WorldWideScience

Sample records for breast sound-speed imaging

  1. In vivo breast sound-speed imaging with ultrasound tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Cuiping [KARMANOS CANCER INSTITUTE; Duric, Neb [KARMANOS CANCER INSTITUTE; Littrup, Peter [KARMONOS CANCER INSTITUTE

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a bent-ray ultrasound tomography algorithm with total-variation (TV) regularization. We have applied this algorithm to 61 in vivo breast datasets collected with our in-house clinical prototype for imaging sound-speed distributions in the breast. Our analysis showed that TV regularization could preserve sharper lesion edges than the classic Tikhonov regularization. Furthermore, the image quality of our TV bent-ray sound-speed tomograms was superior to that of the straight-ray counterparts for all types of breasts within BI-RADS density categories 1-4. For all four breast types from fatty to dense, the improvements for average sharpness (in the unit of (m{center_dot} s) {sup -1}) of lesion edges in our TV bent-ray tomograms are between 2.1 to 3.4 fold compared to the straight ray tomograms. Reconstructed sound-speed tomograms illustrated that our algorithm could successfully image fatty and glandular tissues within the breast. We calculated the mean sound-speed values for fatty tissue and breast parenchyma as 1422 {+-} 9 mls (mean{+-} SD) and1487 {+-} 21 mls, respectively. Based on 32 lesions in a cohort of 61 patients, we also found that the mean sound-speed for malignant breast lesions (1548{+-}17 mls) was higher, on average, than that of benign ones (1513{+-}27 mls) (one-sided psound-speed tomograms can be used to assess breast density (, and therefore, breast cancer risk), as well as detect and help differentiate breast lesions. Finally, our sound-speed tomograms may also be a useful tool to monitor clinical response of breast cancer patients to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.

  2. SOUND-SPEED AND ATTENUATION IMAGING OF BREAST TISSUE USING WAVEFORM TOMOGRAPHY OF TRANSMISSION ULTRASOUND DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUANG, LIANJIE [Los Alamos National Laboratory; PRATT, R. GERHARD [Los Alamos National Laboratory; DURIC, NEB [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LITTRUP, PETER [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-25

    Waveform tomography results are presented from 800 kHz ultrasound transmission scans of a breast phantom, and from an in vivo ultrasound breast scan: significant improvements are demonstrated in resolution over time-of-flight reconstructions. Quantitative reconstructions of both sound-speed and inelastic attenuation are recovered. The data were acquired in the Computed Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) system, comprising a 20 cm diameter solid-state ultrasound ring array with 256 active, non-beamforming transducers. Waveform tomography is capable of resolving variations in acoustic properties at sub-wavelength scales. This was verified through comparison of the breast phantom reconstructions with x-ray CT results: the final images resolve variations in sound speed with a spatial resolution close to 2 mm. Waveform tomography overcomes the resolution limit of time-of-flight methods caused by finite frequency (diffraction) effects. The method is a combination of time-of-flight tomography, and 2-D acoustic waveform inversion of the transmission arrivals in ultrasonic data. For selected frequency components of the waveforms, a finite-difference simulation of the visco-acoustic wave equation is used to compute synthetic data in the current model, and the data residuals are formed by subtraction. The residuals are used in an iterative, gradient-based scheme to update the sound-speed and attenuation model to produce a reduced misfit to the data. Computational efficiency is achieved through the use of time-reversal of the data residuals to construct the model updates. Lower frequencies are used first, to establish the long wavelength components of the image, and higher frequencies are introduced later to provide increased resolution.

  3. A comparison of automated versus manual segmentation of breast UST transmission images to measure breast volume and sound speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Westerberg, Katelyn

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound tomography (UST) is an emerging breast imaging modality that can be used to quantitatively measure breast density. However, the sound speed images that are used in this analysis must first be segmented in order to accurately parse any quantitative information. Previously, this segmentation has been done manually, but this is time consuming, especially when dealing with a large number of images that must be masked. An automated masking algorithm has been developed that applies thresholding and morphological operators to UST attenuation images to automatically create masks that separate the breast tissue from the water bath. An initial set of images was tested using this algorithm to fine tune settings and very good agreement was achieved. However, when the optimized settings were applied to a larger dataset of 286 images, the robustness of the algorithm was tested. The manual masks measured a larger volume (921 cm3) than the automated masks (713 cm3), but fortunately, the difference in mean sound speed was much smaller (1449 m/s versus 1448 m/s). A majority of the automated masks (72.7%) had a measured Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of greater than 0.8 which indicates that there was good to great overlap in the volumes of tissue created by the automated method. This algorithm shows promise to be used as a tool to quickly and effectively measure breast density.

  4. Relationship between breast sound speed and mammographic percent density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Nebojsa; Boyd, Norman; Littrup, Peter; Myc, Lukasz; Faiz, Muhammad; Li, Cuiping; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2011-03-01

    Despite some shortcomings, mammography is currently the standard of care for breast cancer screening and diagnosis. However, breast ultrasound tomography is a rapidly developing imaging modality that has the potential to overcome the drawbacks of mammography. It is known that women with high breast densities have a greater risk of developing breast cancer. Measuring breast density is accomplished through the use of mammographic percent density, defined as the ratio of fibroglandular to total breast area. Using an ultrasound tomography (UST) prototype, we created sound speed images of the patient's breast, motivated by the fact that sound speed in a tissue is proportional to the density of the tissue. The purpose of this work is to compare the acoustic performance of the UST system with the measurement of mammographic percent density. A cohort of 251 patients was studied using both imaging modalities and the results suggest that the volume averaged breast sound speed is significantly related to mammographic percent density. The Spearman correlation coefficient was found to be 0.73 for the 175 film mammograms and 0.69 for the 76 digital mammograms obtained. Since sound speed measurements do not require ionizing radiation or physical compression, they have the potential to form the basis of a safe, more accurate surrogate marker of breast density.

  5. Ultrasound tomography imaging with waveform sound speed: parenchymal changes in women undergoing tamoxifen therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Sherman, Mark; Gierach, Gretchen

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound tomography (UST) is an emerging modality that can offer quantitative measurements of breast density. Recent breakthroughs in UST image reconstruction involve the use of a waveform reconstruction as opposed to a raybased reconstruction. The sound speed (SS) images that are created using the waveform reconstruction have a much higher image quality. These waveform images offer improved resolution and contrasts between regions of dense and fatty tissues. As part of a study that was designed to assess breast density changes using UST sound speed imaging among women undergoing tamoxifen therapy, UST waveform sound speed images were then reconstructed for a subset of participants. These initial results show that changes to the parenchymal tissue can more clearly be visualized when using the waveform sound speed images. Additional quantitative testing of the waveform images was also started to test the hypothesis that waveform sound speed images are a more robust measure of breast density than ray-based reconstructions. Further analysis is still needed to better understand how tamoxifen affects breast tissue.

  6. Determinants of the reliability of ultrasound tomography sound speed estimates as a surrogate for volumetric breast density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodr, Zeina G.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Gierach, Gretchen L., E-mail: GierachG@mail.nih.gov [Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive MSC 9774, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Sak, Mark A.; Bey-Knight, Lisa [Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, 4100 John R, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States); Duric, Nebojsa; Littrup, Peter [Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, 4100 John R, Detroit, Michigan 48201 and Delphinus Medical Technologies, 46701 Commerce Center Drive, Plymouth, Michigan 48170 (United States); Ali, Haythem; Vallieres, Patricia [Henry Ford Health System, 2799 W Grand Boulevard, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Sherman, Mark E. [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Department of Health and Human Services, 9609 Medical Center Drive MSC 9774, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: High breast density, as measured by mammography, is associated with increased breast cancer risk, but standard methods of assessment have limitations including 2D representation of breast tissue, distortion due to breast compression, and use of ionizing radiation. Ultrasound tomography (UST) is a novel imaging method that averts these limitations and uses sound speed measures rather than x-ray imaging to estimate breast density. The authors evaluated the reproducibility of measures of speed of sound and changes in this parameter using UST. Methods: One experienced and five newly trained raters measured sound speed in serial UST scans for 22 women (two scans per person) to assess inter-rater reliability. Intrarater reliability was assessed for four raters. A random effects model was used to calculate the percent variation in sound speed and change in sound speed attributable to subject, scan, rater, and repeat reads. The authors estimated the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for these measures based on data from the authors’ experienced rater. Results: Median (range) time between baseline and follow-up UST scans was five (1–13) months. Contributions of factors to sound speed variance were differences between subjects (86.0%), baseline versus follow-up scans (7.5%), inter-rater evaluations (1.1%), and intrarater reproducibility (∼0%). When evaluating change in sound speed between scans, 2.7% and ∼0% of variation were attributed to inter- and intrarater variation, respectively. For the experienced rater’s repeat reads, agreement for sound speed was excellent (ICC = 93.4%) and for change in sound speed substantial (ICC = 70.4%), indicating very good reproducibility of these measures. Conclusions: UST provided highly reproducible sound speed measurements, which reflect breast density, suggesting that UST has utility in sensitively assessing change in density.

  7. [An adaptive ultrasound sound speed optimization based on image contrast analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Dongquan

    2011-12-01

    In order to get real time ultrasound images with clear structure and improved contrast, an adaptive ultrasound sound speed optimization method based on image contrast analysis was investigated. It firstly introduced the dynamic beamforming of ultrasound system, as well as the definition of assumed system's sound speed and the true sound speed propagated in tissues the degrade image quality due to their mismatch was also discussed. After given the pixel gray level value based ultrasound image contrast ratio, the basic idea to precisely estimate the true sound speed for real time system sound speed was proposed. Algorithms have been verified both in tissue-mimicking phantoms with known sound speeds and in vivo ultrasound images, compared with other existing method. The testing results showed that this new method not only produced accurate sound speed for ultrasound image optimization, but also finely met the critical computation requirement for real time applications.

  8. Image Reconstruction in Magnetoacoustic Tomography With Magnetic Induction With Variable Sound Speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ma, Ren; Zhang, Shunqi; Yin, Tao; Liu, Zhipeng

    2016-12-01

    Acoustic and electrical characteristics of biological tissue are important factors in magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI). Acoustic inhomogeneity significantly affects the propagations of sound waves. Differences in sound speed lead to distortions of the sound sources in the reconstruction process. The objective of this study is to develop a novel algorithm to reconstruct the sound source distribution in an acoustically inhomogeneous medium. The proposed algorithm is developed on the basis of the finite-difference time-domain method and time-reversal acoustic theory; it combines the relationship among symmetrical transducers with the back-projection algorithm. An acoustically inhomogeneous model with different regions of variable sound speeds is established to validate the proposed algorithm. From the data collected by a rotated focused transducer, first, the sound speed distribution is reconstructed, and then, the sound sources of the model are reconstructed. The reconstructed sound sources are obviously distorted when the speed differences are not considered. In contrast, the proposed algorithm yields reconstructed sound sources that are consistent with the model in terms of shape and size. Thus, the proposed algorithm is capable of accurately reconstructing the acoustic sources distribution in an acoustically inhomogeneous medium. This method provides a solution reducing the influence of acoustic inhomogeneity in MAT-MI. The distributions of sound speed can be obtained during the process of reconstructing the sound source. Consequently, the imaging of the acoustic speed and the electrical conductivity of biological tissues can be implemented simultaneously in MAT-MI.

  9. SOUND-SPEED TOMOGRAPHY USING FIRST-ARRIVAL TRANSMISSION ULTRASOUND FOR A RING ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUANG, LIANJIE [Los Alamos National Laboratory; QUAN, YOULI [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-31

    Sound-speed tomography images can be used for cancer detection and diagnosis. Tumors have generally higher sound speeds than the surrounding tissue. Quality and resolution of tomography images are primarily determined by the insonification/illumination aperture of ultrasound and the capability of the tomography method for accurately handling heterogeneous nature of the breast. We investigate the capability of an efficient time-of-flight tomography method using transmission ultrasound from a ring array for reconstructing sound-speed images of the breast. The method uses first arrival times of transmitted ultrasonic signals emerging from non-beamforming ultrasound transducers located around a ring. It properly accounts for ray bending within the breast by solving the eikonal equation using a finite-difference scheme. We test and validate the time-of-flight transmission tomography method using synthetic data for numerical breast phantoms containing various objects. In our simulation, the objects are immersed in water within a ring array. Two-dimensional synthetic data are generated using a finite-difference scheme to solve acoustic-wave equation in heterogeneous media. We study the reconstruction accuracy of the tomography method for objects with different sizes and shapes as well as different perturbations from the surrounding medium. In addition, we also address some specific data processing issues related to the tomography. Our tomography results demonstrate that the first-arrival transmission tomography method can accurately reconstruct objects larger than approximately five wavelengths of the incident ultrasound using a ring array.

  10. Average sound speed estimation using speckle analysis of medical ultrasound data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaolei; Azuma, Takashi; Liang, Jack T; Nakajima, Yoshikazu

    2012-11-01

    Most ultrasound imaging systems assume a pre-determined sound propagation speed for imaging. However, a mismatch between assumed and real sound speeds can lead to spatial shift and defocus of ultrasound image, which may limit the applicability of ultrasound imaging. The estimation of real sound speed is important for improving positioning accuracy and focus quality of ultrasound image. A novel method using speckle analysis of ultrasound image is proposed for average sound speed estimation. Firstly, dynamic receive beam forming technology is employed to form ultrasound images. These ultrasound images are formed by same pre-beam formed radio frequency data but using different assumed sound speeds. Secondly, an improved speckle analysis method is proposed to evaluate focus quality of these ultrasound images. Thirdly, an iteration strategy is employed to locate the desired sound speed that corresponds to the best focus quality image. For quantitative evaluation, a group of ultrasound data with 20 different structure patterns is simulated. The comparison of estimated and simulated sound speeds shows speed estimation errors to be -0.7 ± 2.54 m/s and -1.30 ± 5.15 m/s for ultrasound data obtained by 128- and 64-active individual elements linear arrays, respectively. Furthermore, we validate our method via phantom experiments. The sound speed estimation error is -1.52 ± 8.81 m/s. Quantitative evaluation proves that proposed method can estimate average sound speed accurately using single transducer with single scan.

  11. A novel method for direct localized sound speed measurement using the virtual source paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byram, Brett; Trahey, Gregg E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    spatial locations. The method utilizes the sound speed estimator developed by Anderson and Trahey. Their least-squares fit of the received waveform's curvature provides the wave's point of origin. The point of origin and the delay profile calculated from the fit are used to arrive at a spatially...... registered virtual detector. Between a pair of registered virtual detectors a spherical wave is propagated. By beamforming the received data the time of flight between the two virtual sources can be calculated. From this information the local sound speed can be estimated. Validation of the estimator used......Accurate sound speed estimates are desirable in a number of fields, particularly adaptive imaging, and tissue and phantom characterization. In an effort to increase the spatial resolution of sound speed estimates, a new method is proposed for direct measurement of sound speed between arbitrary...

  12. Development of Ultrasound Tomography for Breast Imaging: Technical Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duric, N; Littrup, P; Babkin, A; Chambers, D; Azevedo, S; Arkady, K; Pevzner, R; Tokarev, M; Holsapple, E

    2004-09-30

    Ultrasound imaging is widely used in medicine because of its benign characteristics and real-time capabilities. Physics theory suggests that the application of tomographic techniques may allow ultrasound imaging to reach its full potential as a diagnostic tool allowing it to compete with other tomographic modalities such as X-ray CT and MRI. This paper describes the construction and use of a prototype tomographic scanner and reports on the feasibility of implementing tomographic theory in practice and the potential of US tomography in diagnostic imaging. Data were collected with the prototype by scanning two types of phantoms and a cadaveric breast. A specialized suite of algorithms was developed and utilized to construct images of reflectivity and sound speed from the phantom data. The basic results can be summarized as follows: (1) A fast, clinically relevant US tomography scanner can be built using existing technology. (2) The spatial resolution, deduced from images of reflectivity, is 0.4 mm. The demonstrated 10 cm depth-of-field is superior to that of conventional ultrasound and the image contrast is improved through the reduction of speckle noise and overall lowering of the noise floor. (3) Images of acoustic properties such as sound speed suggest that it is possible to measure variations in the sound speed of 5 m/s. An apparent correlation with X-ray attenuation suggests that the sound speed can be used to discriminate between various types of soft tissue. (4) Ultrasound tomography has the potential to improve diagnostic imaging in relation to breast cancer detection.

