WorldWideScience

Sample records for breast tissue properties

  1. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flap; TRAM; Latissimus muscle flap with a breast implant; DIEP flap; DIEAP flap; Gluteal free flap; Transverse upper gracilis flap; TUG; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with natural tissue; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with natural tissue

  2. A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal breast tissue obtained from reduction surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazebnik, Mariya; McCartney, Leah; Popovic, Dijana; Watkins, Cynthia B; Lindstrom, Mary J; Harter, Josephine; Sewall, Sarah; Magliocco, Anthony; Booske, John H; Okoniewski, Michal; Hagness, Susan C

    2007-05-21

    The efficacy of emerging microwave breast cancer detection and treatment techniques will depend, in part, on the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue. However, knowledge of these properties at microwave frequencies has been limited due to gaps and discrepancies in previously reported small-scale studies. To address these issues, we experimentally characterized the wideband microwave-frequency dielectric properties of a large number of normal breast tissue samples obtained from breast reduction surgeries at the University of Wisconsin and University of Calgary hospitals. The dielectric spectroscopy measurements were conducted from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe. The tissue composition within the probe's sensing region was quantified in terms of percentages of adipose, fibroconnective and glandular tissues. We fit a one-pole Cole-Cole model to the complex permittivity data set obtained for each sample and determined median Cole-Cole parameters for three groups of normal breast tissues, categorized by adipose tissue content (0-30%, 31-84% and 85-100%). Our analysis of the dielectric properties data for 354 tissue samples reveals that there is a large variation in the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue due to substantial tissue heterogeneity. We observed no statistically significant difference between the within-patient and between-patient variability in the dielectric properties.

  3. A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal breast tissue obtained from reduction surgeries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazebnik, Mariya; McCartney, Leah; Popovic, Dijana; Watkins, Cynthia B; Lindstrom, Mary J; Harter, Josephine; Sewall, Sarah; Magliocco, Anthony; Booske, John H; Okoniewski, Michal; Hagness, Susan C

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of emerging microwave breast cancer detection and treatment techniques will depend, in part, on the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue. However, knowledge of these properties at microwave frequencies has been limited due to gaps and discrepancies in previously reported small-scale studies. To address these issues, we experimentally characterized the wideband microwave-frequency dielectric properties of a large number of normal breast tissue samples obtained from breast reduction surgeries at University of Wisconsin and University of Calgary hospitals. The dielectric spectroscopy measurements were conducted from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe. The tissue composition within the probe's sensing region was quantified in terms of percentages of adipose, fibroconnective and glandular tissues. We fit a one-pole Cole-Cole model to the complex permittivity data set obtained for each sample and determined median Cole-Cole parameters for three groups of normal breast tissues, categorized by adipose tissue content (0-30%, 31-84% and 85-100%). Our analysis of the dielectric properties data for 354 tissue samples reveals that there is a large variation in the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue due to substantial tissue heterogeneity. We observed no statistically significant difference between the within-patient and between-patient variability in the dielectric properties

  4. Measurement of the hyperelastic properties of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hagan, Joseph J; Samani, Abbas

    2009-01-01

    The elastic and hyperelastic properties of biological soft tissues have been of interest to the medical community. There are several biomedical applications where parameters characterizing such properties are critical for a reliable clinical outcome. These applications include surgery planning, needle biopsy and brachtherapy where tissue biomechanical modeling is involved. Another important application is interpreting nonlinear elastography images. While there has been considerable research on the measurement of the linear elastic modulus of small tissue samples, little research has been conducted for measuring parameters that characterize the nonlinear elasticity of tissues included in tissue slice specimens. This work presents hyperelastic measurement results of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples. For each sample, five hyperelastic models have been used, including the Yeoh, N = 2 polynomial, N = 1 Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, and Veronda-Westmann models. Results show that the Yeoh, polynomial and Ogden models are the most accurate in terms of fitting experimental data. The results indicate that almost all of the parameters corresponding to the pathological tissues are between two times to over two orders of magnitude larger than those of normal tissues, with C 11 showing the most significant difference. Furthermore, statistical analysis indicates that C 02 of the Yeoh model, and C 11 and C 20 of the polynomial model have very good potential for cancer classification as they show statistically significant differences for various cancer types, especially for invasive lobular carcinoma. In addition to the potential for use in cancer classification, the presented data are very important for applications such as surgery planning and virtual reality based clinician training systems where accurate nonlinear tissue response modeling is required.

  5. Measurement of the hyperelastic properties of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hagan, Joseph J; Samani, Abbas [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)], E-mail: asamani@uwo.ca

    2009-04-21

    The elastic and hyperelastic properties of biological soft tissues have been of interest to the medical community. There are several biomedical applications where parameters characterizing such properties are critical for a reliable clinical outcome. These applications include surgery planning, needle biopsy and brachtherapy where tissue biomechanical modeling is involved. Another important application is interpreting nonlinear elastography images. While there has been considerable research on the measurement of the linear elastic modulus of small tissue samples, little research has been conducted for measuring parameters that characterize the nonlinear elasticity of tissues included in tissue slice specimens. This work presents hyperelastic measurement results of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples. For each sample, five hyperelastic models have been used, including the Yeoh, N = 2 polynomial, N = 1 Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, and Veronda-Westmann models. Results show that the Yeoh, polynomial and Ogden models are the most accurate in terms of fitting experimental data. The results indicate that almost all of the parameters corresponding to the pathological tissues are between two times to over two orders of magnitude larger than those of normal tissues, with C{sub 11} showing the most significant difference. Furthermore, statistical analysis indicates that C{sub 02} of the Yeoh model, and C{sub 11} and C{sub 20} of the polynomial model have very good potential for cancer classification as they show statistically significant differences for various cancer types, especially for invasive lobular carcinoma. In addition to the potential for use in cancer classification, the presented data are very important for applications such as surgery planning and virtual reality based clinician training systems where accurate nonlinear tissue response modeling is required.

  6. Measurement of the hyperelastic properties of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Joseph J.; Samani, Abbas

    2009-04-01

    The elastic and hyperelastic properties of biological soft tissues have been of interest to the medical community. There are several biomedical applications where parameters characterizing such properties are critical for a reliable clinical outcome. These applications include surgery planning, needle biopsy and brachtherapy where tissue biomechanical modeling is involved. Another important application is interpreting nonlinear elastography images. While there has been considerable research on the measurement of the linear elastic modulus of small tissue samples, little research has been conducted for measuring parameters that characterize the nonlinear elasticity of tissues included in tissue slice specimens. This work presents hyperelastic measurement results of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples. For each sample, five hyperelastic models have been used, including the Yeoh, N = 2 polynomial, N = 1 Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, and Veronda-Westmann models. Results show that the Yeoh, polynomial and Ogden models are the most accurate in terms of fitting experimental data. The results indicate that almost all of the parameters corresponding to the pathological tissues are between two times to over two orders of magnitude larger than those of normal tissues, with C11 showing the most significant difference. Furthermore, statistical analysis indicates that C02 of the Yeoh model, and C11 and C20 of the polynomial model have very good potential for cancer classification as they show statistically significant differences for various cancer types, especially for invasive lobular carcinoma. In addition to the potential for use in cancer classification, the presented data are very important for applications such as surgery planning and virtual reality based clinician training systems where accurate nonlinear tissue response modeling is required.

  7. Breast Cancer Tissue Repository

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iglehart, J

    1997-01-01

    The Breast Tissue Repository at Duke enters its fourth year of finding. The purpose of the Repository at Duke is to provide substantial quantities of frozen tissue for explorative molecular studies...

  8. The correlation of in vivo and ex vivo tissue dielectric properties to validate electromagnetic breast imaging: initial clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halter, Ryan J; Zhou, Tian; Meaney, Paul M; Hartov, Alex; Barth, Richard J Jr; Rosenkranz, Kari M; Wells, Wendy A; Kogel, Christine A; Borsic, Andrea; Rizzo, Elizabeth J; Paulsen, Keith D

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) breast imaging provides low-cost, safe and potentially a more specific modality for cancer detection than conventional imaging systems. A primary difficulty in validating these EM imaging modalities is that the true dielectric property values of the particular breast being imaged are not readily available on an individual subject basis. Here, we describe our initial experience in seeking to correlate tomographic EM imaging studies with discrete point spectroscopy measurements of the dielectric properties of breast tissue. The protocol we have developed involves measurement of in vivo tissue properties during partial and full mastectomy procedures in the operating room (OR) followed by ex vivo tissue property recordings in the same locations in the excised tissue specimens in the pathology laboratory immediately after resection. We have successfully applied all of the elements of this validation protocol in a series of six women with cancer diagnoses. Conductivity and permittivity gauged from ex vivo samples over the frequency range 100 Hz–8.5 GHz are found to be similar to those reported in the literature. A decrease in both conductivity and permittivity is observed when these properties are gauged from ex vivo samples instead of in vivo. We present these results in addition to a case study demonstrating how discrete point spectroscopy measurements of the tissue can be correlated and used to validate EM imaging studies

  9. A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazebnik, Mariya [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Popovic, Dijana [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); McCartney, Leah [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Watkins, Cynthia B [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Lindstrom, Mary J [Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Harter, Josephine [Department of Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sewall, Sarah [Department of Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ogilvie, Travis [Department of Pathology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Magliocco, Anthony [Department of Pathology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Breslin, Tara M [Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Temple, Walley [Department of Surgery and Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Mew, Daphne [Department of Surgery and Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Booske, John H [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Okoniewski, Michal [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hagness, Susan C [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2007-10-21

    The development of microwave breast cancer detection and treatment techniques has been driven by reports of substantial contrast in the dielectric properties of malignant and normal breast tissues. However, definitive knowledge of the dielectric properties of normal and diseased breast tissues at microwave frequencies has been limited by gaps and discrepancies across previously published studies. To address these issues, we conducted a large-scale study to experimentally determine the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of a variety of normal, malignant and benign breast tissues, measured from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe. Previously, we reported the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue samples obtained from reduction surgeries. Here, we report the dielectric properties of normal (adipose, glandular and fibroconnective), malignant (invasive and non-invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas) and benign (fibroadenomas and cysts) breast tissue samples obtained from cancer surgeries. We fit a one-pole Cole-Cole model to the complex permittivity data set of each characterized sample. Our analyses show that the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal adipose-dominated tissues in the breast is considerable, as large as 10:1, while the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal glandular/fibroconnective tissues in the breast is no more than about 10%.

  10. A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazebnik, Mariya; Popovic, Dijana; McCartney, Leah; Watkins, Cynthia B.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Harter, Josephine; Sewall, Sarah; Ogilvie, Travis; Magliocco, Anthony; Breslin, Tara M.; Temple, Walley; Mew, Daphne; Booske, John H.; Okoniewski, Michal; Hagness, Susan C.

    2007-10-01

    The development of microwave breast cancer detection and treatment techniques has been driven by reports of substantial contrast in the dielectric properties of malignant and normal breast tissues. However, definitive knowledge of the dielectric properties of normal and diseased breast tissues at microwave frequencies has been limited by gaps and discrepancies across previously published studies. To address these issues, we conducted a large-scale study to experimentally determine the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of a variety of normal, malignant and benign breast tissues, measured from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe. Previously, we reported the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue samples obtained from reduction surgeries. Here, we report the dielectric properties of normal (adipose, glandular and fibroconnective), malignant (invasive and non-invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas) and benign (fibroadenomas and cysts) breast tissue samples obtained from cancer surgeries. We fit a one-pole Cole-Cole model to the complex permittivity data set of each characterized sample. Our analyses show that the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal adipose-dominated tissues in the breast is considerable, as large as 10:1, while the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal glandular/fibroconnective tissues in the breast is no more than about 10%.

  11. A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazebnik, Mariya; Popovic, Dijana; McCartney, Leah; Watkins, Cynthia B; Lindstrom, Mary J; Harter, Josephine; Sewall, Sarah; Ogilvie, Travis; Magliocco, Anthony; Breslin, Tara M; Temple, Walley; Mew, Daphne; Booske, John H; Okoniewski, Michal; Hagness, Susan C

    2007-01-01

    The development of microwave breast cancer detection and treatment techniques has been driven by reports of substantial contrast in the dielectric properties of malignant and normal breast tissues. However, definitive knowledge of the dielectric properties of normal and diseased breast tissues at microwave frequencies has been limited by gaps and discrepancies across previously published studies. To address these issues, we conducted a large-scale study to experimentally determine the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of a variety of normal, malignant and benign breast tissues, measured from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe. Previously, we reported the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue samples obtained from reduction surgeries. Here, we report the dielectric properties of normal (adipose, glandular and fibroconnective), malignant (invasive and non-invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas) and benign (fibroadenomas and cysts) breast tissue samples obtained from cancer surgeries. We fit a one-pole Cole-Cole model to the complex permittivity data set of each characterized sample. Our analyses show that the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal adipose-dominated tissues in the breast is considerable, as large as 10:1, while the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal glandular/fibroconnective tissues in the breast is no more than about 10%

  12. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hee Jung; Ko, Eun Sook; Yi, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results

  13. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  14. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  15. Breast phantom for mammary tissue characterization by near infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, D A; Cristiano, K L; Gutiérrez, J C

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is a disease associated to a high morbidity and mortality in the entire world. In the study of early detection of breast cancer the development of phantom is so important. In this research we fabricate a breast phantom using a ballistic gel with special modifications to simulate a normal and abnormal human breast. Optical properties of woman breast in the near infrared region were modelled with the phantom we developed. The developed phantom was evaluated with near infrared spectroscopy in order to study its relation with breast tissue. A good optical behaviour was achieved with the model fabricated

  16. Microbial Biofilms and Breast Tissue Expanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Karau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously developed and validated a vortexing-sonication technique for detection of biofilm bacteria on the surface of explanted prosthetic joints. Herein, we evaluated this technique for diagnosis of infected breast tissue expanders and used it to assess colonization of breast tissue expanders. From April 2008 to December 2011, we studied 328 breast tissue expanders at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Of seven clinically infected breast tissue expanders, six (85.7% had positive cultures, one of which grew Propionibacterium species. Fifty-two of 321 breast tissue expanders (16.2%, 95% CI, 12.3–20.7% without clinical evidence of infection also had positive cultures, 45 growing Propionibacterium species and ten coagulase-negative staphylococci. While vortexing-sonication can detect clinically infected breast tissue expanders, 16 percent of breast tissue expanders appear to be asymptomatically colonized with normal skin flora, most commonly, Propionibacterium species.

  17. Breast tissue, oral and urinary microbiomes in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hannah; Altemus, Jessica; Niazi, Farshad; Green, Holly; Calhoun, Benjamin C.; Sturgis, Charles; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Eng, Charis

    2017-01-01

    It has long been proposed that the gut microbiome contributes to breast carcinogenesis by modifying systemic estrogen levels. This is often cited as a possible mechanism linking breast cancer and high-fat, low-fiber diets as well as antibiotic exposure, associations previously identified in population-based studies. More recently, a distinct microbiome has been identified within breast milk and tissue, but few studies have characterized differences in the breast tissue microbiota of patients ...

  18. Differences in breast tissue oxygenation following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornfeld, Ken; Gessert, Charles E.; Renier, Colleen M.; McNaney, David D.; Urias, Rodolfo E.; Knowles, Denise M.; Beauduy, Jean L.; Widell, Sherry L.; McDonald, Bonita L.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue perfusion and oxygenation changes following radiotherapy may result from and/or contribute to the toxicity of treatment. Breast tissue oxygenation levels were determined in the treated and non-treated breast 1 year after radiotherapy for breast conserving treatment. Transcutaneous oxygenation varied between subjects in both treated and non-treated breast. Subjects without diabetes mellitus (n = 16) had an average oxygenation level of 64.8 ± 19.9 mmHg in the irradiated breast and an average of 72.3 ± 18.1 mmHg (p = 0.018) at the corresponding location in the control breast. Patients with diabetes (n = 4) showed a different oxygenation pattern, with lower oxygenation levels in control tissue and no decrease in the irradiated breast. This study suggests oxygenation levels in normal tissues vary between patients and may respond differently after radiotherapy.

  19. Dielectric and FT-Raman spectroscopic approach to molecular identification of breast tumor tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hakam, Rasha; Khalil, Safaa; Mahani, Ragab

    2015-01-01

    FT-Raman spectra and dielectric properties of benign and malignant women breast tissues in vitro were investigated. FT-Raman spectra for the malignant tissues showed a remarkably decrease in the lipid/protein ratio. Dielectric properties of women breast tissues measured in the low frequency range (42-10(6)Hz) were interpreted in spite of electrode polarization effect. Experimental results showed a contrast between the dielectric properties of malignant (Grade II) and benign tissues within the frequency range studied. The permittivity of malignant to normal breast tissue was found to be 160:1 while it could be 1.3:1 for fibrocystic breast tissues. These findings could contribute to distinguish between two breast tissues. The differences in spectral features between benign and malignant tissues may lead to breast cancer detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Implementation of several mathematical algorithms to breast tissue density classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, C.; Redondo, M.; Tirao, G.

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of mammographic abnormality detection methods is strongly dependent on breast tissue characteristics, where a dense breast tissue can hide lesions causing cancer to be detected at later stages. In addition, breast tissue density is widely accepted to be an important risk indicator for the development of breast cancer. This paper presents the implementation and the performance of different mathematical algorithms designed to standardize the categorization of mammographic images, according to the American College of Radiology classifications. These mathematical techniques are based on intrinsic properties calculations and on comparison with an ideal homogeneous image (joint entropy, mutual information, normalized cross correlation and index Q) as categorization parameters. The algorithms evaluation was performed on 100 cases of the mammographic data sets provided by the Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina—Programa de Prevención del Cáncer de Mama (Department of Public Health, Córdoba, Argentina, Breast Cancer Prevention Program). The obtained breast classifications were compared with the expert medical diagnostics, showing a good performance. The implemented algorithms revealed a high potentiality to classify breasts into tissue density categories. - Highlights: • Breast density classification can be obtained by suitable mathematical algorithms. • Mathematical processing help radiologists to obtain the BI-RADS classification. • The entropy and joint entropy show high performance for density classification

  1. Implementation of several mathematical algorithms to breast tissue density classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, C.; Redondo, M.; Tirao, G.

    2014-02-01

    The accuracy of mammographic abnormality detection methods is strongly dependent on breast tissue characteristics, where a dense breast tissue can hide lesions causing cancer to be detected at later stages. In addition, breast tissue density is widely accepted to be an important risk indicator for the development of breast cancer. This paper presents the implementation and the performance of different mathematical algorithms designed to standardize the categorization of mammographic images, according to the American College of Radiology classifications. These mathematical techniques are based on intrinsic properties calculations and on comparison with an ideal homogeneous image (joint entropy, mutual information, normalized cross correlation and index Q) as categorization parameters. The algorithms evaluation was performed on 100 cases of the mammographic data sets provided by the Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina—Programa de Prevención del Cáncer de Mama (Department of Public Health, Córdoba, Argentina, Breast Cancer Prevention Program). The obtained breast classifications were compared with the expert medical diagnostics, showing a good performance. The implemented algorithms revealed a high potentiality to classify breasts into tissue density categories.

  2. Optical biopsy of breast tissue using differential path-length spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, Robert L P van; Amelink, Arjen; Menke-Pluymers, Marian; Pol, Carmen van der; Sterenborg, Henricus J C M

    2005-01-01

    Differential path-length spectroscopy (DPS) was used to determine the local optical properties of breast tissue in vivo. DPS measurements were made on healthy and malignant breast tissue using a fibre-optic needle probe, and were correlated to the histological outcome of core-needle biopsies taken from the same location as the measurements. DPS yields information on the local tissue blood content, the local blood oxygenation, the average micro-vessel diameter, the β-carotene concentration and the scatter slope. Our data show that malignant breast tissue is characterized by a significant decrease in tissue oxygenation and a higher blood content compared to normal breast tissue

  3. Adaptive Breast Radiation Therapy Using Modeling of Tissue Mechanics: A Breast Tissue Segmentation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juneja, Prabhjot; Harris, Emma J.; Kirby, Anna M.; Evans, Philip M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To validate and compare the accuracy of breast tissue segmentation methods applied to computed tomography (CT) scans used for radiation therapy planning and to study the effect of tissue distribution on the segmentation accuracy for the purpose of developing models for use in adaptive breast radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients receiving postlumpectomy radiation therapy for breast cancer underwent CT imaging in prone and supine positions. The whole-breast clinical target volume was outlined. Clinical target volumes were segmented into fibroglandular and fatty tissue using the following algorithms: physical density thresholding; interactive thresholding; fuzzy c-means with 3 classes (FCM3) and 4 classes (FCM4); and k-means. The segmentation algorithms were evaluated in 2 stages: first, an approach based on the assumption that the breast composition should be the same in both prone and supine position; and second, comparison of segmentation with tissue outlines from 3 experts using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Breast datasets were grouped into nonsparse and sparse fibroglandular tissue distributions according to expert assessment and used to assess the accuracy of the segmentation methods and the agreement between experts. Results: Prone and supine breast composition analysis showed differences between the methods. Validation against expert outlines found significant differences (P<.001) between FCM3 and FCM4. Fuzzy c-means with 3 classes generated segmentation results (mean DSC = 0.70) closest to the experts' outlines. There was good agreement (mean DSC = 0.85) among experts for breast tissue outlining. Segmentation accuracy and expert agreement was significantly higher (P<.005) in the nonsparse group than in the sparse group. Conclusions: The FCM3 gave the most accurate segmentation of breast tissues on CT data and could therefore be used in adaptive radiation therapy-based on tissue modeling. Breast tissue segmentation

  4. Adaptive Breast Radiation Therapy Using Modeling of Tissue Mechanics: A Breast Tissue Segmentation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneja, Prabhjot, E-mail: Prabhjot.Juneja@icr.ac.uk [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom); Harris, Emma J. [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom); Kirby, Anna M. [Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Royal Marsden National Health Service Foundation Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom); Evans, Philip M. [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To validate and compare the accuracy of breast tissue segmentation methods applied to computed tomography (CT) scans used for radiation therapy planning and to study the effect of tissue distribution on the segmentation accuracy for the purpose of developing models for use in adaptive breast radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients receiving postlumpectomy radiation therapy for breast cancer underwent CT imaging in prone and supine positions. The whole-breast clinical target volume was outlined. Clinical target volumes were segmented into fibroglandular and fatty tissue using the following algorithms: physical density thresholding; interactive thresholding; fuzzy c-means with 3 classes (FCM3) and 4 classes (FCM4); and k-means. The segmentation algorithms were evaluated in 2 stages: first, an approach based on the assumption that the breast composition should be the same in both prone and supine position; and second, comparison of segmentation with tissue outlines from 3 experts using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Breast datasets were grouped into nonsparse and sparse fibroglandular tissue distributions according to expert assessment and used to assess the accuracy of the segmentation methods and the agreement between experts. Results: Prone and supine breast composition analysis showed differences between the methods. Validation against expert outlines found significant differences (P<.001) between FCM3 and FCM4. Fuzzy c-means with 3 classes generated segmentation results (mean DSC = 0.70) closest to the experts' outlines. There was good agreement (mean DSC = 0.85) among experts for breast tissue outlining. Segmentation accuracy and expert agreement was significantly higher (P<.005) in the nonsparse group than in the sparse group. Conclusions: The FCM3 gave the most accurate segmentation of breast tissues on CT data and could therefore be used in adaptive radiation therapy-based on tissue modeling. Breast tissue

  5. Silicone breast implants and connective tissue disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipworth, Loren; Holmich, Lisbet R; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2011-01-01

    The association of silicone breast implants with connective tissue diseases (CTDs), including systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and fibromyalgia, as well as a hypothesized new "atypical" disease, which does not meet established diagnostic criteria for any known...... CTD, has been extensively studied. We have reviewed the epidemiologic literature regarding an association between cosmetic breast implants and CTDs, with particular emphasis on results drawn from the most recent investigations, many of which are large cohort studies with long-term follow-up, as well...... as on those studies that address some of the misinformation and historically widespread claims regarding an association between breast implants and CTDs. These claims have been unequivocally refuted by the remarkably consistent evidence from published studies, as well as numerous independent meta...

  6. Physical Properties of Silicone Gel Breast Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Mark L; Bengtson, Bradley P; Smither, Kate; Nuti, Gina; Perry, TracyAnn

    2018-04-28

    Surgical applications using breast implants are individualized operations to fill and shape the breast. Physical properties beyond shape, size, and surface texture are important considerations during implant selection. Compare form stability, gel material properties, and shell thickness of textured shaped, textured round, and smooth round breast implants from 4 manufacturers: Allergan, Mentor, Sientra, and Establishment Labs through bench testing. Using a mandrel height gauge, form stability was measured by retention of dimensions on device movement from a horizontal to vertical supported orientation. Dynamic response of gel material (gel cohesivity, resistance to gel deformation, energy absorption) was measured using a synchronized target laser following application of graded negative pressure. Shell thickness was measured using digital thickness gauge calipers. Form stability, gel material properties, and shell thickness differed across breast implants. Of textured shaped devices, Allergan Natrelle 410 exhibited greater form stability than Mentor MemoryShape and Sientra Shaped implants. Allergan Inspira round implants containing TruForm 3 gel had greater form stability, higher gel cohesivity, greater resistance to gel deformation, and lower energy absorption than those containing TruForm 2 gel and in turn, implants containing TruForm 1 gel. Shell thickness was greater for textured versus smooth devices, and differed across styles. Gel cohesivity, resistance to gel deformation, and energy absorption are directly related to form stability, which in turn determines shape retention. These characteristics provide information to aid surgeons choosing an implant based on surgical application, patient tissue characteristics, and desired outcome.

  7. RIB FRACTURE AFTER BREAST RECONSTRUCTION WITH TISSUE EXPANDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Ahčan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast reconstruction with tissue expansion and later exchange with prosthesis is one of the most common methods for breast reconstruction. Women that are not appropriate for reconstruction with autologous tissue, women that have small breast or have a positive family history for breast cancer are most suitable for this type of reconstruction. Surgical technique of tissue expansion is relatively easy. Complications are rarely seen. With this case report we want to show the common, although occult existence of skeletal deformities in thorax after breast tissue expansion that may lead to rib fractures.

  8. Polarized spectral features of human breast tissues through wavelet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Fluorescence characteristics of human breast tissues are investigated through wavelet transform and principal component analysis (PCA). Wavelet transform of polar- ized fluorescence spectra of human breast tissues is found to localize spectral features that can reliably differentiate different tissue types.

  9. Evidence that breast tissue stiffness is associated with risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Norman F; Li, Qing; Melnichouk, Olga; Huszti, Ella; Martin, Lisa J; Gunasekara, Anoma; Mawdsley, Gord; Yaffe, Martin J; Minkin, Salomon

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from animal models shows that tissue stiffness increases the invasion and progression of cancers, including mammary cancer. We here use measurements of the volume and the projected area of the compressed breast during mammography to derive estimates of breast tissue stiffness and examine the relationship of stiffness to risk of breast cancer. Mammograms were used to measure the volume and projected areas of total and radiologically dense breast tissue in the unaffected breasts of 362 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (cases) and 656 women of the same age who did not have breast cancer (controls). Measures of breast tissue volume and the projected area of the compressed breast during mammography were used to calculate the deformation of the breast during compression and, with the recorded compression force, to estimate the stiffness of breast tissue. Stiffness was compared in cases and controls, and associations with breast cancer risk examined after adjustment for other risk factors. After adjustment for percent mammographic density by area measurements, and other risk factors, our estimate of breast tissue stiffness was significantly associated with breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1.43, p = 0.02) and improved breast cancer risk prediction in models with percent mammographic density, by both area and volume measurements. An estimate of breast tissue stiffness was associated with breast cancer risk and improved risk prediction based on mammographic measures and other risk factors. Stiffness may provide an additional mechanism by which breast tissue composition is associated with risk of breast cancer and merits examination using more direct methods of measurement.

  10. Infrared absorption of human breast tissues in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chenglin [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Zhang Yuan [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yan Xiaohui [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang Xinyi [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China) and Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China)]. E-mail: xy-zhang@fudan.edu.cn; Li Chengxiang [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Yang Wentao [Cancer Hospital, Medical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shi Daren [Cancer Hospital, Medical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2006-07-15

    The spectral characteristics of human breast tissues in normal status and during different cancerous stages have been investigated by synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) absorption spectroscopy. Thanks to the excellent synchrotron radiation infrared (IR) source, higher resolving power is achieved in SR-FTIR absorption spectra than in conventional IR absorption measurements. Obvious variations in IR absorption spectrum of breast tissues were found as they change from healthy to diseased, or say in progression to cancer. On the other hand, some specific absorption peaks were found in breast cancer tissues by SR-FTIR spectroscopic methods. These spectral characteristics of breast tissue may help us in early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  11. Breast tissue stiffness estimation for surgical guidance using gravity-induced excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesenauer, Rebekah H; Weis, Jared A; Arlinghaus, Lori R; Meszoely, Ingrid M; Miga, Michael I

    2017-06-21

    Tissue stiffness interrogation is fundamental in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, biomechanical models for predicting breast deformations have been created for several breast cancer applications. Within these applications, constitutive mechanical properties must be defined and the accuracy of this estimation directly impacts the overall performance of the model. In this study, we present an image-derived computational framework to obtain quantitative, patient specific stiffness properties for application in image-guided breast cancer surgery and interventions. The method uses two MR acquisitions of the breast in different supine gravity-loaded configurations to fit mechanical properties to a biomechanical breast model. A reproducibility assessment of the method was performed in a test-retest study using healthy volunteers and was further characterized in simulation. In five human data sets, the within subject coefficient of variation ranged from 10.7% to 27% and the intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.91-0.944 for assessment of fibroglandular and adipose tissue stiffness. In simulation, fibroglandular content and deformation magnitude were shown to have significant effects on the shape and convexity of the objective function defined by image similarity. These observations provide an important step forward in characterizing the use of nonrigid image registration methodologies in conjunction with biomechanical models to estimate tissue stiffness. In addition, the results suggest that stiffness estimation methods using gravity-induced excitation can reliably and feasibly be implemented in breast cancer surgery/intervention workflows.

  12. Breast tissue stiffness estimation for surgical guidance using gravity-induced excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesenauer, Rebekah H.; Weis, Jared A.; Arlinghaus, Lori R.; Meszoely, Ingrid M.; Miga, Michael I.

    2017-06-01

    Tissue stiffness interrogation is fundamental in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, biomechanical models for predicting breast deformations have been created for several breast cancer applications. Within these applications, constitutive mechanical properties must be defined and the accuracy of this estimation directly impacts the overall performance of the model. In this study, we present an image-derived computational framework to obtain quantitative, patient specific stiffness properties for application in image-guided breast cancer surgery and interventions. The method uses two MR acquisitions of the breast in different supine gravity-loaded configurations to fit mechanical properties to a biomechanical breast model. A reproducibility assessment of the method was performed in a test-retest study using healthy volunteers and was further characterized in simulation. In five human data sets, the within subject coefficient of variation ranged from 10.7% to 27% and the intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.91-0.944 for assessment of fibroglandular and adipose tissue stiffness. In simulation, fibroglandular content and deformation magnitude were shown to have significant effects on the shape and convexity of the objective function defined by image similarity. These observations provide an important step forward in characterizing the use of nonrigid image registration methodologies in conjunction with biomechanical models to estimate tissue stiffness. In addition, the results suggest that stiffness estimation methods using gravity-induced excitation can reliably and feasibly be implemented in breast cancer surgery/intervention workflows.

  13. Retinoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in breast adipose tissue and serum of benign breast disease and breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various retinoic acid (RA) isomers (all-trans, 13-cis, 11-cis, and 9-cis) as well as retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherol concentrations were determined in both serum and breast adipose tissue of 22 benign breast disease patients and 52 breast cancer patients categorized into 4 stages by malignancy....

  14. Characterization of human breast cancer tissues by infrared imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonck, M; Denayer, A; Delvaux, B; Garaud, S; De Wind, R; Desmedt, C; Sotiriou, C; Willard-Gallo, K; Goormaghtigh, E

    2016-01-21

    Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled to microscopy (IR imaging) has shown unique advantages in detecting morphological and molecular pathologic alterations in biological tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of IR imaging as a diagnostic tool to identify characteristics of breast epithelial cells and the stroma. In this study a total of 19 breast tissue samples were obtained from 13 patients. For 6 of the patients, we also obtained Non-Adjacent Non-Tumor tissue samples. Infrared images were recorded on the main cell/tissue types identified in all breast tissue samples. Unsupervised Principal Component Analyses and supervised Partial Least Square Discriminant Analyses (PLS-DA) were used to discriminate spectra. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to evaluate the performance of PLS-DA models. Our results show that IR imaging coupled with PLS-DA can efficiently identify the main cell types present in FFPE breast tissue sections, i.e. epithelial cells, lymphocytes, connective tissue, vascular tissue and erythrocytes. A second PLS-DA model could distinguish normal and tumor breast epithelial cells in the breast tissue sections. A patient-specific model reached particularly high sensitivity, specificity and MCC rates. Finally, we showed that the stroma located close or at distance from the tumor exhibits distinct spectral characteristics. In conclusion FTIR imaging combined with computational algorithms could be an accurate, rapid and objective tool to identify/quantify breast epithelial cells and differentiate tumor from normal breast tissue as well as normal from tumor-associated stroma, paving the way to the establishment of a potential complementary tool to ensure safe tumor margins.

  15. The influence of patient positioning in breast CT on breast tissue coverage and patient comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessler, A.C.; Althoff, F.; Kalender, W. [Erlangen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics; Wenkel, E. [University Hospital of Erlangen (Germany). Radiological Inst.

    2015-02-15

    The presented study aimed at optimizing a patient table design for breast CT (BCT) systems with respect to breast tissue coverage and patient comfort. Additionally, the benefits and acceptance of an immobilization device for BCT using underpressure were evaluated. Three different study parts were carried out. In a positioning study women were investigated on an MRI tabletop with exchangeable inserts (flat and cone-shaped with different opening diameters) to evaluate their influence on breast coverage and patient comfort in various positioning alternatives. Breast length and volume were calculated to compare positioning modalities including various opening diameters and forms. In the second study part, an underpressure system was tested for its functionality and comfort on a stereotactic biopsy table mimicking a future CT scanner table. In the last study part, this system was tested regarding breast tissue coverage. Best results for breast tissue coverage were shown for cone-shaped table inserts with an opening of 180 mm. Flat inserts did not provide complete coverage of breast tissue. The underpressure system showed robust function and tended to pull more breast tissue into the field of view. Patient comfort was rated good for all table inserts, with highest ratings for cone-shaped inserts. Cone-shaped tabletops appeared to be adequate for BCT systems and to allow imaging of almost the complete breast. An underpressure system proved promising for the fixation of the breast during imaging and increased coverage. Patient comfort appears to be adequate.

  16. Spontaneous infarction of hyperplastic breast tissue: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Eun Young; Nam, Sang Yu; Choi, Hye Young; Hong, Min Ji [Dept. of Radiology, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University School of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Spontaneous breast infarction is a very rare complication of fibroadenoma of the breast. We present an interesting case of a 33-year-old woman with spontaneous infarction of hyperplastic breast tissue related to pregnancy and lactation. Mammography showed an oval, circumscribed, fat-containing mass with microcalcifications. Ultrasonography revealed an oval, circumscribed mass with echogenic dots. Color Doppler imaging revealed presence of minimal vascularity at the periphery of the mass.

  17. Automatic classification of tissue malignancy for breast carcinoma diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondón, Irene; Sarmiento, Auxiliadora; García, Ana Isabel; Silvestre, María; Eloy, Catarina; Polónia, António; Aguiar, Paulo

    2018-05-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women. Its early diagnosis is extremely important to prevent avoidable deaths. However, malignancy assessment of tissue biopsies is complex and dependent on observer subjectivity. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained histological images exhibit a highly variable appearance, even within the same malignancy level. In this paper, we propose a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool for automated malignancy assessment of breast tissue samples based on the processing of histological images. We provide four malignancy levels as the output of the system: normal, benign, in situ and invasive. The method is based on the calculation of three sets of features related to nuclei, colour regions and textures considering local characteristics and global image properties. By taking advantage of well-established image processing techniques, we build a feature vector for each image that serves as an input to an SVM (Support Vector Machine) classifier with a quadratic kernel. The method has been rigorously evaluated, first with a 5-fold cross-validation within an initial set of 120 images, second with an external set of 30 different images and third with images with artefacts included. Accuracy levels range from 75.8% when the 5-fold cross-validation was performed to 75% with the external set of new images and 61.11% when the extremely difficult images were added to the classification experiment. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is capable of distinguishing between four malignancy levels with high accuracy. Our results are close to those obtained with recent deep learning-based methods. Moreover, it performs better than other state-of-the-art methods based on feature extraction, and it can help improve the CAD of breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proteomic analysis of tissue samples in translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Moreira, José; Gromova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, many proteomic technologies have been applied, with varying success, to the study of tissue samples of breast carcinoma for protein expression profiling in order to discover protein biomarkers/signatures suitable for: characterization and subtyping of tumors; early diagnosis...... the translation of basic discoveries into the daily breast cancer clinical practice. In particular, we address major issues in experimental design by reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of current proteomic strategies in the context of the analysis of human breast tissue specimens....

  19. Human breast tissue disposition and bioactivity of limonene in women with early stage breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica A.; Lang, Julie E.; Ley, Michele; Nagle, Ray; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Thompson, Patricia A; Cordova, Catherine; Waer, Amy; Chow, H.-H. Sherry

    2013-01-01

    Limonene is a bioactive food component found in citrus peel oil that has demonstrated chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities in preclinical studies. We conducted an open label pilot clinical study to determine the human breast tissue disposition of limonene and its associated bioactivity. We recruited forty-three women with newly diagnosed operable breast cancer electing to undergo surgical excision to take 2 grams of limonene daily for 2 – 6 weeks before surgery. Blood and breast tissue were collected to determine drug/metabolite concentrations and limonene-induced changes in systemic and tissue biomarkers of breast cancer risk or carcinogenesis. Limonene was found to preferentially concentrate in the breast tissue, reaching high tissue concentration (mean=41.3 μg/g tissue) while the major active circulating metabolite, perillic acid, did not concentrate in the breast tissue. Limonene intervention resulted in a 22% reduction in cyclin D1 expression (P=0.002) in tumor tissue but minimal changes in tissue Ki67 and cleaved caspase 3 expression. No significant changes in serum leptin, adiponectin, TGF-β1, IGFBP-3 and IL-6 levels were observed following limonene intervention. There was a small but statistically significant post-intervention increase in IGF-1 levels. We conclude that limonene distributed extensively to human breast tissue and reduced breast tumor cyclin D1 expression that may lead to cell cycle arrest and reduced cell proliferation. Further placebo-controlled clinical trials and translational research are warranted to establish limonene’s role for breast cancer prevention or treatment. PMID:23554130

  20. Human breast tissue disposition and bioactivity of limonene in women with early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica A; Lang, Julie E; Ley, Michele; Nagle, Ray; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Thompson, Patricia A; Cordova, Catherine; Waer, Amy; Chow, H-H Sherry

    2013-06-01

    Limonene is a bioactive food component found in citrus peel oil that has shown chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities in preclinical studies. We conducted an open-label pilot clinical study to determine the human breast tissue disposition of limonene and its associated bioactivity. We recruited 43 women with newly diagnosed operable breast cancer electing to undergo surgical excision to take 2 grams of limonene daily for two to six weeks before surgery. Blood and breast tissue were collected to determine drug/metabolite concentrations and limonene-induced changes in systemic and tissue biomarkers of breast cancer risk or carcinogenesis. Limonene was found to preferentially concentrate in the breast tissue, reaching high tissue concentration (mean = 41.3 μg/g tissue), whereas the major active circulating metabolite, perillic acid, did not concentrate in the breast tissue. Limonene intervention resulted in a 22% reduction in cyclin D1 expression (P = 0.002) in tumor tissue but minimal changes in tissue Ki67 and cleaved caspase-3 expression. No significant changes in serum leptin, adiponectin, TGF-β1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were observed following limonene intervention. There was a small but statistically significant postintervention increase in insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels. We conclude that limonene distributed extensively to human breast tissue and reduced breast tumor cyclin D1 expression that may lead to cell-cycle arrest and reduced cell proliferation. Furthermore, placebo-controlled clinical trials and translational research are warranted to establish limonene's role for breast cancer prevention or treatment.

  1. Time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy: In vivo quantification of collagen in breast tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Paola; Pifferi, Antonio; Quarto, Giovanna; Farina, Andrea; Ieva, Francesca; Paganoni, Anna Maria; Abbate, Francesca; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2015-05-01

    Time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy provides non-invasively the optical characterization of highly diffusive media, such as biological tissues. Light pulses are injected into the tissue and the effects of light propagation on re-emitted pulses are interpreted with the diffusion theory to assess simultaneously tissue absorption and reduced scattering coefficients. Performing spectral measurements, information on tissue composition and structure is derived applying the Beer law to the measured absorption and an empiric approximation to Mie theory to the reduced scattering. The absorption properties of collagen powder were preliminarily measured in the range of 600-1100 nm using a laboratory set-up for broadband time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy. Optical projection images were subsequently acquired in compressed breast geometry on 218 subjects, either healthy or bearing breast lesions, using a portable instrument for optical mammography that operates at 7 wavelengths selected in the range 635-1060 nm. For all subjects, tissue composition was estimated in terms of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipids, and collagen. Information on tissue microscopic structure was also derived. Good correlation was obtained between mammographic breast density (a strong risk factor for breast cancer) and an optical index based on collagen content and scattering power (that accounts mostly for tissue collagen). Logistic regression applied to all optically derived parameters showed that subjects at high risk for developing breast cancer for their high breast density can effectively be identified based on collagen content and scattering parameters. Tissue composition assessed in breast lesions with a perturbative approach indicated that collagen and hemoglobin content are significantly higher in malignant lesions than in benign ones.

  2. Breast tissue classification in digital breast tomosynthesis images using texture features: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Despina; Berger, Rachelle; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2009-02-01

    Mammographic breast density is a known breast cancer risk factor. Studies have shown the potential to automate breast density estimation by using computerized texture-based segmentation of the dense tissue in mammograms. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a tomographic x-ray breast imaging modality that could allow volumetric breast density estimation. We evaluated the feasibility of distinguishing between dense and fatty breast regions in DBT using computer-extracted texture features. Our long-term hypothesis is that DBT texture analysis can be used to develop 3D dense tissue segmentation algorithms for estimating volumetric breast density. DBT images from 40 women were analyzed. The dense tissue area was delineated within each central source projection (CSP) image using a thresholding technique (Cumulus, Univ. Toronto). Two (2.5cm)2 ROIs were manually selected: one within the dense tissue region and another within the fatty region. Corresponding (2.5cm)3 ROIs were placed within the reconstructed DBT images. Texture features, previously used for mammographic dense tissue segmentation, were computed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate feature classification performance. Different texture features appeared to perform best in the 3D reconstructed DBT compared to the 2D CSP images. Fractal dimension was superior in DBT (AUC=0.90), while contrast was best in CSP images (AUC=0.92). We attribute these differences to the effects of tissue superimposition in CSP and the volumetric visualization of the breast tissue in DBT. Our results suggest that novel approaches, different than those conventionally used in projection mammography, need to be investigated in order to develop DBT dense tissue segmentation algorithms for estimating volumetric breast density.

  3. Elastic moduli of normal and pathological human breast tissues: an inversion-technique-based investigation of 169 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samani, Abbas; Zubovits, Judit; Plewes, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Understanding and quantifying the mechanical properties of breast tissues has been a subject of interest for the past two decades. This has been motivated in part by interest in modelling soft tissue response for surgery planning and virtual-reality-based surgical training. Interpreting elastography images for diagnostic purposes also requires a sound understanding of normal and pathological tissue mechanical properties. Reliable data on tissue elastic properties are very limited and those which are available tend to be inconsistent, in part as a result of measurement methodology. We have developed specialized techniques to measure tissue elasticity of breast normal tissues and tumour specimens and applied them to 169 fresh ex vivo breast tissue samples including fat and fibroglandular tissue as well as a range of benign and malignant breast tumour types. Results show that, under small deformation conditions, the elastic modulus of normal breast fat and fibroglandular tissues are similar while fibroadenomas were approximately twice the stiffness. Fibrocystic disease and malignant tumours exhibited a 3-6-fold increased stiffness with high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma exhibiting up to a 13-fold increase in stiffness compared to fibrogalndular tissue. A statistical analysis showed that differences between the elastic modulus of the majority of those tissues were statistically significant. Implications for the specificity advantages of elastography are reviewed

  4. Elastic moduli of normal and pathological human breast tissues: an inversion-technique-based investigation of 169 samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samani, Abbas [Department of Medical Biophysics/Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, Medical Sciences Building, London, Ontario, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Zubovits, Judit [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada); Plewes, Donald [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2007-03-21

    Understanding and quantifying the mechanical properties of breast tissues has been a subject of interest for the past two decades. This has been motivated in part by interest in modelling soft tissue response for surgery planning and virtual-reality-based surgical training. Interpreting elastography images for diagnostic purposes also requires a sound understanding of normal and pathological tissue mechanical properties. Reliable data on tissue elastic properties are very limited and those which are available tend to be inconsistent, in part as a result of measurement methodology. We have developed specialized techniques to measure tissue elasticity of breast normal tissues and tumour specimens and applied them to 169 fresh ex vivo breast tissue samples including fat and fibroglandular tissue as well as a range of benign and malignant breast tumour types. Results show that, under small deformation conditions, the elastic modulus of normal breast fat and fibroglandular tissues are similar while fibroadenomas were approximately twice the stiffness. Fibrocystic disease and malignant tumours exhibited a 3-6-fold increased stiffness with high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma exhibiting up to a 13-fold increase in stiffness compared to fibrogalndular tissue. A statistical analysis showed that differences between the elastic modulus of the majority of those tissues were statistically significant. Implications for the specificity advantages of elastography are reviewed.

  5. Elastic moduli of normal and pathological human breast tissues: an inversion-technique-based investigation of 169 samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Abbas; Zubovits, Judit; Plewes, Donald

    2007-03-01

    Understanding and quantifying the mechanical properties of breast tissues has been a subject of interest for the past two decades. This has been motivated in part by interest in modelling soft tissue response for surgery planning and virtual-reality-based surgical training. Interpreting elastography images for diagnostic purposes also requires a sound understanding of normal and pathological tissue mechanical properties. Reliable data on tissue elastic properties are very limited and those which are available tend to be inconsistent, in part as a result of measurement methodology. We have developed specialized techniques to measure tissue elasticity of breast normal tissues and tumour specimens and applied them to 169 fresh ex vivo breast tissue samples including fat and fibroglandular tissue as well as a range of benign and malignant breast tumour types. Results show that, under small deformation conditions, the elastic modulus of normal breast fat and fibroglandular tissues are similar while fibroadenomas were approximately twice the stiffness. Fibrocystic disease and malignant tumours exhibited a 3-6-fold increased stiffness with high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma exhibiting up to a 13-fold increase in stiffness compared to fibrogalndular tissue. A statistical analysis showed that differences between the elastic modulus of the majority of those tissues were statistically significant. Implications for the specificity advantages of elastography are reviewed.

  6. The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa; Barr, Lester; Metaxas, George; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. While there are known genetic predispositions to the disease it is probable that environmental factors are also involved. Recent research has demonstrated a regionally specific distribution of aluminium in breast tissue mastectomies while other work has suggested mechanisms whereby breast tissue aluminium might contribute towards the aetiology of breast cancer. We have looked to develop microwave digestion combined with a new form of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as a precise, accurate and reproducible method for the measurement of aluminium in breast tissue biopsies. We have used this method to test the thesis that there is a regional distribution of aluminium across the breast in women with breast cancer. Microwave digestion of whole breast tissue samples resulted in clear homogenous digests perfectly suitable for the determination of aluminium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The instrument detection limit for the method was 0.48 μg/L. Method blanks were used to estimate background levels of contamination of 14.80 μg/L. The mean concentration of aluminium across all tissues was 0.39 μg Al/g tissue dry wt. There were no statistically significant regionally specific differences in the content of aluminium. We have developed a robust method for the precise and accurate measurement of aluminium in human breast tissue. There are very few such data currently available in the scientific literature and they will add substantially to our understanding of any putative role of aluminium in breast cancer. While we did not observe any statistically significant differences in aluminium content across the breast it has to be emphasised that herein we measured whole breast tissue and not defatted tissue where such a distribution was previously noted. We are very confident that the method developed herein could now be used to provide accurate and reproducible data on the aluminium content

  7. Individualised calculation of tissue imparted energy in breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeraert, N.; Klausz, R.; Muller, S.; Bosmans, H.; Bloch, I.

    2016-01-01

    The imparted energy to the glandular tissue in the breast (glandular imparted energy, GIE) is proposed for an improved assessment of the individual radiation-induced risk resulting from X-ray breast imaging. GIE is computed from an estimation of the quantity and localisation of glandular tissue in the breast. After a digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) acquisition, the volumetric glandular content (volumetric breast density, VBD) is computed from the central X-ray projection. The glandular tissue distribution is determined by labelling the DBT voxels to ensure the conservation of the VBD. Finally, the GIE is calculated by Monte Carlo computation on the resulting tissue-labelled DBT volume. For verification, the method was applied to 10 breast-shaped digital phantoms made of different glandular spheres in an adipose background, and to a digital anthropomorphic phantom. Results were compared to direct GIE computations on the phantoms considered as 'ground-truth'. The major limitations in accuracy are those of DBT, in particular the limited z-resolution. However, for most phantoms, the results can be considered as acceptable. (authors)

  8. A probable risk factor of female breast cancer: study on benign and malignant breast tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Sohaila; Husnain, Syed M

    2014-01-01

    The study reports enhanced Fe, Cu, and Zn contents in breast tissues, a probable risk factor of breast cancer in females. Forty-one formalin-fixed breast tissues were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Twenty malignant, six adjacent to malignant and 15 benign tissues samples were investigated. The malignant tissues samples were of grade 11 and type invasive ductal carcinoma. The quantitative comparison between the elemental levels measured in the two types of specimen (benign and malignant) tissues (removed after surgery) suggests significant elevation of these metals (Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the malignant tissue. The specimens were collected just after mastectomy of women aged 19 to 59 years from the hospitals of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Most of the patients belong to urban areas of Pakistan. Findings of study depict that these elements have a promising role in the initiation and development of carcinoma as consistent pattern of elevation for Fe, Cu, and Zn was observed. The results showed the excessive accumulation of Fe (229 ± 121 mg/L) in malignant breast tissue samples of patients (p factor of breast cancer. In order to validate our method of analysis, certified reference material muscle tissue lyophilized (IAEA) MA-M-2/TM was analyzed for metal studied. Determined concentrations were quite in good agreement with certified levels. Asymmetric concentration distribution for Fe, Cu, and Zn was observed in both malignant and benign tissue samples.

  9. A Breast Tissue Protein Expression Profile Contributing to Early Parity-Induced Protection Against Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Marie Gutierrez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Early parity reduces breast cancer risk, whereas, late parity and nulliparity increase breast cancer risk. Despite substantial efforts to understand the protective effects of early parity, the precise molecular circuitry responsible for these changes is not yet fully defined. Methods: Here, we have conducted the first study assessing protein expression profiles in normal breast tissue of healthy early parous, late parous, and nulliparous women. Breast tissue biopsies were obtained from 132 healthy parous and nulliparous volunteers. These samples were subjected to global protein expression profiling and immunohistochemistry. GeneSpring and MetaCore bioinformatics analysis software were used to identify protein expression profiles associated with early parity (low risk versus late/nulliparity (high risk. Results: Early parity reduces expression of key proteins involved in mitogenic signaling pathways in breast tissue through down regulation of EGFR1/3, ESR1, AKT1, ATF, Fos, and SRC. Early parity is also characterized by greater genomic stability and reduced tissue inflammation based on differential expression of aurora kinases, p53, RAD52, BRCA1, MAPKAPK-2, ATF-1, ICAM1, and NF-kappaB compared to late and nulli parity. Conclusions: Early parity reduces basal cell proliferation in breast tissue, which translates to enhanced genomic stability, reduced cellular stress/inflammation, and thus reduced breast cancer risk.

  10. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Sidse Ørnbjerg; Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Schrohl; Sørensen, Nanna Møller

    2005-01-01

    Whether patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer are offered adjuvant systemic therapy following surgical removal of the tumor is based on prognosis. Prognosis is estimated in every patient using established prognostic variables. Unfortunately, when using the currently available prognostic...... parameters a significant proportion of patients are over-treated. Thus, in order to improve stratification of breast cancer patients, additional prognostic factors need to be identified. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) is one of the promising candidates for new prognostic markers in breast...... cancer, as a number of studies have demonstrated an association between high tumor-tissue levels of TIMP-1 mRNA as well as TIMP-1 protein and a poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. TIMP-1 is a member of the TIMP family, currently comprising four members (TIMP-1-4), and its main function...

  11. Evaluation of magnetization transfer ratios for breast tissues and breast diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Fumio; Murai, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Thouru; Iwase, Takuji; Miura, Shigeto; Mastushima, Shigeru; Oosaki, Hikaru [Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan). Hospital; Kinosada, Yasuomi

    1997-03-01

    To determine MTRs for normal structures and benign diseases in the breast two-dimensional magnetization transfer imaging was performed in 62 patients and in 3 young female volunteers. With regard to the MTRs of measurements in the normal breast tissues, fat tissues which is close to simple cysts in MTRs show little transfer of longitudinal magnetization. MTRs of the muscles was 15.15{+-}6.22%, which exceeded those of breast parenchyma. The breast parenchyma didn`t show the change of MTR value due to the difference of patient age and due to variable amount of fat and fibrous tissues. Breast parenchyma in the two young volunteers clearly showed biphasic change of MTR values in accordance with the menstrual cycle; little transfer value was due to hydration in the postovulatory period and high transfer value was due to dehydration in the preovulatory period. In the remaining one volunteer during lactation period, mammary parenchyma shows sever decrease in MTR, because mammary gland is loaded with massive fluid, showing a very high signal intensity on First IR and T2-weighted images. MTR values of benign breast diseases including mastopathy, fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor had no significant difference from those of the breast parenchyma and muscle. Non-invasive ductal carcinoma was equivalent to breast parenchyma in MTR. (K.H.)

  12. Quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, M.; Herzen, J.; Grandl, S.; Auweter, S.; Mayr, D.; Hipp, A.; Chabior, M.; Sarapata, A.; Achterhold, K.; Zanette, I.; Weitkamp, T.; Sztrókay, A.; Hellerhoff, K.; Reiser, M.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-04-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has received growing interest in recent years due to its high capability in visualizing soft tissue. Breast imaging became the focus of particular attention as it is considered the most promising candidate for a first clinical application of this contrast modality. In this study, we investigate quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) at conventional polychromatic x-ray sources. Different breast specimens have been scanned at a laboratory phase-contrast imaging setup and were correlated to histopathology. Ascertained tumor types include phylloides tumor, fibroadenoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Identified tissue types comprising adipose, fibroglandular and tumor tissue have been analyzed in terms of phase-contrast Hounsfield units and are compared to high-quality, high-resolution data obtained with monochromatic synchrotron radiation, as well as calculated values based on tabulated tissue properties. The results give a good impression of the method’s prospects and limitations for potential tumor detection and the associated demands on such a phase-contrast breast CT system. Furthermore, the evaluated quantitative tissue values serve as a reference for simulations and the design of dedicated phantoms for phase-contrast mammography.

  13. Computational simulation of breast compression based on segmented breast and fibroglandular tissues on magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Tzu-Ching [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taichung, 40402, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jeon-Hor; Nie Ke; Lin Muqing; Chang, Daniel; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Su, Min-Ying [Tu and Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging and Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Liu Dongxu; Sun Lizhi, E-mail: shih@mail.cmu.edu.t [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2010-07-21

    This study presents a finite element-based computational model to simulate the three-dimensional deformation of a breast and fibroglandular tissues under compression. The simulation was based on 3D MR images of the breast, and craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique compression, as used in mammography, was applied. The geometry of the whole breast and the segmented fibroglandular tissues within the breast were reconstructed using triangular meshes by using the Avizo (registered) 6.0 software package. Due to the large deformation in breast compression, a finite element model was used to simulate the nonlinear elastic tissue deformation under compression, using the MSC.Marc (registered) software package. The model was tested in four cases. The results showed a higher displacement along the compression direction compared to the other two directions. The compressed breast thickness in these four cases at a compression ratio of 60% was in the range of 5-7 cm, which is a typical range of thickness in mammography. The projection of the fibroglandular tissue mesh at a compression ratio of 60% was compared to the corresponding mammograms of two women, and they demonstrated spatially matched distributions. However, since the compression was based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has much coarser spatial resolution than the in-plane resolution of mammography, this method is unlikely to generate a synthetic mammogram close to the clinical quality. Whether this model may be used to understand the technical factors that may impact the variations in breast density needs further investigation. Since this method can be applied to simulate compression of the breast at different views and different compression levels, another possible application is to provide a tool for comparing breast images acquired using different imaging modalities--such as MRI, mammography, whole breast ultrasound and molecular imaging--that are performed using different body positions and under

  14. Automatic breast tissue density estimation scheme in digital mammography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menechelli, Renan C.; Pacheco, Ana Luisa V.; Schiabel, Homero

    2017-03-01

    Cases of breast cancer have increased substantially each year. However, radiologists are subject to subjectivity and failures of interpretation which may affect the final diagnosis in this examination. The high density features in breast tissue are important factors related to these failures. Thus, among many functions some CADx (Computer-Aided Diagnosis) schemes are classifying breasts according to the predominant density. In order to aid in such a procedure, this work attempts to describe automated software for classification and statistical information on the percentage change in breast tissue density, through analysis of sub regions (ROIs) from the whole mammography image. Once the breast is segmented, the image is divided into regions from which texture features are extracted. Then an artificial neural network MLP was used to categorize ROIs. Experienced radiologists have previously determined the ROIs density classification, which was the reference to the software evaluation. From tests results its average accuracy was 88.7% in ROIs classification, and 83.25% in the classification of the whole breast density in the 4 BI-RADS density classes - taking into account a set of 400 images. Furthermore, when considering only a simplified two classes division (high and low densities) the classifier accuracy reached 93.5%, with AUC = 0.95.

  15. Breast Cancer and Estrogen Biosynthesis in Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    article must therefore be hereby marked " advertisement " in accordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact. $ These two authors...activity in adipose tissue from breast quadrants: a link with tumor site. Br. Mcd . J. 296, 741 743. [12] Reed. M.J.. Topping, L., Coldham, N.G...Burkitt HG, Daniels VG. 1987 Connective tissue. In: Functional histology. A text and colour atlas, 2nd ed. Edinburgh, UK: Churchill Living- stone

  16. Optimization of permanent breast seed implant dosimetry incorporating tissue heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashouf, Shahram

    Seed brachytherapy is currently used for adjuvant radiotherapy of early stage prostate and breast cancer patients. The current standard for calculation of dose around brachytherapy sources is based on the AAPM TG43 formalism, which generates the dose in homogeneous water medium. Recently, AAPM task group no. 186 (TG186) emphasized the importance of accounting for heterogeneities. In this work we introduce an analytical dose calculation algorithm in heterogeneous media using CT images. The advantages over other methods are computational efficiency and the ease of integration into clinical use. An Inhomogeneity Correction Factor (ICF) is introduced as the ratio of absorbed dose in tissue to that in water medium. ICF is a function of tissue properties and independent of the source structure. The ICF is extracted using CT images and the absorbed dose in tissue can then be calculated by multiplying the dose as calculated by the TG43 formalism times ICF. To evaluate the methodology, we compared our results with Monte Carlo simulations as well as experiments in phantoms with known density and atomic compositions. The dose distributions obtained through applying ICF to TG43 protocol agreed very well with those of Monte Carlo simulations and experiments in all phantoms. In all cases, the mean relative error was reduced by at least a factor of two when ICF correction factor was applied to the TG43 protocol. In conclusion we have developed a new analytical dose calculation method, which enables personalized dose calculations in heterogeneous media using CT images. The methodology offers several advantages including the use of standard TG43 formalism, fast calculation time and extraction of the ICF parameters directly from Hounsfield Units. The methodology was implemented into our clinical treatment planning system where a cohort of 140 patients were processed to study the clinical benefits of a heterogeneity corrected dose.

  17. Theoretical and Experimental Estimations of Volumetric Inductive Phase Shift in Breast Cancer Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C. A.; Lozano, L. M.; Uscanga, M. C.; Silva, J. G.; Polo, S. M.

    2013-04-01

    Impedance measurements based on magnetic induction for breast cancer detection has been proposed in some studies. This study evaluates theoretical and experimentally the use of a non-invasive technique based on magnetic induction for detection of patho-physiological conditions in breast cancer tissue associated to its volumetric electrical conductivity changes through inductive phase shift measurements. An induction coils-breast 3D pixel model was designed and tested. The model involves two circular coils coaxially centered and a human breast volume centrally placed with respect to the coils. A time-harmonic numerical simulation study addressed the effects of frequency-dependent electrical properties of tumoral tissue on the volumetric inductive phase shift of the breast model measured with the circular coils as inductor and sensor elements. Experimentally; five female volunteer patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma previously diagnosed by the radiology and oncology departments of the Specialty Clinic for Women of the Mexican Army were measured by an experimental inductive spectrometer and the use of an ergonomic inductor-sensor coil designed to estimate the volumetric inductive phase shift in human breast tissue. Theoretical and experimental inductive phase shift estimations were developed at four frequencies: 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 MHz. The theoretical estimations were qualitatively in agreement with the experimental findings. Important increments in volumetric inductive phase shift measurements were evident at 0.01MHz in theoretical and experimental observations. The results suggest that the tested technique has the potential to detect pathological conditions in breast tissue associated to cancer by non-invasive monitoring. Further complementary studies are warranted to confirm the observations.

  18. Differentiating cancerous from normal breast tissue by redox imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N.; Tchou, Julia; Feng, Min; Zhao, Huaqing; Li, Lin Z.

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal metabolism can be a hallmark of cancer occurring early before detectable histological changes and may serve as an early detection biomarker. The current gold standard to establish breast cancer (BC) diagnosis is histological examination of biopsy. Previously we have found that pre-cancer and cancer tissues in animal models displayed abnormal mitochondrial redox state. Our technique of quantitatively measuring the mitochondrial redox state has the potential to be implemented as an early detection tool for cancer and may provide prognostic value. We therefore in this present study, investigated the feasibility of quantifying the redox state of tumor samples from 16 BC patients. Tumor tissue aliquots were collected from both normal and cancerous tissue from the affected cancer-bearing breasts of 16 female patients (5 TNBC, 9 ER+, 2 ER+/Her2+) shortly after surgical resection. All specimens were snap-frozen with liquid nitrogen on site and scanned later with the Chance redox scanner, i.e., the 3D cryogenic NADH/oxidized flavoprotein (Fp) fluorescence imager. Our preliminary results showed that both NADH and Fp (including FAD, i.e., flavin adenine dinucleotide) signals in the cancerous tissues roughly tripled to quadrupled those in the normal tissues (pcancerous tissues than in the normal ones (pcancer and non-cancer breast tissues in human patients and this novel redox scanning procedure may assist in tissue diagnosis in freshly procured biopsy samples prior to tissue fixation. We are in the process of evaluating the prognostic value of the redox imaging indices for BC.

