghrelin concentration (mean ± SD) in lactating mothers (n = 20) was 1319.18 ± 140.18 pg/mL. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that total ghrelin is present in infant formulas. This finding raises diverse questions regarding the uptake, absorp-tion and metabolic effects of this hormone.

  14. [Thromboembolic events, abortions and a sick infant--unusual presentation of a vitamin deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, I; Hennermann, J B; von Arnim-Baas, A; Driever, P H; Massenkeil, G

    2008-12-01

    Homocysteine is a risk factor for the development of thromboembolic disorders and vascular diseases. Furthermore, complications during pregnancy have been ascribed to hyperhomocysteinemia. We report on a pregnant woman being substituted by high doses folic acid for hyperhomocysteinemia. Thereby, the underlying pernicious anemia was masked. After birth, the neonate was exclusively breastfed. At the age of 5 months, the infant had to be admitted to hospital due to severe vitamin B(12)-deficiency. Using parenteral vitamin B(12) substitution, homocystein levels of the mother normalized and the infant throve and prospered again. PMID:18815762

  15. Effect of delayed cord clamping in term infants:a meta-analysis%延迟脐带结扎对足月儿影响的meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余章斌; 韩树萍; 沙莉; 董小玥; 陈玉林; 邱玉芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价延迟脐带结扎(DCC)对足月儿的影响。方法检索Cochrane图书馆、PubMed、EMBASE、中国知网、维普、万方数据库,检索时间均从1970年1月起至2013年4月;对纳入文献进行质量评价,并采用RevMan 5.1.0软件进行meta分析。结果共纳入10篇文献,总样本量为1623例。Meta分析结果显示,与立即结扎脐带相比,DCC可以明显提高足月儿出生后血红蛋白的水平(MD=2.19,95%CI:0.36~4.02),对足月儿6个月内血红蛋白的水平没有影响(MD=0.29,95%CI:-0.17~0.75),对足月儿6个月内贫血的发生率没有影响(RR=0.71,95%CI:0.45~1.12),但增加足月儿出生后红细胞增多症的发生率(RR=2.87,95%CI:1.24~6.62),对于高胆红素血症光疗没有影响(RR=2.46,95%CI:0.93~6.52)。结论DCC能改善足月儿出生后的血红蛋白水平;但关于合适的延长时间没有研究进行评价,需要进一步开展高质量、大样本随机对照试验评价合适的DCC的时间。%Objective To systematically evaluate the effectiveness of delayed cord clamping (DCC) in term infants. Methods The data of the Cochrane library, PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI , VIP, Wanfang from 1 January 1970 to 30 April 2013 were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) of DCC in term infants were included.RevMan 5.1.0 was used in the statis-tical analysis. Results Ten studies involving 1623 participants were included. Meta-analysis based on included studies showed that:compared with immediate cord clamping (ICC), DCC improved the hemoglobin levels at birth (MD=2.19, 95%CI:0.36, 4.02) and increased the incidence of polycythaemia (RR=2.87, 95%CI:1.24, 6.62). Compared with ICC, DCC showed no signi-ficant difference in the phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia (RR=2.46, 95%CI: 0.93, 6.52), the hemoglobin levels within 6 months (MD=0.29, 95%CI:-0.17, 0.75), and the incidence of anemia (RR=0.71, 95%CI:0.45, 1.12). Conclusions DCC can improve

  16. Interleukin-8 and Its Receptors in Human Milk from Mothers of Full-Term and Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Adem; Tunc, Turan; Erdem, Galip; Yerebasmaz, Neslihan; Tas, Ahmet; Beken, Serdar; Basbozkurt, Gokalp; Saldir, Mehmet; Zenciroglu, Aysegul; Yaman, Halil

    2016-06-01

    In addition to its nutritional benefits, human milk also has bioactive elements. Limited immunological functions of newborns are supported and altered by the immunological elements of mother milk. Chemokines are of importance among these immune factors. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) has been demonstrated in mother's milk, and its receptors, CXC chemokine receptors (CXCR)-1 and CXCR-2, were detected on cells, responsible for immunological reactions and mammary glandular cells. The soluble forms of these receptors are yet to be described in human milk. In this study, it was aimed to assess the IL-8 levels and the concentrations of its receptors in colostrum and mature mother's milk in regard to preterm and term delivery. The results of this study indicated a decline in IL-8 levels with the lactation stage, but no difference was observed between term and preterm mother's milk. Regarding the CXCR-1 and CXCR-2, the concentrations of these receptors were similar in both colostrum and mature milk. Furthermore, there was not any significant difference between term and preterm mother's milk. In conclusion, this is the first study to investigate the concentrations of CXCR-1 and CXCR-2 with the levels of IL-8 in colostrum and mature human milk of term and preterm newborns. The alterations in IL-8 levels were similar in some of the studies reported. CXCR-1 and CXCR-2 levels did not demonstrate any significant difference. Further studies are required to investigate the soluble forms of these receptors and their relation to IL-8 with larger cohort. PMID:27105439

  17. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Rupa, E-mail: Rupa.Basu@oehha.ca.gov [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States); Harris, Maria [School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States); Sie, Lillian [School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and 23 PM{sub 2.5} constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), respectively. Models were adjusted for individual demographic characteristics, apparent temperature, month and year of birth, region, and socioeconomic indicators. Higher full gestational exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and several PM{sub 2.5} constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM{sub 2.5} constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: • Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. • Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. • Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. • Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity.

  18. Growth and development of term infants fed with milk with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BEN Xiao-ming 贲晓明; ZHOU Xiao-yu 周晓玉; ZHAO Wei-hua 赵卫华; YU Wen-liang 喻文亮; PAN Wei 潘伟; ZHANG Wei-li 张伟利; WU Sheng-mei 吴圣楣; Christien M. Van Beusekom; Anne Schaafsma

    2004-01-01

    @@ Presently, there is growing interest in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), which are considered a major determinant of growth, visual and neural development, and long-term health.1 Two groups of LCPUFAs have received special interest: homologues of linoleic acid (LA) of the n-6 series, which are precursors of arachidonic acid (AA), and homologues of α-linolenic acid (ALA) of the n-3 series, which are precursors of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  19. Should long-term prophylactic use of probiotics for infants and young children give cause for concern?

    OpenAIRE

    Yazdankhah, Siamak P.; Narvhus, Judith A.; Eggesbø, Merete; Midtvedt, Tore; Lassen, Jørgen; Halvorsen, Ragnhild

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, several probiotic strains have been investigated for health benefit effects and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has been one of the most studied probiotic strains. Short-term beneficial effects on viral infectious diarrhoea have been reported in a number of studies, but a prophylactic effect on diarrhoea has not been documented. Furthermore, while some studies have reported a prophylactic, or even a curative, effect of LGG on atopic eczema in young children, more recent s...

  20. Early complementary feeding is associated with low nutritional status of young infants recovering from diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, R; Islam, A; Kabir, I; Habte, D

    1996-06-01

    Young infants admitted to hospital for diarrhoea were studied to identify and understand the reasons for early complementary feeding and to examine its effect on nutritional status. Of 132 infants, 71 percent were being breastfed, 24 percent had already stopped, and 5 percent had never been breastfed. Complementary feeds were started by the mothers when infants' median age (range) was 27 (1-180) days. Mothers' perceptions regarding breastmilk being insufficient (53 per cent) or causing diarrhoea (19 percent), were the major reasons for complementary feeding. The mean weight-for-age of the infants given complementary feeds before the age of 2 months was 72 percent of the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) standards, compared to 82 percent in those starting after 2 months of age (P = 0.01). Similarly, the mean weight-for-length in these two groups were 86 and 91 percent, respectively (P = 0.04). Initiation of early complementary feeding is associated with infant malnutrition and this alarming trend should be strongly discouraged. PMID:8699586

  1. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders;

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  2. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  3. Inter-pregnancy Weight Change and Risks of Severe Birth-Asphyxia-Related Outcomes in Singleton Infants Born at Term: A Nationwide Swedish Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Stefan; Cnattingius, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal overweight and obesity are associated with increased risks of birth-asphyxia-related outcomes, but the mechanisms are unclear. If a change of exposure (i.e., maternal body mass index [BMI]) over time influences risks, this would be consistent with a causal relationship between maternal BMI and offspring risks. Our objective was to investigate associations between changes in maternal BMI between consecutive pregnancies and risks of birth-asphyxia-related outcomes in the second offspring born at term. Methods and Findings This study was a prospective population-based cohort study that included 526,435 second-born term (≥37 wk) infants of mothers with two consecutive live singleton term births in Sweden between January 1992 and December 2012. We estimated associations between the difference in maternal BMI between the first and second pregnancy and risks of low Apgar score (0–6) at 5 min, neonatal seizures, and meconium aspiration in the second-born offspring. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for BMI at first pregnancy, maternal height, maternal age at second delivery, smoking, education, mother´s country of birth, inter-pregnancy interval, and year of second delivery. Analyses were also stratified by BMI (pregnancy. Risks of low Apgar score, neonatal seizures, and meconium aspiration increased with inter-pregnancy weight gain. Compared with offspring of mothers with stable weight (BMI change of −1 to pregnancy. A study limitation was the lack of data on the effects of obstetric interventions and neonatal resuscitation efforts. Conclusions Risks of birth-asphyxia-related outcomes increased with maternal weight gain between pregnancies. Preventing weight gain before and in between pregnancies may improve neonatal health. PMID:27270217

  4. Infant Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Activities Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Depression Among Women Depression Treatment Resources Publications Maternal and Infant Health Pregnancy Complications Severe Maternal Morbidity Weight Gain During Pregnancy ...

  5. Amino acid composition of parturient plasma, the intervillous space of the placenta and the umbilical vein of term newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Camelo Jr.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of amino acids in maternal plasma, placental intervillous space and fetal umbilical vein in order to identify the similarities and differences in amino acid levels in these compartments of 15 term newborns from normal pregnancies and deliveries. All amino acids, except tryptophan, were present in at least 186% higher concentrations in the intervillous space than in maternal venous blood, with the difference being statistically significant. This result contradicted the initial hypothesis of the study that the plasma amino acid levels in the placental intervillous space should be similar to those of maternal plasma. When the maternal venous compartment was compared with the umbilical vein, we observed values 103% higher on the fetal side which is compatible with currently accepted mechanisms of active amino acid transport. Amino acid levels of the placental intervillous space were similar to the values of the umbilical vein except for proline, glycine and aspartic acid, whose levels were significantly higher than fetal umbilical vein levels (average 107% higher. The elevated levels of the intervillous space are compatible with syncytiotrophoblast activity, which maintain high concentrations of free amino acids inside syncytiotrophoblast cells, permitting asymmetric efflux or active transport from the trophoblast cells to the blood in the intervillous space. The plasma amino acid levels in the umbilical vein of term newborns probably may be used as a standard of local normality for clinical studies of amino acid profiles.

  6. Cornual Heterotopic Pregnancy after Bilateral Salpingectomy and Uterine Septum Resection Resulting in Term Delivery of a Healthy Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Oral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic pregnancy is the simultaneous occurrence of two or more implantation sites. A 25-year-old infertile patient with a history of bilateral salpingectomy, uterine septum resection, and left cornual resection was diagnosed with heterotopic pregnancy in her second in vitro fertilization trial. She attended our clinic when she was 7-week pregnant, complaining initially of severe abdominal pain. Findings associated with peritoneal irritation were positive during the physical examination. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed right cornual ectopic pregnancy with a live fetus in the middle of the uterine cavity. Also free fluid was noted in the pelvis. A diagnosis of heterotopic pregnancy with rupture of the cornual pregnancy was made. She underwent emergency laparoscopy with aspiration of the ruptured ectopic pregnancy, suturing to the entire visible cornual margins, and assurance of good haemostasis. Her recovery was uneventful and she continued receiving care in our obstetric unit. She delivered a healthy newborn by cesarean section at term.

  7. Effect of induction of meconium evacuation using per rectal laxatives on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in term infants: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravisha Srinivasjois

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the efficacy of early meconium evacuation using per rectal laxatives on the level of serum bilirubin and the need for phototherapy in healthy term infants. Materials and Methods: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials comparing per rectal laxatives versus no intervention was conducted using English language articles identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Ovid, and CINAHL databases and bibliographies of selected articles. Eligible studies were assessed for the risk of bias in conduct and reporting. Results: A total of three trials (n = 469 mostly with "unclear risk" were eligible for inclusion. Two trials used glycerin suppository whereas one used glycerin enema for meconium evacuation. Meta-analysis was not possible due to clinical heterogeneity in the choice of laxatives and frequency of intervention. In all the three studies, serum bilirubin levels at 48 h and the need for phototherapy was not significantly different between the two groups. Passage of first meconium and the transitional stools occurred significantly early in the intervention group compared to controls. Conclusion: Early evacuation of meconium using per rectal laxatives does not offer any significant clinical advantage for neonatal jaundice.

  8. Very high vitamin D supplementation rates among infants aged 2 months in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crocker Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency during infancy may lead to rickets and possibly other poor health outcomes. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months. Breast milk is the best food for infants but does not contain adequate vitamin D. Health Canada recommends all breastfed infants receive a daily vitamin D supplement of 400 IU; however, there appears to be limited current Canadian data as to whether parents or caregivers are following this advice. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of vitamin D supplementation among 2-month old infants in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada. Methods Mothers of all healthy infants born between April and May 2010 were approached to participate. Telephone surveys were conducted with 577 mothers (response rate 56% when their infants turned 2 months. Results Over half of the infants received only breast milk in the week prior to the survey. One third received a mixture of breast milk and infant formula and 10% received only formula. About 80% of the infants were supplemented with vitamin D at 2 months. Infants who received only breast milk were most likely to be supplemented with vitamin D (91%. Over 60% of the infants had a total vitamin D intake of 300- Conclusions About 90% of the infants received breast milk at 2 months of age. The vitamin D supplementation rate was 80%. Future studies are needed to monitor breastfeeding duration and vitamin D supplementation rates as infants get older.

  9. Establishment and application of deuterium dilution method for measuring breast milk intake of Pakistani infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project will be a collaborative study between the Pakistan Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) and Department of Pediatrics, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS). It may also involve the Polyclinic, Islamabad. Pediatricians who have had experience in lactation management clinic and hence breast-milk intake studies by conventional methods (test weighing) will be formally involved in the study. Human milk intake and growth performance of exclusively breast-fed infants will be monitored over the first six months of life. The deuterium dilution method will be used for measuring breast-milk intake and will be compared with the test weighing method. The growth of exclusively breast-fed children will be compared with the NCH growth standards. Records of illnesses that may lead to suboptimal growth will be kept. Episodes of diarrhoea, in particular, will be correlated with growth faltering. Acquisition of Helicobacter pylori detected by the use of the 13C Urea breath test at three month intervals during the study period examined for relationships with diarrhoea. Thus, this study will not only provide preliminary data on breast-milk intake (based on a more accurate isotopic method as compared to test weighing) but also on the growth patterns of exclusively breast-fed infants. Further, information on the significance of Helicobacter pylori to infection with episodes of diarrhoeal infection and growth faltering. (author)

  10. Infant-feeding practices in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, N A; el-Sabban, F F

    1999-01-01

    A survey was conducted to study the practices of infant-feeding and the influencing factors in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. It involved 375 mothers of different nationalities and backgrounds and 300 healthy infants. The mothers were interviewed at four primary health care clinics in Al-Ain. Results showed that 46% of infants were breastfed for 4-6 months. The mother's nationality and her educational status were significant influences on the mother's decision to exclusively breast-feed the infant, for how long and when to introduce supplementary food. Fresh cow and goat milk were the most common supplements. Inclusion of baby formula as a supplement generally occurred early, perhaps because of advertising and the affluence in Al-Ain. PMID:10793786

  11. Predictors for early introduction of solid food among Danish mothers and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Foverskov, Else; Væth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    of solid food. Supplementary analyses of interactions between the predictors showed that the association of maternal perceived infant temperament on early introduction was restricted to primiparae, that the mother's pre-pregnancy BMI had no impact if the infant was fully breastfed at week five......BACKGROUND: Early introduction of complementary feeding may interfere with breastfeeding and the infant's self-controlled appetite resulting in increased growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate predictors for early introduction of solid food. METHODS: In an observational study...... Danish mothers filled in a self-administered questionnaire approximately six months after birth. The questionnaire included questions about factors related to the infant, the mother, attachment and feeding known to influence time for introduction of solid food. The study population consisted of 4503...

  12. Renal transplantation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalanko, Hannu; Mattila, Ilkka; Holmberg, Christer

    2016-05-01

    Renal transplantation (RTx) has become an accepted mode of therapy in infants with severe renal failure. The major indications are structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, congenital nephrotic syndrome, polycystic diseases, and neonatal kidney injury. Assessment of these infants needs expertise and time as well as active treatment before RTx to ensure optimal growth and development, and to avoid complications that could lead to permanent neurological defects. RTx can be performed already in infants weighing around 5 kg, but most operations occur in infants with a weight of 10 kg or more. Perioperative management focuses on adequate perfusion of the allograft and avoidance of thrombotic and other surgical complications. Important long-term issues include rejections, infections, graft function, growth, bone health, metabolic problems, neurocognitive development, adherence to medication, pubertal maturation, and quality of life. The overall outcome of infant RTx has dramatically improved, with long-term patient and graft survivals of over 90 and 80 %, respectively. PMID:26115617

  13. Immediate and long-term outcome analysis of lipomeningomyelocele repair in asymptomatic infants in a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Sadashiv Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze immediate and long-term results of lipomeningomyelocele (LMM repair in asymptomatic patients. Materials and Methods: Seventeen patients of LMM presented to Department of Paediatric Surgery over a period from 2011 to 2015 were evaluated preoperatively by magnetic resonance imaging of whole spine, and pre- and post-operative Ultrasound of kidney, ureter, bladder, and neurosonogram. Surgical procedure involved total excision of lipoma in 15 patients and near total excision in 2 patients. Division of filum terminale could be done in 15 out of 17 patients. Follow-up varied from 1 to 3.5 years (mean 1.9 years. Results: This study included 10 (58.8% patients of lumbosacral LMM, 5 (29.4% patients of sacral, and 2 (11.7% patients of thoracolumbar LMM. About 13 (76.4% patients were operated before 3 months of age, 2 (23.5% patients were operated between 3 and 6 months, and two patients were operated between 6 and 11 months. None of the patients had bladder/bowel dysfunction preoperatively. Preoperative lower limb power was normal in all patients. Objective improvement in lower limb motor function was observed in 3 (17.6% patients and three patients had decreased lower limb power. Two patients developed altered sensations and weakness of lower limb about 2.5-3 years after initial LMM repair. They needed repeat detethering of cord. Two patients had fecal pseudoincontinence, whereas one patient developed constipation. Bowel dysfunction was managed by rectal washouts, and oral laxatives were added if required. One (5.8% patient of lumbosacral LMM and 1 (5.8% patient of sacral LMM had urinary incontinence postoperatively. This was managed by clean intermittent catheterization with continuous overnight drainage. Conservative management of bladder and bowel dysfunction was effective in all patients till the last follow-up. Two patients developed hydrocephalus after LMM repair for which low-pressure ventriculoperitoneal shunt was inserted

  14. Presentation of an infant with nutritional deficiency dermatitis as the initial manifestation of cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Anđelka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cystic fibrosis (CF is a multisystemic autosomal recessive disease most frequently recognized by characteristic respiratory and/or digestive manifestations. Exceptionally rare, as is the case with the infant we are presenting, the initial sign of the disease can be nutritional deficiency dermatitis (NDD. Case Outline. A three-month-old male infant of young and healthy non-consanguineous parents, born at term after the first uneventful pregnancy, was hospitalized due to atopic dermatitis (AD-like skin changes, failure to thrive and normochromic anemia (Hb 60 g/L. As exclusively breast-fed, failure to thrive was attributed to hypogalactia and skin changes to nutritional allergy, so that, besides exclusion of cow’s milk protein and other highly allergenic foods in mother’s diet, hypoallergenic milk formula was added to the child’s diet. However, dietetic measures were without effect, and the child was re-hospitalized at age 4.5 months, this time in the condition of severe malnutrition with hypoproteinemic edemas, extensive dermatitis, moderate hepatosplenomegaly and recurrent normochromic anemia (Hb 57 g/L. After plasma-free erythrocyte transfusion, correction of hypoalbuminemia and two-week parenteral and semi-elementary nutrition resulted in gradual recovery of the child, also including the resolution of skin changes. Having in mind the clinical course of the disease, as well as the response to applied therapeutic measures, CF was suspected as the cause of the child’s problems, which was also confirmed by a high level of sweat chlorine (92 mmol/L and DNA analysis (∆F508/∆F508. Conclusion. Our experience indicates that NDD, as the initial manifestation of CF, should be also kept in mind in differential diagnosis of the infant’s AD-like changes.

  15. ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition, and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention, and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METH...

  16. Desenvolvimento motor de crianças prematuras e a termo: uso da Alberta Infant Motor Scale Desarrollo motor de niños prematuros y a término: uso de la Alberta Infant Motor Scale Motor development of preterm and term infants: using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Polyana Candeia Maia; Larissa Paiva Silva; Márcia Maria Coelho Oliveira; Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Comparar o desenvolvimento motor de crianças nascidas pré-termo e a termo aos quatro e seis meses de idade, aplicando a Alberta Infant Motor Scale-AIMS na versão brasileira. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal, comparativo, realizado em Fortaleza-Ceará, entre novembro/ 2009 e maio/2010. amostragem por conveniência, foi constituída por 24 crianças pré-termo e 24 a termo. RESULTADOS: Nas crianças de quatro meses, verificou-se diferença estatisticamente significante na posição em pé (p=0,014...