  13. Two-layer heterogeneous breast phantom for photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Congxian; Vogt, William C.; Wear, Keith A.; Pfefer, T. Joshua; Garra, Brian S.

    2017-10-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is emerging as a potentially important aid for breast cancer detection. Well-validated tissue-simulating phantoms are needed for objective, quantitative, and physically realistic testing for system development. Prior reported PAT phantoms with homogenous structures do not incorporate the irregular layered structure of breast tissue. To assess the impact of this simplification, we design and construct two-layer breast phantoms incorporating vessel-simulating inclusions and realistic undulations at the fat/fibroglandular tissue interface. The phantoms are composed of custom poly(vinyl chloride) plastisol formulations mimicking the acoustic properties of two breast tissue types and tissue-relevant similar optical properties. Resulting PAT images demonstrate that in tissue with acoustic heterogeneity, lateral size of imaging targets is sensitive to the choice of sound speed in image reconstruction. The undulating boundary can further degrade a target's lateral size due to sound speed variation in tissue and refraction of sound waves at the interface. The extent of this degradation is also influenced by the geometric relationship between an absorber and the boundary. Results indicate that homogeneous phantom matrixes may underestimate the degradation of PAT image quality in breast tissue, whereas heterogeneous phantoms can provide more realistic testing through improved reproduction of spatial variations in physical properties.

  14. 3D frequency-domain ultrasound waveform tomography breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Gursharan Yash; West, Erik; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; Duric, Neb

    2017-03-01

    Frequency-domain ultrasound waveform tomography is a promising method for the visualization and characterization of breast disease. It has previously been shown to accurately reconstruct the sound speed distributions of breasts of varying densities. The reconstructed images show detailed morphological and quantitative information that can help differentiate different types of breast disease including benign and malignant lesions. The attenuation properties of an ex vivo phantom have also been assessed. However, the reconstruction algorithms assumed a 2D geometry while the actual data acquisition process was not. Although clinically useful sound speed images can be reconstructed assuming this mismatched geometry, artifacts from the reconstruction process exist within the reconstructed images. This is especially true for registration across different modalities and when the 2D assumption is violated. For example, this happens when a patient's breast is rapidly sloping. It is also true for attenuation imaging where energy lost or gained out of the plane gets transformed into artifacts within the image space. In this paper, we will briefly review ultrasound waveform tomography techniques, give motivation for pursuing the 3D method, discuss the 3D reconstruction algorithm, present the results of 3D forward modeling, show the mismatch that is induced by the violation of 3D modeling via numerical simulations, and present a 3D inversion of a numerical phantom.

  15. Imaging Guided Breast Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masroor, Imrana; Afzal, Shaista; Sufian, Saira Naz

    2016-06-01

    Breast imaging is a developing field, with new and upcoming innovations, decreasing the morbidity and mortality related to breast pathologies with main emphasis on breast cancer. Breast imaging has an essential role in the detection and management of breast disease. It includes a multimodality approach, i.e. mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine techniques and interventional procedures, done for the diagnosis and definitive management of breast abnormalities. The range of methods to perform biopsy of a suspicious breast lesion found on imaging has also increased markedly from the 1990s with hi-technological progress in surgical as well as percutaneous breast biopsy methods. The image guided percutaneous breast biopsy procedures cause minimal breast scarring, save time, and relieve the patient of the anxiety of going to the operation theatre. The aim of this review was to describe and discuss the different image guided breast biopsy techniques presently employed along with the indications, contraindication, merits and demerits of each method.

  16. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  17. Breast ultrasound tomography with total-variation regularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Cuiping [KARMANOS CANCER INSTIT.; Duric, Neb [KARMANOS CANCER INSTIT

    2009-01-01

    Breast ultrasound tomography is a rapidly developing imaging modality that has the potential to impact breast cancer screening and diagnosis. A new ultrasound breast imaging device (CURE) with a ring array of transducers has been designed and built at Karmanos Cancer Institute, which acquires both reflection and transmission ultrasound signals. To extract the sound-speed information from the breast data acquired by CURE, we have developed an iterative sound-speed image reconstruction algorithm for breast ultrasound transmission tomography based on total-variation (TV) minimization. We investigate applicability of the TV tomography algorithm using in vivo ultrasound breast data from 61 patients, and compare the results with those obtained using the Tikhonov regularization method. We demonstrate that, compared to the Tikhonov regularization scheme, the TV regularization method significantly improves image quality, resulting in sound-speed tomography images with sharp (preserved) edges of abnormalities and few artifacts.

  18. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnink, T. H. Oude; Nagengast, W. B.; Brouwers, A. H.; Schroder, C. P.; Hospers, G. A.; Lub-de Hooge, M. N.; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P. J.; de Vries, E. G. E.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging of breast cancer can potentially be used for breast cancer screening, staging, restaging, response evaluation and guiding therapies. Techniques for molecular breast cancer imaging include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, and radionuclide imaging with positron

  19. Optical breast imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, S.M.W.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Optical breast imaging uses near-infrared light to assess the optical properties of breast tissue. It can be performed relying on intrinsic breast tissue contrast alone or with the use of exogenous imaging agents that accumulate at the tumor site. Different tissue components have unique scattering

  20. Using ultrasound tomography to identify the distributions of density throughout the breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Sherman, Mark E.; Gierach, Gretchen L.

    2016-04-01

    Women with high breast density are at increased risk of developing breast cancer. Breast density has usually been defined using mammography as the ratio of fibroglandular tissue to total breast area. Ultrasound tomography (UST) is an emerging modality that can also be used to measure breast density. UST creates tomographic sound speed images of the patient's breast which is useful as sound speed is directly proportional to tissue density. Furthermore, the volumetric and quantitative information contained in the sound speed images can be used to describe the distribution of breast density. The work presented here measures the UST sound speed density distributions of 165 women with negative screening mammography. Frequency distributions of the sound speed voxel information were examined for each patient. In a preliminary analysis, the UST sound speed distributions were averaged across patients and grouped by various patient and density-related factors (e.g., age, body mass index, menopausal status, average mammographic breast density). It was found that differences in the distribution of density could be easily visualized for different patient groupings. Furthermore, findings suggest that the shape of the distributions may be used to identify participants with varying amounts of dense and non-dense tissue.

  1. Reconstruction of sound speed profile through natural generalized inverse technique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, C.S.

    An acoustic model has been developed for reconstruction of vertical sound speed in a near stable or stratified ocean. Generalized inverse method is utilised in the model development. Numerical experiments have been carried out to account...

  2. Optical Imaging of the Breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    As the increased prevalence of breast cancer and the advances in breast evaluation awareness have resulted in an increased number of breast examinations and benign breast biopsies, several investigations have been performed to improve the diagnostic accuracy for breast lesions. Optical imaging of the breast that uses nearinfrared light to assess the optical properties of breast tissue is a novel non-invasive imaging technique to characterize breast lesions in clinical practice. This review provides a summary of the current state of optical breast imaging and it describes the basic concepts of optical imaging, the potential clinical applications for breast cancer imaging and its potential incorporation with other imaging modalities

  3. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...

  4. Effects of high sound speed confiners on ANFO detonations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyanda, Charles; Jackson, Scott; Short, Mark

    2011-06-01

    The interaction between high explosive (HE) detonations and high sound speed confiners, where the confiner sound speed exceeds the HE's detonation speed, has not been thoroughly studied. The subsonic nature of the flow in the confiner allows stress waves to travel ahead of the main detonation front and influence the upstream HE state. The interaction between the detonation wave and the confiner is also no longer a local interaction, so that the confiner thickness now plays a significant role in the detonation dynamics. We report here on larger scale experiments in which a mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) is detonated in aluminium confiners with varying charge diameter and confiner thickness. The results of these large-scale experiments are compared with previous large-scale ANFO experiments in cardboard, as well as smaller-scale aluminium confined ANFO experiments, to characterize the effects of confiner thickness.

  5. Sound Speed Structure of the Western South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    for the western South Atlantic between 9°S and 36°S latitude and for the entire western South Atlantic by Buscaglia (1971). All these sources...both the Brazil Plain and Argentine Plain. Similar perturbations are also evident along winter cross-section A. As noted by Buscaglia (1971), the top...Duedall and Coote (1972) and throughout the western South Atlantic Ocean by Buscaglia (1971). In the presence of this intermixing, the MIW sound speed

  6. Bearing Stake Exercise: Sound Speed and other Environmental Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    BEARING STAKE acoustics. DR. RALPH GOODMAN TECHNICAL DIRECTOR NORDA CONFIDENTIAL CONFIDENTIAL EXECUTIVE SUMMARY (C) This report contains an...acknowledgements are given to Dr. Robert R. Gardner of NOSC (BEARING STAKE Technical Director ) and to I)r. Aubrey L. Anderson of NORDA (Head of the...8217ISOUNDI I ý,INTERMEDIA TE SPEEM SOUN MINMUMCORRECTED MAXMU DEEP SOUND 20- CHA4NNELAXIS -2 NOTE - SOUND SPEED FROFILES FOR KPXBT 175,182 184 AND KP

  7. Cluster of Sound Speed Fields by an Integral Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    to be P = Z − ∫ 0 b ∂C(ρ, θ, λ) ∂ρ ∂C(ρ, θ, λ) ∂ρ dρ (2) where (ρ,θ,λ) are the usual geocentric spherical coordinates, and the limits of integration...but using spherical coordinates requires that the horizontal (θ , λ) terms be normalized by the radius. In the case of geocentric coordinates this...The Z parameter gives insight into the integrated gradients of the sound speed field, and by way of ray theory into the total curvature of the ray

  8. Investigation of Sound Speed Errors in Adaptive Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2008-01-01

    and the amplitude and phase (APES) beamformer. Simulations of a single point target are carried out in Field II, and a percentage error is applied on the speed of sound. As the error increases, MV and APES provide amplitude drops of 17 dB and 3 dB on the signal strength. Two approaches to overcome this amplitude......Previous studies have shown that adaptive beam-formers provide a significant increase of resolution and contrast, when the propagation speed is known precisely. This paper demonstrates the influence of sound speed errors on two adaptive beamformers; the minimum variance (MV) beamformer...

  9. SU-F-I-14: 3D Breast Digital Phantom for XACT Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, S; Laaroussi, R; Chen, J; Samant, P; Xiang, L [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Chen, Y; Ahmad, S [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Yang, K [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The X-ray induced acoustic computed tomography (XACT) is a new imaging modality which combines X-ray contrast and high ultrasonic resolution in a single modality. Using XACT in breast imaging, a 3D breast volume can be imaged by only one pulsed X-ray radiation, which could dramatically reduce the imaging dose for patients undergoing breast cancer screening and diagnosis. A 3D digital phantom that contains both X-ray properties and acoustic properties of different tissue types is indeed needed for developing and optimizing the XACT system. The purpose of this study is to offer a realistic breast digital phantom as a valuable tool for improving breast XACT imaging techniques and potentially leading to better diagnostic outcomes. Methods: A series of breast CT images along the coronal plane from a patient who has breast calcifications are used as the source images. A HU value based segmentation algorithm is employed to identify breast tissues in five categories, namely the skin tissue, fat tissue, glandular tissue, chest bone and calcifications. For each pixel, the dose related parameters, such as material components and density, and acoustic related parameters, such as frequency-dependent acoustic attenuation coefficient and bandwidth, are assigned based on tissue types. Meanwhile, other parameters which are used in sound propagation, including the sound speed, thermal expansion coefficient, and heat capacity are also assigned to each tissue. Results: A series of 2D tissue type image is acquired first and the 3D digital breast phantom is obtained by using commercial 3D reconstruction software. When giving specific settings including dose depositions and ultrasound center frequency, the X-ray induced initial pressure rise can be calculated accordingly. Conclusion: The proposed 3D breast digital phantom represents a realistic breast anatomic structure and provides a valuable tool for developing and evaluating the system performance for XACT.

  10. Optimal experimental design to position transducers in ultrasound breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korta Martiartu, Naiara; Boehm, Christian; Vinard, Nicolas; Jovanović Balic, Ivana; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    We present methods to optimize the setup of a 3D ultrasound tomography scanner for breast cancer detection. This approach provides a systematic and quantitative tool to evaluate different designs and to optimize the con- figuration with respect to predefined design parameters. We consider both, time-of-flight inversion using straight rays and time-domain waveform inversion governed by the acoustic wave equation for imaging the sound speed. In order to compare different designs, we measure their quality by extracting properties from the Hessian operator of the time-of-flight or waveform differences defined in the inverse problem, i.e., the second derivatives with respect to the sound speed. Spatial uncertainties and resolution can be related to the eigenvalues of the Hessian, which provide a good indication of the information contained in the data that is acquired with a given design. However, the complete spectrum is often prohibitively expensive to compute, thus suitable approximations have to be developed and analyzed. We use the trace of the Hessian operator as design criterion, which is equivalent to the sum of all eigenvalues and requires less computational effort. In addition, we suggest to take advantage of the spatial symmetry to extrapolate the 3D experimental design from a set of 2D configurations. In order to maximize the quality criterion, we use a genetic algorithm to explore the space of possible design configurations. Numerical results show that the proposed strategies are capable of improving an initial configuration with uniformly distributed transducers, clustering them around regions with poor illumination and improving the ray coverage of the domain of interest.

  11. Breast pain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast pain is from hormonal fluctuations from menstruation, pregnancy, puberty, menopause, and breastfeeding. Breast pain can also be associated with fibrocystic breast disease, but it is a very unusual symptom of breast cancer.

  12. Spherical collapse of dark energy with an arbitrary sound speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basse, Tobias; Bjælde, Ole Eggers [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Wong, Yvonne Y.Y., E-mail: tb06@phys.au.dk, E-mail: oeb@phys.au.dk, E-mail: yvonne.wong@physik.rwth-aachen.de [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2011-10-01

    We consider a generic type of dark energy fluid, characterised by a constant equation of state parameter w and sound speed c{sub s}, and investigate the impact of dark energy clustering on cosmic structure formation using the spherical collapse model. Along the way, we also discuss in detail the evolution of dark energy perturbations in the linear regime. We find that the introduction of a finite sound speed into the picture necessarily induces a scale-dependence in the dark energy clustering, which in turn affects the dynamics of the spherical collapse in a scale-dependent way. As with other, more conventional fluids, we can define a Jeans scale for the dark energy clustering, and hence a Jeans mass M{sub J} for the dark matter which feels the effect of dark energy clustering via gravitational interactions. For bound objects (halos) with masses M >> M{sub J}, the effect of dark energy clustering is maximal. For those with M << M{sub J}, the dark energy component is effectively homogeneous, and its role in the formation of these structures is reduced to its effects on the Hubble expansion rate. To compute quantitatively the virial density and the linearly extrapolated threshold density, we use a quasi-linear approach which is expected to be valid up to around the Jeans mass. We find an interesting dependence of these quantities on the halo mass M, given some w and c{sub s}. The dependence is the strongest for masses lying in the vicinity of M ∼ M{sub J}. Observing this M-dependence will be a tell-tale sign that dark energy is dynamic, and a great leap towards pinning down its clustering properties.

  13. Scintimammography (Breast Specific Gamma Imaging-BSGI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is scintimammography? Scintimammography, also known as nuclear medicine breast imaging, is an examination that may be used to ... as Breast Specific Gamma Imaging (BSGI) or Molecular Breast Imaging (MBI). Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  14. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing

  15. Augmented reality for breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancati, Alberto; Angrigiani, Claudio; Nava, Maurizio B; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Rocco, Nicola; Ventrice, Fernando; Dorr, Julio

    2018-02-21

    Augmented reality (AR) enables the superimposition of virtual reality reconstructions onto clinical images of a real patient, in real time. This allows visualization of internal structures through overlying tissues, thereby providing a virtual transparency vision of surgical anatomy. AR has been applied to neurosurgery, which utilizes a relatively fixed space, frames, and bony references; the application of AR facilitates the relationship between virtual and real data. Augmented Breast imaging (ABI) is described. Breast MRI studies for breast implant patients with seroma were performed using a Siemens 3T system with a body coil and a four-channel bilateral phased-array breast coil as the transmitter and receiver, respectively. The contrast agent used was (CA) gadolinium (Gd) injection (0.1 mmol/kg at 2 ml/s) by a programmable power injector. Dicom formated images data from 10 MRI cases of breast implant seroma and 10 MRI cases with T1-2 N0 M0 breast cancer, were imported and transformed into Augmented reality images. Augmented breast imaging (ABI) demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence, 3D cursor use, and joystick fly-through. Augmented breast imaging (ABI) to the breast can improve clinical outcomes, giving an enhanced view of the structures to work on. It should be further studied to determine its utility in clinical practice.