  19. Alterations in the Immune Cell Composition in Premalignant Breast Tissue that Precede Breast Cancer Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnim, Amy C; Hoskin, Tanya L; Arshad, Muhammad; Frost, Marlene H; Winham, Stacey J; Brahmbhatt, Rushin A; Pena, Alvaro; Carter, Jodi M; Stallings-Mann, Melody L; Murphy, Linda M; Miller, Erin E; Denison, Lori A; Vachon, Celine M; Knutson, Keith L; Radisky, Derek C; Visscher, Daniel W

    2017-07-15

    Purpose: Little is known about the role of the immune system in the earliest stages of breast carcinogenesis. We studied quantitative differences in immune cell types between breast tissues from normal donors and those from women with benign breast disease (BBD). Experimental Design: A breast tissue matched case-control study was created from donors to the Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank (KTB) and from women diagnosed with BBD at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) who either subsequently developed cancer (BBD cases) or remained cancer-free (BBD controls). Serial tissue sections underwent immunostaining and digital quantification of cell number per mm 2 for CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, CD20 + B cells, and CD68 + macrophages and quantification of positive pixel measure for CD11c (dendritic cells). Results: In 94 age-matched triplets, BBD lobules showed greater densities of CD8 + T cells, CD11c + dendritic cells, CD20 + B cells, and CD68 + macrophages compared with KTB normals. Relative to BBD controls, BBD cases had lower CD20 + cell density ( P = 0.04). Nearly 42% of BBD cases had no CD20 + B cells in evaluated lobules compared with 28% of BBD controls ( P = 0.02). The absence of CD20 + cells versus the presence in all lobules showed an adjusted OR of 5.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-23.1) for subsequent breast cancer risk. Conclusions: Elevated infiltration of both innate and adaptive immune effectors in BBD tissues suggests an immunogenic microenvironment. The reduced B-cell infiltration in women with later breast cancer suggests a role for B cells in preventing disease progression and as a possible biomarker for breast cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res; 23(14); 3945-52. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Hard X-ray Microscopic Imaging Of Human Breast Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung H.; Kim, Hong T.; Kim, Jong K.; Jheon, Sang H.; Youn, Hwa S.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation will be a useful tool for innovation of x-ray imaging in clinical and laboratory settings. It helps us observe detailed internal structure of material samples non-invasively in air. And, it also has the potential to solve some tough problems of conventional breast imaging if it could evaluate various conditions of breast tissue effectively. A new hard x-ray microscope with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm was installed at Pohang Light Source, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility in Pohang, Korea. The x-ray energy was set at 6.95 keV, and the x-ray beam was monochromatized by W/B4C monochromator. Condenser and objective zone plates were used as x-ray lenses. Zernike phase plate next to condenser zone plate was introduced for improved contrast imaging. The image of a sample was magnified 30 times by objective zone plate and 20 times by microscope objective, respectively. After additional 10 times digital magnification, the total magnifying power was up to 6000 times in the end. Phase contrast synchrotron images of 10-μm-thick female breast tissue of the normal, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and carcinoma cases were obtained. By phase contrast imaging, hard x-rays enable us to observe many structures of breast tissue without sample preparations such as staining or fixation.

  1. Hard X-ray Microscopic Imaging Of Human Breast Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung H.; Kim, Hong T.; Kim, Jong K.; Jheon, Sang H.; Youn, Hwa S.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation will be a useful tool for innovation of x-ray imaging in clinical and laboratory settings. It helps us observe detailed internal structure of material samples non-invasively in air. And, it also has the potential to solve some tough problems of conventional breast imaging if it could evaluate various conditions of breast tissue effectively. A new hard x-ray microscope with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm was installed at Pohang Light Source, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility in Pohang, Korea. The x-ray energy was set at 6.95 keV, and the x-ray beam was monochromatized by W/B4C monochromator. Condenser and objective zone plates were used as x-ray lenses. Zernike phase plate next to condenser zone plate was introduced for improved contrast imaging. The image of a sample was magnified 30 times by objective zone plate and 20 times by microscope objective, respectively. After additional 10 times digital magnification, the total magnifying power was up to 6000 times in the end. Phase contrast synchrotron images of 10-μm-thick female breast tissue of the normal, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and carcinoma cases were obtained. By phase contrast imaging, hard x-rays enable us to observe many structures of breast tissue without sample preparations such as staining or fixation

  2. A systematic review of methods to immobilise breast tissue during adjuvant breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probst, Heidi; Bragg, Christopher; Dodwell, David; Green, David; Hart, John

    2014-01-01

    Greater use of 3D conformal, Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) and external beam partial breast irradiation following local excision (LE) for breast cancer has necessitated a review of the effectiveness of immobilisation methods to stabilise breast tissue. To identify the suitability of currently available breast (rather than thorax) immobilisation techniques an appraisal of the literature was undertaken. The aim was to identify and evaluate the benefit of additional or novel immobilisation approaches (beyond the standard supine, single arm abducted and angled breast board technique adopted in most radiotherapy departments). A database search was supplemented with an individual search of key radiotherapy peer-reviewed journals, author searching, and searching of the grey literature. A total of 27 articles met the inclusion criteria. The review identified good reproducibility of the thorax using the standard supine arm-pole technique. Reproducibility with the prone technique appears inferior to supine methods (based on data from existing randomised controlled trials). Assessing the effectiveness of additional breast support devices (such as rings or thermoplastic material) is hampered by small sample sizes and a lack of randomised data for comparison. Attention to breast immobilisation is recommended, as well as agreement on how breast stability should be measured using volumetric imaging

  3. Correction of accessory axillary breast tissue without visible scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Soo

    2004-01-01

    Various methods for correction of accessory axillary breast tissue have been proposed, including simple excision, diamond-shaped excision, a Y-V technique, and lipoplasty. We present an effective method for correction of a prominent axillary mound that combines lipoplasty with excision of accessory breast tissue along the axillary transverse line. Preoperative markings included an incision within the natural wrinkle line in the axillary fold, and demarcation of areas in which lipoplasty and excision were to be performed. After lipoplasty, deep dissection was performed to isolate and remove accessory breast tissue and excess fat tissue. A compression dressing was applied for 1 to 2 weeks postoperatively, and the patient was instructed to wear a sports bra for 1 to 2 months after removal of the dressing. We treated 7 patients using this procedure between October 1999 and March 2003. No major postoperative complications were detected and recurrence was not noted during the follow-up periods. Aesthetic results were satisfactory. We believe that a procedure that combines lipoplasty and excision provides numerous advantages as a surgical option in treating a prominent axillary mound. The main advantage is that the final scar is laid in the natural axillary fold, rendering scars less conspicuous and eliminating the need to remove excess skin. The one disadvantage was that elevation of the skin flap via small, remote incisions initially produced surgical difficulties, but these were overcome with experience.

  4. A rare presentation of an ectopic breast tissue in axilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Vidyasagar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Accessory breast tissue is rare accounting to less than 1% cases seen in females. It is usually bilateral. We report a case of 24-year-old woman with a lump in the left axilla in view of its rarity and made a differential diagnosis of fibroadenoma, which following the investigations and histopathological report was confirmed as revealed fibroadenoma in the axilla. It should also be considered as a differential diagnosis for all axillary swellings.

  5. An Algorithmic Approach to Total Breast Reconstruction with Free Tissue Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Cheol Yu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As microvascular techniques continue to improve, perforator flap free tissue transfer is now the gold standard for autologous breast reconstruction. Various options are available for breast reconstruction with autologous tissue. These include the free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM flap, deep inferior epigastric perforator flap, superficial inferior epigastric artery flap, superior gluteal artery perforator flap, and transverse/vertical upper gracilis flap. In addition, pedicled flaps can be very successful in the right hands and the right patient, such as the pedicled TRAM flap, latissimus dorsi flap, and thoracodorsal artery perforator. Each flap comes with its own advantages and disadvantages related to tissue properties and donor-site morbidity. Currently, the problem is how to determine the most appropriate flap for a particular patient among those potential candidates. Based on a thorough review of the literature and accumulated experiences in the author’s institution, this article provides a logical approach to autologous breast reconstruction. The algorithms presented here can be helpful to customize breast reconstruction to individual patient needs.

  6. Monitoring of tissue optical properties during thermal coagulation of ex vivo tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Vivek Krishna; Yu, Bing

    2016-09-01

    Real-time monitoring of tissue status during thermal ablation of tumors is critical to ensure complete destruction of tumor mass, while avoiding tissue charring and excessive damage to normal tissues. Currently, magnetic resonance thermometry (MRT), along with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is the most commonly used technique for monitoring and assessing thermal ablation process in soft tissues. MRT/MRI is very expensive, bulky, and often subject to motion artifacts. On the other hand, light propagation within tissue is sensitive to changes in tissue microstructure and physiology which could be used to directly quantify the extent of tissue damage. Furthermore, optical monitoring can be a portable, and cost-effective alternative for monitoring a thermal ablation process. The main objective of this study, is to establish a correlation between changes in tissue optical properties and the status of tissue coagulation/damage during heating of ex vivo tissues. A portable diffuse reflectance spectroscopy system and a side-firing fiber-optic probe were developed to study the absorption (μa (λ)), and reduced scattering coefficients (μ's (λ)) of native and coagulated ex vivo porcine, and chicken breast tissues. In the first experiment, both porcine and chicken breast tissues were heated at discrete temperature points between 24 and 140°C for 2 minutes. Diffuse reflectance spectra (430-630 nm) of native and coagulated tissues were recorded prior to, and post heating. In a second experiment, porcine tissue samples were heated at 70°C and diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded continuously during heating. The μa (λ) and μ's (λ) of the tissues were extracted from the measured diffuse reflectance spectra using an inverse Monte-Carlo model of diffuse reflectance. Tissue heating was stopped when the wavelength-averaged scattering plateaued. The wavelength-averaged optical properties, and , for native porcine tissues (n = 66) at room temperature, were 5.4

  7. Enhancer of the rudimentary gene homologue (ERH expression pattern in sporadic human breast cancer and normal breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knüchel Ruth

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human gene ERH (Enhancer of the Rudimentary gene Homologue has previously been identified by in silico analysis of four million ESTs as a gene differentially expressed in breast cancer. The biological function of ERH protein has not been fully elucidated, however functions in cell cycle progression, pyrimidine metabolism a possible interaction with p21(Cip1/Waf1 via the Ciz1 zinc finger protein have been suggested. The aim of the present study was a systematic characterization of ERH expression in human breast cancer in order to evaluate possible clinical applications of this molecule. Methods The expression pattern of ERH was analyzed using multiple tissue northern blots (MTN on a panel of 16 normal human tissues and two sets of malignant/normal breast and ovarian tissue samples. ERH expression was further analyzed in breast cancer and normal breast tissues and in tumorigenic as well as non-tumorigenic breast cancer cell lines, using quantitative RT-PCR and non-radioisotopic in situ hybridization (ISH. Results Among normal human tissues, ERH expression was most abundant in testis, heart, ovary, prostate, and liver. In the two MTN sets of malignant/normal breast and ovarian tissue,ERH was clearly more abundantly expressed in all tumours than in normal tissue samples. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that ERH expression was significantly more abundant in tumorigenic than in non-tumorigenic breast cancer cell lines (4.5-fold; p = 0.05, two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test; the same trend was noted in a set of 25 primary invasive breast cancers and 16 normal breast tissue samples (2.5-fold; p = 0.1. These findings were further confirmed by non-radioisotopic ISH in human breast cancer and normal breast tissue. Conclusion ERH expression is clearly up-regulated in malignant as compared with benign breast cells both in primary human breast cancer and in cell models of breast cancer. Since similar results were obtained for ovarian

  8. Association between local inflammation and breast tissue age-related lobular involution among premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirette Hanna

    Full Text Available Increased levels of pro-inflammatory markers and decreased levels of anti-inflammatory markers in the breast tissue can result in local inflammation. We aimed to investigate whether local inflammation in the breast tissue is associated with age-related lobular involution, a process inversely related to breast cancer risk. Levels of eleven pro- and anti-inflammatory markers were assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal breast tissue obtained from 164 pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Involution status of the breast (degree of lobular involution and the predominant lobule type was microscopically assessed in normal breast tissue on hematoxylin-eosin stained mastectomy slides. Multivariate generalized linear models were used to assess the associations. In age-adjusted analyses, higher levels of pro-inflammatory markers IL-6, TNF-α, CRP, COX-2, leptin, SAA1 and IL-8; and anti-inflammatory marker IL-10, were inversely associated with the prevalence of complete lobular involution (all P≤0.04. Higher levels of the pro-inflammatory marker COX-2 were also associated with lower prevalence of predominant type 1/no type 3 lobules in the breast, an indicator of complete involution, in age-adjusted analysis (P = 0.017. Higher tissue levels of inflammatory markers, mainly the pro-inflammatory ones, are associated with less involuted breasts and may consequently be associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer.

  9. Expression of BMI-1 and Mel-18 in breast tissue--a diagnostic marker in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Margit L H; Lüders, Torben; Nesbakken, Anne-Jorunn; Vollan, Hilde S; Kristensen, Vessela; Bukholm, Ida R K

    2010-12-16

    Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic silencers involved in maintaining cellular identity, and their deregulation can result in cancer. Expression of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 has been studied in tumor tissue, but not in adjacent non-cancerous breast epithelium. Our study compares the expression of the two genes in normal breast epithelium of cancer patients and relates it to the level of expression in the corresponding tumors as well as in breast epithelium of healthy women. A total of 79 tumors, of which 71 malignant tumors of the breast, 6 fibroadenomas, and 2 DCIS were studied and compared to the reduction mammoplastic specimens of 11 healthy women. In addition there was available adjacent cancer free tissue for 23 of the malignant tumors. The tissue samples were stored in RNAlater, RNA was isolated to create expression microarray profile. These two genes were then studied more closely first on mRNA transcription level by microarrays (Agilent 44 K) and quantitative RT-PCR (TaqMan) and then on protein expression level using immunohistochemistry. Bmi-1 mRNA is significantly up-regulated in adjacent normal breast tissue in breast cancer patients compared to normal breast tissue from noncancerous patients. Conversely, mRNA transcription level of Mel-18 is lower in normal breast from patients operated for breast cancer compared to breast tissue from mammoplasty. When protein expression of these two genes was evaluated, we observed that most of the epithelial cells were positive for Bmi-1 in both groups of tissue samples, although the expression intensity was stronger in normal tissue from cancer patients compared to mammoplasty tissue samples. Protein expression of Mel-18 showed inversely stronger intensity in tissue samples from mammoplasty compared to normal breast tissue from patients operated for breast cancer. Bmi-1 mRNA level is consistently increased and Mel-18 mRNA level is consistently decreased in adjacent normal breast tissue of cancer patients as compared

  10. Imaging of human breast tissue using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Y.; Gautam, M.; Divakar Rao, K.; Swami, M. K.; Gupta, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    We report a study on the use of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) for discriminating malignant (invasive ductal carcinoma), benign (fibroadenoma) and normal (adipocytes) breast tissue sites. The results show that while conventional OCT, that utilizes only the intensity of light back-scattered from tissue microstructures, is able to discriminate breast tissues as normal (adipocytes) and abnormal (malignant and benign) tissues, PS-OCT helps in discriminating between malignant and benign tissue sites also. The estimated values of birefringence obtained from the PSOCT imaging show that benign breast tissue samples have significantly higher birefringence as compared to the malignant tissue samples.

  11. MicroRNA expression in benign breast tissue and risk of subsequent invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Thomas; Ye, Kenny; Wang, Yihong; Glass, Andrew G; Ginsberg, Mindy; Loudig, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenous, small non-coding RNAs that control gene expression by directing their target mRNAs for degradation and/or posttranscriptional repression. Abnormal expression of microRNAs is thought to contribute to the development and progression of cancer. A history of benign breast disease (BBD) is associated with increased risk of subsequent breast cancer. However, no large-scale study has examined the association between microRNA expression in BBD tissue and risk of subsequent invasive breast cancer (IBC). We conducted discovery and validation case-control studies nested in a cohort of 15,395 women diagnosed with BBD in a large health plan between 1971 and 2006 and followed to mid-2015. Cases were women with BBD who developed subsequent IBC; controls were matched 1:1 to cases on age, age at diagnosis of BBD, and duration of plan membership. The discovery stage (316 case-control pairs) entailed use of the Illumina MicroRNA Expression Profiling Assay (in duplicate) to identify breast cancer-associated microRNAs. MicroRNAs identified at this stage were ranked by the strength of the correlation between Illumina array and quantitative PCR results for 15 case-control pairs. The top ranked 14 microRNAs entered the validation stage (165 case-control pairs) which was conducted using quantitative PCR (in triplicate). In both stages, linear regression was used to evaluate the association between the mean expression level of each microRNA (response variable) and case-control status (independent variable); paired t-tests were also used in the validation stage. None of the 14 validation stage microRNAs was associated with breast cancer risk. The results of this study suggest that microRNA expression in benign breast tissue does not influence the risk of subsequent IBC.

  12. Association of reproductive history with breast tissue characteristics and receptor status in the normal breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielson, Marike; Chiesa, Flaminia; Behmer, Catharina; Rönnow, Katarina; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per

    2018-03-30

    Reproductive history has been associated with breast cancer risk, but more knowledge of the underlying biological mechanisms is needed. Because of limited data on normal breast tissue from healthy women, we examined associations of reproductive history and established breast cancer risk factors with breast tissue composition and markers of hormone receptors and proliferation in a nested study within the Karolinska Mammography project for risk prediction for breast cancer (Karma). Tissues from 153 women were obtained by ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy as part of the Karma project. Immunohistochemical staining was used to assessed histological composition of epithelial, stromal and adipose tissue, epithelial and stromal oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, and Ki-67 proliferation status. An individualised reproductive score including parity, number of pregnancies without birth, number of births, age at first birth, and duration of breastfeeding, was calculated based on self-reported reproductive history at the time of the Karma study entry. All analyses were adjusted for age and BMI. Cumulated reproductive score was associated with increased total epithelial content and greater expression of epithelial ER. Parity was associated with greater epithelial area, increased epithelial-stromal ratio, greater epithelial ER expression and a lower extent of stromal proliferation. Increasing numbers of pregnancies and births were associated with a greater epithelial area in the entire study set, which remained significant among postmenopausal women. Increasing numbers of pregnancies and births were also associated with a greater expression of epithelial ER among postmenopausal women. Longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with greater epithelial area and greater expression of epithelial PR both in the entire study set and among postmenopausal women. Breastfeeding was also positively associated with greater epithelial ER expression among

  13. Analysing breast tissue composition with MRI using currently available short, simple sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, A.C.M.; Hua, J.; Taylor, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the most robust commonly available magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence to quantify breast tissue composition at 1.5 T. Materials and methods: Two-dimensional (2D) T1-weighted, Dixon fat, Dixon water and SPAIR images were obtained from five participants and a breast phantom using a 1.5 T Siemens Aera MRI system. Manual segmentation of the breasts was performed, and an in-house computer program was used to generate signal intensity histograms. Relative trough depth and relative peak separation were used to determine the robustness of the images for quantifying the two breast tissues. Total breast volumes and percentage breast densities calculated using the four sequences were compared. Results: Dixon fat histograms had consistently low relative trough depth and relative peak separation compared to those obtained using other sequences. There was no significant difference in total breast volumes and percentage breast densities of the participants or breast phantom using Dixon fat and 2D T1-weighted histograms. Dixon water and SPAIR histograms were not suitable for quantifying breast tissue composition. Conclusion: Dixon fat images are the most robust for the quantification of breast tissue composition using a signal intensity histogram. - Highlights: • Signal intensity histogram analysis can determine robustness of images for quantification of breast tissue composition. • Dixon fat images are the most robust. • The characteristics of the signal intensity histograms from Dixon water and SPAIR images make quantification unsuitable.

  14. Emergent material properties of developing epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Pedro F; Duque, Julia; Étienne, Jocelyn; Martinez-Arias, Alfonso; Blanchard, Guy B; Gorfinkiel, Nicole

    2015-11-23

    Force generation and the material properties of cells and tissues are central to morphogenesis but remain difficult to measure in vivo. Insight is often limited to the ratios of mechanical properties obtained through disruptive manipulation, and the appropriate models relating stress and strain are unknown. The Drosophila amnioserosa epithelium progressively contracts over 3 hours of dorsal closure, during which cell apices exhibit area fluctuations driven by medial myosin pulses with periods of 1.5-6 min. Linking these two timescales and understanding how pulsatile contractions drive morphogenetic movements is an urgent challenge. We present a novel framework to measure in a continuous manner the mechanical properties of epithelial cells in the natural context of a tissue undergoing morphogenesis. We show that the relationship between apicomedial myosin fluorescence intensity and strain during fluctuations is consistent with a linear behaviour, although with a lag. We thus used myosin fluorescence intensity as a proxy for active force generation and treated cells as natural experiments of mechanical response under cyclic loading, revealing unambiguous mechanical properties from the hysteresis loop relating stress to strain. Amnioserosa cells can be described as a contractile viscoelastic fluid. We show that their emergent mechanical behaviour can be described by a linear viscoelastic rheology at timescales relevant for tissue morphogenesis. For the first time, we establish relative changes in separate effective mechanical properties in vivo. Over the course of dorsal closure, the tissue solidifies and effective stiffness doubles as net contraction of the tissue commences. Combining our findings with those from previous laser ablation experiments, we show that both apicomedial and junctional stress also increase over time, with the relative increase in apicomedial stress approximately twice that of other obtained measures. Our results show that in an epithelial

  15. Utility of supplemental screening with breast ultrasound in asymptomatic women with dense breast tissue who are not at high risk for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Klevos, Geetika A; Collado-Mesa, Fernando; Net, Jose M; Yepes, Monica M

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the results of an initial round of supplemental screening with hand-held bilateral breast ultrasound following a negative screening mammogram in asymptomatic women with dense breast tissue who are not at high risk for breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant, Institutional Research Board approved study was performed at a single academic tertiary breast center. Informed consent was waived. A system...

  16. Quantitatively characterizing the microstructural features of breast ductal carcinoma tissues in different progression stages by Mueller matrix microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; Qi, Ji; He, Honghui; He, Chao; Liu, Shaoxiong; Wu, Jian; Elson, Daniel S; Ma, Hui

    2017-08-01

    Polarization imaging has been recognized as a potentially powerful technique for probing the microstructural information and optical properties of complex biological specimens. Recently, we have reported a Mueller matrix microscope by adding the polarization state generator and analyzer (PSG and PSA) to a commercial transmission-light microscope, and applied it to differentiate human liver and cervical cancerous tissues with fibrosis. In this paper, we apply the Mueller matrix microscope for quantitative detection of human breast ductal carcinoma samples at different stages. The Mueller matrix polar decomposition and transformation parameters of the breast ductal tissues in different regions and at different stages are calculated and analyzed. For more quantitative comparisons, several widely-used image texture feature parameters are also calculated to characterize the difference in the polarimetric images. The experimental results indicate that the Mueller matrix microscope and the polarization parameters can facilitate the quantitative detection of breast ductal carcinoma tissues at different stages.

  17. Viscoelastic Properties of Human Tracheal Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safshekan, Farzaneh; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Abdouss, Majid; Shadmehr, Mohammad B

    2017-01-01

    The physiological performance of trachea is highly dependent on its mechanical behavior, and therefore, the mechanical properties of its components. Mechanical characterization of trachea is key to succeed in new treatments such as tissue engineering, which requires the utilization of scaffolds which are mechanically compatible with the native human trachea. In this study, after isolating human trachea samples from brain-dead cases and proper storage, we assessed the viscoelastic properties of tracheal cartilage, smooth muscle, and connective tissue based on stress relaxation tests (at 5% and 10% strains for cartilage and 20%, 30%, and 40% for smooth muscle and connective tissue). After investigation of viscoelastic linearity, constitutive models including Prony series for linear viscoelasticity and quasi-linear viscoelastic, modified superposition, and Schapery models for nonlinear viscoelasticity were fitted to the experimental data to find the best model for each tissue. We also investigated the effect of age on the viscoelastic behavior of tracheal tissues. Based on the results, all three tissues exhibited a (nonsignificant) decrease in relaxation rate with increasing the strain, indicating viscoelastic nonlinearity which was most evident for cartilage and with the least effect for connective tissue. The three-term Prony model was selected for describing the linear viscoelasticity. Among different models, the modified superposition model was best able to capture the relaxation behavior of the three tracheal components. We observed a general (but not significant) stiffening of tracheal cartilage and connective tissue with aging. No change in the stress relaxation percentage with aging was observed. The results of this study may be useful in the design and fabrication of tracheal tissue engineering scaffolds.

  18. Tissue architecture: the ultimate regulator of breast epithelial function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Mian, Saira

    2003-10-20

    discuss the following: first, how our laboratory came to develop a model of the mammary gland acinus; second, what this model has told us about mechanisms that govern tissue specificity and malignancy; and third, possible directions for future studies. We summarize the evidence for the central role of ECM signaling in the maintenance of mammary function in culture and (more briefly) its role in tumorigenesis. This is followed by a discussion of the role that tissue architecture and tissue polarity (as opposed to cell polarity) may play in these processes. In an elegantly written and reasoned essay, Kirschner et al. coined the new science of developmental biology 'molecular vitalism'. They framed new concepts for self-organization as well as schemes for information flow in biological organization. Rao et al. reviewed and elaborated on differential-equation-based models of biochemical reaction networks and intracellular noise, with emphasis on bacteria and phage. Similarly, Hartwell et al. discussed the synergy between experiment and theory in elucidating 'modules' - collections of interacting molecules - and in unraveling how these modules collaborate to perform cellular functions such as signal transduction. We believe that many of these ideas will also be applicable to the maintenance of tissue specificity. As much as we agree with Kirschner et al. regarding the limitations of the machine analogy to biological systems, we conclude with thoughts on how we may proceed to model the complex tissue networks that govern breast tissue architecture. We suggest that our understanding of the structure and function of breast tissue would benefit from examining recent techniques for modeling large complex networks such as the World Wide Web and the Internet backbone among others.

  19. Histological properties of intramuscular connective tissues in native ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conventional histological study revealed that except the endomysium which was similar in both muscles, the other intramuscular connective tissues' layers varied between leg and breast muscles and were affected by sex. All the connective tissue fibers were observed in all the intramuscular connective tissues of both ...

  20. Time-domain scanning optical mammography: II. Optical properties and tissue parameters of 87 carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosenick, Dirk; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Moesta, K Thomas; Mucke, Joerg; Schlag, Peter M; Rinneberg, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Within a clinical trial on scanning time-domain optical mammography reported on in a companion publication (part I), craniocaudal and mediolateral projection optical mammograms were recorded from 154 patients, suspected of having breast cancer. Here we report on in vivo optical properties of the subset of 87 histologically validated carcinomas which were visible in optical mammograms recorded at two or three near-infrared wavelengths. Tumour absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were derived from distributions of times of flight of photons recorded at the tumour site employing the model of diffraction of photon density waves by a spherical inhomogeneity, located in an otherwise homogeneous tissue slab. Effective tumour radii, taken from pathology, and tumour location along the compression direction, deduced from off-axis optical scans of the tumour region, were included in the analysis as prior knowledge, if available. On average, tumour absorption coefficients exceeded those of surrounding healthy breast tissue by a factor of about 2.5 (670 nm), whereas tumour reduced scattering coefficients were larger by about 20% (670 nm). From absorption coefficients at 670 nm and 785 nm total haemoglobin concentration and blood oxygen saturation were deduced for tumours and surrounding healthy breast tissue. Apart from a few outliers total haemoglobin concentration was observed to be systematically larger in tumours compared to healthy breast tissue. In contrast, blood oxygen saturation was found to be a poor discriminator for tumours and healthy breast tissue; both median values of blood oxygen saturation are the same within their statistical uncertainties. However, the ratio of total haemoglobin concentration over blood oxygen saturation further improves discrimination between tumours and healthy breast tissue. For 29 tumours detected in optical mammograms recorded at three wavelengths (670 nm, 785 nm, 843 nm or 884 nm), scatter power was derived from transport

  1. Automatic estimation of elasticity parameters in breast tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerl, Katrin; Cochran, Sandy; Evans, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Shear wave elastography (SWE), a novel ultrasound imaging technique, can provide unique information about cancerous tissue. To estimate elasticity parameters, a region of interest (ROI) is manually positioned over the stiffest part of the shear wave image (SWI). The aim of this work is to estimate the elasticity parameters i.e. mean elasticity, maximal elasticity and standard deviation, fully automatically. Ultrasonic SWI of a breast elastography phantom and breast tissue in vivo were acquired using the Aixplorer system (SuperSonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France). First, the SWI within the ultrasonic B-mode image was detected using MATLAB then the elasticity values were extracted. The ROI was automatically positioned over the stiffest part of the SWI and the elasticity parameters were calculated. Finally all values were saved in a spreadsheet which also contains the patient's study ID. This spreadsheet is easily available for physicians and clinical staff for further evaluation and so increase efficiency. Therewith the efficiency is increased. This algorithm simplifies the handling, especially for the performance and evaluation of clinical trials. The SWE processing method allows physicians easy access to the elasticity parameters of the examinations from their own and other institutions. This reduces clinical time and effort and simplifies evaluation of data in clinical trials. Furthermore, reproducibility will be improved.

  2. Fibrocystic disease of vulvar ectopic breast tissue. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykal, C; Tulunay, G; Usubutun, A; Küçükali, T; Ozer, S; Demir, O F

    2004-01-01

    Mammary glands located in the vulvar region have been named as ectopic breast tissue or anogenital mammary glands by different authors. Literature on pathologies of ectopic breast tissue located in the vulvar region is rare. Most of the reports are about the malignancies arising from this ectopic tissue. We report a case of fibrocystic disease of the mammary glands in the vulva in a 25-year-old pregnant woman. Her disease was exaggerated during pregnancy. Ectopic breast tissue in the vulva is a rare entity and fibrocystic disease of this tissue has rarely been reported in the English literature. Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Tissue Expander Overfilling: Achieving New Dimensions of Customization in Breast Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiser, Matthew D; Lahair, Tracy; Carty, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Overfill of tissue expanders is a commonly used modality to achieve customized dimensions in breast reconstruction. Little formal study of the dynamics of hyperexpansion of these devices has been performed to date, however. Overfill trials were performed using both Natrelle 133 MV and Mentor 8200 tissue expanders of indicated capacities ranging from 250 to 800 mL. Each expander was initially filled to its indicated capacity with normal water and then injected in regular increments to 400% overfill. Measurements of each expander's width, height, and projection were made at indicated capacity and with each successive incremental overfill injection, and these results were then recorded, collated, and analyzed. Over the first 50% overfill, all expanders demonstrated a logarithmic increase in projection (mean increase, 143 ± 9%) while maintaining essentially stable base dimensions. Overfill levels in excess of 50% were accompanied by linear increases in height, width, and projection, during which projection approached, but never equaled, base dimensions. Stress versus strain analyses demonstrated nonlinear biomechanical dynamics during the first 50% overfill, followed by standard elastic dynamics up to 400% overfill. At no point during the study, did expander tensions outstrip elastic properties, thereby explaining the lack of device rupture. Through overfilling, tunable geometries of tissue expanders can be accessed that may provide for increasing customization of reconstructions, particularly at overfill volumes up to 50% over indicated capacity. This study should serve to guide tissue expander selection and fill volumes that surgeons may implement in obtaining ideal reconstructed breast shapes.

  4. Studying the distribution of deep Raman spectroscopy signals using liquid tissue phantoms with varying optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaki, Martha Z; Gardner, Benjamin; Stone, Nicholas; Matousek, Pavel

    2015-08-07

    In this study we employed large volume liquid tissue phantoms, consisting of a scattering agent (Intralipid), an absorption agent (Indian ink) and a synthesized calcification powder (calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP)) similar to that found in cancerous tissues (e.g. breast and prostate), to simulate human tissues. We studied experimentally the magnitude and origin of Raman signals in a transmission Raman geometry as a function of optical properties of the medium and the location of calcifications within the phantom. The goal was to inform the development of future noninvasive cancer screening applications in vivo. The results provide insight into light propagation and Raman scattering distribution in deep Raman measurements, exploring also the effect of the variation of relative absorbance of laser and Raman photons within the phantoms. Most notably when modeling breast and prostate tissues it follows that maximum signals is obtained from the front and back faces of the tissue with the central region contributing less to the measured spectrum.

  5. Role of differential physical properties in the collective mechanics and dynamics of tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Moumita

    Living cells and tissues are highly mechanically sensitive and active. Mechanical stimuli influence the shape, motility, and functions of cells, modulate the behavior of tissues, and play a key role in several diseases. In this talk I will discuss how collective biophysical properties of tissues emerge from the interplay between differential mechanical properties and statistical physics of underlying components, focusing on two complementary tissue types whose properties are primarily determined by (1) the extracellular matrix (ECM), and (2) individual and collective cell properties. I will start with the structure-mechanics-function relationships in articular cartilage (AC), a soft tissue that has very few cells, and its mechanical response is primarily due to its ECM. AC is a remarkable tissue: it can support loads exceeding ten times our body weight and bear 60+ years of daily mechanical loading despite having minimal regenerative capacity. I will discuss the biophysical principles underlying this exceptional mechanical response using the framework of rigidity percolation theory, and compare our predictions with experiments done by our collaborators. Next I will discuss ongoing theoretical work on how the differences in cell mechanics, motility, adhesion, and proliferation in a co-culture of breast cancer cells and healthy breast epithelial cells may modulate experimentally observed differential migration and segregation. Our results may provide insights into the mechanobiology of tissues with cell populations with different physical properties present together such as during the formation of embryos or the initiation of tumors. This work was partially supported by a Cottrell College Science Award.

  6. Analysis of elemental concentration censored distributions in breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Gozdz, S.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.

    2007-01-01

    The total reflection X-ray fluorescence method was applied to study the trace element concentrations in human breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues taken from the women who were patients of Holycross Cancer Centre in Kielce (Poland). These investigations were mainly focused on the development of new possibilities of cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring. This systematic comparative study was based on relatively large (∼ 100) population studied, namely 26 samples of breast malignant and 68 samples of breast benign neoplasm tissues. The concentrations, being in the range from a few ppb to 0.1%, were determined for thirteen elements (from P to Pb). The results were carefully analysed to investigate the concentration distribution of trace elements in the studied samples. The measurements of concentration of trace elements by total reflection X-ray fluorescence were limited, however, by the detection limit of the method. It was observed that for more than 50% of elements determined, the concentrations were not measured in all samples. These incomplete measurements were treated within the statistical concept called left-random censoring and for the estimation of the mean value and median of censored concentration distributions, the Kaplan-Meier estimator was used. For comparison of concentrations in two populations, the log-rank test was applied, which allows to compare the censored total reflection X-ray fluorescence data. Found statistically significant differences are discussed in more details. It is noted that described data analysis procedures should be the standard tool to analyze the censored concentrations of trace elements analysed by X-ray fluorescence methods

  7. Calculation of dose distribution in compressible breast tissues using finite element modeling, Monte Carlo simulation and thermoluminescence dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadyari, Parvin; Faghihi, Reza; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Rahim Hematiyan, Mohammad; Koontz, Craig; Meigooni, Ali S.

    2015-12-01

    Compression is a technique to immobilize the target or improve the dose distribution within the treatment volume during different irradiation techniques such as AccuBoost® brachytherapy. However, there is no systematic method for determination of dose distribution for uncompressed tissue after irradiation under compression. In this study, the mechanical behavior of breast tissue between compressed and uncompressed states was investigated. With that, a novel method was developed to determine the dose distribution in uncompressed tissue after irradiation of compressed breast tissue. Dosimetry was performed using two different methods, namely, Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP5 code and measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The displacement of the breast elements was simulated using a finite element model and calculated using ABAQUS software. From these results, the 3D dose distribution in uncompressed tissue was determined. The geometry of the model was constructed from magnetic resonance images of six different women volunteers. The mechanical properties were modeled by using the Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material model. Experimental dosimetry was performed by placing the TLD chips into the polyvinyl alcohol breast equivalent phantom. The results determined that the nodal displacements, due to the gravitational force and the 60 Newton compression forces (with 43% contraction in the loading direction and 37% expansion in the orthogonal direction) were determined. Finally, a comparison of the experimental data and the simulated data showed agreement within 11.5%  ±  5.9%.

  8. Calculation of dose distribution in compressible breast tissues using finite element modeling, Monte Carlo simulation and thermoluminescence dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadyari, Parvin; Faghihi, Reza; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Hematiyan, Mohammad Rahim; Koontz, Craig; Meigooni, Ali S

    2015-01-01

    Compression is a technique to immobilize the target or improve the dose distribution within the treatment volume during different irradiation techniques such as AccuBoost ® brachytherapy. However, there is no systematic method for determination of dose distribution for uncompressed tissue after irradiation under compression. In this study, the mechanical behavior of breast tissue between compressed and uncompressed states was investigated. With that, a novel method was developed to determine the dose distribution in uncompressed tissue after irradiation of compressed breast tissue. Dosimetry was performed using two different methods, namely, Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP5 code and measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The displacement of the breast elements was simulated using a finite element model and calculated using ABAQUS software. From these results, the 3D dose distribution in uncompressed tissue was determined. The geometry of the model was constructed from magnetic resonance images of six different women volunteers. The mechanical properties were modeled by using the Mooney–Rivlin hyperelastic material model. Experimental dosimetry was performed by placing the TLD chips into the polyvinyl alcohol breast equivalent phantom. The results determined that the nodal displacements, due to the gravitational force and the 60 Newton compression forces (with 43% contraction in the loading direction and 37% expansion in the orthogonal direction) were determined. Finally, a comparison of the experimental data and the simulated data showed agreement within 11.5%  ±  5.9%. (paper)

  9. USAXS and SAXS from cancer-bearing breast tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.; Suhonen, H.; Keyrilaeinen, J.; Bravin, A.; Fiedler, S.; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, M.-L.; Leidenius, M.; Smitten, K. von; Suortti, P.

    2008-01-01

    USAXS and SAXS patterns from cancer-bearing human breast tissue samples were recorded at beamline ID02 of the ESRF using a Bonse-Hart camera and a pinhole camera. The samples were classified as being ductal carcinoma, grade II, and ductal carcinoma in situ, partly invasive. The samples included areas of healthy collagen, invaded collagen, necrotic ducts with calcifications, and adipose tissue. The scattering patterns were analyzed in different ways to separate the scattering contribution and the direct beam from the observed rocking curve (RC) of the analyzer. It was found that USAXS from all tissues was weak, and the effects on the analyzer RC were observed only in the low-intensity tails of the patterns. The intrinsic RC was convolved with different model functions for the impulse response of the sample, and the best fit with experiment was obtained by the Pearson VII function. Significantly different distributions for the Pearson exponent m were obtained in benign and malignant regions of the samples. For a comparison with analyzer-based imaging (ABI) or diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) a 'long-slit' integration of the patterns was performed, and this emphasized the scattering contribution in the tails of the rocking curve

  10. Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Human Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Zach S; Lie, Wen-Rong; Wang, Weiqi; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Alluri, Rajiv V; Tamaresis, John S; Bachmann, Michael H; Lee, Kitty; Maloney, William J; Contag, Christopher H; King, Bonnie L

    2015-12-01

    Bone is a preferred site of breast cancer metastasis, suggesting the presence of tissue-specific features that attract and promote the outgrowth of breast cancer cells. We sought to identify parameters of human bone tissue associated with breast cancer cell osteotropism and colonization in the metastatic niche. Migration and colonization patterns of MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP (luciferase-enhanced green fluorescence protein) and MCF-7-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cells were studied in co-culture with cancellous bone tissue fragments isolated from 14 hip arthroplasties. Breast cancer cell migration into tissues and toward tissue-conditioned medium was measured in Transwell migration chambers using bioluminescence imaging and analyzed as a function of secreted factors measured by multiplex immunoassay. Patterns of breast cancer cell colonization were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Enhanced MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cell migration to bone-conditioned versus control medium was observed in 12/14 specimens (P = .0014) and correlated significantly with increasing levels of the adipokines/cytokines leptin (P = .006) and IL-1β (P = .001) in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of fragments underscored the extreme adiposity of adult human bone tissues and revealed extensive breast cancer cell colonization within the marrow adipose tissue compartment. Our results show that breast cancer cells migrate to human bone tissue-conditioned medium in association with increasing levels of leptin and IL-1β, and colonize the bone marrow adipose tissue compartment of cultured fragments. Bone marrow adipose tissue and its molecular signals may be important but understudied components of the breast cancer metastatic niche. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanical properties of human atherosclerotic intima tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyildiz, Ali C; Speelman, Lambert; Gijsen, Frank J H

    2014-03-03

    Progression and rupture of atherosclerotic plaques in coronary and carotid arteries are the key processes underlying myocardial infarctions and strokes. Biomechanical stress analyses to compute mechanical stresses in a plaque can potentially be used to assess plaque vulnerability. The stress analyses strongly rely on accurate representation of the mechanical properties of the plaque components. In this review, the composition of intima tissue and how this changes during plaque development is discussed from a mechanical perspective. The plaque classification scheme of the American Heart Association is reviewed and plaques originating from different vascular territories are compared. Thereafter, an overview of the experimental studies on tensile and compressive plaque intima properties are presented and the results are linked to the pathology of atherosclerotic plaques. This overview revealed a considerable variation within studies, and an enormous dispersion between studies. Finally, the implications of the dispersion in experimental data on the clinical applications of biomechanical plaque modeling are presented. Suggestions are made on mechanical testing protocol for plaque tissue and on using a standardized plaque classification scheme. This review identifies the current status of knowledge on plaque mechanical properties and the future steps required for a better understanding of the plaque type specific material properties. With this understanding, biomechanical plaque modeling may eventually provide essential support for clinical plaque risk stratification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Soft tissue sarcoma after treatment for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Per; Holmberg, Erik; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Kindblom, Lars-Gunnar; Carstensen, John; Wallgren, Arne

    1996-01-01

    In a register study all women in the West of Sweden Health Care Region with a breast cancer diagnosed between 1960 and 1980 (n = 13 490) were followed up in the Swedish Cancer Register to the end of 1988 for later occurrence of a soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Nineteen sarcomas were reported, whereas 8.7 were expected and the relative risk (RR) was 2.2 (CI 95% 1.3-3.4). The absolute risk was (1.7(10 4 )) person years (PY) in comparison with 0.8 expected. To obtain a more detailed analysis of the associations between arm lymphoedema, radiotherapy and STS development, and to control the quality of the register data, a case control study was also performed. Clinical records from the different hospitals in the region were collected for all the 19 cases as well as for three selected controls per case. The histopathology of the cases were reviewed, and one of the cases was reclassified as a malignant melanoma and excluded from further analysis. Thirteen of the cases were clustered around the treated breast area. To quantify the exposure to radiotherapy, the integral dose was estimated. The presence of lymphedema was included as a binary variable in the analysis. The exact conditional randomisation test indicated a significant correlation between the integral dose and the development of an STS (p = 0.008) and this association was still significant after stratification for arm oedema. A conditional logistic regression analysis with STS as the dependent variable and the integral dose as the explanatory variable gave an odds ratio (OR) of(5.2(100)) J (CI 95% 1.3-21.2), and if this regression was restricted only to the STS developing in the radiation fields the OR was(3.2(100)) J (CI 95% 0.8-12.9). Thus, the excess of STS in this breast cancer cohort was very low ((0.9(10 4 )) PY). However the integral dose correlates well to the development of STS and can be useful in quantifying even small risks of secondary malignancies in the breast cancer population

  13. Hormone replacement therapy dependent changes in breast cancer-related gene expression in breast tissue of healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieuwerts, Anieta M; De Napoli, Giuseppina; van Galen, Anne; Kloosterboer, Helenius J; de Weerd, Vanja; Zhang, Hong; Martens, John W M; Foekens, John A; De Geyter, Christian

    2011-12-01

    Risk assessment of future breast cancer risk through exposure to sex steroids currently relies on clinical scorings such as mammographic density. Knowledge about the gene expression patterns in existing breast cancer tumors may be used to identify risk factors in the breast tissue of women still free of cancer. The differential effects of estradiol, estradiol together with gestagens, or tibolone on breast cancer-related gene expression in normal breast tissue samples taken from postmenopausal women may be used to identify gene expression profiles associated with a higher breast cancer risk. Breast tissue samples were taken from 33 healthy postmenopausal women both before and after a six month treatment with either 2mg micronized estradiol [E2], 2mg micronized estradiol and 1mg norethisterone acetate [E2+NETA], 2.5mg tibolone [T] or [no HRT]. Except for [E2], which was only given to women after hysterectomy, the allocation to each of the three groups was randomized. The expression of 102 mRNAs and 46 microRNAs putatively involved in breast cancer was prospectively determined in the biopsies of 6 women receiving [no HRT], 5 women receiving [E2], 5 women receiving [E2+NETA], and 6 receiving [T]. Using epithelial and endothelial markers genes, non-representative biopsies from 11 women were eliminated. Treatment of postmenopausal women with [E2+NETA] resulted in the highest number of differentially (pbreast tissue with a change in the expression of genes putatively involved in breast cancer. Our data suggest that normal mammary cells triggered by [E2+NETA] adjust for steroidogenic up-regulation through down-regulation of the estrogen-receptor pathway. This feasibility study provides the basis for whole genome analyses to identify novel markers involved in increased breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. IGRT of the breast : doses to contralateral breast, heart and other untargeted tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.L.; Lye, J.E.; Franich, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Radiotherapy has an important role to play in locoregional therapy after surgery, particularly in reducing the likelihood of local recurrence. While there is no doubt about the benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy, concerns have been raised about radiation induced secondary cancers in the contralateral breast, lung and-if the left breast is treated-damage to the heart. We recently showed that Monte Carlo methods may be the most appropriate means for determination of such out-of-field doses to healthy tissues at intermediate distances from the primary field (J Med Phys 36 (20 I I) 59-71). A detailed, dosimetrically-matched Monte Carlo model of a Varian 21iX linear accelerator with mounted Varian G242 KV cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) unit was constructed based on comprehensive manufacturer specifications. Patient CT scans were converted to voxelised phantoms and real treatment plans were replicated in silico. Doses to out of- field healthy structures (such as breast, heart and lung) were evaluated and risks of radiocarcinogenesis and cardiotoxicity estimated. It is possible to vary kV imager blade openings to influence out-of-field doses and associated risks.

  15. Identification of the boundary between normal breast tissue and invasive ductal carcinoma during breast-conserving surgery using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tongxin; Nie, Yuting; Lian, Yuane; Wu, Yan; Fu, Fangmeng; Wang, Chuan; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-11-01

    Breast-conserving surgery has become an important way of surgical treatment for breast cancer worldwide nowadays. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has the ability to noninvasively visualize tissue architectures at the cellular level using intrinsic fluorescent molecules in biological tissues without the need for fluorescent dye. In this study, MPM is used to image the microstructures of terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU), invasive ductal carcinoma and the boundary region between normal and cancerous breast tissues. Our study demonstrates that MPM has the ability to not only reveal the morphological changes of the cuboidal epithelium, basement membrane and interlobular stroma but also identify the boundary between normal breast tissue and invasive ductal carcinoma, which correspond well to the Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) images. Predictably, MPM can monitor surgical margins in real time and provide considerable accuracy for resection of breast cancerous tissues intraoperatively. With the development of miniature, real-time MPM imaging technology, MPM should have great application prospects during breast-conserving surgery.

  16. Utility of supplemental screening with breast ultrasound in asymptomatic women with dense breast tissue who are not at high risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevos, Geetika A; Collado-Mesa, Fernando; Net, Jose M; Yepes, Monica M

    2017-01-01

    To assess the results of an initial round of supplemental screening with hand-held bilateral breast ultrasound following a negative screening mammogram in asymptomatic women with dense breast tissue who are not at high risk for breast cancer. A retrospective, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant, Institutional Research Board approved study was performed at a single academic tertiary breast center. Informed consent was waived. A systematic review of the breast imaging center database was conducted to identify and retrieve data for all asymptomatic women, who were found to have heterogeneously dense or extremely dense breast tissue on screening bilateral mammograms performed from July 1, 2010 through June 30, 2012 and who received a mammographic final assessment American College of Radiology's (ACR) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 1 or BI-RADS category 2. Hand-held screening ultrasound was performed initially by a technologist followed by a radiologist. Chi-square and t -test were used and statistical significance was considered at P ultrasound. BI-RADS category 1 or 2 was assigned to 323 women (81.9%). BI-RADS category 3 was assigned to 50 women (12.9%). A total of 26 biopsies/aspirations were recommended and performed in 26 women (6.6%). The most common finding for which biopsy was recommended was a solid mass (88.5%) with an average size of 0.9 cm (0.5-1.7 cm). Most frequent pathology result was fibroadenoma (60.8%). No carcinoma was found. Our data support the reported occurrence of a relatively high number of false positives at supplemental screening with breast ultrasound following a negative screening mammogram in asymptomatic women with dense breast tissue, who are not at a high risk of developing breast cancer, and suggests that caution is necessary in establishing wide implementation of this type of supplemental screening for all women with dense breast tissue without considering other risk factors for

  17. Analysis of CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and adjacent tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Nascimento Borges

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Dendritic cell maturation is considered essential for starting an immune response. The CD83 antigen is an important marker of dendritic cell maturation. The objectives here were to analyze CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and breast tissue adjacent to the lesion and to identify clinical factors that might influence this expression. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a retrospective study at a public university hospital, in which 29 histopathological samples of breast fibroadenoma and adjacent breast tissue, from 28 women of reproductive age, were analyzed. METHODS: The immunohistochemistry method was used to analyze the cell expression of the antigen. The antigen expression in the cells was evaluated by means of random manual counting using an optical microscope. RESULTS: Positive expression of the CD83 antigen in the epithelial cells of the fibroadenoma (365.52; standard deviation ± 133.13 in relation to the adjacent breast tissue cells (189.59; standard deviation ± 140.75 was statistically larger (P < 0.001. Several clinical features were analyzed, but only parity was shown to influence CD83 antigen expression in the adjacent breast tissue, such that positive expression was more evident in nulliparous women (P = 0.042. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of the CD83 antigen in the fibroadenoma was positive and greater than in the adjacent breast tissue. Positive expression of the antigen in the adjacent breast tissue was influenced by parity, and was significantly more evident in nulliparous women.

  18. Of mice and women: a comparative tissue biology perspective of breast stem cells and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontu, Gabriela; Ince, Tan A

    2015-06-01

    Tissue based research requires a background in human and veterinary pathology, developmental biology, anatomy, as well as molecular and cellular biology. This type of comparative tissue biology (CTB) expertise is necessary to tackle some of the conceptual challenges in human breast stem cell research. It is our opinion that the scarcity of CTB expertise contributed to some erroneous interpretations in tissue based research, some of which are reviewed here in the context of breast stem cells. In this article we examine the dissimilarities between mouse and human mammary tissue and suggest how these may impact stem cell studies. In addition, we consider the differences between breast ducts vs. lobules and clarify how these affect the interpretation of results in stem cell research. Lastly, we introduce a new elaboration of normal epithelial cell types in human breast and discuss how this provides a clinically useful basis for breast cancer classification.

  19. DNA methylation age is elevated in breast tissue of healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehl, Mary E; Henry, Jill E; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Ganz, Patricia A; Horvath, Steve

    2017-07-01

    Limited evidence suggests that female breast tissue ages faster than other parts of the body according to an epigenetic biomarker of aging known as the "epigenetic clock." However, it is unknown whether breast tissue samples from healthy women show a similar accelerated aging effect relative to other tissues, and what could drive this acceleration. The goal of this study is to validate our initial finding of advanced DNA methylation (DNAm) age in breast tissue, by directly comparing it to that of peripheral blood tissue from the same individuals, and to do a preliminary assessment of hormonal factors that could explain the difference. We utilized n = 80 breast and 80 matching blood tissue samples collected from 40 healthy female participants of the Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank at the Indiana University Simon Cancer Center who donated these samples at two time points spaced at least a year apart. DNA methylation levels (Illumina 450K platform) were used to estimate the DNAm age. DNAm age was highly correlated with chronological age in both peripheral blood (r = 0.94, p < 0.0001) and breast tissues (r = 0.86, p < 0.0001). A measure of epigenetic age acceleration (age-adjusted DNAm Age) was substantially increased in breast relative to peripheral blood tissue (p = 1.6 × 10 -11 ). The difference between DNAm age of breast and blood decreased with advancing chronologic age (r = -0.53, p = 4.4 × 10 -4 ). Our data clearly demonstrate that female breast tissue has a higher epigenetic age than blood collected from the same subject. We also observe that the degree of elevation in breast diminishes with advancing age. Future larger studies will be needed to examine associations between epigenetic age acceleration and cumulative hormone exposure.

  20. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the breast: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Heon; Kim, Dae Bong; Shin, Mi Kyung; Jang, Suk Ki; Kang, Su Min; Ahn, In Oak [Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-11-15

    A primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT lymphoma) of the breast is extremely rare. We report a case of a MALT lymphoma of the breast that presented as a palpable left breast mass in a 37-year-old woman. A physical examination revealed a large firm, and fixed mass in the left inner breast. Mammograms showed a large, isodense mass in the lower inner quadrant of the left breast and an enlarged lymph node in the axilla. A sonogram demonstrated a 5 cm sized, oval, circumscribed, and heterogeneously hypoechoic mass with posterior acoustic enhancement. A surgical biopsy was performed, and the pathology revealed a MALT lymphoma.

  1. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the breast: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Heon; Kim, Dae Bong; Shin, Mi Kyung; Jang, Suk Ki; Kang, Su Min; Ahn, In Oak

    2007-01-01

    A primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT lymphoma) of the breast is extremely rare. We report a case of a MALT lymphoma of the breast that presented as a palpable left breast mass in a 37-year-old woman. A physical examination revealed a large firm, and fixed mass in the left inner breast. Mammograms showed a large, isodense mass in the lower inner quadrant of the left breast and an enlarged lymph node in the axilla. A sonogram demonstrated a 5 cm sized, oval, circumscribed, and heterogeneously hypoechoic mass with posterior acoustic enhancement. A surgical biopsy was performed, and the pathology revealed a MALT lymphoma

  2. Trace elemental correlation study in malignant and normal breast tissue by PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, G.J. Naga; Sarita, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi; Murty, G.A.V. Ramana; Reddy, B. Seetharami; Lakshminarayana, S.; Vijayan, V.; Lakshmi, P.V.B. Rama; Gavarasana, Satyanarayana; Reddy, S. Bhuloka

    2006-01-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission technique was used to study the variations in trace elemental concentrations between normal and malignant human breast tissue specimens and to understand the effects of altered homeostasis of these elements in the etiology of breast cancer. A 3 MeV proton beam was used to excite the biological samples of normal and malignant breast tissues. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb and Sr were identified and their relative concentrations were estimated. Almost all the elements were found to be elevated (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed-ranks test) in the cancerous tissues when compared with normal tissues. The excess levels of trace elements observed in the cancerous breast tissues could either be a cause or a consequence of breast cancer. Regarding their role in the initiation or promotion of breast cancer, one possible interpretation is that the elevated levels of Cu, Fe and Cr could have led to the formation of free radicals or other reactive oxygen species (ROS) that adversely affect DNA thereby causing breast cancer, which is mainly attributed to genetic abnormalities. Moreover, since Cu and Fe are required for angiogenesis, elevated concentrations of these elements are likely to promote breast cancer by increasing the blood supply for tumor growth. On the other hand elevated concentrations of elements in breast cancer tissues might also be a consequence of the cancer. This can be understood in terms of the biochemical and histological differences between normal and cancerous breast tissues. Tumors, characterized by unregulated multiplication of cells, need an ever-increasing supply of essential nutrients including trace elements. This probably results in an increased vascularity of malignant tissues, which in turn leads to enhancement of elemental concentrations in tumors

  3. Nonexpansive immediate breast reconstruction using human acellular tissue matrix graft (AlloDerm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzberg, C Andrew

    2006-07-01

    Immediate breast reconstruction has become a standard of care following mastectomy for cancer, largely due to improved esthetic and psychologic outcomes achieved with this technique. However, the current historical standards--transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction and expander--implant surgery-still have limitations as regards patient morbidity, short-term body-image improvements, and even cost. To address these shortcomings, we employ a novel concept of human tissue replacement to enhance breast shape and provide total coverage, enabling immediate mound reconstruction without the need for breast expansion prior to permanent implant placement. AlloDerm (human acellular tissue matrix) is a human-derived graft tissue with extensive experience in various settings of skin and soft tissue replacement surgery. This report describes the success using acellular tissue matrix to provide total coverage over the prosthesis in immediate reconstruction, with limited muscle dissection. In this population, 49 patients (76 breasts) successfully underwent the acellular tissue matrix-based immediate reconstruction, resulting in durable breast reconstruction with good symmetry. These findings may predict that acellular tissue matrix-supplemented immediate breast reconstruction will become a new technique for the immediate reconstruction of the postmastectomy breast.

  4. Quantification of Estrogen Receptor Expression in Normal Breast Tissue in Postmenopausal Women With Breast Cancer and Association With Tumor Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahce, H Evin; Blair, Cindy K; Sweeney, Carol; Salama, Mohamed E

    2017-09-01

    Estrogen exposure is important in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and is a contributing risk factor. In this study we quantified estrogen receptor (ER) alpha expression in normal breast epithelium (NBR) in women with breast cancer and correlated it with breast cancer subtypes. Tissue microarrays were constructed from 204 breast cancer patients for whom normal breast tissue away from tumor was available. Slides stained with ER were scanned and expression in normal terminal duct lobular epithelium was quantitated using computer-assisted image analysis. ER expression in normal terminal duct lobular epithelium of postmenopausal women with breast cancer was significantly associated with estrogen and triple (estrogen, progesterone receptors, and HER2) negative phenotypes. Also increased age at diagnosis was significantly associated with ER expression in NBR. ER positivity in normal epithelium did not vary by tumor size, lymph node status, tumor grade, or stage. On the basis of quantitative image analysis, we confirm that ER expression in NBR increases with age in women with breast cancer, and report for the first time, a significant association between ER expression in NBR with ER-negative and triple-negative cancers in postmenopausal women.

  5. Prevalence of Ectopic Breast Tissue and Tumor: A 20-Year Single Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famá, Fausto; Cicciú, Marco; Sindoni, Alessandro; Scarfó, Paola; Pollicino, Andrea; Giacobbe, Giuseppa; Buccheri, Giancarlo; Taranto, Filippo; Palella, Jessica; Gioffré-Florio, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Ectopic breast tissue, which includes both supernumerary breast and aberrant breast tissue, is the most common congenital breast abnormality. Ectopic breast cancers are rare neoplasms that occur in 0.3% to 0.6% of all cases of breast cancer. We retrospectively report, using a large series of breast abnormalities diagnosed and treated, our clinical experience on the management of the ectopic breast cancer. In 2 decades, we observed 327 (2.7%) patients with ectopic breast tissue out of a total of 12,177 subjects undergoing a breast visit for lesions. All patients were classified into 8 classes, according to the classification of Kajava, and assessed by a physician examination, ultrasounds, and, when appropriate, further studies with fine needle aspiration cytology and mammography. All specimens were submitted to the anatomo-pathologist. The most frequent benign histological diagnosis was fibrocystic disease. A rare granulosa cell tumor was also found in the right anterior thoracic wall of 1 patient. Four malignancies were also diagnosed in 4 women: an infiltrating lobular cancer in 1 patient with a lesion classified as class I, and an infiltrating apocrine carcinoma, an infiltrating ductal cancer, and an infiltrating ductal cancer with tubular pattern, occurring in 3 patients with lesions classified as class IV. Only 1 recurrence was observed. We recommend an earlier surgical approach for patients with lesions from class I to IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Near-infrared spectral tomography integrated with digital breast tomosynthesis: Effects of tissue scattering on optical data acquisition design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelsen, Kelly; Krishnaswamy, Venkat; Pogue, Brian W.; Poplack, Steven P.; Paulsen, Keith D. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756 (United States); Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 and Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Design optimization and phantom validation of an integrated digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and near-infrared spectral tomography (NIRST) system targeting improvement in sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer detection is presented. Factors affecting instrumentation design include minimization of cost, complexity, and examination time while maintaining high fidelity NIRST measurements with sufficient information to recover accurate optical property maps. Methods: Reconstructed DBT slices from eight patients with abnormal mammograms provided anatomical information for the NIRST simulations. A limited frequency domain (FD) and extensive continuous wave (CW) NIRST system was modeled. The FD components provided tissue scattering estimations used in the reconstruction of the CW data. Scattering estimates were perturbed to study the effects on hemoglobin recovery. Breast mimicking agar phantoms with inclusions were imaged using the combined DBT/NIRST system for comparison with simulation results. Results: Patient simulations derived from DBT images show successful reconstruction of both normal and malignant lesions in the breast. They also demonstrate the importance of accurately quantifying tissue scattering. Specifically, 20% errors in optical scattering resulted in 22.6% or 35.1% error in quantification of total hemoglobin concentrations, depending on whether scattering was over- or underestimated, respectively. Limited frequency-domain optical signal sampling provided two regions scattering estimates (for fat and fibroglandular tissues) that led to hemoglobin concentrations that reduced the error in the tumor region by 31% relative to when a single estimate of optical scattering was used throughout the breast volume of interest. Acquiring frequency-domain data with six wavelengths instead of three did not significantly improve the hemoglobin concentration estimates. Simulation results were confirmed through experiments in two-region breast mimicking

  7. Near-infrared spectral tomography integrated with digital breast tomosynthesis: Effects of tissue scattering on optical data acquisition design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelsen, Kelly; Krishnaswamy, Venkat; Pogue, Brian W.; Poplack, Steven P.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Design optimization and phantom validation of an integrated digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and near-infrared spectral tomography (NIRST) system targeting improvement in sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer detection is presented. Factors affecting instrumentation design include minimization of cost, complexity, and examination time while maintaining high fidelity NIRST measurements with sufficient information to recover accurate optical property maps. Methods: Reconstructed DBT slices from eight patients with abnormal mammograms provided anatomical information for the NIRST simulations. A limited frequency domain (FD) and extensive continuous wave (CW) NIRST system was modeled. The FD components provided tissue scattering estimations used in the reconstruction of the CW data. Scattering estimates were perturbed to study the effects on hemoglobin recovery. Breast mimicking agar phantoms with inclusions were imaged using the combined DBT/NIRST system for comparison with simulation results. Results: Patient simulations derived from DBT images show successful reconstruction of both normal and malignant lesions in the breast. They also demonstrate the importance of accurately quantifying tissue scattering. Specifically, 20% errors in optical scattering resulted in 22.6% or 35.1% error in quantification of total hemoglobin concentrations, depending on whether scattering was over- or underestimated, respectively. Limited frequency-domain optical signal sampling provided two regions scattering estimates (for fat and fibroglandular tissues) that led to hemoglobin concentrations that reduced the error in the tumor region by 31% relative to when a single estimate of optical scattering was used throughout the breast volume of interest. Acquiring frequency-domain data with six wavelengths instead of three did not significantly improve the hemoglobin concentration estimates. Simulation results were confirmed through experiments in two-region breast mimicking

  8. Altered expression of estrogen receptor-α variant messenger RNAs between adjacent normal breast and breast tumor tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leygue, Etienne; Dotzlaw, Helmut; Watson, Peter H; Murphy, Leigh C

    2000-01-01

    Using semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays, we investigated the expression of variant messenger RNAs relative to wild-type estrogen receptor (ER)-α messenger RNA in normal breast tissues and their adjacent matched breast tumor tissues. Higher ER variant truncated after sequences encoding exon 2 of the wild-type ER-α (ERC4) messenger RNA and a lower exon 3 deleted ER-α variant (ERD3) messenger RNA relative expression in the tumor compartment were observed in the ER-positive/PR-positive and the ER-positive subsets, respectively. A significantly higher relative expression of exon 5 deleted ER-α varient (ERD5) messenger RNA was observed in tumor components overall. These data demonstrate that changes in the relative expression of ER-α variant messenger RNAs occur between adjacent normal and neoplastic breast tissues. We suggest that these changes might be involved in the mechanisms that underlie breast tumorigenesis. Estrogen receptor (ER)-α and ER-β are believed to mediate the action of estradiol in target tissues. Several ER-α and ER-β variant messenger RNAs have been identified in both normal and neoplastic human tissues. Most of these variants contain a deletion of one or more exons of the wild-type (WT) ER messenger RNAs. The putative proteins that are encoded by these variant messenger RNAs would therefore be missing some functional domains of the WT receptors, and might interfere with WT-ER signaling pathways. The detection of ER-α variants in both normal and neoplastic human breast tissues raised the question of their possible role in breast tumorigenesis. We have previously reported an increased relative expression of exon 5 deleted ER-α variant (ERD5) messenger RNA and of another ER-α variant truncated of all sequences following the exon 2 of the WT ER-α (ERC4) messenger RNA in breast tumor samples versus independent normal breast tissues. In contrast, a decreased relative expression of exon 3 deleted ER

  9. Expression characteristic of CXCR1 in different breast tissues and the relevance between its expression and efficacy of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Miao-Qun; Liu, Jun; Sang, Jian-Feng; Su, Lei; Yao, Yong-Zhong

    2017-07-25

    To investigate chemokine receptor CXCR1 expression characteristic in different breast tissues and analyze the relationship between CXCR1 expression changes in breast cancer tissue and efficacy of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Chemokine receptor CXCR1 was lowly expressed in normal breast tissues and breast fibroadenoma, but highly expressed in breast cancer. It was significantly correlated with pathological stage, tumor cell differentiation, and lymph node metastasis (P breast cancer tissues decreased. Among these 104 breast cancer patients with different molecular subtypes, the survival rate with Luminal A was the highest, followed by the Luminal B breast cancer, TNBC was the worst. 104 cases with breast carcinoma, 20 cases with normal breast and 20 cases with breast fibroadenoma were included and followed up. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of CXCR1 in the various tissues. The relationship between the CXCR1 expression changes in breast cancer biopsies and surgical specimens, as well as the efficacy of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, was analyzed. Chemokine receptor CXCR1 could be used as an indicator to predict benign or malignant breast disease, and it can even predict the malignancy degree of breast cancer, as well as its invasive ability and prognosis.