  17. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home ...

  18. Pneumothorax - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around the lungs, which leads to a lung collapse. This article discusses pneumothorax in infants. Causes A pneumothorax occurs when some of the tiny air sacs (alveoli) in a baby's lung become overinflated and burst. ...

  19. Neutropenia - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007230.htm Neutropenia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neutropenia is an abnormally low number of white blood ...

  20. Overview of Inherited Zinc Deficiency in Infants and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Taiho; Fukue, Kazuhisa; Ishida, Riko; Miyazaki, Shiho

    2015-01-01

    Zinc nutrition is of special practical importance in infants and children. Poor zinc absorption causes zinc deficiency, which leads to a broad range of consequences such as alopecia, diarrhea, skin lesions, taste disorders, loss of appetite, impaired immune function and neuropsychiatric changes and growth retardation, thus potentially threatening life in infants and children. In addition to dietary zinc deficiency, inherited zinc deficiency, which rarely occurs, is found during the infant stage and early childhood. Recent molecular genetic studies have identified responsible genes for two inherited zinc deficiency disorders, acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE) and transient neonatal zinc deficiency (TNZD), clarifying the pathological mechanisms. Both of these zinc deficiencies are caused by mutations of zinc transporters, although the mechanisms are completely different. AE is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations of the ZIP4 gene, consequently resulting in defective absorption of zinc in the small intestine. In contrast, TNZD is a disorder caused by mutations of the ZnT2 gene, which results in low zinc breast milk in the mother, consequently causing zinc deficiency in the breast-fed infant. In both cases, zinc deficiency symptoms are ameliorated by a daily oral zinc supplementation for the patients. Zinc is definitely one of the key factors for the healthy growth of infants and children, and thus zinc nutrition should receive much attention. PMID:26598882

  1. Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Drew C; Harker, Dausen J; Karmes, Aaron S

    2015-10-15

    Gastroesophageal reflux is defined as the passage of stomach contents into the esophagus with or without accompanied regurgitation (spitting up) and vomiting. It is a normal physiologic process that occurs throughout the day in infants and less often in children and adolescents. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is reflux that causes troublesome symptoms or leads to medical complications. The diagnoses of gastroesophageal reflux and GERD are based on the history and physical examination. Diagnostic tests, such as endoscopy, barium study, multiple intraluminal impedance, and pH monitoring, are reserved for when there are atypical symptoms, warning signs, doubts about the diagnosis, or suspected complications or treatment failure. In infants, most regurgitation resolves by 12 months of age and does not require treatment. Reflux in infants may be treated with body position changes while awake, lower-volume feedings, thickening agents (i.e., rice cereal), antiregurgitant formula, extensively hydrolyzed or amino acid formulas, and, in breastfed infants, eliminating cow's milk and eggs from the mother's diet. Lifestyle changes to treat reflux in children and adolescents include sleeping position changes; weight loss; and avoiding smoking, alcohol, and late evening meals. Histamine H2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors are the principal medical therapies for GERD. They are effective in infants, based on low-quality evidence, and in children and adolescents, based on low- to moderate-quality evidence. Surgical treatment is available, but should be considered only when medical therapy is unsuccessful or is not tolerated. PMID:26554410

  2. Energy intake and requirements of infants in southern Brazil - the influence of breast feeding pattern and socio-economic status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy requirements are a function of age, sex, and feeding mode. Work from others has demonstrated increased total energy expenditure (TEE) and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) in formula-fed infants as compared to breast-fed infants. However, in practice many breast-fed infants also receive additional formula or cows' milk. At 4 months, we found that energy intake (kcal/d) in breast-fed infants also receiving cows' milk (BCFM) was 18% higher than that of infants who receive breast milk as the only source of milk (BM) (BCFM infants, 97.9 kcal/kg/d, BM infants, 83.1 kcal/kg/d, p=0.008). At 8 months increased minimal observable energy expenditure (MOEE) and SMR were found in BCFM infants (MOEE: BCFM infants, 51.6 kcal/kg/d, BM infants, 48.0 kcal/kg/d, p=0.041). TEE was also slightly higher, but not significantly so. Fat mass and fat mass index were higher in BCFM infants (p=0.016 and p=0.013). Reference data for growth or energy requirements have been based on infants from high SES to assure that they would be growing optimally with no constraints to health. In developed countries, obesity used to be a problem in the higher SES families. In countries in transition, there is a shift of the prevalence of obesity towards lower SES infants, but this depends on the stage of transition. On the other hand, poor living conditions may result in growth faltering, and an increase in TEE and ER. We observed higher TEE in low SES as compared to high SES infants (high SES, 62.9 kcal/kg/d, low SES, 75.9 kcal/kg/d, p=0.005), MOEE was not increased, and the higher TEE in low SES infants should be contributed to high activity energy expenditure. Analysis of covariance showed that this should be contributed increased crowding in the low SES families. In conclusion, the development of universally applicable values for energy requirements based on data from infants selected from particular social groups, without reference to feeding pattern, may not be acceptable. At both 4 and 8 months

  3. Infant feeding practices and weight gain for length of term normal birth weight infants in the first 6 months of life%喂养习惯与婴儿出生后前6个月按身长体质量增加的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽莉; 孙倩倩; 胡燕琪; 刘金荣; 刘珊珊; 张杰; 盛晓阳

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between infant feeding practices and infants growth,especially the weight gain for length in the first 6 months of life. Methods Two-hundred healthy full-term singlet normal birth weight 5 - 6 months old infants and their main care givers were recruited in Kongjiang community health service center in Shanghai. The questionnaires included infants feeding pattern, feeding environment and care givers feeding behaviors, and were completed on-site by investigators. The birth weight was obtained. The weight and length of infants at 6 months were measured. Results There were 70/200 (35.0%) infants overweight (BMI for age Z score>+1) at 6 months. There were more overweight boys than girls (40.0% vs. 30.9%, x2 = 1.798, P = 0.180). Compared with normal weight infants, the overweight infants had same birth weight (3.30 ± 0.35 kg vs. 3.35 ± 0.32 kg, t =1.010, P = 0.314) and same length at 6 months (67.64 ± 2.10 cm vs. 67.91 ± 1.97 cm, t=- 0.896, P = 0.371). However, the overweight infants gained much more weight for length in the first six months of life. At 6 months, the weight and BMI of overweight infants was significantly higher than that of normal weight infants (9.16 ± 0.67 vs. 7.94 ±0.64, t = 12.324, P 0.05). The grandparents played an important role in infants feeding in Shanghai. There were 39.0% infants fed only by grandparents, and 23.0% infants fed jointly by grandparents and parents (x2 = 0.175, P > 0.05).The care givers' educational level and knowledge of feeding skill were similar in overweight and normal weight infants (x2 = 0.446, t = 0.949, P > 0.05). However, the overweight infants were fed more quickly than normal weight infants (Z = 2.753, P +1),占35%.男婴超重多于女婴(40.0%对30.9%,x2=1.798,P=0.180).超重婴儿和体质量正常婴儿的出生体质量一致(3.30±0.35 kg对3.35±0.32 kg,t=1.010,P=0.314),6月龄时两组婴儿的身长也一致(67.64±2.10 cm对67.91±1.97cm,t=0.896,P=0.371).

  4. 早产儿与足月儿精细运动发育差异及影响因素的研究%Study on differences and influencing factors about the fine motor development between preterm and term infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓琴; 程茜

    2012-01-01

    [目的] 了解早产儿与足月儿精细运动发育水平的差异及其影响因素. [方法] 采用Peabody运动发育量表第2版(Peabody Developmental Motor Scales 2,PDMS-2)对215例婴儿(早产儿97例、足月儿118例)进行精细运动发育水平测试,并对结果精细运动发育商(fine motor quotient,FMQ)进行统计分析. [结果] 1)早产儿FMQ显著小于足月儿FMQ(t=5.142,P<0.05);2)精细运动的抓握标准分低于视觉运动整合标准分(d=-1.00士1.24,t=-11.881,P<0.05);3)FMQ受到胎龄、出生体重、进食能力训练、身高、体重多方面因素的影响. [结论] 早产儿精细运动发育落后于足月儿,且抓握能力发育较视觉运动整合能力发育落后;孕期加强保健延长胎龄和增加出生体重、生后有意识通过进食能力训练加强动手能力的提高、保持适宜的生长发育对精细运动的发育极其重要.%[Objective] To investigate the differences and influencing factors about the fine motor development between preterm and full term infants. [Method] 215 infants (including 97 preterm infants and 118 full term infants) were evaluated by the second edition of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale (PDMS-2),and the fine motor quotient (FMQ) was analyzed by SPSS. [Results] 1) The FMQ of preterm was significantly less than FMQ of term infants (r=5.142,P <0. 05) ;2)The standard scores of grasping were less than visual motor integration. The difference was statistically signifi-cant(d=-l. 00±l. 24,t=-11. 881,P<0. 05) ;3)FMQ was influenced by gestation age(GA) .birth weight(BW) .feeding-skills training,height and weight. [Conclusions] The preterm infants were slower than the term infants on fine motor development during the infant period .and the development of grasping fall behind the visual motor integration; Also .prolonging the GA and increasing the BW by enhancing the health care during gestation, enhancing the skills of hands by feeding-skills training consciously

  5. Long term refractive outcome in eyes of preterm infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity: comparison of keratometric value, axial length, anterior chamber depth, and lens thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, M. Y.; Park, I.K.; Yu, Y S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—A longitudinal study of premature infants was conducted to examine changes in refractive status and their relation with age and factors influencing the occurrence and degree of myopia. Identification of which of the various refractive factors play important parts in relation to myopia in premature infants was attempted.
METHODS—Under observation were 125 eyes in 65 patients who were found to demonstrate no signs of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) or who had grade I or II ROP ...

  6. Correlation of 4-month infant feeding modes with their growth and iron status in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yu-hua; JI Cheng-ye; ZHENG Xiu-xia; SHAN Jin-ping; HOU Rui

    2008-01-01

    Background Growth and development of infants has been an impoRant topic in pediatrics for a long time.Infants must be provided with food containing all necessary nutrienls.Breast milk js believed to be the most desirable natural and cheapest food for well-balanced nutrition.But with the progress in the development of substitute food in developed countries,it is thought that formula milk can meet the requirement for infant growth.During early infancy,growth,as the most sensitive index of health,is therefore a critical component in evaluating the adequacy of breast-feeding,mixed-feeding and formula feeding.Iron status is another important index of infant health.Iron deficiency anemia remains the most prevalent nutritional deficiency index in infants worldwide.This study is to compare infants in Beijing at 4 months who are on three different feeding modes(breast feeding,mixed feeding and formula feeding)in physical changes and iron status.The results may provide new mothers with support in feeding mode selection,which will also be helpful to the China Nutrition Association in feeding mode education.Methods This is a cohort study.One thousand and one normal Beijing infants were followed regularly for 12 months.Body weight and horizontal length were measured.Hemoglobin,red blood cell counts,mean corpuscular volume,mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum iron were analyzed at 4 months.Results The breast feeding percentage in the first 4 months was 47.9%.The feeding mode was not significantly related to maternal delivery age,education,labor pathway nor infant sex(P>0.05).Infant boys and girls exclusively breast-fed from 0 to 4 months had the highest weight at 0-6 months.The anemia rate of breast-fed infant boys at 4 months was the highest.Conclusions Breast feeding should be given more emphasis.It is compulsory for new mothers to breast-feed their Infants if possible.Social environment should also guarantee the requirement for breast feeding.Furthermore the normal values

  7. Comparison of the Clinical Characteristics of Newborn Respiratory Distress Syndrome between Full-term and Premature Infants%足月儿与早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征发病临床比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical characteristics of newborn respiratory distress syndrome between full-term and premature infants, and to further explore the similarities and differences between them.Methods Eighty-six eases of confirmed respiratory distress syndrome with different gestational age in ICU of the department of Newborn in our hospital from January, 2007 to August, 2010, were enrolled in this study. They were divided into two groups: the premature infant group (50 cases, < 37 weeks) and the full-term group (36cases, > 37 weeks). The cause of disease, the onset time, X-ray performance, the treatment and complications of them were analyzed retrospectively. Results The causes of disease in full-term infants were the meeonium aspiration pneumonia, asphyxia, cesarean section and so on. The causes of disease in premature infants were premature delivery, premature rupture of memberane, asphyxia, cesarean section and aspiration pneumonia. Progressive dyspnea and cyanosis appeared in full-term infants ( 10.5 ± 4.1 ) h after birth, the mechanical ventilation time was (97.7 ± 17.2) h. While Progressive dyspnea, groaning and eyanosis appeared in premature infants (3.9 ± 2.7) h after birth, the mechanical ventilation time was (79.7 ± 7.6) h. The chest X-ray of infants in the two groups showed obvious diffused infiltrating shade in double lungs and air bronchogram.Most full-term infants with respiratory distress syndrome were complicated with the protopathy signs.Conclusions The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome is later, and the mechanical ventilation time was longer in full-term infants than in premature infants. Meconium aspiration pneumonia, asphyxia, and cesarean section are high risk factors of respiratory distress syndrome in full-term infants, while insufficient generative capacity of pulmonary surfactant is the high risk factor in premature infants.%目的 比较足月新生儿与早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征发病的临床特点,以进

  8. Evaluation of Zinc, Copper and Iron Concentrations in Breast Milk of Mothers Belonging to Different Economic Classes and their Correlations with Infants Growth

    OpenAIRE

    J Ghaemmaghami; B Pourghassem Gargari; L Nikniaz; R Mahdavi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Taking into account the importance of micronutrients in health and growth of the infants, the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in breast milk of mothers belonging to different economic classes and their effects on infants’ growth were investigated. Methods: Milk samples and information on personal characteristics, anthropometric and 24-hour food recall were collected from 90 lactating women belonging to 3 different socioeconomic classes who had exclusively breastfed thei...

  9. Comportamento de lactentes nascidos a termo pequenos para a idade gestacional no primeiro trimestre da vida Behavior of full term infants small for gestational age in the first three months of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Balanin A. Mello

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi comparar o comportamento de lactentes nascidos a termo com peso adequado (AIG a lactantes pequenos para a idade gestacional (PIG, no primeiro trimestre de vida. A amostra foi de 20 lactentes, avaliados no 1º, 2º e 3º meses. Foram utilizadas as Escalas Bayley de Desenvolvimento Infantil - II, com ênfase na Escala de Classificação do Comportamento (ECC. Houve diferença significativa entre os grupos no 2º mês, com maior número de lactentes PIG classificados como alterados na ECC. O Fator Qualidade Motora demonstrou valores da mediana significativamente menores no grupo PIG, nos itens Motricidade Axial, Controle de Movimentos e Hipertonia Muscular. O Fator Atenção/Vigília não mostrou diferença entre os grupos. Entretanto, quando analisados os itens Exploração de Objetos e de Ambiente e Interação com o Examinador, houve diferença significativa no 2º mês, com valores da mediana menores no grupo PIG.The objective was to compare the behavior of full-term infants small-for-gestational age (SGA with full-term appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA. The sample considered 20 infants in the 1st, 2nd and in the 3rd months of life. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II were used, with attention to items related to Behavior Rate Scale (BRS. It was found that SGA infants showed lower average values in the BRS in the 2nd month. The Motor Quality Factor displayed significantly lower average values in SGA group, in the items Gross-motor Movement Required by Tasks, Control of Movements and Hypertonicity. The Attention/Arousal Factor in the items Exploration of Objects/Surroundings and Orientation to Examiner displayed significantly lower average values in the SGA group.

  10. Simultaneous measurement of milk intake and total energy expenditure in mixed-fed infants: Methodological approach and prediction of total body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the energy metabolism that underlies the new WHO breast-fed growth reference requires simultaneous measurements of milk volume intake (MVI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) by stable isotope methodologies. In young infants, such data is collected without difficulty using the dose-to-the-infant method. In older infants, where breast-milk is supplemented with non-milk foods, MVI must be measured by dosing the mother instead of the infant. This procedure would interfere with a simple measurement of infant TEE using the standard dose-to-the-infant method. Theoretically, this difficulty can be resolved by dosing the mother with deuterium and the infant with 18-oxygen, and using curve-peeling methods to calculate the infant deuterium kinetics. We propose to ascertain whether such an approach is viable in practice, such that MVI, TEE and body composition could all be measured simultaneously in mixed-fed infants. Where MVI in older infants is measured on its own, there is a need to predict infant body water in order to estimate the deuterium dilution space. Using a database of 234 infants aged 1.5 to 12 months, we provide new predictive equations by which such values may be obtained. (author)

  11. Mother’s milk and infant death in Britain, circa 1900-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Atkins

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available My contribution to this journal issue is to reconstruct the darker side of the most popular of infant foods. I will give a brief overview of contamination and disease in Britain's milk supply between 1880 and 1940, with particular reference to the impact upon infants. Not surprisingly, young children consumed a substantial proportion of market milk and, as a result, they seem to have suffered heavily from diseases such as bovine tuberculosis and summer diarrhoea. I will ask why these children were not wholly breast-fed and why relying upon artificial foods was such a risk. Also, I will give a preliminary report on my findings from data I have collected on the feeding of over three million infants, as recorded in the Medical Officer of Health Reports of 130 Local Authorities, mainly from England and Wales.

  12. Breast feeding-associated hypernatremic dehydration: A preventable tragedy in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Krishnamurthy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The innumerable and compelling benefits of exclusive breastfeeding to the infant, mother, family and society are well recognized. Hypernatremic dehydration is a rare, yet potentially preventable complication of exclusive breastfeeding; the etiology being inadequate lactation. We report 2 exclusively breastfed newborn infants with serum sodium levels of 166 and 159 mEq/L, respectively. Both babies presented with excessive weight loss, fever, dehydration, and irritability. Mothers had inadequate lactation. Corresponding breast milk sodium levels were elevated in both mothers (77 and 45 mEq/l; normal 7-21 mEq/L between 3-14 d postpartum. Appropriate parenteral fluids were administered to correct dehydration and hypernatremia. Serum sodium normalized within 72 hours. Following counseling, breastfeeding was resumed after 48 hours with both the mothers achieving good lactation. Infants were finally discharged on exclusive breastfeeding. Timely recognition and awareness of this potentially lethal, but preventable condition is essential to ensure a favorable outcome.

  13. Infants in a neonatal intensive care unit: parental response

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, J; Mulder, R; Bartram, A; Darlow, B

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the psychosocial functioning of the parents (mother and father) of infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with the parents of infants born at term and not admitted to the NICU.

  14. 晚期早产儿与足月儿神经行为发育在不同时期的比较%Comparison of neurobehavioral development between late-preterm infants and full-term infants at different periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈林英; 李荣萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the neurobehavioral developmental differences between late-preterm infants and full-term infants at 12 months and 18 months of age, and to compare the neurobehavioral developmental changes at these two periods.Methods In the study 75 late-preterm infants and 80 full-term infants were selected as samples to test and compare their neurobehavioral development at 12 months and 18 months of age.Results At the age of 12 months, late-preterm infants had significantly lower quotient scores in the aspects of big movement, fine motor, adaptibility, language and personal social intercourse than the full-term infants ( t value was -3.837, -5.801,-3.532, -5.258 and -4.582, respectively, all P<0.05).At the age of 18 months, late-preterm infants still had significantly lower quotient scores in the above five aspects (t value was -2.786, -3.967, -4.946, -4.155 and -3.449, respectively, all P<0.05). Late-preterm infants’ score of big movement was obviously higher and that of personal social intercourse was remarkably lower at the age of 18 months than at the age of 12 months (t value was 1.982 and -4.214, respectively, both P<0.05).For the full-term infants the scores of big movement and adaptability were significantly higher and the score of personal social intercourse was lower at the age of 18 months (t value was 2.188, 2.683 and -3.880, respectively, all P <0.05).Conclusion Late-preterm infants’ neurobehavioral developmental level is lower than the full-term infants’ both at the age of 12 months and 18 months.Both late-preterm infants and full-term infants have lower scores of personal social intercourse at 18 months of age than at 12 months of age, but the reason for it needs to be further explored.Late-preterm infant’ s neurobehavioral development is not mature enough, so it is very important to concern and promote early development of late-preterm infants.%目的:了解晚期早产儿和足月儿在生后第12个月和第18个月两个年

  15. Pulmonary hypertension associated with acute or chronic lung diseases in the preterm and term neonate and infant. The European Paediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Network, endorsed by ISHLT and DGPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgendorff, Anne; Apitz, Christian; Bonnet, Damien; Hansmann, Georg

    2016-05-01

    Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is the most common neonatal form and mostly reversible after a few days with improvement of the underlying pulmonary condition. When pulmonary hypertension (PH) persists despite adequate treatment, the severity of parenchymal lung disease should be assessed by chest CT. Pulmonary vein stenosis may need to be ruled out by cardiac catheterisation and lung biopsy, and genetic workup is necessary when alveolar capillary dysplasia is suspected. In PPHN, optimisation of the cardiopulmonary situation including surfactant therapy should aim for preductal SpO2between 91% and 95% and severe cases without post-tricuspid-unrestrictive shunt may receive prostaglandin E1 to maintain ductal patency in right heart failure. Inhaled nitric oxide is indicated in mechanically ventilated infants to reduce the need for extracorporal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and sildenafil can be considered when this therapy is not available. ECMO may be indicated according to the ELSO guidelines. In older preterm infant, where PH is mainly associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or in term infants with developmental lung anomalies such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia or cardiac anomalies, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction/left atrial hypertension or pulmonary vein stenosis, can add to the complexity of the disease. Here, oral or intravenous sildenafil should be considered for PH treatment in BPD, the latter for critically ill patients. Furthermore, prostanoids, mineralcorticoid receptor antagonists, and diuretics can be beneficial. Infants with proven or suspected PH should receive close follow-up, including preductal/postductal SpO2measurements, echocardiography and laboratory work-up including NT-proBNP, guided by clinical improvement or lack thereof. PMID:27053698

  16. Infant Visual Habituation

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, John; Mitchell, D. Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The use of visual habituation in the study of infant cognition and learning is reviewed. This article traces the history of the technique, underlying theory, and procedural variation in its measurement. In addition, we review empirical findings with respect to the cognitive processes that presumably contribute to habituation, studies of developmental course and long-term prediction, as well as recent attempts to address or explain the phenomenon of visual habituation through the use of mathem...