  16. Breast PET/MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsaether, Amy; Moy, Linda

    2017-05-01

    Breast and whole-body PET/MR imaging is being used to detect local and metastatic disease and is being investigated for potential imaging biomarkers, which may eventually help personalize treatments and prognoses. This article provides an overview of breast and whole-body PET/MR exam techniques, summarizes PET and MR breast imaging for lesion detection, outlines investigations into multi-parametric breast PET/MR, looks at breast PET/MR in the setting of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, and reviews the pros and cons of whole-body PET/MR in the setting of metastatic or suspected metastatic breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ranging in an underwater medium with multiple isogradient sound speed profile layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani, H.; Leus, G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the problem of acoustic ranging between sensor nodes in an underwater environment. The underwater medium is assumed to be composed of multiple isogradient sound speed profile (SSP) layers where in each layer the sound speed is linearly related to the depth. Furthermore,

  18. A Method for Direct Localized Sound Speed Estimates Using Registered Virtual Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byram, Brett C.; Trahey, Gregg E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    detectors, a spherical wave is propagated. By beamforming the data, the time-offlight between the two virtual sources can be calculated. From this information, the local sound speed can be estimated. Validation of the estimator is made using phantom and simulation data. The set of test phantoms consisted......Accurate sound speed estimates are desirable in a number of fields. In an effort to increase the spatial resolution of sound speed estimates, a new method is proposed for direct measurement of sound speed between arbitrary spatial locations. The method uses the sound speed estimator developed...... by Anderson and Trahey. Their least squares fit of the received waveform’s curvature provides an estimate of the wave’s point of origin. The point of origin and the delay profile calculated from the fit are used to arrive at a spatially registered virtual detector. Between a pair of registered virtual...

  19. Overdiagnosis in breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andy; Vinnicombe, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    The main harm of overdiagnosis is overtreatment. However a form of overdiagnosis also occurs when foci of cancer are found by imaging in addition to the symptomatic lesion when this leads to additional treatment which does not benefit the patient. Even if overtreatment is avoided, knowledge of the diagnosis can still cause psychological harm. Overdiagnosis is an inevitable effect of mammographic screening as the benefit comes from diagnosing breast cancer prior to clinical detectability. Estimates of the rate of overdiagnosis at screening are around 10%. DCIS represents 20% of cancers detected by screening and is the main focus in the overdiagnosis debate. Detection and treatment of low grade DCIS and invasive tubular cancer would appear to represent overdiagnosis in most cases. Supplementary screening with tomosynthesis or US are both likely to increase overdiagnosis as both modalities detect predominantly low grade invasive cancers. MRI causes overdiagnosis because it is so sensitive that it detects real tumour foci which after radiotherapy and systemic therapy do not, in many cases go on and cause local recurrence if the women had had no MRI and undergone breast conservation and adjuvant therapy with these small foci left in situ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of breast density measurements made using ultrasound tomography and mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Krycia, Mark; Sherman, Mark E.; Boyd, Norman; Gierach, Gretchen L.

    2015-03-01

    Women with elevated mammographic percent density, defined as the ratio of fibroglandular tissue area to total breast area on a mammogram are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Ultrasound tomography (UST) is an imaging modality that can create tomographic sound speed images of a patient's breast, which can then be used to measure breast density. These sound speed images are useful because physical tissue density is directly proportional to sound speed. The work presented here updates previous results that compared mammographic breast density measurements with UST breast density measurements within an ongoing study. The current analysis has been expanded to include 158 women with negative digital mammographic screens who then underwent a breast UST scan. Breast density was measured for both imaging modalities and preliminary analysis demonstrated strong and positive correlations (Spearman correlation coefficient rs = 0.703). Additional mammographic and UST related imaging characteristics were also analyzed and used to compare the behavior of both imaging modalities. Results suggest that UST can be used among women with negative mammographic screens as a quantitative marker of breast density that may avert shortcomings of mammography.

  1. Robust sound speed estimation for ultrasound-based hepatic steatosis assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbault, Marion; Faccinetto, Alex; Osmanski, Bruno-Félix; Tissier, Antoine; Deffieux, Thomas; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Vilgrain, Valérie; Tanter, Mickaël

    2017-05-01

    Hepatic steatosis is a common condition, the prevalence of which is increasing along with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Currently, the most accurate noninvasive imaging method for diagnosing and quantifying hepatic steatosis is MRI, which estimates the proton-density fat fraction (PDFF) as a measure of fractional fat content. However, MRI suffers several limitations including cost, contra-indications and poor availability. Although conventional ultrasound is widely used by radiologists for hepatic steatosis assessment, it remains qualitative and operator dependent. Interestingly, the speed of sound within soft tissues is known to vary slightly from muscle (1.575 mm · µs-1) to fat (1.450 mm · µs-1). Building upon this fact, steatosis could affect liver sound speed when the fat content increases. The main objectives of this study are to propose a robust method for sound speed estimation (SSE) locally in the liver and to assess its accuracy for steatosis detection and staging. This technique was first validated on two phantoms and SSE was assessed with a precision of 0.006 and 0.003 mm · µs-1 respectively for the two phantoms. Then a preliminary clinical trial (N  =  17 patients) was performed. SSE results was found to be highly correlated with MRI proton density fat fraction (R 2  =  0.69) and biopsy (AUROC  =  0.952) results. This new method based on the assessment of spatio-temporal properties of the local speckle noise for SSE provides an efficient way to diagnose and stage hepatic steatosis.

  2. Breast infection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most breast infections occur in breastfeeding women when bacteria enters the breast through cracks in the nipple. In severe infections, abscesses may occur. Antibiotics may be indicated for treatment.

  3. Contrast media in breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Luis F; Morrell, Brooke; Mai, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    Although mammography is the standard imaging modality for detection of breast cancer, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a valuable adjunct and, in certain cases, is the imaging of choice. Contrast-enhanced breast MR imaging provides a noninvasive means of staging disease, assessing posttreatment response, and screening of high-risk patients with genetic predispositions. Additional indications for MR mammography include lesion characterization, contralateral breast evaluation in patients with proved malignancy, and identifying primary malignancy in patients with axillary nodal disease. There are several competing factors that influence the quality of the study. Finding the right balance is the key to providing high-quality images that can be accurately interpreted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An Energy Budget Model to Calculate the Low Atmosphere Profiles of Effective Sound Speed at Night

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tunick, Arnold

    2003-01-01

    ...) for generating low atmosphere profiles of effective sound speed at night. The alternate model is based on the solution of a quartic equation for surface temperature, which assumes a balance between the net long wave...

  5. Reference sound speed profile and related ray acoustics of Bay of Bengal for tomographic studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Murty, T.V.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Chodankar, P.V.; Murty, C.S.

    Using the archived hydrographic data, a climatological mean sound speed profile has been developed for the Bay of Bengal which will serve as an input (reference profile) to acoustic models. This profile is depth limited with the effective acoustic...

  6. Alternative screening for women with dense breasts: breast-specific gamma imaging (molecular breast imaging).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Anna; Newel, Mary S

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. Given mammography's limitations in evaluating dense breasts, examination with breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI)-also called molecular breast imaging (MBI)-has been proposed. We review the literature pertinent to the performance of BSGI in patients with dense breasts. CONCLUSION. Many studies have reported the sensitivity of BSGI in finding cancers even in dense breasts. However, BSGI has not yet been validated as an effective screening tool in large prospective studies. In addition, whole-body dose remains a significant concern.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of invasive breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G5

    graphic findings, and screening for breast cancer in younger women with familial breast cancer. Interpretation of MR images requires a meticulous imaging technique including the use of contrast enhancement and fat suppression MR sequences using a good breast coil. Introduction. The role of MR imaging in the diagno-.

  8. Mechanical imaging of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Vladimir; Sarvazyan, Armen P

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze the physical basis for elasticity imaging of the breast by measuring breast skin stress patterns that result from a force sensor array pressed against the breast tissue. Temporal and spatial changes in the stress pattern allow detection of internal structures with different elastic properties and assessment of geometrical and mechanical parameters of these structures. The method entitled mechanical imaging is implemented in the breast mechanical imager (BMI), a compact device consisting of a hand held probe equipped with a pressure sensor array, a compact electronic unit, and a touchscreen laptop computer. Data acquired by the BMI allows calculation of size, shape, consistency/hardness, and mobility of detected lesions. The BMI prototype has been validated in laboratory experiments on tissue models and in an ongoing clinical study. The obtained results prove that the BMI has potential to become a screening and diagnostic tool that could largely supplant clinical breast examination through its higher sensitivity, quantitative record storage, ease-of-use, and inherent low cost.

  9. Confronting the sound speed of dark energy with future cluster surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Tobias; Eggers Bjaelde, Ole; Hannestad, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Future cluster surveys will observe galaxy clusters numbering in the hundred thousands. We consider this work how these surveys can be used to constrain dark energy parameters: in particular, the equation of state parameter w and the non-adiabatic sound speed c_s^2. We demonstrate that, in combin......Future cluster surveys will observe galaxy clusters numbering in the hundred thousands. We consider this work how these surveys can be used to constrain dark energy parameters: in particular, the equation of state parameter w and the non-adiabatic sound speed c_s^2. We demonstrate that......, then c_s^2 can be pinned down to within an order of magnitude. In the course of this work, we also investigate the process of dark energy virialisation in the presence of an arbitrary sound speed. We find that dark energy clustering and virialisation can lead to dark energy contributing to the total...

  10. The reconstruction of sound speed in the Marmousi model by the boundary control method

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, I B; Semenov, V S

    2016-01-01

    We present the results on numerical testing of the Boundary Control Method in the sound speed determination for the acoustic equation on semiplane. This method for solving multidimensional inverse problems requires no a priory information about the parameters under reconstruction. The application to the realistic Marmousi model demonstrates that the boundary control method is workable in the case of complicated and irregular field of acoustic rays. By the use of the chosen boundary controls, an `averaged' profile of the sound speed is recovered (the relative error is about $10-15\\%$). Such a profile can be further utilized as a starting approximation for high resolution iterative reconstruction methods.

  11. Using Characteristics Method to Infer Sound Speed in Nonsymmetric Impact and Release Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaomian; Pan, Hao; Wu, Zihui

    2017-06-01

    Sound speed is important to high velocity impact phenomena because it is used to deduce the shear moduli, strength and phase transition of materials at high pressure. Historically the sound speed analysis methods cannot infer the right results from the velocity-time history of a windowed-surface in the nonsymmetric impact and release experiment due to impedance mismatch between a flyer, sample and window. A characteristics method has been modified to account for the effect of the flyer/sample and sample/window interactions, thus it can be applied to the nonsymmetric impact and release experiment with only one depth of material. Synthetic analyses of the nonsymmetric impact suggest that this method can give accurate results including sound speed-particle velocity and release path at high pressure, moreover, this method also do not need to know the form of equations of state (EOS) and constitutive model of the sample.These features facilitate applying this method to infer sound speed from the velocity profile of nonsymmetric impact experiments.

  12. Time-angle sensitivity kernels for sound-speed perturbations in a shallow ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulanier, Florian; Nicolas, Barbara; Roux, Philippe; Mars, Jérôme I

    2013-07-01

    Acoustic waves traveling in a shallow-water waveguide produce a set of multiple paths that can be characterized as a geometric approximation by their travel time (TT), direction of arrival (DOA), and direction of departure (DOD). This study introduces the use of the DOA and DOD as additional observables that can be combined to the classical TT to track sound-speed perturbations in an oceanic waveguide. To model the TT, DOA, and DOD variations induced by sound-speed perturbations, the three following steps are used: (1) In the first-order Born approximation, the Fréchet kernel provides a linear link between the signal fluctuations and the sound-speed perturbations; (2) a double-beamforming algorithm is used to transform the signal fluctuations received on two source-receiver arrays in the time, receiver-depth, and source-depth domain into the eigenray equivalent measured in the time, reception-angle and launch angle domain; and finally (3) the TT, DOA, and DOD variations are extracted from the double-beamformed signal variations through a first-order Taylor development. As a result, time-angle sensitivity kernels are defined and used to build a linear relationship between the observable variations and the sound-speed perturbations. This approach is validated with parabolic-equation simulations in a shallow-water ocean context.

  13. The sound-speed gradient and refraction in the near-ground atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D Keith

    2003-02-01

    A systematic description of sound refraction in the near-ground atmosphere is developed by modeling the effective sound-speed gradient with Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The resulting gradient equation can be recast in a form involving just three nondimensional variables. The first is the ratio of a sound-speed scale (representing the strength of the turbulent fluctuations in the sound speed) to the friction velocity. The second is the ratio of the actual height to a transitional height where contributions from the near-ground wind-speed gradients and the adiabatic lapse rate are roughly balanced. The third is simply the cosine of the angle between the propagation direction and mean wind direction. When the magnitude of the sound-speed scale/friction velocity ratio is large, refraction is unconditionally upward or downward, depending on sign of the ratio. A small value for this ratio indicates nearly neutral atmospheric stratification, for which refraction is determined by the wind direction for small values of the nondimensional height and is upward for larger values. The contribution to refraction from air humidity is determined as a function of the Bowen ratio and found to be significant over wet surfaces. Weather conditions appropriate for measurement of sound pressure levels are also discussed.

  14. Sensitivity to Sound Speed of Surface/Bottom Reflecting Transmissions in a Deep Ocean Channel,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    of any oceanic sound transmission problem requires the prior specification of a sound-speed structure in some way, such as by fitting data. We address...John Proni I Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Bell Telephone Laboratories Physics I Whippany Road Scripps Institute of Oceanography Whippany

  15. Sound speed structure in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Murty, T.V.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, C.S.

    by warm Andaman Sea waters. The depth limited nature of annual mean sound speed profile for 2 marginal seas suggests that the effective acoustic channel lies much below (approximately 300 m) the surface. This results in acoustic propagation in the form...

  16. The effect of sound speed profile on shallow water shipping sound maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sertlek, H.Ö.; Binnerts, B.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Sound mapping over large areas can be computationally expensive because of the large number of sources and large source-receiver separations involved. In order to facilitate computation, a simplifying assumption sometimes made is to neglect the sound speed gradient in shallow water. The accuracy of

  17. Breast image registration and deformation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, Tobias; Zoehrer, Fabian; Harz, Markus; Hahn, Horst Karl

    2012-01-01

    Image-based examination of the breast facilitates the detection of breast diseases, particularly of present benign and malignant lesions. For computer-aided processing of serial and multimodal clinical data, both for visual correlation and quantitative analysis, automated image-registration methods are an indispensable tool. The wide range of modalities and the high variability of breast appearance have led to a large diversity of proposed approaches for tissue deformation modeling and image registration. In this article, we review current developments in breast image registration techniques, and comment on their clinical relevance, individual capabilities, and open challenges.

  18. Breast Imaging after Breast Augmentation with Autologous Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyu Won; Seo, Bo Kyung; Shim, Eddeum; Song, Sung Eun; Cho, Kyu Ran [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Eul Sik [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Ok Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The use of autologous tissue transfer for breast augmentation is an alternative to using foreign implant materials. The benefits of this method are the removal of unwanted fat from other body parts, no risk of implant rupture, and the same feel as real breast tissue. However, sometimes there is a dilemma about whether or not to biopsy for calcifications or masses detected after the procedure is completed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the procedures of breast augmentation with autologous tissues, the imaging features of various complications, and the role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of complications and hidden breast diseases.