  10. Study of effective atomic number of breast tissues determined using the elastic to inelastic scattering ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-10-01

    In this work we have measured Compton and Rayleigh scattering radiation from normal (adipose and fibroglandular), benign (fibroadenoma) and malignant (ductal carcinoma) breast tissues using a monoenergetic beam of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90{sup o} (x=0.99 A{sup -1}). A practical method using the area of Rayleigh and Compton scattering was used for determining the effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) of the samples, being validated through measurements of several reference materials. The results show that there are differences in the distributions of Z{sub eff} of breast tissues, which are mainly related to the elemental composition of carbon (Z=6) and oxygen (Z=8) of each tissue type. The results suggest that is possible to use the method to characterize the breast tissues permitting study histological features of the breast tissues related to their elemental composition.

  11. Study of effective atomic number of breast tissues determined using the elastic to inelastic scattering ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we have measured Compton and Rayleigh scattering radiation from normal (adipose and fibroglandular), benign (fibroadenoma) and malignant (ductal carcinoma) breast tissues using a monoenergetic beam of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90 o (x=0.99 A -1 ). A practical method using the area of Rayleigh and Compton scattering was used for determining the effective atomic number (Z eff ) of the samples, being validated through measurements of several reference materials. The results show that there are differences in the distributions of Z eff of breast tissues, which are mainly related to the elemental composition of carbon (Z=6) and oxygen (Z=8) of each tissue type. The results suggest that is possible to use the method to characterize the breast tissues permitting study histological features of the breast tissues related to their elemental composition.

  12. Study of effective atomic number of breast tissues determined using the elastic to inelastic scattering ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceição, A. L. C.; Poletti, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    In this work we have measured Compton and Rayleigh scattering radiation from normal (adipose and fibroglandular), benign (fibroadenoma) and malignant (ductal carcinoma) breast tissues using a monoenergetic beam of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90° ( x=0.99 Å -1). A practical method using the area of Rayleigh and Compton scattering was used for determining the effective atomic number ( Zeff) of the samples, being validated through measurements of several reference materials. The results show that there are differences in the distributions of Zeff of breast tissues, which are mainly related to the elemental composition of carbon ( Z=6) and oxygen ( Z=8) of each tissue type. The results suggest that is possible to use the method to characterize the breast tissues permitting study histological features of the breast tissues related to their elemental composition.

  13. Serum estradiol levels associated with specific gene expression patterns in normal breast tissue and in breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haakensen, Vilde D; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Helland, Åslaug; Bjøro, Trine; Lüders, Torben; Riis, Margit; Bukholm, Ida K; Kristensen, Vessela N; Troester, Melissa A; Homen, Marit M; Ursin, Giske

    2011-01-01

    High serum levels of estradiol are associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Little is known about the gene expression in normal breast tissue in relation to levels of circulating serum estradiol. We compared whole genome expression data of breast tissue samples with serum hormone levels using data from 79 healthy women and 64 breast cancer patients. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) was used to identify differentially expressed genes and multivariate linear regression was used to identify independent associations. Six genes (SCGB3A1, RSPO1, TLN2, SLITRK4, DCLK1, PTGS1) were found differentially expressed according to serum estradiol levels (FDR = 0). Three of these independently predicted estradiol levels in a multivariate model, as SCGB3A1 (HIN1) and TLN2 were up-regulated and PTGS1 (COX1) was down-regulated in breast samples from women with high serum estradiol. Serum estradiol, but none of the differentially expressed genes were significantly associated with mammographic density, another strong breast cancer risk factor. In breast carcinomas, expression of GREB1 and AREG was associated with serum estradiol in all cancers and in the subgroup of estrogen receptor positive cases. We have identified genes associated with serum estradiol levels in normal breast tissue and in breast carcinomas. SCGB3A1 is a suggested tumor suppressor gene that inhibits cell growth and invasion and is methylated and down-regulated in many epithelial cancers. Our findings indicate this gene as an important inhibitor of breast cell proliferation in healthy women with high estradiol levels. In the breast, this gene is expressed in luminal cells only and is methylated in non-BRCA-related breast cancers. The possibility of a carcinogenic contribution of silencing of this gene for luminal, but not basal-like cancers should be further explored. PTGS1 induces prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production which in turn stimulates aromatase expression and hence increases the

  14. Reconstruction of tissue dynamics in the compressed breast using multiplexed measurements and temporal basis functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boverman, Gregory; Miller, Eric L.; Brooks, Dana H.; Fang, Qianqian; Carp, S. A.; Selb, J. J.; Boas, David A.

    2007-02-01

    In the course of our experiments imaging the compressed breast in conjunction with digital tomosynthesis, we have noted that significant changes in tissue optical properties, on the order of 5%, occur during our imaging protocol. These changes seem to consistent with changes both in total Hemoglobin concentration as well as in oxygen saturation, as was the case for our standalone breast compression study, which made use of reflectance measurements. Simulation experiments show the importance of taking into account the temporal dynamics in the image reconstruction, and demonstrate the possibility of imaging the spatio-temporal dynamics of oxygen saturation and total Hemoglobin in the breast. In the image reconstruction, we make use of spatio-temporal basis functions, specifically a voxel basis for spatial imaging, and a cubic spline basis in time, and we reconstruct the spatio-temporal images using the entire data set simultaneously, making use of both absolute and relative measurements in the cost function. We have modified the sequence of sources used in our imaging acquisition protocol to improve our temporal resolution, and preliminary results are shown for normal subjects.

  15. Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Woo Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE- based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (D: 10 mm, hard tumor and surrounding tissue (soft. The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression.

  16. Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae Woo

    2015-01-01

    Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE-) based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (D: 10 mm, hard) tumor and surrounding tissue (soft). The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression.

  17. The assay of estrogen receptors in three components of human breast cancer tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hanping; Gui Zhining

    1992-01-01

    The binding capacities of estrogen receptors in nuclear matrix, nuclei and cytosol of human breast cancer tissue (EmR, EnR, EcR) were estimated with radioligand binding assay of receptors. The average B max values of these components in 21 breast cancer specimens are 417.54 ± 170.95, 147.75 ± 98.32, 7.34 ± 5.33 fmol/mg protein, and those in 10 normal breast tissue specimens are 42.33 ± 8.49, 25.05 ± 7.81, 5.91 ± 2.28 fmol/mg protein. Comparing the cancer and normal breast tissues, there is significant difference in B max values of EmR and EnR (P max values of EcR (P > 0.10). The EmR/EnR value of 21 breast cancer tissue is 0.65 ± 0.10, and that of 10 normal breast tissue is 0.42 ± 0.04. There is statistical difference between the cancer and normal. 10 of 13 (77%) patients, who are EcR-positive, have higher EmR/EnR values (≥0.50). The results suggest that estrogen receptors are mainly located at the nuclear matrix, ER levels in nucleus, especially in nuclear matrix of breast cancer tissue are valuable parameters and may be useful for predicting whether the patient will be responsible to endocrine therapy

  18. Mammogram synthesis using a 3D simulation. I. Breast tissue model and image acquisition simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakic, Predrag R.; Albert, Michael; Brzakovic, Dragana; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2002-01-01

    A method is proposed for generating synthetic mammograms based upon simulations of breast tissue and the mammographic imaging process. A computer breast model has been designed with a realistic distribution of large and medium scale tissue structures. Parameters controlling the size and placement of simulated structures (adipose compartments and ducts) provide a method for consistently modeling images of the same simulated breast with modified position or acquisition parameters. The mammographic imaging process is simulated using a compression model and a model of the x-ray image acquisition process. The compression model estimates breast deformation using tissue elasticity parameters found in the literature and clinical force values. The synthetic mammograms were generated by a mammogram acquisition model using a monoenergetic parallel beam approximation applied to the synthetically compressed breast phantom

  19. Investigation of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in formalin-fixed and paraffin- embedded breast cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Ahmet; Ozdarendeli, Aykut; Bulut, Yasemin; Yekeler, Hayrettin; Cobanoglu, Bengu; Doymaz, Mehmet Z

    2005-01-01

    To investigate etiological role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in breast cancer. The presence of EBV DNA in 57 breast cancer tissues was investigated with a sensitive PCR assay. The breast cancer tissues were from invasive ductular (n=28), lobular (n=20) and other miscellaneous carcinomas (n=9). Tissues from normal breasts and patients with various benign breast diseases (n=55): fibrocystic disease (n=34), fibroadenoma (n=16), hyperplasia, and granulomatous mastitis (n=5), were used as control samples. EBV DNA was detected in 13 (23%) cancerous tissues (7 ductular, 4 lobular, 2 other carcinoma) and 19 (35%) in the control tissues. The difference between EBV presence in malignant and benign tissues was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The presence of EBV DNA was detected almost equally in both breast cancer and normal tissues, which indicates no etiological role for EBV in breast cancer. We suggest further etiological studies. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. A Rare Case of Primary Breast Mucosa- Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Daliborka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast involvement by lymphoma is uncommon and poses challenges in diagnosis. Breast involvement by malignant lymphoma, whether primary or secondary, is a rare event. Primary breast lymphomas account for 0.38% - 0.7% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas, 1.7%-2.2% of all extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and only 0.04% - 0.5% of all breast cancer cases. Most frequent primary breast lymphomas are diffuse large B cell lymphomas (53%. Breast mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas account for a small fraction of all the MALT lymphomas (1% - 2%. Herein we report a case of a patient with primary breast MALT lymphoma and its presentation on different imaging modalities. Two years after the presentation and treatment with eight cycles of chemotherapy, the patient is alive and well, without evidence of residual disease or recurrence.

  1. Differentiating fibroadenoma and ductal carcinoma in situ from normal breast tissue by multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yuting; Wu, Yan; Lian, Yuane; Fu, Fangmeng; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-09-01

    Fibroadenoma (FA) is the most common benign tumor of the female breast and several studies have reported that women with it have increased risk of breast cancer. While the ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a very early form of breast cancer. Thus, early detections of FA and DCIS are critical for improving breast tumor outcome and survival. In this paper, we use multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to obtain the high-contrast images of fresh, unfixed, unstained human breast specimens (normal breast tissue, FA and DCIS). Our results show that MPM has the ability to identify the characteristics of FA and DCIS including changes of duct architecture and collagen morphology. These results are consistent with the histological results. With the advancement of MPM, the technique has potential ability to serve as a real-time noninvasive imaging tool for early detection of breast tumor.

  2. MicroRNA Expression in Laser Micro-dissected Breast Cancer Tissue Samples - a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seclaman, Edward; Narita, Diana; Anghel, Andrei; Cireap, Natalia; Ilina, Razvan; Sirbu, Ioan Ovidiu; Marian, Catalin

    2017-10-28

    Breast cancer continues to represent a significant public health burden despite outstanding research advances regarding the molecular mechanisms of cancer biology, biomarkers for diagnostics and prognostic and therapeutic management of this disease. The studies of micro RNAs in breast cancer have underlined their potential as biomarkers and therapeutic targets; however most of these studies are still done on largely heterogeneous whole breast tissue samples. In this pilot study we have investigated the expression of four micro RNAs (miR-21, 145, 155, 92) known to be involved in breast cancer, in homogenous cell populations collected by laser capture microdissection from breast tissue section slides. Micro RNA expression was assessed by real time PCR, and associations with clinical and pathological characteristics were also explored. Our results have confirmed previous associations of miR-21 expression with poor prognosis characteristics of breast cancers such as high stage, large and highly proliferative tumors. No statistically significant associations were found with the other micro RNAs investigated, possibly due to the small sample size of our study. Our results also suggest that miR-484 could be a suitable endogenous control for data normalization in breast tissues, these results needing further confirmation by future studies. In summary, our pilot study showed the feasibility of detecting micro RNAs expression in homogenous laser captured microdissected invasive breast cancer samples, and confirmed some of the previously reported associations with poor prognostic characteristics of breast tumors.

  3. Optical Imaging of the Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2011-01-01

    As the increased prevalence of breast cancer and the advances in breast evaluation awareness have resulted in an increased number of breast examinations and benign breast biopsies, several investigations have been performed to improve the diagnostic accuracy for breast lesions. Optical imaging of the breast that uses nearinfrared light to assess the optical properties of breast tissue is a novel non-invasive imaging technique to characterize breast lesions in clinical practice. This review provides a summary of the current state of optical breast imaging and it describes the basic concepts of optical imaging, the potential clinical applications for breast cancer imaging and its potential incorporation with other imaging modalities

  4. Relationship between expression of leptin receptors mRNA in breast tissue, plasma leptin level in breast cancer patients with obesity and clinical pathologic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunrui; Liu Wenli; Sun Hanying; Zhou Jianfeng

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the expression of leptin receptors mRNA in breast tissue and plasma leptin levels in breast cancer patients with obesity and their relationship with clinical pathologic data, 124 subjects who were either obesity or had suffered from breast benign disease with obesity, or breast cancer with obesity were entered into this study. The levels of plasma leptin in all subjects were determined and leptin receptors mRNA expression levels were measured by RT-PCR in breast tissue of breast cancer patients with obesity and breast benign disease with obesity. The results showed that plasma leptin levels in breast cancer patients with obesity were significantly higher than those in breast benign disease with obesity and obesity patients alone (P<0.05). The expression of the leptin receptor long form [-Lep-R(L)-] mRNA and the leptin receptor short form [-Lep-R(S)-] mRNA in breast tissue of breast cancer patients with obesity were significantly higher than that in breast tissue of breast benign disease patients with obesity (P<0.05). The plasma leptin level had remarkable positive correlation with the expressions of the Lep-R(L) mRNA and the Lep-R(S) mRNA. The plasma leptin level and leptin receptors mRNA expression levels in patients were not correlated with the axillary node metastasis, menopause, the TNM stage or pathological type. Therefore, leptin may have a promoting effect on the carcinogenesis of breast cancer. (authors)

  5. Characterization and discrimination of human breast cancer and normal breast tissues using resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binlin; Smith, Jason; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Xin; Alfano, Robert R.

    2018-02-01

    Worldwide breast cancer incidence has increased by more than twenty percent in the past decade. It is also known that in that time, mortality due to the affliction has increased by fourteen percent. Using optical-based diagnostic techniques, such as Raman spectroscopy, has been explored in order to increase diagnostic accuracy in a more objective way along with significantly decreasing diagnostic wait-times. In this study, Raman spectroscopy with 532-nm excitation was used in order to incite resonance effects to enhance Stokes Raman scattering from unique biomolecular vibrational modes. Seventy-two Raman spectra (41 cancerous, 31 normal) were collected from nine breast tissue samples by performing a ten-spectra average using a 500-ms acquisition time at each acquisition location. The raw spectral data was subsequently prepared for analysis with background correction and normalization. The spectral data in the Raman Shift range of 750- 2000 cm-1 was used for analysis since the detector has highest sensitivity around in this range. The matrix decomposition technique nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) was then performed on this processed data. The resulting leave-oneout cross-validation using two selective feature components resulted in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 92.6%, 100% and 96.0% respectively. The performance of NMF was also compared to that using principal component analysis (PCA), and NMF was shown be to be superior to PCA in this study. This study shows that coupling the resonance Raman spectroscopy technique with subsequent NMF decomposition method shows potential for high characterization accuracy in breast cancer detection.

  6. Using deep learning to segment breast and fibroglandular tissue in MRI volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmis, M.U.; Litjens, G.J.; Holland, K.; Setio, A.A.A.; Mann, R.M.; Karssemeijer, N.; Gubern Merida, A.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Automated segmentation of breast and fibroglandular tissue (FGT) is required for various computer-aided applications of breast MRI. Traditional image analysis and computer vision techniques, such atlas, template matching, or, edge and surface detection, have been applied to solve this task.

  7. Fibroadenoma of ectopic breast tissue of the axilla in an adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectopic breast tissue (EBT) is a well-described entity in the English literature. However, fibroadenoma of the ectopic breast is a rare entity. We present a case of a 13-year-old adolescent girl with a subcutaneous mass in the right axilla that was pathologically identical to fibroadenoma seen in the EBT. To our knowledge, this ...

  8. Analysis of CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and adjacent tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Marcus Nascimento; Facina, Gil; Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrin Guerreiro; Waitzberg, Angela Flávia Logullo; Nazario, Afonso Celso Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Dendritic cell maturation is considered essential for starting an immune response. The CD83 antigen is an important marker of dendritic cell maturation. The objectives here were to analyze CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and breast tissue adjacent to the lesion and to identify clinical factors that might influence this expression. This was a retrospective study at a public university hospital, in which 29 histopathological samples of breast fibroadenoma and adjacent breast tissue, from 28 women of reproductive age, were analyzed. The immunohistochemistry method was used to analyze the cell expression of the antigen. The antigen expression in the cells was evaluated by means of random manual counting using an optical microscope. Positive expression of the CD83 antigen in the epithelial cells of the fibroadenoma (365.52; standard deviation ± 133.13) in relation to the adjacent breast tissue cells (189.59; standard deviation ± 140.75) was statistically larger (P fibroadenoma was positive and greater than in the adjacent breast tissue. Positive expression of the antigen in the adjacent breast tissue was influenced by parity, and was significantly more evident in nulliparous women.

  9. Method for determination of the mean fraction of glandular tissue in individual female breasts using mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J T M; Veldkamp, W J H; Thijssen, M A O; Woudenberg, S van; Zoetelief, J

    2005-01-01

    The nationwide breast cancer screening programme using mammography has been in full operation in the Netherlands since 1997. Quality control of the screening programme has been assigned to the National Expert and Training Centre for Breast Cancer Screening. Limits are set to the mean glandular dose and the centre monitors these for all facilities engaged in the screening programme. This procedure is restricted to the determination of the entrance dose on a 5 cm thick polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. The mean glandular dose for a compressed breast is estimated from these data. Individual breasts may deviate largely from this 5 cm PMMA breast model. Not only may the compressed breast size vary from 2 to 10 cm, but breast composition varies also. The mean glandular dose is dependent on the fraction of glandular tissue (glandularity) of the breast. To estimate the risk related to individual mammograms requires the development of a method for determination of the glandularity of individual breasts. A method has been developed to derive the glandularity using the attenuation of mammography x-rays in the breast. The method was applied to a series of mammograms at a screening unit. The results, i.e., a glandularity of 93% within the range of 0 to 1, were comparable with data in the literature. The glandularity as a function of compressed breast thickness is similar to results from other investigators using differing methods

  10. The diagnostic capability of laser induced fluorescence in the characterization of excised breast tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmed, A. H.; Elshemey, Wael M.

    2017-08-01

    Differentiating between normal, benign and malignant excised breast tissues is one of the major worldwide challenges that need a quantitative, fast and reliable technique in order to avoid personal errors in diagnosis. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a promising technique that has been applied for the characterization of biological tissues including breast tissue. Unfortunately, only few studies have adopted a quantitative approach that can be directly applied for breast tissue characterization. This work provides a quantitative means for such characterization via introduction of several LIF characterization parameters and determining the diagnostic accuracy of each parameter in the differentiation between normal, benign and malignant excised breast tissues. Extensive analysis on 41 lyophilized breast samples using scatter diagrams, cut-off values, diagnostic indices and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, shows that some spectral parameters (peak height and area under the peak) are superior for characterization of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues with high sensitivity (up to 0.91), specificity (up to 0.91) and accuracy ranking (highly accurate).

  11. Mechanical properties of brain tissue by indentation : interregional variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, van J.A.W.; Sande, van der T.P.J.; Hrapko, M.; Peters, G.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although many studies on the mechanical properties of brain tissue exist, some controversy concerning the possible differences in mechanical properties of white and gray matter tissue remains. Indentation experiments are conducted on white and gray matter tissue of various regions of the cerebrum

  12. Acoustic and thermal properties of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retat, L.; Rivens, I.; ter Haar, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    Differences in ultrasound (US) and thermal properties of abdominal soft tissues may affect the delivery of thermal therapies such as high intensity focused ultrasound and may provide a basis for US monitoring of such therapies. 21 rat livers were obtained, within one hour of surgical removal. For a single liver, 3 lobes were selected and each treated in one of 3 ways: maintained at room temperature, water bath heated to 50°C ± 1°C for 10 ± 0.5 minutes, or water bath heated to 60°C ± 1°C for 10 ± 0.6 minutes. The attenuation coefficient, speed of sound and thermal conductivity of fresh rat liver was measured. The attenuation coefficients and speed of sound were measured using the finite-amplitude insertion-substitution (FAIS) method. For each rat liver, the control and treated lobes were scanned using a pair of weakly focused 2.5 MHz Imasonic transducers over the range 1.8 to 3 MHz. The conductivity measurement apparatus was designed to provide one-dimensional heat flow through each specimen using a combination of insulation, heat source and heat sink. Using 35 MHz US images to determine the volume of air trapped in the system, the thermal conductivity was corrected using a simulation based on the Helmhotz bio-heat equation. The process of correlating these results with biological properties is discussed.

  13. Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xinwen; Gan, Yu; Chang, Ernest W.; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Feldman, Sheldon; Hendon, Christine P.

    2017-02-01

    We employed a home-built ultrahigh resolution (UHR) OCT system at 800nm to image human breast cancer sample ex vivo. The system has an axial resolution of 2.72µm and a lateral resolution of 5.52µm with an extended imaging range of 1.78mm. Over 900 UHR OCT volumes were generated on specimens from 23 breast cancer cases. With better spatial resolution, detailed structures in the breast tissue were better defined. Different types of breast cancer as well as healthy breast tissue can be well delineated from the UHR OCT images. To quantitatively evaluate the advantages of UHR OCT imaging of breast cancer, features derived from OCT intensity images were used as inputs to a machine learning model, the relevance vector machine. A trained machine learning model was employed to evaluate the performance of tissue classification based on UHR OCT images for differentiating tissue types in the breast samples, including adipose tissue, healthy stroma and cancerous region. For adipose tissue, grid-based local features were extracted from OCT intensity data, including standard deviation, entropy, and homogeneity. We showed that it was possible to enhance the classification performance on distinguishing fat tissue from non-fat tissue by using the UHR images when compared with the results based on OCT images from a commercial 1300 nm OCT system. For invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and normal stroma differentiation, the classification was based on frame-based features that portray signal penetration depth and tissue reflectivity. The confusing matrix indicated a sensitivity of 97.5% and a sensitivity of 77.8%.

  14. Expression of glucocorticoid and progesterone nuclear receptor genes in archival breast cancer tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Robert A; Lea, Rod A; Curran, Joanne E; Weinstein, Stephen R; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown associations of specific nuclear receptor gene variants with sporadic breast cancer. In order to investigate these findings further, we conducted the present study to determine whether expression levels of the progesterone and glucocorticoid nuclear receptor genes vary in different breast cancer grades. RNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded archival breast tumour tissue and converted into cDNA. Sample cDNA underwent PCR using labelled primers to enable quantitation of mRNA expression. Expression data were normalized against the 18S ribosomal gene multiplex and analyzed using analysis of variance. Analysis of variance indicated a variable level of expression of both genes with regard to breast cancer grade (P = 0.00033 for glucocorticoid receptor and P = 0.023 for progesterone receptor). Statistical analysis indicated that expression of the progesterone nuclear receptor is elevated in late grade breast cancer tissue

  15. Immunohistochemical analysis of breast tissue microarray images using contextual classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J McKenna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue microarrays (TMAs are an important tool in translational research for examining multiple cancers for molecular and protein markers. Automatic immunohistochemical (IHC scoring of breast TMA images remains a challenging problem. Methods: A two-stage approach that involves localization of regions of invasive and in-situ carcinoma followed by ordinal IHC scoring of nuclei in these regions is proposed. The localization stage classifies locations on a grid as tumor or non-tumor based on local image features. These classifications are then refined using an auto-context algorithm called spin-context. Spin-context uses a series of classifiers to integrate image feature information with spatial context information in the form of estimated class probabilities. This is achieved in a rotationally-invariant manner. The second stage estimates ordinal IHC scores in terms of the strength of staining and the proportion of nuclei stained. These estimates take the form of posterior probabilities, enabling images with uncertain scores to be referred for pathologist review. Results: The method was validated against manual pathologist scoring on two nuclear markers, progesterone receptor (PR and estrogen receptor (ER. Errors for PR data were consistently lower than those achieved with ER data. Scoring was in terms of estimated proportion of cells that were positively stained (scored on an ordinal scale of 0-6 and perceived strength of staining (scored on an ordinal scale of 0-3. Average absolute differences between predicted scores and pathologist-assigned scores were 0.74 for proportion of cells and 0.35 for strength of staining (PR. Conclusions: The use of context information via spin-context improved the precision and recall of tumor localization. The combination of the spin-context localization method with the automated scoring method resulted in reduced IHC scoring errors.

  16. Validation of a power-law noise model for simulating small-scale breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, I; Edwards, A; Nishikawa, R M

    2013-01-01

    We have validated a small-scale breast tissue model based on power-law noise. A set of 110 patient images served as truth. The statistical model parameters were determined by matching the radially averaged power-spectrum of the projected simulated tissue with that of the central tomosynthesis patient breast projections. Observer performance in a signal-known exactly detection task in simulated and actual breast backgrounds was compared. Observers included human readers, a pre-whitening observer model and a channelized Hotelling observer model. For all observers, good agreement between performance in the simulated and actual backgrounds was found, both in the tomosynthesis central projections and the reconstructed images. This tissue model can be used for breast x-ray imaging system optimization. The complete statistical description of the model is provided. (paper)

  17. Sclerotic fibroma (storiform collagenoma)-like stroma in a fibroadenoma of axillary accessory breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Bernal, José Fernando; González-Vela, María Carmen; De Grado, Mauricio; Garijo, María Francisca

    2012-08-01

    Accessory breast tissue is a subcutaneous remnant persisting after normal embryological development of the breast. It occurs most frequently in the axilla. Fibroadenomas in axillary breast tissue are rare. We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who presented a fibroadenoma arising in the accessory breast tissue of the right axillary fossa. The neoplasm showed foci of sclerotic fibroma-like stroma. The patient had no signs of Cowden's syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, a lesion of this kind has not been previously reported. This stromal change suggests an uncommon involutional phase of the fibroadenoma with production of sclerotic and hypocellular collagen. The lesion should be differentiated from extraneural perineuroma, from the changes in fibroadenomas in Cowden's syndrome, from sclerosing lobular hyperplasia (fibroadenomatoid mastopathy) and from pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Breast Tissue Composition and Immunophenotype and Its Relationship with Mammographic Density in Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Min B Pang

    Full Text Available To investigate the cellular and immunophenotypic basis of mammographic density in women at high risk of breast cancer.Mammograms and targeted breast biopsies were accrued from 24 women at high risk of breast cancer. Mammographic density was classified into Wolfe categories and ranked by increasing density. The histological composition and immunophenotypic profile were quantified from digitized haematoxylin and eosin-stained and immunohistochemically-stained (ERα, ERβ, PgR, HER2, Ki-67, and CD31 slides and correlated to mammographic density.Increasing mammographic density was significantly correlated with increased fibrous stroma proportion (rs (22 = 0.5226, p = 0.0088 and significantly inversely associated with adipose tissue proportion (rs (22 = -0.5409, p = 0.0064. Contrary to previous reports, stromal expression of ERα was common (19/20 cases, 95%. There was significantly higher stromal PgR expression in mammographically-dense breasts (p=0.026.The proportion of stroma and fat underlies mammographic density in women at high risk of breast cancer. Increased expression of PgR in the stroma of mammographically dense breasts and frequent and unexpected presence of stromal ERα expression raises the possibility that hormone receptor expression in breast stroma may have a role in mediating the effects of exogenous hormonal therapy on mammographic density.

  19. β class II tubulin predominates in normal and tumor breast tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozier, James H; Hiser, Laree; Davis, Jennifer A; Thomas, Nancy Stubbs; Tucci, Michelle A; Benghuzzi, Hamed A; Frankfurter, Anthony; Correia, John J; Lobert, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Antimitotic chemotherapeutic agents target tubulin, the major protein in mitotic spindles. Tubulin isotype composition is thought to be both diagnostic of tumor progression and a determinant of the cellular response to chemotherapy. This implies that there is a difference in isotype composition between normal and tumor tissues. To determine whether such a difference occurs in breast tissues, total tubulin was fractionated from lysates of paired normal and tumor breast tissues, and the amounts of β-tubulin classes I + IV, II, and III were measured by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only primary tumor tissues, before chemotherapy, were examined. Her2/neu protein amplification occurs in about 30% of breast tumors and is considered a marker for poor prognosis. To gain insight into whether tubulin isotype levels might be correlated with prognosis, ELISAs were used to quantify Her2/neu protein levels in these tissues. β-Tubulin isotype distributions in normal and tumor breast tissues were similar. The most abundant β-tubulin isotypes in these tissues were β-tubulin classes II and I + IV. Her2/neu levels in tumor tissues were 5–30-fold those in normal tissues, although there was no correlation between the Her2/neu biomarker and tubulin isotype levels. These results suggest that tubulin isotype levels, alone or in combination with Her2/neu protein levels, might not be diagnostic of tumorigenesis in breast cancer. However, the presence of a broad distribution of these tubulin isotypes (for example, 40–75% β-tubulin class II) in breast tissue, in conjunction with other factors, might still be relevant to disease progression and cellular response to antimitotic drugs

  20. Early detection of breast cancer: benefits and risks of supplemental breast ultrasound in asymptomatic women with mammographically dense breast tissue. A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nothacker, Monika; Duda, Volker; Hahn, Markus; Warm, Mathias; Degenhardt, Friedrich; Madjar, Helmut; Weinbrenner, Susanne; Albert, Ute-Susann

    2009-01-01

    Mammographic screening alone will miss a certain fraction of malignancies, as evidenced by retrospective reviews of mammograms following a subsequent screening. Mammographic breast density is a marker for increased breast cancer risk and is associated with a higher risk of interval breast cancer, i.e. cancer detected between screening tests. The purpose of this review is to estimate risks and benefits of supplemental breast ultrasound in women with negative mammographic screening with dense breast tissue. A systematic search and review of studies involving mammography and breast ultrasound for screening of breast cancer was conducted. The search was performed for the period 1/2000-8/2008 within the data source of PubMed, DARE, and Cochrane databases. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were determined prospectively, and the Oxford evidence classification system for diagnostic studies was used for evidence level. The parameters biopsy rate, positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsy, cancer yield for breast ultrasound alone, and carcinoma detection rate by breast density were extracted or constructed. The systematic search identified no randomized controlled trials or systematic reviews, six cohort studies of intermediate level of evidence (3b) were found. Only two of the studies included adequate follow-up of subjects with negative or benign findings. Supplemental breast ultrasound after negative mammographic screening permitted diagnosis of primarily invasive carcinomas in 0.32% of women in breast density type categories 2-4 of the American College of Radiology (ACR); mean tumor size for those identified was 9.9 mm, 90% with negative lymph node status. Most detected cancers occurred in mammographically dense breast ACR types 3 and 4. Biopsy rates were in the range 2.3%-4.7%, with PPV of 8.4-13.7% for those biopsied due to positive ultrasound, or about one third of the PPV of biopsies due to mammography. Limitations: The study populations included wide age ranges, and

  1. Visualization and quantification of breast cancer biomechanical properties with magnetic resonance elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plewes, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    A quasistatic magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) method for the evaluation of breast cancer is proposed. Using a phase contrast, stimulated echo MRI approach, strain imaging in phantoms and volunteers is presented. First-order assessment of tissue biomechanical properties based on inverse strain mapping is outlined and demonstrated. The accuracy of inverse strain imaging is studied through simulations in a two-dimensional model and in an anthropomorphic, three-dimensional finite-element model of the breast. To improve the accuracy of modulus assessment by elastography, inverse methods are discussed as an extension to strain imaging, and simulations quantify MRE in terms of displacement signal/noise required for robust inversion. A direct inversion strategy providing information on tissue modulus and pressure distribution is described along with a novel iterative method utilizing a priori knowledge of tissue geometry. It is shown that through the judicious choice of information from previous contrast-enhanced MRI breast images, MRE data acquisition requirements can be significantly reduced while maintaining robust modulus reconstruction in the presence of strain noise. An experimental apparatus for clinical breast MRE and preliminary images of a normal volunteer are presented. (author)

  2. Associations of persistent organic pollutants in serum and adipose tissue with breast cancer prognostic markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrebola, J.P., E-mail: jparrebola@ugr.es [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Oncology Unit, Granada (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Fernández-Rodríguez, M.; Artacho-Cordón, F. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); University of Granada, Radiology and Physical Medicine Department (Spain); Garde, C. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Perez-Carrascosa, F.; Linares, I.; Tovar, I. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Oncology Unit, Granada (Spain); González-Alzaga, B. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública, Granada (Spain); Expósito, J. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Oncology Unit, Granada (Spain); Torne, P. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); and others

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate associations between exposure to a group of persistent organic pollutants, measured in both adipose tissue and serum samples from breast cancer patients, and a set of tumor prognostic markers. The study population comprised 103 breast cancer patients recruited in Granada, Southern Spain. Data for tumor prognostic markers were retrieved from hospital clinical records and socio-demographic information was gathered by questionnaire. Persistent organic pollutants were quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Exposure levels were categorized in quartiles, and associations were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression. Adipose tissue HCB concentrations were associated positively with ER and PR expression (p-trends = 0.044 and 0.005, respectively) and negatively with E-Cadherin and p53 expression (p-trends = 0.012 and 0.027, respectively). PCB-180 adipose tissue concentrations were positively associated with HER2 expression (p-trend = 0.036). Serum PCB-138 concentrations were positively associated with ER and PR expression (p-trends = 0.052 and 0.042, respectively). The risk of p53 expression was higher among women in the lowest quartile of serum PCB-138 concentrations, but no significant trend was observed (p-trend = 0.161). These findings indicate that human exposure to certain persistent organic pollutants might be related to breast cancer aggressiveness. We also highlight the influence on exposure assessment of the biological matrix selected, given that both serum and adipose tissue might yield relevant information on breast cancer prognosis. - Highlights: • The role of POP exposure on the pathogenesis breast cancer is still controversial. • POPs were analyzed in serum and adipose tissue from breast cancer patients. • POP concentrations were associated with breast cancer prognostic markers. • POPs in serum and adipose tissue of breast cancer patients may provide different clues.

  3. Antiandrogenic actions of medroxyprogesterone acetate on epithelial cells within normal human breast tissues cultured ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochnik, Aleksandra M; Moore, Nicole L; Jankovic-Karasoulos, Tanja; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Ryan, Natalie K; Thomas, Mervyn R; Birrell, Stephen N; Butler, Lisa M; Tilley, Wayne D; Hickey, Theresa E

    2014-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a component of combined estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT), has been associated with increased breast cancer risk in EPT users. MPA can bind to the androgen receptor (AR), and AR signaling inhibits cell growth in breast tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of MPA to disrupt AR signaling in an ex vivo culture model of normal human breast tissue. Histologically normal breast tissues from women undergoing breast surgical operation were cultured in the presence or in the absence of the native AR ligand 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), MPA, or the AR antagonist bicalutamide. Ki67, bromodeoxyuridine, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2), AR, estrogen receptor α, and progesterone receptor were detected by immunohistochemistry. DHT inhibited the proliferation of breast epithelial cells in an AR-dependent manner within tissues from postmenopausal women, and MPA significantly antagonized this androgenic effect. These hormonal responses were not commonly observed in cultured tissues from premenopausal women. In tissues from postmenopausal women, DHT either induced or repressed BCL2 expression, and the antiandrogenic effect of MPA on BCL2 was variable. MPA significantly opposed the positive effect of DHT on AR stabilization, but these hormones had no significant effect on estrogen receptor α or progesterone receptor levels. In a subset of postmenopausal women, MPA exerts an antiandrogenic effect on breast epithelial cells that is associated with increased proliferation and destabilization of AR protein. This activity may contribute mechanistically to the increased risk of breast cancer in women taking MPA-containing EPT.

  4. Associations of persistent organic pollutants in serum and adipose tissue with breast cancer prognostic markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrebola, J.P.; Fernández-Rodríguez, M.; Artacho-Cordón, F.; Garde, C.; Perez-Carrascosa, F.; Linares, I.; Tovar, I.; González-Alzaga, B.; Expósito, J.; Torne, P.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate associations between exposure to a group of persistent organic pollutants, measured in both adipose tissue and serum samples from breast cancer patients, and a set of tumor prognostic markers. The study population comprised 103 breast cancer patients recruited in Granada, Southern Spain. Data for tumor prognostic markers were retrieved from hospital clinical records and socio-demographic information was gathered by questionnaire. Persistent organic pollutants were quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Exposure levels were categorized in quartiles, and associations were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression. Adipose tissue HCB concentrations were associated positively with ER and PR expression (p-trends = 0.044 and 0.005, respectively) and negatively with E-Cadherin and p53 expression (p-trends = 0.012 and 0.027, respectively). PCB-180 adipose tissue concentrations were positively associated with HER2 expression (p-trend = 0.036). Serum PCB-138 concentrations were positively associated with ER and PR expression (p-trends = 0.052 and 0.042, respectively). The risk of p53 expression was higher among women in the lowest quartile of serum PCB-138 concentrations, but no significant trend was observed (p-trend = 0.161). These findings indicate that human exposure to certain persistent organic pollutants might be related to breast cancer aggressiveness. We also highlight the influence on exposure assessment of the biological matrix selected, given that both serum and adipose tissue might yield relevant information on breast cancer prognosis. - Highlights: • The role of POP exposure on the pathogenesis breast cancer is still controversial. • POPs were analyzed in serum and adipose tissue from breast cancer patients. • POP concentrations were associated with breast cancer prognostic markers. • POPs in serum and adipose tissue of breast cancer patients may provide different clues.

  5. Intermittent straining accelerates the development of tissue properties in engineered heart valve tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubbens, M.P.; Mol, A.; Boerboom, R.A.; Bank, R.A.; Baaijens, F.P.T.; Bouten, C.V.C.

    2009-01-01

    Tissue-engineered heart valves lack sufficient amounts of functionally organized structures and consequently do not meet in vivo mechanical demands. To optimize tissue architecture and hence improve mechanical properties, various in vitro mechanical conditioning protocols have been proposed, of

  6. Utility of supplemental screening with breast ultrasound in asymptomatic women with dense breast tissue who are not at high risk for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetika A Klevos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the results of an initial round of supplemental screening with hand-held bilateral breast ultrasound following a negative screening mammogram in asymptomatic women with dense breast tissue who are not at high risk for breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant, Institutional Research Board approved study was performed at a single academic tertiary breast center. Informed consent was waived. A systematic review of the breast imaging center database was conducted to identify and retrieve data for all asymptomatic women, who were found to have heterogeneously dense or extremely dense breast tissue on screening bilateral mammograms performed from July 1, 2010 through June 30, 2012 and who received a mammographic final assessment American College of Radiology's (ACR Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS category 1 or BI-RADS category 2. Hand-held screening ultrasound was performed initially by a technologist followed by a radiologist. Chi-square and t-test were used and statistical significance was considered at P< 0.05. Results: A total of 1210 women were identified. Of these, 394 underwent the offered supplemental screening ultrasound. BI-RADS category 1 or 2 was assigned to 323 women (81.9%. BI-RADS category 3 was assigned to 50 women (12.9%. A total of 26 biopsies/aspirations were recommended and performed in 26 women (6.6%. The most common finding for which biopsy was recommended was a solid mass (88.5% with an average size of 0.9 cm (0.5–1.7 cm. Most frequent pathology result was fibroadenoma (60.8%. No carcinoma was found. Conclusion: Our data support the reported occurrence of a relatively high number of false positives at supplemental screening with breast ultrasound following a negative screening mammogram in asymptomatic women with dense breast tissue, who are not at a high risk of developing breast cancer, and suggests that caution

  7. Tissue properties and collagen remodeling in heart valve tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geemen, van D.

    2012-01-01

    Valvular heart disease is a major health problem worldwide causing morbidity and mortality. Heart valve replacement is frequently applied to avoid serious cardiac, pulmonary, or systemic problems. However, the current replacements do not consist of living tissue and, consequently, cannot grow,

  8. Effect of aluminium on migratory and invasive properties of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, Philippa D; Bakir, Ayse; Iskakova, Elzira

    2013-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) has been measured in human breast tissue, nipple aspirate fluid and breast cyst fluid, and recent studies have shown that at tissue concentrations, aluminium can induce DNA damage and suspension growth in human breast epithelial cells. This paper demonstrates for the first time that exposure to aluminium can also increase migratory and invasive properties of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Long-term (32 weeks) but not short-term (1 week) exposure of MCF-7 cells to 10(-4) M aluminium chloride or 10(-4) M aluminium chlorohydrate increased motility of the cells as measured by live cell imaging (cumulative length moved by individual cells), by a wound healing assay and by migration in real time through 8 μm pores of a membrane using xCELLigence technology. Long-term exposure (37 weeks) to 10(-4) M aluminium chloride or 10(-4) M aluminium chlorohydrate also increased the ability of MCF-7 cells to invade through a matrigel layer as measured in real time using the xCELLigence system. Although molecular mechanisms remain to be characterized, the ability of aluminium salts to increase migratory and invasive properties of MCF-7 cells suggests that the presence of aluminium in the human breast could influence metastatic processes. This is important because mortality from breast cancer arises mainly from tumour spread rather than from the presence of a primary tumour in the breast. © 2013.

  9. Aluminum concentrations in central and peripheral areas of malignant breast lesions do not differ from those in normal breast tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues-Peres, Raquel Mary; Cadore, Solange; Febraio, Stefanny; Heinrich, Juliana Karina; Serra, Katia Piton; Derchain, Sophie F M; Vassallo, Jose; Sarian, Luis Otavio

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum is used in a wide range of applications and is a potential environmental hazard. The known genotoxic effects of aluminum might play a role in the development of breast cancer. However, the data currently available on the subject are not sufficient to establish a causal relationship between aluminum exposure and the augmented risk of developing breast cancer. To achieve maximum sensitivity and specificity in the determination of aluminum levels, we have developed a detection protocol using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The objective of the present study was to compare the aluminum levels in the central and peripheral areas of breast carcinomas with those in the adjacent normal breast tissues, and to identify patient and/or tumor characteristics associated with these aluminum levels. A total of 176 patients with breast cancer were included in the study. Samples from the central and peripheral areas of their tumors were obtained, as well as from the surrounding normal breast tissue. Aluminum quantification was performed using GFAAS. The average (mean ± SD) aluminum concentrations were as follows: central area, 1.88 ± 3.60 mg/kg; peripheral area, 2.10 ± 5.67 mg/kg; and normal area, 1.68 ± 11.1 mg/kg. Overall and two-by-two comparisons of the aluminum concentrations in these areas indicated no significant differences. We detected a positive relationship between aluminum levels in the peripheral areas of the tumors, age and menopausal status of the patients (P = .02). Using a sensitive quantification technique we detected similar aluminum concentrations in the central and peripheral regions of breast tumors, and in normal tissues. In addition, we did not detect significant differences in aluminum concentrations as related to the location of the breast tumor within the breast, or to other relevant tumor features such as stage, size and steroid receptor status. The next logical step is the assessment of whether the aluminum

  10. Aluminum concentrations in central and peripheral areas of malignant breast lesions do not differ from those in normal breast tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aluminum is used in a wide range of applications and is a potential environmental hazard. The known genotoxic effects of aluminum might play a role in the development of breast cancer. However, the data currently available on the subject are not sufficient to establish a causal relationship between aluminum exposure and the augmented risk of developing breast cancer. To achieve maximum sensitivity and specificity in the determination of aluminum levels, we have developed a detection protocol using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The objective of the present study was to compare the aluminum levels in the central and peripheral areas of breast carcinomas with those in the adjacent normal breast tissues, and to identify patient and/or tumor characteristics associated with these aluminum levels. Methods A total of 176 patients with breast cancer were included in the study. Samples from the central and peripheral areas of their tumors were obtained, as well as from the surrounding normal breast tissue. Aluminum quantification was performed using GFAAS. Results The average (mean ± SD) aluminum concentrations were as follows: central area, 1.88 ± 3.60 mg/kg; peripheral area, 2.10 ± 5.67 mg/kg; and normal area, 1.68 ± 11.1 mg/kg. Overall and two-by-two comparisons of the aluminum concentrations in these areas indicated no significant differences. We detected a positive relationship between aluminum levels in the peripheral areas of the tumors, age and menopausal status of the patients (P = .02). Conclusions Using a sensitive quantification technique we detected similar aluminum concentrations in the central and peripheral regions of breast tumors, and in normal tissues. In addition, we did not detect significant differences in aluminum concentrations as related to the location of the breast tumor within the breast, or to other relevant tumor features such as stage, size and steroid receptor status. The next

  11. Detecting somatostatin receptor in breast tumor tissue and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongjian; Yu Xian; Lin Wei; Ding Xuan; Huang Shizhang; Lu Guangming

    2002-01-01

    The authors observe the difference of somatostatin receptor (SSR) between benign and malignant breast tumor and the relation between SSR and estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) in breast tumor tissue, and to predict the clinical value of detecting breast tumor by SSR receptor imaging. These tissues excised from operation in breast tumor were divided into 4 groups: breast malignant tumor group (BMTG) and its control group (C1G), breast benign tumor group (BBTG) and its control group (C2G). SSR was detected by radioligand binding assay (RBA) and ER, PR by LsAB method in these groups. Results is: (1) The SSR express quantity is 108.6 +- 67.3 fmol/mg pr, 37.2 +- 9.6 fmol/mg pr, 43.4 +- 12.6 fmol/mg pr 33.9 +- 10.2 fmol/mg pr respectively in BMTG, C1G, BBTG, C2G. The SSR of BMTG is the most among these groups, the difference is obvious, P 0.05); (2) The correlation coefficient of SSR and ER is 0.859, SSR and PR is 0.750. Most breast tumor tissues express high density SSR, the authors suppose that malignant tumor can been distinguished from benign tumor preliminarily by SSR receptor imaging. There is a good correlation between SSR and ER, PR, detecting SSR may predict the quality of tumor and the prognosis of the patient

  12. Tissue microarrays for testing basal biomarkers in familial breast cancer cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozany Mucha Dufloth

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The proteins p63, p-cadherin and CK5 are consistently expressed by the basal and myoepithelial cells of the breast, although their expression in sporadic and familial breast cancer cases has yet to be fully defined. The aim here was to study the basal immunopro-file of a breast cancer case series using tissue microarray technology. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional study at Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil, and the Institute of Pathology and Mo-lecular Immunology, Porto, Portugal. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry using the antibodies p63, CK5 and p-cadherin, and also estrogen receptor (ER and Human Epidermal Receptor Growth Factor 2 (HER2, was per-formed on 168 samples from a breast cancer case series. The criteria for identifying women at high risk were based on those of the Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. RESULTS: Familial tumors were more frequently positive for the p-cadherin (p = 0.0004, p63 (p < 0.0001 and CK5 (p < 0.0001 than was sporadic cancer. Moreover, familial tumors had coexpression of the basal biomarkers CK5+/ p63+, grouped two by two (OR = 34.34, while absence of coexpression (OR = 0.13 was associ-ated with the sporadic cancer phenotype. CONCLUSION: Familial breast cancer was found to be associated with basal biomarkers, using tissue microarray technology. Therefore, characterization of the familial breast cancer phenotype will improve the understanding of breast carcinogenesis.

  13. The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and potential regulators in normal, benign and malignant human breast tissue.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, James

    2011-01-01

    The presence, relevance and regulation of the Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) in human mammary tissue remains poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify relative expression of NIS and putative regulators in human breast tissue, with relationships observed further investigated in vitro.

  14. Breast implant rupture and connective tissue disease: a review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Lipworth, Loren; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale epidemiologic studies to date have not found any credible association between silicone breast implants and either well-defined connective tissue diseases or undefined or atypical connective tissue diseases. It has been hypothesized that implant rupture could prompt an immunologic reac...

  15. Microenvironment of Breast Tissue: Lithocholic Acid and Other Intestinal Steroids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Javitt, Norman

    1997-01-01

    Although it is known that bile acids including lithocholic acid are present in breast cyst fluid, analysis by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry requires the preparation of volatile derivatives...

  16. Estimation of anisotropy factor spectrum for determination of optical properties in biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Misako; Honda, Norihiro; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2017-07-01

    Spectroscopic setup for measuring anisotropy factor g spectrum of biological tissues was constructed. g of chicken liver tissue was lower than chicken breast tissue. High absorption of hemoglobin can have an influence on g spectrum.

  17. Changes in ultrasound shear wave elastography properties of normal breast during menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzymski, P; Skórzewska, A; Opala, T

    2011-01-01

    Elastography is a novel technique capable of noninvasively assessing the elastic properties of breast tissue. Because the risk factors for breast cancer include hormonal status and proliferation, the aim of our study was to estimate the intensity of sonoelastographic changes during the menstrual cycle. Eight women aged 20-23 years with regular menstrual cycles underwent B-mode sonography and sonoelastography (ShearWave on Aixplorer, France) on days 3, 10, 17 and 24. Mean values of glandular and fat tissue elasticity did not change statistically significantly during the menstrual cycle as well as glandular to fat tissue ratio. During almost the whole cycle differences between outer and inner quadrants in glandular and fat tissue were statistically significant. The lowest values of elasticity occurred on the 10th day and the highest on the 24th of the menstrual cycle. There were statistically significant differences in elasticity between inner and outer quadrants of both breasts close to day 3 and 17 of the menstrual cycle.

  18. Aluminium and breast cancer: Sources of exposure, tissue measurements and mechanisms of toxicological actions on breast biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, Philippa D; Mannello, Ferdinando; Exley, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    This review examines recent evidence linking exposure to aluminium with the aetiology of breast cancer. The human population is exposed to aluminium throughout daily life including through diet, application of antiperspirants, use of antacids and vaccination. Aluminium has now been measured in a range of human breast structures at higher levels than in blood serum and experimental evidence suggests that the tissue concentrations measured have the potential to adversely influence breast epithelial cells including generation of genomic instability, induction of anchorage-independent proliferation and interference in oestrogen action. The presence of aluminium in the human breast may also alter the breast microenvironment causing disruption to iron metabolism, oxidative damage to cellular components, inflammatory responses and alterations to the motility of cells. The main research need is now to investigate whether the concentrations of aluminium measured in the human breast can lead in vivo to any of the effects observed in cells in vitro and this would be aided by the identification of biomarkers specific for aluminium action. © 2013.

  19. Non-invasive optical estimate of tissue composition to differentiate malignant from benign breast lesions: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Paola; Paganoni, Anna Maria; Ieva, Francesca; Pifferi, Antonio; Quarto, Giovanna; Abbate, Francesca; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2017-01-01

    Several techniques are being investigated as a complement to screening mammography, to reduce its false-positive rate, but results are still insufficient to draw conclusions. This initial study explores time domain diffuse optical imaging as an adjunct method to classify non-invasively malignant vs benign breast lesions. We estimated differences in tissue composition (oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, lipid, water, collagen) and absorption properties between lesion and average healthy tissue in the same breast applying a perturbative approach to optical images collected at 7 red-near infrared wavelengths (635-1060 nm) from subjects bearing breast lesions. The Discrete AdaBoost procedure, a machine-learning algorithm, was then exploited to classify lesions based on optically derived information (either tissue composition or absorption) and risk factors obtained from patient’s anamnesis (age, body mass index, familiarity, parity, use of oral contraceptives, and use of Tamoxifen). Collagen content, in particular, turned out to be the most important parameter for discrimination. Based on the initial results of this study the proposed method deserves further investigation.

  20. Breast tissue classification in digital tomosynthesis images based on global gradient minimization and texture features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xulei; Lu, Guolan; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a pseudo-three-dimensional x-ray imaging modality proposed to decrease the effect of tissue superposition present in mammography, potentially resulting in an increase in clinical performance for the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Tissue classification in DBT images can be useful in risk assessment, computer-aided detection and radiation dosimetry, among other aspects. However, classifying breast tissue in DBT is a challenging problem because DBT images include complicated structures, image noise, and out-of-plane artifacts due to limited angular tomographic sampling. In this project, we propose an automatic method to classify fatty and glandular tissue in DBT images. First, the DBT images are pre-processed to enhance the tissue structures and to decrease image noise and artifacts. Second, a global smooth filter based on L0 gradient minimization is applied to eliminate detailed structures and enhance large-scale ones. Third, the similar structure regions are extracted and labeled by fuzzy C-means (FCM) classification. At the same time, the texture features are also calculated. Finally, each region is classified into different tissue types based on both intensity and texture features. The proposed method is validated using five patient DBT images using manual segmentation as the gold standard. The Dice scores and the confusion matrix are utilized to evaluate the classified results. The evaluation results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method for classifying breast glandular and fat tissue on DBT images.

  1. Relationship between reflection spectra of breast adipose tissue with histologic grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Morales, Aarón; Vázquez Y Montiel, Sergio; Reigosa, Aldo

    2011-08-01

    Optical spectroscopy allows the characterization, recognition and differentiation of subcutaneous tissues healthy and no-healthy, to facilitate the diagnosis or early detection for breast cancer are studied white adipose tissue by the subcutaneous region with the help of the diffuse reflection spectroscopy in the visible areas (400 to 700 nm) of electromagnetic spectrum for them using a spectrometer portable of integrating sphere, Hunter lab Model Mini-Scan. The problem to be solved for cancer detection by optical techniques is to find the solution to the inverse problem of scattering of radiation in tissue where it is necessary to solve the equation of energy transfer. us through the trigonometric interpolation and by the data adjustment by least squares using Fourier series expansion to parameterize the spectral response curves of each sample of breast adipose tissue then correlated with histological grades established by the optical biopsy for each one of the samples, allowing use this technique to the study of anomalies in White Adipose Tissue Breast, changes are evident in the spectral response for Breast Adipose Tissue carcinogens with respect to healthy tissues and for the different histological grades.

  2. Iatrogenic Pneumothorax as a Complication to Delayed Breast Reconstruction With Tissue Expander—A Case Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Cecilie Balslev; Bredgaard, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    Breast reconstruction with expander implant is the most common breast reconstructive procedure. Irradiated patients are seldom reconstructed this way because the tissue expansion is difficult and the complication rates are higher. Pneumothorax is a serious condition and can be seen as a complicat......Breast reconstruction with expander implant is the most common breast reconstructive procedure. Irradiated patients are seldom reconstructed this way because the tissue expansion is difficult and the complication rates are higher. Pneumothorax is a serious condition and can be seen...... as a complication to the operation. Literature is sparse; hence, the only study is by Schneider et al who found an incidence of 0.55%. The study focused on immediate reconstruction only and did not report the percentage of irradiated patients. We present a unique case of iatrogenic pneumothorax in a previously...

  3. Correlation study of trace metals in malignant and normal breast tissues by AAS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.

    2012-01-01

    The study reports the application of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) for quantification of Fe, Cu and Zn in forty one formalin-fixed biopsy breast carcinoma tissue and adjoining fifteen normal tissue samples. These tissues samples were of category two breast carcinoma patients and of normal subjects. The qualitative comparison between the elements levels measured in the two types of specimens suggests significant elevation of these metals in the histopathological samples of carcinoma tissue. The samples were collected from women aged 19-51 years. Most of the patients belong to urban areas of Pakistan and middle to high socioeconomic status with the exception of few. Findings of study depicts that these elements have an important role in the initiation and development of carcinoma as consistent pattern of elevation for Fe, Cu and Zn was observed. The results showed the excessive accumulation of Fe (166.9 mg/L) in tissue samples of breast carcinoma patients (p < 0.01) than that in normal tissues samples (23.5 mg/L). In order to validate our method of analysis certified reference material Muscle Tissue Lyophilised (IAEA) MA-M-2/TM was analyzed for Fe, Cu and Zn. Determined concentrations were in good agreement with certified levels. The concentration distribution of trace elements Cu, Zn and Fe measured in the malignant tissues were found to be higher when compared to benign tissues, indicating the involvement of these metals in the breast malignancy. Results also indicate that excess iron may play a role in breast carcinogenesis. (Orig./A.B.)

  4. A Prospective Analysis of Dynamic Loss of Breast Projection in Tissue Expander-Implant Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M Mioton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBreast projection is a critical element of breast reconstruction aesthetics, but little has been published regarding breast projection as the firm expander is changed to a softer implant. Quantitative data representing this loss in projection may enhance patient education and improve our management of patient expectations.MethodsFemale patients who were undergoing immediate tissue-expander breast reconstruction with the senior author were enrolled in this prospective study. Three-dimensional camera software was used for all patient photographs and data analysis. Projection was calculated as the distance between the chest wall and the point of maximal projection of the breast form. Values were calculated for final tissue expander expansion and at varying intervals 3, 6, and 12 months after implant placement.ResultsFourteen breasts from 12 patients were included in the final analysis. Twelve of the 14 breasts had a loss of projection at three months following the implant placement or beyond. The percentage of projection lost in these 12 breasts ranged from 6.30% to 43.4%, with an average loss of projection of 21.05%.ConclusionsThis study is the first prospective quantitative analysis of temporal changes in breast projection after expander-implant reconstruction. By prospectively capturing projection data with three-dimensional photographic software, we reveal a loss of projection in this population by three months post-implant exchange. These findings will not only aid in managing patient expectations, but our methodology provides a foundation for future objective studies of the breast form.

  5. Distinct Ezrin Truncations Differentiate Metastases in Sentinel Lymph Nodes from Unaffected Lymph Node Tissues, from Primary Breast Tumors, and from Healthy Glandular Breast Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Röwer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lymph node metastasis status is a prognostic factor for further lymph node involvement and for patient survival in breast cancer patients. Frozen section analysis of lymph nodes is a reliable method for detection of macro-metastases. However, this method is far less effective in detecting micro-metastases, requesting improved diagnostic procedures. METHODS: We investigated expression and truncation of ezrin in (i sentinel lymph node metastases, (ii unaffected axillary lymph nodes, (iii primary breast tumors, and (iv healthy glandular breast tissues using 2D gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry in addition to Western blotting. RESULTS: Full-length ezrin (E1; amino acids 1–586 is present in all four investigated tissues. Two truncated ezrin forms, one missing about the first hundred amino acids (E2a and the other lacking about 150 C-terminal amino acids (E2b were detectable in primary tumor tissues and in sentinel lymph node metastases but not in glandular tissues. Strikingly, an ezrin truncation (E3 which consists approximately of amino acids 238–586 was found strongly expressed in all sentinel lymph node metastases. Moreover, an N-terminal ezrin fragment (E4 that consists approximately of amino acids 1–273 was identified in sentinel lymph node metastases as well. CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time the existence of tissue-dependent specific ezrin truncations. The distinguished strong Western blot staining of ezrin E3 in sentinel lymph node metastases underlines its capability to substantiate the occurrence of lymph node (micrometastases in breast cancer patients.

  6. Migration assay on primary culture isolated from patient's primary breast cancer tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ED Yuliana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migration is an essential component of breast cancer metastasis, which studyhas been concentrated on culture of established breast cancer cell lines that do not accuratelyrepresent the sophistication and heterogeneity of patient's breast cancer. An attempt toperform migration assay using Boyden Chamber Assay (BCA on primary culture originatingfrom patient's breast cancer tissue was developed to accommodate upcoming study of breastcancer migration in lndonesian patients.Methods: Pathologically proven primary breast cancer tissue samples were obtained fromCiptomangunkusumo Hospital during core (n=4 and incisional (n=3 biopsies of stage llAup to stage lllA breast cancer patients. Following biopsy, the breast cancer tissue samplesunderwent processings to isolate the cancer cells. These cancer cells were -then resuspendedwithin Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM ahd cultured in 12-well plate. The growthof primary culture were observed and compared between the core biopsy and the incisionalbiopsy specimens. Optimization of BCA method was later performed to investigate themigration of the breast cancer primary culture towards different experirnental conditions, whichwere control, Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS, and Stromal Derived Factor-l (SDF-1. Two differentnumber of breast cancer cells were tested for the optimization of the BCA, which were 1 x 105and3x105cells.Results: None of the culture performed on core biopsy specimens grew, while one out ofthree incisional biopsy specimens grew until confluence. The one primary culture that grewwas later assesed using BCA to assess its migration index towards different experimentalconditions. Using 1 x 10s breast cancer cells in the BCA , the result of the absorbance level ofmigrated cells showed that the migration towards SDF-1 (0.529 nearly doubled the migrationtowards controlmedium (0.239 and FBS (0.209. Meanwhile, the absorbance levelwas simiiarbetween the control medium (1.050, FBS (1 .103

  7. Sarcoglycans in the normal and pathological breast tissue of humans: an immunohistochemical and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arco, Alba; Favaloro, Angelo; Gioffrè, Mara; Santoro, Giuseppe; Speciale, Francesco; Vermiglio, Giovanna; Cutroneo, Giuseppina

    2012-01-01

    The sarcoglycan complex, consisting of α-, β-, γ-, δ- and ε-sarcoglycans, is a multimember transmembrane system providing a mechanosignaling connection from the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. Whereas the expression of α- and γ-sarcoglycan is restricted to striated muscle, other sarcoglycans are widely expressed. Although many studies have investigated sarcoglycans in all muscle types, insufficient data are available on the distribution of the sarcoglycan complex in nonmuscle tissue. On this basis, we used immunohistochemical and RT-PCR techniques to study preliminarily the sarcoglycans in normal glandular breast tissue (which has never been studied in the literature on these proteins) to verify the effective wider distribution of this complex. Moreover, to understand the role of sarcoglycans, we also tested samples obtained from patients affected by fibrocystic mastopathy and breast fibroadenoma. Our data showed, for the first time, that all sarcoglycans are always detectable in all normal samples both in epithelial and myoepithelial cells; in pathological breast tissue, all sarcoglycans appeared severely reduced. These data demonstrated that all sarcoglycans, not only β-, δ-, and ε-sarcoglycans, have a wider distribution, implying a new unknown role for these proteins. Moreover, in breast diseases, sarcoglycans containing cadherin domain homologs could provoke a loss of strong adhesion between epithelial cells, permitting and facilitating the degeneration of these benign breast tumors into malignant tumors. Consequently, sarcoglycans could play an important and intriguing role in many breast diseases and in particular in tumor progression from benign to malignant. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Tissue architecture and breast cancer: the role of extracellular matrix and steroid hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R K; Bissell, M J

    2010-01-01

    The changes in tissue architecture that accompany the development of breast cancer have been the focus of investigations aimed at developing new cancer therapeutics. As we learn more about the normal mammary gland, we have begun to understand the complex signaling pathways underlying the dramatic shifts in the structure and function of breast tissue. Integrin-, growth factor-, and steroid hormone-signaling pathways all play an important part in maintaining tissue architecture; disruption of the delicate balance of signaling results in dramatic changes in the way cells interact with each other and with the extracellular matrix, leading to breast cancer. The extracellular matrix itself plays a central role in coordinating these signaling processes. In this review, we consider the interrelationships between the extracellular matrix, integrins, growth factors, and steroid hormones in mammary gland development and function. PMID:10903527

  9. Tissue architecture and breast cancer: the role of extracellular matrix and steroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R K; Bissell, M J

    2000-06-01

    The changes in tissue architecture that accompany the development of breast cancer have been the focus of investigations aimed at developing new cancer therapeutics. As we learn more about the normal mammary gland, we have begun to understand the complex signaling pathways underlying the dramatic shifts in the structure and function of breast tissue. Integrin-, growth factor-, and steroid hormone-signaling pathways all play an important part in maintaining tissue architecture; disruption of the delicate balance of signaling results in dramatic changes in the way cells interact with each other and with the extracellular matrix, leading to breast cancer. The extracellular matrix itself plays a central role in coordinating these signaling processes. In this review, we consider the interrelationships between the extracellular matrix, integrins, growth factors, and steroid hormones in mammary gland development and function.