  17. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  18. Impact of hospitalizations for bronchiolitis in preterm infants on long-term health care costs in Italy: a retrospective case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Roggeri, Alessandro; Roggeri,Daniela Paola; Rossi, Elisa; Cataudella,Salvatore; Martini, Nello

    2016-01-01

    Daniela Paola Roggeri,1 Alessandro Roggeri,1 Elisa Rossi,2 Salvatore Cataudella,2 Nello Martini,3 1ProCure Solutions, Nembro, Bergamo, 2CINECA Interuniversity Consortium, Bologna, 3Accademia Nazionale di Medicina, Rome, Italy Purpose: Bronchiolitis is an acute inflammatory injury of the bronchioles, and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections in preterm infants. This was a retrospective, observational, case-control study conducted in Italy...

  19. Prevalence of breastfeeding in premature infants with very low birth weight in the first six months of life - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i2.11805

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelize Helena Sassá

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the duration of breastfeeding among premature infants born with very low birth weight. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among very low birth weight premature infants at a university hospital in Londrina Paraná State, Brazil and the identification of factors related to breastfeeding practice were determined. Current quantitative and analytic retrospective study analyzed the medical records, attendance reports and interviews of 54 mother-infant binomials. Breastfeeding was prevalent in 90% of infants, of which 50% were exclusively breastfed, at hospital discharge. However, 51% were weaned before their sixth month. The statistical analysis showed a positive association between breastfeeding and do not working mothers outside the home, cesarean delivery, positive previous experience in breastfeeding and gestational age at birth over 33 weeks. MF prevalence in the specific population NBVLW infants reinforce the notion that breastfeeding preterm infants, albeit challenging, may be carried out with the appropriate support of the mother-child binomial.

  20. Mothers' Working Models of Caregiving in the Context of Infant Feeding: Change through the First Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridham, Karen; And Others

    This study examined the change in mothers' working models of infant feeding through the first post-term year of full-term infants and of prematurely born infants with a history of lung disease. It also examined the contribution of maternal resources such as education and mental well-being and infant attributes (maturity at birth and lung disease…

  1. Multilevel Analysis of Infant Mortality in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Maria BURLEA

    2012-01-01

    Appraise infant mortality evolution at different territorial scales, identify disparities in terms of trend evolution and explore the contribution of some socioeconomic factors (educational attainment, unemployment rate and ethnicity) in the existing regional differences of infant mortality levels. As the aim of our study is to identify geographic disparities based on different spatial tendencies in infant mortality evolution, trend analysis was the most suited method. Cluster analysis was us...

  2. Hypothermia: Novel Approaches for Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Rosemary D.; Shankaran, Seetha

    2011-01-01

    Hypothermia for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy has recently permeated clinical practice for term infants. Speculation regarding a neuroprotective benefit of hypothermia for premature infants with HIE has been raised as a need for further research. Hypothermia for other indications including necrotizing enterocolitis with the hope of tissue preservation following injury is less well studied. A summary of evidence for hypothermia and premature infants is presented in this brief report.

  3. 早产儿和足月儿脐血及母亲静脉血硒含量的比较%Comparison of maternal and umbilical cord blood selenium levels in term and preterm infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin IRANPOUR; Ali ZANDIAN; Majid MOHAMMADIZADEH; Ashraf MOHAMMADZADEH; Mahdi BALALI-MOOD; Mehnosh HAJIHEYDARI

    2009-01-01

    目的 硒是一种人体必需的微量元素,在细胞抗氧化防御系统中发挥着主要的作用.在早期早产儿中,低水平的硒会增加诸如慢性新生儿肺疾病、早产儿视网膜病等并发症的发生.该研究旨在检测并比较早产儿和足月儿脐血及母亲静脉血硒含量.方法 选取2008年3~7月间30个足月儿(胎龄>37周)和30个早产儿(胎龄<34周)及他们的母亲作为研究对象.用原子吸收光谱法测定脐血和母亲静脉血的硒含量.结果 足月儿的脐血硒平均含量高于早产儿,差异有非常显著性(124.80±13.72 μg/L vs 100.30±11.72 μg/L,P=0.0001).足月儿母亲与早产儿母亲的的平均硒含量差异无显著性(117.03 ± 17.15 μg/L vs 110.56 ± 17.49 μg/L,P=0.15).将所有婴儿的资料一起分析时,发现脐血硒含量与胎龄和出生体重显著正相关(r=0.66,P<0.0001;r=0.59,P<0.0001).60例婴儿母亲中,无一例的血硒含量低于正常参考值的下限(70.0 μg/L).将所有婴儿及其母亲的资料一起分析时,发现母亲血硒含量与其婴儿脐血硒含量呈显著正相关(r=0.40,P<0.001).结论 在伊斯法罕地区,孕母的血硒水平处于一个良好的状态,血硒水平不是早产的预测指标.足月儿的脐血硒含量高于早产儿,但足月儿和早产儿的脐血硒含量均在正常参考范围.%Objective Selenium is an essential trace element and has a main role in cellular antioxidant defense system. In very preterm babies, low selenium is associated with an increased risk of complications such as chronic neonatal lung disease and retinopathy of prematurity. This study was designed to determine and compare maternal and umbilical cord blood selenium levels in term and preterm infants. Methods From February 2008 to April 2008, 30 term (gestational age ~ 37 weeks) and 30 preterm infants ( gestational age < 34 weeks ) and their mothem were enrolled. Selenium concentrations in umbilical cord and maternal venous blood were

  4. Parents Bereaved by Infant Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentiallytraumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic...... posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)´symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Methods: Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study......, female sex, attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, emotion-focused coping, rational coping, feeling let down and social support satisfaction accounted for 42% of the variance in PTSD severity. Conclusions: The study highlights the long-term impact of infant loss and points to attachment, coping...

  5. Parents bereaved by infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentially traumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic posttraumatic...... stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Participants...... avoidance, attachment anxiety, emotion-focused coping, avoidant coping, feeling let down and social support satisfaction accounted for 44% of the variance in PTSD severity. The study highlights the long-term impact of infant loss and points to attachment, coping and social support as important contributors...

  6. Beriberi (thiamine deficiency and high infant mortality in northern Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Barennes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Infantile beriberi (thiamine deficiency occurs mainly in infants breastfed by mothers with inadequate intake of thiamine, typically among vulnerable populations. We describe possible and probable cases of infantile thiamine deficiency in northern Laos.Three surveys were conducted in Luang Namtha Province. First, we performed a retrospective survey of all infants with a diagnosis of thiamine deficiency admitted to the 5 hospitals in the province (2007-2009. Second, we prospectively recorded all infants with cardiac failure at Luang Namtha Hospital. Third, we further investigated all mothers with infants (1-6 months living in 22 villages of the thiamine deficiency patients' origin. We performed a cross-sectional survey of all mothers and infants using a pre-tested questionnaire, physical examination and squat test. Infant mortality was estimated by verbal autopsy. From March to June 2010, four suspected infants with thiamine deficiency were admitted to Luang Namtha Provincial hospital. All recovered after parenteral thiamine injection. Between 2007 and 2009, 54 infants with possible/probable thiamine deficiency were diagnosed with acute severe cardiac failure, 49 (90.2% were cured after parenteral thiamine; three died (5.6%. In the 22 villages, of 468 live born infants, 50 (10.6%, 95% CI: 8.0-13.8 died during the first year. A peak of mortality (36 deaths was reported between 1 and 3 months. Verbal autopsy suggested that 17 deaths (3.6% were due to suspected infantile thiamine deficiency. Of 127 mothers, 60 (47.2% reported edema and paresthesia as well as a positive squat test during pregnancy; 125 (98.4% respected post-partum food avoidance and all ate polished rice. Of 127 infants, 2 (1.6% had probable thiamine deficiency, and 8 (6.8% possible thiamine deficiency.Thiamine deficiency may be a major cause of infant mortality among ethnic groups in northern Laos. Mothers' and children's symptoms are compatible with thiamine deficiency. The severity

  7. Neurocomportamento de recém-nascidos a termo, pequenos para a idade gestacional, filhos de mães adolescentes Neurobehavior of full-term small for gestational age newborn infants of adolescent mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina C. de Moraes Barros

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o neurocomportamento de recém-nascidos a termo pequenos (PIG e adequados (AIG para a idade gestacional, filhos de mães adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal prospectivo de nascidos a termo AIG e PIG, com 24-72 horas de vida, sem afecções do sistema nervoso central. Os neonatos foram avaliados por meio da Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS para: habituação, atenção, despertar, controle, manobras para a orientação, qualidade dos movimentos, excitabilidade, letargia, reflexos não ótimos, assimetria, hipertonia, hipotonia e sinais de estresse e abstinência. A comparação dos grupos AIG e PIG foi feita por análise de variância e teste do qui-quadrado. Aplicou-se a regressão multivariada para analisar os fatores associados ao escore de cada variável do NNNS. RESULTADOS: Dos 3.685 nascidos no local do estudo, 928 (25% eram de mães adolescentes. Desses, 477 satisfizeram os critérios de inclusão, sendo 419 (88% AIG e 58 (12% PIG. A análise univariada não mostrou diferença em nenhuma das variáveis da NNNS entre os PIG e os AIG. Na análise multivariada, os PIG nascidos de parto vaginal apresentaram menor escore na variável qualidade de movimentos do que os nascidos por cesárea. Os PIG nascidos com anestesia local ou sem anestesia apresentaram maior escore na variável excitabilidade do que os nascidos sob anestesia loco-regional. Os PIG femininos tiveram menor escore na variável sinais de estresse/abstinência que os masculinos. CONCLUSÃO: Os recém-nascidos PIG de mães adolescentes mostraram menor qualidade de movimento, mais excitabilidade e mais sinais de estresse, em associação com o sexo do neonato e com variáveis relacionadas ao parto.OBJECTIVE: To compare the neurobehavior of small (SGA and adequate (AGA for gestational age full-term neonates born to adolescent mothers. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study included full-term newborn infants aged 24

  8. Non-resolving Findings in a Long-term Radiographic Follow-up of an Infant with Acute Paraffin Oil Aspiration

    OpenAIRE

    George Stathis; Priftis, Konstantinos N.; Maria Moustaki; Efthymia Alexopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Acute lipoid pneumonia (LP) in children is a rare disorder caused by the aspiration of oil-based substances and is difficult to diagnose due to non-specific clinical symptoms and radiological findings. We report the case of a 5-month-old male infant with acute LP caused by accidental aspiration of a large amount of mineral oil. We present the imaging findings in the computed tomography scans performed during his hospitalization and focus on the residual abnormalities seen on a scan performed ...

  9. Similar Occurrence of Febrile Episodes Reported in Non-Atopic Children at Three to Five Years of Age after Prebiotics Supplemented Infant Formula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margriet van Stuijvenberg

    Full Text Available This is a follow up study of a multicenter randomised placebo-controlled trial in seven centres in five West European countries. The RCT assessed the effect of infant formula supplemented with a mixture of prebiotics (with neutral short-chain and long-chain oligosaccharides and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides during infancy in term-born children (n=1130. In the follow-up study 672 children (60% of the study population participated: 232 (56% from the prebiotics group (PG, 243 (58% from the control group (CG, and 197 (66% from the non-randomised breast-fed group (BG. The primary outcome was the occurrence of febrile episodes at three to five years of age prospectively documented by the parents: in the PG 1.17 (interquartile range 0.50-2.08 episodes per year versus 1.20 (0.52-2.57 in the CG; and 1.48 (0.65-2.60 in the BG. This specific prebiotics mixture given during infancy in healthy non-atopic subjects does not decrease febrile episodes and therefore seems not to prevent infection between their third and fifth birthday.

  10. Caffeine therapy in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hady, Hesham; Nasef, Nehad; Shabaan, Abd Elazeez; Nour, Islam

    2015-11-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used medication for treatment of apnea of prematurity. Its effect has been well established in reducing the frequency of apnea, intermittent hypoxemia, and extubation failure in mechanically ventilated preterm infants. Evidence for additional short-term benefits on reducing the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and patent ductus arteriosus has also been suggested. Controversies exist among various neonatal intensive care units in terms of drug efficacy compared to other methylxanthines, dosage regimen, time of initiation, duration of therapy, drug safety and value of therapeutic drug monitoring. In the current review, we will summarize the available evidence for the best practice in using caffeine therapy in preterm infants. PMID:26566480

  11. Feeding practices and nutritional status of infants in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, John G; Kimambo, Stella C; Lwelamira, James E

    2013-07-01

    Breast feeding practice especially exclusive breast feeding (EBF) is a major determinant of child growth and development. In Tanzania, most women breastfeed their infants for long periods, but many introduce alternative feeding too early in life. The objective of this study was to determine factors affecting EBF and the relationship between feeding practices and the nutritional status of infants. This cross-sectional survey, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was conducted in Morogoro Municipality in Tanzania. The study involved lactating women recruited from five randomly selected health facilities. Demographic, clinical, knowledge and practices related to infant feeding as well as infant anthropometric information were collected. Infant nutritional status was assessed based on weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight- for- height. There were wide variations in knowledge and practice of breastfeeding among women. Majority (92%) of the respondents gave colostrums to infants although more than 50% did not know its benefits. Eight percent of the respondents discarded colostrums on the account that it is not good for their neonates. Only 23.1% of the respondents thought that infants should be breastfed exclusively during the first six months of infancy. Ninety-eight percent of infants < 1 month of age received breast milk only, compared with 28.5% of infants aged 2-3 months and 22.3% among those who were above 3 months of age. No child in the ≥ 4 months old was exclusively breastfed. Over 80% of the infants had normal weights, 13% were stunted and 8% wasted. EBF was associated with higher scores for height- for- age Z (P < 0.05) and weight- for- height Z (P < 0.01). Age, education level and occupation of respondents were important predictors of EBF. Overall, breast feeding practices in the study population were largely suboptimal. As a result, considerable proportions of children had poor health indicators. Thus, correct breastfeeding practices should be

  12. Infant feeding practices among nursing personnel in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, D; Chon, F M; Arokiasamy, J

    1980-07-01

    Concerned by the alarming decline in breast feeding in the urban and rural areas of Malaysia, we conducted a critical review of infant feeding practices among nursing personnel from representative centres using questionnaires. It was found that although 75% of mothers breast-fed their babies at birth only 19% did so at 2 months and 5% at 6 months respectively. Chinese mothers initiated breast feeding less frequently compared with Indian or Malay mothers. The prevalence of breast feeding was higher among lower category nurses, lower income groups and those from health centres. Decision for breast feeding was based in most instances on conviction derived from reading, lectures or advice from relatives. The vast majority of mothers listed "work' as the main reason for termination of breast feeding followed by "insufficient breast milk' and satisfactory past experience with bottle feeding. The ramifications of these findings and measures to improve the prevalence and duration of breast feeding are discussed. PMID:7446101

  13. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... so that the baby's bones will grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of ...

  14. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call ... boys, African Americans, and American Indian/Alaska Native infants have a higher risk of SIDS. Although health ...

  15. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of calcium ...

  16. Babies at Double Jeopardy: Medically Fragile Infants and Child Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullar, Suzanne A.

    2008-01-01

    Medically fragile infants, those born prematurely or with other complex medical or genetic problems, are at risk of long-term health and developmental problems. When a medically fragile infant comes home to a family with significant social problems such as domestic violence, mental illness, or substance abuse, the infant is at double jeopardy--at…

  17. The SHINE Trial Infant Feeding Intervention: Pilot Study of Effects on Maternal Learning and Infant Diet Quality in Rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Amy; Smith, Laura E; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Fundira, Dadirai; Tavengwa, Naume V; Malaba, Thokozile R; Majo, Florence D; Humphrey, Jean H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-12-15

    The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial is designed to measure the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene and improved infant feeding on child stunting and anemia in Zimbabwe. We developed and pilot-tested the infant feeding intervention delivered by 9 village health workers to 19 mothers of infants aged 7-12 months. Between September 2010 and January 2011, maternal knowledge was assessed using mixed methods, and infant nutrient intakes were assessed by 24-hour recall. We observed positive shifts in mothers' knowledge. At baseline, 63% of infants met their energy requirement and most did not receive enough folate, zinc, or calcium; none met their iron requirement. Postintervention, all infants received sufficient fat and vitamin A, and most consumed enough daily energy (79%), protein (95%), calcium (89%), zinc (89%), folate (68%), and iron (68%). The SHINE trial infant feeding intervention led to significant short-term improvements in maternal learning and infant nutrient intakes. PMID:26602298

  18. Early Life Predictors of Socio-Emotional Development in a Sample of Egyptian Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammal M Metwally

    Full Text Available Emotional problems are amongst the most critical concerns to be intentionally handled to enhance the wellbeing and development of children.To determine the predictors of socio-emotional development of Egyptian infants related to infant feeding practices, aspects of infant and maternal health and socioeconomic status.A cross-sectional comparative study included 322 breast fed, 240 bottle fed and 93 mixed fed infants, from 6-24 months of age, who were enrolled in the Well-Baby Clinic of the National Research Centre and from pediatric outpatient facilities in urban Cairo. Assessment of socio-emotional development was performed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley III. Detailed maternal and infant history was recorded. Levels of serum zinc, copper, iron, vitamin B12 and complete blood count (CBC were assessed in a subsample of 193 infants.The risk of having below average socio-emotional composite score was nearly two and half times among formula-fed infants than among breast-fed infants. By binary logistical regression analysis, predictors of below average socio-emotional score were a lower serum zinc value, being formula fed during the first half-year and introduction of complementary food before the age of six months (p< 0.05.Exclusive breastfeeding and to a lesser extent mixed feeding during the first half year is correlated with above average socio-emotional development. Maternal education and zinc status were also determinants of better infant mental health. Our endeavors ought to be directed towards integrated interventions addressing multiple risks to children's development.

  19. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... African American > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 times the infant mortality rate ... birthweight as compared to non-Hispanic white infants. African Americans had almost twice the sudden infant death syndrome ...

  20. Anemia and feeding practices among infants in rural Shaanxi Province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhou, Huan; Yue, Ai; Zhang, Linxiu; Sylvia, Sean; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Anemia is one of the most prevalent public health problems among infants and iron deficiency anemia has been related to many adverse consequences. The overall goal of this study is to examine the prevalence of anemia among infants in poor rural China and to identify correlates of anemia. In April 2013, we randomly sampled 948 infants aged 6-11 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally-designated poverty counties in rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. Infants were administered a finger prick blood test for hemoglobin (Hb). Anthropometric measurement and household survey of demographic characteristics and feeding practices were conducted in the survey. We found that 54.3% of 6-11 month old infants in poor rural China are anemic, and 24.3% of sample infants suffer from moderate or severe anemia. We find that children still breastfed over 6 months of age had lower Hb concentrations and higher anemia prevalence than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p anemia prevalence than their non-formula-fed counterparts (p breastfeeding. PMID:25533008

  1. Neurology of Nutritional Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Infants: Case Series From India and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Jatinder Singh; Kaur, Sukhjot; Mehra, Bharat

    2015-11-01

    We studied 27 infants aged 6 to 27 months with vitamin B12 deficiency also known as "infantile tremor syndrome" in India. All were exclusively breast-fed by vegetarian mothers. Developmental delay or regression, pallor, skin hyperpigmentation, and sparse brown hair were present in all. Majority were hypotonic and involuntary movements were encountered in 18. Anemia and macrocytosis was found in 83% and 71% infants, respectively. Low serum vitamin B12 was present in 12 of 21 infants. Seven of the 9 infants with normal serum vitamin B12 had received vitamin B12 before referral. Twelve mothers had low serum vitamin B12. Cerebral atrophy was present in all the 9 infants who underwent neuroimaging. Treatment with vitamin B12 resulted in dramatic improvement in general activity and appetite within 48 to 72 hours followed by return of lost milestones. Tremors resolved in all by 3 to 4 weeks. Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable cause of neurologic dysfunction in infants. PMID:25953825

  2. Anemia and Feeding Practices among Infants in Rural Shaanxi Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfu Luo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is one of the most prevalent public health problems among infants and iron deficiency anemia has been related to many adverse consequences. The overall goal of this study is to examine the prevalence of anemia among infants in poor rural China and to identify correlates of anemia. In April 2013, we randomly sampled 948 infants aged 6–11 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally-designated poverty counties in rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. Infants were administered a finger prick blood test for hemoglobin (Hb. Anthropometric measurement and household survey of demographic characteristics and feeding practices were conducted in the survey. We found that 54.3% of 6–11 month old infants in poor rural China are anemic, and 24.3% of sample infants suffer from moderate or severe anemia. We find that children still breastfed over 6 months of age had lower Hb concentrations and higher anemia prevalence than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p < 0.01, and that children who had ever been formula-fed had significantly higher Hb concentrations and lower anemia prevalence than their non-formula-fed counterparts (p < 0.01. The results suggest the importance of iron supplementation or home fortification while breastfeeding.