  19. The different structural scales of the breast and their impact on time-of-flight and diffraction tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huthwaite, Peter [IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON; Simonetti, Francesco [IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON

    2010-02-11

    Ultrasound tomography is an attractive imaging method for the detection of breast cancer. The complex anatomy of the breast with its different spatial scales and material property contrasts make accurate reconstructions very challenging. This paper proposes a hybrid approach whereby Travel-of-Flight and Diffraction Tomography are combined together to achieve high-resolution and high-accuracy sound-speed reconstructions. The method is validated with several numerical phantoms.

  20. Breast-Dedicated Radionuclide Imaging Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, David F C; Freese, David L; Levin, Craig S

    2016-02-01

    Breast-dedicated radionuclide imaging systems show promise for increasing clinical sensitivity for breast cancer while minimizing patient dose and cost. We present several breast-dedicated coincidence-photon and single-photon camera designs that have been described in the literature and examine their intrinsic performance, clinical relevance, and impact. Recent tracer development is mentioned, results from recent clinical tests are summarized, and potential areas for improvement are highlighted. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  1. Breast MR Imaging in Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Dipti; Billadello, Laura

    2017-05-01

    The role of breast MR imaging in preoperative evaluation of disease extent remains controversial. MR imaging increases detection of mammographically occult ipsilateral and contralateral disease, but the clinical impact of these incidental cancers in unknown. There are no randomized trials of recurrence or mortality as the primary end point. This missing evidence is needed before the role of extent of disease MR imaging can be outlined. There are specific clinical scenarios in which breast MR imaging plays a clear role. In most cases, the decision to obtain MR imaging depends on physician practice style and patient preference. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Spherical collapse of a unified dark fluid with constant adiabatic sound speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lixin

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we test the spherical collapse of a unified dark fluid (UDF) which has constant adiabatic sound speed. By choosing the different values of model parameters B s and α, we show the non-linear collapse for UDF and baryons which are considered for their formation of the large scale structure of our Universe. The analyzed results show that larger values of α and B s make the structure formation faster and earlier.

  3. Spherical collapse of a unified dark fluid with constant adiabatic sound speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lixin [Dalian University of Technology, Institute of Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian (China); Dalian University of Technology, College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian (China)

    2013-03-15

    In this paper, we test the spherical collapse of a unified dark fluid (UDF) which has constant adiabatic sound speed. By choosing the different values of model parameters B{sub s} and {alpha}, we show the non-linear collapse for UDF and baryons which are considered for their formation of the large scale structure of our Universe. The analyzed results show that larger values of {alpha} and B{sub s} make the structure formation faster and earlier. (orig.)

  4. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Rodriguez, Suset; Jung, Young-Jin; Gonzalez, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE) or self-breast examinations (SBEs). Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach.

  5. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Rodriguez, Suset; Jung, Young-Jin; Gonzalez, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE) or self-breast examinations (SBEs). Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach. PMID:26229503

  6. Imaging Surveillance After Primary Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Diana L.; Houssami, Nehmat; Lee, Janie M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Current clinical guidelines are consistent in supporting annual mammography for women after treatment of primary breast cancer. Surveillance imaging beyond standard digital mammography, including digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), breast ultrasound, and MRI, may improve outcomes. This article reviews the evidence on the performance and effectiveness of breast imaging modalities available for surveillance after treatment of sporadic unilateral primary breast cancer and identifies additional factors to be considered when selecting an imaging surveillance regimen. CONCLUSION Evidence review supports the use of mammography for surveillance after primary breast cancer treatment. Variability exists in guideline recommendations for surveillance initiation, interval, and cessation. DBT offers the most promise as a potential modality to replace standard digital mammography as a front-line surveillance test; a single published study to date has shown a significant decrease in recall rates compared with standard digital mammography alone. Most guidelines do not support the use of whole-breast ultrasound in breast cancer surveillance, and further studies are needed to define the characteristics of women who may benefit from MRI surveillance. The emerging evidence about surveillance imaging outcomes suggests that additional factors, including patient and imaging characteristics, tumor biology and gene expression profile, and choice of treatment, warrant consideration in selecting personalized posttreatment imaging surveillance regimens. PMID:28075622

  7. Digital Breast Imaging Warehouse for Research and Clinical Decision Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Hong

    2001-01-01

    Breast imaging is used intensively for breast cancer detection. As routine screening examination becomes more popular for women over 40, tremendous amount of breast imaging data has been accumulated...

  8. Imaging Breast Density: Established and Emerging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon-Hor Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammographic density has been proven as an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Women with dense breast tissue visible on a mammogram have a much higher cancer risk than women with little density. A great research effort has been devoted to incorporate breast density into risk prediction models to better estimate each individual’s cancer risk. In recent years, the passage of breast density notification legislation in many states in USA requires that every mammography report should provide information regarding the patient’s breast density. Accurate definition and measurement of breast density are thus important, which may allow all the potential clinical applications of breast density to be implemented. Because the two-dimensional mammography-based measurement is subject to tissue overlapping and thus not able to provide volumetric information, there is an urgent need to develop reliable quantitative measurements of breast density. Various new imaging technologies are being developed. Among these new modalities, volumetric mammographic density methods and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging are the most well studied. Besides, emerging modalities, including different x-ray–based, optical imaging, and ultrasound-based methods, have also been investigated. All these modalities may either overcome some fundamental problems related to mammographic density or provide additional density and/or compositional information. The present review article aimed to summarize the current established and emerging imaging techniques for the measurement of breast density and the evidence of the clinical use of these density methods from the literature.

  9. Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Fhager, Andreas; Jensen, Peter Damsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Still more research groups are promoting microwave imaging as a viable supplement or substitution to more conventional imaging modalities. A widespread approach for microwave imaging of the breast is tomographic imaging in which one seeks to reconstruct the distributions of permittivity and condu......Still more research groups are promoting microwave imaging as a viable supplement or substitution to more conventional imaging modalities. A widespread approach for microwave imaging of the breast is tomographic imaging in which one seeks to reconstruct the distributions of permittivity...... and conductivity in the breast. In this paper two nonlinear tomographic algorithms are compared – one is a single-frequency algorithm and the other is a time-domain algorithm....

  10. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godavarty A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anuradha Godavarty,1 Suset Rodriguez,1 Young-Jin Jung,2 Stephanie Gonzalez1 1Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Radiological Science, Dongseo University, Busan, South Korea Abstract: Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE or self-breast examinations (SBEs. Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach. Keywords: diffuse optical imaging, near-infrared, hand-held devices, breast cancer, prescreening, early detection 

  11. Clinical Photoacoustic Breast Imaging: The Twente experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijblom, M.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2015-01-01

    Globally, breast cancer is the most frequently occurring malignancy in women and the leading cause of cancer deaths, with up to half a million women dying of the disease in 2008. Early detection and accurate diagnosis of breast cancer is crucial for optimizing survival chances, with imaging

  12. Verification of the helioseismology travel-time measurement technique and the inversion procedure for sound speed using artificial data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parchevsky, K. V.; Zhao, J.; Hartlep, T.; Kosovichev, A. G., E-mail: akosovichev@solar.stanford.edu [Stanford University, HEPL, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    We performed three-dimensional numerical simulations of the solar surface acoustic wave field for the quiet Sun and for three models with different localized sound-speed perturbations in the interior with deep, shallow, and two-layer structures. We used the simulated data generated by two solar acoustics codes that employ the same standard solar model as a background model, but utilize different integration techniques and different models of stochastic wave excitation. Acoustic travel times were measured using a time-distance helioseismology technique, and compared with predictions from ray theory frequently used for helioseismic travel-time inversions. It is found that the measured travel-time shifts agree well with the helioseismic theory for sound-speed perturbations, and for the measurement procedure with and without phase-speed filtering of the oscillation signals. This testing verifies the whole measuring-filtering-inversion procedure for static sound-speed anomalies with small amplitude inside the Sun outside regions of strong magnetic field. It is shown that the phase-speed filtering, frequently used to extract specific wave packets and improve the signal-to-noise ratio, does not introduce significant systematic errors. Results of the sound-speed inversion procedure show good agreement with the perturbation models in all cases. Due to its smoothing nature, the inversion procedure may overestimate sound-speed variations in regions with sharp gradients of the sound-speed profile.

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of breast imaging for 47200 women. Breast cancer was detected in 862 (1.9% patients, fibroadenoma in 1267 (2.7% patients and isolated breast cysts in 1162 (2.4% patients. Different types of fibrocystic breast disease (adenosis, diffuse fibrocystic changes, local fibrosis and others were observed in 60.1% of women. Problems of breast cancer visualization during mammography, characterized by the appearance of fibrocystic mastopathy (sclerosing adenosis, fibrous bands along the ducts have been analyzed. Data on the development of diagnostic algorithms including the modern techniques for ultrasound and interventional radiology aimed at detecting early breast cancer have been presented.  

  14. Silicone breast phantoms for elastographic imaging evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Amer S; Lotz, Thomas F; McGarry, Matthew D; Pattison, Adam J; Chase, James G

    2013-06-01

    Breast cancer is a major public health issue for women, and early detection significantly increases survival rate. Currently, there is increased research interest in elastographic soft-tissue imaging techniques based on the correlation between pathology and mechanical stiffness. Anthropomorphic breast phantoms are critical for ex vivo validation of emerging elastographic technologies. This research develops heterogeneous breast phantoms for use in testing elastographic imaging modalities. Mechanical property estimation of eight different elastomers is performed to determine storage moduli (E') and damping ratios (ζ) using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Dynamic compression testing was carried out isothermally at room temperature over a range of 4-50 Hz. Silicone compositions with physiologically realistic storage modulus were chosen for mimicking skin adipose, cancerous tumors, and pectoral muscles and 13 anthropomorphic breast phantoms were constructed for ex vivo trials of digital image elastotomography (DIET) breast cancer screening system. A simpler fabrication was used to assess the possibility of multiple tumor detection using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). Silicone materials with ranges of storage moduli (E') from 2 to 570 kPa and damping ratios (ζ) from 0.03 to 0.56 were identified. The resulting phantoms were tested in two different elastographic breast cancer diagnostic modalities. A significant contrast was successfully identified between healthy tissues and cancerous tumors both in MRE and DIET. The phantoms presented promise aid to researchers in elastographic imaging modalities for breast cancer detection and provide a foundation for silicone based phantom materials for mimicking soft tissues of other human organs.

  15. Sound Speed and Density Studies of Interactions Between Cationic Surfactants and Aqueous Gelatin Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, S.; Chauhan, M. S.; Chauhan, G. S.; Sonika; Jyoti, J.

    2012-02-01

    Studies on the interactions of surfactants with proteins can contribute to an understanding of the action of surfactants as denaturants and as solubilizing agents for membranes of proteins and lipids. Quantitative aspects of such studies may include direct measurements of properties, such as viscosity, density, sound speed, conductance, and elucidation of the often highly complex phase diagrams. In this study, sound speed and density studies of surfactants, viz., cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, and di(dodecydimethyl ammonium bromide) (12-2-12) have been carried out in a 0.02 % w/v aqueous solution of gelatin at temperatures of 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C. From the measured data, the parameters apparent molar volumes ({(φv)}), adiabatic compressibility ( β), and apparent molar compressibility {(φk)} have been calculated to interpret the protein-surfactant interactions. The variations in these parameters with the concentration of the surfactant suggests the manifestation of hydrophobic interactions in the system.

  16. Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice: pressure waves and shear waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer

    2009-06-04

    We have measured the speed of both pressure waves and shear waves as a function of depth between 80 and 500 m depth in South Pole ice with better than 1% precision. The measurements were made using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), an array of transmitters and sensors deployed in the ice at the South Pole in order to measure the acoustic properties relevant to acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos. The transmitters and sensors use piezoceramics operating at {approx}5-25 kHz. Between 200 m and 500 m depth, the measured profile is consistent with zero variation of the sound speed with depth, resulting in zero refraction, for both pressure and shear waves. We also performed a complementary study featuring an explosive signal propagating vertically from 50 to 2250 m depth, from which we determined a value for the pressure wave speed consistent with that determined for shallower depths, higher frequencies, and horizontal propagation with the SPATS sensors. The sound speed profile presented here can be used to achieve good acoustic source position and emission time reconstruction in general, and neutrino direction and energy reconstruction in particular. The reconstructed quantities could also help separate neutrino signals from background.

  17. Sound speed in the Mediterranean Sea: an analysis from a climatological data set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salon

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of sound speed distribution in the Mediterranean Sea based on climatological temperature and salinity data. In the upper layers, propagation is characterised by upward refraction in winter and an acoustic channel in summer. The seasonal cycle of the Mediterranean and the presence of gyres and fronts create a wide range of spatial and temporal variabilities, with relevant differences between the western and eastern basins. It is shown that the analysis of a climatological data set can help in defining regions suitable for successful monitoring by means of acoustic tomography. Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF decomposition on the profiles, performed on the seasonal cycle for some selected areas, demonstrates that two modes account for more than 98% of the variability of the climatological distribution. Reduced order EOF analysis is able to correctly represent sound speed profiles within each zone, thus providing the a priori knowledge for Matched Field Tomography. It is also demonstrated that salinity can affect the tomographic inversion, creating a higher degree of complexity than in the open oceans.Key words. Oceanography: general (marginal and semi-enclosed seas; ocean acoustics

  18. Breast Hypertrophy, Reduction Mammaplasty, and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Cristiane Costa; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Garcia, Edgard da Silva; Cabral, Isaías Vieira; de Carvalho, Monique Maçais; de Brito, Maria José Azevedo; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2018-02-07

    Body image dissatisfaction is one of the major factors that motivate patients to undergo plastic surgery. However, few studies have associated body satisfaction with reduction mammaplasty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of breast hypertrophy and reduction mammaplasty on body image. Breast hypertrophy patients, with reduction mammaplasty already scheduled between June 2013 and December 2015 (mammaplasty group, MG), were prospectively evaluated through the body dysmorphic disorder examination (BDDE), body investment scale (BIS), and breast evaluation questionnaire (BEQ55) tools. Women with normal-sized breasts were also evaluated as study controls (normal-sized breast group, NSBG). All the participants were interviewed at the initial assessment and after six months. Data were analyzed before and after six months. Each group consisted of 103 women. The MG group had a significant improvement in BDDE, BIS, and BEQ55 scores six months postoperatively (P ≤ 0.001 for the three instruments), whereas the NSBG group showed no alteration in results over time (P = 0.876; P = 0.442; and P = 0.184, respectively). In the intergroup comparison it was observed that the MG group began to invest more in the body, similarly to the NSBG group, and surpassed the level of satisfaction and body image that the women of the NSBG group had after the surgery. Reduction mammaplasty promoted improvement in body image of women with breast hypertrophy.

  19. Breast Microcalcification Detection Using Super-Resolution Ultrasound Image Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    imag- ing for breast microcalcification detection. Breast microcalcifications can be seen in malignant cancerous masses. We construct a numerical... cancers detected by mam- mography, and approximately 95% of all DCIS is diagnosed because of mammographically detected microcalcifications . Breast ...detection using numerical breast phantoms. Microcalcifications can be found in different breast tissues, such as cancerous masses or cysts. We build two

  20. Review of optical breast imaging and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosenick, Dirk; Rinneberg, Herbert; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Taroni, Paola

    2016-09-01

    Diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy of the female breast is an area of active research. We review the present status of this field and discuss the broad range of methodologies and applications. Starting with a brief overview on breast physiology, the remodeling of vasculature and extracellular matrix caused by solid tumors is highlighted that is relevant for contrast in optical imaging. Then, the various instrumental techniques and the related methods of data analysis and image generation are described and compared including multimodality instrumentation, fluorescence mammography, broadband spectroscopy, and diffuse correlation spectroscopy. We review the clinical results on functional properties of malignant and benign breast lesions compared to host tissue and discuss the various methods to improve contrast between healthy and diseased tissue, such as enhanced spectroscopic information, dynamic variations of functional properties, pharmacokinetics of extrinsic contrast agents, including the enhanced permeability and retention effect. We discuss research on monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy and on breast cancer risk assessment as potential clinical applications of optical breast imaging and spectroscopy. Moreover, we consider new experimental approaches, such as photoacoustic imaging and long-wavelength tissue spectroscopy.