  10. Identification and prognostic value of anterior gradient protein 2 expression in breast cancer based on tissue microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jilong; Gong, Guohua; Zhang, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Breast cancer has attracted substantial attention as one of the major cancers causing death in women. It is crucial to find potential biomarkers of prognostic value in breast cancer. In this study, the expression pattern of anterior gradient protein 2 in breast cancer was identified based on the main molecular subgroups. Through analysis of 69 samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, we found that anterior gradient protein 2 expression was significantly higher in non-triple-negative breast cancer tissues compared with normal tissues and triple-negative breast cancer tissues (p gradient protein 2 expression pattern. Furthermore, we performed immunohistochemical analysis. The quantification results revealed that anterior gradient protein 2 is highly expressed in non-triple-negative breast cancer (grade 3 excluded) and grade 1 + 2 (triple-negative breast cancer excluded) tumours compared with normal tissues. Anterior gradient protein 2 was significantly highly expressed in non-triple-negative breast cancer (grade 3 excluded) and non-triple-negative breast cancer tissues compared with triple-negative breast cancer tissues (p gradient protein 2 was significantly highly expressed in grade 1 + 2 (triple-negative breast cancer excluded) and grade 1 + 2 tissues compared with grade 3 tissues (p gradient protein 2 expression was significantly associated with histologic type, histological grade, oestrogen status and progesterone status. Univariate analysis of clinicopathological variables showed that anterior gradient protein 2 expression, tumour size and lymph node status were significantly correlated with overall survival in patients with grade 1 and 2 tumours. Cox multivariate analysis revealed anterior gradient protein 2 as a putative independent indicator of unfavourable outcomes (p = 0.031). All these data clearly showed that anterior gradient protein 2 is highly expressed in breast cancer and can be regarded as a putative biomarker for

  11. Evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in normal and breast tumor tissues and their link with breast cancer prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, Daniela; Lemieux, Julie; Côté, Marc-André; Provencher, Louise; Laflamme, Christian; Barabé, Frédéric; Jacob, Simon; Michaud, Annick; Diorio, Caroline

    2016-12-01

    Amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene is associated with worse prognosis and decreased overall survival in breast cancer patients. The HER2 gene contains several polymorphisms; two of the best-characterized HER2 polymorphisms are Ile655Val and Ala1170Pro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between these two HER2 polymorphisms in normal breast and breast cancer tissues and known breast cancer prognostic factors in a retrospective cohort study of 73 women with non-metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer. HER2 polymorphisms were assessed in breast cancer tissue and normal breast tissue using TaqMan assay. Ala1170Pro polymorphism in normal breast tissue was associated with age at diagnosis (p = 0.007), tumor size (p = 0.004) and lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.06). Similar significant associations in cancer tissues were observed. No association between the Ile655Val polymorphism and prognostic factors were observed. However, we found significant differences in the distribution of Ile655Val (p = 0.03) and Ala1170Pro (p = 0.01) genotypes between normal breast and breast tumor tissues. This study demonstrates that only the Ala1170Pro polymorphism is associated with prognostic factors in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. Moreover, our results suggest that both HER2 polymorphisms could play a significant role in carcinogenesis in non-metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Classification of fibroglandular tissue distribution in the breast based on radiotherapy planning CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juneja, Prabhjot; Evans, Philip; Windridge, David; Harris, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Accurate segmentation of breast tissues is required for a number of applications such as model based deformable registration in breast radiotherapy. The accuracy of breast tissue segmentation is affected by the spatial distribution (or pattern) of fibroglandular tissue (FT). The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate texture features, determined from planning computed tomography (CT) data, to classify the spatial distribution of FT in the breast. Planning CT data of 23 patients were evaluated in this study. Texture features were derived from the radial glandular fraction (RGF), which described the distribution of FT within three breast regions (posterior, middle, and anterior). Using visual assessment, experts grouped patients according to FT spatial distribution: sparse or non-sparse. Differences in the features between the two groups were investigated using the Wilcoxon rank test. Classification performance of the features was evaluated for a range of support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. Experts found eight patients and 15 patients had sparse and non-sparse spatial distribution of FT, respectively. A large proportion of features (>9 of 13) from the individual breast regions had significant differences (p <0.05) between the sparse and non-sparse group. The features from middle region had most significant differences and gave the highest classification accuracy for all the SVM kernels investigated. Overall, the features from middle breast region achieved highest accuracy (91 %) with the linear SVM kernel. This study found that features based on radial glandular fraction provide a means for discriminating between fibroglandular tissue distributions and could achieve a classification accuracy of 91 %

  13. Correlation of MRI apparent diffusion coefficient of invasive breast cancer with tumor tissue growth and angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Hong Fu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of MRI apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC value of invasive breast cancer with tumor tissue growth and angiogenesis. Methods: Patients with breast mass who were treated in Wuhan No. 6 Hospital between March 2014 and May 2017 were selected as the research subjects and divided into group A with invasive ductal carcinoma, group B with intraductal carcinoma and group C with benign lesion according to the biopsy results, magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging was conducted to determine ADC values, and biopsy tissue was taken to determine the expression of proliferation genes and angiogenesis genes. Results: USP39, CyclinD1, VEGF, bFGF, Angplt-2, Angplt-3 and Angplt-4 protein expression levels in lesions of group A and group B were significantly higher than those of group C while ADC value as well as ALEX1 and Bax protein expression levels were significantly lower than those of group C; USP39, CyclinD1, VEGF, bFGF, Angplt-2, Angplt-3 and Angplt-4 protein expression levels in lesions of group A were significantly higher than those of group B while ADC value as well as ALEX1 and Bax protein expression levels was significantly lower than those of group B; USP39, CyclinD1, VEGF, bFGF, Angplt-2, Angplt-3 and Angplt-4 protein expression levels in invasive breast cancer tissue with high ADC value were significantly lower than those in invasive breast cancer tissue with low ADC value while ALEX1 and Bax protein expression levels were significantly higher than those in invasive breast cancer tissue with low ADC value. Conclusion: The decrease of ADC value of invasive breast cancer is closely related to cancer cell proliferation and angiogenesis.

  14. Optical redox imaging indices discriminate human breast cancer from normal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N.; Tchou, Julia; Feng, Min; Zhao, Huaqing; Li, Lin Z.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Our long-term goal was to investigate the potential of incorporating redox imaging technique as a breast cancer (BC) diagnosis component to increase the positive predictive value of suspicious imaging finding and to reduce unnecessary biopsies and overdiagnosis. We previously found that precancer and cancer tissues in animal models displayed abnormal mitochondrial redox state. We also revealed abnormal mitochondrial redox state in cancerous specimens from three BC patients. Here, we extend our study to include biopsies of 16 patients. Tissue aliquots were collected from both apparently normal and cancerous tissues from the affected cancer-bearing breasts shortly after surgical resection. All specimens were snap-frozen and scanned with the Chance redox scanner, i.e., the three-dimensional cryogenic NADH/Fp (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/oxidized flavoproteins) fluorescence imager. We found both Fp and NADH in the cancerous tissues roughly tripled that in the normal tissues (predox ratio Fp/(NADH + Fp) was ∼27% higher in the cancerous tissues (predox ratio alone could predict cancer with reasonable sensitivity and specificity. Our findings suggest that the optical redox imaging technique can provide parameters independent of clinical factors for discriminating cancer from noncancer breast tissues in human patients. PMID:27896360

  15. The Complex Interaction of Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Migration of Cancer Cells through Breast Tissue Stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry J. Davies

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer mortality is directly linked to metastatic spread. The metastatic cell must exhibit a complex phenotype that includes the capacity to escape from the primary tumour mass, invade the surrounding normal tissue, and penetrate into the circulation before proliferating in the parenchyma of distant organs to produce a metastasis. In the normal breast, cellular structures change cyclically in response to ovarian hormones leading to regulated cell proliferation and apoptosis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are a family of zinc dependent endopeptidases. Their primary function is degradation of proteins in the extracellular matrix to allow ductal progression through the basement membrane. A complex balance between matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors regulate these changes. These proteinases interact with cytokines, growth factors, and tumour necrosis factors to stimulate branching morphologies in normal breast tissues. In breast cancer this process is disrupted facilitating tumour progression and metastasis and inhibiting apoptosis increasing the life of the metastatic cells. This paper highlights the role of matrix metalloproteinases in cell progression through the breast stroma and reviews the complex relationships between the different proteinases and their inhibitors in relation to breast cancer cells as they metastasise.

  16. The magnetization transfer characteristics of human breast tissues: an in vitro NMR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callicott, C.; Thomas, J. M.; Goode, A. W.

    1999-05-01

    A series of freshly excised human breast tissues was analysed using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer and then subjected to routine histopathology examination. Tissues comprised normal parenchymal, adipose, fibrocystic, fibroadenoma and malignant types. An inversion-recovery sequence performed both with and without magnetization transfer allowed T1, T1, and values to be obtained. From this information, the magnetization transfer rate constant, K, was calculated for each tissue sample. These data show that T1 provided greater discrimination between neoplasic and normal tissues than did T1. However, neither T1 nor K values provided a means of discriminating between benign and malignant disease.

  17. The magnetization transfer characteristics of human breast tissues: an in vitro NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callicott, C.; Thomas, J.M.; Goode, A.W.

    1999-01-01

    A series of freshly excised human breast tissues was analysed using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer and then subjected to routine histopathology examination. Tissues comprised normal parenchymal, adipose, fibrocystic, fibroadenoma and malignant types. An inversion-recovery sequence performed both with and without magnetization transfer allowed T1, T1 5 , M o and M 5 values to be obtained. From this information, the magnetization transfer rate constant, K, was calculated for each tissue sample. These data show that T1 5 provided greater discrimination between neoplasic and normal tissues than did T1. However, neither T1 5 nor K values provided a means of discriminating between benign and malignant disease. (author)

  18. Technical evaluation of Virtual Touch™ tissue quantification and elastography in benign and malignant breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    JIANG, QUAN; ZHANG, YUAN; CHEN, JIAN; ZHANG, YUN-XIAO; HE, ZHU

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of the Virtual Touch™ tissue quantification (VTQ) and elastosonography technologies in benign and malignant breast tumors. Routine preoperative ultrasound, elastosonography and VTQ examinations were performed on 86 patients with breast lesions. The elastosonography score and VTQ speed grouping of each lesion were measured and compared with the pathological findings. The difference in the elastosonography score between the benign and malignant breast tumors was statistically significant (Pbenign and malignant tumors was also statistically significant (P<0.05). In addition, the diagnostic accuracy of conventional ultrasound, elastosonography, VTQ technology and the combined methods showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05). The use of the three technologies in combination significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy to 91.86%. In conclusion, the combination of conventional ultrasound, elastosonography and VTQ technology can significantly improve accuracy in the diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:25187797

  19. Effect of hypoxia on tissue factor pathway inhibitor expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, X Y; Tinholt, M; Stavik, B; Dahm, A E A; Kanse, S; Jin, Y; Seidl, S; Sahlberg, K K; Iversen, N; Skretting, G; Sandset, P M

    2016-02-01

    ESSENTIALS: A hypoxic microenvironment is a common feature of tumors that may influence activation of coagulation. MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells and breast cancer tissue samples were used. The results showed transcriptional repression of tissue factor pathway inhibitor expression in hypoxia. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α may be a target for the therapy of cancer-related coagulation and thrombosis. Activation of coagulation is a common finding in patients with cancer, and is associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. As a hypoxic microenvironment is a common feature of solid tumors, we investigated the role of hypoxia in the regulation of tissue factor (TF) pathway inhibitor (TFPI) expression in breast cancer. To explore the transcriptional regulation of TFPI by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in breast cancer cells and their correlation in breast cancer tissues. MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells were cultured in 1% oxygen or treated with cobalt chloride (CoCl2 ) to mimic hypoxia. Time-dependent and dose-dependent downregulation of TFPI mRNA (quantitative RT-PCR) and of free TFPI protein (ELISA) were observed in hypoxia. Western blotting showed parallel increases in the levels of HIF-1α protein and TF. HIF-1α inhibitor abolished or attenuated the hypoxia-induced downregulation of TFPI. Luciferase reporter assay showed that both hypoxia and HIF-1α overexpression caused strong repression of TFPI promoter activity. Subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation and mutagenesis analysis demonstrated a functional hypoxia response element within the TFPI promoter, located at -1065 to -1060 relative to the transcriptional start point. In breast cancer tissue samples, gene expression analyses showed a positive correlation between the mRNA expression of TFPI and that of HIF-1α. This study demonstrates that HIF-1α is involved in the transcriptional regulation of the TFPI gene, and suggests that a hypoxic microenvironment inside a breast tumor may

  20. Minimising the risk: reducing breast tissue dose in an adolescent female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Ann; Toe, Aimee; Ungureanu, Elena; Wolf, M.; Wirth, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer is amongst the leading radiation-associated, second malignancies that develop in patients after treatment for Hodgkin's disease. This risk is affected by two main factors: 1. The age of the patient at the time of radiotherapy; and 2. The dose received by the breast tissue The adolescent female thus faces an exceptionally high risk, as breast tissue at this age is undergoing rapid developmental growth and small doses of radiation exposure could be carcinogenic. This case report of a fifteen-year-old girl who received radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease demonstrates how radiation therapists worked together with the radiation oncologists and medical physicists to provide an optimal treatment plan for a high-risk patient. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Radiography

  1. Characterization of breast tissue using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, S.; Cook, E.J.; Horrocks, J.A.; Jones, J.L.; Speller, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    A method for sample characterization using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction computed tomography (EDXRDCT) is presented. The procedures for extracting diffraction patterns from the data and the corrections applied are discussed. The procedures were applied to the characterization of breast tissue samples, 6 mm in diameter. Comparison with histological sections of the samples confirmed the possibility of grouping the patterns into five families, corresponding to adipose tissue, fibrosis, poorly differentiated cancer, well differentiated cancer and benign tumour.

  2. Optical study on the dependence of breast tissue composition and structure on subject anamnesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Paola; Quarto, Giovanna; Pifferi, Antonio; Abbate, Francesca; Balestreri, Nicola; Menna, Simona; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2015-07-01

    Time domain multi-wavelength (635 to 1060 nm) optical mammography was performed on 200 subjects to estimate their average breast tissue composition in terms of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipid and collagen, and structural information, as provided by scattering parameters (amplitude and power). Significant (and often marked) dependence of tissue composition and structure on age, menopausal status, body mass index, and use of oral contraceptives was demonstrated.

  3. Analysis of terahertz dielectric properties of pork tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuqing; Xie, Qiaoling; Sun, Ping

    2017-10-01

    Seeing that about 70% component of fresh biological tissues is water, many scientists try to use water models to describe the dielectric properties of biological tissues. The classical water dielectric models are Debye model, Double Debye model and Cole-Cole model. This work aims to determine a suitable model by comparing three models above with experimental data. These models are applied to fresh pork tissue. By means of least square method, the parameters of different models are fitted with the experimental data. Comparing different models on both dielectric function, the Cole-Cole model is verified the best to describe the experiments of pork tissue. The correction factor α of the Cole-Cole model is an important modification for biological tissues. So Cole-Cole model is supposed to be a priority selection to describe the dielectric properties for biological tissues in the terahertz range.

  4. Study of human breast tissues biochemistry by FT-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Renata A.; Jara, Walter Andres A.; Netto, Mário M.; Martinho, Herculano; Ramalho, Leandra Náira Z.; Martin, Airton A.

    2006-02-01

    In this work we employ the Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy to study the human breast tissues, both normal and pathological. In the present study we analyze 194 Raman spectra from breast tissues that were separated into 9 groups according to their corresponding histopathological diagnosis, which are as follows: Normal breast tissue, Fibrocystic condition, In Situ Duct Carcinoma, In Situ Duct Carcinoma with Necrosis, Infiltrating Duct Carcinoma, Infiltrating Duct Inflammatory Carcinoma, Infiltrating Duct Medullar Carcinoma, Infiltrating Duct Colloid Carcinoma, and Infiltrating Lobule Carcinoma. We found a strong lipids Raman band, and this structure was identified as abundant in the normal breast tissue spectra. The primary structure of proteins was identified through the shift of the amine acids bands. The identification of the secondary structure of proteins occurred through the peptide bands (Amide I and Amide III). In relation to the carbohydrates, the spectra of duct infiltrating colloid carcinoma, fibrocystic condition, and infiltrating duct carcinoma have been compared and identified. We observed an increase in the intensity of the 800-1200 cm -1 spectral region. This fact could indicate the presence of liquid cystic. We also notice alterations in the peaks in the region of 500 to 600 cm -1 and 2000 to 2100 cm -1 that may suggest changes in the nucleic acids of the cells.

  5. Evaluation of HER2/neu oncoprotein in serum & tissue samples of women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja Shukla

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest that elevated serum HER2 level was associated with a clinicopathological aggressive phenotype of breast carcinoma and was related to tissue HER2 overexpression. Therefore, serum HER2 may be useful for monitoring the course of the disease and response to treatment.

  6. Human tissue optical properties measurements and light propagation modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dam, JS

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical Optics is the study of the optical properties of living biological material, especially its scattering and absorption characteristics, and their significance to light propagation within the material. Determination of tissue optical...

  7. Human breast cancer histoid: an in vitro 3-dimensional co-culture model that mimics breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Pavinder; Ward, Brenda; Saha, Baisakhi; Young, Lillian; Groshen, Susan; Techy, Geza; Lu, Yani; Atkinson, Roscoe; Taylor, Clive R; Ingram, Marylou; Imam, S Ashraf

    2011-12-01

    Progress in our understanding of heterotypic cellular interaction in the tumor microenvironment, which is recognized to play major roles in cancer progression, has been hampered due to unavailability of an appropriate in vitro co-culture model. The aim of this study was to generate an in vitro 3-dimensional human breast cancer model, which consists of cancer cells and fibroblasts. Breast cancer cells (UACC-893) and fibroblasts at various densities were co-cultured in a rotating suspension culture system to establish co-culture parameters. Subsequently, UACC-893, BT.20, or MDA.MB.453 were co-cultured with fibroblasts for 9 days. Co-cultures resulted in the generation of breast cancer histoid (BCH) with cancer cells showing the invasion of fibroblast spheroids, which were visualized by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of sections (4 µm thick) of BCH. A reproducible quantitative expression of C-erbB.2 was detected in UACC-893 cancer cells in BCH sections by IHC staining and the Automated Cellular Imaging System. BCH sections also consistently exhibited qualitative expression of pancytokeratins, p53, Ki-67, or E-cadherin in cancer cells and that of vimentin or GSTPi in fibroblasts, fibronectin in the basement membrane and collagen IV in the extracellular matrix. The expression of the protein analytes and cellular architecture of BCH were markedly similar to those of breast cancer tissue.

  8. Effects of tissue mechanical properties on susceptibility to histotripsy-induced tissue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Kim, Yohan; Owens, Gabe; Roberts, William; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Histotripsy is a non-invasive tissue ablation method capable of fractionating tissue by controlling acoustic cavitation. To determine the fractionation susceptibility of various tissues, we investigated histotripsy-induced damage on tissue phantoms and ex vivo tissues with different mechanical strengths. A histotripsy bubble cloud was formed at tissue phantom surfaces using 5-cycle long ultrasound pulses with peak negative pressure of 18 MPa and PRFs of 10, 100, and 1000 Hz. Results showed significantly smaller lesions were generated in tissue phantoms of higher mechanical strength. Histotripsy was also applied to 43 different ex vivo porcine tissues with a wide range of mechanical properties. Gross morphology demonstrated stronger tissues with higher ultimate stress, higher density, and lower water content were more resistant to histotripsy damage in comparison to weaker tissues. Based on these results, a self-limiting vessel-sparing treatment strategy was developed in an attempt to preserve major vessels while fractionating the surrounding target tissue. This strategy was tested in porcine liver in vivo. After treatment, major hepatic blood vessels and bile ducts remained intact within a completely fractionated liver volume. These results identify varying susceptibilities of tissues to histotripsy therapy and provide a rational basis to optimize histotripsy parameters for treatment of specific tissues.

  9. Identification of Differentially Expressed IGFBP5-Related Genes in Breast Cancer Tumor Tissues Using cDNA Microarray Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkiprik, Mustafa; Peker, İrem; Özmen, Tolga; Amuran, Gökçe Güllü; Güllüoğlu, Bahadır M; Kaya, Handan; Özer, Ayşe

    2015-11-10

    IGFBP5 is an important regulatory protein in breast cancer progression. We tried to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between breast tumor tissues with IGFBP5 overexpression and their adjacent normal tissues. In this study, thirty-eight breast cancer and adjacent normal breast tissue samples were used to determine IGFBP5 expression by qPCR. cDNA microarrays were applied to the highest IGFBP5 overexpressed tumor samples compared to their adjacent normal breast tissue. Microarray analysis revealed that a total of 186 genes were differentially expressed in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissues. Of the 186 genes, 169 genes were downregulated and 17 genes were upregulated in the tumor samples. KEGG pathway analyses showed that protein digestion and absorption, focal adhesion, salivary secretion, drug metabolism-cytochrome P450, and phenylalanine metabolism pathways are involved. Among these DEGs, the prominent top two genes (MMP11 and COL1A1) which potentially correlated with IGFBP5 were selected for validation using real time RT-qPCR. Only COL1A1 expression showed a consistent upregulation with IGFBP5 expression and COL1A1 and MMP11 were significantly positively correlated. We concluded that the discovery of coordinately expressed genes related with IGFBP5 might contribute to understanding of the molecular mechanism of the function of IGFBP5 in breast cancer. Further functional studies on DEGs and association with IGFBP5 may identify novel biomarkers for clinical applications in breast cancer.

  10. Applying the Health Belief Model and an Integrated Behavioral Model to Promote Breast Tissue Donation Among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Autumn; Kaufhold, Kelly; Luo, Yunjuan

    2018-07-01

    An important part in the effort to prevent, treat, and cure breast cancer is research done with healthy breast tissue. The Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank at Indiana University Simon Cancer Center (KTB) encourages women to donate a small amount of healthy breast tissue and then provides that tissue to researchers studying breast cancer. Although KTB has a large donor base, the volume of tissue samples from Asian women is low despite prior marketing efforts to encourage donation among this population. This study builds on prior work promoting breast cancer screenings among Asian women by applying constructs from the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Integrated Behavioral Model (IBM) to investigate why Asian-American women are less inclined to donate their healthy breast tissue than non-Asian women and how this population may be motivated to donate in the future. A national online survey (N = 1,317) found Asian women had significantly lower perceived severity, some lower perceived benefits, and higher perceived barriers to tissue donation than non-Asian women under HBM and significantly lower injunctive norms supporting breast tissue donation, lower perceived behavioral control, and lower intentions to donate under IBM. This study also compares and discusses similarities and differences among East, Southeast, and South Asian women on these same constructs.

  11. Study on the plasma leptin level and leptin mRNA expression in cancerous breast tissue in patients with breast carcinoma complicated with obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunrui; Liu Wenli; Sun Hanying; Zhou Jianfeng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the plasma leptin level and leptin mRNA expression in cancerous breast tissue in patients with breast cancer complicated with obesity. Methods: Plasma leptin levels were measured with RIA in 48 breast cancer patients with obesity, 36 patients with various benign breast disorders and obesity and 40 controls (with simple obesity only). The leptin mRNA expression in the surgical specimens from the 84 patients with breast disease was also examined with RT-PCR, Results: The plasma leptin levels in the breast cancer patients (12.02 ± 1.23 μg/L) were significantly higher than those in patients with benign breast disorders (9.84 ± 0.98 μg/L) and controls (9.79 ± 1.16 μg/L) (both P<0.05). The expression levels of leptin mRNA in specimens from malignant breast disease (0.71 ± 0.32), were significantly higher than those in specimens from benign breast diseases (0.41 ± 0.26) (P<0.05), The plasma leptin levels and the tissue leptin mRNA expression levels were mutually positively correlated (r=0.4220 ,P 0.0180). These levels were not correlated with the presence of axillary metastasis, TMN stage, menstrual status, pathological classification and other parameters. Conclusion: Leptin might be a promotive factor in the development of breast cancer. (authors)

  12. Breast tissue classification using x-ray scattering measurements and multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Elaine A.; Farquharson, Michael J.

    2007-11-01

    This study utilized two radiation scatter interactions in order to differentiate malignant from non-malignant breast tissue. These two interactions were Compton scatter, used to measure the electron density of the tissues, and coherent scatter to obtain a measure of structure. Measurements of these parameters were made using a laboratory experimental set-up comprising an x-ray tube and HPGe detector. The breast tissue samples investigated comprise five different tissue classifications: adipose, malignancy, fibroadenoma, normal fibrous tissue and tissue that had undergone fibrocystic change. The coherent scatter spectra were analysed using a peak fitting routine, and a technique involving multivariate analysis was used to combine the peak fitted scatter profile spectra and the electron density values into a tissue classification model. The number of variables used in the model was refined by finding the sensitivity and specificity of each model and concentrating on differentiating between two tissues at a time. The best model that was formulated had a sensitivity of 54% and a specificity of 100%.

  13. Breast tissue classification using x-ray scattering measurements and multivariate data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Elaine A; Farquharson, Michael J [School of Allied Health Sciences, City University, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6PA (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-21

    This study utilized two radiation scatter interactions in order to differentiate malignant from non-malignant breast tissue. These two interactions were Compton scatter, used to measure the electron density of the tissues, and coherent scatter to obtain a measure of structure. Measurements of these parameters were made using a laboratory experimental set-up comprising an x-ray tube and HPGe detector. The breast tissue samples investigated comprise five different tissue classifications: adipose, malignancy, fibroadenoma, normal fibrous tissue and tissue that had undergone fibrocystic change. The coherent scatter spectra were analysed using a peak fitting routine, and a technique involving multivariate analysis was used to combine the peak fitted scatter profile spectra and the electron density values into a tissue classification model. The number of variables used in the model was refined by finding the sensitivity and specificity of each model and concentrating on differentiating between two tissues at a time. The best model that was formulated had a sensitivity of 54% and a specificity of 100%.

  14. Does Acellular Dermal Matrix Thickness Affect Complication Rate in Tissue Expander Based Breast Reconstruction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica F. Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While the benefits of using acellular dermal matrices (ADMs in breast reconstruction are well described, their use has been associated with additional complications. The purpose of this study was to determine if ADM thickness affects complications in breast reconstruction. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed including all tissue expander based breast reconstructions with AlloDerm (LifeCell, Branchburg, NJ over 4 years. We evaluated preoperative characteristics and assessed postoperative complications including seroma, hematoma, infection, skin necrosis, and need for reintervention. We reviewed ADM thickness and time to Jackson-Pratt (JP drain removal. Results. Fifty-five patients underwent 77 ADM-associated tissue expander based breast reconstructions, with average age of 48.1 years and average BMI of 25.9. Average ADM thickness was 1.21 mm. We found higher complication rates in the thick ADM group. Significant associations were found between smokers and skin necrosis (p<0.0001 and seroma and prolonged JP drainage (p=0.0004; radiated reconstructed breasts were more likely to suffer infections (p=0.0085, and elevated BMI is a significant predictor for increased infection rate (p=0.0037. Conclusion. We found a trend toward increased complication rates with thicker ADMs. In the future, larger prospective studies evaluating thickness may provide more information.

  15. Immunohistochemical Expression of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 (Timp-1 in Invasive Breast Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suada Kuskunović

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 is a natural inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinas-es (MMPs. Aim of this study was to assess the immunohistochemical expression of TIMP-1 in invasive breast carcinomas, and to examine its association with classical clinico-pathological parameters, oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and Her-2/neu protein expression. Immuno-histochemistry was used to determine the expression of TIMP-1 on 38 paraffin-embedded breast tissue specimens - 18 with invasive ductal carcinoma, 10 with invasive lobular carcinoma, and 10 specimens from patients with fibrocystic breast disease. TIMP-1 protein was immunodetected in the carcinoma cells, fibroblasts and inflammatory cells of the stroma in 92,9%, 65,8%, and 65,8% of cases, respectively. TIMP-1 protein expression in carcinoma cells showed positive correlation with TIMP-1 protein expression in peritumoural fibroblasts (p=0,010. Positive peritumoural fibroblast TIMP-1 expression was associated with histological tumour type with higher frequency in ductal carcinomas (p=0,023. Negative association was found between TIMP-1 protein expression in carcinoma cells and HER-2/neu nuclear staining (p=0,005. TIMP-1 may be particularly useful as a predictive marker in breast carcinoma when evaluated along with HER-2/neu protein being a promising indicator of favourable prognosis in breast carcinoma.

  16. Systematic bias in genomic classification due to contaminating non-neoplastic tissue in breast tumor samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi, Fathi; Hu, Zhiyuan; Li, Yan; Parker, Joel S; Gulley, Margaret L; Amos, Keith D; Troester, Melissa A

    2011-06-30

    Genomic tests are available to predict breast cancer recurrence and to guide clinical decision making. These predictors provide recurrence risk scores along with a measure of uncertainty, usually a confidence interval. The confidence interval conveys random error and not systematic bias. Standard tumor sampling methods make this problematic, as it is common to have a substantial proportion (typically 30-50%) of a tumor sample comprised of histologically benign tissue. This "normal" tissue could represent a source of non-random error or systematic bias in genomic classification. To assess the performance characteristics of genomic classification to systematic error from normal contamination, we collected 55 tumor samples and paired tumor-adjacent normal tissue. Using genomic signatures from the tumor and paired normal, we evaluated how increasing normal contamination altered recurrence risk scores for various genomic predictors. Simulations of normal tissue contamination caused misclassification of tumors in all predictors evaluated, but different breast cancer predictors showed different types of vulnerability to normal tissue bias. While two predictors had unpredictable direction of bias (either higher or lower risk of relapse resulted from normal contamination), one signature showed predictable direction of normal tissue effects. Due to this predictable direction of effect, this signature (the PAM50) was adjusted for normal tissue contamination and these corrections improved sensitivity and negative predictive value. For all three assays quality control standards and/or appropriate bias adjustment strategies can be used to improve assay reliability. Normal tissue sampled concurrently with tumor is an important source of bias in breast genomic predictors. All genomic predictors show some sensitivity to normal tissue contamination and ideal strategies for mitigating this bias vary depending upon the particular genes and computational methods used in the predictor.

  17. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Novel Approaches to Breast Reconstruction: Their Suitability for Tissue Engineering and Oncological Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Niamh; Courtney, Donald; Kerin, Michael J; Lowery, Aoife J

    2017-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are rapidly becoming the gold standard cell source for tissue engineering strategies and hold great potential for novel breast reconstruction strategies. However, their use in patients with breast cancer is controversial and their oncological safety, particularly in relation to local disease recurrence, has been questioned. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies using ADSCs report conflicting data on their suitability for adipose tissue regeneration in patients with cancer. This review aims to provide an overview of the potential role for ADSCs in breast reconstruction and to examine the evidence relating to the oncologic safety of their use in patients with breast cancer.

  18. Immunohistochemical analysis of oxidative stress and DNA repair proteins in normal mammary and breast cancer tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Carol D; Thorngren, Daniel L; Nardulli, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    During the course of normal cellular metabolism, oxygen is consumed and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced. If not effectively dissipated, ROS can accumulate and damage resident proteins, lipids, and DNA. Enzymes involved in redox regulation and DNA repair dissipate ROS and repair the resulting damage in order to preserve a functional cellular environment. Because increased ROS accumulation and/or unrepaired DNA damage can lead to initiation and progression of cancer and we had identified a number of oxidative stress and DNA repair proteins that influence estrogen responsiveness of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, it seemed possible that these proteins might be differentially expressed in normal mammary tissue, benign hyperplasia (BH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast cancer (IBC). Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of a number of oxidative stress proteins, DNA repair proteins, and damage markers in 60 human mammary tissues which were classified as BH, DCIS or IBC. The relative mean intensity was determined for each tissue section and ANOVA was used to detect statistical differences in the relative expression of BH, DCIS and IBC compared to normal mammary tissue. We found that a number of these proteins were overexpressed and that the cellular localization was altered in human breast cancer tissue. Our studies suggest that oxidative stress and DNA repair proteins not only protect normal cells from the damaging effects of ROS, but may also promote survival of mammary tumor cells

  19. Quantitative Volumetric K-Means Cluster Segmentation of Fibroglandular Tissue and Skin in Breast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niukkanen, Anton; Arponen, Otso; Nykänen, Aki; Masarwah, Amro; Sutela, Anna; Liimatainen, Timo; Vanninen, Ritva; Sudah, Mazen

    2017-10-18

    Mammographic breast density (MBD) is the most commonly used method to assess the volume of fibroglandular tissue (FGT). However, MRI could provide a clinically feasible and more accurate alternative. There were three aims in this study: (1) to evaluate a clinically feasible method to quantify FGT with MRI, (2) to assess the inter-rater agreement of MRI-based volumetric measurements and (3) to compare them to measurements acquired using digital mammography and 3D tomosynthesis. This retrospective study examined 72 women (mean age 52.4 ± 12.3 years) with 105 disease-free breasts undergoing diagnostic 3.0-T breast MRI and either digital mammography or tomosynthesis. Two observers analyzed MRI images for breast and FGT volumes and FGT-% from T1-weighted images (0.7-, 2.0-, and 4.0-mm-thick slices) using K-means clustering, data from histogram, and active contour algorithms. Reference values were obtained with Quantra software. Inter-rater agreement for MRI measurements made with 2-mm-thick slices was excellent: for FGT-%, r = 0.994 (95% CI 0.990-0.997); for breast volume, r = 0.985 (95% CI 0.934-0.994); and for FGT volume, r = 0.979 (95% CI 0.958-0.989). MRI-based FGT-% correlated strongly with MBD in mammography (r = 0.819-0.904, P K-means clustering-based assessments of the proportion of the fibroglandular tissue in the breast at MRI are highly reproducible. In the future, quantitative assessment of FGT-% to complement visual estimation of FGT should be performed on a more regular basis as it provides a component which can be incorporated into the individual's breast cancer risk stratification.

  20. Modelling the electrical properties of tissue as a porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smye, S W; Evans, C J; Robinson, M P; Sleeman, B D

    2007-01-01

    Models of the electrical properties of biological tissue have been the subject of many studies. These models have sought to explain aspects of the dielectric dispersion of tissue. This paper develops a mathematical model of the complex permittivity of tissue as a function of frequency f, in the range 10 4 7 Hz, which is derived from a formulation used to describe the complex permittivity of porous media. The model introduces two parameters, porosity and percolation probability, to the description of the electrical properties of any tissue which comprises a random arrangement of cells. The complex permittivity for a plausible porosity and percolation probability distribution is calculated and compared with the published measured electrical properties of liver tissue. Broad agreement with the experimental data is noted. It is suggested that future detailed experimental measurements should be undertaken to validate the model. The model may be a more convenient method of parameterizing the electrical properties of biological tissue and subsequent measurement of these parameters in a range of tissues may yield information of biological and clinical significance

  1. Automated breast tissue density assessment using high order regional texture descriptors in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yan Nei; Lieng, Monica Keiko; Li, Jingmei; Khoo, David Aik-Aun

    2014-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer death among women in the US. The relative survival rate is lower among women with a more advanced stage at diagnosis. Early detection through screening is vital. Mammography is the most widely used and only proven screening method for reliably and effectively detecting abnormal breast tissues. In particular, mammographic density is one of the strongest breast cancer risk factors, after age and gender, and can be used to assess the future risk of disease before individuals become symptomatic. A reliable method for automatic density assessment would be beneficial and could assist radiologists in the evaluation of mammograms. To address this problem, we propose a density classification method which uses statistical features from different parts of the breast. Our method is composed of three parts: breast region identification, feature extraction and building ensemble classifiers for density assessment. It explores the potential of the features extracted from second and higher order statistical information for mammographic density classification. We further investigate the registration of bilateral pairs and time-series of mammograms. The experimental results on 322 mammograms demonstrate that (1) a classifier using features from dense regions has higher discriminative power than a classifier using only features from the whole breast region; (2) these high-order features can be effectively combined to boost the classification accuracy; (3) a classifier using these statistical features from dense regions achieves 75% accuracy, which is a significant improvement from 70% accuracy obtained by the existing approaches.

  2. The influence of freezing and tissue porosity on the material properties of vegetable tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralfs, Julie D

    2002-07-01

    Tissue porosity and fluid flow have been shown to be important parameters affecting the mechanical and sensorial behaviour of edible plant tissues. The quantity of fluid and the manner with which it was released on compression of the plant tissue were also important regarding the sensory perception and a good indication of any structural damage resulting from freezing, for example. Potato, carrot and Chinese water chestnut were used to study the effects freezing has on model plant tissues. Mechanical and structural measurements of the plant tissue were correlated with sensory analysis. Conventional freezing was shown to cause severe structural damage predominantly in the form of cavities between or through cells, resulting in decreases in mechanical strength and stiffness, and samples that were perceived in the mouth as 'soft' and 'wet'. The location and size of the cavities formed from ice crystals, depended on the particular plant tissue being frozen, the processing it was subjected to prior to freezing, the size of the sample and the cooling regime employed to freeze the tissue. Cavitation in the tissue resulted in an increase in tissue porosity, which enabled fluid to flow more easily from the tissue on compression, thus affecting the mechanical properties and sensory perception. Freezing damage to plant tissues was shown to be reduced, and sometimes prevented, when active antifreeze proteins (AFPs) were introduced into the tissues by vacuum infiltration or transformation and the tissue was frozen at a suitable cooling rate. Theoretical modelling was applied to the fluid flow and porosity data to test the validity of the models and to subsequently predict the mechanical behaviour of potato from the structural properties of the tissue. (author)

  3. The influence of freezing and tissue porosity on the material properties of vegetable tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralfs, Julie D.

    2002-01-01

    Tissue porosity and fluid flow have been shown to be important parameters affecting the mechanical and sensorial behaviour of edible plant tissues. The quantity of fluid and the manner with which it was released on compression of the plant tissue were also important regarding the sensory perception and a good indication of any structural damage resulting from freezing, for example. Potato, carrot and Chinese water chestnut were used to study the effects freezing has on model plant tissues. Mechanical and structural measurements of the plant tissue were correlated with sensory analysis. Conventional freezing was shown to cause severe structural damage predominantly in the form of cavities between or through cells, resulting in decreases in mechanical strength and stiffness, and samples that were perceived in the mouth as 'soft' and 'wet'. The location and size of the cavities formed from ice crystals, depended on the particular plant tissue being frozen, the processing it was subjected to prior to freezing, the size of the sample and the cooling regime employed to freeze the tissue. Cavitation in the tissue resulted in an increase in tissue porosity, which enabled fluid to flow more easily from the tissue on compression, thus affecting the mechanical properties and sensory perception. Freezing damage to plant tissues was shown to be reduced, and sometimes prevented, when active antifreeze proteins (AFPs) were introduced into the tissues by vacuum infiltration or transformation and the tissue was frozen at a suitable cooling rate. Theoretical modelling was applied to the fluid flow and porosity data to test the validity of the models and to subsequently predict the mechanical behaviour of potato from the structural properties of the tissue. (author)

  4. Using deep learning to segment breast and fibroglandular tissue in MRI volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmış, Mehmet Ufuk; Litjens, Geert; Holland, Katharina; Setio, Arnaud; Mann, Ritse; Karssemeijer, Nico; Gubern-Mérida, Albert

    2017-02-01

    Automated segmentation of breast and fibroglandular tissue (FGT) is required for various computer-aided applications of breast MRI. Traditional image analysis and computer vision techniques, such atlas, template matching, or, edge and surface detection, have been applied to solve this task. However, applicability of these methods is usually limited by the characteristics of the images used in the study datasets, while breast MRI varies with respect to the different MRI protocols used, in addition to the variability in breast shapes. All this variability, in addition to various MRI artifacts, makes it a challenging task to develop a robust breast and FGT segmentation method using traditional approaches. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the use of a deep-learning approach known as "U-net." We used a dataset of 66 breast MRI's randomly selected from our scientific archive, which includes five different MRI acquisition protocols and breasts from four breast density categories in a balanced distribution. To prepare reference segmentations, we manually segmented breast and FGT for all images using an in-house developed workstation. We experimented with the application of U-net in two different ways for breast and FGT segmentation. In the first method, following the same pipeline used in traditional approaches, we trained two consecutive (2C) U-nets: first for segmenting the breast in the whole MRI volume and the second for segmenting FGT inside the segmented breast. In the second method, we used a single 3-class (3C) U-net, which performs both tasks simultaneously by segmenting the volume into three regions: nonbreast, fat inside the breast, and FGT inside the breast. For comparison, we applied two existing and published methods to our dataset: an atlas-based method and a sheetness-based method. We used Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) to measure the performances of the automated methods, with respect to the manual segmentations. Additionally, we computed

  5. Silicone-based composite materials simulate breast tissue to be used as ultrasonography training phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustbas, Burcin; Kilic, Deniz; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Aribal, Mustafa Erkin; Akbulut, Ozge

    2018-03-02

    A silicone-based composite breast phantom is fabricated to be used as an education model in ultrasonography training. A matrix of silicone formulations is tracked to mimic the ultrasonography and tactile response of human breast tissue. The performance of two different additives: (i) silicone oil and (ii) vinyl-terminated poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) are monitored by a home-made acoustic setup. Through the use of 75 wt% vinyl-terminated PDMS in two-component silicone elastomer mixture, a sound velocity of 1.29 ± 0.09 × 10 3  m/s and an attenuation coefficient of 12.99 ± 0.08 dB/cm-values those match closely to the human breast tissue-are measured with 5 MHz probe. This model can also be used for needle biopsy as well as for self-exam trainings. Herein, we highlight the fabrication of a realistic, durable, accessible, and cost-effective training platform that contains skin layer, inner breast tissue, and tumor masses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Cancer Grafted in Aberrant Breast Tissue Cáncer injertado en tejido mamario aberrante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Torres Ajá

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the anomalies during embryonic development of the breasts we may find supernumerary breasts and aberrant ectopic tissue. In both of them, malignant tumors of the breast can proliferate, mostly in aberrant tissue. We present the case of a female patient aged 73, who refers to have always had a "little mammary gland in the left submammary that never caused discomfort to the last two months when its volume increased and the skin retracted". Excisional biopsy allowed diagnosing an infiltrating ductal carcinoma, the first case of carcinoma grafted in aberrant breast tissue diagnosed in the province.

    Entre las anomalías del desarrollo embrionario de las mamas se encuentran las mamas supernumerarias y el tejido ectópico aberrante. Ambas pueden ser asiento de tumores malignos de la mama, en mayor número  el tejido aberrante. Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 73 años, que refiere tiene desde siempre una “mamita pequeña en el surco submamario izquierdo la cual nunca le ocasiono molestias hasta hace 2 meses en que aumentó de volumen y se le retrajo la piel". Mediante biopsia escisional se le diagnostica un carcinoma ductal infiltrante, siendo así  el primer caso de carcinoma injertado en tejido mamario aberrante diagnosticado en nuestra provincia.

  7. Two-Stage Tissue-Expander Breast Reconstruction: A Focus on the Surgical Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bellini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Breast cancer, the most common malignancy in women, comprises 18% of all female cancers. Mastectomy is an essential intervention to save lives, but it can destroy one’s body image, causing both physical and psychological trauma. Reconstruction is an important step in restoring patient quality of life after the mutilating treatment. Material and Methods. Tissue expanders and implants are now commonly used in breast reconstruction. Autologous reconstruction allows a better aesthetic result; however, many patients prefer implant reconstruction due to the shorter operation time and lack of donor site morbidity. Moreover, this reconstruction strategy is safe and can be performed in patients with multiple health problems. Tissue-expander reconstruction is conventionally performed as a two-stage procedure starting immediately after mammary gland removal. Results. Mastectomy is a destructive but essential intervention for women with breast cancer. Tissue expansion breast reconstruction is a safe, reliable, and efficacious procedure with considerable psychological benefits since it provides a healthy body image. Conclusion. This article focuses on this surgical technique and how to achieve the best reconstruction possible.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of residual breast tissue following mastectomy and reconstruction with silicone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippel, Douglas; Tsehmaister-Abitbol, Vered; Rundstein, Arie; Shalmon, Anat; Zbar, Andrew; Nardini, Gil; Novikov, Ilya; Sklair-Levy, Miri

    2015-01-01

    We present our use of magnetic resonance (MR) measurement to determine the amount of residual breast tissue (RBT) following total mastectomy with reconstruction. Breast MR images of 45 women who underwent surgery between January and November 2011 were reviewed. The cohort included therapeutic and prophylactic mastectomies. RBT was evaluated at four points with a digital caliper assessing T2-weighted and T1-weighted images. Patients undergoing mastectomy for carcinoma tended to have less RBT than in prophylactic surgery. Greater age and recent surgery both correlated with larger RBT. Variable thickness of RBT is demonstrable following mastectomy and implant reconstruction using MR imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Conjugated linoleic acid induces apoptosis through estrogen receptor alpha in human breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Suling

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a naturally occurring fatty acid found in ruminant products such as milk and beef, has been shown to possess anti-cancer activities in in vivo animal models and in vitro cell culture systems. In human breast cancer, the overall duration of estrogen exposure is the most important risk factor for developing estrogen-responsive breast cancer. Accordingly, it has been suggested that estrogen exposure reduces apoptosis through the up-regulation of the anti-apoptosis protein, Bcl-2. Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, regulates apoptosis and plays a crucial role in the development and growth regulation of normal and cancerous cells. Our research interest is to examine the effects of CLA on the induction of apoptosis in human breast tissues. Methods The localization of Bcl-2 in both normal and cancerous human breast tissues was determined by immunohistochemical staining and the Bcl-2 protein expression was tested by western blot analysis. Co-culture of epithelial cells and stromal cells was carried out in the presence or absence of CLA to evaluate apoptosis in the context of a cell-cell interaction. Results The results showed that both normal and cancerous breast tissues were positive for Bcl-2 staining, which was higher overall in mammary ducts but very low in the surrounding stromal compartment. Interestingly, by quantifying the western blot data, basal Bcl-2 protein levels were higher in normal breast epithelial cells than in cancerous epithelial cells. Furthermore, treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2 stimulated growth and up-regulated Bcl-2 expression in estrogen responsive breast epithelial cells; however, these carcinogenic effects were diminished by either CLA or 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (Tam and were suppressed further by the combination of CLA and Tam. In both one cell type cultured and co-culture systems, CLA induced cell apoptosis in ERα transfected MDA-MB-231 cells but not in the wild type MDA

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid induces apoptosis through estrogen receptor alpha in human breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-Shu; Huang, Yi-Wen; Liu, Suling; Yan, Pearlly; Lin, Young C

    2008-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a naturally occurring fatty acid found in ruminant products such as milk and beef, has been shown to possess anti-cancer activities in in vivo animal models and in vitro cell culture systems. In human breast cancer, the overall duration of estrogen exposure is the most important risk factor for developing estrogen-responsive breast cancer. Accordingly, it has been suggested that estrogen exposure reduces apoptosis through the up-regulation of the anti-apoptosis protein, Bcl-2. Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, regulates apoptosis and plays a crucial role in the development and growth regulation of normal and cancerous cells. Our research interest is to examine the effects of CLA on the induction of apoptosis in human breast tissues. The localization of Bcl-2 in both normal and cancerous human breast tissues was determined by immunohistochemical staining and the Bcl-2 protein expression was tested by western blot analysis. Co-culture of epithelial cells and stromal cells was carried out in the presence or absence of CLA to evaluate apoptosis in the context of a cell-cell interaction. The results showed that both normal and cancerous breast tissues were positive for Bcl-2 staining, which was higher overall in mammary ducts but very low in the surrounding stromal compartment. Interestingly, by quantifying the western blot data, basal Bcl-2 protein levels were higher in normal breast epithelial cells than in cancerous epithelial cells. Furthermore, treatment with 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) stimulated growth and up-regulated Bcl-2 expression in estrogen responsive breast epithelial cells; however, these carcinogenic effects were diminished by either CLA or 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (Tam) and were suppressed further by the combination of CLA and Tam. In both one cell type cultured and co-culture systems, CLA induced cell apoptosis in ERα transfected MDA-MB-231 cells but not in the wild type MDA-MB-231 cells. These data, therefore, demonstrate that

  11. Raising an Antibody Specific to Breast Cancer Subpopulations Using Phage Display on Tissue Sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Asbjørn; Meldgaard, Theresa; Fridriksdottir, Agla Jael Rubner

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Primary tumors display a great level of intra-tumor heterogeneity in breast cancer. The current lack of prognostic and predictive biomarkers limits accurate stratification and the ability to predict response to therapy. The aim of the present study was to select recombinant antibody...... fragments specific against breast cancer subpopulations, aiding the discovery of novel biomarkers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recombinant antibody fragments were selected by phage display. A novel shadowstick technology enabled the direct selection using tissue sections of antibody fragments specific against...

  12. Impact of fibroglandular tissue and background parenchymal enhancement on diffusion weighted imaging of breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacconi, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.iacconi@tin.it [Breast Unit, USL1 Massa-Carrara, Piazza Monzoni 2, Carrara 54033 (Italy); Thakur, Sunitha B., E-mail: thakurs@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Dershaw, David D., E-mail: dershawd@mskcc.org [Department of Radiology – Breast Imaging Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Brooks, Jennifer, E-mail: brooksj@mskcc.org [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 307 East 63rd Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Fry, Charles W., E-mail: charles_fry@nymc.edu [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Morris, Elizabeth A., E-mail: morrise@mskcc.org [Department of Radiology – Breast Imaging Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Aim of the paper is to evaluate if the amount of fibroglandular breast tissue (FGT) and the background enhancement(BPE) influence the detection of lesions and their quantitative analysis in diffusion weighted imaging(DWI) • The structure of the breast, including both FGT and BPE, as well as the menopausal status of the patient are not a relevant factor for lesion identification in DWI. • Quantitative analysis of normal breast is not uniform and is influenced by the amount of fibroglandular tissue,while there is no influence of background parenchymal enhancement. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the influence of the amount of fibroglandular breast tissue (FGT) and background-parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on lesion detection, quantitative analysis of normal breast tissue and of breast lesions on DWI. Materials and methods: IRB approved this retrospective study on focal findings at contrast-enhanced (CE) breast MR and DWI performed during July–December 2011. Patients with cysts, previous irradiation, silicone implants and current chemotherapy were excluded. DWI with fat suppression was acquired before dynamic acquisition (b factors: 0.1000 s/mm{sup 2}) using 1.5 and 3 T scanners. Using correlation with dynamic and T2 images, ROIs were drawn free-hand within the borders of any visible lesion and in contralateral normal breast. Fisher's exact test to evaluate visibility and Wilcoxon-rank-sum test for comparison of ADC values were used. The amount of FGT and BPE was visually assessed by concurrent MRI. Analysis was stratified by menopausal status. Results: 25/127 (20%) lesions were excluded for technical reasons. 65/102 (64%) lesions were visible on DWI (median diameter: 1.85 cm). Mass lesions (M) were more visible (43/60 = 72%) than non-mass enhancement (NME) (22/42 = 52%) and malignant lesions were more visible (55/72 = 76%) than benign (10/30 = 33%). BPE and FGT did not influence visibility of M (p = 0.35 and p = 0.57 respectively) as well

  13. Development and Feasibility Testing of Image-Guided Minimally Invasive Tissue for Diagnosis Treatment of Benign and Malignant Breast Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Stefanie S.

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Robert Mah and Dr. Stefanie Jeffrey worked on the development of the NASA Smart Probe in its application as a device to measure and interpret physiologic and image-based parameters of breast tissue. To date the following has been achieved: 1 . Choice of candidate sensors to be tested in breast tissue. 2. Preliminary designs for probe tip, specifically use of different tip shapes, cutting edges, and sensor configuration. 3. Design of sonographic guidance system. 4. Design of data extraction and analysis tool using scanned information of images of the breast tissue to provide a higher dimension of information for breast tissue characterization and interpretation. 5. Initial ex-vivo (fruit and tofu) and in-vivo (rodent) testing to confirm unique substance and tissue characterization by the Smart Probe software.

  14. Abnormal antigens in breast cancer tissues and production of monoclonal antibodies against one of these antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M. E. A.

    2010-02-01

    Breast cancer is associated with up regulation, down regulation of normal antigens or abnormal antigens. These antigens are very useful candidates as targets for the different breast cancer therapies and for vaccination trials. This study was done to characterize abnormal antigens, extract one of them and to produce monoclonal antibodies against the extracted antigen. One hundred and twenty Sudanese female patients were included in this study after informed consent. The mean age was 47. 2 years (16-80). Two tissue samples were obtained from each patient and they were confirmed as normal and cancerous breast tissues microscopically. 2D PAGE was used to analyze the protein content of samples. LC/MS and nr. fast a database search were used for separation and indentification of the abnormal proteins. Three different patterns of 2D Page results were obtained, the first pattern involved detection of four abnormal proteins in 26.7% of the patient cancerous tissues while they were undetected in the normal tissues of the same patients. In the second 2D PAGE result pattern the cancerous and the normal tissues of 67.5% patients were identical and they did not contain the four abnormal proteins while the third 2D PAGE pattern involved the presence of two abnormal antigens (from the four) in the cancerous tissues of 5.8% of the patients and they were absent from the normal tissues of the same patients. The four abnormal proteins were identified as, human Thioredoxin (D60nmutant), x-ray crystal structure of human galectin-1, retrocopy of tropomyosin 3(rc TPM3) and beta-tropomyosin (isoform 2). The primary and the secondary structures were obtained from the SWISSPROT and the PDB databases. Beta tropomyosin spot was extracted and used as antigen for monoclonal antibody production. Monoclonal antibody against beta- tropomyosin with a concentration of 0.35 mg/ml and a G11 anti beta-tropomyosin hybridoma cell line were produced. The monoclonal antibody was with single bad and

  15. Abnormal antigens in breast cancer tissues and production of monoclonal antibodies against one of these antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, M E. A. [University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2010-02-15

    Breast cancer is associated with up regulation, down regulation of normal antigens or abnormal antigens. These antigens are very useful candidates as targets for the different breast cancer therapies and for vaccination trials. This study was done to characterize abnormal antigens, extract one of them and to produce monoclonal antibodies against the extracted antigen. One hundred and twenty Sudanese female patients were included in this study after informed consent. The mean age was 47. 2 years (16-80). Two tissue samples were obtained from each patient and they were confirmed as normal and cancerous breast tissues microscopically. 2D PAGE was used to analyze the protein content of samples. LC/MS and nr. fast a database search were used for separation and indentification of the abnormal proteins. Three different patterns of 2D Page results were obtained, the first pattern involved detection of four abnormal proteins in 26.7% of the patient cancerous tissues while they were undetected in the normal tissues of the same patients. In the second 2D PAGE result pattern the cancerous and the normal tissues of 67.5% patients were identical and they did not contain the four abnormal proteins while the third 2D PAGE pattern involved the presence of two abnormal antigens (from the four) in the cancerous tissues of 5.8% of the patients and they were absent from the normal tissues of the same patients. The four abnormal proteins were identified as, human Thioredoxin (D60nmutant), x-ray crystal structure of human galectin-1, retrocopy of tropomyosin 3(rc TPM3) and beta-tropomyosin (isoform 2). The primary and the secondary structures were obtained from the SWISSPROT and the PDB databases. Beta tropomyosin spot was extracted and used as antigen for monoclonal antibody production. Monoclonal antibody against beta- tropomyosin with a concentration of 0.35 mg/ml and a G11 anti beta-tropomyosin hybridoma cell line were produced. The monoclonal antibody was with single bad and

  16. X-ray scattering for the characterization of lyophilized breast tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshemey, Wael M.; Mohamed, Fayrouz S.; Khater, Ibrahim M.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the possibility of characterizing breast cancer by measuring the X-ray scattering profiles of lyophilized excised breast tissue samples. Since X-ray scattering from water-rich tissue is dominated by scattering from water, the removal of water by lyophilization would enhance the characterization process. In the present study, X-ray scattering profiles of 22 normal, 22 malignant and 10 benign breast tissue samples are measured. The cut-offs of scatter diagrams, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of three characterization parameters (full width at half maximum (FWHM) for the peak at 1.1 nm −1 , area under curve (AUC), and ratio of 1st to 2nd scattering peak intensities (I 1 /I 2 %)) are calculated and compared to the data from non-lyophilized samples. Results show increased sensitivity (up to 100%) of the present data on lyophilized breast tissue samples compared to previously reported data for non-lyophilized samples while the specificity (up to 95.4%), diagnostic accuracy (up to 95.4%) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve values (up to 0.9979) for both sets of data are comparable. The present study shows significant differences between normal samples and each of malignant and benign samples. Only subtle differences exist between malignant and benign lyophilized breast tissue samples where FWHM=0.7±0.1 and 0.8±0.3, AUC=1.3±0.2 and 1.4±0.2 and I 1 /I 2 %=44.9±11.0 and 52.4±7.6 for malignant and benign samples respectively. - Highlights: • X-ray scattering profiles of breast tissue samples are acquired. • Three X-ray profile characterization parameters are calculated. • The cut-offs, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy are calculated. • They are compared to the data from non-lyophilized samples. • Results show increased sensitivity in case of lyophilized samples

  17. Acquiring molecular interference functions of X-ray coherent scattering for breast tissues by combination of simulation and experimental methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparian, A.; Oghabian, M. A.; Changizi, V.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, it has been indicated that X-ray coherent scatter from biological tissues can be used to access signature of tissue. Some scientists are interested in studying this effect to get early detection of breast cancer. Since experimental methods for optimization are time consuming and expensive, some scientists suggest using simulation. Monte Carlo codes are the best option for radiation simulation: however, one permanent defect with Monte Carlo codes has been the lack of a sufficient physical model for coherent (Rayleigh) scattering, including molecular interference effects. Materials and Methods: It was decided to obtain molecular interference functions of coherent X-ray scattering for normal breast tissues by combination of modeling and experimental methods. A Monte Carlo simulation program was written to simulate the angular distribution of scattered photons for the normal breast tissue samples. Moreover, experimental diffraction patterns of these tissues were measured by means of energy dispersive X-ray diffraction method. The simulation and experimental data were used to obtain a tabulation of molecular interference functions for breast tissues. Results: With this study a tabulation of molecular interference functions for normal breast tissues Was prepared to facilitate the simulation diffraction patterns of the tissues without any experimental. Conclusion: The method may lead to design new systems for early detection of breast cancer.

  18. Relaxation time of normal breast tissues. Changes with age and variations during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, K.I.; Majurin, M.L.; Komu, M.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of age on the relaxation times of normal breast parenchyma and its surrounding fatty tissue were evaluated, and the variations during a normal menstrual cycle were analyzed using an ultra low field 0.02 T imager. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers aged 21 to 59 years were examined to determine T1 and T2 relaxation times, and 8 of these volunteers were studied once weekly during one menstrual cycle. The only significant trend was an increase in the T2 of breast parenchyma with increasing age. During the menstrual cycle there was a slight but insignificant (p=0.10) increase in T1 of the breast parenchyma values during the latter half of the menstrual cycle, and a corresponding increase in T2 values between the 2nd and 3rd weeks of the menstrual cycle, which was significant. (orig.)

  19. Relaxation time of normal breast tissues. Changes with age and variations during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, K.I. (University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Majurin, M.L. (University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Komu, M. (University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1994-05-01

    The influence of age on the relaxation times of normal breast parenchyma and its surrounding fatty tissue were evaluated, and the variations during a normal menstrual cycle were analyzed using an ultra low field 0.02 T imager. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers aged 21 to 59 years were examined to determine T1 and T2 relaxation times, and 8 of these volunteers were studied once weekly during one menstrual cycle. The only significant trend was an increase in the T2 of breast parenchyma with increasing age. During the menstrual cycle there was a slight but insignificant (p=0.10) increase in T1 of the breast parenchyma values during the latter half of the menstrual cycle, and a corresponding increase in T2 values between the 2nd and 3rd weeks of the menstrual cycle, which was significant. (orig.).

  20. Aleukemic granulocytic sarcoma presenting at multiple sites: ovary, breast and soft tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Singh Nigam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An 18 year old female presented with the history of pain in abdomen, breast engorgement, swelling over both legs and breathlessness for three month. On clinical examination diagnosis of fibroadenoma breast was made. Ultrasonography of abdomen showed bilateral ovarian mass. Bilateral salpingo-ophrectomy was done and specimen was sent for histological examination. Two lobulated solid masses of tissues the larger one measuring 13x8x5 cm and smaller one measuring 10x7x5 cm in size received. Microscopic examination showed monomorphic population of discohesive, hyperchromatic small round cells had high N:C ratio, coarse chromatin, conspicuous nucleoli and scant to moderate amount of basophilic cytoplasm, lying in sheets and separated by fibrous strands and diffusely infiltrating the ovarian stroma. Fine needle aspiration from breast lump and leg swelling showed predominant population of blast cells. Myeloperoxidase was strongly positive and diagnosis of granulocytic sarcoma was confirmed.