  3. Infant feeding and school attainment in five cohorts from low- and middle-income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo L Horta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Performance in intelligence tests tends to be higher among individuals breastfed as infants, but little is known about the association between breastfeeding and achieved schooling. We assessed the association of infant feeding with school achievement in five cohorts from low- and middle-income countries. Unlike high-income country settings where most previous studies come from, breastfeeding is not positively associated with socioeconomic position in our cohorts, thus reducing the likelihood of a spurious positive association. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants included 10,082 young adults from five birth cohorts (Brazil, India, Guatemala, the Philippines, and South Africa. The exposures variables were whether the subject was ever breastfed, total duration of breastfeeding, and age at introduction of complementary foods. We adjusted the estimates for age at follow up, sex, maternal age, smoking during pregnancy, birthweight and socioeconomic position at birth. The key outcome was the highest grade achieved at school. In unadjusted analyses, the association between ever breastfeeding and schooling was positive in Brazil, inverse in the Philippines, and null in South Africa; in adjusted analyses, these associations were attenuated. In Brazil, schooling was highest among individuals breastfed for 3-12 months whereas in the Philippines duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with schooling; and null associations were observed in South Africa and Guatemala. These associations were attenuated in adjusted models. Late introduction of solid foods was associated with lower schooling achievement in Brazil and South Africa. CONCLUSION: Measures of breastfeeding are not consistently related to schooling achievement in contemporary cohorts of young adults in lower and middle-income countries.

  4. Postnatal Growth and Psychomotor Development in Small for Gestational Age Brazilian Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Patricia Ann; Pasquali, Luiz

    1984-01-01

    The early psychomotor development (DQ) of 29 term small-for-gestational-age Brazilian infants was shown to be more dependent on postnatal growth than the DQ of 51 term appropriate-for-gestational-age infants. (Author/RH)

  5. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations in infant growth monitoring - a collaboration with WHO (partly RCA). Report on the second and final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has organised the development of new reference data for infant growth, reflecting the fact that previous growth reference data were based in part on formula-fed infants. With the benefits of breast-feeding for infant health increasingly recognised, and the differences in growth rate between breast-fed and formula-fed infants replicated in many populations, growth reference data from breast-fed infants became a priority. The importance of early growth for adult health is also increasingly appreciated, with numerous studies linking early nutrition and growth patterns to the risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes and stroke in later life. To support these new reference data, it is also important to assess the breast-milk and nutrient intakes of normally-growing breast-fed infants, in order to revise recommendations for their energy requirements. This coordinated research project (CRP) was therefore initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency to investigate milk intake and growth in several populations from developing countries. A secondary aim was to continue the technological development of methodologies that allow the required measurements to be undertaken in free-living mother-infant pairs in field conditions. The measurement of breast-milk intake was until recently undertaken using test-weighing, whereby the infant is weighed before and after each feed during one or more 24 hour periods. This method is intrusive, cumbersome, and unsuitable for many populations under field conditions. The development of the dose-to-the-mother deuterium oxide turnover method, by which maternal breast-milk transfer can be assessed by isotopic kinetics, has transformed the ability to measure milk intake in wholly or partially breast-fed infants in developing countries. The current CRP aimed to apply this technology to a variety of populations, ensuring that the data were comparable between countries

  6. Desenvolvimento mental e motor aos 24 meses de crianças nascidas a termo com baixo peso Mental and motor development at 24 months of full-term low birthweight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Helena Eickmann

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar o desenvolvimento aos 24 meses de 152 crianças nascidas a termo, com baixo peso (The objective of this study was to compare the development at 24 months of 152 full-term infants, born with low (<2500g and appropriate birth weight (3000 to 3499g, paired in a proportion of 1:1 by sex and age. Mental and motor development were assessed through the Bayley scale. A variety of sociodemographic and environmental stimulation conditions were also assessed. The infants born with low weight had on average significantly lower mental and motor indexes than those born with appropriate weight (p<0.001, with a difference of 9.1 and 10.2 points, respectively. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that socioeconomic conditions and environmental stimulation explained 11% and 12% of the variation of mental index, and 12% and 9% of motor development, respectively. All together, they explained 23% and 21% of the variation of these indexes. Low birth weight influenced only 3% of the variation of mental index and 5% of motor index.

  7. Neurodesenvolvimento de lactentes nascidos a termo pequenos para a idade gestacional no segundo mês de vida Neurodevelopment of full-term small-for-gestacional age infants in the second month of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura M. Fukujima Goto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar e comparar o neurodesenvolvimento de lactentes nascidos a termo, com peso adequado (AIG ou pequeno para a idade gestacional (PIG, no 2º mês de vida. Avaliaram-se 67 lactentes: 43 AIG e 24 PIG, utilizando as Bayley Scales of Infant Development. O Index Score (IS nas Escalas Mental e Motora foi significativamente menor no grupo PIG. Considerando a proporcionalidade corporal (Grupos Controle, Assimétrico e PIG-Simétrico, houve diferença significativa na Escala Motora (p=0,003, com menores pontuações no grupo PIG-Simétrico. Comparados aos percentis de IS do grupo Controle, na Escala Mental, houve diferença entre os grupos Assimétrico X PIG-Simétrico; na Escala Motora, houve diferença entre os grupos Assimétrico X Controle (p=0,039 e PIG-Simétrico X Controle (p=0,0007; não houve diferença entre os grupos Assimétrico e PIG-Simétrico, ambos apresentando menores pontuações que o grupo Controle.The objective of the present study was to assess and to compare the neurodevelopment of full-term adequate (AGA or small-for-gestational age (SGA infants in the second month of life. Sixty-seven infants were evaluated: 43 AGA and 24 SGA, making use of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The SGA group Index Score (IS was significantly lower in Mental and Motor Scales. Considering the body proportionality (Asymmetric, Symmetric-SGA and Control group there was difference in Motor Scale (p=0.003 with lower scores in the Symmetric-SGA group. Comparing to the Control group IS percentiles, in Mental Scale there was difference between Asymmetric X Symmetric-SGA; in Motor Scale, there was difference between the Asymmetric X Control (p=0.039 and Symmetric-SGA X Control (p=0.007 groups; there was no difference between Asymmetric and Symmetric-SGA although both exhibited lower scores than the Control group.

  8. Non-resolving Findings in a Long-term Radiographic Follow-up of an Infant with Acute Paraffin Oil Aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathis, George; Priftis, Konstantinos N; Moustaki, Maria; Alexopoulou, Efthymia

    2014-01-01

    Acute lipoid pneumonia (LP) in children is a rare disorder caused by the aspiration of oil-based substances and is difficult to diagnose due to non-specific clinical symptoms and radiological findings. We report the case of a 5-month-old male infant with acute LP caused by accidental aspiration of a large amount of mineral oil. We present the imaging findings in the computed tomography scans performed during his hospitalization and focus on the residual abnormalities seen on a scan performed 7-years after the incident. This, to the best of our knowledge, is the longest follow-up report of an acute exogenous LP patient and the only case that demonstrates non-resolving abnormalities in a pediatric patient after a single acute episode of mineral oil aspiration. PMID:24678434

  9. Non-resolving Findings in a Long-term Radiographic Follow-up of an Infant with Acute Paraffin Oil Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Stathis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lipoid pneumonia (LP in children is a rare disorder caused by the aspiration of oil-based substances and is difficult to diagnose due to non-specific clinical symptoms and radiological findings. We report the case of a 5-month-old male infant with acute LP caused by accidental aspiration of a large amount of mineral oil. We present the imaging findings in the computed tomography scans performed during his hospitalization and focus on the residual abnormalities seen on a scan performed 7-years after the incident. This, to the best of our knowledge, is the longest follow-up report of an acute exogenous LP patient and the only case that demonstrates non-resolving abnormalities in a pediatric patient after a single acute episode of mineral oil aspiration.

  10. Infants Hierarchically Organize Memory Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Rebecca D.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into "chunks". Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this…

  11. Infant Memory for Musical Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Loman, Michelle M.; Robertson, Rachel R. W.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined memory of 7-month-olds after 2-week retention interval for passages of two Mozart movements heard daily for 2 weeks. Results suggested that the infants retained familiarized music in long-term memory and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical…

  12. Factors Associated with Exclusive Breastfeeding of Preterm Infants. Results from a Prospective National Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne;

    2014-01-01

    were analysed by multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: At discharge 68% of the preterm infants were exclusively breastfed and 17% partially. Test-weighing the infant, and minimizing the use of a pacifier, showed a protective effect to exclusive breastfeeding at discharge (OR 0.6 (95% CI 0.......4-0.8) and 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.6), respectively). The use of nipple shields (OR 2.3 (95% CI 1.6-3.2)) and the initiation of breast milk expression later than 48 hours postpartum (OR 4.9 (95% CI 1.9-12.6)) were associated with failure of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge. The clinical practices associated...

  13. Cerebral atrophy in a vitamin B12-deficient infant of a vegetarian mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Celebi; Akin, Fatih; Caksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Buğra; Arslan, Sükrü; Aygün, Serhat

    2014-06-01

    In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

  14. Zinc for preterm infants: Who needs it and how much is needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The establishment of micronutrient requirements for infants remains a challenge. For healthy full-term infants, breast milk is an appropriate standard for virtually all nutrients. In contrast, guidelines for infants who are not healthy, and infants who are born preterm, are much more tenuous....

  15. ASPHYXIA AND DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME IN HIGH RISK INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina DUKOVSKA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Asphyxia is a risk factor that is very often related to neuro-developmental issues in high risk infants and equally affects preterm and term infants, however its outcome on the developed brain differs from the outcome on the preterm brain.In preterm infants, asphyxia usually exerts a hemorrhagic or ischaemic event and periventricular leukomalacia.In term infants, asphyxia leads to cerebral edema and atrophy of the brain, which may later lead to hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE.The number of term infants with HIE who have survived is lower than those of preterm infants, while the percentage of term infants with HIE who have neuro-developmental issues is higher. Preemies face more problems in their motor development as a result of the brain damage, while term infants suffer from encephalopathy and their cognitive abilities are more affected.We have conducted a study about the effects that asphyxia has on the developmental outcomes in high risk infants. In our study, we did a longitudinal developmental follow-up of 30 high risk infants and an evaluation of their developmental outcome using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales, from the 4th month of life until the end of the 36th month. First, we found that high risk infants had a much lower developmental outcome than the control group during the trial. Finally, we found that asphyxia makes a difference in the developmental outcome of preterm infants without asphyxia who have a very low birth weight, the preterm infants with asphyxia, and the term infants with HIE-II.

  16. 'These are modern times': infant feeding practice in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderson, L

    1984-01-01

    Traditionally, Malaysian women (Malay, Indian and Chinese) breastfed their infants as a matter of course and for an extended period of time; only elite Chinese women might have resorted to a wet-nurse. But the introduction of condensed and dehydrated milk in colonial Malaya from the late nineteenth century, and the later marketing also of commercially manufactured baby foods, led to some variation in traditional practice. Structural changes, industrialiZation and urbanisation affected social as well as economic life, and again these broad changes had an impact on infant feeding. Today, few women remain unfamiliar with the wide range of infant food products sold in the most isolated provision shops. This paper focuses on key sociological factors that might predict the frequency and duration of breastfeeding and weaning patterns. The data analysed below, collected during semi-structured interviews with 278 women presenting at Maternal and Child Health Clinics in Peninsular Malaysia, are in part confusing. They suggest that the women most likely to bottle feed only or to breast feed for a short period, and to use commercial baby foods, are young, with one child only, who reside in urban or peri-urban areas and have a reasonable household income. Higher educated women, and women whose husbands are in non-traditional occupations, are also less likely to breast feed or to do so for an extended period. But the profile of infant feeding practices is by no means clear. One of the shortcomings of the study relates to the method of collection of data, and highlights the need for detailed ethnographic studies to better explore the variability and complexity of the patterns of infant feeding. PMID:6695200

  17. The influence of infant feeding patterns on growth of children in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, J R

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the trends in infant feeding practices in American Samoa and analyzes the relationship between infant feeding and growth among children born in American Samoa from 1976 to 1982. The study population is composed of the Polynesian inhabitants of the islands comprising the Territory of American Samoa. The sample is drawn from the records of the Well Baby Clinic in American Samoa. Feeding habit information and health of the infant was solicited by the nurses and doctor during clinic visits. The mothers were questioned about the child's diet. About 40% of the infants were exclusively breastfed; 13% had bottle supplements; 6% were classified as milk drinkers; and 40% were formula-fed. Frequently more than 1 feeding pattern was noted for a given child. Feeding influences were found to be significant on weight up to age 4, and height up to age 3. The timing of the introduction of solids was found to have a significant relationship with length through age 2. There appears to be a complex set of interactions between socioeconomic, growth and health factors. Mothers wean children early to return of work. This results from the availability of infant formula in Samoan stores, more jobs for women and the desire to improve socioeconomic status. Bottlefed infants of working mothers are more likely to have gastrointestinal problems than other infants. As a group, however, bottlefed infants are likely to have higher weights. The most significant contributing factor to morbidity and mortality among adults in American Samoa is the high prevalence of obesity. Extended breastfeeding of the infant can promote health in infancy and in later years. PMID:3836322

  18. Percutaneous Balloon Angioplasty for Severe Native Aortic Coarctation in Young Infants Less Than 6 Months: Medium- to Long-term Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lan; Liu, Fang; Wu, Lin; Qi, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Li-Feng; Huang, Guo-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although balloon angioplasty (BA) has been performed for more than 20 years, its use as a treatment for native coarctation of the aorta (CoA) during childhood, especially in young infants, remains controversial. This study aimed to assess the effects and potential role of percutaneous transcatheter BA for native CoA as an alternative therapy to surgical repair in young infants. Methods: The 37 patients aged from 6 days to 6 months with severe CoA in congestive heart failure or circulatory shock were admitted for BA. Patient's weight ranged from 2.4 to 6.1 kg. All 37 patients were experiencing cardiac dysfunction, and eight patients were in cardiac shock with severe metabolic acidosis. Eleven patients had an isolated CoA, whereas the others had a CoA associated with other cardiac malformations. Cardiac catheterization and aortic angiography were performed under general anesthesia with intubation. Transfemoral arterial approaches were used for the BA. The size of the balloon ranged from 3 mm × 20 mm to 8 mm × 20 mm, and a coronary artery balloon catheter was preferred over a regular peripheral vascular balloon catheter. Results: The femoral artery was successfully punctured in all but one patient, with that patient undergoing a carotid artery puncture. The systolic peak pressure gradient (PG) across the coarctation was 41.0 ± 16.0 mmHg (range 13–76 mmHg). The mean diameter of the narrowest coarctation site was 1.7 ± 0.6 mm (range 0.5–2.8 mm). All patients had successful dilation; the PG significantly decreased to 13.0 ± 11.0 mmHg (range 0–40 mmHg), and the diameter of coarctation significantly improved to 3.8 ± 0.9 mm (range 2.5–5.3 mm). No intraoperative complications occurred for any patients. However, in one case that underwent a carotid artery puncture, a giant aneurysm formed at the puncture site and required surgical repair. The following observations were made during the follow-up period from 6-month to 7-year: (1) The PG across the

  19. Percutaneous Balloon Angioplasty for Severe Native Aortic Coarctation in Young Infants Less Than 6 Months: Medium-to Long-term Follow-up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan He; Fang Liu; Lin Wu; Chun-Hua Qi; Li-Feng Zhang; Guo-Ying Huang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Although balloon angioplasty (BA) has been performed for more than 20 years,its use as a treatment for native coarctation of the aorta (CoA) during childhood,especially in young infants,remains controversial.This study aimed to assess the effects and potential role of percutaneous transcatheter BA for native CoA as an alternative therapy to surgical repair in young infants.Methods:The 37 patients aged from 6 days to 6 months with severe CoA in congestive heart failure or circulatory shock were admitted for BA.Patient's weight ranged from 2.4 to 6.1 kg.All 37 patients were experiencing cardiac dysfunction,and eight patients were in cardiac shock with severe metabolic acidosis.Eleven patients had an isolated CoA,whereas the others had a CoA associated with other cardiac malformations.Cardiac catheterization and aortic angiography were performed under general anesthesia with intubation.Transfemoral arterial approaches were used for the BA.The size of the balloon ranged from 3 mm × 20 mm to 8 mm × 20 mm,and a coronary artery balloon catheter was preferred over a regular peripheral vascular balloon catheter.Results:The femoral artery was successfully punctured in all but one patient,with that patient undergoing a carotid artery puncture.The systolic peak pressure gradient (PG) across the coarctation was 41.0 ± 16.0 mmHg (range 13-76 mmHg).The mean diameter of the narrowest coarctation site was 1.7 ± 0.6 mm (range 0.5-2.8 mm).All patients had successful dilation;the PG significantly decreased to 13.0 ± 1 1.0 mmHg (range 0-40 mmHg),and the diameter of coarctation significantly improved to 3.8 ± 0.9 mm (range 2.5-5.3 mm).No intraoperative complications occurred for any patients.However,in one case that underwent a carotid artery puncture,a giant aneurysm formed at the puncture site and required surgical repair.The following observations were made during the follow-up period from 6-month to 7-year:(1) The PG across the coarctation measured by

  20. Polybrominated biphenyl ethers in breast milk and infant formula from Shanghai, China: temporal trends, daily intake, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Kaiqiong; Yang, Dan; Ma, Li; Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhou, Jing; Fang, Xiangming; Yu, Yingxin

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the temporal trend of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk and assess the risks to breast- and formula-fed infants, breast milk and infant formula samples were collected from Shanghai, China. The PBDE concentrations decreased from 14.8 to 4.85 pmol/g lipid weight during 2006-2012, with a rate of decrease by half approximately every four years. Although there were no significant correlations between the total PBDEs in breast milk and age, parity, and pre-pregnant BMI of mothers, there were significant differences between primiparous and multiparous mothers for tri- to hepta-BDEs. PBDEs in breast milk were much higher than those in infant formula (equivalent to 91.9 vs. 5.25 pg/mL). Among the different brand infant formulas, there were no significant differences in their PBDE concentrations. The estimated daily intake of PBDEs by breast- and formula-fed infants suggested that breast-fed infants are exposed to much more PBDEs than formula-fed ones (12.9 vs. 0.72 ng/kg-bw/day). However, the hazard quotient values were much smaller than one, indicating that the ingested PBDEs did not exert obvious adverse effects on both breast- and formula-fed infants considering non-carcinogenic effect endpoint. This is the first report on temporal trend of PBDEs in breast milk from China. PMID:25155891

  1. Infant feeding practices in the rural population of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed E Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Breastfeeding is one of the most important determinants of child survival, birth spacing, and the prevention of childhood infections. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding depend on its initiation, duration, and the age at which the breastfed child is weaned. Breastfeeding practices vary among different regions and communities. Objectives: To assess the pattern of infant feeding and its relation to certain practices of maternity and newborn care, and to assess the knowledge of mothers on the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out in randomly selected villages of the Bhojipura Block of Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh. A total of 123 women who had delivered within the last year were interviewed in a house-to-house survey. A study instrument was used to collect data. Chi- square test and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: Most of the mothers were aged less than 30 years (78.04% and were Hindus (73.9%. Most were illiterate (69.9% and belonged to the lower socioeconomic class (97.5%. The majority were housewives (99.1% and multiparous (68.2%. Most had initiated breastfeeding (78.8% within 24 hours of delivery. About 15.4% of the infants did not receive colostrum and 22.8% of the infants were not exclusively breastfed. Ghutti (water mixed with honey and herbs, boiled water, tea, and animal milk were commonly used pre-lacteal feeds. About 47.2% of the respondents were not aware of the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. About one quarter of the mothers started complementary feeding before the child was six months old. About half the deliveries had taken place at home and only a quarter of the females had had three or more antenatal visits during pregnancy. The birth weight of the majority (78% of newborns was not measured. A majority (69.9% of the mothers did not receive advice on child feeding. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed

  2. 影响足月小样儿神经行为发育的围生期因素分析%Perinatal risk factors associated with neurobehavioral development of full-term small for gestational age newborn infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀梅; 李丽霞; 初清

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore perinatal risk factors associated with the neurobehavioral development of small for gestational age (SGA) full-term neonates.Methods This prospective cross-sectional study included 111 full-term newborn infants from Apr 2008 to Apr 2010 born in Yan-tai Yuhuangding Hospital.Detailed clinical data in perinatal period of all subjects were recorded.Infants aged 3 ~ 7 days were assessed with neonatal behavioral neurological assessment (NBNA) for neurobehavioral development.Logistic regression analysis was used to explore risk factors associated with the score of NBNA.Results Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between full-term SGA (10.72 ± 1.41,7.13 ± 0.96,7.32 ± 0.74,37.16 ±1.32) and normal neonates (11.27 ± 1.04,7.89 ± 0.72,7.62 ± 0.64,39.12 ± 0.76) in terms of capacity,active and passive muscle tension and NBNA score.Full-term SGA neonates had lower score than control.Univariate logistic regression showed that delivery,placenta abnormalities,umbilical cord abnormalities,infection in perinatal period,gestational hypertension,twin pregnancy,hyperbilirubinemia affected neurobehavioral development of full-term SGA infants.Multivariate logistic regression showed that mothers' infection in perinatal period (OR =2.175,95 % CI 1.981 ~ 2.408,P < 0.05),twin pregnancy (OR =1.936,95% CI 1.517 ~2.368,P < 0.05) and hyperbilirubinemia (OR =1.518,95% CI 1.072-2.149,P < 0.05) were risk factors for neurobehavioral delay of full-term SGA infants.Conclusion Full-term SGA neonates showed poorer quality in neurobehavior.Risk factors associated with neurobehavior of full-term SGA infants included mothers' infection in perinatal period,twin pregnancy and hyperbilirubinemia.%目的 探讨影响足月小样儿神经行为发育的围生期相关危险因素.方法 收集2008年4月至2010年4月于烟台毓璜顶医院产科分娩的111例足月小样儿的围生期相关资料,采用新生儿20

  3. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages.The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, because therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants are

  4. Phospholipids in Human Milk and Infant Formulas: Benefits and Needs for Correct Infant Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilla, Antonio; Diego Quintaes, Késia; Barberá, Reyes; Alegría, Amparo

    2016-08-17

    The composition of human milk has served as a basis for the development of infant formulas, which are used when breastfeeding is not possible. Among the human milk nutrients, 50% of the total energetic value corresponds to fat, with a high level of fatty acids and 0.2-2.0% present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). The PL contents and fatty acid distribution in PL species have been investigated as bioactive elements for the production of infant formulas, since they offer potential benefits for the optimum growth and health of the newborn infant. The differences in the amount of PLs and in fatty acid distribution in PL species between human milk and infant formulas can imply biologically significant differences for newborn infants fed with infant formulas versus human milk-mainly due to the greater proportion of sphingomyelin with respect to phosphatidylcholine in infant formulas. The limited information referred to the characterization of fatty acid distribution in PL species in infant formulas or in ingredients used to enrich them merits further research in order to obtain products with benefits similar to those of human milk in terms of infant growth, visual acuity, and neurological development. The present review establishes the scientific basis for helping to adjust formulations to the requirements of infant nutrition. PMID:26075805

  5. Identification and biological activity of potential probiotic bacterium isolated from the stomach mucus of breast-fed lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kiňová Sepov��

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The lactic acid bacterium E isolated from the stomach mucus of breast-fed lamb was identified by sequencing of 16S rDNA fragment and species-specific PCR as Lactobacillus reuteri. Its potential antimicrobial activity and ability to modulate immune system in vitro and in vivo was determined. The growth inhibition of potential pathogens decreased from Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica ser. Minnesota to Escherichia coli. The lowest inhibition activity was observed in the case of Candida albicans. The ability of L. reuteri E to modulate biological activities of human and mouse mononuclear cells was estimated in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The production of IL-1β by monocytes in vitro was significantly induced by L. reuteri E (relative activity 2.47. The ability to modulate biological activities of mononuclear cells by living L. reuteri E cells in vitro in comparison to disintegrated L. reuteri E cells in vivo differed. For example lysozyme activity in vitro was inhibited while in vivo was stimulated (relative activities 0.30 and 1.83, respectively. The peroxidase activity in vitro was stimulated while in vivo was inhibited (relative activities 1.53 and 0.17, respectively. Obtained results indicate that L. reuteri E is potential candidate to be used in probiotic preparations for animals and/or human.