  1. Review of optical breast imaging and spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosenick, Dirk; Rinneberg, Herbert; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Taroni, Paola

    2016-09-01

    Diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy of the female breast is an area of active research. We review the present status of this field and discuss the broad range of methodologies and applications. Starting with a brief overview on breast physiology, the remodeling of vasculature and extracellular matrix caused by solid tumors is highlighted that is relevant for contrast in optical imaging. Then, the various instrumental techniques and the related methods of data analysis and image generation are described and compared including multimodality instrumentation, fluorescence mammography, broadband spectroscopy, and diffuse correlation spectroscopy. We review the clinical results on functional properties of malignant and benign breast lesions compared to host tissue and discuss the various methods to improve contrast between healthy and diseased tissue, such as enhanced spectroscopic information, dynamic variations of functional properties, pharmacokinetics of extrinsic contrast agents, including the enhanced permeability and retention effect. We discuss research on monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy and on breast cancer risk assessment as potential clinical applications of optical breast imaging and spectroscopy. Moreover, we consider new experimental approaches, such as photoacoustic imaging and long-wavelength tissue spectroscopy.

  2. Breast ultrasound image segmentation: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Luo, Yaozhong; Zhang, Qiangzhi

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women worldwide. Ultrasound imaging is one of the most frequently used diagnostic tools to detect and classify abnormalities of the breast. Recently, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems using ultrasound images have been developed to help radiologists to increase diagnosis accuracy. However, accurate ultrasound image segmentation remains a challenging problem due to various ultrasound artifacts. In this paper, we investigate approaches developed for breast ultrasound (BUS) image segmentation. In this paper, we reviewed the literature on the segmentation of BUS images according to the techniques adopted, especially over the past 10 years. By dividing into seven classes (i.e., thresholding-based, clustering-based, watershed-based, graph-based, active contour model, Markov random field and neural network), we have introduced corresponding techniques and representative papers accordingly. We have summarized and compared many techniques on BUS image segmentation and found that all these techniques have their own pros and cons. However, BUS image segmentation is still an open and challenging problem due to various ultrasound artifacts introduced in the process of imaging, including high speckle noise, low contrast, blurry boundaries, low signal-to-noise ratio and intensity inhomogeneity CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive review of the approaches developed for segmentation of BUS images. With most techniques involved, this paper will be useful and helpful for researchers working on segmentation of ultrasound images, and for BUS CAD system developers.

  3. Sensitivity of helioseismic measurements of normal-mode coupling to flows and sound-speed perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Woodard, Martin; Antia, H. M.; Gizon, Laurent; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we derive and compute the sensitivity of measurements of coupling between normal modes of oscillation in the Sun to underlying flows. The theory is based on first-born perturbation theory, and the analysis is carried out using the formalism described by Lavely & Ritzwoller (1992). Albeit tedious, we detail the derivation and compute the sensitivity of specific pairs of coupled normal modes to anomalies in the interior. Indeed, these kernels are critical for the accurate inference of convective flow amplitudes and large-scale circulations in the solar interior. We resolve some inconsistencies in the derivation of Lavely & Ritzwoller (1992) and reformulate the fluid-continuity condition. We also derive and compute sound-speed kernels, paving the way for inverting for thermal anomalies alongside flows.

  4. Molecular Breast Imaging Using Emission Tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopan, O. [University of Florida; Gilland, D. [University of Florida; Weisenberger, Andrew G. [JLAB; Kross, Brian J. [JLAB; Welch, Benjamin L. [Dilon Technologies

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Tour objective is to design a novel SPECT system for molecular breast imaging (MBI) and evaluate its performance. The limited angle SPECT system, or emission tomosynthesis, is designed to achieve 3D images of the breast with high spatial resolution/sensitivity. The system uses a simplified detector motion and is conducive to on-board biopsy and mult-modal imaging with mammography. Methods: The novel feature of the proposed gamma camera is a variable-angle, slant-hole (VASH) collimator, which is well suited for limited angle SPECT of a mildly compressed breast. The collimator holes change slant angle while the camera surface remains flush against the compression paddle. This allows the camera to vary the angular view ({+-}30{degrees}, {+-}45{degrees}) for tomographic imaging while keeping the camera close to the object for high spatial resolution and/or sensitivity. Theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulations were performed assuming a point source and isolated breast phantom. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, contrast and SNR were measured. Results were compared to single-view, planar images and conventional SPECT. For both conventional SPECT and VASH, data were reconstructed using iterative algorithms. Finally, a proof-of-concept VASH collimator was constructed for experimental evaluation. Results: Measured spatial resolution/sensitivity with VASH showed good agreement with theory including depth-of-interaction (DOI) effects. The DOI effect diminished the depth resolution by approximately 2 mm. Increasing the slant angle range from {+-}30{degrees} to {+-}45{degrees} resulted in an approximately 1 mm improvement in the depth resolution. In the breast phantom images, VASH showed improved contrast and SNR over conventional SPECT and improved contrast over planar scintimmammography. Reconstructed images from the proof-of-concept VASH collimator demonstrated reasonable depth resolution capabilities using limited angle projection data. Conclusion: We

  5. Imaging Neoadjuvant Therapy Response in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Amy M; Mankoff, David A; Joe, Bonnie N

    2017-11-01

    The use of neoadjuvant systemic therapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients is increasing beyond the scope of locally advanced disease. Imaging provides important information in assessing response to therapy as a complement to conventional tumor measurements via physical examination. The purpose of this article is to discuss the advantages and limitations of current assessment methods, as well as review functional and molecular imaging approaches being investigated as emerging techniques for evaluating neoadjuvant therapy response for patients with primary breast cancer. (©) RSNA, 2017.

  6. Accuracy of Breast Density Estimation from Mammographic Images

    OpenAIRE

    Geeraert, N.; Klaus, R.; Bloch, Isabelle; Muller, S.; Bosmans, H

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Breast density has been defined as an important risk factor for the development of breast cancer but the mechanisms of the impact on breast cancer development remain unsolved. One of the main discussions is the definition of breast density. Traditionally breast density is derived by dividing the area of the fibroglandular tissue in the image by the area of the total breast. From a physics point of view the ratio of volumes is a much more representative measure of the d...

  7. Parametric diffusion tensor imaging of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Erez; Shapiro-Feinberg, Myra; Furman-Haran, Edna; Grobgeld, Dov; Golan, Talia; Itzchak, Yacov; Catane, Raphael; Papa, Moshe; Degani, Hadassa

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the ability of parametric diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), applied at 3 Tesla, to dissect breast tissue architecture and evaluate breast lesions. All protocols were approved and a signed informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The study included 21 healthy women, 26 women with 33 malignant lesions, and 14 women with 20 benign lesions. Images were recorded at 3 Tesla with a protocol optimized for breast DTI at a spatial resolution of 1.9 × 1.9 × (2-2.5) mm3. Image processing algorithms and software, applied at pixel resolution, yielded vector maps of prime diffusion direction and parametric maps of the 3 orthogonal diffusion coefficients and of the fractional anisotropy and maximal anisotropy. The DTI-derived vector maps and parametric maps revealed the architecture of the entire mammary fibroglandular tissue and allowed a reliable detection of malignant lesions. Cancer lesions exhibited significantly lower values of the orthogonal diffusion coefficients, λ1, λ2, λ3, and of the maximal anisotropy index λ1-λ3 as compared with normal breast tissue (P architecture. Parametric maps of λ1 and λ1-λ3 facilitate the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer.

  8. Using mastectomy specimens to develop breast models for breast tomosynthesis and CT breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, J. Michael; Das, Mini; Didier, Clay; Mah'D, Mufeed; Glick, Stephen J.

    2008-03-01

    Dedicated x-ray computed tomography (CT) of the breast using a cone-beam flat-panel detector system is a modality under investigation by a number of research teams. As previously reported, we have fabricated a prototype, bench-top flat-panel CT breast imaging (CTBI) system and developed computer simulation software to model such a system. We are developing a methodology to use high resolution, low noise CT reconstructions of fresh mastectomy specimens for generating an ensemble of 3D digital breast phantoms that realistically model 3D compressed and uncompressed breast anatomy. These breast models can be used to simulate realistic projection data for both breast tomosynthesis (BT) and CT systems thereby providing a powerful evaluation and optimization mechanism.

  9. Update on imaging of the postsurgical breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Nathaniel E; Morley, Christopher; Lotfi, Philip; Shaylor, Sara D; Palestrant, Sarah; Moy, Linda; Melsaether, Amy N

    2014-01-01

    Oncologic, reconstructive, and cosmetic breast surgery has evolved in the last 20 years. Familiarity with cutting-edge surgical techniques and their imaging characteristics is essential for radiologic interpretation and may help avert false-positive imaging findings. Novel surgical techniques include skin- and nipple-sparing mastectomies, autologous free flaps, autologous fat grafting, and nipple-areola-complex breast reconstruction. These techniques are illustrated and compared with conventional surgical techniques, including modified radical mastectomy and autologous pedicled flaps. The role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in surgical planning, evaluation for complications, and postsurgical cancer detection is described. Breast reconstruction and augmentation using silicone gel-filled implants is discussed in light of the Food and Drug Administration's recommendation for MR imaging screening for "silent" implant rupture 3 years after implantation and every 2 years thereafter. Recent developments in skin incision techniques for reduction mammoplasty are presented. The effects of postsurgical changes on the detection of breast cancer are discussed by type of surgery. RSNA, 2014

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of breast prostheses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G5

    ... these two signs,. 7. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • October 2005. REVIEW ARTICLE. Magnetic resonance imaging of breast prostheses. P Corr. FFRad (D) SA. P Seolall. Nat Dip Rad (D). H Booth. Nat Dip Rad (D). Department of Radiology. Nelson Mandela School of Medicine and Inkosi Albert Luthuli Hospital. Durban ...

  11. Breast magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Bo La; Kim, Sun Mi; Jang, Mi Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Despite the high sensitivity of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pathologic confirmation by biopsy is essential because of limited specificity. MRI-guided biopsy is required in patients with lesions only seen on MRI. We review preprocedural considerations and the technique of MRI-guided biopsy, challenging situations and trouble-shooting, and correlation of radiologic and pathologic findings.

  12. Ultrasound Imaging Methods for Breast Cancer Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozmen, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is on modeling acoustic wavefield propagation and implementing imaging algorithms for breast cancer detection using ultrasound. As a starting point, we use an integral equation formulation, which can be used to solve both the forward and inverse problems. This thesis

  13. A Comparative Study of Sound Speed in Air at Room Temperature between a Pressure Sensor and a Sound Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of sound speed measurements in air using two types of sensor that are widely employed in physics and engineering education, namely a pressure sensor and a sound sensor. A computer-based laboratory with pressure and sound sensors was used to carry out measurements of air through a 60 ml syringe. The fast Fourier…

  14. Nanotechnology-Enabled Optical Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    for breast cancer specimens that involve microcalcifications or nonpalpable masses and does not occur for palpable breast masses (Cabioglu et al...John V Frangioni. 2008. “Detection of Breast Cancer Microcalcifications Using a Dual-modality SPECT/NIR Fluorescent Probe.” Journal of the American...Enabled Optical Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Rebekah Drezek, Ph.D

  15. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging of breast lesions: Initial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hebatallah Hassan Mamdouh Hassan

    2013-03-31

    Mar 31, 2013 ... Conclusion: DWI shows potential for improving the PPV of breast MRI for detection of malig- nant breast lesions. Recommendation: ... Radiologists who practice breast imaging have long known that the field provides ... detection of breast cancer using digital mammography, with special reflection on the ...

  16. Ultrasonic Imaging Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, N. R.; Marquez, J. D.; Prewett, E. M.; Claytor, T. N.; Nadler, B. R.

    2008-02-01

    Improving the resolution and specificity of current ultrasonic imaging technology is needed to enhance its relevance to breast cancer detection. A novel ultrasonic imaging reconstruction method is described that exploits classical straight-ray migration. This novel method improves signal processing for better image resolution and uses novel staging hardware options using a pulse-echo approach. A breast phantom with various inclusions is imaged using the classical migration method and is compared to standard computed tomography (CT) scans. These innovative ultrasonic methods incorporate ultrasound data acquisition, beam profile characterization, and image reconstruction. For an ultrasonic frequency of 2.25 MHz, imaged inclusions of approximately 1 cm are resolved and identified. Better resolution is expected with minor modifications. Improved image quality and resolution enables earlier detection and more accurate diagnoses of tumors thus reducing the number of biopsies performed, increasing treatment options, and lowering remission percentages. Using these new techniques the inclusions in the phantom are resolved and compared to the results of standard methods. Refinement of this application using other imaging techniques such as time-reversal mirrors (TRM), synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), decomposition of the time reversal operator (DORT), and factorization methods is also discussed.

  17. Cone-beam CT for breast imaging: Radiation dose, breast coverage, and image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Avice; Conover, David L; Zhang, Yan; Seifert, Posy; Logan-Young, Wende; Lin, Chuen-Fu Linda; Sahler, Lawrence; Ning, Ruola

    2010-08-01

    The primary objectives of this pilot study were to evaluate the radiation dose, breast coverage, and image quality of cone-beam breast CT compared with a conventional mammographic examination. Image quality analysis was focused on the concordance of cone-beam breast CT with conventional mammography in terms of mammographic findings. This prospective study was performed from July 2006 through August 2008. Twenty-three women were enrolled who met the inclusion criteria, which were age 40 years or older with final BI-RADS assessment category 1 or 2 lesions on conventional mammograms within the previous 6 months. The breasts were imaged with a flat-panel detector-based cone-beam CT system, and the images were reviewed with a 3D visualization system. Cone-beam breast CT image data sets and the corresponding mammograms were reviewed by three qualified mammographers. The parameters assessed and compared in this pilot study were radiation dose, breast tissue coverage, and image quality, including detectability of masses and calcifications. The mammograms and cone-beam breast CT images were independently reviewed side by side, and the reviewers were not blinded to the other technique. The observed agreement and Cohen's kappa were used to evaluate agreement between the mammographic and cone-beam breast CT findings and interobserver agreement. Each subject responded to a questionnaire on multiple parameters, including comfort of the cone-beam breast CT examination compared with mammography. For a conventional mammographic examination, the average glandular radiation dose ranged from 2.2 to 15 mGy (mean, 6.5 [SD, 2.9] mGy). For cone-beam breast CT, the average glandular dose ranged from 4 to 12.8 mGy (mean, 8.2 [SD, 1.4] mGy). The average glandular dose from cone-beam breast CT was generally within the range of that from conventional mammography. For heterogeneously dense and extremely dense breasts, the difference between the mean dose of conventional mammography and that of

  18. Determination of volume fractions in two-phase flows from sound speed measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Anirban [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Osterhoudt, Curtis F. [University of Alaska

    2012-08-15

    Accurate measurement of the composition of oil-water emulsions within the process environment is a challenging problem in the oil industry. Ultrasonic techniques are promising because they are non-invasive and can penetrate optically opaque mixtures. This paper presents a method of determining the volume fractions of two immiscible fluids in a homogenized two-phase flow by measuring the speed of sound through the composite fluid along with the instantaneous temperature. Two separate algorithms are developed by representing the composite density as (i) a linear combination of the two densities, and (ii) a non-linear fractional formulation. Both methods lead to a quadratic equation with temperature dependent coefficients, the root of which yields the volume fraction. The densities and sound speeds are calibrated at various temperatures for each fluid component, and the fitted polynomial is used in the final algorithm. We present results when the new algorithm is applied to mixtures of crude oil and process water from two different oil fields, and a comparison of our results with a Coriolis meter; the difference between mean values is less than 1%. Analytical and numerical studies of sensitivity of the calculated volume fraction to temperature changes and calibration errors are also presented.