  1. Large-scale proteomic identification of S100 proteins in breast cancer tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancemi, Patrizia; Di Cara, Gianluca; Albanese, Nadia Ninfa; Costantini, Francesca; Marabeti, Maria Rita; Musso, Rosa; Lupo, Carmelo; Roz, Elena; Pucci-Minafra, Ida

    2010-01-01

    Attempts to reduce morbidity and mortality in breast cancer is based on efforts to identify novel biomarkers to support prognosis and therapeutic choices. The present study has focussed on S100 proteins as a potentially promising group of markers in cancer development and progression. One reason of interest in this family of proteins is because the majority of the S100 genes are clustered on a region of human chromosome 1q21 that is prone to genomic rearrangements. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that S100 proteins are often up-regulated in many cancers, including breast, and this is frequently associated with tumour progression. Samples of breast cancer tissues were obtained during surgical intervention, according to the bioethical recommendations, and cryo-preserved until used. Tissue extracts were submitted to proteomic preparations for 2D-IPG. Protein identification was performed by N-terminal sequencing and/or peptide mass finger printing. The majority of the detected S100 proteins were absent, or present at very low levels, in the non-tumoral tissues adjacent to the primary tumor. This finding strengthens the role of S100 proteins as putative biomarkers. The proteomic screening of 100 cryo-preserved breast cancer tissues showed that some proteins were ubiquitously expressed in almost all patients while others appeared more sporadic. Most, if not all, of the detected S100 members appeared reciprocally correlated. Finally, from the perspective of biomarkers establishment, a promising finding was the observation that patients which developed distant metastases after a three year follow-up showed a general tendency of higher S100 protein expression, compared to the disease-free group. This article reports for the first time the comparative proteomic screening of several S100 protein members among a large group of breast cancer patients. The results obtained strongly support the hypothesis that a significant deregulation of multiple S100 protein members is

  2. YAP expression in normal and neoplastic breast tissue: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Rodríguez, Yolanda; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Ruiz-Ramos, Ruben; López-Márquez, Francisco C; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura

    2014-04-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a transcriptional factor involved in normal cell proliferation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis; however, its contribution to breast cancer (BC) is still controversial. We undertook this study to compare the expression of YAP by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in normal breast tissue of women without breast cancer (BC) (controls), non-neoplastic breast tissue in women with cancer (internal controls) and in four different subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma. There were 17 controls and 105 tumor cases (53 luminal A, 15 luminal B, 20 overexpression of HER2 and 17 triple negative cases) studied by IHC. Statistical analysis included χ(2) for linear trend (Extended Mantel-Haenszel). There were 40% of internal controls that showed expression of YAP in myoepithelial cells, whereas in controls expression was 100%. In controls, 3/17 (17.6%) showed cytoplasmic staining in luminal cells. There was a significant difference in nuclear expression between the ductal BC subtypes. Luminal A had 4% of positive cases with <10% of cells affected in each case; in contrast, there were 17-20% of positive cases in the other groups with 50% or more of stained cells. YAP expression in stromal cells was not observed in controls or in triple-negative cases, and luminal B pattern had the highest YAP nuclear expression (20%). YAP showed decreased expression in tumor cells compared with normal breast tissue. These findings are consistent with a role of YAP as a suppressor gene in BC and show differences in YAP expression in different patterns of ductal BC. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Does acellular dermal matrix really improve aesthetic outcome in tissue expander/implant-based breast reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Koolen, Pieter G L; Ganor, Oren; Markarian, Mark K; Tobias, Adam M; Lee, Bernard T; Lin, Samuel J; Mureau, Marc A M

    2015-06-01

    The expectation for improved results by women undergoing postmastectomy reconstruction has steadily risen. A majority of these operations are tissue expander/implant-based breast reconstructions. Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) offers numerous advantages in these procedures. Thus far, the evidence to justify improved aesthetic outcome has solely been based on surgeon opinion. The purpose of this study was to assess aesthetic outcome following ADM use in tissue expander/implant-based breast reconstruction by a panel of blinded plastic surgeons. Mean aesthetic results of patients who underwent tissue expander/implant-based breast reconstruction with (n = 18) or without ADM (n = 20) were assessed with objective grading of preoperative and postoperative photographs by five independent blinded plastic surgeons. Absolute observed agreement as well as weighted Fleiss Kappa (κ) test statistics were calculated to assess inter-rater variability. When ADM was incorporated, the overall aesthetic score was improved by an average of 12.1 %. In addition, subscale analyses revealed improvements in breast contour (35.2 %), implant placement (20.7 %), lower pole projection (16.7 %), and inframammary fold definition (13.8 %). Contour (p = 0.039), implant placement (p = 0.021), and overall aesthetic score (p = 0.022) reached statistical significance. Inter-rater reliability showed mostly moderate agreement. Mean aesthetic scores were higher in the ADM-assisted breast reconstruction cohort including the total aesthetic score which was statistically significant. Aesthetic outcome alone may justify the added expense of incorporating biologic mesh. Moreover, ADM has other benefits which may render it cost-effective. Larger prospective studies are needed to provide plastic surgeons with more definitive guidelines for ADM use. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the

  4. Depth profiling of calcifications in breast tissue using picosecond Kerr-gated Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rebecca; Matousek, Pavel; Ronayne, Kate Louise; Parker, Anthony William; Rogers, Keith; Stone, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    Breast calcifications are found in both benign and malignant lesions and their composition can indicate the disease state. Calcium oxalate (dihydrate) (COD) is associated with benign lesions, however calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP) is found mainly in proliferative lesions including carcinoma. The diagnostic practices of mammography and histopathology examine the morphology of the specimen. They can not reliably distinguish between the two types of calcification, which may indicate the presence of a cancerous lesion during mammography. We demonstrate for the first time that Kerr-gated Raman spectroscopy is capable of non-destructive probing of sufficient biochemical information from calcifications buried within tissue, and this information can potentially be used as a first step in identifying the type of lesion. The method uses a picosecond pulsed laser combined with fast temporal gating of Raman scattered light to enable spectra to be collected from a specific depth within scattering media by collecting signals emerging from the sample at a given time delay following the laser pulse. Spectra characteristic of both HAP and COD were obtained at depths of up to 0.96 mm, in both chicken breast and fatty tissue; and normal and cancerous human breast by utilising different time delays. This presents great potential for the use of Raman spectroscopy as an adjunct to mammography in the early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  5. Hormonal regulation of epithelial organization in a three-dimensional breast tissue culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speroni, Lucia; Whitt, Gregory S; Xylas, Joanna; Quinn, Kyle P; Jondeau-Cabaton, Adeline; Barnes, Clifford; Georgakoudi, Irene; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of hormone target breast cells in the 1970's resulted in suitable models for the study of hormone control of cell proliferation and gene expression using two-dimensional (2D) cultures. However, to study mammogenesis and breast tumor development in vitro, cells must be able to organize in three-dimensional (3D) structures like in the tissue. We now report the development of a hormone-sensitive 3D culture model for the study of mammogenesis and neoplastic development. Hormone-sensitive T47D breast cancer cells respond to estradiol in a dose-dependent manner by forming complex epithelial structures. Treatment with the synthetic progestagen promegestone, in the presence of estradiol, results in flat epithelial structures that display cytoplasmic projections, a phenomenon reported to precede side-branching. Additionally, as in the mammary gland, treatment with prolactin in the presence of estradiol induces budding structures. These changes in epithelial organization are accompanied by collagen remodeling. Collagen is the major acellular component of the breast stroma and an important player in tumor development and progression. Quantitative analysis of second harmonic generation of collagen fibers revealed that collagen density was more variable surrounding budding and irregularly shaped structures when compared to more regular structures; suggesting that fiber organization in the former is more anisotropic than in the latter. In sum, this new 3D model recapitulates morphogenetic events modulated by mammogenic hormones in the breast, and is suitable for the evaluation of therapeutic agents.

  6. Next Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer Tissue Specimens for Enhanced Clinical Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH- 14-1-0192 TITLE: Next-Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer...DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Next-Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer Tissue

  7. A new test phantom with different breast tissue compositions for image quality assessment in conventional and digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachoud, Marc; Lepori, D; Valley, Jean-Francois; Verdun, Francis R

    2004-01-01

    Our objective is to describe a new test phantom that permits the objective assessment of image quality in conventional and digital mammography for different types of breast tissue. A test phantom, designed to represent a compressed breast, was made from tissue equivalent materials. Three separate regions, with different breast tissue compositions, are used to evaluate low and high contrast resolution, spatial resolution and image noise. The phantom was imaged over a range of kV using a Contour 2000 (Bennett) mammography unit with a Kodak MinR 2190-MinR L screen-film combination and a Senograph 2000D (General Electric) digital mammography unit. Objective image quality assessments for different breast tissue compositions were performed using the phantom for conventional and digital mammography. For a similar mean glandular dose (MGD), the digital system gives a significantly higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) than the screen-film system for 100% glandular tissue. In conclusion, in mammography, a range of exposure conditions is used for imaging because of the different breast tissue compositions encountered clinically. Ideally, the patient dose-image quality relationship should be optimized over the range of exposure conditions. The test phantom presented in this work permits image quality parameters to be evaluated objectively for three different types of breast tissue. Thus, it is a useful tool for optimizing the patient dose-image quality relationship

  8. Preliminary study of human breast tissue using synchrotron radiation combining WAXS and SAXS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, A.L.C.; Antoniassi, M.; Poletti, M.E.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2010-01-01

    Using synchrotron radiation, we combined simultaneously wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques to obtain the scattering profiles of normal and neoplastic breast tissues samples at the momentum transfer range 6.28 nm -1 ≤Q(=4π.sin(θ/2)/λ)≤50.26 nm -1 and 0.15 nm -1 ≤Q≤1.90 nm -1 , respectively. The results obtained show considerable differences between the scattering profiles of these tissues. We verified that the combination of some parameters (ratio between glandular and adipose peak intensity and third-order axial peak intensity) extracted from scattering profiles can be used for identifying breast cancer.

  9. Does Three-Dimensional External Beam Partial Breast Irradiation Spare Lung Tissue Compared With Standard Whole Breast Irradiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Anudh K.; Vallow, Laura A.; Gale, Ashley A.; Buskirk, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether three-dimensional conformal partial breast irradiation (3D-PBI) spares lung tissue compared with whole breast irradiation (WBI) and to include the biologically equivalent dose (BED) to account for differences in fractionation. Methods and Materials: Radiotherapy treatment plans were devised for WBI and 3D-PBI for 25 consecutive patients randomized on the NSABP B-39/RTOG 0413 protocol at Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida. WBI plans were for 50 Gy in 25 fractions, and 3D-PBI plans were for 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. Volume of ipsilateral lung receiving 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 Gy was recorded for each plan. The linear quadratic equation was used to calculate the corresponding dose delivered in 10 fractions and volume of ipsilateral lung receiving these doses was recorded for PBI plans. Ipsilateral mean lung dose was recorded for each plan and converted to BED. Results: There was a significant decrease in volume of lung receiving 20 Gy with PBI (median, 4.4% vs. 7.5%; p 3 vs 4.85 Gy 3 , p = 0.07). PBI plans exposed more lung to 2.5 and 5 Gy. Conclusions: 3D-PBI exposes greater volumes of lung tissue to low doses of radiation and spares the amount of lung receiving higher doses when compared with WBI.

  10. Monitoring Dynamic Interactions between Breast Cancer Cells and Human Bone Tissue in a Co-Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contag, Christopher H.; Lie, Wen-Rong; Bammer, Marie C.; Hardy, Jonathan W.; Schmidt, Tobi L.; Maloney, William J.; King, Bonnie L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bone is a preferential site of breast cancer metastasis and models are needed to study this process at the level of the microenvironment. We have used bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and multiplex biomarker immunoassays to monitor dynamic breast cancer cell behaviors in co-culture with human bone tissue. Procedures Femur tissue fragments harvested from hip replacement surgeries were co-cultured with luciferase-positive MDA-MB-231-fLuc cells. BLI was performed to quantify breast cell division and track migration relative to bone tissue. Breast cell colonization of bone tissues was assessed with immunohistochemistry. Biomarkers in co-culture supernatants were profiled with MILLIPLEX® immunoassays. Results BLI demonstrated increased MDA-MB-231-fLuc proliferation (pbones, and revealed breast cell migration toward bone. Immunohistochemistry illustrated MDA-MB-231-fLuc colonization of bone, and MILLIPLEX® profiles of culture supernatants suggested breast/bone crosstalk. Conclusions Breast cell behaviors that facilitate metastasis occur reproducibly in human bone tissue co-cultures and can be monitored and quantified using BLI and multiplex immunoassays. PMID:24008275

  11. The use of Compton scattering to differentiate between classifications of normal and diseased breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Elaine A; Farquharson, Michael J; Flinton, David M [School of Allied Health Sciences, City University, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6PA (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-21

    This study describes a technique for measuring the electron density of breast tissue utilizing Compton scattered photons. The K{sub {alpha}}{sub 2} line from a tungsten target industrial x-ray tube (57.97 keV) was used and the scattered x-rays collected at an angle of 30{sup 0}. At this angle the Compton and coherent photon peaks can be resolved using an energy dispersive detector and a peak fitting algorithm. The system was calibrated using solutions of known electron density. The results obtained from a pilot study of 22 tissues are presented. The tissue samples investigated comprise four different tissue classifications: adipose, malignancy, fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change (FCC). It is shown that there is a difference between adipose and malignant tissue, to a value of 9.0%, and between adipose and FCC, to a value of 12.7%. These figures are found to be significant by statistical analysis. The differences between adipose and fibroadenoma tissues (2.2%) and between malignancy and FCC (3.4%) are not significant. It is hypothesized that the alteration in glucose uptake within malignant cells may cause these tissues to have an elevated electron density. The fibrotic nature of tissue that has undergone FCC gives the highest measure of all tissue types.

  12. The use of Compton scattering to differentiate between classifications of normal and diseased breast tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Elaine A.; Farquharson, Michael J.; Flinton, David M.

    2005-07-01

    This study describes a technique for measuring the electron density of breast tissue utilizing Compton scattered photons. The Kα2 line from a tungsten target industrial x-ray tube (57.97 keV) was used and the scattered x-rays collected at an angle of 30°. At this angle the Compton and coherent photon peaks can be resolved using an energy dispersive detector and a peak fitting algorithm. The system was calibrated using solutions of known electron density. The results obtained from a pilot study of 22 tissues are presented. The tissue samples investigated comprise four different tissue classifications: adipose, malignancy, fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change (FCC). It is shown that there is a difference between adipose and malignant tissue, to a value of 9.0%, and between adipose and FCC, to a value of 12.7%. These figures are found to be significant by statistical analysis. The differences between adipose and fibroadenoma tissues (2.2%) and between malignancy and FCC (3.4%) are not significant. It is hypothesized that the alteration in glucose uptake within malignant cells may cause these tissues to have an elevated electron density. The fibrotic nature of tissue that has undergone FCC gives the highest measure of all tissue types.

  13. The use of Compton scattering to differentiate between classifications of normal and diseased breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Elaine A; Farquharson, Michael J; Flinton, David M

    2005-01-01

    This study describes a technique for measuring the electron density of breast tissue utilizing Compton scattered photons. The K α2 line from a tungsten target industrial x-ray tube (57.97 keV) was used and the scattered x-rays collected at an angle of 30 0 . At this angle the Compton and coherent photon peaks can be resolved using an energy dispersive detector and a peak fitting algorithm. The system was calibrated using solutions of known electron density. The results obtained from a pilot study of 22 tissues are presented. The tissue samples investigated comprise four different tissue classifications: adipose, malignancy, fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change (FCC). It is shown that there is a difference between adipose and malignant tissue, to a value of 9.0%, and between adipose and FCC, to a value of 12.7%. These figures are found to be significant by statistical analysis. The differences between adipose and fibroadenoma tissues (2.2%) and between malignancy and FCC (3.4%) are not significant. It is hypothesized that the alteration in glucose uptake within malignant cells may cause these tissues to have an elevated electron density. The fibrotic nature of tissue that has undergone FCC gives the highest measure of all tissue types

  14. Thick tissue diffusion model with binding to optimize topical staining in fluorescence breast cancer margin imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaochun; Kang, Soyoung; Navarro-Comes, Eric; Wang, Yu; Liu, Jonathan T. C.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2018-03-01

    Intraoperative tumor/surgical margin assessment is required to achieve higher tumor resection rate in breast-conserving surgery. Though current histology provides incomparable accuracy in margin assessment, thin tissue sectioning and the limited field of view of microscopy makes histology too time-consuming for intraoperative applications. If thick tissue, wide-field imaging can provide an acceptable assessment of tumor cells at the surface of resected tissues, an intraoperative protocol can be developed to guide the surgery and provide immediate feedback for surgeons. Topical staining of margins with cancer-targeted molecular imaging agents has the potential to provide the sensitivity needed to see microscopic cancer on a wide-field image; however, diffusion and nonspecific retention of imaging agents in thick tissue can significantly diminish tumor contrast with conventional methods. Here, we present a mathematical model to accurately simulate nonspecific retention, binding, and diffusion of imaging agents in thick tissue topical staining to guide and optimize future thick tissue staining and imaging protocol. In order to verify the accuracy and applicability of the model, diffusion profiles of cancer targeted and untargeted (control) nanoparticles at different staining times in A431 tumor xenografts were acquired for model comparison and tuning. The initial findings suggest the existence of nonspecific retention in the tissue, especially at the tissue surface. The simulator can be used to compare the effect of nonspecific retention, receptor binding and diffusion under various conditions (tissue type, imaging agent) and provides optimal staining and imaging protocols for targeted and control imaging agent.

  15. Discriminant analysis of normal and malignant breast tissue based upon INAA investigation of elemental concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwanhoong Ng; Senghuat Ong; Bradley, D.A.; Laimeng Looi

    1997-01-01

    Discriminant analysis of six trace element concentrations measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in 26 paired-samples of malignant and histologically normal human breast tissues shows the technique to be a potentially valuable clinical tool for making malignant-normal classification. Nonparametric discriminant analysis is performed for the data obtained. Linear and quadratic discriminant analyses are also carried out for comparison. For this data set a formal analysis shows that the elements which may be useful in distinguishing between malignant and normal tissues are Ca, Rb and Br, providing correct classification for 24 out of 26 normal samples and 22 out of 26 malignant samples. (Author)

  16. Determination of the Elasticity of Breast Tissue during the Menstrual Cycle Using Real-Time Shear Wave Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Jian-Nan; Fan, Zhi-Ying; Kang, Shu; Liu, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Xia; Wang, Xue-Mei

    2015-12-01

    We examined breast tissue elasticity during the menstrual cycle using real-time shear wave elastography (RT-SWE), a recent technique developed for soft tissue imaging. Written informed consent for RT-SWE was obtained from all eligible patients, who were healthy women aged between 19 and 52 y. Young's moduli of the breast tissue in the early follicular, late phase and luteal phase were compared. There were no significant differences in the mean, maximum and minimum elasticity values (Emean, Emax and Emin) and standard deviation (ESD). RT-SWE of glandular tissue revealed that ESD was increased in the early follicular phase compared with the luteal phase. Means ± SD of Emin, Emax and Emean in glandular tissue were 5.174 ± 2.138, 8.308 ± 3.166 and 6.593 ± 2.510, respectively, and in adipose tissue, 3.589 ± 2.083, 6.733 ± 3.522 and 4.857 ± 2.564, respectively. There were no significant differences in stiffness between glandular and adipose tissues throughout the menstrual cycle, but glandular tissue stiffness was lower in the luteal phase than in the early follicular phase. On the basis of these observations in normal healthy women, we believe we have obtained sufficient information to establish the baseline changes in human breast elasticity during the menstrual cycle. In the future, we intend to compare the elasticity values of healthy breast tissue with those of breast tissue affected by various pathologies. Our results reveal the significant potential of RT-SWE in the rapid and non-invasive clinical diagnosis of breast diseases, such as breast cancers. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A PIXE analysis for measuring the trace elements concentration in breast tissue of Iranian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatankhah, S.; Moosavi, K.; Salimi, J.; Geranpayeh, L.; Perovani, H.

    2003-01-01

    A powerful and improved technique, proton induced x-ray emission has been performed-yielding the elemental composition of 17 samples of surgically excised malignant and normal tumors of breast tissue. The samples without any further process as thick targets were put on cap ton foil backing. There are no homogenizing processes. The proton induced x-ray emission spectra analysis was performed using he non-linear least square fitting code AXIL and GUPIX. The samples are taken form patients in the wide range of age and are bombarded by 2.0 MeV energy proton beams produced by van de Graaff accelerator in vacuum. The quantitative comparison between two of tissue was evaluated by assessing the presence of calcium. Potassium, Iron, Copper and Zinc, as minor and trace elements. results in this study indicate that relative values of Cu/Zn, P/K and also Ca and S in being type were higher than those in those in malignant type, but the concentration of Fe and Zn in cancerous tissues was significantly higher than those for being type. Results suggest significant elevation of zinc in the pathological tissues. Cu/Zn ratio for both type of tissues are evaluated. The results show that this ratio in patients with breast cancer is significantly lower than the normal group. Selenium and arsenic was not obtained in any of 17 samples. Most of the tissues of benign kind (fibrocystic and fib ro adenoma)contain cadmium. Calcium concentration in normal tissues is significantly higher than tumorous tissues

  18. Normal breast tissue DNA methylation differences at regulatory elements are associated with the cancer risk factor age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin C; Houseman, E Andres; King, Jessica E; Christensen, Brock C

    2017-07-10

    The underlying biological mechanisms through which epidemiologically defined breast cancer risk factors contribute to disease risk remain poorly understood. Identification of the molecular changes associated with cancer risk factors in normal tissues may aid in determining the earliest events of carcinogenesis and informing cancer prevention strategies. Here we investigated the impact cancer risk factors have on the normal breast epigenome by analyzing DNA methylation genome-wide (Infinium 450 K array) in cancer-free women from the Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank (n = 100). We tested the relation of established breast cancer risk factors, age, body mass index, parity, and family history of disease, with DNA methylation adjusting for potential variation in cell-type proportions. We identified 787 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites that demonstrated significant associations (Q value breast cancer risk factors. Age-related DNA methylation changes are primarily increases in methylation enriched at breast epithelial cell enhancer regions (P = 7.1E-20), and binding sites of chromatin remodelers (MYC and CTCF). We validated the age-related associations in two independent populations, using normal breast tissue samples (n = 18) and samples of normal tissue adjacent to tumor tissue (n = 97). The genomic regions classified as age-related were more likely to be regions altered in both pre-invasive (n = 40, P = 3.0E-03) and invasive breast tumors (n = 731, P = 1.1E-13). DNA methylation changes with age occur at regulatory regions, and are further exacerbated in cancer, suggesting that age influences breast cancer risk in part through its contribution to epigenetic dysregulation in normal breast tissue.

  19. Novel technique for online characterization of cartilaginous tissue properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tai-Yi; Huang, Chun-Yuh; Yong Gu, Wei

    2011-09-01

    The goal of tissue engineering is to use substitutes to repair and restore organ function. Bioreactors are an indispensable tool for monitoring and controlling the unique environment for engineered constructs to grow. However, in order to determine the biochemical properties of engineered constructs, samples need to be destroyed. In this study, we developed a novel technique to nondestructively online-characterize the water content and fixed charge density of cartilaginous tissues. A new technique was developed to determine the tissue mechano-electrochemical properties nondestructively. Bovine knee articular cartilage and lumbar annulus fibrosus were used in this study to demonstrate that this technique could be used on different types of tissue. The results show that our newly developed method is capable of precisely predicting the water volume fraction (less than 3% disparity) and fixed charge density (less than 16.7% disparity) within cartilaginous tissues. This novel technique will help to design a new generation of bioreactors which are able to actively determine the essential properties of the engineered constructs, as well as regulate the local environment to achieve the optimal conditions for cultivating constructs.

  20. The use of dermal autograft as an adjunct to breast reconstruction with tissue expanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Brian

    2012-12-01

    Acellular dermal matrices are commonly used in breast reconstruction but add cost to the procedure and have been associated with complications. Dermal autograft may represent a useful alternative to matrices. Sixteen patients (26 breasts) underwent breast reconstruction using tissue expanders and dermal autograft. Their ages ranged from 41 to 66 years (median, 51 years). Autografts were harvested by wide excision of preexisting abdominal scars. Demographic data, clinical history, and harvest and preparation time were recorded. The initial fill volume, number of expansions, and complications were recorded and compared with published data for acellular dermal matrix-assisted reconstruction. Patients rated their satisfaction with scar appearance on a seven-point scale. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 16 months (mean, 10 months). Three patients were smokers. Mean body mass index was 30.5 (range, 19.1 to 48.8). Three patients received chemotherapy between reconstructive stages, and none required irradiation. The mean time of autograft harvest was 38 minutes, the mean initial fill was 190 cc, and the average number of expansions was 3.5. There were no implant losses. There were three minor complications (19 percent). Initial expander fill, number of expansions, and complication rate were equivalent to historical values for matrix-assisted breast reconstruction. Fourteen of 16 patients (88 percent) were "very satisfied" with their scars. The use of dermal autograft in tissue expander breast reconstruction offers the advantages of acellular dermal matrix, without the associated expense. The technique adds minimally to the operative time and morbidity and is associated with a low complication rate. Therapeutic, IV.

  1. ultrasound reflecting the morphological properties in soft tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Torben; Larsen, Torben; Court-Payen, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is an image modality providing the examiner with real-time images which reflect the morphological properties in soft tissue. Different types of transducers are used for different kind of exams. US is cheap, fast, and safe. US is widely used in abdominal imaging including obstetrics...

  2. In-Vivo Techniques for Measuring Electrical Properties of Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    probe Electromagnetic energy Dielectric properties Monopole antenna In-situ tissues , Antemortem/Pos tmortem studies Renal blood flow 10 ABSTRACT... mice or rats, which were positioned beneath a fixed measurement probe. Several alternative methods involving the use of semi-rigid or flexible coaxial

  3. Multiscale mechanics of hierarchical structure/property relationships in calcified tissues and tissue/material interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J. Lawrence; Misra, Anil; Spencer, Paulette; Wang, Yong; Bumrerraj, Sauwanan; Nomura, Tsutomu; Eppell, Steven J.; Tabib-Azar, Massood

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a review plus new data that describes the role hierarchical nanostructural properties play in developing an understanding of the effect of scale on the material properties (chemical, elastic and electrical) of calcified tissues as well as the interfaces that form between such tissues and biomaterials. Both nanostructural and microstructural properties will be considered starting with the size and shape of the apatitic mineralites in both young and mature bovine bone. Microstructural properties for human dentin and cortical and trabecular bone will be considered. These separate sets of data will be combined mathematically to advance the effects of scale on the modeling of these tissues and the tissue/biomaterial interfaces as hierarchical material/structural composites. Interfacial structure and properties to be considered in greatest detail will be that of the dentin/adhesive (d/a) interface, which presents a clear example of examining all three material properties, (chemical, elastic and electrical). In this case, finite element modeling (FEA) was based on the actual measured values of the structure and elastic properties of the materials comprising the d/a interface; this combination provides insight into factors and mechanisms that contribute to premature failure of dental composite fillings. At present, there are more elastic property data obtained by microstructural measurements, especially high frequency ultrasonic wave propagation (UWP) and scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) techniques. However, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanoindentation (NI) of cortical and trabecular bone and the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) among others have become available allowing correlation of the nanostructural level measurements with those made on the microstructural level

  4. Impact of Different Analytic Approaches on the Analysis of the Breast Fibroglandular Tissue Using Diffusion Weighted Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jung Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study investigated the impact of the different region of interest (ROI approaches on measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values in the breast firbroglandular tissue (FT. Methods. Breast MR images of 38 women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer were studied. Percent density (PD and ADC were measured from the contralateral normal breast. Four different ROIs were used for ADC measurement. The measured PD and ADC were correlated. Results. Among the four ROIs, the manually placed small ROI on FT gave the highest mean ADC (ADC = 1839 ± 343 [×10−6 mm2/s], while measurement from the whole breast gave the lowest mean ADC (ADC = 933 ± 383 [×10−6 mm2/s]. The ADC measured from the whole breast was highly correlated with PD with r=0.95. In slice-to-slice comparison, the central slices with more FT had higher ADC values than the peripheral slices did, presumably due to less partial volume effect from fat. Conclusions. Our results indicated that the measured ADC heavily depends on the composition of breast tissue contained in the ROI used for the ADC measurements. Women with low breast density showing lower ADC values were most likely due to the partial volume effect of fatty tissues.

  5. Rapid virtual hematoxylin and eosin histology of breast tissue specimens using a compact fluorescence nonlinear microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Lucas C; Giacomelli, Michael G; Yoshitake, Tadayuki; Vardeh, Hilde; Faulkner-Jones, Beverly E; Connolly, James L; Sun, Chi-Kuang; Fujimoto, James G

    2018-01-01

    Up to 40% of patients undergoing breast conserving surgery for breast cancer require repeat surgeries due to close to or positive margins. The lengthy processing required for evaluating surgical margins by standard paraffin-embedded histology precludes its use during surgery and therefore, technologies for rapid evaluation of surgical pathology could improve the treatment of breast cancer by reducing the number of surgeries required. We demonstrate real-time histological evaluation of breast cancer surgical specimens by staining specimens with acridine orange (AO) and sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) analogously to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and then imaging the specimens with fluorescence nonlinear microscopy (NLM) using a compact femtosecond fiber laser. A video-rate computational light absorption model was used to produce realistic virtual H&E images of tissue in real time and in three dimensions. NLM imaging could be performed to depths of 100 μm below the tissue surface, which is important since many surgical specimens require subsurface evaluation due to contamination artifacts on the tissue surface from electrocautery, surgical ink, or debris from specimen handling. We validate this method by expert review of NLM images compared to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) H&E histology. Diagnostically important features such as normal terminal ductal lobular units, fibrous and adipose stromal parenchyma, inflammation, invasive carcinoma, and in situ lobular and ductal carcinoma were present in NLM images associated with pathologies identified on standard FFPE H&E histology. We demonstrate that AO and SR101 were extracted to undetectable levels after FFPE processing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) HER2 amplification status was unaffected by the NLM imaging protocol. This method potentially enables cost-effective, real-time histological guidance of surgical resections.

  6. Expression of Caspase-1 in breast cancer tissues and its effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanxia; Guo, Yingzhen

    2018-05-01

    The present study aimed to detect the expression of Caspase-1 in the tumor tissues and tumor-adjacent tissues of patients with breast cancer, and to investigate the effects of Caspase-1 on the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of breast cancer cells. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect Caspase-1 mRNA expression in breast cancer tissues and tumor-adjacent tissues from patients. Additionally, the human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line was treated with the Caspase-1 small molecule inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK, following which the changes to Caspase-1 protein expression were detected via western blotting. The MTT method detected the changes to cell proliferation, flow cytometry detected the rate of apoptosis, and a Transwell assay was employed to assess invasion. Caspase-1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in the breast cancer tissues of patients, compared with in the tumor-adjacent tissues, a difference that was statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment with the Ac-YVAD-CMK markedly decreased the protein expression of Caspase-1 in MDA-MB-231 cells, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Following this treatment of Ac-YVAD-CMK cells, the proliferation and invasion abilities markedly increased, while the apoptotic levels significantly decreased (P<0.05). In conclusion, the expression of Caspase-1 is low in breast cancer tissues, which may promote the proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells and could be closely associated with the occurrence and development of breast cancer.

  7. Antimicrobial properties of nudibranchs tissues extracts from South Andaman, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Veeraswamy Reddy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of tissues extracts of different nudibranchs such as Phyllidia varicosa, Plakobranchus ocellatus, Phyllidiella rosans and Halgerda stricklandi against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Methods: Nudibranchs tissue samples were subjected to organic solvent extraction for antimicrobial activity by well diffusion method. Results: The crude extract 50 μL (0.2 mg of Phyllidia varicosa showed the maximum inhibitory zone (22 mm against Shigella flexneri. Plakobranchus ocellatus extract of 50 μL (0.2 mg showed the maximum inhibitory zone against Shigella flexneri (22 mm and Staphylococcus aureus (19 mm and no significant activity was found against the fungal pathogens. Conclusions: This work reveals that nudibranch tissues contain the antimicrobial secondary metabolites, which leads the significant activity against bacterial pathogens and further emphasizes detailed study on novel drug discovery from nudibranch tissues against certain human bacterial infections.

  8. Methodology based on genetic heuristics for in-vivo characterizing the patient-specific biomechanical behavior of the breast tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, M A; Rúperez, M J; Martínez-Martínez, F; Martínez-Sanchis, S; Bakic, P R; Monserrat, C

    2015-11-30

    This paper presents a novel methodology to in-vivo estimate the elastic constants of a constitutive model proposed to characterize the mechanical behavior of the breast tissues. An iterative search algorithm based on genetic heuristics was constructed to in-vivo estimate these parameters using only medical images, thus avoiding invasive measurements of the mechanical response of the breast tissues. For the first time, a combination of overlap and distance coefficients were used for the evaluation of the similarity between a deformed MRI of the breast and a simulation of that deformation. The methodology was validated using breast software phantoms for virtual clinical trials, compressed to mimic MRI-guided biopsies. The biomechanical model chosen to characterize the breast tissues was an anisotropic neo-Hookean hyperelastic model. Results from this analysis showed that the algorithm is able to find the elastic constants of the constitutive equations of the proposed model with a mean relative error of about 10%. Furthermore, the overlap between the reference deformation and the simulated deformation was of around 95% showing the good performance of the proposed methodology. This methodology can be easily extended to characterize the real biomechanical behavior of the breast tissues, which means a great novelty in the field of the simulation of the breast behavior for applications such as surgical planing, surgical guidance or cancer diagnosis. This reveals the impact and relevance of the presented work.

  9. Human adipose tissue from normal and tumoral breast regulates the behavior of mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone Creydt, Virginia; Fletcher, Sabrina Johanna; Giudice, Jimena; Bruzzone, Ariana; Chasseing, Norma Alejandra; Gonzalez, Eduardo Gustavo; Sacca, Paula Alejandra; Calvo, Juan Carlos

    2013-02-01

    Stromal-epithelial interactions mediate both breast development and breast cancer progression. In the present work, we evaluated the effects of conditioned media (CMs) of human adipose tissue explants from normal (hATN) and tumor (hATT) breast on proliferation, adhesion, migration and metalloproteases activity on tumor (MCF-7 and IBH-7) and non-tumor (MCF-10A) human breast epithelial cell lines. Human adipose tissues were obtained from patients and the conditioned medium from hATN and hATT collected after 24 h of incubation. MCF-10A, MCF-7 and IBH-7 cells were grown and incubated with CMs and proliferation and adhesion, as well as migration ability and metalloprotease activity, of epithelial cells after exposing cell cultures to hATN- or hATT-CMs were quantified. The statistical significance between different experimental conditions was evaluated by one-way ANOVA. Tukey's post hoc tests were performed. Tumor and non-tumor breast epithelial cells significantly increased their proliferation activity after 24 h of treatment with hATT-CMs compared to control-CMs. Furthermore, cellular adhesion of these two tumor cell lines was significantly lower with hATT-CMs than with hATN-CMs. Therefore, hATT-CMs seem to induce significantly lower expression or less activity of the components involved in cellular adhesion than hATN-CMs. In addition, hATT-CMs induced pro-MMP-9 and MMP-9 activity and increased the migration of MCF-7 and IBH-7 cells compared to hATN-CMs. We conclude that the microenvironment of the tumor interacts in a dynamic way with the mutated epithelium. This evidence leads to the possibility to modify the tumor behavior/phenotype through the regulation or modification of its microenvironment. We developed a model in which we obtained CMs from adipose tissue explants completely, either from normal or tumor breast. In this way, we studied the contribution of soluble factors independently of the possible effects of direct cell contact.

  10. Breast tissue composition and its dependence on demographic risk factors for breast cancer: non-invasive assessment by time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Taroni

    Full Text Available Breast tissue composition is recognized as a strong and independent risk factor for breast cancer. It is a heritable feature, but is also significantly affected by several other elements (e.g., age, menopause. Nowadays it is quantified by mammographic density, thus requiring the use of ionizing radiation. Optical techniques are absolutely non-invasive and have already proved effective in the investigation of biological tissues, as they are sensitive to tissue composition and structure.Time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy was performed at 7 wavelengths (635-1060 nm on 200 subjects to derive their breast tissue composition (in terms of water, lipid and collagen content, blood parameters (total hemoglobin content and oxygen saturation level, and information on the microscopic structure (scattering amplitude and power. The dependence of all optically-derived parameters on age, menopausal status, body mass index, and use of oral contraceptives, and the correlation with mammographic density were investigated.Younger age, premenopausal status, lower body mass index values, and use of oral contraceptives all correspond to significantly higher water, collagen and total hemoglobin content, and lower lipid content (always p < 0.05 and often p < 10-4, while oxygen saturation level and scattering parameters show significant dependence only on some conditions. Even when age-adjusted groups of subjects are compared, several optically derived parameters (and in particular always collagen and total hemoglobin content remain significantly different.Time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy can probe non-invasively breast tissue composition and physiologic blood parameters, and provide information on tissue structure. The measurement is suitable for in vivo studies and monitoring of changes in breast tissue (e.g., with age, lifestyle, chemotherapy, etc. and to gain insight into related processes, like the origin of cancer risk associated with breast density.

  11. Impact of menopausal status on background parenchymal enhancement and fibroglandular tissue on breast MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Valencia; Gu, Yajia; Kaplan, Jennifer B.; Morris, Elizabeth A.; Brooks, Jennifer D.; Pike, Malcolm C.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of menopausal status on the background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) on breast MRI. Retrospective review identified 1,130 women who underwent screening breast MRI between July and November 2010. In 28 of these women, breast MRI was performed both at one time point while pre- and one time point while post-menopausal (median interval 49 months). Two independent readers blinded to menopausal status used categorical scales to rate BPE (minimal/mild/moderate/marked) and FGT (fatty/scattered/heterogeneously dense/dense). Consensus was reached when there was disagreement. The sign test was used to assess changes in rating categories, and the Spearman rank and Fisher's exact tests were used to measure correlations and associations between variables. Significant proportions of women demonstrated decreases in BPE and FGT on post-menopausal breast MRI (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0009). BPE category was unchanged in 39 % (11/28) and decreased in 61 % (17/28) of women. FGT category was unchanged in 61 % (17/28) and decreased in 39 % (11/28) of women. Age, reason for menopause, or interval between MRIs had no significant impact on changes in BPE and FGT. On MRI, BPE, and FGT decrease after menopause in significant proportions of women; BPE decreases more than FGT. (orig.)

  12. Impact of menopausal status on background parenchymal enhancement and fibroglandular tissue on breast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Valencia [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Breast Imaging Section, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Gu, Yajia [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Fudan University, Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Kaplan, Jennifer B.; Morris, Elizabeth A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Breast Imaging Section, New York, NY (United States); Brooks, Jennifer D.; Pike, Malcolm C. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-12-15

    To evaluate the effect of menopausal status on the background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) on breast MRI. Retrospective review identified 1,130 women who underwent screening breast MRI between July and November 2010. In 28 of these women, breast MRI was performed both at one time point while pre- and one time point while post-menopausal (median interval 49 months). Two independent readers blinded to menopausal status used categorical scales to rate BPE (minimal/mild/moderate/marked) and FGT (fatty/scattered/heterogeneously dense/dense). Consensus was reached when there was disagreement. The sign test was used to assess changes in rating categories, and the Spearman rank and Fisher's exact tests were used to measure correlations and associations between variables. Significant proportions of women demonstrated decreases in BPE and FGT on post-menopausal breast MRI (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0009). BPE category was unchanged in 39 % (11/28) and decreased in 61 % (17/28) of women. FGT category was unchanged in 61 % (17/28) and decreased in 39 % (11/28) of women. Age, reason for menopause, or interval between MRIs had no significant impact on changes in BPE and FGT. On MRI, BPE, and FGT decrease after menopause in significant proportions of women; BPE decreases more than FGT. (orig.)

  13. Correlation of breast tissue histology and optical signatures to improve margin assessment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephanie; Caldwell, Matthew; Bydlon, Torre; Mulvey, Christine; Mueller, Jenna; Wilke, Lee; Barry, William; Ramanujam, Nimmi; Geradts, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Optical spectroscopy is sensitive to morphological composition and has potential applications in intraoperative margin assessment. Here, we evaluate ex vivo breast tissue and corresponding quantified hematoxylin & eosin images to correlate optical scattering signatures to tissue composition stratified by patient characteristics. Adipose sites (213) were characterized by their cell area and density. All other benign and malignant sites (181) were quantified using a grid method to determine composition. The relationships between mean reduced scattering coefficient (), and % adipose, % collagen, % glands, adipocyte cell area, and adipocyte density were investigated. These relationships were further stratified by age, menopausal status, body mass index (BMI), and breast density. We identified a positive correlation between and % collagen and a negative correlation between and age and BMI. Increased collagen corresponded to increased variability. In postmenopausal women, was similar regardless of fibroglandular content. Contributions from collagen and glands to were independent and equivalent in benign sites; glands showed a stronger positive correlation than collagen to in malignant sites. Our data suggest that scattering could differentiate highly scattering malignant from benign tissues in postmenopausal women. The relationship between scattering and tissue composition will support improved scattering models and technologies to enhance intraoperative optical margin assessment.

  14. Compton scattering spectrum as a source of information of normal and neoplastic breast tissues' composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, 14040-901 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, 14040-901 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    In this work we measured X-ray scatter spectra from normal and neoplastic breast tissues using photon energy of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90 Degree-Sign , in order to study the shape (FWHM) of the Compton peaks. The obtained results for FWHM were discussed in terms of composition and histological characteristics of each tissue type. The statistical analysis shows that the distribution of FWHM of normal adipose breast tissue clearly differs from all other investigated tissues. Comparison between experimental values of FWHM and effective atomic number revealed a strong correlation between them, showing that the FWHM values can be used to provide information about elemental composition of the tissues. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray scatter spectra from normal and neoplastic breast tissues were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shape (FWHM) of Compton peak was related with elemental composition and characteristics of each tissue type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A statistical hypothesis test showed clear differences between normal and neoplastic breast tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a strong correlation between experimental values of FWHM and effective atomic number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shape (FWHM) of Compton peak can be used to provide information about elemental composition of the tissues.

  15. Preservation of biomolecules in breast cancer tissue by a formalin-free histology system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Azorides R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential problems associated with the use of formalin in histology, such as health hazards, degradation of RNA and cross-linking of proteins are well recognized. We describe the utilization of a formalin-free fixation and processing system for tissue detection of two important biopredictors in breast cancer – estrogen receptor and HER2 – at the RNA and protein levels. Methods Parallel sections of 62 cases of breast cancer were fixed in an alcohol-based molecular fixative and in formalin. Molecular fixative samples were processed by a novel formalin-free microwave-assisted processing system that preserves DNA, RNA and proteins. Formalin-fixed samples were processed using the conventional method. Estrogen receptor was assessed by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. HER2 was assessed by immunohistochemistry, FISH, CISH and real-time PCR. Results The immunohistochemical reaction for estrogen receptor was similar in molecular- and formalin-fixed samples (Spearman Rank R = 0.83, p Conclusion The formalin-free tissue fixation and processing system is a practical platform for evaluation of biomolecular markers in breast cancer and it allows reliable DNA and RNA and protein studies.

  16. CT measurement of breast glandular tissue and its association with testicular cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klang, Eyal [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel); Rozendorn, Noa; Raskin, Steve; Portnoy, Orith; Sklair, Miri; Marom, Edith M.; Konen, Eli; Amitai, Michal M. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2017-02-15

    To evaluate the associations between breast glandular tissues diameters as determined by CT and b-hCG levels, histological types, tumour spread and prognosis in patients with testicular germ cell tumour. Ninety-four patients with pre-treatment CT scan and markers (b-hCG, AFP, LDH) were retrospectively collected. A radiologist measured diameters in all CT examinations and correlation between diameters and log (b-hCG) was assessed (Pearson's coefficient). The ability of measured diameters to predict lymphatic and distant haematogenous metastatic spread was evaluated (ROC curves). The associations between measured diameter cut-off values of 20 and 25 mm and International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) classification, lymphatic and distant haematogenous metastatic spread and histological subtypes were evaluated (chi squared test). Breast glandular diameters correlated to log(b-hCG) (r = 0.579) and predicted distant haematogenous metastatic spread (AUC = 0.78). Worse prognosis (intermediate or poor IGCCCG) was shown for 20 mm (27.3 vs. 4.2 %, p = 0.005) and 25 mm (33.3 vs. 6.1 %, p = 0.014). A diameter of 25 mm was associated with non-seminoma (91.7 vs. 48.8 %, p = 0.005). Breast glandular tissue diameters correlated with log(b-hCG) and predicted distant haematogenous metastases. Twenty and 25 mm were associated with worse prognosis and 25 mm was able to distinguish between seminoma and non-seminoma. (orig.)

  17. Prospective Study Validating Inter- and Intraobserver Variability of Tissue Compliance Meter in Breast Tissue of Healthy Volunteers: Potential Implications for Patients With Radiation-Induced Fibrosis of the Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernicke, A. Gabriella; Parashar, Bhupesh; Kulidzhanov, Fridon; Riley, Lillian; Christos, Paul J.; Fischer, Andrew; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, K.S. Clifford

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate detection of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is crucial in management of breast cancer survivors. Tissue compliance meter (TCM) has been validated in musculature. We validate TCM in healthy breast tissue with respect to interobserver and intraobserver variability before applying it in RIF. Methods and Materials: Three medical professionals obtained three consecutive TCM measurements in each of the four quadrants of the right and left breasts of 40 women with no breast disease or surgical intervention. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) assessed interobserver variability. The paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were used to assess intraobserver variability within each rater. Results: The median age was 45 years (range, 24-68 years). The median bra size was 35C (range, 32A-40DD). Of the participants, 27 were white (67%), 4 black (10%), 5 Asian (13%), and 4 Hispanic (10%). ICCs indicated excellent interrater reliability (low interobserver variability) among the three raters, by breast and quadrant (all ICC ≥0.99). The paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficient both indicated low intraobserver variability within each rater (right vs. left breast), stratified by quadrant (all r≥ 0.94, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The interobserver and intraobserver variability is small using TCM in healthy mammary tissue. We are now embarking on a prospective study using TCM in women with breast cancer at risk of developing RIF that may guide early detection, timely therapeutic intervention, and assessment of success of therapy for RIF.

  18. A comparative study of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 levels in plasma and tumour tissue from patients with primary breast cancer and in plasma from patients with metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Schrohl; Mueller, Volkmar; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) has been investigated as a potential tumour marker in breast cancer. Here we investigated the correlation between TIMP-1 in tumour tissue and plasma to evaluate whether TIMP-1 in plasma is actually a surrogate marker for TIMP-1 in prima...

  19. Measurement of breast tissue composition with dual energy cone-beam computed tomography: A postmortem study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Huanjun; Ducote, Justin L.; Molloi, Sabee [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of a three-material compositional measurement of water, lipid, and protein content of breast tissue with dual kVp cone-beam computed tomography (CT) for diagnostic purposes. Methods: Simulations were performed on a flat panel-based computed tomography system with a dual kVp technique in order to guide the selection of experimental acquisition parameters. The expected errors induced by using the proposed calibration materials were also estimated by simulation. Twenty pairs of postmortem breast samples were imaged with a flat-panel based dual kVp cone-beam CT system, followed by image-based material decomposition using calibration data obtained from a three-material phantom consisting of water, vegetable oil, and polyoxymethylene plastic. The tissue samples were then chemically decomposed into their respective water, lipid, and protein contents after imaging to allow direct comparison with data from dual energy decomposition. Results: Guided by results from simulation, the beam energies for the dual kVp cone-beam CT system were selected to be 50 and 120 kVp with the mean glandular dose divided equally between each exposure. The simulation also suggested that the use of polyoxymethylene as the calibration material for the measurement of pure protein may introduce an error of -11.0%. However, the tissue decomposition experiments, which employed a calibration phantom made out of water, oil, and polyoxymethylene, exhibited strong correlation with data from the chemical analysis. The average root-mean-square percentage error for water, lipid, and protein contents was 3.58% as compared with chemical analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the water, lipid, and protein contents can be accurately measured using dual kVp cone-beam CT. The tissue compositional information may improve the sensitivity and specificity for breast cancer diagnosis.

  20. Interpretation Time Using a Concurrent-Read Computer-Aided Detection System for Automated Breast Ultrasound in Breast Cancer Screening of Women With Dense Breast Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yulei; Inciardi, Marc F; Edwards, Alexandra V; Papaioannou, John

    2018-05-24

    The purpose of this study was to compare diagnostic accuracy and interpretation time of screening automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) for women with dense breast tissue without and with use of a recently U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved computer-aided detection (CAD) system for concurrent read. In a retrospective observer performance study, 18 radiologists interpreted a cancer-enriched set (i.e., cancer prevalence higher than in the original screening cohort) of 185 screening ABUS studies (52 with and 133 without breast cancer). These studies were from a large cohort of ABUS screened patients interpreted as BI-RADS density C or D. Each reader interpreted each case twice in a counterbalanced study, once without the CAD system and once with it, separated by 4 weeks. For each case, each reader identified abnormal findings and reported BI-RADS assessment category and level of suspicion for breast cancer. Interpretation time was recorded. Level of suspicion data were compared to evaluate diagnostic accuracy by means of the Dorfman-Berbaum-Metz method of jackknife with ANOVA ROC analysis. Interpretation times were compared by ANOVA. The ROC AUC was 0.848 with the CAD system, compared with 0.828 without it, for a difference of 0.020 (95% CI, -0.011 to 0.051) and was statistically noninferior to the AUC without the CAD system with respect to a margin of -0.05 (p = 0.000086). The mean interpretation time was 3 minutes 33 seconds per case without the CAD system and 2 minutes 24 seconds with it, for a difference of 1 minute 9 seconds saved (95% CI, 44-93 seconds; p = 0.000014), or a reduction in interpretation time to 67% of the time without the CAD system. Use of the concurrent-read CAD system for interpretation of screening ABUS studies of women with dense breast tissue who do not have symptoms is expected to make interpretation significantly faster and produce noninferior diagnostic accuracy compared with interpretation without the CAD system.

  1. Differentiating the two main histologic categories of fibroadenoma tissue from normal breast tissue by using multiphoton microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Y T; Wu, Y; Fu, F M; Lian, Y E; Zhuo, S M; Wang, C; Chen, J X

    2015-04-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has become a novel biological imaging technique that allows cellular and subcellular microstructure imaging based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation. In this work, we used multiphoton microscopy to obtain the high-contrast images of human normal breast tissue and two main histologic types of fibroadenoma (intracanalicular, pericanalicular). Moreover, quantitative image analysis was performed to characterize the changes of collagen morphology (collagen content, collagen orientation). The results show that multiphoton microscopy combined with quantitative method has the ability to identify the characteristics of fibroadenoma including changes of the duct architecture and collagen morphology in stroma. With the advancement of multiphoton microscopy, we believe that the technique has great potential to be a real-time histopathological diagnostic tool for intraoperative detection of fibroadenoma in the future. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  2. Scanning probe recognition microscopy investigation of tissue scaffold properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuan; Chen, Qian; Ayres, Virginia M; Baczewski, Andrew D; Udpa, Lalita; Kumar, Shiva

    2007-01-01

    Scanning probe recognition microscopy is a new scanning probe microscopy technique which enables selective scanning along individual nanofibers within a tissue scaffold. Statistically significant data for multiple properties can be collected by repetitively fine-scanning an identical region of interest. The results of a scanning probe recognition microscopy investigation of the surface roughness and elasticity of a series of tissue scaffolds are presented. Deconvolution and statistical methods were developed and used for data accuracy along curved nanofiber surfaces. Nanofiber features were also independently analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, with results that supported the scanning probe recognition microscopy-based analysis. PMID:18203431

  3. Wavelet-based feature extraction applied to small-angle x-ray scattering patterns from breast tissue: a tool for differentiating between tissue types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falzon, G; Pearson, S; Murison, R; Hall, C; Siu, K; Evans, A; Rogers, K; Lewis, R

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the application of wavelet decomposition to small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns from human breast tissue produced by a synchrotron source. The pixel intensities of SAXS patterns of normal, benign and malignant tissue types were transformed into wavelet coefficients. Statistical analysis found significant differences between the wavelet coefficients describing the patterns produced by different tissue types. These differences were then correlated with position in the image and have been linked to the supra-molecular structural changes that occur in breast tissue in the presence of disease. Specifically, results indicate that there are significant differences between healthy and diseased tissues in the wavelet coefficients that describe the peaks produced by the axial d-spacing of collagen. These differences suggest that a useful classification tool could be based upon the spectral information within the axial peaks

  4. Effects of estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate on morphology, proliferation and apoptosis of human breast tissue in organ cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigėlienė, Natalija; Härkönen, Pirkko; Erkkola, Risto

    2006-01-01

    Human breast tissue undergoes phases of proliferation, differentiation and regression regulated by changes of the levels of circulating sex hormones during the menstrual cycle or aging. Ovarian hormones also likely play a key role in the etiology and biology of breast cancer. Reports concerning the proliferative effects of steroid hormones on the normal epithelium of human breast have been conflicting. Some studies have shown that steroid hormones may predispose breast epithelial cells to malignant changes by stimulating their proliferation, which is known to be regulated tightly by stromal cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 17β-estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate on proliferation, apoptosis, expression of differentiation markers and steroid hormone receptors in breast epithelium using an in vitro model of freshly isolated human breast tissue, in which a proper interaction of breast epithelium and stroma has been maintained. Human breast tissues were obtained from women undergoing surgery for breast tumours. Peritumoral tissues were excised and explants were cultured for 3 weeks in medium supplemented with E 2 or MPA or with E 2 +MPA. Endpoints included histopathological, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical assessment of the breast explants. Culture of breast explants for 14 or 21 days with steroid hormones increased proliferative activity and the thickness of acinar and ductal epithelium. E 2 -treatment led to hyperplastic epithelial morphology, MPA to hypersecretory single-layered epithelium and E 2 +MPA to multilayered but organised epithelium. The proliferative response to E 2 in comparison to control (p < 0.001) was more pronounced than to MPA (p < 0.05) or E 2 +MPA (p < 0.05) at 7 and 14 days for Ki-67 and PCNA. E 2 treatment also decreased the proportion of apoptotic cells after 7 (p < 0.01) and 14 (p < 0.01) days. In addition, the relative number of ERα, ERβ and PR positive epithelial cells was decreased by all

  5. Automated classification of immunostaining patterns in breast tissue from the human protein atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamidoss, Issac Niwas; Kårsnäs, Andreas; Uhlmann, Virginie; Ponnusamy, Palanisamy; Kampf, Caroline; Simonsson, Martin; Wählby, Carolina; Strand, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The Human Protein Atlas (HPA) is an effort to map the location of all human proteins (http://www.proteinatlas.org/). It contains a large number of histological images of sections from human tissue. Tissue micro arrays (TMA) are imaged by a slide scanning microscope, and each image represents a thin slice of a tissue core with a dark brown antibody specific stain and a blue counter stain. When generating antibodies for protein profiling of the human proteome, an important step in the quality control is to compare staining patterns of different antibodies directed towards the same protein. This comparison is an ultimate control that the antibody recognizes the right protein. In this paper, we propose and evaluate different approaches for classifying sub-cellular antibody staining patterns in breast tissue samples. The proposed methods include the computation of various features including gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features, complex wavelet co-occurrence matrix (CWCM) features, and weighted neighbor distance using compound hierarchy of algorithms representing morphology (WND-CHARM)-inspired features. The extracted features are used into two different multivariate classifiers (support vector machine (SVM) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier). Before extracting features, we use color deconvolution to separate different tissue components, such as the brownly stained positive regions and the blue cellular regions, in the immuno-stained TMA images of breast tissue. We present classification results based on combinations of feature measurements. The proposed complex wavelet features and the WND-CHARM features have accuracy similar to that of a human expert. Both human experts and the proposed automated methods have difficulties discriminating between nuclear and cytoplasmic staining patterns. This is to a large extent due to mixed staining of nucleus and cytoplasm. Methods for quantification of staining patterns in histopathology have many

  6. Automated classification of immunostaining patterns in breast tissue from the human protein Atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issac Niwas Swamidoss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Human Protein Atlas (HPA is an effort to map the location of all human proteins (http://www.proteinatlas.org/. It contains a large number of histological images of sections from human tissue. Tissue micro arrays (TMA are imaged by a slide scanning microscope, and each image represents a thin slice of a tissue core with a dark brown antibody specific stain and a blue counter stain. When generating antibodies for protein profiling of the human proteome, an important step in the quality control is to compare staining patterns of different antibodies directed towards the same protein. This comparison is an ultimate control that the antibody recognizes the right protein. In this paper, we propose and evaluate different approaches for classifying sub-cellular antibody staining patterns in breast tissue samples. Materials and Methods: The proposed methods include the computation of various features including gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM features, complex wavelet co-occurrence matrix (CWCM features, and weighted neighbor distance using compound hierarchy of algorithms representing morphology (WND-CHARM-inspired features. The extracted features are used into two different multivariate classifiers (support vector machine (SVM and linear discriminant analysis (LDA classifier. Before extracting features, we use color deconvolution to separate different tissue components, such as the brownly stained positive regions and the blue cellular regions, in the immuno-stained TMA images of breast tissue. Results: We present classification results based on combinations of feature measurements. The proposed complex wavelet features and the WND-CHARM features have accuracy similar to that of a human expert. Conclusions: Both human experts and the proposed automated methods have difficulties discriminating between nuclear and cytoplasmic staining patterns. This is to a large extent due to mixed staining of nucleus and cytoplasm. Methods for

  7. Binding of (/sup 3/H) progesterone to normal and neoplastic tissue samples from tumour bearing breasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollow, K; Sinnecker, R; Schmidt-Gollwitzer, M; Boquoi, E; Pollow, B [Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Biochemie, Frauenklinik Charlottenburg der Freien Universitat, Berlin (G.F.R.)

    1977-01-01

    Macromolecular components of normal human mammary cytosol (obtained from 'non-malignant tissue samples' from cancer bearing breasts) which bind (/sup 3/H)progesterone in vitro were characterized by sucrose gradient centrifugation, gel filtration on Agarose, ion exchange chromatography, isoelectric focusing, competition studies and kinetic parameters. The size of the cytoplasmic binding components vary with the concentration of KCl. In the absence of KCl, the major components are characterized by sedimentation coefficients of about 4 S and 8 S. In solutions containing 0.3M KCl, the cytoplasmic components sediment at 4 S in sucrose gradient. The corticosteroid-binding component of normal human mammary cytosol both sediment at about the same rate in the presence of 0.3M KCl and chromatograph as a single component on Agarose. The isoelectric point of the progesterone-binding component of normal human mammary cytosol was located around pH 5.0. The progesterone-binding component was more thermo-labile than serum CBG. CBG was inactivated at temperatures above 45 deg C but temperature above 20 deg C destroyed specific progesterone receptor binding. Progesterone receptor concentrations in normal mammary cytosol of premenopausal women depended on the menstrual cycle. The binding of progesterone was highest around the time of ovulation. In breast tumor tissue samples the progesterone receptor concentration was lower than in the normal mammary cytosol (obtained in each case from the same tumor-bearing breast). In 5 out of 37 breast tumor samples progesterone binding activity could not be detected.

  8. BMP9 inhibits the bone metastasis of breast cancer cells by downregulating CCN2 (connective tissue growth factor, CTGF) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Ke; Feng, Honglei; Liu, Yuehong; Fei, Chang; Wan, Shaoheng; Wang, Wei; Luo, Jinyong; Shi, Qiong; Tang, Min; Zuo, Guowei; Weng, Yaguang; He, Tongchuan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-03-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which belong to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, regulate a wide range of cellular responses including cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, and apoptosis. BMP9, the latest BMP to be discovered, is reportedly expressed in a variety of human carcinoma cell lines, but the role of BMP9 in breast cancer has not been fully clarified. In a previous study, BMP9 was found to inhibit the growth, migration, and invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. In the current study, the effect of BMP9 on the bone metastasis of breast cancer cells was investigated. After absent or low expression of BMP9 was detected in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and breast non-tumor adjacent tissues using Western blot and immunohistochemistry, In our previous study, BMP9 could inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 in vitro and in vivo. This paper shows that BMP9 inhibit the bone metastasis of breast cancer cells by activating the BMP/Smad signaling pathway and downregulating connective tissue growth factor (CTGF); however, when CTGF expression was maintained, the inhibitory effect of BMP9 on the MDA-MB-231 cells was abolished. Together, these observations indicate that BMP9 is an important mediator of breast cancer bone metastasis and a potential therapeutic target for treating this deadly disease.

  9. The dielectric properties of biological tissues: III. Parametric models for the dielectric spectrum of tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, S.; Lau, R.W.; Gabriel, C.

    1996-01-01

    A parametric model was developed to describe the variation of dielectric properties of tissues as a function of frequency. The experimental spectrum from 10 Hz to 100 GHz was modelled with four dispersion regions. The development of the model was based on recently acquired data, complemented by data surveyed from the literature. The purpose is to enable the prediction of dielectric data that are in line with those contained in the vast body of literature on the subject. The analysis was carried out on a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Parameters are given for 17 tissue types. (author)

  10. Role of endocrine disrupting chemicals on the tissue levels of AhR and sex steroid receptors in breast tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Arbabi Bidgoli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer affects Iranian women at least one decade younger than their counterparts in other countries and the incidence of breast fibroadenoma is growing in the last two decades in Tehran. This study aimed to compare the AhR levels in premenopausal breast cancer and breast fibroadnemo with appropriate normal groups. Possible associations of AhR with lifestyle and reproductive risk factors and other fundamental genes of breast cancer and reproductive disorders were the other major goals of present study. To conduct the comparisons all possible reproductive, environmental and lifestyle risk factors of mentioned diseases were recorded in 100 breast cancer, 100 breast fibroadenoma and compared with 400 women in normal group from 2009 to 2011. AhR overexpression in epithelial cells of premenopausal patients emphasized the susceptibility of these cells to environmental induced reproductive disorders. The AhR overexpression was contributed to ER-/PgR- immunophenotype in malignant tissues. Weight gain (after 18 and after pregnancy, long term (>5yrs OCP consumption, smoking, severe stress ,history of ovarian cysts, hormonal deregulations, living near PAHs producing sources, were correlated with increased risk of breast cancer and reproductive disorders and were correlated with elevated tissue levels of AhR. It seems that increased risk of breast cancer and other reproductive tumours in Tehran may be the result of exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors. Long term exposure to environmental estrogens can increase the tissue levels of AhR and deregulate the expression pattern of sex steroid receptors and other genes in target tissues.

  11. The association between breast tissue optical content and mammographic density in pre- and post-menopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M Blackmore

    Full Text Available Mammographic density (MD, associated with higher water and lower fat content in the breast, is strongly related to breast cancer risk. Optical attenuation spectroscopy (OS is a non-imaging method of evaluating breast tissue composition by red and near-infrared light transmitted through the breast that, unlike mammography, does not involve radiation. OS provides information on wavelength dependent light scattering of tissue and on absorption by water, lipid, oxy-, deoxy-hemoglobin. We propose that OS could be an alternative marker of breast cancer risk and that OS breast tissue measures will be associated with MD. In the present analysis, we developed an algorithm to estimate breast tissue composition and light scattering parameters using a spectrally constrained global fitting procedure employing a diffuse light transport model. OS measurements were obtained from 202 pre- and post-menopausal women with normal mammograms. Percent density (PD and dense area (DA were measured using Cumulus. The association between OS tissue composition and PD and DA was analyzed using linear regression adjusted for body mass index. Among pre-menopausal women, lipid content was significantly inversely associated with square root transformed PD (β = -0.05, p = 0.0002 and DA (β = -0.05, p = 0.019; water content was significantly positively associated with PD (β = 0.06, p = 0.008. Tissue oxygen saturation was marginally inversely associated with PD (β = -0.03, p = 0.057 but significantly inversely associated with DA (β = -0.10, p = 0.002. Among post-menopausal women lipid and water content were significantly associated (negatively and positively, respectively with PD (β lipid = -0.08, β water = 0.14, both p<0.0001 and DA (β lipid = -0.10, p<0.0001; β water = 0.11, p = 0.001. The association between OS breast content and PD and DA is consistent with more proliferation in dense tissue of younger women, greater lipid content in low density tissue and higher water

  12. Design properties of hydrogel tissue-engineering scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junmin; Marchant, Roger E

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the recent progress in the design and synthesis of hydrogels as tissue-engineering scaffolds. Hydrogels are attractive scaffolding materials owing to their highly swollen network structure, ability to encapsulate cells and bioactive molecules, and efficient mass transfer. Various polymers, including natural, synthetic and natural/synthetic hybrid polymers, have been used to make hydrogels via chemical or physical crosslinking. Recently, bioactive synthetic hydrogels have emerged as promising scaffolds because they can provide molecularly tailored biofunctions and adjustable mechanical properties, as well as an extracellular matrix-like microenvironment for cell growth and tissue formation. This article addresses various strategies that have been explored to design synthetic hydrogels with extracellular matrix-mimetic bioactive properties, such as cell adhesion, proteolytic degradation and growth factor-binding. PMID:22026626

  13. Topographic modelling of haptic properties of tissue products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, B-G; Fall, A; Farbrot, A; Bergström, P; Rosen, S

    2014-01-01

    The way a product or material feels when touched, haptics, has been shown to be a property that plays an important role when consumers determine the quality of products For tissue products in constant touch with the skin, ''softness'' becomes a primary quality parameter. In the present work, the relationship between topography and the feeling of the surface has been investigated for commercial tissues with varying degree of texture from the low textured crepe tissue to the highly textured embossed- and air-dried tissue products. A trained sensory panel at was used to grade perceived haptic ''roughness''. The technique used to characterize the topography was Digital light projection (DLP) technique, By the use of multivariate statistics, strong correlations between perceived roughness and topography were found with predictability of above 90 percent even though highly textured products were included. Characterization was made using areal ISO 25178-2 topography parameters in combination with non-contacting topography measurement. The best prediction ability was obtained when combining haptic properties with the topography parameters auto-correlation length (Sal), peak material volume (Vmp), core roughness depth (Sk) and the maximum height of the surface (Sz)

  14. A rare case of fibrocystic disease at vulval accessory breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudip; Roy, Alok Kumar; Kar, Chinmoy; Giri, Parag Prasun

    2007-11-01

    A 40-year-old female presented with a non-itchy ulcerative nodular lesion at left labium majus since last 1 1/2 years. The lesion progressed to increase in size from 0.5 cm to 1.5 cm in diameter. It was incised and drained. After that a non-healing ulcerative nodule formed. The nodule was firm in consistency and movable on all sides. The ulcer healed with a 5 days course of ceftriaxone. If was excised and biopsy of the lesion showed fibrocystic changes of accessory breast tissue. It is a rare disease entity for which the case report is presented.