  6. Semantic memory processing is enhanced in preadolescents breastfed compared to those formula-fed as infants: An ERP N400 study of sentential semantic congruity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies comparing child cognitive development and brain activity during cognitive functions between children who were fed breast milk (BF), milk formula (MF), or soy formula (SF) have not been reported. We recorded event-related scalp potentials reflecting semantic processing (N400 ERP) from 20 homo...

  7. HIV-1 drug resistance emergence among breastfeeding infants born to HIV-infected mothers during a single-arm trial of triple-antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission: a secondary analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Zeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nevirapine and lamivudine given to mothers are transmitted to infants via breastfeeding in quantities sufficient to have biologic effects on the virus; this may lead to an increased risk of a breastfed infant's development of resistance to maternal antiretrovirals. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study (KiBS, a single-arm open-label prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT trial, assessed the safety and efficacy of zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine or nelfinavir given to HIV-infected women from 34 wk gestation through 6 mo of breastfeeding. Here, we present findings from a KiBS trial secondary analysis that evaluated the emergence of maternal ARV-associated resistance among 32 HIV-infected breastfed infants. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All infants in the cohort were tested for HIV infection using DNA PCR at multiple study visits during the 24 mo of the study, and plasma RNA viral load for all HIV-PCR-positive infants was evaluated retrospectively. Specimens from mothers and infants with viral load >1,000 copies/ml were tested for HIV drug resistance mutations. Overall, 32 infants were HIV infected by 24 mo of age, and of this group, 24 (75% infants were HIV infected by 6 mo of age. Of the 24 infants infected by 6 mo, nine were born to mothers on a nelfinavir-based regimen, whereas the remaining 15 were born to mothers on a nevirapine-based regimen. All infants were also given single-dose nevirapine within 48 hours of birth. We detected genotypic resistance mutations in none of eight infants who were HIV-PCR positive by 2 wk of age (specimens from six infants were not amplifiable, for 30% (6/20 at 6 wk, 63% (14/22 positive at 14 wk, and 67% (16/24 at 6 mo post partum. Among the 16 infants with resistance mutations by 6 mo post partum, the common mutations were M184V and K103N, conferring resistance to lamivudine and nevirapine, respectively. Genotypic resistance was detected among 9/9 (100% and 7/15 (47% infected infants

  8. Multiple sevoflurane exposures in infant monkeys do not impact the mother-infant bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, Jessica; Bush, Angela; Murphy, Kathy L; Baxter, Mark G; Alvarado, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to general anesthesia during the postnatal period is associated with death of brain cells as well as long-term impairments in cognitive and emotional behavior in animal models. These models are critical for investigating mechanisms of pediatric anesthetic neurotoxicity as well as for testing potential strategies for preventing or mitigating this toxicity. Control conditions for anesthesia exposure involve separation of conscious infants from their mothers for variable periods of time, which could have its own effect on subsequent behavior because of stress to the mother and/or infant as a consequence of separation.We are conducting a long-term study of infant rhesus monkeys exposed three times for 4h each to sevoflurane anesthesia during the first six postnatal weeks, with a comparison condition of control infant monkeys that undergo brief maternal separations on the same schedule, to equate the period of time each infant is conscious and separated from its mother. Because mothers are separated from their infants longer for infants in the anesthesia condition, this could modify maternal behavior toward the infant, which may influence subsequent socioemotional behavior in the infants. In this study, we analyzed maternal behavior immediately after the first post-anesthesia (or control) reunion, as well as during reintroduction of the mother-infant pair to the larger social group 24 hpost-anesthesia or control separation, and found no differences between the conditions with mothers spending most of their time in contact with infants in all conditions analyzed. This indicates that the different durations of maternal separation in this study design do not impact the mother-infant bond, strengthening conclusions that subsequent differences in behavior between monkeys exposed to anesthesia compared to controls are a consequence of anesthesia exposure and not differential maternal behavior in the two conditions. PMID:26878984

  9. Identification of infants destined to die unexpectedly during infancy: evaluation of predictive importance of prolonged apnoea and disorders of cardiac rhythm or conduction.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Twenty four hour tape recordings of electrocardiogram and breathing movement were made prospectively in 6914 full term and 2337 preterm infants or infants of low birth weight during their first six weeks of life. These recordings included 40 obtained in 29 infants who subsequently suffered the sudden infant death syndrome and 13 obtained in 10 other infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. None of the recordings obtained in the infants who suffered the sudden infant death syndrome showed p...

  10. Copenhagen Infant Mental Health Project (CIMHP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; von Wowern, Rie Krondorf;

    Introduction: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and childhood stress has life-long consequences for the affected children. One in five Danish families is at risk of inadequate parenting resources and child neglect. There is a lack of knowledge on best...... practice in screening for and preventing adverse infant mental health risks. Aims: The overall aim of CIMHP is to test the feasibility of an infant mental health screening and indicated prevention system and its capacity to (1) detect children at risk of longer term mental health adversities and (2) alter...... these risks in a cost effective way in a general population. Methods: In a period of 20 months 8.800 mothers and infants in Copenhagen are screened (at 2, 4 and 8 months) using two standardized screening instruments: 1) Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) in detecting infant social withdrawal and 2) Edinburg...

  11. Enteral nutrition of the premature infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Cho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Early nutritional support for preterm infants is critical because such support influences long-term outcome. Minimal enteral feeding should be initiated as soon as possible if an infant is stable and if feeding advancement is recommended as relevant to the clinical course. Maternal milk is the gold standard for enteral feeding, but fortification may be needed to achieve optimal growth in a rapidly growing premature infant. Erythromycin may aid in promoting gastrointestinal motility in cases that exhibit feeding intolerance. Selected preterm infants need vitamins, mineral supplements, and calorie enhancers to meet their nutritional needs. Despite all that is known about this topic, additional research is needed to guide postdischarge nutrition of preterm infants in order to maintain optimal growth and neurodevelopment.

  12. Postmortem blood ferritin concentrations in sudden infant death syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Worwood, M.; Raha-Chowdhury, R.; Fagan, D G; Moore, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To confirm the observation of extremely high concentrations of ferritin in postmortem serum samples in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS); to examine the factors influencing blood ferritin concentrations postmortem; to determine whether or not these high blood ferritin concentrations are characteristic of SIDS. METHODS--Postmortem samples of cardiac blood were obtained from 58 full term infants who died of SIDS and 14 full-term infants who died of a variety of other causes. Whole blood...

  13. Infant feeding practices at routine PMTCT sites, South Africa: results of a prospective observational study amongst HIV exposed and unexposed infants - birth to 9 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goga Ameena E

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to investigate infant feeding practices amongst HIV-positive and -negative mothers (0-9 months postpartum and describe the association between infant feeding practices and HIV-free survival. Methods Infant feeding data from a prospective observational cohort study conducted at three (of 18 purposively-selected routine South African PMTCT sites, 2002-2003, were analysed. Infant feeding data (previous 4 days were gathered during home visits at 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36 weeks postpartum. Four feeding groups were of interest, namely exclusive breastfeeding, mixed breastfeeding, exclusive formula feeding and mixed formula feeding. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to investigate associations between feeding practices (0-12 weeks and infant HIV-free survival. Results Six hundred and sixty five HIV-positive and 218 HIV-negative women were recruited antenatally and followed-up until 36 weeks postpartum. Amongst mothers who breastfed between 3 weeks and 6 months postpartum, significantly more HIV-positive mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding compared with HIV-negative: at 3 weeks 130 (42% versus 33 (17% (p Conclusions Although feeding practices were poor amongst HIV-positive and -negative mothers, HIV-positive mothers undertake safer infant feeding practices, possibly due to counseling provided through the routine PMTCT programme. The data on differences in infant outcome by feeding practice and site validate the WHO 2009 recommendations that site differences should guide feeding practices amongst HIV-positive mothers. Strong interventions are needed to promote exclusive breastfeeding (to 6 months with continued breastfeeding thereafter amongst HIV-negative motherswho are still the majority of mothers even in high HIV prevalence setting like South Africa.

  14. Glucose kinetics in infants of diabetic mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucose kinetic studies were performed to define the glucose turnover rate with 78% enriched D-[U-13C] glucose by the prime constant infusion technique at less than or equal to 6 hours of age in nine infants of diabetic mothers (four insulin-dependent and five chemical diabetic patients) at term. Five normal infants were studied as control subjects. All infants received 0.9% saline intravenously during the study with the tracer. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and glucose13/12C ratios were measured during the steady state, and the glucose turnover rate was derived. The average plasma glucose concentration was similar during the steady state in the infants of the diabetic mothers and in the control infants, and the glucose turnover rate was not significantly different among the groups: 2.3 +/- 0.6 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic patients; 2.4 +/- 0.4 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of chemical diabetic patients; and 3.2 +/- 0.3 mg . kg-1 min-1 in the control subjects. Good control of maternal diabetes evidenced by the normal maternal hemoglobin A1c and plasma glucose concentration at delivery and cord plasma glucose concentration resulted in glucose kinetic values in the infants of diabetic mothers that were indistinguishable from those of control subjects. The data further support the importance of good control of the diabetic state in the pregnant woman to minimize or prevent neonatal hypoglycemia

  15. Surfactant therapy in late preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Late preterm (LPT neonates are at a high risk for respiratory distress soon after birth due to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, transient tachypnea of the newborn, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and pneumonia along with an increased need for surfactant replacement therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, and ventilator support when compared with the term neonates. In the past, studies on outcomes of infants with respiratory distress have primarily focused on extremely premature infants, leading to a gap in knowledge and understanding of the developmental biology and mechanism of pulmonary diseases in LPT neonates. Surfactant deficiency is the most frequent etiology of RDS in very preterm and moderately preterm infants, while cesarean section and lung infection play major roles in RDS development in LPT infants. The clinical presentation and the response to surfactant therapy in LPT infants may be different than that seen in very preterm infants. Incidence of pneumonia and occurrence of pneumothorax are significantly higher in LPT and term infants. High rates of pneumonia in these infants may result in direct injury to the type II alveolar cells of the lung with decreasing synthesis, release, and processing of surfactant. Increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane to both fluid and solutes is known to result in entry of plasma proteins into the alveolar hypophase, further inhibiting the surface properties of surfactant. However, the oxygenation index value do not change dramatically after ventilation or surfactant administration in LPT infants with RDS compared to very preterm infants. These finding may indicate a different pathogenesis of RDS in late preterm and term infants. In conclusion, surfactant therapy may be of significant benefit in LPT infants with serious respiratory failure secondary to a number of insults. However, optimal timing and dose of administration are not so clear in this group. Additional

  16. Reversibility of cortical hyperostosis following long-term prostaglandin E1 therapy in infants with ductus-dependent congenital heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Halken, S; Andersen, P E

    1988-01-01

    Two neonates with complex cyanotic congenital heart disease, receiving long-term prostaglandin E1 infusion, for 59 and 78 days respectively, demonstrated significant radiographic changes of symmetric cortical hyperostosis of the long bones. Bone biopsies from one of the patients elucidated the...

  17. Association between Infant Feeding and Early Postpartum Infant Body Composition: A Pilot Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Kojo Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research studies have produced conflicting results of the impact of breastfeeding on overweight/obesity. This study evaluated the impact of infant feeding on infant body composition. There were two groups of mother-infant pairs (exclusive breastfeeding [EBF; n=27] and mixed feeding [MF; n=13] in this study. At baseline, participants were similar in their demographic characteristics except prepregnancy weight, where MF mothers tended to be heavier than their EBF counterparts (67.3 kg versus 59.9 kg; P=.034. Infant birth weight was slightly higher among the MF group than their EBF counterparts (3.5 kg versus 3.4 kg, although the differences were not statistically significant. At 3 months postpartum, mean infant FMI (4.1 kg/m2 versus 3.8 kg/m2 and percent body fat (24.4% versus 23.1% were slightly higher among EBF infants than MF infants. In terms of growth velocity, EBF infants gained weight faster than their MF counterparts, although the differences were not statistically significant. The findings from this study suggest that EBF may promote faster weight gain and increase in both fat mass index (FMI and percent body fat in the early postpartum period in addition to the numerous health benefits enjoyed by the infant and the mother who exclusively breastfeeds her newborn.

  18. Myelination in very low birth weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prognostic significance of cerebral myelination was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in very low birth weight infants. Myelination was graded in two specified sites, optic radiation and corpus callosum, based on the stages of normal term babies and healthy premature infants. The subjects were 30 preterm infants weighing less than 1,500 gm at birth. MRI was performed at 4 to 7 months (corrected age). The normal myelination stage was seen in 18 cases, while a delayed stage was noticed in 12 cases. In the normal myelination group, only 1 case (6%) had handicaps. In the delayed myelination group, 8 cases (67%) had handicaps. Our results showed that delayed myelination was closely related to a poor prognosis. We believe that MRI would be a very good imaging modality for predicting the outcome of very low birth weight infants, particularly in terms of evaluation of myelination. (author)

  19. Infant - newborn development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002004.htm Infant - newborn development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Infant development is most often divided into the following areas: ...

  20. Infant formulas - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice starch. They are usually needed only for infants with reflux who are not gaining weight or who are very uncomfortable. Formulas for premature and low-birth-weight infants have extra calories and minerals to meet the ...

  1. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and ...

  2. Depressive symptoms among immigrant and Canadian born mothers of preterm infants at neonatal intensive care discharge: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Ballantyne Marilyn; Benzies Karen M; Trute Barry

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Mothers of preterm infants are considered at higher risk for depressive symptoms, higher than for mothers of healthy term infants. Predictors of depressive symptoms in mothers of preterm infants are not yet well established. Immigrant mothers of term infants have higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than Canadian born mothers but the relative prevalence for immigrant mothers of preterm infants is unknown. This study had two aims: (i) to investigate the prevalence of de...

  3. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C;

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months.......Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  4. Fototerapia causa danos ao DNA de leucócitos mononucleares periféricos em recém-nascidos a termo Phototherapy causes DNA damage in peripheral mononuclear leukocytes in term infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aycicek

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar se a fita de DNA de leucócitos mononucleares endógenos é alvo de fototerapia. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 65 recém-nascidos a termo com idades entre 3 e 10 dias que haviam sido expostos a fototerapia intensiva (n = 23 ou convencional (n = 23 por pelo menos 48 horas devido à icterícia neonatal, além de um grupo controle (n = 19. Dano ao DNA foi avaliado por eletroforese alcalina em gel de célula única (ensaio cometa. A capacidade antioxidante total plasmática e os níveis de estado oxidativo total também foram medidos, e a correlação entre danos ao DNA e estresse oxidativo foi investigada. RESULTADOS: Os valores médios de escores de danos ao DNA nos grupos de fototerapia intensiva e convencional foram significativamente maiores do que os do grupo controle (p 0,05. Não houve correlações significativas entre escores de danos ao DNA e bilirrubina, estado oxidante total e níveis de estresse oxidativo entre os grupos de fototerapia (p > 0,05. CONCLUSÕES: Tanto a fototerapia intensiva quanto a convencional causam danos ao DNA dos leucócitos mononucleares endógenos em recém-nascidos a termo com icterícia.OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine whether endogenous mononuclear leukocyte DNA strand is a target of phototherapy. METHODS: The study included 65 term infants aged between 3-10 days that had been exposed to intensive (n = 23 or conventional (n = 23 phototherapy for at least 48 hours due to neonatal jaundice, and a control group (n = 19. DNA damage was assayed by single-cell alkaline gel electrophoresis (comet assay. Plasma total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status levels were also measured, and correlation between DNA damage and oxidative stress was investigated. RESULTS: Mean values of DNA damage scores in both the intensive and conventional phototherapy groups were significantly higher than those in the control group (p 0.05. There were no significant correlations between DNA damage scores and

  5. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress. The study sample comprised 116 women and their full term infants. Maternal plasma cortisol and report of stress, anxiety and depression were assessed at ...

  6. Human milk for the premature infant

    OpenAIRE

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adeq...

  7. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; van der Wal, M.F.; Brugman, E.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5.6% (95% CI 4.2-7.0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  8. Uniform treatment thresholds for hyperbilirubinemia in preterm infants : Background and synopsis of a national guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Imhoff, Deirdre Elisabeth; Dijk, Peter Hendrik; Hulzebos, Christian Victor

    2011-01-01

    Background: To prevent severe hyperbilirubinemia and bilirubin neurotoxicity, the American Academy of Pediatrics' management guideline for hyperbilirubinemia in near term infants is used worldwide. A leading guideline for jaundiced preterm infants is lacking whereas the risk on severe hyperbilirubin

  9. Uniform treatment thresholds for hyperbilirubinemia in preterm infants: background and synopsis of a national guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imhoff, D.E. van; Dijk, P.H.; Hulzebos, C.V.; Liem, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To prevent severe hyperbilirubinemia and bilirubin neurotoxicity, the American Academy of Pediatrics' management guideline for hyperbilirubinemia in near term infants is used worldwide. A leading guideline for jaundiced preterm infants is lacking whereas the risk on severe hyperbilirubin

  10. Bone mineralisation in premature infants cannot be predicted from serum alkaline phosphatase or serum phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Faerk, J; Peitersen, B; Petersen, S; Michaelsen, K

    2002-01-01

    Background: The bone mineral content of premature infants at term is lower than in mature infants at the same postconceptional age. Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are often used as indicators of bone mineralisation.

  11. Long-term effects of infant attachment organization on adult behavior and health in nursery-reared, captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, A.; Bloomsmith, M.; Bard, Kim; Maple, T. L.; Marr, M J

    2015-01-01

    This research traces the long-term effects on health, well-being, personality, and behavior of adult chimpanzees as a function of their attachment to a primary human caregiver assessed when they were 1 year of age (van IJzendoorn, Bard, Bakermans-Kranenburg & Ivan, 2009). Of the 46 chimpanzees assessed at 1 year of age, we assessed health in 43 individuals, adult behavior in 20 individuals, and adult well-being and personality in 21 individuals. Attachment disorganization was found to be a si...