  19. Diffraction enhanced breast imaging through Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, D.M. [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP, 14040-901 Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, 38400-902, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Tomal, A. [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP, 14040-901 Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP, 14040-901 Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-01

    In this work, the potential use of diffraction effects from elastic scattering for breast imaging through Monte Carlo (MC) simulations was studied. The geometrical model of the compressed breast consisted of a semi-infinite layer, composed of a mixture of adipose and glandular tissue, with five spherical objects within it, simulating different tissue compositions. A pencil beam scanned the breast surface, impinging normally on it. Two receptors were placed under the breast: the first one detected primary photons, while the other detected the scattered photons. Two images of the breast were then obtained, a primary and a scatter image. Results showed that the scatter image provided values of contrast greater than that of primary image, with the possibility to enhance the contribution of a specific breast tissue to image formation. Nevertheless, scatter images also show considerably higher noise. The results obtained indicate that elastic scattering has a great potential to aid in the enhancement of the mammographic image.

  20. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.; Brussel, A.S. van; Groep, P. van der; Morsink, F.H.; Bult, P.; Wall, E. van der; Diest, P.J. van

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers

  1. An introduction to microwave imaging for breast cancer detection

    CERN Document Server

    Conceição, Raquel Cruz; O'Halloran, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book collates past and current research on one of the most promising emerging modalities for breast cancer detection. Readers will discover how, as a standalone technology or in conjunction with another modality, microwave imaging has the potential to provide reliable, safe and comfortable breast exams at low cost. Current breast imaging modalities include X- ray, Ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Positron Emission Tomography. Each of these methods suffers from limitations, including poor sensitivity or specificity, high cost, patient discomfort, and exposure to potentially harmful ionising radiation. Microwave breast imaging is based on a contrast in the dielectric properties of breast tissue that exists at microwave frequencies. The book begins by considering the anatomy and dielectric properties of the breast, contrasting historical and recent studies. Next, radar-based breast imaging algorithms are discussed, encompassing both early-stage artefact removal, and data independent and adaptive ...

  2. Optical tomographic imaging for breast cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wenxiang; Intes, Xavier; Wang, Ge

    2017-09-01

    Diffuse optical breast imaging utilizes near-infrared (NIR) light propagation through tissues to assess the optical properties of tissues for the identification of abnormal tissue. This optical imaging approach is sensitive, cost-effective, and does not involve any ionizing radiation. However, the image reconstruction of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a nonlinear inverse problem and suffers from severe illposedness due to data noise, NIR light scattering, and measurement incompleteness. An image reconstruction method is proposed for the detection of breast cancer. This method splits the image reconstruction problem into the localization of abnormal tissues and quantification of absorption variations. The localization of abnormal tissues is performed based on a well-posed optimization model, which can be solved via a differential evolution optimization method to achieve a stable reconstruction. The quantification of abnormal absorption is then determined in localized regions of relatively small extents, in which a potential tumor might be. Consequently, the number of unknown absorption variables can be greatly reduced to overcome the underdetermined nature of DOT. Numerical simulation experiments are performed to verify merits of the proposed method, and the results show that the image reconstruction method is stable and accurate for the identification of abnormal tissues, and robust against the measurement noise of data.

  3. Imaging Management of Breast Density, a Controversial Risk Factor for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon, Shannon; Williams, Angela; Weinfurtner, Jared; Drukteinis, Jennifer S

    2017-04-01

    Breast density is well recognized as an independent risk factor for the development of breast cancer. However, the magnitude of risk is controversial. As the public becomes increasingly aware of breast density as a risk factor, legislation and notification laws in relation to breast density have become common throughout the United States. Awareness of breast density as a risk factor for breast cancer presents new challenges for the clinician in the approach to the management and screening of women with dense breasts. The evidence and controversy surrounding breast density as a risk factor for the development of breast cancer are discussed. Common supplemental screening modalities for breast cancer are also discussed, including tomosynthesis, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. A management strategy for screening women with dense breasts is also presented. The American College of Radiology recognizes breast density as a controversial risk factor for breast cancer, whereas the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recognizes breast density as a modest risk factor. Neither organization recommends the routine use of supplemental screening in women with dense breasts without considering additional patient-related risk factors. Breast density is a poorly understood and controversial risk factor for the development of breast cancer. Mammography is a screening modality proven to reduce breast cancer-related mortality rates and is the single most appropriate tool for population-based screening. Use of supplemental screening modalities should be tailored to individual risk assessment.

  4. Breast magnetic resonance imaging for the interventionalist: magnetic resonance imaging-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Sandra B

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic resonance Imaging-guided breast biopsy is an essential component of breast imaging practices offering breast magnetic resonance imaging. Careful planning and preparation allow for an efficient and successful biopsy. Deliberate positioning and controlled compression are keys to a comfortable and cooperative patient. The biopsy is only complete once imaging-histologic correlation has been made by the radiologist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Geomatics for precise 3D breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alto, Hilary

    2005-02-01

    Canadian women have a one in nine chance of developing breast cancer during their lifetime. Mammography is the most common imaging technology used for breast cancer detection in its earliest stages through screening programs. Clusters of microcalcifications are primary indicators of breast cancer; the shape, size and number may be used to determine whether they are malignant or benign. However, overlapping images of calcifications on a mammogram hinder the classification of the shape and size of each calcification and a misdiagnosis may occur resulting in either an unnecessary biopsy being performed or a necessary biopsy not being performed. The introduction of 3D imaging techniques such as standard photogrammetry may increase the confidence of the radiologist when making his/her diagnosis. In this paper, traditional analytical photogrammetric techniques for the 3D mathematical reconstruction of microcalcifications are presented. The techniques are applied to a specially designed and constructed x-ray transparent Plexiglas phantom (control object). The phantom was embedded with 1.0 mm x-ray opaque lead pellets configured to represent overlapping microcalcifications. Control points on the phantom were determined by standard survey methods and hand measurements. X-ray films were obtained using a LORAD M-III mammography machine. The photogrammetric techniques of relative and absolute orientation were applied to the 2D mammographic films to analytically generate a 3D depth map with an overall accuracy of 0.6 mm. A Bundle Adjustment and the Direct Linear Transform were used to confirm the results.

  6. Imaging of tuberculous disease involving breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K.K.; Kim, J.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kook, S.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Samsung Medical Foundation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate radiologic findings of the tuberculosis involving breast. We evaluated the radiologic features of 17 patients (18 lesions) with tuberculous disease involving the breast. The radiologic examinations, including mammography (16 patients), ultrasonography (12 patients), and Gd-DTPA-enhanced dynamic MRI (6 patients), were analyzed. Mammographic findings included mass (12 of 17 lesions), calcification (3 of 17 lesions), asymmetric density with spiculated margin (5 of 17 lesions), and axillary lymph node enlargement (8 of 17 lesions). On ultrasonography, a smooth bordered mass (7 of 13 lesions) with thin boundary (7 of 13 lesions) and heterogeneous, intermediate internal echoes (9 of 13 lesions) were most commonly demonstrated. On Gd-DTPA-enhanced dynamic MRI, 3 lesions showed significant enhancement at the first minute after injection (3 of 7 lesions). The maximun enhancing amount was greater than 500 normalized units, and the enhancing pattern was smooth or irregular ring appearance. Breast involvement with tuberculosis is rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a woman living in an endemic area or when extramammary foci of tuberculosis are present. A multimodality imaging approach with clinical evaluation will help to establish the diagnosis of tuberculosis involving breast. (orig.) (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 28 refs.

  7. Computerized detection of breast cancer on automated breast ultrasound imaging of women with dense breasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drukker, Karen, E-mail: kdrukker@uchicago.edu; Sennett, Charlene A.; Giger, Maryellen L. [Department of Radiology, MC2026, The University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection method and investigate its feasibility for detection of breast cancer in automated 3D ultrasound images of women with dense breasts. Methods: The HIPAA compliant study involved a dataset of volumetric ultrasound image data, “views,” acquired with an automated U-Systems Somo•V{sup ®} ABUS system for 185 asymptomatic women with dense breasts (BI-RADS Composition/Density 3 or 4). For each patient, three whole-breast views (3D image volumes) per breast were acquired. A total of 52 patients had breast cancer (61 cancers), diagnosed through any follow-up at most 365 days after the original screening mammogram. Thirty-one of these patients (32 cancers) had a screening-mammogram with a clinically assigned BI-RADS Assessment Category 1 or 2, i.e., were mammographically negative. All software used for analysis was developed in-house and involved 3 steps: (1) detection of initial tumor candidates, (2) characterization of candidates, and (3) elimination of false-positive candidates. Performance was assessed by calculating the cancer detection sensitivity as a function of the number of “marks” (detections) per view. Results: At a single mark per view, i.e., six marks per patient, the median detection sensitivity by cancer was 50.0% (16/32) ± 6% for patients with a screening mammogram-assigned BI-RADS category 1 or 2—similar to radiologists’ performance sensitivity (49.9%) for this dataset from a prior reader study—and 45.9% (28/61) ± 4% for all patients. Conclusions: Promising detection sensitivity was obtained for the computer on a 3D ultrasound dataset of women with dense breasts at a rate of false-positive detections that may be acceptable for clinical implementation.

  8. Toward simultaneous PET/MR breast imaging: systematic evaluation and integration of a radiofrequency breast coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklan, Bassim; Paulus, Daniel H; Wenkel, Evelyn; Braun, Harald; Navalpakkam, Bharath K; Ziegler, Susanne; Geppert, Christian; Sigmund, Eric E; Melsaether, Amy; Quick, Harald H

    2013-02-01

    With the recent introduction of integrated whole-body hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) scanners, simultaneous PET/MR breast imaging appears to be a potentially attractive new clinical application. In this study, the technical groundwork toward performing simultaneous PET/MR breast imaging was developed and systematically evaluated in phantom experiments and breast cancer patient hybrid imaging. Measurements were performed on a state-of-the-art whole-body simultaneous PET/MR system (Biograph mMR, Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany). The PET signal attenuating effects of a MR-only four-channel radiofrequency (RF) breast coil that is present in the PET field-of-view (FoV) during a simultaneous PET/MR data acquisition has been investigated and quantified. For this purpose, a dedicated PET/MR visible breast phantom featuring four modular inserts with various structures (no insert, MR insert, PET insert, and PET/MR insert) was developed. In addition to a systematic evaluation of MR-only image quality, the following phantom scans were performed using (18)F radio tracer: (1) PET emission scan with only the homogeneous breast phantom; (2) PET emission scan additionally with the RF breast coil in the PET FoV. Attenuation correction (AC) of PET data was performed with CT-based three-dimensional (3D) hardware attenuation maps (μ-maps) of the RF coil and breast phantom. Finally, a simultaneous PET/MR breast imaging was performed in two breast cancer patients. The modular breast phantom allowed for systematic evaluation of various MR, PET, and PET/MR image quality parameters. The RF breast coil provided MR images of good image quality, unaffected by PET imaging. The global attenuation of the RF breast coil on the PET emission data was approximately 11%. This hardware attributed PET signal attenuation was successfully corrected by using an appropriate CT-based 3D μ-map of the RF breast coil. Imaging of two breast cancer patients confirmed the

  9. Dual Energy Tomosynthesis breast phantom imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukou, V.; Martini, N.; Fountos, G.; Messaris, G.; Michail, C.; Kandarakis, I.; Nikiforidis, G.

    2017-12-01

    Dual energy (DE) imaging technique has been applied to many theoretical and experimental studies. The aim of the current study is to evaluate dual energy in breast tomosynthesis using commercial tomosynthesis system in terms of its potential to better visualize microcalcifications (μCs). The system uses a tungsten target X-ray tube and a selenium direct conversion detector. Low-energy (LE) images were acquired at different tube voltages (28, 30, 32 kV), while high-energy images at 49 kV. Fifteen projections, for the low- and high-energy respectively, were acquired without grid while tube scanned continuously. Log-subtraction algorithm was used in order to obtain the DE images with the weighting factor, w, derived empirically. The subtraction was applied to each pair of LE and HE slices after reconstruction. The TORMAM phantom was imaged with the different settings. Four regions-of-interest including μCs were identified in the inhomogeneous part of the phantom. The μCs in DE images were more clearly visible compared to the low-energy images. Initial results showed that DE tomosynthesis imaging is a promising modality, however more work is required.

  10. Issues to consider before implementing digital breast tomosynthesis into a breast imaging practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Lara A

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to discuss issues surrounding the implementation of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) into a clinical breast imaging practice and assist radiologists, technologists, and administrators who are considering the addition of this new technology to their practices. CONCLUSION. When appropriate attention is given to image acquisition, interpretation, storage, technologist and radiologist training, patient selection, billing, radiation dose, and marketing, implementation of DBT into a breast imaging practice can be successful.

  11. Imaging features of breast cancers on digital breast tomosynthesis according to molecular subtype: association with breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyun; Chang, Jung Min; Shin, Sung Ui; Chu, A Jung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate imaging features of breast cancers on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) according to molecular subtype and to determine whether the molecular subtype affects breast cancer detection on DBT. This was an institutional review board--approved study with a waiver of informed consent. DBT findings of 288 invasive breast cancers were reviewed according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. Detectability of breast cancer was quantified by the number of readers (0-3) who correctly detected the cancer in an independent blinded review. DBT features and the cancer detectability score according to molecular subtype were compared using Fisher's exact test and analysis of variance. Of 288 invasive cancers, 194 were hormone receptor (HR)-positive, 48 were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive and 46 were triple negative breast cancers. The most common DBT findings were irregular spiculated masses for HR-positive cancer, fine pleomorphic or linear branching calcifications for HER2 positive cancer and irregular masses with circumscribed margins for triple negative breast cancers (p Cancer detectability on DBT was not significantly different according to molecular subtype (p = 0.213) but rather affected by tumour size, breast density and presence of mass or calcifications. Breast cancers showed different imaging features according to molecular subtype; however, it did not affect the cancer detectability on DBT. Advances in knowledge: DBT showed characteristic imaging features of breast cancers according to molecular subtype. However, cancer detectability on DBT was not affected by molecular subtype of breast cancers.

  12. High resolution PET breast imager with improved detection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw

    2010-06-08

    A highly efficient PET breast imager for detecting lesions in the entire breast including those located close to the patient's chest wall. The breast imager includes a ring of imaging modules surrounding the imaged breast. Each imaging module includes a slant imaging light guide inserted between a gamma radiation sensor and a photodetector. The slant light guide permits the gamma radiation sensors to be placed in close proximity to the skin of the chest wall thereby extending the sensitive region of the imager to the base of the breast. Several types of photodetectors are proposed for use in the detector modules, with compact silicon photomultipliers as the preferred choice, due to its high compactness. The geometry of the detector heads and the arrangement of the detector ring significantly reduce dead regions thereby improving detection efficiency for lesions located close to the chest wall.

  13. ULTRASOUND PULSE-ECHO IMAGING USING THE SPLIT-STEP FOURIER PROPAGATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUANG, LIANJIE [Los Alamos National Laboratory; QUAN, YOULI [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-31

    Ultrasonic reflection imaging has the potential to produce higher image resolution than transmission tomography, but imaging resolution and quality still need to be further improved for early cancer detection and diagnosis. We present an ultrasound reflection image reconstruction method using the split-step Fourier propagator. It is based on recursive inward continuation of ultrasonic wavefields in the frequency-space and frequency-wavenumber domains. The inward continuation within each extrapolation interval consists of two steps. In the first step, a phase-shift term is applied to the data in the frequency-wavenumber domain for propagation in a reference medium. The second step consists of applying another phase-shift term to data in the frequency-space domain to approximately compensate for ultrasonic scattering effects of heterogeneities within the breast. We use synthetic ultrasound pulse-echo data recorded around a ring for heterogeneous, computer-generated numerical breast phantoms to study the imaging capability of the method. The phantoms are derived from an experimental breast phantom and a sound-speed tomography image of an in-vivo ultrasound breast data collected usi ng a ring array. The heterogeneous sound-speed models used for pulse-echo imaging are obtained using a computationally efficient, first-arrival-time (time-of-flight) transmission tomography method. Our studies demonstrate that reflection image reconstruction using the split-step Fourier propagator with heterogeneous sound-speed models significantly improves image quality and resolution. We also numerically verify the spatial sampling criterion of wavefields for a ring transducer array.