  15. Bioprinting of hybrid tissue constructs with tailorable mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuurman, W; Khristov, V; Pot, M W; Dhert, W J A; Malda, J; Van Weeren, P R

    2011-01-01

    Tissue/organ printing aims to recapitulate the intrinsic complexity of native tissues. For a number of tissues, in particular those of musculoskeletal origin, adequate mechanical characteristics are an important prerequisite for their initial handling and stability, as well as long-lasting functioning. Hence, organized implants, possessing mechanical characteristics similar to the native tissue, may result in improved clinical outcomes of regenerative approaches. Using a bioprinter, grafts were constructed by alternate deposition of thermoplastic fibers and (cell-laden) hydrogels. Constructs of different shapes and sizes were manufactured and mechanical properties, as well as cell viability, were assessed. This approach yields novel organized viable hybrid constructs, which possess favorable mechanical characteristics, within the same range as those of native tissues. Moreover, the approach allows the use of multiple hydrogels and can thus produce constructs containing multiple cell types or bioactive factors. Furthermore, since the hydrogel is supported by the thermoplastic material, a broader range of hydrogel types can be used compared to bioprinting of hydrogels alone. In conclusion, we present an innovative and versatile approach for bioprinting, yielding constructs of which the mechanical stiffness provided by thermoplastic polymers can potentially be tailored, and combined specific cell placement patterns of multiple cell types embedded in a wide range of hydrogels. (communication)

  16. Bioprinting of hybrid tissue constructs with tailorable mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuurman, W; Khristov, V; Pot, M W; Dhert, W J A; Malda, J [Department of Orthopaedics, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Van Weeren, P R, E-mail: j.malda@umcutrecht.nl [Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Department of Equine Sciences, Utrecht University (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    Tissue/organ printing aims to recapitulate the intrinsic complexity of native tissues. For a number of tissues, in particular those of musculoskeletal origin, adequate mechanical characteristics are an important prerequisite for their initial handling and stability, as well as long-lasting functioning. Hence, organized implants, possessing mechanical characteristics similar to the native tissue, may result in improved clinical outcomes of regenerative approaches. Using a bioprinter, grafts were constructed by alternate deposition of thermoplastic fibers and (cell-laden) hydrogels. Constructs of different shapes and sizes were manufactured and mechanical properties, as well as cell viability, were assessed. This approach yields novel organized viable hybrid constructs, which possess favorable mechanical characteristics, within the same range as those of native tissues. Moreover, the approach allows the use of multiple hydrogels and can thus produce constructs containing multiple cell types or bioactive factors. Furthermore, since the hydrogel is supported by the thermoplastic material, a broader range of hydrogel types can be used compared to bioprinting of hydrogels alone. In conclusion, we present an innovative and versatile approach for bioprinting, yielding constructs of which the mechanical stiffness provided by thermoplastic polymers can potentially be tailored, and combined specific cell placement patterns of multiple cell types embedded in a wide range of hydrogels. (communication)

  17. Study of electron densities of normal and neoplastic human breast tissues by Compton scattering using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceição, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Electron densities of 33 samples of normal (adipose and fibroglangular) and neoplastic (benign and malignant) human breast tissues were determined through Compton scattering data using a monochromatic synchrotron radiation source and an energy dispersive detector. The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of the samples. Adipose tissue exhibits the lowest values of electron density whereas malignant tissue the highest. The relationship with their histology was discussed. Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%. - Highlights: ► Electron density of normal and neoplastic breast tissues was measured using Compton scattering. ► Monochromatic synchrotron radiation was used to obtain the Compton scattering data. ► The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of samples. ► Adipose tissue shows the lowest electron density values whereas the malignant tissue the highest. ► Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%.

  18. Gene expression profiling of human breast tissue samples using SAGE-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenhua Jeremy; Meyer, Clifford A; Choudhury, Sibgat; Shipitsin, Michail; Maruyama, Reo; Bessarabova, Marina; Nikolskaya, Tatiana; Sukumar, Saraswati; Schwartzman, Armin; Liu, Jun S; Polyak, Kornelia; Liu, X Shirley

    2010-12-01

    We present a powerful application of ultra high-throughput sequencing, SAGE-Seq, for the accurate quantification of normal and neoplastic mammary epithelial cell transcriptomes. We develop data analysis pipelines that allow the mapping of sense and antisense strands of mitochondrial and RefSeq genes, the normalization between libraries, and the identification of differentially expressed genes. We find that the diversity of cancer transcriptomes is significantly higher than that of normal cells. Our analysis indicates that transcript discovery plateaus at 10 million reads/sample, and suggests a minimum desired sequencing depth around five million reads. Comparison of SAGE-Seq and traditional SAGE on normal and cancerous breast tissues reveals higher sensitivity of SAGE-Seq to detect less-abundant genes, including those encoding for known breast cancer-related transcription factors and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). SAGE-Seq is able to identify genes and pathways abnormally activated in breast cancer that traditional SAGE failed to call. SAGE-Seq is a powerful method for the identification of biomarkers and therapeutic targets in human disease.

  19. The evaluation of breast tissues removed during reductive mammaplasty with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, Antonino; Gravante, Gianpiero; Sorge, Roberto; Nicoli, Fabio; Caruso, Riccardo; Araco, Antonino; Servidio, Michele; Orlandi, Augusto; Cervelli, Valerio

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: We conducted a case-control study in which patients were evaluated with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) before and after breast reduction surgery, and results were correlated with the histological examination. Our goal was to confirm the DEXA as a precise technique for the measurement of breast composition, in order to propose it for the preoperative evaluation of plastic surgery patients. Materials and methods: We prospectively recruited all women that underwent reduction mammaplasty and excluded patients with contraindications to the operation or those that previously underwent bariatric surgery to reduce their weight. Patients were evaluated with DEXA 1 week before and after surgery. Results: From February to October 2006 we recruited 25 patients. The statistical analysis found a significant reduction of weight, BMI, regional fat free mass and fat mass after the operation. The comparison between DEXA and the histological analysis produced a correlation r = 0.989 (r 2 = 0.978), with a predictivity of 98% and a percentage of error 8.3% (95% confidence intervals -252.6, 273.7; 95% limits of agreements of Bland and Altman -436.0, 457.1). Similar results were obtained with the analysis of fat. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that conventional segmental DEXA is a very precise technique to measure the amount of tissue removed in breast reductions and could open future application in the preoperative assessment of patients undergoing such operations.

  20. Variation of autosomes and X chromosome STR in breast cancer and gynecological cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Youxiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses 1000 cases of patients with breast cancer and 2000 cases of patients with gynecological cancer (1000 cases of malignant tumor, 1000 cases of benign tumors, where breast cancer and malignant tumor patients comprise the observation group, while patients with benign tumors comprise the control group. Through DNA extraction, STR genotyping and variation verification, microdissection, individual STR mutation rate and loci STR mutation rate of the two groups of patients were calculated. Results show that there are no significant (P > 0.05 differences in the STR variation of autosomes and X chromosome between patients in the observation group and those in the reference group. However, significant (P < 0.05 intergroup differences were found for STR variation typing between patients with malignant and benign tumors. Using STR genotyping for autosomes and X chromosomes, gynecological cancer patients were found to be more likely to mutate, with a clear relationship between STR variation and tumor differentiation degrees. The study on the variation analysis of autosomes and X chromosome STR in breast and gynecological cancer tissues is expected to have a high application value when applied to medical research and identification processes.

  1. The evaluation of breast tissues removed during reductive mammaplasty with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lorenzo, Antonino [Division of Human Nutrition, University of Tor Vergata in Rome (Italy); Gravante, Gianpiero [Division of Human Nutrition, University of Tor Vergata in Rome (Italy); Department of Surgery, Whipps Cross University Hospital, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ggravante@hotmail.com; Sorge, Roberto [Laboratory of Biometry, University of Tor Vergata in Rome (Italy); Nicoli, Fabio; Caruso, Riccardo; Araco, Antonino [Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Tor Vergata in Rome (Italy); Servidio, Michele [Division of Human Nutrition, University of Tor Vergata in Rome (Italy); Orlandi, Augusto [Department of Biopathology, Anatomic Pathology Institute, University of Tor Vergata in Rome (Italy); Cervelli, Valerio [Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Tor Vergata in Rome (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    Purpose: We conducted a case-control study in which patients were evaluated with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) before and after breast reduction surgery, and results were correlated with the histological examination. Our goal was to confirm the DEXA as a precise technique for the measurement of breast composition, in order to propose it for the preoperative evaluation of plastic surgery patients. Materials and methods: We prospectively recruited all women that underwent reduction mammaplasty and excluded patients with contraindications to the operation or those that previously underwent bariatric surgery to reduce their weight. Patients were evaluated with DEXA 1 week before and after surgery. Results: From February to October 2006 we recruited 25 patients. The statistical analysis found a significant reduction of weight, BMI, regional fat free mass and fat mass after the operation. The comparison between DEXA and the histological analysis produced a correlation r = 0.989 (r{sup 2} = 0.978), with a predictivity of 98% and a percentage of error 8.3% (95% confidence intervals -252.6, 273.7; 95% limits of agreements of Bland and Altman -436.0, 457.1). Similar results were obtained with the analysis of fat. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that conventional segmental DEXA is a very precise technique to measure the amount of tissue removed in breast reductions and could open future application in the preoperative assessment of patients undergoing such operations.

  2. Changes in dose with segmentation of breast tissues in Monte Carlo calculations for low-energy brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J. G. H.; Thomson, R. M.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the use of various breast tissue segmentation models in Monte Carlo dose calculations for low-energy brachytherapy. Methods: The EGSnrc user-code BrachyDose is used to perform Monte Carlo simulations of a breast brachytherapy treatment using TheraSeed Pd-103 seeds with various breast tissue segmentation models. Models used include a phantom where voxels are randomly assigned to be gland or adipose (randomly segmented), a phantom where a single tissue of averaged gland and adipose is present (averaged tissue), and a realistically segmented phantom created from previously published numerical phantoms. Radiation transport in averaged tissue while scoring in gland along with other combinations is investigated. The inclusion of calcifications in the breast is also studied in averaged tissue and randomly segmented phantoms. Results: In randomly segmented and averaged tissue phantoms, the photon energy fluence is approximately the same; however, differences occur in the dose volume histograms (DVHs) as a result of scoring in the different tissues (gland and adipose versus averaged tissue), whose mass energy absorption coefficients differ by 30%. A realistically segmented phantom is shown to significantly change the photon energy fluence compared to that in averaged tissue or randomly segmented phantoms. Despite this, resulting DVHs for the entire treatment volume agree reasonably because fluence differences are compensated by dose scoring differences. DVHs for the dose to only the gland voxels in a realistically segmented phantom do not agree with those for dose to gland in an averaged tissue phantom. Calcifications affect photon energy fluence to such a degree that the differences in fluence are not compensated for (as they are in the no calcification case) by dose scoring in averaged tissue phantoms. Conclusions: For low-energy brachytherapy, if photon transport and dose scoring both occur in an averaged tissue, the resulting DVH for the entire

  3. Changes in dose with segmentation of breast tissues in Monte Carlo calculations for low-energy brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J. G. H.; Thomson, R. M.; Rogers, D. W. O. [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the use of various breast tissue segmentation models in Monte Carlo dose calculations for low-energy brachytherapy. Methods: The EGSnrc user-code BrachyDose is used to perform Monte Carlo simulations of a breast brachytherapy treatment using TheraSeed Pd-103 seeds with various breast tissue segmentation models. Models used include a phantom where voxels are randomly assigned to be gland or adipose (randomly segmented), a phantom where a single tissue of averaged gland and adipose is present (averaged tissue), and a realistically segmented phantom created from previously published numerical phantoms. Radiation transport in averaged tissue while scoring in gland along with other combinations is investigated. The inclusion of calcifications in the breast is also studied in averaged tissue and randomly segmented phantoms. Results: In randomly segmented and averaged tissue phantoms, the photon energy fluence is approximately the same; however, differences occur in the dose volume histograms (DVHs) as a result of scoring in the different tissues (gland and adipose versus averaged tissue), whose mass energy absorption coefficients differ by 30%. A realistically segmented phantom is shown to significantly change the photon energy fluence compared to that in averaged tissue or randomly segmented phantoms. Despite this, resulting DVHs for the entire treatment volume agree reasonably because fluence differences are compensated by dose scoring differences. DVHs for the dose to only the gland voxels in a realistically segmented phantom do not agree with those for dose to gland in an averaged tissue phantom. Calcifications affect photon energy fluence to such a degree that the differences in fluence are not compensated for (as they are in the no calcification case) by dose scoring in averaged tissue phantoms. Conclusions: For low-energy brachytherapy, if photon transport and dose scoring both occur in an averaged tissue, the resulting DVH for the entire

  4. Spermine oxidase (SMO) activity in breast tumor tissues and biochemical analysis of the anticancer spermine analogues BENSpm and CPENSpm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervelli, Manuela; Grillo, Rosalba; Woster, Patrick M; Casero, Robert A Jr; Mariottini, Paolo; Bellavia, Gabriella; Fratini, Emiliano; Amendola, Roberto; Polticelli, Fabio; Barba, Marco; Federico, Rodolfo; Signore, Fabrizio; Gucciardo, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    Polyamine metabolism has a critical role in cell death and proliferation representing a potential target for intervention in breast cancer (BC). This study investigates the expression of spermine oxidase (SMO) and its prognostic significance in BC. Biochemical analysis of Spm analogues BENSpm and CPENSpm, utilized in anticancer therapy, was also carried out to test their property in silico and in vitro on the recombinant SMO enzyme. BC tissue samples were analyzed for SMO transcript level and SMO activity. Student's t test was applied to evaluate the significance of the differences in value observed in T and NT samples. The structure modeling analysis of BENSpm and CPENSpm complexes formed with the SMO enzyme and their inhibitory activity, assayed by in vitro experiments, were examined. Both the expression level of SMO mRNA and SMO enzyme activity were significantly lower in BC samples compared to NT samples. The modeling of BENSpm and CPENSpm complexes formed with SMO and their inhibition properties showed that both were good inhibitors. This study shows that underexpression of SMO is a negative marker in BC. The SMO induction is a remarkable chemotherapeutical target. The BENSpm and CPENSpm are efficient SMO inhibitors. The inhibition properties shown by these analogues could explain their poor positive outcomes in Phases I and II of clinical trials

  5. Spermine oxidase (SMO activity in breast tumor tissues and biochemical analysis of the anticancer spermine analogues BENSpm and CPENSpm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gucciardo Giacomo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyamine metabolism has a critical role in cell death and proliferation representing a potential target for intervention in breast cancer (BC. This study investigates the expression of spermine oxidase (SMO and its prognostic significance in BC. Biochemical analysis of Spm analogues BENSpm and CPENSpm, utilized in anticancer therapy, was also carried out to test their property in silico and in vitro on the recombinant SMO enzyme. Methods BC tissue samples were analyzed for SMO transcript level and SMO activity. Student's t test was applied to evaluate the significance of the differences in value observed in T and NT samples. The structure modeling analysis of BENSpm and CPENSpm complexes formed with the SMO enzyme and their inhibitory activity, assayed by in vitro experiments, were examined. Results Both the expression level of SMO mRNA and SMO enzyme activity were significantly lower in BC samples compared to NT samples. The modeling of BENSpm and CPENSpm complexes formed with SMO and their inhibition properties showed that both were good inhibitors. Conclusions This study shows that underexpression of SMO is a negative marker in BC. The SMO induction is a remarkable chemotherapeutical target. The BENSpm and CPENSpm are efficient SMO inhibitors. The inhibition properties shown by these analogues could explain their poor positive outcomes in Phases I and II of clinical trials.

  6. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on progestin stimulation of invasive properties in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael R; King, Rebecca A

    2012-12-01

    Clinical studies have shown that progestins increase breast cancer risk in hormone replacement therapy, while we and others have previously reported that progestins stimulate invasive properties in progesterone receptor (PR)-rich human breast cancer cell lines. Based on others' reports that omega-3 fatty acids inhibit metastatic properties of breast cancer, we have reviewed the literature for possible connections between omega-3 fatty-acid-driven pathways and progestin-stimulated pathways in an attempt to suggest theoretical mechanisms for possible omega-3 fatty acid inhibition of progestin stimulation of breast cancer invasion. We also present some data suggesting that fatty acids regulate progestin stimulation of invasive properties in PR-rich T47D human breast cancer cells, and that an appropriate concentration of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits progestin stimulation of invasive properties. It is hoped that focus on the inter-relationship between pathways by which omega-3 fatty acids inhibit and progestins stimulate breast cancer invasive properties will lead to further in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies testing the hypothesis that omega-3 fatty acids can inhibit progestin stimulation of invasive properties in breast cancer, and ameliorate harmful effects of progestins which occur in combined progestin-estrogen hormone replacement therapy.

  7. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, syndecan-1 and connective tissue growth factor in benign and malignant breast tissue from premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlén, M; Zhang, H; Löfgren, L; Masironi, B; von Schoultz, E; von Schoultz, B; Sahlin, L

    2017-05-01

    Stromal factors have been identified as important for tumorigenesis and metastases of breast cancer. From 49 premenopausal women, samples were collected from benign or malignant tumors and the seemingly normal tissue adjacent to the tumor. The factors studied, with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, were cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-1 and COX-2), syndecan-1 (S-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). COX-1 and S-1 mRNA levels were higher in the malignant tumors than in normal and benign tissues. The COX-2 mRNA level was lower in the malignant tumor than in the normal tissue, while CTGF mRNA did not differ between the groups. COX-1 immunostaining was higher in stroma from malignant tumors than in benign tissues, whereas COX-2 immunostaining was higher in the malignant tissue. Glandular S-1 immunostaining was lower in malignant tumors compared to benign and normal tissues, and the opposite was found in stroma. Conclusively, mRNA levels of COX-1 and COX-2 were oppositely regulated, with COX-1 being increased in the malignant tumor while COX-2 was decreased. S-1 protein localization switched from glandular to stromal cells in malignant tissues. Thus, these markers are, in premenopausal women, localized and regulated differently in normal/benign breast tissue as compared to the malignant tumor.

  8. Combining extreme learning machines using support vector machines for breast tissue classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliri, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach for breast tissue classification using the features derived from electrical impedance spectroscopy. This method is composed of a feature extraction method, feature selection phase and a classification step. The feature extraction phase derives the features from the electrical impedance spectra. The extracted features consist of the impedivity at zero frequency (I0), the phase angle at 500 KHz, the high-frequency slope of phase angle, the impedance distance between spectral ends, the area under spectrum, the normalised area, the maximum of the spectrum, the distance between impedivity at I0 and the real part of the maximum frequency point and the length of the spectral curve. The system uses the information theoretic criterion as a strategy for feature selection and the combining extreme learning machines (ELMs) for the classification phase. The results of several ELMs are combined using the support vector machines classifier, and the result of classification is reported as a measure of the performance of the system. The results indicate that the proposed system achieves high accuracy in classification of breast tissues using the electrical impedance spectroscopy.

  9. Manufacture and characterization of breast tissue phantoms for emulating benign lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamarín, J. A.; Rojas, M. A.; Potosi, O. M.; Narváez-Semanate, J. L.; Gaviria, C.

    2017-11-01

    Phantoms elaboration has turned a very important field of study during the last decades due to its applications in medicine. These objects are capable of emulating or mimicking acoustically biological tissues in which parameters like speed of sound (SOS) and attenuation are successfully attained. However, these materials are expensive depending on their characteristics (USD 460.00 - 6000.00) and is difficult to have precise measurements because of their composition. This paper presents the elaboration and characterization of low cost ( USD $25.00) breast phantoms which emulate histological normality and pathological conditions in order to support algorithm calibration procedures in imaging diagnosis. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) was applied to estimate SOS and attenuation values for breast tissue (background) and benign lesions (fibroadenoma and cysts). Results showed values of the SOS and attenuation for the background between 1410 - 1450 m/s and 0.40 - 0.55 dB/cm at 1 MHz sampling frequency, respectively. On the other hand, the SOS obtained for the lesions ranges from 1350 to 1700 m/s and attenuation values between 0.50 - 1.80 dB/cm at 1 MHz. Finally, the fabricated phantoms allowed for obtaining ultrasonograms comparable with real ones whose acoustic parameters are in agree with those reported in the literature.

  10. Markers of fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition demonstrate field cancerization in histologically normal tissue adjacent to breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Kristina A.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Mai, Minh; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Vo, Phung; Butler, Kimberly S.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a field of genetically altered but histologically normal tissue extends 1 cm or more from the margins of human breast tumors. The extent, composition and biological significance of this field are only partially understood, but the molecular alterations in affected cells could provide mechanisms for limitless replicative capacity, genomic instability and a microenvironment that supports tumor initiation and progression. We demonstrate by microarray, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry a signature of differential gene expression that discriminates between patient-matched, tumor-adjacent histologically normal breast tissues located 1 cm and 5 cm from the margins of breast adenocarcinomas (TAHN-1 and TAHN-5, respectively). The signature includes genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, wound healing, fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Myofibroblasts, which are mediators of wound healing and fibrosis, and intra-lobular fibroblasts expressing MMP2, SPARC, TGF-β3, which are inducers of EMT, were both prevalent in TAHN-1 tissues, sparse in TAHN-5 tissues, and absent in normal tissues from reduction mammoplasty. Accordingly, EMT markers S100A4 and vimentin were elevated in both luminal and myoepithelial cells, and EMT markers α-smooth muscle actin and SNAIL were elevated in luminal epithelial cells of TAHN-1 tissues. These results identify cellular processes that are differentially activated between TAHN-1 and TAHN-5 breast tissues, implicate myofibroblasts as likely mediators of these processes, provide evidence that EMT is occurring in histologically normal tissues within the affected field and identify candidate biomarkers to investigate whether or how field cancerization contributes to the development of primary or recurrent breast tumors. PMID:21105047

  11. Breast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis; Infection - breast tissue; Breast abscess ... must continue to breastfeed or pump to relieve breast swelling from milk production. In case if the abscess does not go away, needle aspiration under ultrasound ...

  12. Mammary stem cell and macrophage markers are enriched in normal tissue adjacent to inflammatory breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Jay P; Atkinson, Rachel L; Larson, Richard; Burks, Jared K; Smith, Daniel; Debeb, Bisrat G; Ruffell, Brian; Creighton, Chad J; Bambhroliya, Arvind; Reuben, James M; Van Laere, Steven J; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Symmans, William F; Brewster, Abenaa M; Woodward, Wendy A

    2018-06-01

    We hypothesized that breast tissue not involved by tumor in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) patients contains intrinsic differences, including increased mammary stem cells and macrophage infiltration, which may promote the IBC phenotype. Normal breast parenchyma ≥ 5 cm away from primary tumors was obtained from mastectomy specimens. This included an initial cohort of 8 IBC patients and 60 non-IBC patients followed by a validation cohort of 19 IBC patients and 25 non-IBC patients. Samples were immunostained for either CD44 + CD49f + CD133/2 + mammary stem cell markers or the CD68 macrophage marker and correlated with IBC status. Quantitation of positive cells was determined using inForm software from PerkinElmer. We also examined the association between IBC status and previously published tumorigenic stem cell and IBC tumor signatures in the validation cohort samples. 8 of 8 IBC samples expressed isolated CD44 + CD49f + CD133/2 + stem cell marked cells in the initial cohort as opposed to 0/60 non-IBC samples (p = 0.001). Similarly, the median number of CD44 + CD49f + CD133/2 + cells was significantly higher in the IBC validation cohort as opposed to the non-IBC validation cohort (25.7 vs. 14.2, p = 0.007). 7 of 8 IBC samples expressed CD68 + histologically confirmed macrophages in initial cohort as opposed to 12/48 non-IBC samples (p = 0.001). In the validation cohort, the median number of CD68 + cells in IBC was 3.7 versus 1.0 in the non-IBC cohort (p = 0.06). IBC normal tissue was positively associated with a tumorigenic stem cell signature (p = 0.02) and with a 79-gene IBC signature (p stem cell signature and IBC-specific tumor signature. Collectively, these data suggest that IBC normal tissue differs from non-IBC tissue. Whether these changes occur before the tumor develops or is induced by tumor warrants further investigation.

  13. Correlation between the mechanical and histological properties of liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarpuzlu, Berkay; Ayyildiz, Mehmet; Tok, Olgu Enis; Aktas, Ranan Gulhan; Basdogan, Cagatay

    2014-01-01

    In order to gain further insight into the mechanisms of tissue damage during the progression of liver diseases as well as the liver preservation for transplantation, an improved understanding of the relation between the mechanical and histological properties of liver is necessary. We suggest that this relation can only be established truly if the changes in the states of those properties are investigated dynamically as a function of post mortem time. In this regard, we first perform mechanical characterization experiments on three bovine livers to investigate the changes in gross mechanical properties (stiffness, viscosity, and fracture toughness) for the preservation periods of 5, 11, 17, 29, 41 and 53h after harvesting. Then, the histological examination is performed on the samples taken from the same livers to investigate the changes in apoptotic cell count, collagen accumulation, sinusoidal dilatation, and glycogen deposition as a function of the same preservation periods. Finally, the correlation between the mechanical and histological properties is investigated via the Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation method. The results of our study show that stiffness, viscosity, and fracture toughness of bovine liver increase as the preservation period is increased. These macroscopic changes are very strongly correlated with the increase in collagen accumulation and decrease in deposited glycogen level at the microscopic level. Also, we observe that the largest changes in mechanical and histological properties occur after the first 11-17h of preservation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating the Use of Tissue Oximetry to Decrease Intensive Unit Monitoring for Free Flap Breast Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Joseph A; Vargas, Christina R; Ho, Olivia A; Lin, Samuel J; Tobias, Adam M; Lee, Bernard T

    2017-07-01

    Postoperative free flap care has historically required intensive monitoring for 24 hours in an intensive care unit. Continuous monitoring with tissue oximetry has allowed earlier detection of vascular compromise, decreasing flap loss and improving salvage. This study aims to identify whether a fast-track postoperative paradigm can be safely used with tissue oximetry to decrease intensive monitoring and costs. All consecutive microsurgical breast reconstructions performed at a single institution were reviewed (2008-2014) and cases requiring return to the operating room were identified. Data evaluated included patient demographics, the take back time course, and complications of flap loss and salvage. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to analyse the utility of a postoperative intensive monitoring setting. There were 900 flaps performed and 32 required an unplanned return to the operating room. There were 16 flaps that required a reexploration within the first 24 hours; the standard length of intensive unit monitoring. After 4 hours, there were 7 flaps (44%) detected by tissue oximetry for reexploration. After 15 hours of intensive monitoring postoperatively, cost analysis revealed that the majority (15/16; 94%) of failing flaps had been identified and the cost of identifying each subsequent failing flap exceeded the cost of another hour of intensive monitoring. The postoperative paradigm for microsurgical flaps has historically required intensive unit monitoring. Using tissue oximetry, a fast-track pathway can reduce time spent in an intensive monitoring setting from 24 to 15 hours with significant cost savings and minimal risk of missing a failing free flap.

  15. 胰岛素样生长因子-1在乳腺癌组织中的表达%Expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 in breast cancer tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingxun Chen; Mengquan Li; Jingruo Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) so as to explore its relationship with carcinogenesis and development of breast cancer. Methods: IGF-1 mRNA levels in tissues of breast cancer, adjacent breast cancer in 70 cases breast cancer patients were analyzed by RT-PCR with the normal breast tissues of paired breast as the control. Results: The level of IGF-1 mRNA expression in breast cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in the paired adjacent to breast cancer tissues, normal mammary gland tissues. The ration of IGF-1/β-actin were 0.679±0.075, 0.463±0.085, 0.305±0.031, respectively. There was significant difference between different groups (P 0.005). Conclusion: The high-level expression of IGF-1 in breast cancer tissues is correlated with carcinogenesis, development and metastasis of breast cancer.

  16. Quantitative ultrasound characterization of locally advanced breast cancer by estimation of its scatterer properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadayyon, Hadi [Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Czarnota, Gregory, E-mail: Gregory.Czarnota@sunnybrook.ca [Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5T 1P5 (Canada); Wirtzfeld, Lauren [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Wright, Frances C. [Division of Surgical Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Tumor grading is an important part of breast cancer diagnosis and currently requires biopsy as its standard. Here, the authors investigate quantitative ultrasound parameters in locally advanced breast cancers that can potentially separate tumors from normal breast tissue and differentiate tumor grades. Methods: Ultrasound images and radiofrequency data from 42 locally advanced breast cancer patients were acquired and analyzed. Parameters related to the linear regression of the power spectrum—midband fit, slope, and 0-MHz-intercept—were determined from breast tumors and normal breast tissues. Mean scatterer spacing was estimated from the spectral autocorrelation, and the effective scatterer diameter and effective acoustic concentration were estimated from the Gaussian form factor. Parametric maps of each quantitative ultrasound parameter were constructed from the gated radiofrequency segments in tumor and normal tissue regions of interest. In addition to the mean values of the parametric maps, higher order statistical features, computed from gray-level co-occurrence matrices were also determined and used for characterization. Finally, linear and quadratic discriminant analyses were performed using combinations of quantitative ultrasound parameters to classify breast tissues. Results: Quantitative ultrasound parameters were found to be statistically different between tumor and normal tissue (p < 0.05). The combination of effective acoustic concentration and mean scatterer spacing could separate tumor from normal tissue with 82% accuracy, while the addition of effective scatterer diameter to the combination did not provide significant improvement (83% accuracy). Furthermore, the two advanced parameters, including effective scatterer diameter and mean scatterer spacing, were found to be statistically differentiating among grade I, II, and III tumors (p = 0.014 for scatterer spacing, p = 0.035 for effective scatterer diameter). The separation of the tumor

  17. Quantitative ultrasound characterization of locally advanced breast cancer by estimation of its scatterer properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadayyon, Hadi; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Czarnota, Gregory; Wirtzfeld, Lauren; Wright, Frances C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor grading is an important part of breast cancer diagnosis and currently requires biopsy as its standard. Here, the authors investigate quantitative ultrasound parameters in locally advanced breast cancers that can potentially separate tumors from normal breast tissue and differentiate tumor grades. Methods: Ultrasound images and radiofrequency data from 42 locally advanced breast cancer patients were acquired and analyzed. Parameters related to the linear regression of the power spectrum—midband fit, slope, and 0-MHz-intercept—were determined from breast tumors and normal breast tissues. Mean scatterer spacing was estimated from the spectral autocorrelation, and the effective scatterer diameter and effective acoustic concentration were estimated from the Gaussian form factor. Parametric maps of each quantitative ultrasound parameter were constructed from the gated radiofrequency segments in tumor and normal tissue regions of interest. In addition to the mean values of the parametric maps, higher order statistical features, computed from gray-level co-occurrence matrices were also determined and used for characterization. Finally, linear and quadratic discriminant analyses were performed using combinations of quantitative ultrasound parameters to classify breast tissues. Results: Quantitative ultrasound parameters were found to be statistically different between tumor and normal tissue (p < 0.05). The combination of effective acoustic concentration and mean scatterer spacing could separate tumor from normal tissue with 82% accuracy, while the addition of effective scatterer diameter to the combination did not provide significant improvement (83% accuracy). Furthermore, the two advanced parameters, including effective scatterer diameter and mean scatterer spacing, were found to be statistically differentiating among grade I, II, and III tumors (p = 0.014 for scatterer spacing, p = 0.035 for effective scatterer diameter). The separation of the tumor

  18. Identification of the Types Properties and Functional Characteristics of Telomerase Expressing Cells in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hines, William

    2003-01-01

    ... biochemical and functional properties may be characterized. Through examining the role of telomerase in cancer, this project also fosters the education of the candidate through the interaction with several experts in breast cancer pathology, epidemiology, bio...

  19. Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor, Tissue Factor, and VEGF-R Bound VEGF in Human Breast Cancer In Loco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtukiewicz, Marek Z; Sierko, Ewa; Skalij, Piotr; Kamińska, Magda; Zimnoch, Lech; Brekken, Ralf A; Thorpe, Philip E

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin and docetaxel-based chemotherapy regimens used in breast cancer patients are associated with high risk of febrile neutropenia (FN). Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) are recommended for both treating and preventing chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Increased thrombosis incidence in G-CSF treated patients was reported; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The principal activator of blood coagulation in cancer is tissue factor (TF). It additionally contributes to cancer progression and stimulates angiogenesis. The main proangiogenic factor is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The aim of the study was to evaluate granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR), tissue factor (TF) expression and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF-R) bound VEGF in human breast cancer in loco. G-CSFR, TF and VEGFR bound VEGF (VEGF: VEGFR) were assessed in 28 breast cancer tissue samples. Immunohistochemical (IHC) methodologies according to ABC technique and double staining IHC procedure were employed utilizing antibodies against G-CSFR, TF and VEGF associated with VEGFR (VEGF: VEGFR). Expression of G-CSFR was demonstrated in 20 breast cancer tissue specimens (71%). In 6 cases (21%) the expression was strong (IRS 9-12). Strong expression of TF was observed in all investigated cases (100%). Moreover, expression of VEGF: VEGFR was visualized in cancer cells (IRS 5-8). No presence of G-CSFR, TF or VEGF: VEGFR was detected on healthy breast cells. Double staining IHC studies revealed co-localization of G-CSFR and TF, G-CSFR and VEGF: VEGFR, as well as TF and VEGF: VEGFR on breast cancer cells and ECs. The results of the study indicate that GCSFR, TF and VEGF: VEGFR expression as well as their co-expression might influence breast cancer biology, and may increase thromboembolic adverse events incidence.

  20. Risk of connective tissue disease and related disorders among women with breast implants: a nation-wide retrospective cohort study in Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Nyrén, O.; Yin, L.; Josefsson, S.; McLaughlin, J. K.; Blot, W. J.; Engqvist, M.; Hakelius, L.; Boice, J. D.; Adami, H. O.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between connective tissue disease and related conditions and breast implants. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of all women in the Swedish national inpatient registry who underwent breast augmentation surgery with artificial implants during 1964-93, compared with women who underwent breast reduction surgery during the same period. SETTING: Sweden. SUBJECTS: 7442 women with implants for cosmetic reasons or for reconstruction after breast cancer surgery and ...

  1. X-ray phase-contrast tomosynthesis for improved breast tissue discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleede, Simone; Bech, Martin; Grandl, Susanne; Sztrókay, Aniko; Herzen, Julia; Mayr, Doris; Stockmar, Marco; Potdevin, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Attenuation-based tomosynthesis has proven to successfully resolve the glandular tissue overlap present in mammography. However, the ability of tomosynthesis to differentiate tumorous and glandular tissue remains limited, due to the small differences in X-ray attenuation in breast tissue. One possibility to overcome this limitation and to further increase the diagnostic value of tomosynthesis exams, is the application of recently developed grating-based phase-contrast methods, which provide complementary information on the phase shift and the local scattering power of the sample. In this study, we report on first phase-contrast breast tomosynthesis results of a mastectomy sample slice with an invasive ductal carcinoma. Material and methods: A slice of a mastectomy sample with histologically proven invasive ductal cancer was imaged at the synchrotron radiation source ESRF (Grenoble, France). We used a two-grating interferometer setup at the ninth fractional Talbot distance and with an X-ray energy of 23 keV. In grating interferometry absorption, differential phase, and scattering images are recorded simultaneously. The tomosynthesis scan comprises 61 projections. Multimodal tomosynthesis results were reconstructed using a standard filtered back-projection approach. Our findings are supported by a comparison of tomographic views to histopathology. Results: Phase-contrast tomosynthesis combines the advantage of improved soft-tissue discrimination in phase-contrast imaging with the ability of tomosynthesis to provide a third dimension so that improved feature visibility is not hampered by superposition artifacts. Our results indicate superior diagnostic value due to the depth resolution supplied in tomosynthesis imaging; a region of necrotic tissue that is obscured in a projection image can clearly be depicted in one single tomosynthesis slice. Compared to absorption tomosynthesis alone, soft tissue contrast is significantly enhanced in phase

  2. X-ray phase-contrast tomosynthesis for improved breast tissue discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleede, Simone; Bech, Martin; Grandl, Susanne; Sztrókay, Aniko; Herzen, Julia; Mayr, Doris; Stockmar, Marco; Potdevin, Guillaume; Zanette, Irene; Rack, Alexander; Weitkamp, Timm; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2014-03-01

    Attenuation-based tomosynthesis has proven to successfully resolve the glandular tissue overlap present in mammography. However, the ability of tomosynthesis to differentiate tumorous and glandular tissue remains limited, due to the small differences in X-ray attenuation in breast tissue. One possibility to overcome this limitation and to further increase the diagnostic value of tomosynthesis exams, is the application of recently developed grating-based phase-contrast methods, which provide complementary information on the phase shift and the local scattering power of the sample. In this study, we report on first phase-contrast breast tomosynthesis results of a mastectomy sample slice with an invasive ductal carcinoma. A slice of a mastectomy sample with histologically proven invasive ductal cancer was imaged at the synchrotron radiation source ESRF (Grenoble, France). We used a two-grating interferometer setup at the ninth fractional Talbot distance and with an X-ray energy of 23 keV. In grating interferometry absorption, differential phase, and scattering images are recorded simultaneously. The tomosynthesis scan comprises 61 projections. Multimodal tomosynthesis results were reconstructed using a standard filtered back-projection approach. Our findings are supported by a comparison of tomographic views to histopathology. Phase-contrast tomosynthesis combines the advantage of improved soft-tissue discrimination in phase-contrast imaging with the ability of tomosynthesis to provide a third dimension so that improved feature visibility is not hampered by superposition artifacts. Our results indicate superior diagnostic value due to the depth resolution supplied in tomosynthesis imaging; a region of necrotic tissue that is obscured in a projection image can clearly be depicted in one single tomosynthesis slice. Compared to absorption tomosynthesis alone, soft tissue contrast is significantly enhanced in phase-contrast tomosynthesis views, where fibrous structures

  3. Comparison of telomere length and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 promoter methylation between breast cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues in Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Zehra; Akkiprik, Mustafa; Karabulut, Sevgi; Peker, Irem; Gullu Amuran, Gokce; Ozmen, Tolga; Gulluoglu, Bahadır M; Kaya, Handan; Ozer, Ayse

    2017-09-01

    Both insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and telomere length (TL) are associated with proliferation and senescence of human breast cancer. This study assessed the clinical significance of both TL and IGFBP7 methylation status in breast cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. We also investigated whether IGFBP7 methylation status could be affecting TL. Telomere length was measured by quantitative PCR to compare tumors with their adjacent normal tissues. The IGFBP7 promoter methylation status was evaluated by methylation-specific PCR and its expression levels were determined by western blotting. Telomeres were shorter in tumor tissues compared to controls (Pbreast cancer with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC; n=72; P=.014) compared with other histological type (n=29), and TL in IDC with HER2 negative (n=53; P=.017) was higher than TL in IDC with HER2 positive (n=19). However, telomeres were shortened in advanced stages and growing tumors. IGFBP7 methylation was observed in 90% of tumor tissues and 59% of controls (P=.0002). Its frequency was significantly higher in IDC compared with invasive mixed carcinoma (IMC; P=.002) and it was not correlated either with protein expression or the other clinicopathological parameters. These results suggest that IGFBP7 promoter methylation and shorter TL in tumor compared with adjacent tissues may be predictive biomarkers for breast cancer. Telomere maintenance may be indicative of IDC and IDC with HER2 (-) of breast cancer. Further studies with larger number of cases are necessary to verify this association. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Development of accurate UWB dielectric properties dispersion at CST simulation tool for modeling microwave interactions with numerical breast phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, A.; Quboa, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a reformulation for the recently published dielectric properties dispersion models of the breast tissues is carried out to be used by CST simulation tool. The reformulation includes tabulation of the real and imaginary parts versus frequency on ultra-wideband (UWB) for these models by MATLAB programs. The tables are imported and fitted by CST simulation tool to second or first order general equations. The results have shown good agreement between the original and the imported data. The MATLAB programs written in MATLAB code are included in the appendix.

  5. Functional properties of bicarbonates and lactic acid on chicken breast retail display properties and cooked meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nakia; Sharma, Vijendra; Brown, Nettie; Mohan, Anand

    2015-02-01

    Whole chicken breast was injected with potassium bicarbonate (PB), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and potassium lactate (K-lactate) and salt, alone or in combination at different concentration levels. The objectives were to 1) investigate the effects of different concentration of PB, SB, and PL on instrumental color, water-holding capacity (WHC), objective tenderness, expressible moisture, and moisture content and 2) evaluate whether sodium-containing ingredients can be replaced with potassium as a potential strategy to reduce total sodium content in the finished product. Results showed that chicken breast tissue marinated with SB and PB had greater moisture retention, display characteristics, and cooked product qualities than chicken breast tissue injected with water and the nonmarinated control. The L* values (lightness) did not change over the period of retail display and were not different compared to the control (P>0.05). The chicken breast enhanced with SB, PB, and K-lactate retained better retail display color than the controls (marinated with water and nonmarinated). Increasing the potassium bicarbonate concentration from 0.5 to 1.5% significantly improved the water-holding capacity (82.17 to 92.61%; Pmeat quality than SB. This study suggests that chicken breast tissue can be marinated with KB as a healthier alternative to phosphate or SB. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Imaging breast adipose and fibroglandular tissue molecular signatures by using hybrid MRI-guided near-infrared spectral tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooksby, Ben; Pogue, Brian W.; Jiang, Shudong; Dehghani, Hamid; Srinivasan, Subhadra; Kogel, Christine; Tosteson, Tor D.; Weaver, John; Poplack, Steven P.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2006-06-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR)-guided near-infrared spectral tomography was developed and used to image adipose and fibroglandular breast tissue of 11 normal female subjects, recruited under an institutional review board-approved protocol. Images of hemoglobin, oxygen saturation, water fraction, and subcellular scattering were reconstructed and show that fibroglandular fractions of both blood and water are higher than in adipose tissue. Variation in adipose and fibroglandular tissue composition between individuals was not significantly different across the scattered and dense breast categories. Combined MR and near-infrared tomography provides fundamental molecular information about these tissue types with resolution governed by MR T1 images. hemoglobin | magnetic resonance imaging | water | fat | oxygen saturation

  7. Microwave Ablation Compared with Radiofrequency Ablation for Breast Tissue in an Ex Vivo Bovine Udder Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshihiro; Westphal, Saskia; Isfort, Peter; Braunschweig, Till; Penzkofer, Tobias; Bruners, Philipp; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of microwave (MW) ablation with radiofrequency (RF) ablation for treating breast tissue in a nonperfused ex vivo model of healthy bovine udder tissue. Materials and Methods: MW ablations were performed at power outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W using a 915-MHz frequency generator and a 2-cm active tip antenna. RF ablations were performed with a bipolar RF system with 2- and 3-cm active tip electrodes. Tissue temperatures were continuously monitored during ablation. Results: The mean short-axis diameters of the coagulation zones were 1.34 ± 0.14, 1.45 ± 0.13, and 1.74 ± 0.11 cm for MW ablation at outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W. For RF ablation, the corresponding values were 1.16 ± 0.09 and 1.26 ± 0.14 cm with electrodes having 2- and 3-cm active tips, respectively. The mean coagulation volumes were 2.27 ± 0.65, 2.85 ± 0.72, and 4.45 ± 0.47 cm 3 for MW ablation at outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W and 1.18 ± 0.30 and 2.29 ± 0.55 cm 3 got RF ablation with 2- and 3-cm electrodes, respectively. MW ablations at 35W and 45W achieved significantly longer short-axis diameters than RF ablations (P < 0.05). The highest tissue temperature was achieved with MW ablation at 45W (P < 0.05). On histological examination, the extent of the ablation zone in MW ablations was less affected by tissue heterogeneity than that in RF ablations. Conclusion: MW ablation appears to be advantageous with respect to the volume of ablation and the shape of the margin of necrosis compared with RF ablation in an ex vivo bovine udder.

  8. Optical redox imaging of fixed unstained tissue slides to identify biomarkers for breast cancer diagnosis/prognosis: feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N.; Tchou, Julia; Li, Yusheng; Feng, Min; Zhang, Paul; Quinn, William J.; Baur, Joseph A.; Li, Lin Z.

    2018-02-01

    We previously showed that optical redox imaging (ORI) of snap-frozen breast biopsies by the Chance redox scanner readily discriminates cancer from normal tissue. Moreover, indices of redox heterogeneity differentiate among tumor xenografts with different metastatic potential. These observations suggest that ORI of fluorescence of NADH and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp) may provide diagnostic/prognostic value for clinical applications. In this work, we investigate whether ORI of formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded (FFPE) unstained clinical tissue slides of breast tumors is feasible and comparable to ORI of snap-frozen tumors. If ORI of FFPE is validated, it will enhance the versatility of ORI as a novel diagnostic/prognostic assay as FFPE samples are readily available. ORI of fixed tissue slides was performed using a fluorescence microscope equipped with a precision automated stage and appropriate optical filters. We developed a vignette correction algorithm to remove the tiling effect of stitched-images. The preliminary data from imaging fixed slides of breast tumor xenografts showed intratumor redox heterogeneity patterns similar to that of the frozen tissues imaged by the Chance redox scanner. From ORI of human breast tissue slides we identified certain redox differences among normal, ductal carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma. We found paraformaldehyde fixation causes no change in NADH signals but enhances Fp signals of fresh muscle fibers. We also investigated the stability of the fluorescence microscope and reproducibility of tissue slide fluorescence signals. We plan to validate the diagnostic/prognostic value of ORI using clinically annotated breast cancer sample set from patients with long-term follow-up data.

  9. In vitro assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for a breast tissue expander with a remote port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnemeyer, Hannah; Shellock, Frank G; Ahn, Christina Y

    2014-04-01

    A patient with a breast tissue expander may require a diagnostic assessment using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To ensure patient safety, this type of implant must undergo in vitro MRI testing using proper techniques. Therefore, this investigation evaluated MRI issues (i.e., magnetic field interactions, heating, and artifacts) at 3-Tesla for a breast tissue expander with a remote port. A breast tissue expander with a remote port (Integra Breast Tissue Expander, Model 3612-06 with Standard Remote Port, PMT Corporation, Chanhassen, MN) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions (translational attraction and torque), MRI-related heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. Heating was evaluated by placing the implant in a gelled-saline-filled phantom and MRI was performed using a transmit/receive RF body coil at an MR system reported, whole body averaged specific absorption rate of 2.9-W/kg. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted and GRE pulse sequences. Magnetic field interactions were not substantial and, thus, will not pose a hazard to a patient in a 3-Tesla or less MRI environment. The highest temperature rise was 1.7°C, which is physiologically inconsequential. Artifacts were large in relation to the remote port and metal connector of the implant but will only present problems if the MR imaging area of interest is where these components are located. A patient with this breast tissue expander with a remote port may safely undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less under the conditions used for this investigation. These findings are the first reported at 3-Tesla for a tissue expander. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rap1 integrates tissue polarity, lumen formation, and tumorigenicpotential in human breast epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Masahiko; Nelson, Celeste M.; Myers, Connie A.; Bissell,Mina J.

    2006-09-29

    Maintenance of apico-basal polarity in normal breast epithelial acini requires a balance between cell proliferation, cell death, and proper cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix signaling. Aberrations in any of these processes can disrupt tissue architecture and initiate tumor formation. Here we show that the small GTPase Rap1 is a crucial element in organizing acinar structure and inducing lumen formation. Rap1 activity in malignant HMT-3522 T4-2 cells is appreciably higher than in S1 cells, their non-malignant counterparts. Expression of dominant-negative Rap1 resulted in phenotypic reversion of T4-2 cells, led to formation of acinar structures with correct apico-basal polarity, and dramatically reduced tumor incidence despite the persistence of genomic abnormalities. The resulting acini contained prominent central lumina not observed when other reverting agents were used. Conversely, expression of dominant-active Rap1 in T4-2 cells inhibited phenotypic reversion and led to increased invasiveness and tumorigenicity. Thus, Rap1 acts as a central regulator of breast architecture, with normal levels of activation instructing apical polarity during acinar morphogenesis, and increased activation inducing tumor formation and progression to malignancy.

  11. Application of Synthetic Polymeric Scaffolds in Breast Cancer 3D Tissue Cultures and Animal Tumor Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girdhari Rijal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of three-dimensional (3D porous scaffolds from synthetic polymers is a challenge to most laboratories conducting biomedical research. Here, we present a handy and cost-effective method to fabricate polymeric hydrogel and porous scaffolds using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA or polycaprolactone (PCL. Breast cancer cells grown on 3D polymeric scaffolds exhibited distinct survival, morphology, and proliferation compared to those on 2D polymeric surfaces. Mammary epithelial cells cultured on PLGA- or PCL-coated slides expressed extracellular matrix (ECM proteins and their receptors. Estrogen receptor- (ER- positive T47D breast cancer cells are less sensitive to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-HT treatment when cultured on the 3D porous scaffolds than in 2D cultures. Finally, cancer cell-laden polymeric scaffolds support consistent tumor formation in animals and biomarker expression as seen in human native tumors. Our data suggest that the porous synthetic polymer scaffolds satisfy the basic requirements for 3D tissue cultures both in vitro and in vivo. The scaffolding technology has appealing potentials to be applied in anticancer drug screening for a better control of the progression of human cancers.

  12. Elastic properties of synthetic materials for soft tissue modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansy, H A; Grahe, J R; Sandler, R H

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical models of soft tissue are useful for studying vibro-acoustic phenomena. They may be used for validating mathematical models and for testing new equipment and techniques. The objective of this study was to measure density and visco-elastic properties of synthetic materials that can be used to build such models. Samples of nine different materials were tested under dynamic (0.5 Hz) compressive loading conditions. The modulus of elasticity of the materials was varied, whenever possible, by adding a softener during manufacturing. The modulus was measured over a nine month period to quantify the effect of ageing and softener loss on material properties. Results showed that a wide range of the compression elasticity modulus (10 to 1400 kPa) and phase (3.5 0 -16.7 0 ) between stress and strain were possible. Some materials tended to exude softener over time, resulting in a weight loss and elastic properties change. While the weight loss under normal conditions was minimal in all materials (<3% over nine months), loss under accelerated weight-loss conditions can reach 59%. In the latter case an elasticity modulus increase of up to 500% was measured. Key advantages and limitations of candidate materials were identified and discussed

  13. SU-E-P-31: Quantifying the Amount of Missing Tissue in a Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodenough, D; Olafsdottir, H; Olafsson, I; Fredriksson, J; Kristinsson, S; Oskarsdottir, G; Kristbjornsson, A; Mallozzi, R; Healy, A; Levy, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To automatically quantify the amount of missing tissue in a digital breast tomosynthesis system using four stair-stepped chest wall missing tissue gauges in the Tomophan™ from the Phantom Laboratory and image processing from Image Owl. Methods: The Tomophan™ phantom incorporates four stair-stepped missing tissue gauges by the chest wall, allowing measurement of missing chest wall in two different locations along the chest wall at two different heights. Each of the four gauges has 12 steps in 0.5 mm increments rising from the chest wall. An image processing algorithm was developed by Image Owl that first finds the two slices containing the steps then finds the signal through the highest step in all four gauges. Using the signal drop at the beginning of each gauge the distance to the end of the image gives the length of the missing tissue gauge in millimeters. Results: The Tomophan™ was imaged in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) systems from various vendors resulting in 46 cases used for testing. The results showed that on average 1.9 mm of 6 mm of the gauges are visible. A small focus group was asked to count the number of visible steps for each case which resulted in a good agreement between observer counts and computed data. Conclusion: First, the results indicate that the amount of missing chest wall can differ between vendors. Secondly it was shown that an automated method to estimate the amount of missing chest wall gauges agreed well with observer assessments. This finding indicates that consistency testing may be simplified using the Tomophan™ phantom and analysis by an automated image processing named Tomo QA. In general the reason for missing chest wall may be due to a function of the beam profile at the chest wall as DBT projects through the angular sampling. Research supported by Image Owl, Inc., The Phantom Laboratory, Inc. and Raforninn ehf; Mallozzi and Healy employed by The Phantom Laboratory, Inc.; Goodenough is a consultant to The

  14. SU-E-P-31: Quantifying the Amount of Missing Tissue in a Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, D [George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Olafsdottir, H; Olafsson, I; Fredriksson, J; Kristinsson, S; Oskarsdottir, G; Kristbjornsson, A [Raforninn Ehf., Reykjavik, Gullbringusysla (Iceland); Mallozzi, R; Healy, A; Levy, J [The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To automatically quantify the amount of missing tissue in a digital breast tomosynthesis system using four stair-stepped chest wall missing tissue gauges in the Tomophan™ from the Phantom Laboratory and image processing from Image Owl. Methods: The Tomophan™ phantom incorporates four stair-stepped missing tissue gauges by the chest wall, allowing measurement of missing chest wall in two different locations along the chest wall at two different heights. Each of the four gauges has 12 steps in 0.5 mm increments rising from the chest wall. An image processing algorithm was developed by Image Owl that first finds the two slices containing the steps then finds the signal through the highest step in all four gauges. Using the signal drop at the beginning of each gauge the distance to the end of the image gives the length of the missing tissue gauge in millimeters. Results: The Tomophan™ was imaged in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) systems from various vendors resulting in 46 cases used for testing. The results showed that on average 1.9 mm of 6 mm of the gauges are visible. A small focus group was asked to count the number of visible steps for each case which resulted in a good agreement between observer counts and computed data. Conclusion: First, the results indicate that the amount of missing chest wall can differ between vendors. Secondly it was shown that an automated method to estimate the amount of missing chest wall gauges agreed well with observer assessments. This finding indicates that consistency testing may be simplified using the Tomophan™ phantom and analysis by an automated image processing named Tomo QA. In general the reason for missing chest wall may be due to a function of the beam profile at the chest wall as DBT projects through the angular sampling. Research supported by Image Owl, Inc., The Phantom Laboratory, Inc. and Raforninn ehf; Mallozzi and Healy employed by The Phantom Laboratory, Inc.; Goodenough is a consultant to The

  15. Establishment and characterization of two human breast carcinoma cell lines by spontaneous immortalization: Discordance between Estrogen, Progesterone and HER2/neu receptors of breast carcinoma tissues with derived cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalidehghan Behnam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women throughout the world. Therefore, established cell lines are widely used as in vitro experimental models in cancer research. Methods Two continuous human breast cell lines, designated MBC1 and MBC2, were successfully established and characterized from invasive ductal breast carcinoma tissues of Malaysian patients. MBC1 and MBC2 have been characterized in terms of morphology analysis, population doubling time, clonogenic formation, wound healing assay, invasion assay, cell cycle, DNA profiling, fluorescence immunocytochemistry, Western blotting and karyotyping. Results MBC1 and MBC2 exhibited adherent monolayer epithelial morphology at a passage number of 150. Receptor status of MBC1 and MBC2 show (ER+, PR+, HER2+ and (ER+, PR-, HER2+, respectively. These results are in discordance with histopathological studies of the tumoral tissues, which were triple negative and (ER-, PR-, HER2+ for MBC1 and MBC2, respectively. Both cell lines were capable of growing in soft agar culture, which suggests their metastatic potential. The MBC1 and MBC2 metaphase spreads showed an abnormal karyotype, including hyperdiploidy and complex rearrangements with modes of 52–58 chromosomes per cell. Conclusions Loss or gain in secondary properties, deregulation and specific genetic changes possibly conferred receptor changes during the culturing of tumoral cells. Thus, we hypothesize that, among heterogenous tumoral cells, only a small minority of ER+/PR+/HER2+ and ER+/PR-/HER2+ cells with lower energy metabolism might survive and adjust easily to in vitro conditions. These cell lines will pave the way for new perspectives in genetic and biological investigations, drug resistance and chemotherapy studies, and would serve as prototype models in Malaysian breast carcinogenesis investigations.

  16. The expression of syndecan-1, syndecan-4 and decorin in healthy human breast tissue during the menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naessén Tord

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to unravel the interactions between the epithelium and the extra cellular matrix (ECM in breast tissue progressing to cancer, it is necessary to understand the relevant interactions in healthy tissue under normal physiologic settings. Proteoglycans in the ECM play an important role in the signaling between the different tissue compartments. The proteoglycan decorin is abundant in the breast stroma. Decreased expression in breast cancer tissue is a sign of a poor tumor prognosis. The heparane sulphate proteoglycans syndecan-1 and syndecan-4 promote the integration of cellular adhesion and proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the gene expression and location of decorin, syndecan-1 and syndecan-4 in the healthy breast during the menstrual cycle. Methods Tissue from healthy women undergoing breast reduction plastic surgery was examined using immunohistochemistry (n = 38 and Real-Time RT-PCR (n = 20. Both parous and nulliparous women were eligible and the mean age of the women was 34(+/- 10 years with regular menstrual cycles (28 +/- 7 days. None of the women had used hormonal treatment the last three months. The women were randomized to needle biopsy two months before the operation in the follicular or luteal menstrual phase and for another biopsy at the operation in the opposite phase. Serum samples were obtained to characterize the menstrual phase. The Wilcoxon signed rank test and Mann Whitney test were used for statistical analyses. Results By real time-RT-PCR the gene signal for all three proteoglycans; decorin (p = 0.02 and syndecan-1 (p = 0.03 and syndecan-4 (p = 0.02 was significantly lower among parous women in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the identification of the proteins but no significant difference between menstrual phases was observed. Serum samples verified the menstrual phase. Conclusions Our study shows, for the first time in the

  17. Determination and correlation of spatial distribution of trace elements in normal and neoplastic breast tissues evaluated by μ-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.P.; Oliveira, M.A.; Poletti, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Some trace elements, naturally present in breast tissues, participate in a large number of biological processes, which include among others, activation or inhibition of enzymatic reactions and changes on cell membranes permeability, suggesting that these elements may influence carcinogenic processes. Thus, knowledge of the amounts of these elements and their spatial distribution in normal and neoplastic tissues may help in understanding the role of these elements in the carcinogenic process and tumor progression of breast cancers. Concentrations of trace elements like Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn, previously studied at LNLS using TXRF and conventional XRF, were elevated in neoplastic breast tissues compared to normal tissues. In this study we determined the spatial distribution of these elements in normal and neoplastic breast tissues using μ-XRF technique. We analyzed 22 samples of normal and neoplastic breast tissues (malignant and benign) obtained from paraffin blocks available for study at the Department of Pathology HC-FMRP/USP. From the blocks, a small fraction of material was removed and subjected to histological sections of 60 μm thick made with a microtome. The slices where placed in holder samples and covered with ultralen film. Tissue samples were irradiated with a white beam of synchrotron radiation. The samples were positioned at 45 degrees with respect to the incident beam on a table with 3 freedom degrees (x, y and z), allowing independent positioning of the sample in these directions. The white beam was collimated by a 20 μm microcapillary and samples were fully scanned. At each step, a spectrum was detected for 10 s. The fluorescence emitted by elements present in the sample was detected by a Si (Li) detector with 165 eV at 5.9 keV energy resolution, placed at 90 deg with respect to the incident beam. Results reveal that trace elements Ca-Zn and Fe-Cu could to be correlated in malignant breast tissues. Quantitative results, achieved by Spearman

  18. Injectable iodine-125 labeled tissue marker for radioactive localization of non-palpable breast lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Andreas Ingemann; Hansen, Anders Elias

    2018-01-01

    to be spatially well-defined and stable over a seven day period with excellent CT contrast (>1500 HU), enabling fluoroscopic visualization of markers during placement. The radioactivity remains strongly associated with the marker during the implantation period, which limits exposure to healthy tissue....... The surgical guidance marker is based on derivatives of the biomaterial sucrose acetate isobutyrate and unlike currently used markers it is injectable in the tissue using thin needles, reducing the discomfort to the patients significantly. The marker confers CT contrast and has radioactive properties, meaning...

  19. Measurement of subcutaneous fibrosis after postmastectomy radiotherapy by dielectric properties of breast skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, T.; Tirkkonen, A.; Tenhunen, M.; Nuutinen, J.; Nuortio, L.; Auvinen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Dielectric properties of a biological material determine the interaction of high frequency electromagnetic (EM) fields and material. Since radiation induces changes in the structure and composition of the tissue, measurement of the altered dielectric properties could yield useful data on the radiation reactions. Dielectric constant of irradiated breast skin of 36 patients was measured 64 to 99 months after postmastectomy radiotherapy with three dose-fractionation schedules. A single dose-fractionation schedule consisted of a photon and electron or a photon and 150 kV x-ray beam. An EM frequency of 300 MHz was guided into the skin via a specially constructed coaxial probe. The attenuation and the phase shift of the reflected wave was measured by the network analyzer. From these data the dielectric constant of the skin could be calculated. Although there was a general tendency that the dielectric constant in the treated side was higher than in the untreated side, the increase was statistically significant only with one photon and electron beam. A significant negative correlation was found between the dielectric constant and the occurrence of clinically assessed mild fibrosis or when all degrees of fibrosis were combined. The study demonstrates that the dielectric measurements are useful in the assessment of the response of radiotherapy dose-fractionation schedules for the development and follow-up of subcutaneous fibrosis. Due to the large variation of the dielectric constants between patients in various dose-fractionation schedules, the dielectric measurements are not capable of differentiating different degrees of fibrosis

  20. Research on the dose of the tissues located outside the treatment field when breast cancer was irradiated by linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Yu; Zhou Juying; Jiang Dezhi; Qin Songbing

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of study was to determine the dose of the tissues which located outside the treatment field, when breast cancer was irradiated by 9 MeV electron-beam and 6 MV-X ray after operation. A search for decreasing the dose of the tissues outside the treatment field was made. Clinically relevant treatment fields were simulated on a tissue-equivalent material phantom and subsequently irradiated with 9 MeV electron-beam and 6 MV-X ray. TLD were used to measure absorbed doses. The prescribed dose of breast cancer region was 50.0 Gy, region-lymph-nodes were 60.0 Gy, each exposure dose was 2.0 Gy. In breast cancer region, if only with 9 MeV electron-beam, the dose of the tissues located outside the treatment field were from 29.0 cGy to 295.5 cGy, when shielded with Pb lump, the doses of the tissues outside the treatment field may descended 9.4%-53.6%; if only with 6 MV-X ray, the doses of aforementioned tissues were from 32.0 cGy to 206.7 cGy, when shielded with Pb lump, the doses of the tissues outside the treatment field descended 19.7%-56.6%. In region-lymph-nodes, with 6 MV-X ray, the doses of aforementioned tissues were from 22.5 cGy to 1650.9 cGy, when shielded with Pb lump, the doses of the tissues outside the treatment field descended 19.7-65.6%. If mix-irradiation (9 MeV electron-beam vs. 6 MV-X ray 2:3) was used, the doses outside field would be lower than only used 9 MeV electron-beam or 6 MV-X ray were used

  1. Semi-automatic identification of punching areas for tissue microarray building: the tubular breast cancer pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrame Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue MicroArray technology aims to perform immunohistochemical staining on hundreds of different tissue samples simultaneously. It allows faster analysis, considerably reducing costs incurred in staining. A time consuming phase of the methodology is the selection of tissue areas within paraffin blocks: no utilities have been developed for the identification of areas to be punched from the donor block and assembled in the recipient block. Results The presented work supports, in the specific case of a primary subtype of breast cancer (tubular breast cancer, the semi-automatic discrimination and localization between normal and pathological regions within the tissues. The diagnosis is performed by analysing specific morphological features of the sample such as the absence of a double layer of cells around the lumen and the decay of a regular glands-and-lobules structure. These features are analysed using an algorithm which performs the extraction of morphological parameters from images and compares them to experimentally validated threshold values. Results are satisfactory since in most of the cases the automatic diagnosis matches the response of the pathologists. In particular, on a total of 1296 sub-images showing normal and pathological areas of breast specimens, algorithm accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are respectively 89%, 84% and 94%. Conclusions The proposed work is a first attempt to demonstrate that automation in the Tissue MicroArray field is feasible and it can represent an important tool for scientists to cope with this high-throughput technique.