  12. Influence of milk-feeding type and genetic risk of developing coeliac disease on intestinal microbiota of infants: the PROFICEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Giada De; Capilla, Amalia; Nova, Esther; Castillejo, Gemma; Varea, Vicente; Pozo, Tamara; Garrote, José Antonio; Polanco, Isabel; López, Ana; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Marcos, Ascensión; García-Novo, María Dolores; Calvo, Carmen; Ortigosa, Luis; Peña-Quintana, Luis; Palau, Francesc; Sanz, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between environmental factors and predisposing genes could be involved in the development of coeliac disease (CD). This study has assessed whether milk-feeding type and HLA-genotype influence the intestinal microbiota composition of infants with a family history of CD. The study included 164 healthy newborns, with at least one first-degree relative with CD, classified according to their HLA-DQ genotype by PCR-SSP DQB1 and DQA1 typing. Faecal microbiota was analysed by quantitative PCR at 7 days, and at 1 and 4 months of age. Significant interactions between milk-feeding type and HLA-DQ genotype on bacterial numbers were not detected by applying a linear mixed-model analysis for repeated measures. In the whole population, breast-feeding promoted colonization of C. leptum group, B. longum and B. breve, while formula-feeding promoted that of Bacteroides fragilis group, C. coccoides-E. rectale group, E. coli and B. lactis. Moreover, increased numbers of B. fragilis group and Staphylococcus spp., and reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and B. longum were detected in infants with increased genetic risk of developing CD. Analyses within subgroups of either breast-fed or formula-fed infants indicated that in both cases increased risk of CD was associated with lower numbers of B. longum and/or Bifidobacterium spp. In addition, in breast-fed infants the increased genetic risk of developing CD was associated with increased C. leptum group numbers, while in formula-fed infants it was associated with increased Staphylococcus and B. fragilis group numbers. Overall, milk-feeding type in conjunction with HLA-DQ genotype play a role in establishing infants' gut microbiota; moreover, breast-feeding reduced the genotype-related differences in microbiota composition, which could partly explain the protective role attributed to breast milk in this disorder. PMID:22319588

  13. Bosom Buddies: The Symbiotic Relationship Between Infants and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum and ssp. infantis. Genetic and Probiotic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleya, Silvia; Stanton, Catherine; Ryan, C Anthony; Dempsey, Eugene; Ross, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is a complex community that plays an important role in human health from the initial steps of its establishment. Its microbial composition has been suggested to result from selective pressures imposed by the host and is modulated by competition among its members. Bifidobacterium longum is one of the most abundant species of the Bifidobacterium genus in the gut microbiota of healthy breast-fed infants and adults. The recent advancements of 'omics techniques have facilitated the genetic and functional studies of different gut microbiota members. They have revealed the complex genetic pathways used to metabolize different compounds that likely contribute to the competitiveness and persistence of B. longum in the colon. The discovery of a genomic island in B. longum ssp. infantis that encodes specific enzymes for the metabolism of human milk oligosaccharides suggests a specific ecological adaptation. Moreover, B. longum is widely used as probiotic, and beneficial effects in infant health have been reported in several studies. PMID:26934170

  14. The Infant Skin Barrier: Can We Preserve, Protect, and Enhance the Barrier?

    OpenAIRE

    Telofski, Lorena S.; A. Peter Morello; Catherine Mack Correa, M.; Stamatas, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    Infant skin is different from adult in structure, function, and composition. Despite these differences, the skin barrier is competent at birth in healthy, full-term neonates. The primary focus of this paper is on the developing skin barrier in healthy, full-term neonates and infants. Additionally, a brief discussion of the properties of the skin barrier in premature neonates and infants with abnormal skin conditions (i.e., atopic dermatitis and eczema) is included. As infant skin continues to...

  15. Breastfeeding and growth in a group of selected 0 to 24 months infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past few years there has been a great interest in the growth and energy requirements of breast fed infants, because their growth is different from that of the artificially fed infants. In Chile during the last two decades the number of mothers who decide to breastfeed their infants has increased: the last figures obtained in a country sample of 10,000 mother-infant pairs, shows that 45% of the mothers attending the Public Health System are exclusively breastfeeding their infants at 6 months of age. This figure could increase if our infants, could be evaluated by the adequate charts. The anthropometrics study proposed by WHO was thought to benefit considerably from adding the determination of breast milk intake using isotopic dilution of deuterium to measure and compare intake of breast milk and water from non breast milk sources in exclusively breastfed infants. The method also provides the determination of body composition of the mother. We also include milk composition (fat, protein and lactose) and energy density of milk to correlate energy supply, milk volume and growth. The study was conducted in 328 mothers of a middle class community in Santiago de Chile selected at the prenatal clinic of 'Consultorio Recreo'. Mean maternal age was 26.5±3 years, and pregnancy weight gain was 14.7± 2 Kg. All of them completed the protocol and received the doss of 10gr of deuterium oxide (99%) Urine samples were collected on days 1,2,3,5,13,14,on the infant and 1,2,14 on the mother. An additional dose of 0.2 gr/kg body weight was given to the infant at the end of the dose to mother protocol for the determination to total body water (TBW) in the infant. We followed the infants for 24 months. The anthropometrics data showed excellent growth of the group. The composition of the milk was comparable to the published in the literature. The body composition data showed that there is a slight difference in body composition between mothers that are exclusively breastfeeding

  16. MRI patterns of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in preterm and full term infants – classical and less common MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury occurring in antenatal, perinatal or early postnatal period constitutes an important diagnostic problem in both term and prematurely born neonates. Over the past several years magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become relatively easily accessible in Poland. On the basis of the central nervous system MRI, the experienced radiologist are able to determine the location of the hypoxic-ischemic lesions, their extent and evolution. Therefore he can help clinicians to answer the question whether the brain damage of the newborn is responsible for its clinical condition and he can contribute to determining the prognosis of the infant’s future development. The aim of this study is to present the current knowledge of different types of hypoxic-ischemic brain lesions based on our personal experience and MR images from the archives of the Department of Diagnostic Imaging at the Institute of Mother and Child

  17. Protein needs early in life and long-term health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.; Greer, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    foods have been introduced. At this age, mean protein intake is ∼3 times as high as the physiologic requirement, but some children receive 4-5 times their physiologic requirement. Protein from cow milk constitutes a main part of protein intake in toddlers and seems to have a specific effect on insulin......-like growth factor I concentrations and growth. Meat has a high protein content, but the small amounts of meat needed to ensure good iron status have less impact on total protein intake. The difference in protein intake between breastfed and formula-fed infants is likely to play a role in the difference...... by decreasing the upper allowable limit of the protein content of infant formulas for the first year of life and limiting the intake of cow milk in the second year of life....

  18. Food protein induced proctocolitis in neonates and infants: Clinical, endoscopic, histopathological findings and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mahir Gülcan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Allergic proctocolitis is a major cause of rectal bleeding in infants, but it’s clinical features and laboratory results are often nonspecific. The aim of this study was to present clinical and diagnostic features in infants with food protein-induced proctocolitis. Material and Method: Data of 18 infants with food protein-induced proctocolitis, who had received colonoscopy and biopsy, were analyzed considering clinical and laboratory findings, endoscopical and histopathological features, and response to treatment. Results: The mean age at the onset of symptoms was 8.9 weeks (range 4-20 weeks. Infants were admitted with apparent rectal bleeding (11% or blood streaked/dappled stool (89%. Feeding at onset of bleeding was exclusively breastfed (83% or formula fed (17%. Laboratory findings were nonspecific. Endoscopic abnormalities were observed in all patients, and in 67%lenfonodular hyperplasias and in 50% erosions were determined. Histopathological findings were eosinophils in lamina propria of 20-60 cells/10 high power fields in 78% and of 60 cells/10 high power fields. (Turk Arch Ped 2009; 44: 89-93

  19. Human milk glycobiome and its impact on the infant gastrointestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovic, Angela M; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mills, David A

    2011-03-15

    Human milk contains an unexpected abundance and diversity of complex oligosaccharides apparently indigestible by the developing infant and instead targeted to its cognate gastrointestinal microbiota. Recent advances in mass spectrometry-based tools have provided a view of the oligosaccharide structures produced in milk across stages of lactation and among human mothers. One postulated function for these oligosaccharides is to enrich a specific "healthy" microbiota containing bifidobacteria, a genus commonly observed in the feces of breast-fed infants. Isolated culture studies indeed show selective growth of infant-borne bifidobacteria on milk oligosaccharides or core components therein. Parallel glycoprofiling documented that numerous Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis strains preferentially consume small mass oligosaccharides that are abundant early in the lactation cycle. Genome sequencing of numerous B. longum subsp. infantis strains shows a bias toward genes required to use mammalian-derived carbohydrates by comparison with adult-borne bifidobacteria. This intriguing strategy of mammalian lactation to selectively nourish genetically compatible bacteria in infants with a complex array of free oligosaccharides serves as a model of how to influence the human supraorganismal system, which includes the gastrointestinal microbiota. PMID:20679197

  20. An Assessment of the Breastfeeding Practices and Infant Feeding Pattern among Mothers in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashmika Motee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper breastfeeding practices are effective ways for reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. While many mothers understand the importance of breastfeeding, others are less knowledgeable on the benefits of breastfeeding and weaning. The aim in here is to assess breastfeeding pattern, infant formula feeding pattern, and weaning introduction in Mauritius and to investigate the factors that influence infant nutrition. 500 mothers were interviewed using a questionnaire which was designed to elicit information on infant feeding practices. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS (version 13.0, whereby chi-square tests were used to evaluate relationships between different selected variables. The prevalence of breastfeeding practice in Mauritius has risen from 72% in 1991 to 93.4% as found in this study, while only 17.9% breastfed their children exclusively for the first 6 months, and the mean duration of EBF (exclusive breastfeeding is 2.10 months. Complementary feeding was more commonly initiated around 4–6 months (75.2%. Despite the fact that 60.6% of mothers initiate breastfeeding and 26.1% of mothers are found to breastfeed up to 2 years, the practice of EBF for the first 6 months is low (17.9%. Factors found to influence infant feeding practices are type of delivery, parity, alcohol consumption, occupation, education, and breast problems.

  1. Coupled mother-child model for bioaccumulation of POPs in nursing infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) leads to high levels in human milk and high doses of POPs for nursing infants. This is currently not considered in chemical risk assessment. A coupled model for bioaccumulation of organic chemicals in breast-feeding mother and nursing infant was developed and tested for a series of organic compounds. The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in mother, breast milk and child were predicted to vary with log KOW and, for volatile compounds, with KAW and concentration in air. The concentrations of POPs in the infant body increase the first half year to about factor 3 above mother and decline thereafter to lower levels. The predicted results are close to empirical data and to an empirical regression. The new mother-child model is compact due to its easy structure and the analytical matrix solution. It could be added to existing exposure and risk assessment systems, such as EUSES. - This paper addresses a model for accumulation of organic compounds by mother and breast-fed infant, applicable for exposure assessment within larger frameworks

  2. Preclinical assessment of infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome. PMID:22699767

  3. Intestinal microbiota and blue baby syndrome: Probiotic therapy for term neonates with cyanotic congenital heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Collin L.; Rutledge, John C; Underwood, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common intestinal emergency among premature infants. Risk factors in premature infants include immature intestinal immunity and an intestinal microbiota dominated by hospital-acquired bacteria. Some probiotics have been shown to decrease the incidence of NEC in premature infants. Among term infants, NEC is rare. However, among term infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD), the incidence of NEC is similar to that of premature infants but...

  4. Aggregate Income Shocks and Infant Mortality in the Developing World

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, Sarah; Friedman, Jed; Schady, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Health and income are strongly correlated both within and across countries, yet the extent to which improvements in income have a causal effect on health status remains controversial. We investigate whether short-term fluctuations in aggregate income affect infant mortality using an unusually large data set of 1.7 million births in 59 developing countries. We show a large, negative association between per capita GDP and infant mortality. Female infant mortality is more sensitive than male inf...

  5. Growth and tolerance of infants fed formula supplemented with polydextrose (PDX and/or galactooligosaccharides (GOS: double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Claude

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To ensure the suitability of an infant formula as the sole source of nutrition or provide benefits similar to outcomes in breastfed infants, advancements in formula composition are warranted as more research detailing the nutrient composition of human milk becomes available. This study was designed to evaluate growth and tolerance in healthy infants who received one of two investigational cow’s milk-based formulas with adjustments in carbohydrate, fat, and calcium content and supplemented with a prebiotic blend of polydextrose (PDX and galactooligosaccharides (GOS or GOS alone. Methods In this multi-center, double-blind, parallel-designed, gender-stratified prospective study 419 infants were randomized and consumed either a marketed routine cow’s milk-based infant formula (Control; Enfamil® LIPIL®, Mead Johnson Nutrition, Evansville, IN (n = 142 or one of two investigational formulas from 14 to 120 days of age. Investigational formulas were supplemented with 4 g/L (1:1 ratio of a prebiotic blend of PDX and GOS (PDX/GOS; n = 139 or 4 g/L of GOS alone (GOS; n = 138. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 14, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age. Daily recall of formula intake, tolerance, and stool characteristics was collected during study weeks 1 and 2 and 24-h recall was collected at 60, 90, and 120 days of age. Medically-confirmed adverse events were recorded throughout the study. Results There were no group differences in growth rate from 14 to 120 days of age. Discontinuation rates were not significantly different among study groups. No differences in formula intake or infant fussiness or gassiness were observed. During study weeks 1 and 2 and at 60 days of age stool consistency ratings were higher (i.e. softer stools for infants in the PDX/GOS and GOS groups versus Control and remained higher at 120 days for the PDX/GOS group (all P  Conclusions Investigational routine infant formulas

  6. Potential impact of infant feeding recommendations on mortality and HIV-infection in children born to HIV-infected mothers in Africa: a simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seksaria Vidyunmala

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although breast-feeding accounts for 15–20% of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV, it is not prohibited in some developing countries because of the higher mortality associated with not breast-feeding. We assessed the potential impact, on HIV infection and infant mortality, of a recommendation for shorter durations of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF and poor compliance to these recommendations. Methods We developed a deterministic mathematical model using primarily parameters from published studies conducted in Uganda or Kenya and took into account non-compliance resulting in mixed-feeding practices. Outcomes included the number of children HIV-infected and/or dead (cumulative mortality at 2 years following each of 6 scenarios of infant-feeding recommendations in children born to HIV-infected women: Exclusive replacement-feeding (ERF with 100% compliance, EBF for 6 months with 100% compliance, EBF for 4 months with 100% compliance, ERF with 70% compliance, EBF for 6 months with 85% compliance, EBF for 4 months with 85% compliance Results In the base model, reducing the duration of EBF from 6 to 4 months reduced HIV infection by 11.8% while increasing mortality by 0.4%. Mixed-feeding in 15% of the infants increased HIV infection and mortality respectively by 2.1% and 0.5% when EBF for 6 months was recommended; and by 1.7% and 0.3% when EBF for 4 months was recommended. In sensitivity analysis, recommending EBF resulted in the least cumulative mortality when the a mortality in replacement-fed infants was greater than 50 per 1000 person-years, b rate of infection in exclusively breast-fed infants was less than 2 per 1000 breast-fed infants per week, c rate of progression from HIV to AIDS was less than 15 per 1000 infected infants per week, or d mortality due to HIV/AIDS was less than 200 per 1000 infants with HIV/AIDS per year. Conclusion Recommending shorter durations of breast-feeding in infants born to HIV

  7. Infant-Infant Interaction in a Daycare Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Joan T.; Lee, Lee C.

    The Infant-Infant Contact Code, developed to observe the social behavior in infants, is described. Results from using this scale with nine infants under nine months indicated that contacts between infants are complex in nature, that there are developmental changes in models of encounter, and that babies take different roles in relation to the…

  8. Motor Development of Premature Infants Born between 32 and 34 Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Prins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about motor development in late preterm born infants. Our objective was to determine long-term outcome of motor skills of infants born between 32 and 34 weeks. All infants were assessed at corrected ages of 3 and 9 months, using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. At corrected ages of 4 years, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children was done. Seventy infants were seen at 4 years of age (median of 3 assessments per infant. Abnormal assessment at 3 or 9 months of age resulted in normal outcome in almost 80% at 4 years. On the other hand, a normal outcome in the first year of life resulted in an abnormal outcome at 4 years in 10% of the infants. Our results suggest that long-term followup of these late preterm born infants is necessary, as the assessments in the first year do not predict the long-term outcome.

  9. Dengue shock syndrome in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurpibul, Linda; Khumlue, Punyawee; Issaranggoon na ayuthaya, Satja; Oberdorfer, Peninnah

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne infection affecting children and adults worldwide. In newborn infants, the dengue virus can cause diseases, especially in infants born to pregnant women hospitalised with dengue or postpartum women with fever. The authors report a case of a term newborn infant who presented with haemodynamic instability and thrombocytopaenia at the age of 7 days, without a history of clinical dengue infection in the mother. The physical examination revealed an afebrile and drowsy infant with a petechial rash all over the body and ecchymosis on both palms and soles. The authors confirmed the diagnosis using the dengue NS1 antigen on the first day of admission. The treatment included fluid management and platelet transfusion. The patient recovered well and was discharged from the hospital on the 10th day of hospitalisation. PMID:25073530

  10. Environmental factors in the relationship between breastfeeding and infant mortality: the role of sanitation and water in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, W P; Habicht, J P; DaVanzo, J

    1984-04-01

    Mothers' recall data collected in Malaysia in 1976-1977 are analyzed to study correlates of mortality of 5471 infants. Respondent population is 1262 women living in 52 primary sampling units of Peninsular Malaysia. Lengths of unsupplemented and supplemented breastfeeding and presence of piped household water and toilet sanitation are related to infant mortality in regressions that also control other correlates. The analysis is disaggregated into three periods of infancy. Through six months of feeding, unsupplemented breastfeeding is more strongly associated with fewer infant deaths than is supplemented breastfeeding. Type of sanitation is generally more strongly associated with mortality than is type of water supply. The effects of breastfeeding and the environmental variables are shown to be strongly interactive and to change systematically during the course of infancy. Breastfeeding is more strongly associated with infant survival in homes without piped water or toilet sanitation. In homes with both modern facilities, supplemented breastfeeding has no significant effect, and unsupplemented breastfeeding is statistically significant only for mortality in days 8-28. Presence of modern water and sanitation systems appears unimportant for mortality of infants who are breastfed without supplementation for six months. PMID:6711541

  11. When infants talk, infants listen: pre-babbling infants prefer listening to speech with infant vocal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-03-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to vowel sounds with infant vocal properties over vowel sounds with adult vocal properties. A listening preference favoring infant vowels may derive from their higher voice pitch, which has been shown to attract infant attention in infant-directed speech (IDS). In addition, infants' nascent articulatory abilities may induce a bias favoring infant speech given that 4- to 6-month-olds are beginning to produce vowel sounds. We created infant and adult /i/ ('ee') vowels using a production-based synthesizer that simulates the act of speaking in talkers at different ages and then tested infants across four experiments using a sequential preferential listening task. The findings provide the first evidence that infants preferentially attend to vowel sounds with infant voice pitch and/or formants over vowel sounds with no infant-like vocal properties, supporting the view that infants' production abilities influence how they process infant speech. The findings with respect to voice pitch also reveal parallels between IDS and infant speech, raising new questions about the role of this speech register in infant development. Research exploring the underpinnings and impact of this perceptual bias can expand our understanding of infant language development. PMID:25754812

  12. Age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum procalcitonin concentrations in Japanese preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Noriko; Osawa, Kayo; Sato, Itsuko; Iwatani, Sota; Ishino, Ruri; Hayashi, Nobuhide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Saegusa, Jun; Morioka, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are elevated early after birth in newborn infants; however, the physiological features and reference of serum PCT concentrations have not been fully studied in preterm infants. The aims of the current study were to establish an age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants and determine the features. The PCT concentration peaked in infants at 1 day old and decreased thereafter. At 1 day old, serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants <34 weeks' gestational age were higher than those in late preterm infants between 34 and 36 weeks' gestational age or term infants ≥37 weeks' gestational age. Although the 50-percentile value in late preterm and term infants reached the adult normal level (0.1 ng/mL) at 5 days old, it did not in preterm infants. It took 9 weeks for preterm infants to reach it. Serum PCT concentrations at onset in late-onset infected preterm infants were over the 95-percentile value. We showed that the physiological feature in preterm infants was significantly different from that in late preterm infants, even in those <37 weeks' gestational age. To detect late-onset bacterial infection and sepsis, an age-specific percentile-based reference curve may be useful in preterm infants. PMID:27033746

  13. Prophylactic Probiotics for Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rie; Greisen, Gorm; Schrøder, Morten;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major morbidity and cause of mortality in preterm neonates. Probiotics seem to have a beneficial role in preventing NEC, which is confirmed in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We therefore aimed to review and confirm the efficacy...... of probiotics in preterm neonates obtained in observational studies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of prophylactic probiotics in preterm infants. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed searching PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library) and www.clinicaltrials.gov. Reference lists of reviews...... of RCTs were also searched. Included studies were observational studies that enrolled preterm infants <37 weeks of gestational age. Trials were included if they administered any probiotics and measured at least one clinical outcome (e.g. NEC, all-cause mortality, sepsis or long-term development...

  14. Planning infant learning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S K; Wilson, J M

    1976-12-01

    Based on a review of the literature, a theoretical basis for planning learning programs for infants is presented. The prerequisites for effective programming include attention to the characteristics of the learning environment, the infant or learner, and the stimulus-response mechanism. The goals of such a program include provision of sensorimotor experience and promotion of infant attachment to a mother or mother-surrogate as a basis for establishing a sense of security and competency in the infant. The parent must be taught to recognize the infant's best periods of alertness, develop sensitivity to the infant's signals, and utilize appropriate stimulation routines in interactive patterns in order to create an environment most conducive to cognitive development. Specific program content may be varied within the theoretical framework to fit the needs of special children and their families. PMID:996090

  15. Intrauterine skull depression and intracranial hemorrhage in a premature infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a case of a premature infant born with a parietal skull depression who suffered an intraventricular hemorrhage and an ipsilateral intracerebral injury. At 21 months of life the infant's gross motor milestones were delayed and he had moderate spastic hemiplegia. Although skull depressions at birth are usually benign, they may be associated with long-term neurologic sequelae. (orig.)

  16. The effect of an interventional program based on the Theory of Ethology on infant breastfeeding competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aghdas karimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: according to the ethology theory mother infant separation immediately after birth can interfere with the infants innate behaviors for the initiation of breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to the effect of an interventional program based on the Theory of Ethology on infant breast feeding competence Materials and Methods: 114 primiparous, Iranian, healthy, full term mothers between 18-35 years with normal vaginal delivery who intended to breastfeed their babies. They were put in direct skin to skin contact with their infants immediately after birth for two hours. Then, rates of infant breastfeeding competence were compared with a control group receiving routine hospital cares. Results: Rates of infant breastfeeding competence were higher in the skin to skin contact group compared to routine care group (p=0.0001. Conclusion: mother- infant early skin to skin contact promotes infants natural feeding behaviors leading to higher rates of infant breastfeeding competence. These findings confirm the Theory of Ethology.