  14. Optical Imaging of the Breast: Basic Principles and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Leo, Giovanni; Trimboli, Rubina Manuela; Sella, Tamar; Sardanelli, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this article is to summarize the physical principles, technology features, and first clinical applications of optical imaging techniques to the breast. Light-breast tissue interaction is expressed as absorption and scattering coefficients, allowing image reconstruction based on endogenous or exogenous contrast. Diffuse optical spectroscopy and imaging, fluorescence molecular tomography, photoacoustic imaging, and multiparametric infrared imaging show potential for clinical application, especially for lesion characterization, estimation of cancer probability, and monitoring the effect of neoadjuvant therapy.

  15. Breast imaging using waveform attenuation tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Sandhu, Gursharan Y.; Boone, Michael; Duric, Neb

    2017-03-01

    Ex vivo studies using our ultrasound waveform attenuation algorithm have shown promising results for detection and characterization of lesions of different types. Our preliminary in vivo study shows that the waveform attenuation image has much higher resolution and can better delineate breast lesions boundaries than the corresponding ray-based attenuation image. In this study, we preprocessed our time domain waveforms acquired with a ring array and explored the directional transducer beam pattern to better match calculated wave fields with respect to the acquired wave fields. We have applied waveform attenuation to in vivo data and compared the resulting waveform attenuation images with the ray-based counterparts to assess the resolution and accuracy of the waveform attenuation reconstruction.

  16. X-Ray Phase Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    a contrast -detail phantom, an acrylic step- edge, and a breast tissue-equivalent phantom. As current breast imaging ( mammography and breast... contrast enhancement of x-ray mam- mography: A design study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2853–2866 (1999). 6F. Arfelli et al., “ Mammography with synchrotron...breast tissue produces very low attenuation contrast [5–7], which presents a considerable challenge for cancer detection in mammography . Unfortunately

  17. Evaluation of scatter effects on image quality for breast tomosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Gang; Mainprize, James G.; Boone, John M.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis uses a limited number (typically 10–20) of low-dose x-ray projections to produce a pseudo-three-dimensional volume tomographic reconstruction of the breast. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize and evaluate the effect of scattered radiation on the image quality for breast tomosynthesis. In a simulation, scatter point spread functions generated by a Monte Carlo simulation method were convolved over the breast projection to estimate the distribution...

  18. Image to physical space registration of supine breast MRI for image guided breast surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Rebekah H.; Meszoely, Ingrid M.; Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Weis, Jared A.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2014-03-01

    Breast conservation therapy (BCT) is a desirable option for many women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer and involves a lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy. However, approximately 50% of eligible women will elect for mastectomy over BCT despite equal survival benefit (provided margins of excised tissue are cancer free) due to uncertainty in outcome with regards to complete excision of cancerous cells, risk of local recurrence, and cosmesis. Determining surgical margins intraoperatively is difficult and achieving negative margins is not as robust as it needs to be, resulting in high re-operation rates and often mastectomy. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) can provide detailed information about tumor margin extents, however diagnostic images are acquired in a fundamentally different patient presentation than that used in surgery. Therefore, the high quality diagnostic MRIs taken in the prone position with pendant breast are not optimal for use in surgical planning/guidance due to the drastic shape change between preoperative images and the common supine surgical position. This work proposes to investigate the value of supine MRI in an effort to localize tumors intraoperatively using image-guidance. Mock intraoperative setups (realistic patient positioning in non-sterile environment) and preoperative imaging data were collected from a patient scheduled for a lumpectomy. The mock intraoperative data included a tracked laser range scan of the patient's breast surface, tracked center points of MR visible fiducials on the patient's breast, and tracked B-mode ultrasound and strain images. The preoperative data included a supine MRI with visible fiducial markers. Fiducial markers localized in the MRI were rigidly registered to their mock intraoperative counterparts using an optically tracked stylus. The root mean square (RMS) fiducial registration error using the tracked markers was 3.4mm. Following registration, the average closest point distance between the MR

  19. CTD and sound speed profile data acquired in support of hydrographic multibeam surveys to meet NOAA/NOS, Office of Coast Survey charting requirements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multiple sensors are used to acquire sound speed profiles in the survey areas assigned to the ships and navigation response teams. Some vessels have CTDs and acquire...

  20. A pictorial essay of breast implant imaging and implant complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Gozde; Celik, Levent; Cubuk, Rahmi

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays as more breast conserving surgeries and mastectomies are being performed, more breast implants are being used. Follow-up of these patients is as important as treatment. We, radiologists should be aware of normal imaging appearance of implants during follow ups. We should also be aware of complications which we may encounter during controls. In our essay, we aim to show the normal and pathological appearence of implants by sharing ultrasound, mammography and MR images from our clinic. Breast, Implants, MRI, Rupture.

  1. Breast Density Analysis with Automated Whole-Breast Ultrasound: Comparison with 3-D Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Lee, Yan-Wei; Chan, Si-Wa; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a semi-automatic breast segmentation method was proposed on the basis of the rib shadow to extract breast regions from 3-D automated whole-breast ultrasound (ABUS) images. The density results were correlated with breast density values acquired with 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI images of 46 breasts were collected from 23 women without a history of breast disease. Each subject also underwent ABUS. We used Otsu's thresholding method on ABUS images to obtain local rib shadow information, which was combined with the global rib shadow information (extracted from all slice projections) and integrated with the anatomy's breast tissue structure to determine the chest wall line. The fuzzy C-means classifier was used to extract the fibroglandular tissues from the acquired images. Whole-breast volume (WBV) and breast percentage density (BPD) were calculated in both modalities. Linear regression was used to compute the correlation of density results between the two modalities. The consistency of density measurement was also analyzed on the basis of intra- and inter-operator variation. There was a high correlation of density results between MRI and ABUS (R(2) = 0.798 for WBV, R(2) = 0.825 for PBD). The mean WBV from ABUS images was slightly smaller than the mean WBV from MR images (MRI: 342.24 ± 128.08 cm(3), ABUS: 325.47 ± 136.16 cm(3), p images was smaller than the BPD from ABUS images (MRI: 24.71 ± 15.16%, ABUS: 28.90 ± 17.73%, p breast density measurement variation between the two modalities. Our results revealed a high correlation in WBV and BPD between MRI and ABUS. Our study suggests that ABUS provides breast density information useful in the assessment of breast health. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and Translation of Hybrid Optoacoustic/Ultrasonic Tomography for Early Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasonics , Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on 59(2), pp. 254 –264, 2012. 7. J. Jose, R. G. H. Willemink, W. Steenbergen, C. H... Symposium (IUS), 2013 IEEE International, July 2013, pp. 382–385. [12] C. Li, N. Duric, P. Littrup, and L. Huang, “In vivo breast sound-speed imaging with...imaging using a multiple-frequency DBIM approach,” IEEE . T. Ultrason . Ferr., vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 2471– 2479, November 2010. [20] A. J. Hesford and W

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of breast prostheses | Corr | SA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast MR imaging is the most accurate imaging investigation to detect breast prosthesis rupture. Rupture is common in older prostheses (> 10 years post implantation) and is often asymptomatic. The radiological signs of rupture are due to collapse of the elastomer shell which is eneveloped by silicone gel and when the ...

  4. Imaging Spectrums of the Male Breast Diseases: A Pictorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Ahn, Hye Kyung; Chung, Soo Young [Dept. of Radiology, Kangnam Scred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang Ik [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ah young [Dept. of Pathology, Kangnam Scred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Most described male breast lesions, such as gynecomastia, are benign. The overall incidence of male breast cancer is less than 3%. Like women, common presentations of male breast diseases are palpable lumps or tenderness. Physical examination, mammography and ultrasound are generally used for work-up of breast diseases in both women and men. However, men do not undergo screening mammograms; all male patients are examined in symptomatic cases only. Therefore, all male breast examinations are diagnostic, whereas the majority of the examinations for women are for screening purpose. The differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions is important, especially for men, because the reported prognosis of male breast cancer is poor due to delayed diagnosis. In this article, we review the spectrum of male breast diseases, from benign to malignant, and illustrate their ultrasonographic and mammographic imaging features.

  5. Resurrecting the Power-law, Intermediate, and Logamediate Inflations in the DBI Scenario with Constant Sound Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, Roonak; Rezazadeh, Kazem; Abdolmaleki, Asrin; Karami, Kayoomars

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the power-law, intermediate, and logamediate inflationary models in the framework of DBI non-canonical scalar field with constant sound speed. In the DBI setting, we first represent the power spectrum of both scalar density and tensor gravitational perturbations. Then, we derive different inflationary observables including the scalar spectral index n s , the running of the scalar spectral index {{dn}}s/d{ln}k, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. We show that the 95% CL constraint of the Planck 2015 T + E data on the non-Gaussianity parameter {f}{NL}{DBI} leads to the sound speed bound {c}s≥slant 0.087 in the DBI inflation. Moreover, our results imply that, although the predictions of the power-law, intermediate, and logamediate inflations in the standard canonical framework (c s = 1) are not consistent with the Planck 2015 data, in the DBI scenario with constant sound speed {c}s< 1, the result of the r-{n}s diagram for these models can lie inside the 68% CL region favored by Planck 2015 TT,TE,EE+lowP data. We also specify the parameter space of the power-law, intermediate, and logamediate inflations for which our models are compatible with the 68% or 95% CL regions of the Planck 2015 TT,TE,EE+lowP data. Using the allowed ranges of the parameter space of the intermediate and logamediate inflationary models, we estimate the running of the scalar spectral index and find that it is compatible with the 95% CL constraint from the Planck 2015 TT,TE,EE+lowP data.

  6. Breast cancer imaging: A perspective for the next decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karellas, Andrew; Vedantham, Srinivasan [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Breast imaging is largely indicated for detection, diagnosis, and clinical management of breast cancer and for evaluation of the integrity of breast implants. In this work, a prospective view of techniques for breast cancer detection and diagnosis is provided based on an assessment of current trends. The potential role of emerging techniques that are under various stages of research and development is also addressed. It appears that the primary imaging tool for breast cancer screening in the next decade will be high-resolution, high-contrast, anatomical x-ray imaging with or without depth information. MRI and ultrasonography will have an increasingly important adjunctive role for imaging high-risk patients and women with dense breasts. Pilot studies with dedicated breast CT have demonstrated high-resolution three-dimensional imaging capabilities, but several technological barriers must be overcome before clinical adoption. Radionuclide based imaging techniques and x-ray imaging with intravenously injected contrast offer substantial potential as a diagnostic tools and for evaluation of suspicious lesions. Developing optical and electromagnetic imaging techniques hold significant potential for physiologic information and they are likely to be of most value when integrated with or adjunctively used with techniques that provide anatomic information. Experimental studies with breast specimens suggest that phase-sensitive x-ray imaging techniques can provide edge enhancement and contrast improvement but more research is needed to evaluate their potential role in clinical breast imaging. From the technological perspective, in addition to improvements within each modality, there is likely to be a trend towards multi-modality systems that combine anatomic with physiologic information. We are also likely to transition from a standardized screening, where all women undergo the same imaging exam (mammography), to selection of a screening modality or modalities based an

  7. A review of biomechanically informed breast image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, John H.; Vavourakis, Vasileios; Han, Lianghao; Mertzanidou, Thomy; Eiben, Björn; Hawkes, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Breast radiology encompasses the full range of imaging modalities from routine imaging via x-ray mammography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound (both two- and three-dimensional), to more recent technologies such as digital breast tomosynthesis, and dedicated breast imaging systems for positron emission mammography and ultrasound tomography. In addition new and experimental modalities, such as Photoacoustics, Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Electrical Impedance Tomography etc, are emerging. The breast is a highly deformable structure however, and this greatly complicates visual comparison of imaging modalities for the purposes of breast screening, cancer diagnosis (including image guided biopsy), tumour staging, treatment monitoring, surgical planning and simulation of the effects of surgery and wound healing etc. Due primarily to the challenges posed by these gross, non-rigid deformations, development of automated methods which enable registration, and hence fusion, of information within and across breast imaging modalities, and between the images and the physical space of the breast during interventions, remains an active research field which has yet to translate suitable methods into clinical practice. This review describes current research in the field of breast biomechanical modelling and identifies relevant publications where the resulting models have been incorporated into breast image registration and simulation algorithms. Despite these developments there remain a number of issues that limit clinical application of biomechanical modelling. These include the accuracy of constitutive modelling, implementation of representative boundary conditions, failure to meet clinically acceptable levels of computational cost, challenges associated with automating patient-specific model generation (i.e. robust image segmentation and mesh generation) and the complexity of applying biomechanical modelling methods in routine clinical practice.

  8. Imaging Breast Density: Established and Emerging Modalities1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Gulsen, Gultekin; Su, Min-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density has been proven as an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Women with dense breast tissue visible on a mammogram have a much higher cancer risk than women with little density. A great research effort has been devoted to incorporate breast density into risk prediction models to better estimate each individual’s cancer risk. In recent years, the passage of breast density notification legislation in many states in USA requires that every mammography report should provide information regarding the patient’s breast density. Accurate definition and measurement of breast density are thus important, which may allow all the potential clinical applications of breast density to be implemented. Because the two-dimensional mammography-based measurement is subject to tissue overlapping and thus not able to provide volumetric information, there is an urgent need to develop reliable quantitative measurements of breast density. Various new imaging technologies are being developed. Among these new modalities, volumetric mammographic density methods and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging are the most well studied. Besides, emerging modalities, including different x-ray–based, optical imaging, and ultrasound-based methods, have also been investigated. All these modalities may either overcome some fundamental problems related to mammographic density or provide additional density and/or compositional information. The present review article aimed to summarize the current established and emerging imaging techniques for the measurement of breast density and the evidence of the clinical use of these density methods from the literature. PMID:26692524

  9. Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer: Role of RGD Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Dash, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women of all ages worldwide. With advances in molecular imaging procedures, it has been possible to detect breast cancer in its early stage, determine the extent of the disease to administer appropriate therapeutic protocol and also monitor the effects of treatment. By accurately characterizing the tumor properties and biological processes involved, molecular imaging can play a crucial role in minimizing the morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer. The integrin αvβ3 plays an important role in breast cancer angiogenesis and is expressed on tumor endothelial cells as well as on some tumor cells. It is a receptor for the extracellular matrix proteins with the exposed arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) tripeptide sequence and therefore RGD peptides can preferentially bind to integrin αvβ3. In this context, targeting tumor vasculature or tumor cells by RGD-based probes is a promising strategy for molecular imaging of breast cancer. Using RGD-based probes, several preclinical studies have employed different imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound and optical imaging for visualization of integrin αvβ3 expression in breast cancer models. Limited clinical trials using (18)F-labeled RGD peptides have also been initiated for non-invasive detection and staging of breast cancer. Herein, we provide a comprehensive overview of the latest advances in molecular imaging of breast cancer using RGD peptide-based probes and discuss the challenges and opportunities for advancement of the field. The reported strategies for molecular imaging of breast cancer using RGD peptide-based probes holds promise for making clinically translatable advances that can positively impact the overall diagnostic and therapeutic processes and result in improved quality of life for breast cancer patients.

  10. Heterogeneous Breast Phantom Development for Microwave Imaging Using Regression Models

    OpenAIRE

    Camerin Hahn; Sima Noghanian

    2012-01-01

    As new algorithms for microwave imaging emerge, it is important to have standard accurate benchmarking tests. Currently, most researchers use homogeneous phantoms for testing new algorithms. These simple structures lack the heterogeneity of the dielectric properties of human tissue and are inadequate for testing these algorithms for medical imaging. To adequately test breast microwave imaging algorithms, the phantom has to resemble different breast tissues physically and in terms of dielectri...

  11. Advances in Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Breast Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S; Vogel, A J; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2006-01-03

    A review is presented of recent advances in optical imaging and spectroscopy and the use of light for addressing breast cancer issues. Spectroscopic techniques offer the means to characterize tissue components and obtain functional information in real time. Three-dimensional optical imaging of the breast using various illumination and signal collection schemes in combination with image reconstruction algorithms may provide a new tool for cancer detection and monitoring of treatment.