  2. Feasibility of using tissue microarray cores of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue for measurement of gene expression: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Suzanne; Salter, Janine; Baehner, Frederick L; Shak, Steven; Dowsett, Mitch

    2010-06-01

    To determine whether 0.6 mm cores of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, as commonly used to construct immunohistochemical tissue microarrays, may be a valid alternative to tissue sections as source material for quantitative real-time PCR-based transcriptional profiling of breast cancer. Four matched 0.6 mm cores of invasive breast tumour and two 10 microm whole sections were taken from eight FFPE blocks. RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed, and TaqMan assays were performed on the 21 genes of the Oncotype DX Breast Cancer assay. Expression of the 16 recurrence-related genes was normalised to the set of five reference genes, and the recurrence score (RS) was calculated. RNA yield was lower from 0.6 mm cores than from 10 microm whole sections, but was still more than sufficient to perform the assay. RS and single gene data from cores were highly comparable with those from whole sections (RS p=0.005). Greater variability was seen between cores than between sections. FFPE sections are preferable to 0.6 mm cores for RNA profiling in order to maximise RNA yield and to allow for standard histopathological assessment. However, 0.6 mm cores are sufficient and would be appropriate to use for large cohort studies.

  3. Study of selected trace elements in cancerous and non-cancerous human breast tissues using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahim, A. M.

    2006-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of cancer on selected trace elements among sudanese patients with confirmed breast cancer. Eighty samples of cancerous and normal tissues (total of one hundred and sixty) were obtained from the same breast of the same subject from different hospitals in Khartoum State. Samples were freeze dried and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Neutron irradiations were performed at Egypt second research reactor with a maximum thermal flux of 2.37 Χ 10 14 n cm -2 s -1 . To examine if there was any difference in the concentrations of elements from normal and malignant tissues; Wilcox on signed ranks test was used. It was found that Al, Mn, Mg, Se, Zn, and Cr elements from the malignant tissues are significantly elevated (p 0.05). The results obtained have shown consistency with results obtained by some previous studies, however, no data could be found for the elements Mg, Cr, and Sc.(Author)

  4. Do we have to consider chemotherapy in the analysis of association between OCs in breast adipose tissue and the risk of female breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strucinski, P.; Wojtyniak, B.; Goralczyk, K.; Czaja, K.; Hernik, A.; Ludwicki, J.K. [National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland); Baranska, J.; Olszewski, W.T. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Inst. of Oncology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether adipose tissue levels of selected persistent organochlorine pollutants might be associated with chemotherapy in women with breast cancer. A total of 165 samples, of mammary gland's adipose tissue taken from breast cancer women, obtained from Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology in Warsaw, were assayed. The donors had been divided into two subgroups - first, treated shortly before mastectomy with preoperative induction chemotherapy (used in case of locally advanced, primary inoperable breast cancers) and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (given to prevent metastases or spread the disease beyond the primary tumour), consisting of 29 patients, and second, including 136 untreated patients. The identification and quantification of compounds analyzed: HCB, {beta}a-HCH, p,p'-DDT, p,p'- DDD, p,p'-DDE, and {sigma}OPCBs (calculated as Aroclor 1254) in adipose tissue samples was performed in the Department of Environmental Toxicology of the National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw. The analytical procedure included analyte extraction with n-hexane, and clean-up with concentrated sulfuric acid. Finally, the analysis was carried out by gas chromatography with electron capture detector with ion-trap mass spectrometric confirmation.

  5. Prone versus supine positioning for whole and partial-breast radiotherapy: A comparison of non-target tissue dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Anna M.; Evans, Philip M.; Donovan, Ellen M.; Convery, Helen M.; Haviland, Joanna S.; Yarnold, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare non-target tissue (including left-anterior-descending coronary-artery (LAD)) dosimetry of prone versus supine whole (WBI) and partial-breast irradiation (PBI). Methods and materials: Sixty-five post-lumpectomy breast cancer patients underwent CT-imaging supine and prone. On each dataset, the whole-breast clinical-target-volume (WB-CTV), partial-breast CTV (tumour-bed + 15 mm), ipsilateral-lung and chest-wall were outlined. Heart and LAD were outlined in left-sided cases (n = 30). Tangential-field WBI and PBI plans were generated for each position. Mean LAD, heart, and ipsilateral-lung doses (x mean ), maximum LAD (LAD max ) doses, and the volume of chest-wall receiving 50 Gy (V 50Gy ) were compared. Results: Two-hundred and sixty plans were generated. Prone positioning reduced heart and LAD doses in 19/30 WBI cases (median reduction in LAD mean = 6.2 Gy) and 7/30 PBI cases (median reduction in LAD max = 29.3 Gy) (no difference in 4/30 cases). However, prone positioning increased cardiac doses in 8/30 WBI (median increase in LAD mean = 9.5 Gy) and 19/30 PBI cases (median increase in LAD max = 22.9 Gy) (no difference in 3/30 cases). WB-CTV > 1000cm 3 was associated with improved cardiac dosimetry in the prone position for WBI (p = 0.04) and PBI (p = 0.04). Prone positioning reduced ipsilateral-lung mean in 65/65 WBI and 61/65 PBI cases, and chest-wall V 50Gy in all WBI cases. PBI reduced normal-tissue doses compared to WBI in all cases, regardless of the treatment position. Conclusions: In the context of tangential-field WBI and PBI, prone positioning is likely to benefit left-breast-affected women of larger breast volume, but to be detrimental in left-breast-affected women of smaller breast volume. Right-breast-affected women are likely to benefit from prone positioning regardless of breast volume.

  6. Primary Breast Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT Lymphoma Transformation to Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Hülya Arslan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL of the breast constitutes 0.04%-0.53% of all malignancies and 2.2% of extra nodal lymphomas. In total, 7%-8% of all B-cell lymphomas are the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT type, of which up to 50% of primary gastric MALT lymphoma. Herein we present a patient with breast MALT lymphoma that transformed to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. A 69-year-old female presented with a mass on her left breast. Physical examination showed a 3 × 3-cm mass located 1 cm from the areola on the upper lateral quadrant of the breast at the 1 o’clock position, which was fixed and firm. Excisional biopsy was performed and pathologic examination of the specimen showed MALT lymphoma transformation to DLBCL. The patient was staged as II-EA. The rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP protocol was scheduled as treatment. Following 6 courses of R-CHOP, 2 additional courses of rituximab were administered. Positron emission tomography (PET-CT was done at the end of the treatment. PET showed that the patient was in complete remission. At the time this report was written, the patient was being followed-up at the outpatient clinic on a regular basis. Lymphoma of the breast is a rarity among malignant tumors of the breast. The most common type of lymphoma is DLBCL. Breast MALT lymphoma is extremely rare. Primary MALT lymphoma of the breast can transform from low grade to high grade and recurrence is possible; therefore, such patients should be monitored carefully for transformation.

  7. Double-blind randomized 12-month soy intervention had no effects on breast MRI fibroglandular tissue density or mammographic density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna H.; Spicer, Darcy; Garcia, Agustin; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Sheth, Pulin; Martin, Sue Ellen; Hawes, Debra; Russell, Christy; McDonald, Heather; Tripathy, Debu; Su, Min-Ying; Ursin, Giske; Pike, Malcolm C.

    2015-01-01

    Soy supplementation by breast cancer patients remains controversial. No controlled intervention studies have investigated the effects of soy supplementation on mammographic density in breast cancer patients. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study in previously treated breast cancer patients (n=66) and high-risk women (n=29). We obtained digital mammograms and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at baseline and after 12 months of daily soy (50 mg isoflavones per day) (n=46) or placebo (n=49) tablet supplementation. The total breast area (MA) and the area of mammographic density (MD) on the mammogram was measured using a validated computer-assisted method, and mammographic density percent (MD% = 100 × MD/MA) was determined. A well-tested computer algorithm was used to quantitatively measure the total breast volume (TBV) and fibroglandular tissue volume (FGV) on the breast MRI, and the FGV percent (FGV% = 100 × FGV/TBV) was calculated. On the basis of plasma soy isoflavone levels, compliance was excellent. Small decreases in MD% measured by the ratios of month 12 to baseline levels, were seen in the soy (0.95) and the placebo (0.87) groups; these changes did not differ between the treatments (P=0.38). Small decreases in FGV% were also found in both the soy (0.90) and the placebo (0.92) groups; these changes also did not differ between the treatments (P=0.48). Results were comparable in breast cancer patients and high-risk women. We found no evidence that soy supplementation would decrease mammographic density and that MRI might be more sensitive to changes in density than mammography. PMID:26276750

  8. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging with Virtual Touch™ tissue quantification: mean shear wave velocity of malignant and benign breast masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcinski, Sebastian; Brandhorst, Kathrin; Sadigh, Gelareh; Hillemanns, Peter; Degenhardt, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) with Virtual Touch™ tissue quantification (VTTQ) enables the determination of shear wave velocity (SWV) in meters per second (m/s). The aim of our study was to describe the mean SWV in normal breast tissue and various breast masses. We performed measurements of SWV with ARFI VTTQ in 145 breast masses (57 malignant, 88 benign) and in the adjacent breast parenchyma and adipose tissue. The mean SWV as well as the rate of successful measurements were analyzed. The difference between adipose tissue and parenchyma was statistically significant (3.05 versus 3.65 m/s) (P breast masses, numerous measurements exceeded the upper limit of possible measurement (≥9.10 m/s, indicated as "X.XX m/s"). Nevertheless, the difference between the malignant and benign masses was statistically significant (8.38 ± 1.99 m/s versus 5.39 ± 2.95 m/s) (P < 0.001). The best diagnostic accuracy (75.9%) was achieved when the cutoff point for malignancy was set to 9.10 m/s in ARFI VTTQ. This implies that the SWV was regarded as suspicious when the upper limit of possible measurement was exceeded and the machine returned the value X.XX m/s. In conclusion, ARFI VTTQ is a feasible method for measurement of SWV in a region of interest. Furthermore, we propose the event of a highly elevated SWV as a significant criterion for malignancy. However, the method is technically not yet fully developed, and the problem of unsuccessful measurements must still be solved.

  9. Classification of breast tissue using a laboratory system for small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, S; Siu, K K W; Falzon, G; Hart, S A; Fox, J G; Lewis, R A

    2011-01-01

    Structural changes in breast tissue at the nanometre scale have been shown to differentiate between tissue types using synchrotron SAXS techniques. Classification of breast tissues using information acquired from a laboratory SAXS camera source could possibly provide a means of adopting SAXS as a viable diagnostic procedure. Tissue samples were obtained from surgical waste from 66 patients and structural components of the tissues were examined between q = 0.25 and 2.3 nm -1 . Principal component analysis showed that the amplitude of the fifth-order axial Bragg peak, the magnitude of the integrated intensity and the full-width at half-maximum of the fat peak were significantly different between tissue types. A discriminant analysis showed that excellent classification can be achieved; however, only 30% of the tissue samples provided the 16 variables required for classification. This suggests that the presence of disease is represented by a combination of factors, rather than one specific trait. A closer examination of the amorphous scattering intensity showed not only a trend of increased scattering intensity with disease severity, but also a corresponding decrease in the size of the scatterers contributing to this intensity.

  10. A non-invasive modality: the US virtual touch tissue quantification (VTTQ) for evaluation of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Kamada, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Kano; Miyashita, Minoru; Ishida, Takanori; Sasano, Hironobu

    2013-09-01

    We evaluated the biologic features of breast tissues using a newly developed non-invasive diagnostic system, named virtual touch tissue quantification. A total of 180 patients including 115 invasive ductal carcinoma, 30 ductal carcinoma in situ, 4 mucinous carcinoma, 7 invasive lobular carcinoma, 8 fibroadenoma, 12 fibrocystic change and 4 intraductal papilloma were studied at Nahanishi Clinic, Okinawa. We first compared the results of virtual touch tissue quantification according to each histologic subtype and determined the optimal cutoff values for virtual touch tissue quantification to distinguish benign from malignant tissues, using the receiver operating characteristic method. In addition, we also examined the correlation between virtual touch tissue quantification velocities and Ki-67, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 in cases of invasive ductal carcinoma using linear regression analyses and Student's t-test. Virtual touch tissue quantification velocities were statistically higher in malignant cases than in benign cases (P breast cancer pathology in a non-invasive fashion.

  11. A Tissue Engineering Approach to Study the Progression of Breast Tumor Metastasis in Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Che, Mingxin; Nie, Daotai

    2005-01-01

    Most patients dying of breast cancer suffer painful bone metastasis. It is our hypothesis that the invasive growth and progression of breast metastatic lesions in bone requires the participation of various constituents from "soil...

  12. A Tissue Engineering Approach to Study the Progression of Breast Tumor Metastasis in Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Che, Mingxin; Nie, Daotai

    2006-01-01

    Most patients dying of breast cancer suffer painful bone metastasis. It is our hypothesis that the invasive growth and progression of breast metastatic lesions in bone requires the participation of various constituents from "soil...

  13. Predictive model of thrombospondin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in breast tumor tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrs, Jennifer A; Sulistio, Christopher D; Finley, Stacey D

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood capillaries from pre-existing vessels, is a hallmark of cancer. Thus far, strategies for reducing tumor angiogenesis have focused on inhibiting pro-angiogenic factors, while less is known about the therapeutic effects of mimicking the actions of angiogenesis inhibitors. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) is an important endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis that has been investigated as an anti-angiogenic agent. TSP1 impedes the growth of new blood vessels in many ways, including crosstalk with pro-angiogenic factors. Due to the complexity of TSP1 signaling, a predictive systems biology model would provide quantitative understanding of the angiogenic balance in tumor tissue. Therefore, we have developed a molecular-detailed, mechanistic model of TSP1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a promoter of angiogenesis, in breast tumor tissue. The model predicts the distribution of the angiogenic factors in tumor tissue, revealing that TSP1 is primarily in an inactive, cleaved form due to the action of proteases, rather than bound to its cellular receptors or to VEGF. The model also predicts the effects of enhancing TSP1's interactions with its receptors and with VEGF. To provide additional predictions that can guide the development of new anti-angiogenic drugs, we simulate administration of exogenous TSP1 mimetics that bind specific targets. The model predicts that the CD47-binding TSP1 mimetic dramatically decreases the ratio of receptor-bound VEGF to receptor-bound TSP1, in favor of anti-angiogenesis. Thus, we have established a model that provides a quantitative framework to study the response to TSP1 mimetics.

  14. Gene expression profiling of histologically normal breast tissue in females with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2‑positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubor, Pavol; Hatok, Jozef; Moricova, Petra; Kapustova, Ivana; Kajo, Karol; Mendelova, Andrea; Sivonova, Monika Kmetova; Danko, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Gene expression profile‑based taxonomy of breast cancer (BC) has been described as a significant breakthrough in comprehending the differences in the origin and behavior of cancer to allow individually tailored therapeutic approaches. In line with this, we hypothesized that the gene expression profile of histologically normal epithelium (HNEpi) could harbor certain genetic abnormalities predisposing breast tissue cells to develop human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)‑positive BC. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess gene expression in normal and BC tissue (BCTis) from patients with BC in order to establish its value as a potential diagnostic marker for cancer development. An array study evaluating a panel of 84 pathway‑ and disease‑specific genes in HER2‑positive BC and tumor‑adjacent HNEpi was performed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 12 patients using microdissected samples from frozen tissue. Common prognostic and predictive parameters of BC were assessed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. In the BCTis and HNEpi samples of 12 HER2‑positive subjects with BC, the expression of 2,016 genes was assessed. A total of 39.3% of genes were deregulated at a minimal two‑fold deregulation rate and 10.7% at a five‑fold deregulation rate in samples of HNEpi or BCTis. Significant differences in gene expression between BCTis and HNEpi samples were revealed for BCL2L2, CD44, CTSD, EGFR, ERBB2, ITGA6, NGFB, RPL27, SCBG2A1 and SCGB1D2 genes (Pbreast tissue revealed gene expression abnormalities that may represent potential markers of increased risk for HER2‑positive malignant transformation of breast tissue, and may be able to be employed as predictors of prognosis.

  15. Expression of connective tissue growth factor in male breast cancer: clinicopathologic correlations and prognostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacle, Miangela M; van Diest, Paul J; Goldschmeding, Roel; van der Wall, Elsken; Nguyen, Tri Q

    2015-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is a member of the CCN family of secreted proteins that are believed to play an important role in the development of neoplasia. In particular, CTGF has been reported to play an important role in mammary tumorigenesis and to have prognostic value in female breast cancer (FBC). The aim of the present study was to investigate clinicopathologic correlations and prognostic value of CTGF in male breast cancer (MBC) and to compare these findings with FBC. For this, we studied CTGF protein expression by immunohistochemistry in 109 MBC cases and 75 FBC cases. In MBC, stromal CTGF expression was seen in the majority of the cases 78% (85/109) with high expression in 31/109 cases (28.4%), but expression in tumor cells was only seen in 9.2% (10/109) of cases. High stromal CTGF expression correlated with high grade and high proliferation index (>15%) assessed by MIB-1 immunohistochemical staining. CTGF expression in tumor epithelial cells did not correlate with any of the clinicopathologic features. In FBC, stromal CTGF expression positively correlated with mitotic count and tumor CTGF expression was associated with triple negative status of the tumor (p = 0.002). Neither stromal nor tumor epithelial cell CTGF expression had prognostic value in MBC and FBC. In conclusion, stromal CTGF expression was seen in a high percentage of MBC and was correlated with high grade and high proliferation index. In view of the important role of the microenvironment in cancer progression, this might suggest that stromal CTGF could be an interesting target for novel therapies and molecular imaging. However, the lack of association with prognosis warrants caution. The potential role of CTGF as a therapeutic target for triple negative FBC deserves to be further studied.

  16. Comparison of normal tissue pharmacokinetics with 111In/9Y monoclonal antibody m170 for breast and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Joerg; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Yuan, Aina; Shen Sui; O'Donnell, Robert T.; Richman, Carol M.; De Nardo, Sally J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Radioactivity deposition in normal tissues limits the dose deliverable by radiopharmaceuticals (RP) in radioimmunotherapy (RIT). This study investigated the absorbed radiation dose in normal tissues for prostate cancer patients in comparison to breast cancer patients for 2 RPs using the monoclonal antibody (MAb) m170. Methods and Materials: 111 In-DOTA-glycylglycylglycyl-L-p-isothiocyanatophenylalanine amide (GGGF)-m170 and 111 In-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) 2-iminothiolane (2IT)-m170, representing the same MAb and chelate with and without a cleavable linkage, were studied in 13 breast cancer and 26 prostate cancer patients. Dosimetry for 9 Y was calculated using 111 In MAb pharmacokinetics from the initial imaging study for each patient, using reference man- and patient-specific masses. Results: The reference man-specific radiation doses (cGy/MBq) were not significantly different for the breast and the prostate cancer patients for both RPs in all but one tissue-RP combination (liver, DOTA-2IT). The patient-specific doses had differences between the groups most of which can be related to weight differences. Conclusions: Similar normal tissue doses were calculated for two groups of patients having different cancers and genders. This similarity combined with continued careful analysis of the imaging data might allow the use of higher starting doses in early phase RIT studies

  17. [Effect of elastic strain rate ratio method and virtual touch tissue quantification on the diagnosis of breast masses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, LiJie; He, Yan; Tian, Peng; Yan, Yan

    2016-07-01

    To determine the effect of elastic strain rate ratio method and virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) on the diagnosis of breast masses.
 Sixty female patients with breast cancer, who received surgical treatment in Daqing Oilfield General Hospital, were enrolled. All patients signed the informed consent paperwork and they were treated by routine ultrasound examination, compression elastography (CE) examination, and VTQ examination in turn. Strain ratio (SR) was checked by CE and shear wave velocity (SWV) value was measured by VTQ. The diagnostic values of different methods were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in the diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors.
 The maximum diameter and SWV value of the benign tumors were lower than those of the malignant tumors, and the SR ratio of benign masses was higher than that of malignant tumors (Pbreast mass than that used alone.

  18. Low or undetectable TPO receptor expression in malignant tissue and cell lines derived from breast, lung, and ovarian tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erickson-Miller Connie L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous efficacious chemotherapy regimens may cause thrombocytopenia. Thrombopoietin receptor (TPO-R agonists, such as eltrombopag, represent a novel approach for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. The TPO-R MPL is expressed on megakaryocytes and megakaryocyte precursors, although little is known about its expression on other tissues. Methods Breast, lung, and ovarian tumor samples were analyzed for MPL expression by microarray and/or quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, and for TPO-R protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC. Cell line proliferation assays were used to analyze the in vitro effect of eltrombopag on breast, lung, and ovarian tumor cell proliferation. The lung carcinoma cell lines were also analyzed for TPO-R protein expression by Western blot. Results MPL mRNA was not detectable in 118 breast tumors and was detectable at only very low levels in 48% of 29 lung tumors studied by microarray analysis. By qRT-PCR, low but detectable levels of MPL mRNA were detectable in some normal (14-43% and malignant (3-17% breast, lung, and ovarian tissues. A comparison of MPL to EPOR, ERBB2, and IGF1R mRNA demonstrates that MPL mRNA levels were far lower than those of EPOR and ERBB2 mRNA in the same tissues. IHC analysis showed negligible TPO-R protein expression in tumor tissues, confirming mRNA analysis. Culture of breast, lung, and ovarian carcinoma cell lines showed no increase, and in fact, showed a decrease in proliferation following incubation with eltrombopag. Western blot analyses revealed no detectable TPO-R protein expression in the lung carcinoma cell lines. Conclusions Multiple analyses of breast, lung, and ovarian tumor samples and/or cell lines show no evidence of MPL mRNA or TPO-R protein expression. Eltrombopag does not stimulate growth of breast, lung, or ovarian tumor cell lines at doses likely to exert their actions on megakaryocytes and

  19. Study of electron densities of normal and neoplastic human breast tissues by Compton scattering using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Electron densities of 33 samples of normal (adipose and fibroglangular) and neoplastic (benign and malignant) human breast tissues were determined through Compton scattering data using a monochromatic synchrotron radiation source and an energy dispersive detector. The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of the samples. Adipose tissue exhibits the lowest values of electron density whereas malignant tissue the highest. The relationship with their histology was discussed. Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron density of normal and neoplastic breast tissues was measured using Compton scattering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monochromatic synchrotron radiation was used to obtain the Compton scattering data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipose tissue shows the lowest electron density values whereas the malignant tissue the highest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%.

  20. Classification of breast tissue for protocols development in mammography exam;Classificacao dos tecidos mamarios para elaboracao de protocolos em exames de mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, M. Ines; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chohfi, Adriana C.S.; Figueiredo, Zenaide A. [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. da Saude. Radiologia Medica

    2009-07-01

    For accomplishment of a mammogram should be considered several factors such as equipment used and the classification of breast cancer patients. The density of the breast is different of patient to patient, thus making it difficult many precocious diagnostic of breast cancer. There is a significant variation in the breast to be radiographed, depending on several factors presented in the breast tissue of breast prosthesis with or without breasts or with implants. This work had as objective main to make a survey of the factors that influence in the classification of mammary fabrics. With this survey and classification it can be better adjusted the protocols which will be more efficient in the mammography exam, preventing excess of radiation dose, stress for the patient, economy of raw material, control of the quality and rapidity in the process of image attainment. (author)

  1. Effect of Pre-rigor Salting Levels on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Chicken Breast Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Yeo, Eui-Joo; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-rigor salting level (0-4% NaCl concentration) on physicochemical and textural properties of pre-rigor chicken breast muscles. The pre-rigor chicken breast muscles were de-boned 10 min post-mortem and salted within 25 min post-mortem. An increase in pre-rigor salting level led to the formation of high ultimate pH of chicken breast muscles at post-mortem 24 h. The addition of minimum of 2% NaCl significantly improved water holding capacity, cooking loss, protein solubility, and hardness when compared to the non-salting chicken breast muscle (prigor salting level caused the inhibition of myofibrillar protein degradation and the acceleration of lipid oxidation. However, the difference in NaCl concentration between 3% and 4% had no great differences in the results of physicochemical and textural properties due to pre-rigor salting effects (p>0.05). Therefore, our study certified the pre-rigor salting effect of chicken breast muscle salted with 2% NaCl when compared to post-rigor muscle salted with equal NaCl concentration, and suggests that the 2% NaCl concentration is minimally required to ensure the definite pre-rigor salting effect on chicken breast muscle.

  2. Effect of Pre-rigor Salting Levels on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Chicken Breast Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-rigor salting level (0-4% NaCl concentration) on physicochemical and textural properties of pre-rigor chicken breast muscles. The pre-rigor chicken breast muscles were de-boned 10 min post-mortem and salted within 25 min post-mortem. An increase in pre-rigor salting level led to the formation of high ultimate pH of chicken breast muscles at post-mortem 24 h. The addition of minimum of 2% NaCl significantly improved water holding capacity, cooking loss, protein solubility, and hardness when compared to the non-salting chicken breast muscle (psalting level caused the inhibition of myofibrillar protein degradation and the acceleration of lipid oxidation. However, the difference in NaCl concentration between 3% and 4% had no great differences in the results of physicochemical and textural properties due to pre-rigor salting effects (p>0.05). Therefore, our study certified the pre-rigor salting effect of chicken breast muscle salted with 2% NaCl when compared to post-rigor muscle salted with equal NaCl concentration, and suggests that the 2% NaCl concentration is minimally required to ensure the definite pre-rigor salting effect on chicken breast muscle. PMID:26761884

  3. Metastatic Organotropism: An Intrinsic Property of Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shi; Siegal, Gene P

    2017-03-01

    It has long been known that some cancers have the propensity to metastasize to certain organs thus creating a nonrandom distribution of sites for distant relapse, a phenomenon known as "metastatic organotropism." Some of these examples include ovary primary to abdominal cavity, prostate primary to bone, and pancreas primary to liver. In contrast, other tumor types, such as mammary and renal cell carcinoma, can relapse in multiple organs although approximately half of advanced breast cancers metastasize to bone. On the other hand gene expression profiling studies have identified various breast cancer classes with prognostic significance. Recent studies have revealed that breast cancer subtypes differ not only in primary tumor characteristics but also in their metastatic behavior. In particular, the luminal tumors are remarkable for their significant bone-seeking phenotype; the HER2 subtype demonstrates a significant liver-homing characteristic; whereas so-called triple-negative breast cancers predispose to lung metastases. These findings suggest that this knowledge could potentially be utilized in the development of effective disease surveillance strategies in the pursuit of precision medicine, thus necessitating further investigation.

  4. [Psychological assessment of patients who have ++undergone breast reconstruction using 2 different technics: autologous tissue versus prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchelli, S; Leone, M S; Passarelli, B; Perniciaro, G; Capelli, M; Baracco, G; Alberisio, A; Santi, P L

    1995-05-01

    Breast reconstruction has become an available option for most patients undergoing mastectomy: in fact many authors agree that breast reconstruction does not interfere with possible therapies and improves the quality of life of women. The aim of the study was to evaluate the psychological adjustment of patients who had immediate or delayed reconstruction using 2 different methods: implants and autologous tissues. The study population (115 patients) was derived from patients who underwent breast reconstruction in the period January 1988-December 1991, in follow-up at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery; no patient was undergoing psychological therapy. 58 patients underwent breast reconstruction using implants and 57 using Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap (TRAMF). Informations were gathered, including the patient's age, the number of offspring, the marital status, the scholastic education, the job and the relapse between mastectomy and reconstruction. The psychological instruments consisted in three standardized self-administered questionnaires: Psychological Distress Inventory (PDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y (STAI), Eysenk Personality Inventory (EPQ-R). These tests were chosen to gauge the psychological distress, such anxiety, anger, depression and psychosocial maladjustment. To better perform the changes of body image after breast reconstruction, women were requested to answer three more specific questions about the sexual desire, physical image and social relationships. The 102 patients assessed in this study indicate low incidence of psychological distress and adaptive coping strategies. Impairment was reported, regarding body image, by patients undergoing delayed reconstruction; in these patients higher scores in distress tests were observed.

  5. Upregulation of Mrps18a in breast cancer identified by selecting phage antibody libraries on breast tissue sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karen Marie Juul; Meldgaard, Theresa; Melchjorsen, Connie Jenning

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the hallmarks of cancer is an altered energy metabolism, and here, mitochondria play a central role. Previous studies have indicated that some mitochondrial ribosomal proteins change their expression patterns upon transformation. METHOD: In this study, we have used the selection...... of recombinant antibody libraries displayed on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage as a proteomics discovery tool for the identification of breast cancer biomarkers. A small subpopulation of breast cells expressing both cytokeratin 19 and cytokeratin 14 was targeted using a novel selection procedure....... RESULTS: We identified the mitochondrial ribosomal protein s18a (Mrps18a) as a protein which is upregulated in breast cancer. However, Mrps18a was not homogeneously upregulated in all cancer cells, suggesting the existence of sub-populations within the tumor. The upregulation was not confined...

  6. A pilot study of FDG PET/CT detects a link between brown adipose tissue and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Qi; Jones, Laundette; Hersl, Jerome; La, Hongloan; Smith, Mark; Jenkins, Jason; Goloubeva, Olga; Dilsizian, Vasken; Tkaczuk, Katherine; Chen, Wengen

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most lethal cancer in women. Understanding biological mechanisms that cause progression of this disease could yield new targets for prevention and treatment. Recent experimental studies suggest that brown adipose tissue (BAT) may play a key role in breast cancer progression. The primary objective for this pilot study was to determine if the prevalence of active BAT in patients with breast cancer is increased compared to cancer patients with other malignancies. We retrospectively analyzed data from 96 breast cancer patients who had FDG PET/CT scan for routine staging at the University of Maryland and 96 age- and weight-matched control female patients with other malignancies (predominantly colon cancer) who had undergone FDG PET/CT imaging on the same day. Data on the distribution (bilateral upper neck, supraclavicular and paraspinal regions) and intensity (SUVmax) of active BAT were evaluated by 2 Nuclear Medicine physicians, blinded to the clinical history. We found sufficient evidence to conclude that based on our sample data the prevalence of active BAT in breast cancer patients’ group is significantly different from that in the control group. The estimated frequency of BAT activity was 3 fold higher in breast cancer patients as compared to controls with other cancers, (16.7% vs. 5.2%, respectively, p = 0.019). When patients were stratified by age in order to determine the possible impact of age related hormonal changes on active BAT among the younger women (≤ 55 years of age), 25.6% breast cancer patients exhibited BAT activity compared to only 2.8% in control women (p = 0.007). In contrast, among the older women (> 55 years of age), the prevalence of active BAT was similar among breast cancer and control women (10.7% vs 6.7%). In breast cancer patients prevalence of BAT activity on FDGPET/CT is 3-fold greater than in age- and body weight-matched patients with other solid tumor malignancies; this difference is particularly

  7. Tumor tissue levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-I (TIMP-I) and outcome following adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal lymph node-positive breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrohl, Anne-Sofie; Look, Maxime P.; Gelder, Marion E. Meijer-van

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that high tumor tissue levels of TIMP-1 are associated with no or limited clinical benefit from chemotherapy with CMF and anthracyclines in metastatic breast cancer patients. Here, we extend our investigations to the adjuvant setting studying outcome...... an association between shorter survival after treatment in TIMP-1 high patients compared with TIMP-1 low patients, especially in patients receiving anthracycline-based therapy. This suggests that high tumor tissue levels of TIMP-1 might be associated with reduced benefit from classical adjuvant chemotherapy. Our...... after adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal lymph node-positive patients. We hypothesize that TIMP-1 high tumors are less sensitive to chemotherapy and accordingly that high tumor tissue levels are associated with shorter survival. METHODS: From our original retrospectively collected tumor samples we...

  8. Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions What are dense breasts? Breasts contain glandular, connective, and fat tissue. Breast density is a term that describes the ...

  9. Postirradiation soft tissue sarcoma occurring in breast cancer patients: report of seven cases and results of combination chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuten, A.; Sapir, D.; Cohen, Y.; Haim, N.; Borovik, R.; Robinson, E.

    1985-01-01

    Seven cases of soft tissue sarcoma developing after primary or postoperative radiotherapy for breast carcinoma are reported. The sarcomas occurred within the irradiated volume, after a latent period of 4-26 years. These cases conform well to established criteria for the diagnosis of radiation-induced sarcoma. Chemotherapy, consisting of the four-drug combination CYVADIC (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, adriamycin, DTIC) was employed in six of the seven patients. Only two of them achieved partial remission, lasting only 2 and 3 months, respectively. The effectiveness of adriamycin-containing chemotherapy regimens in soft tissue sarcomas as well as the remote hazard of radiation-related sarcoma in primary or postoperative breast irradiation are discussed

  10. Engineered Breast Cancer Cell Spheroids Reproduce Biologic Properties of Solid Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Stephanie L; Joshi, Ramila; Luker, Gary D; Tavana, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    Solid tumors develop as 3D tissue constructs. As tumors grow larger, spatial gradients of nutrients and oxygen and inadequate diffusive supply to cells distant from vasculature develops. Hypoxia initiates signaling and transcriptional alterations to promote survival of cancer cells and generation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that have self-renewal and tumor-initiation capabilities. Both hypoxia and CSCs are associated with resistance to therapies and tumor relapse. This study demonstrates that 3D cancer cell models, known as tumor spheroids, generated with a polymeric aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) technology capture these important biological processes. Similar to solid tumors, spheroids of triple negative breast cancer cells deposit major extracellular matrix proteins. The molecular analysis establishes presence of hypoxic cells in the core region and expression of CSC gene and protein markers including CD24, CD133, and Nanog. Importantly, these spheroids resist treatment with chemotherapy drugs. A combination treatment approach using a hypoxia-activated prodrug, TH-302, and a chemotherapy drug, doxorubicin, successfully targets drug resistant spheroids. This study demonstrates that ATPS spheroids recapitulate important biological and functional properties of solid tumors and provide a unique model for studies in cancer research. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. In vivo dosimetric impact of breast tissue expanders on post-mastectomy radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, Harriet E.; Bignell, Fiona; Odgers, David; Gill, Simran; Martin, Darren; Toohey, Joanne; Carroll, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Temporary tissue expanders with metallic ports for gradual saline injection are increasingly employed to facilitate breast reconstruction after post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). Treatment beams therefore pass through a high-density rare-earth magnet. Measurements ex vivo suggest attenuation of dose to the skin and chest wall at clinical risk of relapse. The purpose of the study was to quantify the resulting dose reduction in vivo, compared with treatment planning system (TPS). Sixteen patients receiving PMRT had in vivo dosimetry prospectively performed with ethics board approval. Port was located within the expanded chest wall using the planning CT scan. Strips of radiochromic film were laid on the skin surface underneath the bolus. To aid interpretation, ex vivo measurements were also performed, including comparison with TPS predictions. An average 7% reduction in dose to skin surface was measured in 15 of 16 patients. This was reproducibly located in the ‘shadow’ of the magnet, corresponding to each of the paths of the medial and lateral tangents. The average area was 1.07 cm2 (range 0.39 cm2 to 2.36 cm2). Ex vivo measurements confirmed attenuation of the beam in the shadow of the port. The surface area of the ‘cold-spot’ varied with angle of the beam relative to the metallic port. Dose attenuation in vivo differed from that predicted by the TPS. Dose is attenuated in the ‘shadow’ of the tissue expander port in patients receiving PMRT. This is likely to be clinically insignificant for most, but centres should undertake appropriate measurements before utilising TPS predictions.

  12. Modeling of the metallic port in breast tissue expanders for photon radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jihyung; Xie, Yibo; Heins, David; Zhang, Rui

    2018-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to model the metallic port in breast tissue expanders and to improve the accuracy of dose calculations in a commercial photon treatment planning system (TPS). The density of the model was determined by comparing TPS calculations and ion chamber (IC) measurements. The model was further validated and compared with two widely used clinical models by using a simplified anthropomorphic phantom and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) measurements. Dose perturbations and target coverage for a single postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) patient were also evaluated. The dimensions of the metallic port model were determined to be 1.75 cm in diameter and 5 mm in thickness. The density of the port was adjusted to be 7.5 g/cm 3 which minimized the differences between IC measurements and TPS calculations. Using the simplified anthropomorphic phantom, we found the TPS calculated point doses based on the new model were in agreement with TLD measurements within 5.0% and were more accurate than doses calculated based on the clinical models. Based on the photon treatment plans for a real patient, we found that the metallic port has a negligible dosimetric impact on chest wall, while the port introduced significant dose shadow in skin area. The current clinical port models either overestimate or underestimate the attenuation from the metallic port, and the dose perturbation depends on the plan and the model in a complex way. TPS calculations based on our model of the metallic port showed good agreement with measurements for all cases. This new model could improve the accuracy of dose calculations for PMRT patients who have temporary tissue expanders implanted during radiotherapy and could potentially reduce the risk of complications after the treatment. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. [Axillary ectopic breast tissue fibroadenoma: report of three cases and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Mendoza, Carlos Manuel

    2012-02-01

    Ninety-five percent of women have mammary tissue at the axilla. However, the fibroadenoma seldom occur in this area and there are only isolated case reports of this tumor. This paper presents a series of three cases of this rare entity. Three women came to our hospital by axillary lumps. The patients had a median age of 36 +/- 9-years-old with an average time of evolution of 34 +/- 53 months. One patient had the history of a breast phyllodes tumor previously excised, and two were nulliparous. In two cases, neither ultrasound nor mammogram gave useful information for its diagnosis. Mammary glands of all cases were normal. The tumors were firm and movable, similar to a lymphadenopathy, and one was evident. The mean tumor size was 28 +/- 18 mm; all were oval and with white appearance. Histological diagnosis for all cases was fibroadenoma. Our findings match with literature reports. The axillary fibroadenomas may occur in women aged 30 to 50-years-old, mimicking a lymphadenopathy. Finally, the ultrasound and the mammography are not useful tools for its diagnosis.

  14. Biobanking sustainability--experiences of the Australian Breast Cancer Tissue Bank (ABCTB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jane E; Clarke, Christine L

    2014-12-01

    Sustainability of biorepositories is a key issue globally. This article is a description of the different strategies and mechanisms used by the Australian Breast Cancer Tissue Bank (ABCTB) in developing and operating the resource since its inception in 2005. ABCTB operates according to a hub and spoke model, with a central management hub that is responsible for overall management of the resource including financial, ethical, and legal processes, researcher applications for material, clinical follow-up, information/database activities, and security. A centralized processing laboratory also operates from the hub site where DNA and RNA extractions are performed, digital imaging of stained tumor sections occurs, and specimens are assembled for dispatch for research projects. ABCTB collection sites where donors are identified, consent obtained, and specimens collected and processed for initial storage are located across Australia. Each of the activities of the resource requires financial support and different sources of revenue, some of which are allocated to a specific function of the ABCTB. Different models are in use at different collection centers where local variations may exist and local financial support may sometimes be obtained. There is also significant in-kind support by clinics and diagnostic and research facilities that house the various activities of the resource. However, long-term financial commitment to ensure the survival of the resource is not in place, and forward planning of operations remains challenging under these circumstances.

  15. Glucose impairs tamoxifen responsiveness modulating connective tissue growth factor in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Costa, Valerio; Liguoro, Domenico; Collina, Francesca; Cantile, Monica; Prevete, Nella; Passaro, Carmela; Mosca, Giusy; De Laurentiis, Michelino; Di Bonito, Maurizio; Botti, Gerardo; Franco, Renato; Beguinot, Francesco; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Formisano, Pietro

    2017-12-12

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity are negative prognostic factors in patients with breast cancer (BC). We found that sensitivity to tamoxifen was reduced by 2-fold by 25 mM glucose (High Glucose; HG) compared to 5.5 mM glucose (Low Glucose; LG) in MCF7 BC cells. Shifting from HG to LG ameliorated MCF7 cell responsiveness to tamoxifen. RNA-Sequencing of MCF7 BC cells revealed that cell cycle-related genes were mainly affected by glucose. Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) was identified as a glucose-induced modulator of cell sensitivity to tamoxifen. Co-culturing MCF7 cells with human adipocytes exposed to HG, enhanced CTGF mRNA levels and reduced tamoxifen responsiveness of BC cells. Inhibition of adipocyte-released IL8 reverted these effects. Interestingly, CTGF immuno-detection in bioptic specimens from women with estrogen receptor positive (ER + ) BC correlated with hormone therapy resistance, distant metastases, reduced overall and disease-free survival. Thus, glucose affects tamoxifen responsiveness directly modulating CTGF in BC cells, and indirectly promoting IL8 release by adipocytes.

  16. Quality Assessments of Long-Term Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Breast Cancer Xenograft Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jian-Ying; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Bai; Tian, Yuan; Liu, Tao; Thomas, Stefani N.; Chen, Li; Schnaubelt, Michael; Boja, Emily; Hiltket, Tara; Kinsinger, Christopher; Rodriguez, Henry; Davies, Sherri; Li, Shunqiang; Snider, Jacqueline E.; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra; Tabb, David L.; Townsend, Reid; Ellis, Matthew; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.; Carr, Steven A.; Zhang, Zhen; Chan, Daniel W.; Zhang, Hui

    2017-09-21

    The identification of protein biomarkers requires large-scale analysis of human specimens to achieve statistical significance. In this study, we evaluated the long-term reproducibility of an iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) based quantitative proteomics strategy using one channel for universal normalization across all samples. A total of 307 liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analyses were completed, generating 107 one-dimensional (1D) LC-MS/MS datasets and 8 offline two-dimensional (2D) LC-MS/MS datasets (25 fractions for each set) for human-in-mouse breast cancer xenograft tissues representative of basal and luminal subtypes. Such large-scale studies require the implementation of robust metrics to assess the contributions of technical and biological variability in the qualitative and quantitative data. Accordingly, we developed a quantification confidence score based on the quality of each peptide-spectrum match (PSM) to remove quantification outliers from each analysis. After combining confidence score filtering and statistical analysis, reproducible protein identification and quantitative results were achieved from LC-MS/MS datasets collected over a 16 month period.

  17. Rib cage deformity during two-stage tissue expander breast reconstruction in patient with previous radiotherapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Porčnik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing two-stage breast reconstruction with tissue expander and a history of previous irradiation are predisposed to a various chest-wall deformations more than non-irradiated patients. If chest-wall depression with/without rib fracture is found intra-operatively, bigger implant should be used, with a subsequent radiologic evaluation. In the future, the development of a new, modified expander with a harder base could minimise such complications.

  18. Identification of immune cell infiltration in hematoxylin-eosin stained breast cancer samples: texture-based classification of tissue morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkki, Riku; Linder, Nina; Kovanen, Panu E.; Pellinen, Teijo; Lundin, Johan

    2016-03-01

    The characteristics of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment of breast cancer capture clinically important information. Despite the heterogeneity of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, it has been shown that the degree of infiltration assessed by visual evaluation of hematoxylin-eosin (H and E) stained samples has prognostic and possibly predictive value. However, quantification of the infiltration in H and E-stained tissue samples is currently dependent on visual scoring by an expert. Computer vision enables automated characterization of the components of the tumor microenvironment, and texture-based methods have successfully been used to discriminate between different tissue morphologies and cell phenotypes. In this study, we evaluate whether local binary pattern texture features with superpixel segmentation and classification with support vector machine can be utilized to identify immune cell infiltration in H and E-stained breast cancer samples. Guided with the pan-leukocyte CD45 marker, we annotated training and test sets from 20 primary breast cancer samples. In the training set of arbitrary sized image regions (n=1,116) a 3-fold cross-validation resulted in 98% accuracy and an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.98 to discriminate between immune cell -rich and - poor areas. In the test set (n=204), we achieved an accuracy of 96% and AUC of 0.99 to label cropped tissue regions correctly into immune cell -rich and -poor categories. The obtained results demonstrate strong discrimination between immune cell -rich and -poor tissue morphologies. The proposed method can provide a quantitative measurement of the degree of immune cell infiltration and applied to digitally scanned H and E-stained breast cancer samples for diagnostic purposes.

  19. An unsupervised MVA method to compare specific regions in human breast tumor tissue samples using ToF-SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestein, Blake M; Morrish, Fionnuala; Graham, Daniel J; Guenthoer, Jamie; Hockenbery, David; Porter, Peggy L; Gamble, Lara J

    2016-03-21

    Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to investigate two sets of pre- and post-chemotherapy human breast tumor tissue sections to characterize lipids associated with tumor metabolic flexibility and response to treatment. The micron spatial resolution imaging capability of ToF-SIMS provides a powerful approach to attain spatially-resolved molecular and cellular data from cancerous tissues not available with conventional imaging techniques. Three ca. 1 mm(2) areas per tissue section were analyzed by stitching together 200 μm × 200 μm raster area scans. A method to isolate and analyze specific tissue regions of interest by utilizing PCA of ToF-SIMS images is presented, which allowed separation of cellularized areas from stromal areas. These PCA-generated regions of interest were then used as masks to reconstruct representative spectra from specifically stromal or cellular regions. The advantage of this unsupervised selection method is a reduction in scatter in the spectral PCA results when compared to analyzing all tissue areas or analyzing areas highlighted by a pathologist. Utilizing this method, stromal and cellular regions of breast tissue biopsies taken pre- versus post-chemotherapy demonstrate chemical separation using negatively-charged ion species. In this sample set, the cellular regions were predominantly all cancer cells. Fatty acids (i.e. palmitic, oleic, and stearic), monoacylglycerols, diacylglycerols and vitamin E profiles were distinctively different between the pre- and post-therapy tissues. These results validate a new unsupervised method to isolate and interpret biochemically distinct regions in cancer tissues using imaging ToF-SIMS data. In addition, the method developed here can provide a framework to compare a variety of tissue samples using imaging ToF-SIMS, especially where there is section-to-section variability that makes it difficult to use a serial hematoxylin

  20. SU-F-T-499: Anatomic Features for Selection of Electronic Tissue Compensation Radiotherapy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients After Breast-Conserving Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y; Gan, L; Chen, X; Zhang, T; Ren, G [Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, Chongqing (China); Zhang, M [Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers The State University of New, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Yue, N [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the correlations between anatomic features and dose-volumetric parameters in 3DCRT and eComp whole breast irradiation and identify the feasibility of anatomic parameters to predict the planning method selection. Methods: We compared the effectiveness between conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and electronic tissue compensation (eComp) for whole breast irradiation. 3DCRT and eComp planning techniques were used to generate treatment plans for 60 whole breast patients, respectively. The planning goal was to cover 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) with 95% of the prescription dose while minimizing dose to lung, heart, and skin. Statistical analyses were performed between critical organ doses and patient anatomic features, i.e., central lung distance (CLD), maximal heart distance (MHD), maximal heart length (MHL) and breast separation (BS). Results: Comparing to 3DCRT plans, on the average, eComp treatment planning process was about 7 minutes longer, but resulted in lower lung V20Gy, lower mean skin dose, with similar heart dose. The benefits were more pronounced for larger breast patients. To keep the lung V20Gy lower than 20% and mean skin dose lower than 85% of the prescription dose, eComp was the preferred method for patients with more than 2.3 cm CLD or larger than 22.5 cm BS. Conclusion: The study results may be useful in providing a handy criterion in clinical practice allowing us to easily choose between different planning techniques to satisfy the planning goal with minimal increase in complexity and cost. This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO. 31420103915) and Chongqing Health and Family Planning Commission Project (2015MSXM012).

  1. SU-F-T-499: Anatomic Features for Selection of Electronic Tissue Compensation Radiotherapy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients After Breast-Conserving Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y; Gan, L; Chen, X; Zhang, T; Ren, G; Zhang, M; Yue, N

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the correlations between anatomic features and dose-volumetric parameters in 3DCRT and eComp whole breast irradiation and identify the feasibility of anatomic parameters to predict the planning method selection. Methods: We compared the effectiveness between conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and electronic tissue compensation (eComp) for whole breast irradiation. 3DCRT and eComp planning techniques were used to generate treatment plans for 60 whole breast patients, respectively. The planning goal was to cover 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) with 95% of the prescription dose while minimizing dose to lung, heart, and skin. Statistical analyses were performed between critical organ doses and patient anatomic features, i.e., central lung distance (CLD), maximal heart distance (MHD), maximal heart length (MHL) and breast separation (BS). Results: Comparing to 3DCRT plans, on the average, eComp treatment planning process was about 7 minutes longer, but resulted in lower lung V20Gy, lower mean skin dose, with similar heart dose. The benefits were more pronounced for larger breast patients. To keep the lung V20Gy lower than 20% and mean skin dose lower than 85% of the prescription dose, eComp was the preferred method for patients with more than 2.3 cm CLD or larger than 22.5 cm BS. Conclusion: The study results may be useful in providing a handy criterion in clinical practice allowing us to easily choose between different planning techniques to satisfy the planning goal with minimal increase in complexity and cost. This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO. 31420103915) and Chongqing Health and Family Planning Commission Project (2015MSXM012).

  2. Endothelial induced EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valgardur Sigurdsson

    Full Text Available Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT is a critical event in cancer progression and is closely linked to the breast epithelial cancer stem cell phenotype. Given the close interaction between the vascular endothelium and cancer cells, especially at the invasive front, we asked whether endothelial cells might play a role in EMT. Using a 3D culture model we demonstrate that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in D492 an immortalized breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties. Endothelial induced mesenchymal-like cells (D492M derived from D492, show reduced expression of keratins, a switch from E-Cadherin (E-Cad to N-Cadherin (N-Cad and enhanced migration. Acquisition of cancer stem cell associated characteristics like increased CD44(high/CD24(low ratio, resistance to apoptosis and anchorage independent growth was also seen in D492M cells. Endothelial induced EMT in D492 was partially blocked by inhibition of HGF signaling. Basal-like breast cancer, a vascular rich cancer with stem cell properties and adverse prognosis has been linked with EMT. We immunostained several basal-like breast cancer samples for endothelial and EMT markers. Cancer cells close to the vascular rich areas show no or decreased expression of E-Cad and increased N-Cad expression suggesting EMT. Collectively, we have shown in a 3D culture model that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal-like breast cancer contains cells with an EMT phenotype, most prominently close to vascular rich areas of these tumors. We conclude that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT and may play a role in progression of basal-like breast cancer.

  3. Endothelial induced EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Valgardur; Hilmarsdottir, Bylgja; Sigmundsdottir, Hekla; Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Ringnér, Markus; Villadsen, Rene; Borg, Ake; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Petersen, Ole William; Magnusson, Magnus K; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical event in cancer progression and is closely linked to the breast epithelial cancer stem cell phenotype. Given the close interaction between the vascular endothelium and cancer cells, especially at the invasive front, we asked whether endothelial cells might play a role in EMT. Using a 3D culture model we demonstrate that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in D492 an immortalized breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties. Endothelial induced mesenchymal-like cells (D492M) derived from D492, show reduced expression of keratins, a switch from E-Cadherin (E-Cad) to N-Cadherin (N-Cad) and enhanced migration. Acquisition of cancer stem cell associated characteristics like increased CD44(high)/CD24(low) ratio, resistance to apoptosis and anchorage independent growth was also seen in D492M cells. Endothelial induced EMT in D492 was partially blocked by inhibition of HGF signaling. Basal-like breast cancer, a vascular rich cancer with stem cell properties and adverse prognosis has been linked with EMT. We immunostained several basal-like breast cancer samples for endothelial and EMT markers. Cancer cells close to the vascular rich areas show no or decreased expression of E-Cad and increased N-Cad expression suggesting EMT. Collectively, we have shown in a 3D culture model that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal-like breast cancer contains cells with an EMT phenotype, most prominently close to vascular rich areas of these tumors. We conclude that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT and may play a role in progression of basal-like breast cancer.

  4. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging with Virtual Touch™ tissue quantification: mean shear wave velocity of malignant and benign breast masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcinski S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sebastian Wojcinski,1 Kathrin Brandhorst,2 Gelareh Sadigh,3 Peter Hillemanns,1 Friedrich Degenhardt2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Franziskus Hospital, Bielefeld, Germany; 3Department of Radiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI with Virtual Touch™ tissue quantification (VTTQ enables the determination of shear wave velocity (SWV in meters per second (m/s. The aim of our study was to describe the mean SWV in normal breast tissue and various breast masses. We performed measurements of SWV with ARFI VTTQ in 145 breast masses (57 malignant, 88 benign and in the adjacent breast parenchyma and adipose tissue. The mean SWV as well as the rate of successful measurements were analyzed. The difference between adipose tissue and parenchyma was statistically significant (3.05 versus 3.65 m/s (P < 0.001. Focusing on breast masses, numerous measurements exceeded the upper limit of possible measurement (≥9.10 m/s, indicated as "X.XX m/s". Nevertheless, the difference between the malignant and benign masses was statistically significant (8.38 ± 1.99 m/s versus 5.39 ± 2.95 m/s (P < 0.001. The best diagnostic accuracy (75.9% was achieved when the cutoff point for malignancy was set to 9.10 m/s in ARFI VTTQ. This implies that the SWV was regarded as suspicious when the upper limit of possible measurement was exceeded and the machine returned the value X.XX m/s. In conclusion, ARFI VTTQ is a feasible method for measurement of SWV in a region of interest. Furthermore, we propose the event of a highly elevated SWV as a significant criterion for malignancy. However, the method is technically not yet fully developed, and the problem of unsuccessful measurements must still be solved. Keywords: ARFI VTTQ, elastography, ultrasound, breast imaging

  5. Optimized Protocol for Protein Extraction from the Breast Tissue that is Compatible with Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Zakharchenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteomics is a highly informative approach to analyze cancer-associated transformation in tissues. The main challenge to use a tissue for proteomics studies is the small sample size and difficulties to extract and preserve proteins. The choice of a buffer compatible with proteomics applications is also a challenge. Here we describe a protocol optimized for the most efficient extraction of proteins from the human breast tissue in a buffer compatible with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE. This protocol is based on mechanically assisted disintegration of tissues directly in the 2D-GE buffer. Our method is simple, robust and easy to apply in clinical practice. We demonstrate high quality of separation of proteins prepared according to the reported here protocol.

  6. Endothelial induced EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Valgardur; Hilmarsdottir, Bylgja; Sigmundsdottir, Hekla

    2011-01-01

    endothelial cells might play a role in EMT. Using a 3D culture model we demonstrate that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in D492 an immortalized breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties. Endothelial induced mesenchymal-like cells (D492M) derived from D492, show reduced expression...... of keratins, a switch from E-Cadherin (E-Cad) to N-Cadherin (N-Cad) and enhanced migration. Acquisition of cancer stem cell associated characteristics like increased CD44(high)/CD24(low) ratio, resistance to apoptosis and anchorage independent growth was also seen in D492M cells. Endothelial induced EMT in D......492 was partially blocked by inhibition of HGF signaling. Basal-like breast cancer, a vascular rich cancer with stem cell properties and adverse prognosis has been linked with EMT. We immunostained several basal-like breast cancer samples for endothelial and EMT markers. Cancer cells close...

  7. Radiotherapy and breast reconstruction: complications and cosmesis with TRAM versus tissue expander/implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, Ashish K.; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Taghian, Alphonse G.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Zapton, Daniel T.; Powell, Simon N.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) has an important role in breast cancer treatment after modified radical mastectomy. Many of these patients also undergo breast reconstruction. We reviewed our institutions' experience to determine the outcome of patients treated with breast reconstruction and RT. Methods and Materials: Between 1981 and 1999, 48 breast cancer patients underwent modified radical mastectomy, breast reconstruction, and ipsilateral breast RT during their treatment course. Reconstruction either preceded or followed RT. Autologous reconstruction with a transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous (TRAM) flap was performed in 30 patients, and 18 underwent expander and implant (E/I) reconstruction. The primary endpoint was the quality of the reconstructed, irradiated breast, as measured by analyzing the actuarial incidence of complications. The cosmetic outcome was also assessed by multidisciplinary review of the follow-up visits. Results: The median follow-up from reconstruction was 32 months. The actuarial 2-year complication rate was 53% for patients receiving E/I vs. 12% for those receiving TRAM reconstruction (p<0.01). No other patient or treatment-related factors had a significant impact on complications. The cosmetic outcome was also significantly better in the TRAM subgroup than in the E/I subgroup. Conclusion: The tolerance and cosmetic outcome of breast reconstruction for breast cancer patients in irradiated sites depends significantly on the type of reconstruction used

  8. Effect of implant vs. tissue reconstruction on cancer specific survival varies by axillary lymph node status in breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ouyang

    Full Text Available To compare the breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS between patients who underwent tissue or implant reconstruction after mastectomy.We used the database from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER registries and compared the BCSS between patients who underwent tissue and implant reconstruction after mastectomy. Cox-regression models were fitted, adjusting for known clinicopathological features. The interaction between the reconstruction types (tissue/implant and nodal status (N-stage was investigated.A total of 6,426 patients with a median age of 50 years were included. With a median follow up of 100 months, the 10-year cumulative BCSS and non-BCSS were 85.1% and 95.4%, respectively. Patients who underwent tissue reconstruction had tumors with a higher T-stage, N-stage, and tumor grade and tended to be ER/PR-negative compared to those who received implant reconstruction. In univariate analysis, implant-reconstruction was associated with a 2.4% increase (P = 0.003 in the BCSS compared with tissue-reconstruction. After adjusting for significant risk factors of the BCSS (suggested by univariate analysis and stratifying based on the N-stage, there was only an association between the reconstruction type and the BCSS for the N2-3 patients (10-year BCSS of implant vs. tissue-reconstruction: 68.7% and 59.0%, P = 0.004. The 10-year BCSS rates of implant vs. tissue-reconstruction were 91.7% and 91.8% in N0 patients (P>0.05 and 84.5% and 84.4% in N1 patients (P>0.05, respectively.The implant (vs. tissue reconstruction after mastectomy was associated with an improved BCSS in N2-3 breast cancer patients but not in N0-1 patients. A well-designed, prospective study is needed to further confirm these findings.

  9. Recipient vessel selection in immediate breast reconstruction with free abdominal tissue transfer after nipple-sparing mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung Jun; Eom, Jin Sup; Lee, Taik Jong; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Son, Byung Ho

    2012-05-01

    Nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) is gaining popularity due to its superior aesthetic results. When reconstructing the breast with free abdominal tissue transfer, we must readdress the recipient vessel, because NSM can cause difficulty in access to the chest vessel. Between June 2006 and March 2011, a total of 92 women underwent NSM with free abdominal tissue transfer. A lateral oblique incision was used for the nipple-sparing mastectomy. For recipient vessels, the internal mammary vessels were chosen if the mastectomy flap did not block access to the vessels. If it did, the thoracodorsal vessels were used. Age, degree of breast ptosis, weight of the mastectomy specimen, and related complications of the internal mammary vessel group and the thoracodorsal vessel group were compared. Thoracodorsal vessels were used as recipient vessels in 59 cases, and internal mammary vessels in 33 cases including 4 cases with perforators of the internal mammary vessels. Breast reconstruction was successful in all cases except one case involving a total flap failure, which was replaced by a silicone gel implant. The internal mammary group and the thoracodorsal group were similar in terms of age, height, breast weight, and degree of ptosis. The flap related complications such as flap loss and take-back operation rates were not significantly different between the two groups. The rate of nipple necrosis was higher in the internal mammary group. The thoracodorsal vessels could produce comparable outcomes in breast reconstruction after nipple-sparing mastectomies. If access to internal mammary vessels is difficult, the thoracodorsal vessel can be a better choice.

  10. Recipient Vessel Selection in Immediate Breast Reconstruction with Free Abdominal Tissue Transfer after Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Jun Yang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM is gaining popularity due to its superior aesthetic results. When reconstructing the breast with free abdominal tissue transfer, we must readdress the recipient vessel, because NSM can cause difficulty in access to the chest vessel.MethodsBetween June 2006 and March 2011, a total of 92 women underwent NSM with free abdominal tissue transfer. A lateral oblique incision was used for the nipple-sparing mastectomy. For recipient vessels, the internal mammary vessels were chosen if the mastectomy flap did not block access to the vessels. If it did, the thoracodorsal vessels were used. Age, degree of breast ptosis, weight of the mastectomy specimen, and related complications of the internal mammary vessel group and the thoracodorsal vessel group were compared.ResultsThoracodorsal vessels were used as recipient vessels in 59 cases, and internal mammary vessels in 33 cases including 4 cases with perforators of the internal mammary vessels. Breast reconstruction was successful in all cases except one case involving a total flap failure, which was replaced by a silicone gel implant. The internal mammary group and the thoracodorsal group were similar in terms of age, height, breast weight, and degree of ptosis. The flap related complications such as flap loss and take-back operation rates were not significantly different between the two groups. The rate of nipple necrosis was higher in the internal mammary group.ConclusionsThe thoracodorsal vessels could produce comparable outcomes in breast reconstruction after nipple-sparing mastectomies. If access to internal mammary vessels is difficult, the thoracodorsal vessel can be a better choice.

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire Among Women of Indian Ethnicity Living in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Cannas; Pillay, Rona; Lee, Chun Fan

    2016-01-01

    Indian women have been consistently reported as having low participation in breast cancer screening practices. A valid and reliable instrument to explore their breast cancer beliefs is essential for development of interventions to promote breast cancer screening practices. The aim of this study was to report the psychometric properties of the Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (BCSBQ) in an Indian community in Australia. A convenience sample of 242 Indian Australian women was recruited from Indian community organizations and personal networking. Explanatory factor analysis was conducted to study the factor structure. Clinical validity was examined by Cuzick's nonparametric test, and Cronbach's α was used to assess internal consistency reliability. Exploratory factor analysis showed a similar fit to the hypothesized 3-factor structure. The frequency of breast cancer screening practices was significantly associated with attitudes toward general health check-up. Knowledge and perceptions about the breast cancer scale were not significantly associated with clinical breast examinations and mammography. Perceived barriers to mammography were much less evident among women who engaged in breast awareness and clinical breast examination. Results indicated that the BCSBQ had satisfactory validity and internal consistency. Cronbach's α of the 3 subscales ranged from .81 to .91. The BCSBQ is a culturally appropriate, valid, and reliable instrument for assessing the beliefs, knowledge, and attitudes about breast cancer and breast cancer screening practices among women of Indian ethnic extraction living in Australia. The BCSBQ can be used to provide nurses with information relevant for the development of culturally sensitive breast health education programs.

  12. The Effect of Radiation on Complication Rates and Patient Satisfaction in Breast Reconstruction using Temporary Tissue Expanders and Permanent Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Christopher J; Hymas, Richard V; Ahluwalia, Ravinder; Kokeny, Kristine E; Avizonis, Vilija; Boucher, Kenneth M; Neumayer, Leigh A; Agarwal, Jayant P

    2015-01-01

    The optimal method of reconstruction following mastectomy for breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy (RT) is controversial. This study evaluated patient satisfaction and complication rates among patients who received implant-based breast reconstruction. The specific treatment algorithm analyzed included patients receiving mastectomy and immediate temporary tissue expander (TE), followed by placement of a permanent breast implant (PI). If indicated, RT was delivered to the fully expanded TE. Records of 218 consecutive patients with 222 invasive (85%) or in situ (15%) breast lesions from the Salt Lake City region treated between 1998 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed, 28% of whom received RT. Median RT dose was 50.4 Gy, and 41% received a scar boost at a median dose of 10 Gy. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to evaluate the cumulative incidence of surgical complications, including permanent PI removal. Risk factors associated with surgical events were analyzed. To evaluate cosmetic results and patient satisfaction, an anonymous survey was administered. Mean follow-up was 44 months (range 6-144). Actuarial 5-year PI removal rates for non-RT and RT patients were 4% and 22%, respectively. On multivariate analysis (MVA), the only factor associated with PI removal was RT (p = 0.009). Surveys were returned describing the outcomes of 149 breasts. For the non-RT and RT groups, those who rated their breast appearance as good or better were 63% versus 62%, respectively. Under 1/3 of each group was dissatisfied with their reconstruction. RT did not significantly affect patient satisfaction scores, but on MVA RT was the only factor associated with increased PI removal. This reconstruction technique may be considered an acceptable option even if RT is needed, but the increased complication risk with RT must be recognized. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Experimental study and constitutive modeling of the viscoelastic mechanical properties of the human prolapsed vaginal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Estefania; Calvo, B; Martínez, M A; Martins, P; Mascarenhas, T; Jorge, R M N; Ferreira, A; Doblaré, M

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, the viscoelastic mechanical properties of vaginal tissue are investigated. Using previous results of the authors on the mechanical properties of biological soft tissues and newly experimental data from uniaxial tension tests, a new model for the viscoelastic mechanical properties of the human vaginal tissue is proposed. The structural model seems to be sufficiently accurate to guarantee its application to prediction of reliable stress distributions, and is suitable for finite element computations. The obtained results may be helpful in the design of surgical procedures with autologous tissue or prostheses.