  17. The effect of an interventional program based on the Theory of Ethology on infant breastfeeding competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aghdas karimi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: according to the ethology theory mother infant separation immediately after birth can interfere with the infants innate behaviors for the initiation of breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to the effect of an interventional program based on the Theory of Ethology on infant breast feeding competence Materials and Methods: 114 primiparous, Iranian, healthy, full term mothers between 18-35 years with normal vaginal delivery who intended to breastfeed their babies. They were put in direct skin to skin contact with their infants immediately after birth for two hours. Then, rates of infant breastfeeding competence were compared with a control group receiving routine hospital cares. Results: Rates of infant breastfeeding competence were higher in the skin to skin contact group compared to routine care group (p=0.0001. Conclusion: mother- infant early skin to skin contact promotes infants natural feeding behaviors leading to higher rates of infant breastfeeding competence. These findings confirm the Theory of Ethology.

  18. Newborn infant skin: physiology, development, and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Marty O; Adam, Ralf; Brink, Susanna; Odio, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Infant skin is critical to the newborn child's transition from the womb environment to the journey to self-sufficiency. This review provides an integrative perspective on the skin development in full term and premature infants. There is a particular focus on the role of vernix caseosa and on the implications of skin development for epidermal penetration of exogenous compounds. Healthy full-term newborn skin is well-developed and functional at birth, with a thick epidermis and well-formed stratum corneum (SC) layers. Transepidermal water loss is very low at birth, equal to, or lower than adults, indicating a highly effective skin barrier. Vernix facilitates SC development in full-term infants through a variety of mechanisms including physical protection from amniotic fluid and enzymes, antimicrobial effects, skin surface pH lowering, provision of lipids, and hydration. Premature infants, particularly those of very low birth weight, have a poor skin barrier with few cornified layers and deficient dermal proteins. They are at increased risk for skin damage, increased permeability to exogenous agents and infection. The SC barrier develops rapidly after birth but complete maturation requires weeks to months. The best methods for caring for infant skin, particularly in the diaper region, are described and related to these developmental changes. PMID:25889127

  19. Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

  20. Analysis of HIV early infant diagnosis data to estimate rates of perinatal HIV transmission in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasi Torpey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT remains the most prevalent source of pediatric HIV infection. Most PMTCT (prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programs have concentrated monitoring and evaluation efforts on process rather than on outcome indicators. In this paper, we review service data from 28,320 children born to HIV-positive mothers to estimate MTCT rates. METHOD: This study analyzed DNA PCR results and PMTCT data from perinatally exposed children zero to 12 months of age from five Zambian provinces between September 2007 and July 2010. RESULTS: The majority of children (58.6% had a PCR test conducted between age six weeks and six months. Exclusive breastfeeding (56.8% was the most frequent feeding method. An estimated 45.9% of mothers were below 30 years old and 93.3% had disclosed their HIV status. In terms of ARV regimen for PMTCT, 32.7% received AZT+single dose NVP (sdNVP, 30.9% received highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART, 19.6% received sdNVP only and 12.9% received no ARVs. Transmission rates at six weeks when ARVs were received by both mother and baby, mother only, baby only, and none were 5.8%, 10.5%, 15.8% and 21.8% respectively. Transmission rates at six weeks where mother received HAART, AZT+sd NVP, sdNVP, and no intervention were 4.2%, 6.8%, 8.7% and 20.1% respectively. Based on adjusted analysis including ARV exposures and non ARV-related parameters, lower rates of positive PCR results were associated with 1 both mother and infant receiving prophylaxis, 2 children never breastfed and 3 mother being 30 years old or greater. Overall between September 2007 and July 2010, 12.2% of PCR results were HIV positive. Between September 2007 and January 2009, then between February 2009 and July 2010, proportions of positive PCR results were 15.1% and 11% respectively, a significant difference. CONCLUSION: The use of ARV drugs reduces vertical transmission of HIV in a program setting. Non

  1. Growth of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants in the First 6 Months of Life in South Africa: The IeDEA-SA Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morden, Erna; Technau, Karl-Günter; Giddy, Janet; Maxwell, Nicola; Keiser, Olivia; Davies, Mary-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are a growing population in sub-Saharan Africa especially with the increasing coverage of more effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) antiretroviral therapy regimens. This study describes the characteristics of South African HEU infants, investigates factors impacting birth weight and assesses their growth within the first 28 weeks of life. Methods This is a retrospective cohort based on routine clinical data from two South African PMTCT programmes. Data were collected between 2007 and 2013. Linear regression assessed factors affecting birth weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) while growth (longitudinal WAZ) was assessed using mixed effects models. Results We assessed the growth of 2621 HEU infants (median birth WAZ was -0.65 (IQR -1.46; 0.0) and 51% were male). The feeding modalities practised were as follows: 0.5% exclusive breastfeeding, 7.9% breastfeeding with unknown exclusivity, 0.08% mixed breastfeeding and 89.2% formula feeding. Mothers with CD4 antiretroviral drugs delivered infants with a lower birth WAZ (adjusted ß -0.39 [95% CI -0.67; -0.11], p = 0.007) compared to mothers who received antenatal antiretrovirals. Infants with a birth weight <2 500g (ß 0.070 [95% CI 0.061; 0.078], p <0.0001) experienced faster growth within the first 28 weeks of life compared to infants with a birth weight ≥2 500g. Infants with any breastfeeding exposure experienced slower longitudinal growth compared to formula fed infants (adjusted ß -0.012 [95% CI 0.021; -0.003], p = 0.011). Conclusion Less severe maternal disease and the use of antiretrovirals positively impacts birth weight in this cohort of South African HEU infants. Formula feeding was common with breastfed infants experiencing marginally slower longitudinal growth. PMID:27049853

  2. Effect of cytomegalovirus infection on breastfeeding transmission of HIV and on the health of infants born to HIV-infected mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tiffany S.; Wiener, Jeffrey; Dollard, Sheila C.; Amin, Minal M.; Ellington, Sascha; Chasela, Charles; Kayira, Dumbani; Tegha, Gerald; Kamwendo, Deborah; Jamieson, Denise J.; van der Horst, Charlie; Kourtis, Athena P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can be acquired in utero or postnatally through horizontal transmission and breastfeeding. The effect of postnatal CMV infection on postnatal HIV transmission is unknown. Methods The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition study, conducted in Malawi, randomized 2369 mothers and their infants to three antiretroviral prophylaxis arms –mother (triple regimen), infant (nevirapine), or neither – for 28 weeks of breastfeeding, followed by weaning. Stored plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell specimens were available for 492 infants at 24 weeks and were tested with CMV PCR. Available samples from infants who were CMV PCR-positive at 24 weeks were also tested at birth (N = 242), and from infants PCR-negative at 24 weeks were tested at 48 weeks (N = 96). Cox proportional-hazards models were used to determine if CMV infection was associated with infant morbidity, mortality, or postnatal HIV acquisition. Results At 24 weeks of age, CMV DNA was detected in 345/492 infants (70.1%); the estimated congenital CMV infection rate was 2.3%, and the estimated rate of CMV infection at 48 weeks was 78.5%. CMV infection at 24 weeks was associated with subsequent HIV acquisition through breastfeeding or infant death between 24 and 48 weeks of age (hazard ratio 4.27, P = 0.05). Conclusion Most breastfed infants of HIV-infected mothers in this resource-limited setting are infected with CMV by 24 weeks of age. Early CMV infection may be a risk factor for subsequent infant HIV infection through breastfeeding, pointing to the need for comprehensive approaches in order to achieve elimination of breastfeeding transmission of HIV. PMID:25985405

  3. The relationship between bioactive components in breast milk and bone mass in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Krista; Hanks, Lynae J; Fields, David A

    2014-01-01

    Human breast milk (HBM) contains numerous bioactive components, recently shown to be associated with growth and body composition in breastfed offspring. Reciprocity in adipogenic and osteogenic pathways suggests bone mass may also be influenced by these components. The association between bioactive components found in HBM and bone mineral content (BMC), to our knowledge, is unknown. The purpose of this proof-of-principle study was to evaluate the association between specific bioactive components in HBM in exclusively breastfed infants and skeletal health in the first 6 months of life and examine potential gender differences in these associations. Thirty-five mother–infant dyads were followed from 1 to 6 months. The contents of a single breast expression were used for analyses of bioactive components (insulin, glucose, leptin, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), whereas BMC was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In the total sample, there was a positive association between TNFα and BMC at 1 (P=0.004) and 6 months (P=0.007). When stratified by sex, females exhibited a positive association between BMC and glucose and an inverse relationship between BMC and TNF-α at 1 month with TNF-α strengthening (P=0.006) at 6 months. In males, at 6 months a positive relationship between BMC and HBM glucose and an inverse relationship with HBM leptin were observed with no associations observed at 1 month. Although preliminary, the associations between bioactive components in HBM highlight the importance HBM has on bone accretion. It is critically important to identify factors in HBM that contribute to optimal bone health. PMID:25328673

  4. A fresh look at growth assessment of infants and young children in the Czech Republic in context of international developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignerová, Jana; Lhotská, Lída

    2006-06-01

    The growth charts of basic body measurements are an important aid for the daily routine practice of paediatricians. Charts for children from birth to 2 years of age form an integral component of a set of such tools for the age spectrum from birth to 18 years of age. The interpretation of growth charts is highly dependent on the data on basis of which the charts were constructed. In the Czech Republic, the growth reference data have been regularly updated since 1951, in 10-year intervals. These updates are based on data from nation-wide anthropological surveys of children and adolescents. Countries, which do not have their own reference data, have been using for growth assessment the 1977 World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) international reference growth charts. These charts, developed for height for age, weight for age, and weight for height, were based for children younger than 2 years on a longitudinal study of North American children. Over the years, use in practice showed that because of the original criteria used to select the child population studied, these reference growth charts were not suitable for assessing growth of breastfed children. The 1977 reference is based on predominantly artificially, that is formula-fed, child population. The evidence shows that breastfed and artificially fed infants grow differently and that the growth pattern of breastfed children most likely better reflects physiological growth. In 1994, based on the accumulated evidence, the WHO started working on new international standards which would be based on a sample of healthy breastfed children. The project, the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS), was carried out from 1997-2003. It focused on collection of growth and development data of 8440 children from different ethnic and cultural groups. The underlying assumption of the project was that in favourable socio-economic conditions and with a recommended level of nutrition

  5. Infants' discrimination of happy and sad music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, Ross; Gentile, Douglas A; Pick, Anne D

    2008-12-01

    Infants can detect information specifying affect in infant- and adult-directed speech, familiar and unfamiliar facial expressions, and in point-light displays of facial expressions. We examined 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds' discrimination of musical excerpts judged by adults and preschoolers as happy and sad. In Experiment 1, using an infant-controlled habituation procedure, 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds heard three musical excerpts that were rated as either happy or sad. Following habituation, infants were presented with two new musical excerpts from the other affect group. Nine-month-olds discriminated the musical excerpts rated as affectively different. Five- and seven-month-olds discriminated the happy and sad excerpts when they were habituated to sad excerpts but not when they were habituated to happy excerpts. Three-month-olds showed no evidence of discriminating the sad and happy excerpts. In Experiment 2, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds were presented with two new musical excerpts from the same affective group as the habituation excerpts. At no age did infants discriminate these novel, yet affectively similar, musical excerpts. In Experiment 3, we examined 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds' discrimination of individual excerpts rated as affectively similar. Only the 9-month-olds discriminated the affectively similar individual excerpts. Results are discussed in terms of infants' ability to discriminate affect across a variety of events and its relevance for later social-communicative development. PMID:18502515

  6. Supplementation of prebiotics in infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Močić Pavić A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ana Močić Pavić, Iva Hojsak Referral Center for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Background: In recent years prebiotics have been added to infant formula to make it resemble breast milk more closely and to promote growth and development of beneficial intestinal microbiota. This review aims to present new data on the possible positive effects of prebiotics in infant formula on intestinal microbiota (bifidogenic and lactogenic effect and on clinical outcomes including growth, infections, and allergies. With that aim, a literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, and Science Direct in the last 10 years (December 2003 to December 2013 was performed. Results: Altogether 24 relevant studies were identified. It was found that during intervention, prebiotics can elicit a bifidogenic and lactogenic effect. As far as clinical outcomes were concerned, 14 studies investigated the effect of infant formula supplemented with prebiotics on growth and found that there was no difference when compared with non-supplemented infant formula. All available data are insufficient to support prebiotic supplementation in order to reduce risk of allergies and infections. Conclusion: There is currently no strong evidence to recommend routine supplementation of infant formulas with prebiotics. Further well-designed clinical studies with long-term follow-up are needed. Keywords: prebiotics, infant formula, growth, allergy, infections, supplementation

  7. 早期足月儿围产期高危因素及并发症临床特征的研究%Analysis on perinatal risk factors and clinical characteristics of complications in early term infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亮; 程慧清; 徐发林

    2016-01-01

    ),2.7%(11/412),x2=57.739],hysteromyoma[4.9%(94/1 933),2.3%(68/3 013),0.7%(3/412),x2=35.062] in the early term group than in the full and late term group,respectively (all P<0.016).Multivariate logistic analysis showed that multiple pregnancy (OR=21.736,95%CI:10.785-43.806),scarred uterus (OR=3.302,95%CI:2.679-4.071) and hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy(OR=2.658,95%CI:2.040-3.465) were the leading three perinatal risk factors for early term delivery.2.The incidence of the following neonatal conditions were different among early,full and late term infants (all P<0.05):hyperbilirubinemia [12.5%(255/2 033),3.9%(119/3 023),4.9%(20/412),x2=138.343],infectious diseases [4.3%(88/2 033),2.0%(59/3 023),1.7%(7/412),x2=27.122],asphyxia[3.0%(60/2 033,1.4%(42/3 023),1.0%(4/412),x2=17.795],brain damage [2.3%(46/2 033),0.5%(15/3,023),10.%(4/412)],respiratory distress syndrome [1.1%(23/2 033),0.2%(7/3 023),0.0%(0/412)],feeding problems [2.0%(41/2 033),0.3%(10/3 023),1.0% (4/412)],surgical diseases[2.0%(41/2 033),0.9%(28/3 023),1.5%(6/412),x2=0.709],intracranial hemorrhage [1.9%(39/2 033),0.9%(26/3 023),0.5%(2/412),x2=13.263],wet lung [0.9%(19/2 033),0.4%(11/3 023),0.5%(2/412)].Incidences of the above complications in the early term infants were all higher than in the full term infants,but when compared with the later term infants,only that of hyperbilirubinemia and infectious diseases was higher (all P<0.016).Incidence of admission ot NICU [24.5%(170/695) vs 11.5%(153/1 338),x2=57.729],hyperbilirubinemia [19.0%(132/695) vs 9.2%(123/1 338),x2=40.046],infectious diseases[6.2%(43/695) vs 3.4%(45/1 338),x2=8.807],brain damage[4.0%(28/695) vs 1.3%(18/1 338),x2=14.828],and NRDS[2.0%(14/695) vs 0.5%(9/1 338),x2=7.329],feeding problems [3.2%(22/695) vs 1.5%(20/1 338),x2=6.271],intracranial hemorrhage [3.2%(22/695) vs 1.3%(17/1 338),x2=8.684],wet lung [1.7%(12/695) vs 0.5%(7/1 338

  8. Managing hypertension in the newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Nickavar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension in newborn infants, particularly those requiring intensive care, is becoming increasingly recognized, with prevalence of 0.2-3%. Recent studies have established normative tables for blood pressure (BP in both term and pre-term infants based on the gestational age, postnatal age, gender, weight and height, identifying the neonates at increased risk for early-onset cardiovascular disease. Common causes of neonatal hypertension include thromboembolic complications secondary to umbilical artery catheterization, congenital renal structural malformation, renovascular disease, aortic coarctation, as well as acute kidney injury and certain medications. A careful diagnostic evaluation should lead to identification of the underlying cause of hypertension in most infants. Treatment options should be tailored to the severity; and underlying cause of hypertension, including intravenous and/or oral therapy. This review summarizes recent work in these areas, focusing on optimal BP measurement, definition, evaluation and management of hypertension as well as advances in drug therapy of neonatal hypertension.

  9. Accelerated cerebral white matter development in preterm infants: a voxel-based morphometry study with diffusion tensor MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giménez, Mónica; Born, A Peter; Nagy, Zoltan;

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-seven preterm infants were compared to 10 full-term infants at term equivalent age using a voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging of the brain. Preterm infants exhibited higher fractional anisotropy values, which may suggest accelerated maturation, in the location of the sagittal...

  10. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in infants in a rural population: longitudinal data over the first six months

    OpenAIRE

    Storms Michelle R; Van Howe Robert S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Increasing numbers of infants are receiving prescription medications for symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Our aim was to prospectively measure reported gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in healthy term infants for the first six months of life. Methods In a prospective cohort study in the rural Upper Peninsula of Michigan, 128 consecutive maternal-infant pairs were followed for six months and administered the Infant Gastroesophageal Reflux Questionnaire Revi...

  11. Metabolic bone disease in the preterm infant: Current state and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Rehman, Moghis Ur; Narchi, Hassib

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal osteopenia is an important area of interest for neonatologists due to continuing increased survival of preterm infants. It can occur in high-risk infants such as preterm infants, infants on long-term diuretics or corticosteroids, and those with neuromuscular disorders. Complications such as rickets, pathological fractures, impaired respiratory function and poor growth in childhood can develop and may be the first clinical evidence of the condition. It is important for neonatologists ...

  12. Respiratory Function in Healthy Taiwanese Infants: Tidal Breathing Analysis, Passive Mechanics, and Tidal Forced Expiration

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Shen-Hao; Liao, Sui-Ling; Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Tsai, Ming-Han; Hua, Man-Chin; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Jing-Long

    2015-01-01

    Background Although infant lung function (ILF) testing is widely practiced in developed Western countries it is not typically performed in Eastern countries, and lung measurements are scarce for Asian infants. Therefore, this study aimed to establish normal reference values for Taiwanese infants. Materials and Methods Full-term infants without any chronic diseases and major anomalies were enrolled in the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese Children (PATCH) cohort study. Detailed medical data...

  13. Comparative Study for Clinical Effect of Different Doses of Bovine Pulmonary Surfactant on Early Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Late Preterm Infants and Full - term Infants%早期不同剂量牛肺表面活性物质治疗晚期早产/足月新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征的临床疗效比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈新华

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical effect of different doses of bovine pulmonary surfactant on early neonatal respiratory distress syndrome in late preterm infants and full - term infants,to analyze the best therapeutic dose of bovine pulmonary surfactant. Methods A total of 72 late preterm infants and full - term infants with early neonatal respiratory distress syndrome were selected in the People's Hospital of Chengwu County from February 2012 to October 2015,and they were divided into control group and study group according to random number table,each of 36 cases. Based on conventional treatment,infants of control group were given standard dose of bovine pulmonary surfactant(50 mg/ kg),while infants of study group were given high dose of bovine pulmonary surfactant ( 70 mg/ kg). Clinical effect,treatment related index ( including duration of mechanical ventilation and oxygen inhalation,the maximum oxygenation index during treatment,reuse rate of pulmonary surfactant,hospital stays and medical expenses)and incidence of complications were compared between the two groups. Results Of study group,35 cases were cured,1 case was dead;of control group,34 cases were cured,2 cases were dead,no statistically significant differences of clinical effect was found between the two groups( P > 0. 05). Duration of mechanical ventilation and hospital stays of study group were statistically significantly shorter than those of control group,medical expenses of study group were statistically significantly less than those of control group ( P 0. 05). No statistically significant differences of incidence of gas leakage syndrome,pulmonary hypertension or pneumorrhagia was found between the two groups( P > 0. 05 ),while incidence of ventilator - associated pneumonia of study group was statistically significantly lower than that of control group( P 0.05).研究组患儿机械通气时间和住院时间短于对照组,医疗费用低于对照组(P0.05).两组患儿气漏综合征、肺动

  14. Neurologic Outcomes in Very Preterm Infants Undergoing Surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between surgery in very preterm infants and brain structure at term equivalent and 2-year neurodevelopmental outcome. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 227 infants born at <30 weeks gestation or at a birth weight of <1250 g were prospectively enrolled into a longitudinal observational cohort for magnetic resonance imaging and developmental follow-up. The infants were categorized retrospectively into either a nonsurgical group (n=178) or a surgical group (n=30). Nineteen infants were excluded because of incomplete or unsuitable data. The surgical and nonsurgical groups were compared in terms of clinical demographic data, white matter injury, and brain volume at term. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at age 2 years. RESULTS: Compared with the nonsurgical group, the infants in the surgical group were smaller and more growth-restricted at birth, received more respiratory support and oxygen therapy, and had longer hospital stays. They also had smaller brain volumes, particularly smaller deep nuclear gray matter volumes. Infants who underwent bowel surgery had greater white matter injury. Mental Developmental Index scores were lower in the surgical group, whereas Psychomotor Developmental Index scores did not differ between the groups. The Mental Developmental Index difference became nonsignificant after adjustment for confounding variables. CONCLUSION: Preterm infants exposed to surgery and anesthesia had greater white matter injury and smaller total brain volumes, particularly smaller deep nuclear gray matter volumes. Surgical exposure in the preterm infant should alert the clinician to an increased risk for adverse cognitive outcome.

  15. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. ...

  16. Cerebral Asymmetry in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Corballis, Michael C.

    This paper describes two experiments conducted to replicate the reported findings (Entus, 1975) that infants demonstrate a right ear advantage in the perception of dichotically presented syllables. Using the non-nutritive sucking paradigm, 48 infants 1-3 months of age were presented with verbal stimuli contingent upon criterion level sucking.…

  17. Anatomy of the infant head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ

  18. Molecular typing of fecal eukaryotic microbiota of human infants and their respective mothers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prashant K Pandey; Jay Siddharth; Pankaj Verma; Ashish Bavdekar; Milind S Patole; Yogesh S Shouche

    2012-06-01

    The micro-eukaryotic diversity from the human gut was investigated using universal primers directed towards 18S rRNA gene, fecal samples being the source of DNA. The subjects in this study included two breast-fed and two formula-milk-fed infants and their mothers. The study revealed that the infants did not seem to harbour any micro-eukaryotes in their gut. In contrast, there were distinct eukaryotic microbiota present in the mothers. The investigation is the first of its kind in the comparative study of the human feces to reveal the presence of micro-eukaryotic diversity variance in infants and adults from the Indian subcontinent. The micro-eukaryotes encountered during the investigation include known gut colonizers like Blastocystis and some fungi species. Some of these micro-eukaryotes have been speculated to be involved in clinical manifestations of various diseases. The study is an attempt to highlight the importance of micro-eukaryotes in the human gut.

  19. Dietary intake of pregnant women and their infants in a poor black South African community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mostert

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (i to determine the dietary intake of women in a poor rural area during pregnancy and lactation, and (ii to determine the nutritional status and dietary intake of their infants at age 6 months. We recruited 46 women, below 40 years old, in their 2nd trimester of pregnancy. The subjects were living in a rural area of Limpopo Province. Their heights and weights were recorded, as were their diets during pregnancy and for the first 6 months after delivery. We also recorded weights, lengths, and dietary intake of the infants at 3 and 6 months after birth. The subjects were living in severe poverty: none had running water and almost all did their cooking over an open fire. None of the subjects smoked and only one consumed alcohol. The diets of the subjects consisted mainly of maize, brown bread, sweetened beverages (cold drink and tea, and small amounts of vegetables and chicken. The diets were adequate in protein but were marginal in energy and in dietary fibre, and may be deficient in numerous micronutrients, particularly calcium, iron, zinc, niacin, folate, and vitamins A, C, E, and B6. This was seen during pregnancy and lactation. Blood analysis 6 months after birth revealed normal levels of vitamins A and E and an absence of anaemia. Body mass index (BMI of the women was 23.9 } 5.3 kg/m2 (mean } SD when measured 6 months after birth. Those above 25 years old had a higher BMI than did younger subjects (25.5 vs. 22.2; p= 0.028. Overall, 24% were overweight (BMI 25-30 while 9% were obese (BMI > 30. Most infants (93% were breastfed for at least 6 months but exclusive breastfeeding was only done by 65% of mothers. One-third of breastfed infants also received formula. The use of formula while breastfeeding was twice as common among mothers aged above 25 years (46% vs. 23%. Early introduction of solid foods was very common in this group. Younger mothers introduced solids in the first month (51% more often compared with

  20. Infant digestion physiology and the relevance of in vitro biochemical models to test infant formula lipid digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poquet, Laure; Wooster, Tim J

    2016-08-01

    Lipids play an important role in the diet of preterm and term infants providing a key energy source and essential lipid components for development. While a lot is known about adult lipid digestion, our understanding of infant digestion physiology is still incomplete, the greatest gap being on the biochemistry of the small intestine, particularly the activity and relative importance of the various lipases active in the intestine. The literature has been reviewed to identify the characteristics of lipid digestion of preterm and term infants, but also to better understand the physiology of the infant gastrointestinal tract compared to adults that impacts the absorption of lipids. The main differences are a higher gastric pH, submicellar bile salt concentration, a far more important role of gastric lipases as well as differences at the level of the intestinal barrier. Importantly, the consequences of improper in vitro replication of gastric digestions conditions (pH and lipase specificity) are demonstrated using examples from the most recent of studies. It is true that some animal models could be adapted to study infant lipid digestion physiology, however the ethical relevance of such models is questionable, hence the development of accurate in vitro models is a must. In vitro models that combine up to date knowledge of digestion biochemistry with intestinal cells in culture are the best choice to replicate digestion and absorption in infant population, this would allow the adaptation of infant formula for a better digestion and absorption of dietary lipids by preterm and term infants. PMID:27279140

  1. Infants use temporal regularities to chunk objects in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbe, Melissa M; Feigenson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Infants, like adults, can maintain only a few items in working memory, but can overcome this limit by creating more efficient representations, or "chunks." Previous research shows that infants can form chunks using shared features or spatial proximity between objects. Here we asked whether infants also can create chunked representations using regularities that unfold over time. Thirteen-month old infants first were familiarized with four objects of different shapes and colors, presented in successive pairs. For some infants, the identities of objects in each pair varied randomly across familiarization (Experiment 1). For others, the objects within a pair always co-occurred, either in consistent relative spatial positions (Experiment 2a) or varying spatial positions (Experiment 2b). Following familiarization, infants saw all four objects hidden behind a screen and then saw the screen lifted to reveal either four objects or only three. Infants in Experiment 1, who had been familiarized with random object pairings, failed to look longer at the unexpected 3-object outcome; they showed the same inability to concurrently represent four objects as in other studies of infant working memory. In contrast, infants in Experiments 2a and 2b, who had been familiarized with regularly co-occurring pairs, looked longer at the unexpected outcome. These infants apparently used the co-occurrence between individual objects during familiarization to form chunked representations that were later deployed to track the objects as they were hidden at test. In Experiment 3, we confirmed that the familiarization affected infants' ability to remember the occluded objects rather than merely establishing longer-term memory for object pairs. Following familiarization to consistent pairs, infants who were not shown a hiding event (but merely saw the same test outcomes as in Experiments 2a and b) showed no preference for arrays of three versus four objects. Finally, in Experiments 4 and 5, we asked

  2. High Rates of All-cause and Gastroenteritis-related Hospitalization Morbidity and Mortality among HIV-exposed Indian Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathy Srikanth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected infants experience a high burden of infectious morbidity and mortality. Hospitalization is an important metric for morbidity and is associated with high mortality, yet, little is known about rates and causes of hospitalization among these infants in the first 12 months of life. Methods Using data from a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT trial (India SWEN, where HIV-exposed breastfed infants were given extended nevirapine, we measured 12-month infant all-cause and cause-specific hospitalization rates and hospitalization risk factors. Results Among 737 HIV-exposed Indian infants, 93 (13% were HIV-infected, 15 (16% were on HAART, and 260 (35% were hospitalized 381 times by 12 months of life. Fifty-six percent of the hospitalizations were attributed to infections; gastroenteritis was most common accounting for 31% of infectious hospitalizations. Gastrointestinal-related hospitalizations steadily increased over time, peaking around 9 months. The 12-month all-cause hospitalization, gastroenteritis-related hospitalization, and in-hospital mortality rates were 906/1000 PY, 229/1000 PY, and 35/1000 PY respectively among HIV-infected infants and 497/1000 PY, 107/1000 PY, and 3/1000 PY respectively among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Advanced maternal age, infant HIV infection, gestational age, and male sex were associated with higher all-cause hospitalization risk while shorter duration of breastfeeding and abrupt weaning were associated with gastroenteritis-related hospitalization. Conclusions HIV-exposed Indian infants experience high rates of all-cause and infectious hospitalization (particularly gastroenteritis and in-hospital mortality. HIV-infected infants are nearly 2-fold more likely to experience hospitalization and 10-fold more likely to die compared to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. The combination of scaling up HIV PMTCT programs and implementing proven health

  3. Human milk and the nutritional needs of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudehope, David I

    2013-03-01

    Key principles underpinning feeding guidelines for preterm infants include support for developmental care, breastfeeding, milk expression, and creating feeding plans. Early trophic feeding with colostrum and transitional milk improves immune protection and promotes gut maturation. Studies of preterm infants demonstrate that feeding mother's milk (MM) decreases the incidence of infection and necrotizing enterocolitis and improves neurodevelopmental outcome but may decrease ponderal and linear growth. Standard practice in neonatal units is to promote mother's own milk as the feed of choice for all infants. However, it is not feasible or prudent to do so for all preterm infants. Mothers of preterm infants have lower rates of successful breastfeeding compared with those of term infants. MM can contain harmful bacterial or viral pathogens. Although preterm human milk (HM) contains higher concentrations of protein, sodium, zinc, and calcium than mature HM, it falls short of supplying adequate quantities of nutrients required by preterm infants. Therefore, HM supplemented with nutrients is recommended for all infants born before 32 weeks gestation and for certain infants born at 32-36 weeks of gestation. HM is the preferred feed, but preterm formula is an appropriate option when there is an inadequate supply of MM. PMID:23445843

  4. 新生儿黄疸对正常足月儿心肌损伤危害的临床研究%Clinical study of myocardial damage induced by neonatal jaundice in normal birth weight term infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔羽; 杨波; 黑明燕; 王秀利; 陈洋; 孙迎军; 佟念念

    2012-01-01

    Objective To clarify whether neonatal jaundice may cause myocardial damage to term infants with normal birth weight (BW).Methods Totally 178 term neonates admitted during March,2004 to December,2010 with normal BW were enrolled.Infants with antenatal or neonatal asphyxia,temperature abnormality,septicemia,antenatal viral infection,congenital dysmorphia,congenital heart disease,21-trisomy,and polycythemia were excluded. There was no maternal complications during the pregnancy.Serum total bilirubin (TB),creatine kinase (CK),MB isoenzymes of creatine kinase (CK-MB),and cardiac troponin-I (cTnI) were measured.Patients with transcutaneous bilirubin level (TcB) ≥342 pmol/L (20 mg/dl) were in Group A ( n =32),and those with TcB below phototherapy level at matched time point were in Group B (n =25 ).ECG,for correct Q-T intervals (QTc) and correct QT intervals dispersion ( QTcd),and ECHO,for left ventricular ejection fraction ( EF),the ratio of the peak velocity of early stage and advanced stage of diastolic phase at the mitral orifice (E/A),were applied to patients in Group A and B.SPSS 13.0 software was used for the data analysis.The coefficients of correlation among age in hours on admission (hr),TB,CK,CK-MB,CK-MB/CK,and cTnI were studied by multiple and partial correlation analysis. Data in Group A and B were compared by independent-samples Mann-Whitney U test ( nonparametric method) or Student t-test.Results When the data were analyzed by multiple correlation,there were significant correlation between TB and cTnI,CK-MB,respectively ( r =0.212, - 0.161,respectively,all P < 0.05 ). But,when the data were analyzed by partial correlation,there was no correlation between TB and cTnl,CK-MB,respectively (r'=0.112, -0.112,respectively,all P >0.05),negative correlation between hr and TB,cTnI,respectively (r' =-0.490,P =0.000; r' =-0.162,P =0.032 ).There was no significant difference in CK ( Z =- 1.384,P =0.166),CK-MB ( Z =-0.821,P=0.412),cTnI (Z=-1.159,P=0.246),QTc (t=1

  5. Infants-feeding practices and their relationship with socio-economic and health conditions in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Ijaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pakistan, has high infant mortality rate. Among every 1000 live births 0.76% becomes the victim of death due to malnutrition and fatal infections. Therefore, feeding modes and practices may serve as important factors for assessment of an infant's growth and nutritional status. This study was designed to assess the exclusive breast feeding rate, frequency of diseases during breast feeding, status of breast feeding along with weaning, level of education, occupation and socio-economic status of parents. Methods: In the descriptive and cross-sectional study, a total of one hundred (100 infants were included. The sampling technique was non-probability convenience sampling. This study was conducted at vaccination centers and children clinics in different hospitals in city of Lahore -Pakistan. Results: The results showed that 67% of the mothers exclusively breastfed their babies. 64% of the mothers had knowledge of exclusive breast feeding. The practice of breast feeding was found as 81% while artificial feeding was practiced among 19% of the mothers. Majority of the mothers started weaning their babies at the age 4 (31% and 6 months (32% whereas 28% mothers started after 6 months. 54% of mothers continued breastfeeding along with weaning. 72% of the mothers were aware of the importance of colostrum. Conclusion: Maternal education and women's employment have been found major determinants for breastfeeding. The result indicates that in Pakistan, mothers receive counseling on breast feeding which is quite satisfactory and feeding practices of infants are found as better in Pakistan.

  6. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  7. Transient myocardial ischemia of the newborn infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten full-term newborn infants with transient myocardial ischemia developed radiographic evidence of cardiomegaly and pulmonary venous congestion within the first few hours of life. In five patients, radiographic findings returned to normal during the first week of life. In the remaining five patients radiographic findings improved within the second week and eventually became normal. Echocardiography done on six patients demonstrated left ventricular dysfunction in all six patients. Those infants with documented perinatal insults tend to have a protracted clinical course with eventual recovery. Pathophysiology and clinical course are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Stillbirth and Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown. Although maternal obesity is associated with a wide range of complications in the mother and neonate that may impair fetal and infant survival, the increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality is virtually unchanged when accounting...... indicating that some of the excess risk may have a placental origin. To further understand the associations between maternal obesity and late fetal and infant death, we need better and more detailed clinical data, which is difficult to obtain on a population level given the rarity of the outcomes. The best...

  9. The effects of parental sensitivity and involvement in caregiving on mother-infant and father-infant attachment in a Portuguese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Marina; Faria, Anabela; Beeghly, Marjorie; Lopes-Dos-Santos, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    In the present longitudinal study, we investigated attachment quality in Portuguese mother-infant and in father-infant dyads, and evaluated whether attachment quality was related to parental sensitivity during parent-infant social interaction or to the amount of time each parent spent with the infant during play and in routine caregiving activities (e.g., feeding, bathing, play). The sample consisted of 82 healthy full-term infants (30 girls, 53 boys, 48 first born), and their mothers and fathers from mostly middle-class households. To assess parental sensitivity, mothers and fathers were independently observed during free play interactions with their infants when infants were 9 and 15 months old. The videotaped interactions were scored by masked coders using the Crittenden's CARE-Index. When infants were 12 and 18 months old, mother-infant and father-infant dyads were videotaped during an adaptation of Ainsworth's Strange Situation. Parents also described their level of involvement in infant caregiving activities using a Portuguese version of the McBride and Mills Parent Responsibility Scale. Mothers were rated as being more sensitive than fathers during parent-infant free play at both 9 and 15 months. There also was a higher prevalence of secure attachment in mother-infant versus father-infant dyads at both 12 and 18 months. Attachment security was predicted by the amount of time mothers and fathers were involved in caregiving and play with the infant, and with parents' behavior during parent-infant free play. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26437145

  10. Auditory Brainstem Response Improvements in Hyperbillirubinemic Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Farzaneh Zamiri; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Lotfi, Yones

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hyperbillirubinemia in infants have been associated with neuronal damage including in the auditory system. Some researchers have suggested that the bilirubin-induced auditory neuronal damages may be temporary and reversible. This study was aimed at investigating the auditory neuropathy and reversibility of auditory abnormalities in hyperbillirubinemic infants. Subjects and Methods The study participants included 41 full term hyperbilirubinemic infants (mean age 39.24 days) with normal birth weight (3,200-3,700 grams) that admitted in hospital for hyperbillirubinemia and 39 normal infants (mean age 35.54 days) without any hyperbillirubinemia or other hearing loss risk factors for ruling out maturational changes. All infants in hyperbilirubinemic group had serum bilirubin level more than 20 milligram per deciliter and undergone one blood exchange transfusion. Hearing evaluation for each infant was conducted twice: the first one after hyperbilirubinemia treatment and before leaving hospital and the second one three months after the first hearing evaluation. Hearing evaluations included transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) screening and auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold tracing. Results The TEOAE and ABR results of control group and TEOAE results of the hyperbilirubinemic group did not change significantly from the first to the second evaluation. However, the ABR results of the hyperbilirubinemic group improved significantly from the first to the second assessment (p=0.025). Conclusions The results suggest that the bilirubin induced auditory neuronal damage can be reversible over time so we suggest that infants with hyperbilirubinemia who fail the first hearing tests should be reevaluated after 3 months of treatment. PMID:27144228

  11. Do infants fed directly from the breast have improved appetite regulation and slower growth during early childhood compared with infants fed from a bottle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Jennifer O

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral mechanisms that contribute to the association between breastfeeding and reduced obesity risk are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that feeding human milk from the breast (direct breastfeeding has a more optimal association with subsequent child appetite regulation behaviors and growth, when compared to bottle-feeding. Methods Children (n = 109 aged 3- to 6- years were retrospectively classified as directly breastfed (fed exclusively at the breast, bottle-fed human milk, or bottle-fed formula in the first three months of life. Young children's appetite regulation was examined by measuring three constructs (satiety response, food responsiveness, enjoyment of food associated with obesity risk, using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test whether children bottle-fed either human milk or formula had reduced odds of high satiety and increased odds of high food responsiveness and high enjoyment of food compared to children fed directly from the breast. Current child weight status and growth trends from 6-36 months were also examined for their relation to direct breastfeeding and appetite regulation behaviors in early childhood. Results Children fed human milk in a bottle were 67% less likely to have high satiety responsiveness compared to directly breastfed children, after controlling for child age, child weight status, maternal race/ethnicity, and maternal education. There was no association of bottle-feeding (either human milk or formula with young children's food responsiveness and enjoyment of food. There was neither an association of direct breastfeeding with current child weight status, nor was there a clear difference between directly breastfed and bottle-fed children in growth trajectories from 6- to 36-months. More rapid infant changes in weight-for-age score were associated with lower satiety responsiveness

  12. Sleep arrangements, parent-infant sleep during the first year, and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teti, Douglas M; Shimizu, Mina; Crosby, Brian; Kim, Bo-Ram

    2016-08-01

    The present longitudinal study addressed the ongoing debate regarding the benefits and risks of infant-parent cosleeping by examining associations between sleep arrangement patterns across the first year of life and infant and parent sleep, marital and family functioning, and quality of mothers' behavior with infants at bedtime. Patterns of infant sleep arrangements across the infants' first year were derived from information obtained from 139 families at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of infant age in a central Pennsylvania sample. Linkages between these patterns and parent-infant sleep, marital and coparenting stress, and maternal behavior at bedtime (from video-recordings) were assessed. Compared with families whose infants were solitary sleepers by 6 months, persistent cosleeping was associated with sleep disruption in mothers but not in infants, although mothers in persistent cosleeping arrangements reported that their infants had more frequent night awakenings. Persistent cosleeping was also associated with mother reports of marital and coparenting distress, and lower maternal emotional availability with infants at bedtime (from home observations). Persistent cosleeping appeared to be a marker of, though not necessarily a cause of, heightened family stress, although the present design did not enable strong tests of causal processes, and results may be particular to cultures that are not supportive of cosleeping. Findings are discussed in terms of cultural contexts of infant sleep and the need for further investigations into the role of the health of the family system in influencing how parents structure infant sleep. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27389833

  13. Control study of physical and motor development between macrosomia and term infants appropriate for gestational within one year old%巨大儿与足月适于胎龄儿1岁以内体格及运动发育的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江雯; 韦臻; 何慧静; 万国斌

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解出生体重对婴儿早期体格及智能运动发育的影响,为巨大儿的早期健康促进提供理论依据.[方法]对在本院产科出生的巨大儿及足月适于胎龄儿进行定期跟踪检查,了解两组婴儿体格及运动发育特征,并于1岁时运用贝利婴儿发展量表对两组婴儿进行发育测评.[结果]巨大儿1岁以内的体重、身高、头围均高于同龄的足月适于胎龄儿(P0.05);1岁时巨大儿的运动发育指数均值较足月适于胎龄儿的高(P<0.05).[结论]出生正常的巨大儿在1岁以内的体格发育显著超前于足月适于胎龄儿;较重的体重负荷对其1岁以内重要运动指标的出现以及1岁时的智能及运动发育未造成明显的不良影响.%[Objective] To explore the influence of birth weight on infant's early physical, intellectual and motor development, and provide scientific evidences for early health education of macrosomia. [Methods] The physical and motor development characteristics of the two groups in different periods were selected by regular tracing the macrosomia and term infants appropriate for gestational age who were born in obstetric department of the maternal and child health hospital of Shenzhen. And intellectual and motors development of two infant groups were evaluated when they were one year old by using Bayley Scales of Infant Development. [ Results] The weight, height and head circumference developmental status of Macrosomia were significantly better than those of term infants appropriate for gestational age (P<0. 05 ). There was no significant difference between the two groups of children within one year of age in developmental milestones (P>0. 05).The moter development index of macrosomia was significantly higher than that of term infants appropriate for gestational age (P<0. 05). [Conclusions] The physical developmental status of normal macrosomia are significantly better than those of term infants appropriate for gestational

  14. Implemented psychomotor activity for very pre-term children aged from 18 to 36 months

    OpenAIRE

    Jidovtseff, Boris; DUTILLEUX, Benjamine; IGLESIAS-GIL, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Premature infants are more susceptible to motor development impairment when compared to full term infants. From this perspective a psychomotor program has been implemented for very-term children aged from 18 to 36 month.

  15. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  16. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly...

  17. Unconscious Choking: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Unconscious Choking—Infant (1:36) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase ...

  18. CPR - infant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100216.htm CPR - infant - series To use the sharing features on ... yourself to call 911 until you have performed CPR for about 2 minutes. 3. Carefully place the ...

  19. Infant formulas - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... based formulas should be used for infants with galactosemia , a rare condition. These formulas can also be ... free formulas: These formulas are also used for galactosemia and for children who can't digest lactose. ...

  20. Parenting Your Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Parenting Your Infant ...