  14. Identification of complications in mastectomy with immediate reconstruction using tissue expanders and permanent implants for breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Daisuke; Fukuuchi, Atsushi; Iwahira, Yoshiko; Kato, Takao; Takeuchi, Masashi; Okamoto, Joji; Nishi, Tsunehiro

    2016-05-01

    Since complications of postmastectomy breast reconstruction may reduce patient satisfaction, we investigated complications of reconstruction with tissue expanders (TEs), particularly surgical site infections requiring TE/permanent implant (PI) removal. A retrospective review was performed of 234 primary breast cancer patients undergoing 239 postmastectomy breast reconstructions with TEs/PIs from 1997 to 2009. Clinicopathological findings and postoperative complications, particularly infections, were analyzed. Data were analyzed by the Chi-square test and a multivariate logistic regression model. TE infection risk factors considered for model inclusion were excisional biopsy, (neo) adjuvant chemotherapy, lymph node resection, body mass index (BMI), simultaneous bilateral reconstructions, and seroma aspiration. Removal of TEs/PIs was observed in 15.5% (37/239) of reconstructions, and 18/37 underwent re-reconstructions. Of the 19/37 reconstructions that were not achieved completely, the most frequent reason was TE infection (11 reconstructions). The completion rate was 92% (220/239 reconstructions) and it was significantly higher in reconstructions without TE infection than with infection (96 vs. 54%, p breast reconstruction, prevention of TE infection plays a key role. We should reduce unnecessary seroma aspirations and delay elevation/exercise of the ipsilateral arm.

  15. Long wavelength identification of microcalcifications in breast cancer tissue using a quantum cascade laser and upconversion detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tseng, Yu-Pei; Bouzy, P.; Stone, N.

    2018-01-01

    Spectral imaging in the long-wave infrared regime has great potential for medical diagnostics. Breast cancer is the most common cancer amongst females in the US. The pathological features and the occurrence of the microcalcifications are still poorly understood. However, two types of microcalcifi...... hydroxyapatite and of microcalcification in breast cancer tissue using upconversion detection. Absorbance spectra and upconverted images of in situ breast cancer biopsy are compared with that of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.......Spectral imaging in the long-wave infrared regime has great potential for medical diagnostics. Breast cancer is the most common cancer amongst females in the US. The pathological features and the occurrence of the microcalcifications are still poorly understood. However, two types...... of microcalcifications have been identified as unique biomarkers: type I consisting of calcium oxalate (benign lesions) and type II composed of hydroxyapatite (benign or invasive lesions). In this study, we propose a new approach based on vibrational spectroscopy that is non-destructive, label-free and chemically...

  16. Combination of elastography and tissue quantification using the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technology for differential diagnosis of breast masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Isobe, Sachiko; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2012-10-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic performance of elastography and tissue quantification using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technology for differential diagnosis of breast masses. There were 161 mass lesions. First, lesion correspondence on ARFI elastographic images to those on the B-mode images was evaluated: no findings on ARFI images (pattern 1), lesions that were bright inside (pattern 2), lesions that were dark inside (pattern 4), lesions that contained both bright and dark areas (pattern 3). In addition, pattern 4 was subdivided into 4a (dark area same as B-mode lesion) and 4b (dark area larger than lesion). Next, shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured using virtual touch tissue quantification. There were 13 pattern 1 lesions and five pattern 2 lesions; all of these lesions were benign, whereas all pattern 4b lesions (n = 43) were malignant. When the value of 3.59 m/s was chosen as the cutoff value, the combination of elastography and tissue quantification showed 91 % (83-91) sensitivity, 93 % (65-70) specificity, and 92 % (148-161) accuracy. The combination of elastography and tissue quantification is thought to be a promising ultrasound technique for differential diagnosis of breast-mass lesions.

  17. Risk Factors for Complications Differ Between Stages of Tissue-Expander Breast Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecchio, Francis; Jordan, Sumanas W; Lim, Seokchun; Fine, Neil A; Kim, John Y S

    2015-09-01

    Tissue-expander (TE) placement followed by implant exchange is currently the most popular method of breast reconstruction. There is a relative paucity of data demonstrating patient factors that predict complications specifically by stage of surgery. The present study attempts to determine what complications are most likely to occur at each stage and how the risk factors for complications vary by stage of reconstruction. A retrospective chart review was performed on all 1275 patients who had TEs placed by the 2 senior authors between 2004 and 2013. Complication rates were determined at each stage of reconstruction, and these rates were further compared between patients who had pre-stage I radiation, post-stage I radiation, and no radiation exposure. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of complications at each stage of reconstruction. A total of 1639 consecutive TEs were placed by the senior authors during the study period. The overall rate for experiencing a complication at any stage of surgery was 17%. Complications occurred at uniformly higher rates during stage I for all complications (92% stage I vs 7% stage II vs 1% stage III, P higher intraoperative percent fill (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.7-6.3). Post-stage I radiation was the only independent risk factor for a stage II complication (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.4-15.2). Complications occur at higher rates after stage I than after stage II, and as expected, stage III complications are exceedingly rare. Risk factors for stage I complications are different from risk factors for stage II complications. Body mass index and smoking are associated with complications at stage I, but do not predict complications at stage II surgery. The stratification of risk factors by stage of surgery will help surgeons and patients better manage both risk and expectations.

  18. Investigation of normal tissue complication probabilities in prostate and partial breast irradiation radiotherapy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezak, E.; Takam, R.; Bensaleh, S.; Yeoh, E.; Marcu, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Normal- Tissue-Complication Probabilities of rectum, bladder and urethra following various radiation techniques for prostate cancer were evaluated using the relative-seriality and Lyman models. NTCPs of lungs, heart and skin, their dependence on sourceposition, balloon-deformation were also investigated for HDR mammosite brachytherapy. The prostate treatment techniques included external three dimentional conformal-radiotherapy, Low-Dose-Rate brachytherapy (1-125), High-Dose-Rate brachytherapy (Ir-I92). Dose- Volume-Histograms of critical structures for prostate and breast radiotherapy, retrieved from corresponding treatment planning systems, were converted to Biological Effective Dose (BEffD)-based and Equivalent Dose(Deq)-based DVHs to account for differences in radiation delivery and fractionation schedule. Literature-based model parameters were used to calculate NTCPs. Hypofractionated 3D-CRT (2.75 Gy/fraction, total dose 55 Gy) NTCPs of rectum, bladder and urethra were less than those for standard fractionated 4-field 3D-CRT (2-Gy/fraction, 64 Gy) and dose-escalated 4- and 5-field 3D-CRT (74 Gy). Rectal and bladder NTCPs (5.2% and 6.6%) following the dose-escalated 4-field 3D-CRT (74 Gy) were the highest among analyzed techniques. The average NTCP for rectum and urethra were 0.6% and 24.7% for LDRBT and 0.5% and 11.2% for HDR-BT. For Mammosite, NTCP was estimated to be 0.1 %, 0.1 %, 1.2% and 3.5% for skin desquamation, erythema, telangiectasia and fibrosis respectively (the source positioned at the balloon centre). A 4 mm Mammosite-balloon deformation leads to overdosing of PTV regions by ∼40%, resulting in excessive skin dose and increased NTCP. Conclusions Prostate brachytherapy resulted in NTCPs lower compared to external beam techniques. Mammosite-brachytherapy resulted in no heart/lung complications regardless of balloon deformation. However, 4 mm deformation caused 0.6% increase in tissue fibrosis NTCP.

  19. The Dose-Response Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Body Composition and Breast Tissue among Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C; Kontos, Despina; Schnall, Mitchell D; Wu, Shandong; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2016-07-01

    Observational data indicate that behaviors that shift energetic homeostasis, such as exercise, may decrease the risk of developing breast cancer by reducing the amount of energy-dense, metabolically active adipose tissue. Between December 2008 and April 2013, we conducted a single-blind, 5-month, clinical trial that randomized premenopausal women at high risk of developing breast cancer to one of three groups: 150 min/wk of aerobic exercise (low dose), 300 min/wk of aerobic exercise (high dose), or control. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) was quantified using computerized algorithms on breast dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Over 5 months, compared with the control group: the low-dose and high-dose groups lost -1.5 ± 0.5 and -1.3 ± 0.5 kg of body mass (linear Ptrend = 0.032); -1.5 ± 0.4 and -1.4 ± 0.3 kg of fat mass (linear Ptrend = 0.003); -1.3 ± 0.3 and -1.4 ± 0.3% of body fat (linear Ptrend body composition outcomes did not significantly correlate with changes in BPE. These mechanistic data support observational evidence that shifting energetic homeostasis through exercise may alter the risk of developing breast cancer. Additional adequately powered studies are needed to confirm and expand upon our findings that changes in body composition are associated with changes in BPE. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 581-8. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Predictive parameters for selection of electronic tissue compensation radiotherapy in early-stage breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanbo; Zhang, Miao; Gan, Lu; Chen, Xiaopin; Zhang, Tao; Yue, Ning J; Goyal, Sharad; Haffty, Bruce; Ren, Guosheng

    2016-05-31

    Electronic tissue compensation (eComp) is an external beam planning technique allowing user to manually generate dynamic beam fluence to produce more uniform or modulated dose distribution. In this study, we compared the effectiveness between conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and eComp for whole breast irradiation. 3DCRT and eComp planning techniques were used to generate treatment plans for 60 whole breast patients, respectively. The planning goal was to cover 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) with 95% of the prescription dose while minimizing doses to lung, heart, and skin. Comparing to 3DCRT plans, on the average, eComp treatment planning process was about 7 minutes longer, but resulted in lower lung V20Gy, lower mean skin dose, with similar heart dose. The benefits were more pronounced for larger breast patients. Statistical analyses were performed between critical organ doses and patient anatomic features, i.e., central lung distance (CLD), maximal heart distance (MHD), maximal heart length (MHL) and breast separation (BS) to explore any correlations and planning method selection. It was found that to keep the lung V20Gy lower than 20% and mean skin dose lower than 85% of the prescription dose, eComp was the preferred method for patients with more than 2.3 cm CLD or larger than 22.5 cm BS. The study results may be useful in providing a handy criterion in clinical practice allowing us to easily choose between different planning techniques to satisfy the planning goal with minimal increase in complexity and cost.

  1. Analysis of light scattering from human breast tissue using a custom dual-optical scanning near-field optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Jennifer Reiber; Kyle, Michael D; Raghavan, Ravi; Budak, Gurer; Ozkan, Cengiz S; Ozkan, Mihrimah

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we introduce a custom scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) that simultaneously collects reflection and transmission near-field images along with topography. This dual-optical SNOM uses a bent probe, which allows for axial reflection imaging, accurate surface scanning, and easy identification of topographic artifacts. Using this novel dual-optical SNOM, we image desiccated and non-desiccated human breast epithelial tissue. By comparing the simultaneous SNOM images, we isolate the effects of tissue morphology and variations in refractive indices on the forward- and back-scattering of light from the tissue. We find that the reduction in back-scattering from tissue, relative to the glass slide, is caused by dense packing of the scattering sites in the cytoplasm (morphology) in the desiccated tissue and a thin-film of water adhering to the glass slide (refractive index) in the non-desiccated tissue sample. Our work demonstrates the potential of our customized dual-optical SNOM system for label-free tissue diagnostics. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Estrogen receptor (ER)α-regulated lipocalin 2 expression in adipose tissue links obesity with breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Brian G; Hamidi, Habib; Zhou, Zhenqi; Villanueva, Claudio J; Krum, Susan A; Calkin, Anna C; Parks, Brian W; Ribas, Vicent; Kalajian, Nareg Y; Phun, Jennifer; Daraei, Pedram; Christofk, Heather R; Hewitt, Sylvia C; Korach, Kenneth S; Tontonoz, Peter; Lusis, Aldons J; Slamon, Dennis J; Hurvitz, Sara A; Hevener, Andrea L

    2015-02-27

    Obesity is associated with increased breast cancer (BrCA) incidence. Considering that inactivation of estrogen receptor (ER)α promotes obesity and metabolic dysfunction in women and female mice, understanding the mechanisms and tissue-specific sites of ERα action to combat metabolic-related disease, including BrCA, is of clinical importance. To study the role of ERα in adipose tissue we generated fat-specific ERα knock-out (FERKO) mice. Herein we show that ERα deletion increased adipocyte size, fat pad weight, and tissue expression and circulating levels of the secreted glycoprotein, lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), an adipokine previously associated with BrCA development. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter studies showed that ERα binds the Lcn2 promoter to repress its expression. Because adipocytes constitute an important cell type of the breast microenvironment, we examined the impact of adipocyte ERα deletion on cancer cell behavior. Conditioned medium from ERα-null adipocytes and medium containing pure Lcn2 increased proliferation and migration of a subset of BrCA cells in culture. The proliferative and promigratory effects of ERα-deficient adipocyte-conditioned medium on BrCA cells was reversed by Lcn2 deletion. BrCA cell responsiveness to exogenous Lcn2 was heightened in cell types where endogenous Lcn2 expression was minimal, but components of the Lcn2 signaling pathway were enriched, i.e. SLC22A17 and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH2). In breast tumor biopsies from women diagnosed with BrCA we found that BDH2 expression was positively associated with adiposity and circulating Lcn2 levels. Collectively these data suggest that reduction of ERα expression in adipose tissue promotes adiposity and is linked with the progression and severity of BrCA via increased adipocyte-specific Lcn2 production and enhanced tumor cell Lcn2 sensitivity. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Effect of Mixing Ratio between Pork Loin and Chicken Breast on Textural and Sensory Properties of Emulsion Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study is conducted to evaluate the effects of the mixing ratio between pork loin and chicken breast for textural and sensory properties of emulsion sausages. Meat homogenates are prepared by using five mixing ratios between pork loin and chicken breast (100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, and 0:100), and the emulsion sausages are also formulated with five mixing ratios. The additions of chicken breast increase the salt soluble protein solubility due to high pH levels of chicken breast, thereby resulting in the reduction of cooking losses. In addition, the apparent viscosity of meat homogenates increase with increasing amounts of chicken breast. In terms of emulsion sausages formulated with pork loin and chicken breast, the addition of chicken breast above 50% may contribute to a softer and more flexible texture of emulsion sausages. For sensory evaluations, an increase in the added amount of chicken breast contributes to a rich umami taste and deeper flavor within the emulsion sausages, resulting in the high overall acceptance score for the formulation of 0-30% pork loin and 70-100% chicken breast. Therefore, the optimal mixing ratios between pork loin and chicken breast are 0-30% and 70-100% for enhancing the textural and sensory properties of emulsion sausages. PMID:26760930

  4. Influence of tissue- and cell-scale extracellular matrix distribution on the mechanical properties of tissue-engineered cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshgoftar, M.; Wilson, W.; Ito, K.; Donkelaar, C.C. van

    2013-01-01

    The insufficient load-bearing capacity of today's tissue- engineered (TE) cartilage limits its clinical application. Generally, cartilage TE studies aim to increase the extracellular matrix (ECM) content, as this is thought to determine the load-bearing properties of the cartilage. However, there

  5. Influence of tissue- and cell-scale extracellular matrix distribution on the mechanical properties of tissue engineered cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshgoftar, M.; Wilson, W.; Ito, K.; Donkelaar, van C.C.

    2013-01-01

    The insufficient load-bearing capacity of today’s tissue- engineered (TE) cartilage limits its clinical application. Generally, cartilage TE studies aim to increase the extracellular matrix (ECM) content, as this is thought to determine the load-bearing properties of the cartilage. However, there

  6. Viscoelastic properties of bovine orbital connective tissue and fat: constitutive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Lawrence; Gupta, Vijay; Lee, Choongyeop; Kavehpore, Pirouz; Demer, Joseph L

    2011-12-01

    Reported mechanical properties of orbital connective tissue and fat have been too sparse to model strain-stress relationships underlying biomechanical interactions in strabismus. We performed rheological tests to develop a multi-mode upper convected Maxwell (UCM) model of these tissues under shear loading. From 20 fresh bovine orbits, 30 samples of connective tissue were taken from rectus pulley regions and 30 samples of fatty tissues from the posterior orbit. Additional samples were defatted to determine connective tissue weight proportion, which was verified histologically. Mechanical testing in shear employed a triborheometer to perform: strain sweeps at 0.5-2.0 Hz; shear stress relaxation with 1% strain; viscometry at 0.01-0.5 s(-1) strain rate; and shear oscillation at 1% strain. Average connective tissue weight proportion was 98% for predominantly connective tissue and 76% for fatty tissue. Connective tissue specimens reached a long-term relaxation modulus of 668 Pa after 1,500 s, while corresponding values for fatty tissue specimens were 290 Pa and 1,100 s. Shear stress magnitude for connective tissue exceeded that of fatty tissue by five-fold. Based on these data, we developed a multi-mode UCM model with variable viscosities and time constants, and a damped hyperelastic response that accurately described measured properties of both connective and fatty tissues. Model parameters differed significantly between the two tissues. Viscoelastic properties of predominantly connective orbital tissues under shear loading differ markedly from properties of orbital fat, but both are accurately reflected using UCM models. These viscoelastic models will facilitate realistic global modeling of EOM behavior in binocular alignment and strabismus.

  7. Study of a new approach to diagnose breast cancer based on synchrotron radiation scattering properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in women accounting for about 20% of all cancer deaths. This scenario is, among other factors, due to inherent limitations of the current clinical methods of diagnosis based on x-ray absorption. Meanwhile, recent researches have shown that the scattered radiation can provide information about the structures that compose a biological tissue, like breast tissue. Then, the information provided by x-ray scattering techniques can be used to identify breast cancer. In this work, we developed a classification model based on discriminant analysis of scattering profiles of 106 human breast samples histopathologically classified as normal tissue, benign and malignant lesion, at wide (WAXS) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) regions. WAXS and SAXS experiments were carried out at the D12A-XRD1 and D02-SAXS2 beam lines in the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas. For WAXS experiment, was used an x-ray beam energy of 11keV allowing to record the momentum transfer interval of 0.7nm -1 ≤(q=4π.sin(θ/2)/λ)≤70.5nm -1 on the NaI(Tl) detector. While for SAXS experiment was used an x-ray wavelength of 1.488 Angstrom, a two-dimensional detector and several sample-detector distances, allowing to get the range of 0.07nm -1 ≤q≤4.20nm -1 . The scattering profiles at both regions, for each sample were used to build the diagnosis model based on discriminant analysis. From WAXS data, differences related to position and intensity of the peaks of the molecular structures were found, when compared normal and pathological breast tissues. While for SAXS these differences were observed in supramolecular structures. The diagnostic model combining the information at WAXS and SAXS yield two linear functions which, allow to correlate changes at molecular scale with those at supramolecular level as well as, to classify correctly all samples analyzed in this study[1]. Finally, the results achieved in this

  8. Tissue-Level Mechanical Properties of Bone Contributing to Fracture Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Jeffry S; Granke, Mathilde; Singleton, Robert C; Pharr, George M

    2016-08-01

    Tissue-level mechanical properties characterize mechanical behavior independently of microscopic porosity. Specifically, quasi-static nanoindentation provides measurements of modulus (stiffness) and hardness (resistance to yielding) of tissue at the length scale of the lamella, while dynamic nanoindentation assesses time-dependent behavior in the form of storage modulus (stiffness), loss modulus (dampening), and loss factor (ratio of the two). While these properties are useful in establishing how a gene, signaling pathway, or disease of interest affects bone tissue, they generally do not vary with aging after skeletal maturation or with osteoporosis. Heterogeneity in tissue-level mechanical properties or in compositional properties may contribute to fracture risk, but a consensus on whether the contribution is negative or positive has not emerged. In vivo indentation of bone tissue is now possible, and the mechanical resistance to microindentation has the potential for improving fracture risk assessment, though determinants are currently unknown.

  9. Apparent diffusion coefficient of breast cancer and normal fibroglandular tissue in diffusion-weighted imaging: the effects of menstrual cycle and menopausal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin You; Suh, Hie Bum; Kang, Hyun Jung; Shin, Jong Ki; Choo, Ki Seok; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Seok Won; Jung, Young Lae; Bae, Young Tae

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate prospectively whether the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of both breast cancer and normal fibroglandular tissue vary with the menstrual cycle and menopausal status. Institutional review board approval was obtained, and informed consent was obtained from each participant. Fifty-seven women (29 premenopausal, 28 postmenopausal) with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent diffusion-weighted imaging twice (interval 12-20 days) before surgery. Two radiologists independently measured ADC of breast cancer and normal contralateral breast tissue, and we quantified the differences according to the phases of menstrual cycle and menopausal status. With normal fibroglandular tissue, ADC was significantly lower in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women (P = 0.035). In premenopausal women, ADC did not differ significantly between proliferative and secretory phases in either breast cancer or normal fibroglandular tissue (P = 0.969 and P = 0.519, respectively). In postmenopausal women, no significant differences were found between ADCs measured at different time intervals in either breast cancer or normal fibroglandular tissue (P = 0.948 and P = 0.961, respectively). The within-subject variability of the ADC measurements was quantified using the coefficient of variation (CV) and was small: the mean CVs of tumor ADC were 2.90 % (premenopausal) and 3.43 % (postmenopausal), and those of fibroglandular tissue ADC were 4.37 % (premenopausal) and 2.55 % (postmenopausal). Both intra- and interobserver agreements were excellent for ADC measurements, with intraclass correlation coefficients in the range of 0.834-0.974. In conclusion, the measured ADCs of breast cancer and normal fibroglandular tissue were not affected significantly by menstrual cycle, and the measurements were highly reproducible both within and between observers.

  10. Determination of effective atomic number of breast tissues using scattered radiation; Determinacao do numero atomico efetivo de tecidos mamarios usando a radiacao espalhada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2010-07-01

    The scattered radiation has been used in several industrial and clinical applications since it permits to characterize the scattering material. Several types of information can be extracted from the spectrum of scattered radiation which can be used to characterization of biological tissues such as breast tissues. In this work we have measured Compton and Rayleigh scattering radiation from normal (adipose), benign (fibroadenoma) and malignant (carcinoma) neoplastic breast tissues using a monoenergetic beam of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90 deg C (x = 0.99 angstrom-1). A practical method using the area of elastic and inelastic scattering was used for determining the effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) of the samples, being validated comparing the experimental obtained values of Z{sub eff} of several standard materials with calculated values using traditional method based on total cross-section of compounds. The obtained results show that exist differences in the distributions of Z{sub eff} of breast tissues, which are related to the content of carbon (Z=6) and oxygen (Z=8) in each tissue type. The results suggest that is possible to use this parameter for characterizing breast tissues, pointing the possibility of its use as a complementary tool for the diagnosis of the breast cancer. (author)

  11. Electromagnetic Properties of Tissue in the Optical Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yaws, K. M; Mixon, D. G; Roach, W. P

    2007-01-01

    .... Currently, voids exist in frequency specific electromagnetic properties such as the complex dielectric permittivity and conductivity necessary to define refractive index and attenuation values...

  12. Enhancing surface properties of breast implants by using electrospun silk fibroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Lazcano, A A; Román-Doval, R; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Millán-Casarrubias, E J; Rodríguez-Ortega, A

    2017-08-24

    In the present study, a new electrospun silk fibroin coating of silicone breast implants with improved biocompatibility and mechanical properties was obtained. Fibrous scaffolds were produced by electrospinning a solution containing silk fibroin, derived from Bombyx mori cocoons, and polyethylene oxide (PEO) to be used as a coating of breast implants. A randomly oriented structure of fibroin/PEO was electrospun on implants as assessed by SEM analysis, roughness measurements and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The scaffold showed 0.25 µm diameter fibres, 0.76 µm size superficial pores, arithmetic roughness of 0.632 ± 0.12 µm and texture aspect ratio of 0.893 ± 0.04. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy demonstrates the presence of PEO and fibroin in the coating. The mechanical characterisation of the implants before and after being coated with fibroin/PEO demonstrated that the fibroin/PEO scaffold contributes to the increase in the elastic modulus from 0.392 ± 0.02 to 0.560 ± 0.03 MPa and to a more elastic behaviour of the breast implants. Using the fibroin/PEO coating, human fibroblasts seeded on this matrix increased viability up to 30% compared to conventional breast implants. Electrospun silk fibroin could represent a clinically compatible, viable form to coat breast implants. Low cytotoxicity by the fibroin coating and its physico-chemical and mechanical properties may find application in improving breast implants biocompatibility. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Textural properties of chicken breast treated by different means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Čurlej

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare textural atributes of cooked chicken breast samples subjected to different storage or preparation conditions (raw meat after cooking, raw meat after freezing/subsequent thawing, after storage under modified – controlled conditions using instrumental analysis. For this purpose, samples were subjected to texture testing by the use of Warner-Bratzler probe, to find changes in muscle hardness by determination of firmness and work of shear. As expected, various values of mentioned atributes were obtained for tested samples treated by three different ways. For statistical evaluation of the results, macro function of Exponent software and paired T test were used, statistically significant differences were taken at p <0.05. In conclussion, different forces were needed for cutting of tested samples, subjected to selected storage conditions, prior to cooking.

  14. Effects of soy sauce on physicochemical and textural properties of tumbled chicken breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H W; Hwang, K E; Song, D H; Kim, Y J; Lim, Y B; Choi, J H; Choi, Y S; Kim, H Y; Kim, C J

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soy sauce on the physicochemical and textural properties of tumbled chicken breasts. Chicken breasts marinated with distilled water (Con), 4% NaCl solution, 4% NaCl and lactic acid solution (pH 4.9), and soy sauce solution (4% salt concentration and pH 4.9) were vacuum tumbled at 3°C for 60 min. The chicken breast marinated with soy sauce solution showed lower lightness and higher redness and yellowness due to the color of the soy sauce. The acidic marinades led to a decrease in pH value of tumbled chicken breast. The acidic marinades increased collagen solubility of sample compared with 4% NaCl solution, resulting in decreased shear force. Water-holding capacity, marination and cooking yields, and solubility of myofibrillar proteins were mainly affected by the presence of salt in the marinade, rather than by pH alternation. Our results suggested that soy sauce marination can improve the tenderness of tumbled chicken breast.

  15. Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    The treatment of malignant disease of the breast arouses more controversy and emotion than that of any other form of malignant disease. Many clinical trials have been carried out and others are still in progress. In addition, research work continues in regard to other aspects of the disease, such as epidemiology, population screening, and endocrine factors; yet little is really known about the true biological nature of carcinoma of the breast. A vast amount of literature has accumulated on the treatment of ''operable'' carcinoma of the breast, but it is not proposed to discuss here the merits or demerits of the various suggested treatments. Instead this chapter will be confined to the practical management of carcinoma of the breast as seen from the point of view of radiotherapist. For this reason greater attention will be paid to the radiotherapy techniques as practised at the Christie Hospital

  16. A simple model for cell type recognition using 2D-correlation analysis of FTIR images from breast cancer tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed H.; Rakib, Fazle; Al-Saad, Khalid; Al-Saady, Rafif; Lyng, Fiona M.; Goormaghtigh, Erik

    2018-07-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer after lung cancer. So far, in clinical practice, most cancer parameters originating from histopathology rely on the visualization by a pathologist of microscopic structures observed in stained tissue sections, including immunohistochemistry markers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy provides a biochemical fingerprint of a biopsy sample and, together with advanced data analysis techniques, can accurately classify cell types. Yet, one of the challenges when dealing with FTIR imaging is the slow recording of the data. One cm2 tissue section requires several hours of image recording. We show in the present paper that 2D covariance analysis singles out only a few wavenumbers where both variance and covariance are large. Simple models could be built using 4 wavenumbers to identify the 4 main cell types present in breast cancer tissue sections. Decision trees provide particularly simple models to reach discrimination between the 4 cell types. The robustness of these simple decision-tree models were challenged with FTIR spectral data obtained using different recording conditions. One test set was recorded by transflection on tissue sections in the presence of paraffin while the training set was obtained on dewaxed tissue sections by transmission. Furthermore, the test set was collected with a different brand of FTIR microscope and a different pixel size. Despite the different recording conditions, separating extracellular matrix (ECM) from carcinoma spectra was 100% successful, underlying the robustness of this univariate model and the utility of covariance analysis for revealing efficient wavenumbers. We suggest that 2D covariance maps using the full spectral range could be most useful to select the interesting wavenumbers and achieve very fast data acquisition on quantum cascade laser infrared imaging microscopes.

  17. Association between tumor tissue TIMP-1 levels and objective response to first-line chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klintman, Marie; Würtz, Sidse Ørnbjerg; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2010-01-01

    .07). This OR is very similar to the result from our previous study. Increasing levels of TIMP-1 were also associated with a shorter disease-free survival and overall survival, however, not statistically significant. The results from the present study support previous data that TIMP-1 is associated with objective......In a previous study from our laboratory, high tumor levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) have been associated with an adverse response to chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer suggesting that TIMP-1, which is known to inhibit apoptosis, may be a new predictive marker...

  18. Influence of color on dielectric properties of marinated poultry breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, D; Trabelsi, S

    2012-08-01

    The dielectric behavior of foods when exposed to radio-frequency and microwave electric fields is highly influenced by moisture content and the degree of water binding with constituents of the food materials. The ability to correlate specific food quality characteristics with the dielectric properties can lead to the development of rapid, nondestructive techniques for such quality measurements. Water-holding capacity is a critical attribute in meat quality. Up to 50% of raw poultry meat in the United States is marinated with mixtures of water, salts, and phosphates. The objective of this study was to determine if variations in breast meat color would affect the dielectric properties of marinated poultry meat over a broad frequency range from 500 MHz to 50 GHz. Poultry meat was obtained from a local commercial plant in Georgia (USA). Color and pH measurements were taken on the breast filets. Groups of breast filets were sorted into classes of pale and normal before adding marination pickup percentages of 0, 5, 10, and 15. Breast filets were vacuum-tumbled and weighed for pickup percentages. Dielectric properties of the filets were measured with a coaxial open-ended probe on samples equilibrated to 25°C. Samples from pale meat exhibited higher dielectric properties than samples from normal meat. No differences could be observed between samples from pale and normal meat after marination of the samples. Overall, dielectric properties increased as the marination pickup increased (α=0.05). Marination pickup strongly influenced the dielectric loss factor. Differences between samples marinated at different pickup levels were more pronounced at lower frequencies for the dielectric loss factor. As frequency increased, the differences between samples decreased. Differences in dielectric constant between samples were not as consistent as those seen with the dielectric loss factor.

  19. Sensitivity of tissue differentiation and bone healing predictions to tissue properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isaksson, H.E.; Donkelaar, van C.C.; Ito, K.

    2009-01-01

    Computational models are employed as tools to investigate possible mechano-regulation pathways for tissue differentiation and bone healing. However, current models do not account for the uncertainty in input parameters, and often include assumptions about parameter values that are not yet

  20. Effect of tibolone and its principal metabolites (3α- and 3β-hydroxy, 3α-sulfate, and 4-ene derivatives) on estrone sulfatase activity in normal and cancerous human breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetrite, Gérard S; Cortes-Prieto, Joaquin; Pasqualini, Jorge R

    2011-12-01

    Tibolone (Org-OD14) is the active substance of Livial®, a synthetic steroid with the structure 7α,17α-17-hydroxy-7-methyl-19-norpregn-5(10)-en-20-yn-3-one, possessing weak tissue-specific estrogenic, progestogenic, and androgenic properties, used to treat menopausal complaints. After oral administration, tibolone is extensively metabolized into the 3α-(Org-4904) and 3β-(Org-30126) hydroxy derivatives with estrogenic properties, its 4-ene (Org-OM38) isomer with progestogenic/androgenic activities, and the 3α-sulfate (Org-34322) derivative, a major biologically inactive circulating form. We compared the dose response of tibolone and its metabolites on estrone sulfatase activity [conversion of estrone sulfate (E1S) to estrone (E1)] in normal and cancerous human breast tissues. Tissue minces were incubated with physiological concentrations of [3H]-E1S (5×10-9M) alone or in the presence of tibolone and its metabolites (concentration range: 5×10-7to 5×10-5M) for 4 h. Tritiated E1, estradiol (E2), and E1S were separated and evaluated quantitatively by thin-layer chromatography. The sulfatase activity was significantly higher in cancerous breast but strongly inhibited by tibolone and the different metabolites, whereas 3α- and 3β-hydroxy derivatives were the most potent inhibitors. This very significant inhibitory effect of tibolone and its principal metabolites on the enzyme involved in E2biosynthesis in the human breast provides interesting perspectives to study the biological responses of these compounds in trials with breast cancer patients.

  1. Automated fibroglandular tissue segmentation and volumetric density estimation in breast MRI using an atlas-aided fuzzy C-means method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Shandong; Weinstein, Susan P.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina, E-mail: despina.kontos@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the clinical management of breast cancer. Studies suggest that the relative amount of fibroglandular (i.e., dense) tissue in the breast as quantified in MR images can be predictive of the risk for developing breast cancer, especially for high-risk women. Automated segmentation of the fibroglandular tissue and volumetric density estimation in breast MRI could therefore be useful for breast cancer risk assessment. Methods: In this work the authors develop and validate a fully automated segmentation algorithm, namely, an atlas-aided fuzzy C-means (FCM-Atlas) method, to estimate the volumetric amount of fibroglandular tissue in breast MRI. The FCM-Atlas is a 2D segmentation method working on a slice-by-slice basis. FCM clustering is first applied to the intensity space of each 2D MR slice to produce an initial voxelwise likelihood map of fibroglandular tissue. Then a prior learned fibroglandular tissue likelihood atlas is incorporated to refine the initial FCM likelihood map to achieve enhanced segmentation, from which the absolute volume of the fibroglandular tissue (|FGT|) and the relative amount (i.e., percentage) of the |FGT| relative to the whole breast volume (FGT%) are computed. The authors' method is evaluated by a representative dataset of 60 3D bilateral breast MRI scans (120 breasts) that span the full breast density range of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The automated segmentation is compared to manual segmentation obtained by two experienced breast imaging radiologists. Segmentation performance is assessed by linear regression, Pearson's correlation coefficients, Student's pairedt-test, and Dice's similarity coefficients (DSC). Results: The inter-reader correlation is 0.97 for FGT% and 0.95 for |FGT|. When compared to the average of the two readers’ manual segmentation, the proposed FCM-Atlas method achieves a

  2. Automated fibroglandular tissue segmentation and volumetric density estimation in breast MRI using an atlas-aided fuzzy C-means method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Shandong; Weinstein, Susan P.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the clinical management of breast cancer. Studies suggest that the relative amount of fibroglandular (i.e., dense) tissue in the breast as quantified in MR images can be predictive of the risk for developing breast cancer, especially for high-risk women. Automated segmentation of the fibroglandular tissue and volumetric density estimation in breast MRI could therefore be useful for breast cancer risk assessment. Methods: In this work the authors develop and validate a fully automated segmentation algorithm, namely, an atlas-aided fuzzy C-means (FCM-Atlas) method, to estimate the volumetric amount of fibroglandular tissue in breast MRI. The FCM-Atlas is a 2D segmentation method working on a slice-by-slice basis. FCM clustering is first applied to the intensity space of each 2D MR slice to produce an initial voxelwise likelihood map of fibroglandular tissue. Then a prior learned fibroglandular tissue likelihood atlas is incorporated to refine the initial FCM likelihood map to achieve enhanced segmentation, from which the absolute volume of the fibroglandular tissue (|FGT|) and the relative amount (i.e., percentage) of the |FGT| relative to the whole breast volume (FGT%) are computed. The authors' method is evaluated by a representative dataset of 60 3D bilateral breast MRI scans (120 breasts) that span the full breast density range of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The automated segmentation is compared to manual segmentation obtained by two experienced breast imaging radiologists. Segmentation performance is assessed by linear regression, Pearson's correlation coefficients, Student's pairedt-test, and Dice's similarity coefficients (DSC). Results: The inter-reader correlation is 0.97 for FGT% and 0.95 for |FGT|. When compared to the average of the two readers’ manual segmentation, the proposed FCM-Atlas method achieves a correlation ofr = 0

  3. Incorporation of eicosapentaenioic and docosahexaenoic acids into breast adipose tissue of women at high risk of breast cancer: a randomized clinical trial of dietary fish and n-3 fatty acid capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Shana; Lester, Joanne L; Cole, Rachel M; Andridge, Rebecca R; Puchala, Sarah; Rose, Angela M; Clinton, Steven K; Belury, Martha A; Yee, Lisa D

    2015-09-01

    The fatty acid profile of dietary lipids is reflected in mammary adipose tissue and may influence mammary gland biology and cancer risk. To determine the effects of fish consumption on breast adipose tissue fatty acids, we conducted a study of fish versus n-3 PUFA supplements in women at increased risk of breast cancer. High risk women were randomized to comparable doses of marine n-3 PUFAs as canned salmon + albacore or capsules for 3 months. Pre- and posttreatment fatty acid profiles were obtained by GC. Dietary fish (n = 12) and n-3 PUFA capsules (n = 13) yielded increased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma (p breast fat (p Women taking capsules had higher plasma and erythrocyte membrane EPA changes (∼four versus twofold, p = 0.002), without significant differences in DHA. Increases in breast adipose EPA, DHA were similar for both groups. Higher BMI correlated with smaller changes in plasma, erythrocyte membrane EPA, and breast adipose EPA, DHA. Adherence was excellent at 93.9% overall and higher in the fish arm (p = 0.01). Fish provides an excellent source of n-3 PUFAs that increases breast adipose EPA, DHA similar to supplements and represents a well-tolerated intervention for future studies of the impact of n-3 PUFAs and dietary patterns on breast cancer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. HER2 evaluation using the novel rabbit monoclonal antibody SP3 and CISH in tissue microarrays of invasive breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Sara Alexandra Vinhas; Milanezi, Fernanda; Carvalho, Sílvia Teresa; Leitão, Dina Raquel Aguilera; Schmitt, Fernando Carlos Lander

    2007-09-01

    Laboratory methods for HER2 assessment currently include immunohistochemical (IHC) methods (measuring protein overexpression) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) (measuring gene amplification). The measure of HER2 protein by IHC is usually assessed by the mouse monoclonal antibody CB11, and polyclonal antibodies (Herceptest) directed against the internal portion of the receptor. Recently, chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH), in which HER2 is detected by a peroxidase reaction and the gene amplification can be determined by regular bright-field microscopy, has emerged as an alternative to FISH. To evaluate the status of HER2 in tissue microarrays (TMAs) of invasive breast cancer using the novel rabbit monoclonal antibody SP3 directed against the external portion of HER2, and correlate the results with CB11 and CISH. IHC was performed with two antibodies (CB11 and SP3) and CISH for HER2 in 10 TMA blocks with 190 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cases of invasive breast carcinomas. The correlation between SP3 and CB11 was significant (pCISH (pCISH, shows that this novel antibody is a reliable candidate to evaluate the expression of HER2 in breast cancer.

  5. Diagnostic value of virtual touch tissue imaging quantification for benign and malignant breast lesions with different sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhao, Li-Xia; Xu, Guang; Yao, Ming-Hua; Zhang, Ai-Hong; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Wu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The study was to explore diagnostic value of the virtual touch tissue imaging quantification (VTIQ) in distinguishing benign and malignant breast lesions of variable sizes. We performed conventional ultrasound and VTIQ in 139 breast lesions. The lesions were categorized into three groups according to size (group 1, ≤ 10 mm; group 2, 10-20 mm; and group 3, > 20 mm), and their mean, min, and max shear wave velocities (SWVs) were measured. Diagnoses were confirmed by pathological examination after surgery or needle biopsy. Receiver-operating characteristic curves (ROC) were constructed to determine the optimum cut-off values, calculate the area under curve (AUC), the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for each velocity. For all groups, the mean, min, and max SWVs of malignant lesions were significantly higher than those of benign lesions (P < 0.05). The cut-off values of mean, min, and max SWVs were not significantly different among the three groups. In addition, the diagnostic performance of mean, min, and max SWV values is analogous, regardless of lesion size. In conclusion, VTIQ is a strong complement to conventional ultrasound, which is a promising method in the differential diagnosis of the breast lesions with different sizes. Further studies validate our results as well as reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies, regardless of size is warranted. PMID:26550234

  6. Comparison of peritumoral stromal tissue stiffness obtained by shear wave elastography between benign and malignant breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Sun; Shin, Hee Jung; Shin, Ki Chang; Cha, Joo Hee; Chae, Eun Young; Choi, Woo Jung; Kim, Hak Hee

    2018-01-01

    Background Aggressive breast cancers produce abnormal peritumoral stiff areas, which can differ between benign and malignant lesions and between different subtypes of breast cancer. Purpose To compare the tissue stiffness of the inner tumor, tumor border, and peritumoral stroma (PS) between benign and malignant breast masses by shear wave elastography (SWE). Material and Methods We enrolled 133 consecutive patients who underwent preoperative SWE. Using OsiriX commercial software, we generated multiple 2-mm regions of interest (ROIs) in a linear arrangement on the inner tumor, tumor border, and PS. We obtained the mean elasticity value (E mean ) of each ROI, and compared the E mean between benign and malignant tumors. Odds ratios (ORs) for prediction of malignancy were calculated. Subgroup analyses were performed among tumor subtypes. Results There were 85 malignant and 48 benign masses. The E mean of the tumor border and PS were significantly different between benign and malignant masses ( P benign and malignant masses. Malignant masses with a stiff rim were larger in size and associated with more aggressive pathologic subtypes.

  7. Light scattering properties of bovine muscle tissue in vitro, a comparison of methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, J.R.; ten Bosch, JJ; Benaron, DA; Chance, B; Ferrari, M; Kohl, M

    1998-01-01

    We measured the light scattering properties of muscular tissue using several methods, and compared the obtained results. Calculation of the extinction coefficient by using collimated transmission measurements and applying Beer's law is not appropriate. Probably surface roughness of the sample

  8. Study of the optical properties of solid tissue phantoms using single and double integrating sphere systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monem, S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available light propagation mechanisms inside the tissues. In this work, two calibration models based on measurements adopting integrating sphere systems have been used to determine the optical properties of the studied solid phantoms. Integrating sphere...

  9. Acellular dermal matrix slings in tissue expander breast reconstruction: are there substantial benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, George N; TerKonda, Sarvam P; Waldorf, James C; Perdikis, Galen

    2012-05-01

    Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) slings in breast reconstruction are increasingly used but are not yet validated. This study compares immediate, expander-based breast reconstruction with and without the use of inferolateral ADM slings. There were 63 patients (106 breasts) in the ADM group and 42 patients (68 breasts) in the control group. Initial intraoperative fill volumes were significantly greater in the ADM group, median 69% full (250 mL) versus 50% full (180 mL; P < 0.001). However, the number of days to complete expansion between the 2 groups was similar. One less office visit was required to complete the fills in the ADM group (P < 0.01). Drains were removed 3 days later in the ADM group (P < 0.01). Overall complication rate was greater in the ADM group (18.9% vs. 7.4%, P < 0.05), with a slightly higher percentage of expanders requiring removal due to infection in the ADM group (5.7% vs. 4.4%, P = NS). This study suggests inferolateral ADM slings in expander-based breast reconstruction allow for significantly increased initial fill volumes and may offer an aesthetic advantage; however, its use is costly and increases complications.

  10. The role of an effective isotropic tissue modulus in the elastic properties of cancellous bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, J.; Rietbergen, van B.; Dalstra, M.; Odgaard, A.; Huiskes, H.W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Conceptually, the elastic characteristics of cancellous bone could be predicted directly from the trabecular morphology-or architecture-and by the elastic properties of the tissue itself. Although hardly any experimental evidence exists, it is often implicitly assumed that tissue anisotropy has a

  11. Polymer structure-property requirements for stereolithographic 3D printing of soft tissue engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondschein, Ryan J; Kanitkar, Akanksha; Williams, Christopher B; Verbridge, Scott S; Long, Timothy E

    2017-09-01

    This review highlights the synthesis, properties, and advanced applications of synthetic and natural polymers 3D printed using stereolithography for soft tissue engineering applications. Soft tissue scaffolds are of great interest due to the number of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and connective tissue injuries and replacements humans face each year. Accurately replacing or repairing these tissues is challenging due to the variation in size, shape, and strength of different types of soft tissue. With advancing processing techniques such as stereolithography, control of scaffold resolution down to the μm scale is achievable along with the ability to customize each fabricated scaffold to match the targeted replacement tissue. Matching the advanced manufacturing technique to polymer properties as well as maintaining the proper chemical, biological, and mechanical properties for tissue replacement is extremely challenging. This review discusses the design of polymers with tailored structure, architecture, and functionality for stereolithography, while maintaining chemical, biological, and mechanical properties to mimic a broad range of soft tissue types. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reliability of in vivo measurements of the dielectric properties of anisotropic tissue: a simulative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Xuyang; Shi Xuetao; You Fusheng; Fu Feng; Liu Ruigang; Tang Chi; Dong Xiuzhen; Lu Qiang

    2013-01-01

    A simulative study was performed to measure the dielectric properties of anisotropic tissue using several in vivo and in vitro probes. COMSOL Multiphysics was selected to carry out the simulation. Five traditional probes and a newly designed probe were used in this study. One of these probes was an in vitro measurement probe and the other five were in vivo. The simulations were performed in terms of the minimal tissue volume for in vivo measurements, the calibration of a probe constant, the measurement performed on isotropic tissue and the measurement performed on anisotropic tissue. Results showed that the in vitro probe can be used to measure the in-cell dielectric properties of isotropic and anisotropic tissues. When measured with the five in vivo probes, the dielectric properties of isotropic tissue were all measured accurately. For the measurements performed on anisotropic tissue, large errors were observed when the four traditional in vivo probes were used, but only a small error was observed when the new in vivo probe was used. This newly designed five-electrode in vivo probe may indicate the dielectric properties of anisotropic tissue more accurately than these four traditional in vivo probes. (paper)

  13. How preconditioning affects the measurement of poro-viscoelastic mechanical properties in biological tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, S.M.; Wilson, W.; Ito, K.; Donkelaar, van C.C.

    2014-01-01

    It is known that initial loading curves of soft biological tissues are substantially different from subsequent loadings. The later loading curves are generally used for assessing the mechanical properties of a tissue, and the first loading cycles, referred to as preconditioning, are omitted.

  14. Adipose tissue PCB levels and CYP1B1 and COMT genotypes in relation to breast cancer risk in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V; Loft, Steffen; Wellejus, Anja

    2014-01-01

    these enzymes control efficiency. Our objective was to assess whether CYP1B1 and COMT gene polymorphisms modulate the effect of PCBs in breast cancer risk, among postmenopausal Danish women. Neither CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphisms nor adipose tissue PCBs were independently associated with breast cancer risk....... When assessing the independent effect of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, we observed reduced risk for breast cancer amongst hormone replacement therapy using women who were homozygous carriers of the variant allele compared with those carrying the wild-type variant (RR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.29-0.89). We...

  15.   Tumor tissue levels of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and survival following adjuvant chemotherapy in pre-menopausal lymph node-positive breast cancer patients (N=525)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Schrohl; Look, Maxime P.; Meijer-van Gelder, Marion E.

    tumor tissue TIMP-1 concentrations are associated with decreased benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Especially in the group treated with anthracycline-based therapy, there is a strong tendency for TIMP-1 high tumors to be less sensitive to the treatment. The anthracycline-treated group, however...... Predictive markers are needed to guide planning of adjuvant therapy for patients with breast cancer. We have recently shown that high tumor tissue levels of TIMP-1 are associated with decreased response to chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer patients (Schrohl et al, Clin Cancer Res, 2006......) suggesting that TIMP-1 may be a predictive marker in breast cancer patients. Purpose: This study investigates the association of tumor tissue TIMP-1 levels with response to adjuvant chemotherapy with CMF (cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/5-fluorouracil) or an anthracycline-containing regimen. Patients...

  16. Breast Reconstruction with Flap Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... augmented with a breast implant to achieve the desired breast size. Surgical methods Autologous tissue breast reconstruction ... as long as a year or two before feeling completely healed and back to normal. Future breast ...

  17. Correlation between the dielectric properties and biological activities of human ex vivo hepatic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hang; You, Fusheng; Fu, Feng; Dong, Xiuzhen; Shi, Xuetao; He, Yong; Yang, Min; Yan, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric properties are vital biophysical features of biological tissues, and biological activity is an index to ascertain the active state of tissues. This study investigated the potential correlation between the dielectric properties and biological activities of human hepatic tissue with prolonged ex vivo time through correlation and regression analyses. The dielectric properties of 26 cases of normal human hepatic tissue at 10 Hz to 100 MHz were measured from 15 min after isolation to 24 h at 37 °C with 90% humidity. Cell morphologies, including nucleus area (NA) and alteration rate of intercellular area (ICAR), were analyzed as indicators of biological activities. Conductivity, complex resistivity, and NA exhibited opposing changes 1 h after isolation. Relative permittivity and ex vivo time were not closely correlated (p > 0.05). The dielectric properties measured at low frequencies (i.e. <1 MHz) were more sensitive than those measured at high frequencies in reflecting the biological activity of ex vivo tissue. Highly significant correlations were found between conductivity, resistivity and the ex vivo time (p < 0.05) as well as conductivity and the cell morphology (p < 0.05). The findings indicated that establishing the correlation between the dielectric properties and biological activities of human hepatic tissue is of great significance for promoting the role of dielectric properties in biological science, particularly in human biology. (paper)

  18. Expression of estrogen-related gene markers in breast cancer tissue predicts aromatase inhibitor responsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Moy

    Full Text Available Aromatase inhibitors (AIs are the most effective class of drugs in the endocrine treatment of breast cancer, with an approximate 50% treatment response rate. Our objective was to determine whether intratumoral expression levels of estrogen-related genes are predictive of AI responsiveness in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Primary breast carcinomas were obtained from 112 women who received AI therapy after failing adjuvant tamoxifen therapy and developing recurrent breast cancer. Tumor ERα and PR protein expression were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC. Messenger RNA (mRNA levels of 5 estrogen-related genes-AKR1C3, aromatase, ERα, and 2 estradiol/ERα target genes, BRCA1 and PR-were measured by real-time PCR. Tumor protein and mRNA levels were compared with breast cancer progression rates to determine predictive accuracy. Responsiveness to AI therapy-defined as the combined complete response, partial response, and stable disease rates for at least 6 months-was 51%; rates were 56% in ERα-IHC-positive and 14% in ERα-IHC-negative tumors. Levels of ERα, PR, or BRCA1 mRNA were independently predictive for responsiveness to AI. In cross-validated analyses, a combined measurement of tumor ERα and PR mRNA levels yielded a more superior specificity (36% and identical sensitivity (96% to the current clinical practice (ERα/PR-IHC. In patients with ERα/PR-IHC-negative tumors, analysis of mRNA expression revealed either non-significant trends or statistically significant positive predictive values for AI responsiveness. In conclusion, expression levels of estrogen-related mRNAs are predictive for AI responsiveness in postmenopausal women with breast cancer, and mRNA expression analysis may improve patient selection.

  19. Reduction in Ki-67 in Benign Breast Tissue of High Risk Women with the Lignan Secoisolariciresinol Diglycoside (SDG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Carol J.; Kimler, Bruce F.; Zalles, Carola M.; Klemp, Jennifer R.; Petroff, Brian K.; Khan, Qamar J.; Sharma, Priyanka; Setchell, Kenneth D. R.; Zhao, Xueheng; Phillips, Teresa A.; Metheny, Trina; Hughes, Jennifer R.; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Johnson, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Preclinical and correlative studies suggest reduced breast cancer with higher lignan intake or blood levels. We conducted a pilot study of modulation of risk biomarkers for breast cancer in premenopausal women after administration of the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol given as the diglycoside (SDG). Eligibility criteria included regular menstrual cycles, no oral contraceptives, a greater than 3-fold increase in 5 year risk, and baseline Ki-67 ≥2% in areas of hyperplasia in breast tissue sampled by random periareolar fine needle aspiration (RPFNA) during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. SDG 50 mg daily was given for 12 months, followed by repeat RPFNA. The primary endpoint was change in Ki-67. Secondary endpoints included change in cytomorphology, mammographic breast density, serum bioavailable estradiol, and testosterone IGF-I and IGFBP-3, and plasma lignan levels. Forty-five of 49 eligible women completed the study with excellent compliance (median = 96%) and few serious side effects (4% grade 3). Median plasma enterolactone increased ~ 9-fold, and total lignans 16 fold. Thirty-six (80%) of the 45 evaluable subjects demonstrated a decrease in Ki-67, from a median of 4% (range 2–16.8 %) to 2% (range 0–15.2%) (p<0.001 by Wilcoxon signed rank test). A decrease from baseline in the proportion of women with atypical cytology (p=0.035) was also observed. Based on favorable risk biomarker modulation and lack of adverse events, we are initiating a randomized trial of SDG vs. placebo in premenopausal women. PMID:20724470

  20. Evaluation of two intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy devices for irradiating additional and irregularly shaped volumes of breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Sharon M.; Scanderbeg, Daniel J.; Barna, Patrick; Yashar, William; Yashar, Catheryn

    2012-01-01

    The SAVI and Contura breast brachytherapy applicators represent 2 recent advancements in brachytherapy technology that have expanded the number of women eligible for accelerated partial breast irradiation in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Early clinical experience with these 2 single-entry, multichannel high-dose-rate brachytherapy devices confirms their ease of use and dosimetric versatility. However, current clinical guidelines for SAVI and Contura brachytherapy may result in a smaller or less optimal volume of treated tissue compared with traditional interstitial brachytherapy. This study evaluates the feasibility of using the SAVI and Contura to irradiate larger and irregularly shaped target volumes, approaching what is treatable with the interstitial technique. To investigate whether additional tissue can be treated, 17 patients treated with the SAVI and 3 with the Contura were selected. For each patient, the planning target volume (PTV) was modified to extend 1.1 cm, 1.3 cm, and 1.5 cm beyond the tumor bed cavity. To evaluate dose conformance to an irregularly shaped target volume, 9 patients treated with the SAVI and 3 with the Contura were selected from the original 20 patients. The following asymmetric PTV margin combinations were assessed for each patient: 1.5/0.3, 1.3/0.3, and 1.1/0.3 cm. For all patients, treatment planning was performed, adopting the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project guidelines, and dosimetric comparisons were made. The 6–1 and 8–1 SAVI devices can theoretically treat a maximal tissue margin of 1.5 cm and an asymmetric PTV with margins ranging from 0.3 to 1.5 cm. The 10–1 SAVI and Contura can treat a maximal margin of 1.3 cm and 1.1 cm, respectively, and asymmetric PTV with margins ranging from 0.3–1.3 cm. Compared with the Contura, the SAVI demonstrated greater dosimetric flexibility. Risk of developing excessive hot spots increased with the size of the SAVI device. Both the SAVI and Contura

  1. A comparison of the relative biological effectiveness of low energy electronic brachytherapy sources in breast tissue: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Shane A; Reniers, Brigitte; de Jong, Evelyn E C; Rusch, Thomas; Verhaegen, Frank

    2016-01-07

    Electronic brachytherapy sources use low energy photons to treat the tumor bed during or after breast-conserving surgery. The relative biological effectiveness of two electronic brachytherapy sources was explored to determine if spectral differences due to source design influenced radiation quality and if radiation quality decreased with distance in the breast. The RBE was calculated through the number of DNA double strand breaks (RBEDSB) using the Monte Carlo damage simulator (MCDS) in combination with other Monte Carlo electron/photon spectrum calculations. 50kVp photons from the Intrabeam (Carl Zeiss Surgical) and Axxent (Xoft) through 40-mm spherical applicators were simulated to account for applicator and tissue attenuation in a variety of breast tissue compositions. 40kVp Axxent photons were also simulated. Secondary electrons (known to be responsible for most DNA damage) spectra at different distance were inputted into MCDS to calculate the RBEDSB. All RBEDSB used a cobalt-60 reference. RBEDSB data was combined with corresponding average photon spectrum energy for the Axxent and applied to model-based average photon energy distributions to produce an RBEDSB map of an accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) patient. Both Axxent and Intrabeam 50kVp spectra were shown to have a comparable RBEDSB of between 1.4 and 1.6 at all distances in spite of progressive beam hardening. The Axxent 40kVp also demonstrated a similar RBEDSB at distances. Most RBEDSB variability was dependent on the tissue type as was seen in rib (RBEDSB  ≈  1.4), gland (≈1.55), adipose (≈1.59), skin (≈1.52) and lung (≈1.50). RBEDSB variability between both sources was within 2%. A correlation was shown between RBEDSB and average photon energy and used to produce an RBEDSB map of a dose distribution in an APBI patient dataset. Radiation quality is very similar between electronic brachytherapy sources studied. No significant reductions in RBEDSB were observed with

  2. Genetic differences in transcript responses to low-dose ionizing radiation identify tissue functions associated with breast cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Antoine M; Marchetti, Francesco; Bhatnagar, Sandhya; Duru, Nadire; Han, Ju; Hu, Zhi; Mao, Jian-Hua; Gray, Joe W; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    High dose ionizing radiation (IR) is a well-known risk factor for breast cancer but the health effects after low-dose (LD, differences in their sensitivity to radiation-induced mammary cancer (BALB/c and C57BL/6) for the purpose of identifying mechanisms of mammary cancer susceptibility. Unirradiated mammary and blood tissues of these strains differed significantly in baseline expressions of DNA repair, tumor suppressor, and stress response genes. LD exposures of 7.5 cGy (weekly for 4 weeks) did not induce detectable genomic instability in either strain. However, the mammary glands of the sensitive strain but not the resistant strain showed early transcriptional responses involving: (a) diminished immune response, (b) increased cellular stress, (c) altered TGFβ-signaling, and (d) inappropriate expression of developmental genes. One month after LD exposure, the two strains showed opposing responses in transcriptional signatures linked to proliferation, senescence, and microenvironment functions. We also discovered a pre-exposure expression signature in both blood and mammary tissues that is predictive for poor survival among human cancer patients (p = 0.0001), and a post-LD-exposure signature also predictive for poor patient survival (pidentify genetic features that predispose or protect individuals from LD-induced breast cancer.

  3. Comparison of ESR1 Mutations in Tumor Tissue and Matched Plasma Samples from Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Takeshita

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ESR1 mutation in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA is emerging as a noninvasive biomarker of acquired resistance to endocrine therapy, but there is a paucity of data comparing the status of ESR1 gene in cfDNA with that in its corresponding tumor tissue. The objective of this study is to validate the degree of concordance of ESR1 mutations between plasma and tumor tissue. METHODS: ESR1 ligand-binding domain mutations Y537S, Y537N, Y537C, and D538G were analyzed using droplet digital PCR in 35 patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC (35 tumor tissue samples and 67 plasma samples. RESULTS: Of the 35 paired samples, 26 (74.3% were concordant: one patient had detectable ESR1 mutations both plasma (ESR1 Y537S/Y537N and tumor tissue (ESR1 Y537S/Y537C, and 25 had WT ESR1 alleles in both. Nine (25.7% had discordance between the plasma and tissue results: five had mutations detected only in their tumor tissue (two Y537S, one Y537C, one D538G, and one Y537S/Y537N/D538G, and four had mutations detected only in their plasma (one Y537S, one Y537N, and two Y537S/Y537N/D538G. Furthermore, longitudinal plasma samples from 19 patients were used to assess changes in the presence of ESR1 mutations during treatment. Eleven patients had cfDNA ESR1 mutations over the course of treatment. A total of eight of 11 patients with MBC with cfDNA ESR1 mutations (72.7% had the polyclonal mutations. CONCLUSION: We have shown the independent distribution of ESR1 mutations between plasma and tumor tissue in 35 patients with MBC.

  4. Viscoelastic Properties of Dental Pulp Tissue and Ramifications on Biomaterial Development for Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisken, Cevat; Kalyon, Dilhan M; Zhou, Jian; Kim, Sahng G; Mao, Jeremy J

    2015-10-01

    A critical step in biomaterial selection effort is the determination of material as well as the biological properties of the target tissue. Previously, the selection of biomaterials and carriers for dental pulp regeneration has been solely based on empirical experience. In this study, first, the linear viscoelastic material functions and compressive properties of miniature pig dental pulp were characterized using small-amplitude oscillatory shear and uniaxial compression at a constant rate. They were then compared with the properties of hydrogels (ie, agarose, alginate, and collagen) that are widely used in tissue regeneration. The comparisons of the linear viscoelastic material functions of the native pulp tissue with those of the 3 hydrogels revealed the gel-like behavior of the pulp tissue over a relatively large range of time scales (ie, over the frequency range of 0.1-100 rps). At the constant gelation agent concentration of 2%, the dynamic properties (ie, storage and loss moduli and the tanδ) of the collagen-based gel approached those of the native tissue. Under uniaxial compression, the peak normal stresses and compressive moduli of the agarose gel were similar to those of the native tissue, whereas alginate and collagen exhibited significantly lower compressive properties. The linear viscoelastic and uniaxial compressive properties of the dental pulp tissue reported here should enable the more appropriate selection of biogels for dental pulp regeneration via the better tailoring of gelation agents and their concentrations to better mimic the dynamic and compressive properties of native pulp tissue. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Differential Expression of Aqueous Soluble Proteins in Breast Normal and Cancerous Tissues in Relation to Ethnicity of the Patients; Chinese, Malay and Indian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seng Liang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Female breast cancer is one of the leading causes of female mortality worldwide. In Malaysia, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Of the women in Malaysia, the Chinese have the highest number of breast cancer cases, followed by the Indian and the Malay. The most common type of breast cancer is infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC. A proteomic approach was applied in this study to identify changes in the protein profile of cancerous tissues compared with normal tissues from 18 patients; 8 Chinese, 6 Malay and 4 Indian were analysed. Twenty-four differentially expressed hydrophilic proteins were identified. We evaluated the potential of these proteins as biomarkers for infiltrating ductal carcinoma based on their ethnic-specific expressions. Three of the upregulated proteins, calreticulin, 14-3-3 protein zeta and 14-3-3 protein eta, were found to be expressed at a significantly higher level in the cancerous breast tissues when compared with the normal tissues in cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma. The upregulation in expression was particularly dominant in the Malay cohort.

  6. MRI of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in evaluating women at high risk for breast cancer. MRI can successfully image the dense breast tissue common in younger women, and it can successfully image breast implants. Both of these are difficult to image using ...

  7. Fluorescence spectral properties of stomach tissues with pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraev, K. M.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Lahina, M. A.

    2012-05-01

    Steady-state fluorescence and diffuse reflection spectra are measured for in vivo normal and pathological (chronic atrophic and ulcerating defects, malignant neoplasms) stomach mucous lining tissues. The degree of distortion of the fluorescence spectra is estimated taking light scattering and absorption into account. A combination of Gauss and Lorentz functions is used to decompose the fluorescence spectra. Potential groups of fluorophores are determined and indices are introduced to characterize the dynamics of their contributions to the resultant spectra as pathologies develop. Reabsorption is found to quench the fluorescence of structural proteins by as much as a factor of 3, while scattering of the light can increase the fluorescence intensity of flavin and prophyrin groups by as much as a factor of 2.

  8. Phenolsulphotransferase in human tissue: radiochemical enzymatic assay and biochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.J.; Weinshilboum, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Phenolsulphotransferase (EC 2.8.2.1) (PST) is an important catecholamine and drug metabolizing enzyme. Optimal conditions have been determined for the accurate measurement of PST activity in the human platelet, human renal cortex, and human jejunum with a radiochemical microassay. 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and 35 S-3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate ( 35 S-PAPS) were the substrates for the reaction. The apparent Michaelis-Menten (Ksub(m)) values for MHPG with platelet, renal cortex, and jejunum were 1.09, 0.46 and 1.16 mmol/l, respectively. Apparent Ksub(m) values for PAPS in the same tissues were 0.14, 0.13 and 0.21 μmol/l. The pH optimum of the reacton in all three tissues was approximately 6.2-6.8 with three different buffer systems. The coefficients of variation for the assay of platelet, renal cortex, and jejunal activities were 6.2%, 3.4% and 4.4%, respectively. Mean platelet PST activity in blood samples from 75 randomly selected adult subjects was 5.0 +- 1.72 mmol of MHPG sulfate formed per hour per mg of platelet protein (8.3 X 10 -5 +- 2.9 X 10 -5 μmol min -1 mg -1 , mean +- S.D.). There was a 5-fold intersubject variation in platelet PST activity within two standard deviations of the mean value. Experiments in which partially purified human erythrocyte PST was added to platelet, kidney and gut homogenates under these assay conditions provided evidence that endogenous PST inhibitors did not affect the observed enzyme activity. (Auth.)