  12. The use of imaging in patients post breast reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Y.T. [Department of Radiology, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Litherland, J.C., E-mail: Janet.Litherland@ggc.scot.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    Aim: To evaluate the usefulness of mammographic surveillance for asymptomatic patients and as a problem-solving tool in symptomatic patients with reconstructed breasts. Materials and methods: The imaging records over 4 years identified 227 patients with a history of breast reconstruction post-mastectomy due to cancer. Clinical and imaging records were reviewed to evaluate the use of imaging in the follow-up management of these patients. Results: Records showed that 116 (51%) of the patients identified underwent surveillance mammography of the reconstructed breast, in which one recurrent cancer was detected in an autologous tissue flap reconstruction (0.86% detection rate of non-palpable recurrent cancer), with a recall rate of 4%. One other patient had interval recurrence diagnosed following presentation with pain. Mammography of the contralateral breast only was performed in 111 patients. Fifty-four patients (24%) presented on 78 occasions with symptoms relating to the breast reconstructions, most commonly lump or swelling. Half of these patient episodes subsequently found no significant abnormality, and a further 29% had fat necrosis revealed on imaging. Four recurrent cancers were diagnosed. Conclusion: There is insufficient evidence for recommending routine surveillance mammography for non-palpable recurrent cancer in the reconstructed breasts. Ultrasound and mammography are useful imaging techniques in the assessment of reconstructed breasts in the symptomatic setting. Fat necrosis is the most common benign finding on mammograms of reconstructed breasts, both in the surveillance and symptomatic groups.

  13. Ultrasound imaging of the lactating breast: methodology and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geddes Donna T

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ultrasound imaging has been used extensively to detect abnormalities of the non-lactating breast. In contrast, the use of ultrasound for the investigation of pathology of the lactating breast is limited. Recent studies have re-examined the anatomy of the lactating breast highlighting features unique to this phase of breast development. These features should be taken into consideration along with knowledge of common lactation pathologies in order to make an accurate diagnosis when examining the lactating breast. Scanning techniques and ultrasound appearances of the normal lactating breast will be contrasted to those of the non-lactating breast. In addition ultrasound characteristics of common pathologies encountered during lactation will be described.

  14. Optimal laser wavelength for photoacoustic imaging of breast microcalcifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeeun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Young Kwak, Jin; Yoo, Yangmo; Song, Tai-Kyong; Ho Chang, Jin

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents photoacoustic imaging (PAI) for real-time detection of micro-scale calcifications (e.g., breast, which are an indicator of the cancer occurrence. Optimal wavelength of incident laser for the microcalcification imaging was ascertained through ex vivo experiments with seven breast specimens of volunteers. In the ex vivo experiments, the maximum amplitude of photoacoustic signals from the microcalcifications occurred when the laser wavelength ranged from 690 to 700 nm. This result demonstrated that PAI can serve as a real-time imaging and guidance tool for diagnosis and biopsy of the breast microcalcifications.

  15. Development of breast phantom for quality assessment of mammographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvelos, Jeniffer Miranda; Flores, Mabel Bustos; Amaral, Fernando; Rio, Margarita Chevalier del; Mourao, Arnaldo Prata, E-mail: jenifferarvelos00@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Biomedica; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), Madrid (Spain). Faculdad de Medicina. Departmento de Radiologia

    2017-11-01

    Diagnosis of breast cancer in young women may be impaired by the tissue composition of breast in this age group, as fibroglandular tissue is present in greater amount in young women and it has higher density than fibrous and fatty tissues which predominate in women older than 40 years old. The higher density of breast tissue makes it difficult to identify nodules in two-dimensional techniques, due to the overlapping of dense layers. Breast phantoms are used in evaluation and quality control of clinical images, and therefore, it is important to develop non-homogeneous phantoms that may better simulate a real breast. Grouped microcalcifications are often the earliest changes associated with malignant neoplasm of breast. In this work, a phantom was developed in the form of a compressed breast using acrylic resin blend. The resin blend used to fulfill the interior of the phantom has similar mammographic density to the one in fibroglandular tissue, representing a dense breast. The lesions were made of acrylic resin blend and calcium compounds that might simulate breast abnormalities, representing nodules, macrocalcifications and microcalcifications of different dimensions and densities. They were distributed into the ma-terial representing fibroglandular tissue. The developed phantom has a thickness of 1 cm, and it may be matched with other plates to represent a dense breast of thickness between 5 and 6 cm. The main goal of the project is to evaluate the sensitivity of detection of these calcifications in relation to their density and location in the breast in two-dimensional images generated in mammography equipment. Mammographic images allow the visualization of the changes implemented in the phantom. The developed phantom may be used in evaluation of diagnostic images generated through two-dimensional and three-dimensional images. (author)

  16. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies: multimodality imaging aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitencourt, Almir G V; Gama, Roberta R M; Graziano, Luciana; Negrão, Erika M S; Sabino, Silvia M P S; Watanabe, Anapaula H U; Guatelli, Camila S; Souza, Juliana A; Mauad, Edmundo C; Marques, Elvira F

    2017-08-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary cancers are rare and usually related to poor prognosis. The extramammary tumours most frequently exhibiting breast metastases are melanoma, lymphomas, ovarian cancer, lung and neuroendocrine tumours, and sarcomas. Owing to the lack of reliable and specific clinical or radiological signs for the diagnosis of breast metastases, a combination of techniques is needed to differentiate these lesions from primary breast carcinoma or even benign breast lesions. Multiple imaging methods may be used to evaluate these patients, including mammography, ultrasound, MRI, CT and positron emission tomography CT. Clinical and imaging manifestations are varied, depend on the form of dissemination of the disease and may mimic primary benign and malignant breast lesions. Haematologically disseminated metastases often develop as a circumscribed mass, whereas lymphatic dissemination often presents as diffuse breast oedema and skin thickening. Unlike primary carcinomas, breast metastases generally do not have spiculated margins, skin or nipple retraction. Microlobulated or indistinct margins may be present in some cases. Although calcifications are not frequently present in metastatic lesions, they occur more commonly in patients with ovarian cancer. Although rare, secondary malignant neoplasms should be considered in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions, in the appropriate clinical setting. Knowledge of the most common imaging features can help to provide the correct diagnosis and adequate therapeutic planning.

  17. MR imaging characteristics of breast cancer diagnosed during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Won; Lim, Hyo Soon; Moon, Sung Min; Kim, Jin Woong; Shin, Sang Soo; Heo, Suk Hee; Lee, Ji Shin; Park, Min Ho

    2017-10-01

    To describe the MR imaging characteristics of breast cancer diagnosed during lactation and evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging. The MR images of nine patients (age range, 29-37 years) with pathologically confirmed breast carcinoma during lactation were evaluated retrospectively. Background parenchymal enhancement of the lactating mammary tissue was determined. The images were reviewed for evaluation of lesion detection, enhancement type (mass/non-mass), shape, margin, contrast enhancement and time-intensity curve pattern in the dynamic study. The breast MR images after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were also reviewed. Although the breasts showed marked (n = 7) or moderate (n = 2) background parenchymal enhancement, MR imaging depicted breast cancer in all patients. All nine tumours were visible as masses. The most common shape and margin of the masses were an irregular mass (n = 5) with an irregular margin (n = 9). Contrast enhancement was heterogeneous or rim enhancement. The predominant kinetic pattern was rapid increase (n = 9) in the initial phase and washout (n = 5) in the delayed phase. Additional sites of cancer other than the index lesion were detected with MR imaging in three patients (33.3%). MR imaging demonstrated partial response in five of six patients who were evaluated for response to chemotherapy. All breast cancers in lactating females in this study were observed on breast MR imaging despite the moderate-to-marked background parenchymal enhancement of lactating mammary tissue. Advances in knowledge: MR imaging can be used in the evaluation of disease extent and assessment of therapeutic response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer diagnosed during lactation.

  18. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging of breast lesions: Initial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to investigate whether adding diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) to dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) could improve specificity and the positive predictive value (PPV) of breast MRI in differentiating benign and malignant focal breast mass lesions. Materials and methods: ...

  19. Zr-89- Bevacizumab PET Imaging in Primary Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaykema, Sietske B. M.; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N.; Pleijhuis, Rick G.; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Pot, Linda; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; van der Meulen, Sibylle B.; de Jong, Johan R.; Bart, Joost; de Vries, Jakob; Jansen, Liesbeth; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Schroder, Carolien P.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A is overexpressed in most malignant and premalignant breast lesions. VEGF-A can be visualized noninvasively with PET imaging and using the tracer Zr-89-labeled bevacizumab. In this clinical feasibility study, we assessed whether VEGF-A in primary breast

  20. A 3-D Level Set Method for Microwave Breast Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Timothy J; Hagness, Susan C; Van Veen, Barry D

    2015-10-01

    Conventional inverse-scattering algorithms for microwave breast imaging result in moderate resolution images with blurred boundaries between tissues. Recent 2-D numerical microwave imaging studies demonstrate that the use of a level set method preserves dielectric boundaries, resulting in a more accurate, higher resolution reconstruction of the dielectric properties distribution. Previously proposed level set algorithms are computationally expensive, and thus, impractical in 3-D. In this paper, we present a computationally tractable 3-D microwave imaging algorithm based on level sets. We reduce the computational cost of the level set method using a Jacobian matrix, rather than an adjoint method, to calculate Frechet derivatives. We demonstrate the feasibility of 3-D imaging using simulated array measurements from 3-D numerical breast phantoms. We evaluate performance by comparing full 3-D reconstructions to those from a conventional microwave imaging technique. We also quantitatively assess the efficacy of our algorithm in evaluating breast density. Our reconstructions of 3-D numerical breast phantoms improve upon those of a conventional microwave imaging technique. The density estimates from our level set algorithm are more accurate than those of the conventional microwave imaging, and the accuracy is greater than that reported for mammographic density estimation. Our level set method leads to a feasible level of computational complexity for full 3-D imaging, and reconstructs the heterogeneous dielectric properties distribution of the breast more accurately than conventional microwave imaging methods. 3-D microwave breast imaging using a level set method is a promising low-cost, nonionizing alternative to current breast imaging techniques.

  1. Automated chest wall line detection for whole-breast segmentation in sagittal breast MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shandong; Weinstein, Susan P; Conant, Emily F; Schnall, Mitchell D; Kontos, Despina

    2013-04-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the clinical management of breast cancer. Computerized analysis is increasingly used to quantify breast MRI features in applications such as computer-aided lesion detection and fibroglandular tissue estimation for breast cancer risk assessment. Automated segmentation of the whole-breast as an organ from the other parts imaged is an important step in aiding lesion localization and fibroglandular tissue quantification. For this task, identifying the chest wall line (CWL) is most challenging due to image contrast variations, intensity discontinuity, and bias field. In this work, the authors develop and validate a fully automated image processing algorithm for accurate delineation of the CWL in sagittal breast MRI. The CWL detection is based on an integrated scheme of edge extraction and CWL candidate evaluation. The edge extraction consists of applying edge-enhancing filters and an edge linking algorithm. Increased accuracy is achieved by the synergistic use of multiple image inputs for edge extraction, where multiple CWL candidates are evaluated by the dynamic time warping algorithm coupled with the construction of a CWL reference. Their method is quantitatively validated by a dataset of 60 3D bilateral sagittal breast MRI scans (in total 3360 2D MR slices) that span the full American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density range. Agreement with manual segmentation obtained by an experienced breast imaging radiologist is assessed by both volumetric and boundary-based metrics, including four quantitative measures. In terms of breast volume agreement with manual segmentation, the overlay percentage expressed by the Dice's similarity coefficient is 95.0% and the difference percentage is 10.1%. More specifically, for the segmentation accuracy of the CWL boundary, the CWL overlay percentage is 92.7% and averaged deviation distance is 2.3 mm. Their method

  2. Breast Imaging: How We Manage Diagnostic Technology at a Multidisciplinary Breast Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Tejerina Bernal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the most important aspects and problems related to the management of breast cancer imaging, at a center specialized in breast pathology. We review the established and emerging diagnostic techniques, their indications, and peculiarities: digital mammography, CAD systems, and the recent digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound and complementary elastography, molecular imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging, advanced sequences (diffusion, and positron emission mammography (PEM. The adequate integration and rational management of these techniques is essential, but this is not always easy, in order to achieve a successful diagnosis.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of breast prostheses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G5

    by silicone gel and when the silicone gel separates the elastomer shell from the sur- rounding fibrous breast capsule. Introduction. Breast implantation using prostheses is becoming a common plastic surgical proce- dure in this country. In the USA between 1 and 2 million women have had breast implantation procedures.1.

  4. A Selective Ensemble Classification Method Combining Mammography Images with Ultrasound Images for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Cong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer has been one of the main diseases that threatens women’s life. Early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer play an important role in reducing mortality of breast cancer. In this paper, we propose a selective ensemble method integrated with the KNN, SVM, and Naive Bayes to diagnose the breast cancer combining ultrasound images with mammography images. Our experimental results have shown that the selective classification method with an accuracy of 88.73% and sensitivity of 97.06% is efficient for breast cancer diagnosis. And indicator R presents a new way to choose the base classifier for ensemble learning.

  5. Multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared imaging of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, E.; Audit, B.; Roux, S. G.; Khalil, A.; Argoul, F.; Naimark, O.; Arneodo, A.

    2013-12-01

    The wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method was used in a multifractal analysis of skin breast temperature time-series recorded using dynamic infrared (IR) thermography. Multifractal scaling was found for healthy breasts as the signature of a continuous change in the shape of the probability density function (pdf) of temperature fluctuations across time scales from \\sim0.3 to 3 s. In contrast, temperature time-series from breasts with malignant tumors showed homogeneous monofractal temperature fluctuations statistics. These results highlight dynamic IR imaging as a very valuable non-invasive technique for preliminary screening in asymptomatic women to identify those with risk of breast cancer.

  6. Quantitative analysis of breast echotexture patterns in automated breast ultrasound images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ruey-Feng [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan and Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hou, Yu-Ling [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lo, Chung-Ming [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chiun-Sheng [Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jeon-Hor [Department of Radiology, E-Da Hospital and I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan and Tu and Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging and Department of Radiological Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Kim, Won Hwa; Chang, Jung Min; Bae, Min Sun; Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Breast tissue composition is considered to be associated with breast cancer risk. This study aimed to develop a computer-aided classification (CAC) system to automatically classify echotexture patterns as heterogeneous or homogeneous using automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) images. Methods: A CAC system was proposed that can recognize breast echotexture patterns in ABUS images. For each case, the echotexture pattern was assessed by two expert radiologists and classified as heterogeneous or homogeneous. After neutrosophic image transformation and fuzzy c-mean clusterings, the lower and upper boundaries of the fibroglandular tissues were defined. Then, the number of hypoechoic regions and histogram features were extracted from the fibroglandular tissues, and the support vector machine model with the leave-one-out cross-validation method was utilized as the classifier. The authors’ database included a total of 208 ABUS images of the breasts of 104 females. Results: The accuracies of the proposed system for the classification of heterogeneous and homogeneous echotexture patterns were 93.48% (43/46) and 92.59% (150/162), respectively, with an overall Az (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) of 0.9786. The agreement between the radiologists and the proposed system was almost perfect, with a kappa value of 0.814. Conclusions: The use of ABUS and the proposed method can provide quantitative information on the echotexture patterns of the breast and can be used to evaluate whether breast echotexture patterns are associated with breast cancer risk in the future.

  7. Imaging breast tumor vascularization for detection and diagnosis of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijblom, M.; Klaase, J.M.; van den Engh, F.M.; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in western women. Current screening and diagnostic imaging modalities, like x-ray mammography and ultrasonography, focus on morphological changes of breast tissue. However, these techniques still miss some cancers and often falsely

  8. Classification of breast cancer histology images using Convolutional Neural Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teresa Araújo; Guilherme Aresta; Eduardo Castro; José Rouco; Paulo Aguiar; Catarina Eloy; António Polónia; Aurélio Campilho

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of cancer death worldwide. The diagnosis of biopsy tissue with hematoxylin and eosin stained images is non-trivial and specialists often disagree on the final diagnosis...

  9. Non-Gaussian statistical properties of breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Nosratieh, Anita; Sohl-Dickstein, Jascha; Yang, Kai; Boone, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Several studies have shown that the power spectrum of x-ray breast images is well described by a power-law at lower frequencies where anatomical variability dominates. However, an image generated from a Gaussian process with this spectrum is easily distinguished from an image of actual breast tissue by eye. This demonstrates that higher order non-Gaussian statistical properties of mammograms are readily accessible to the visual system. The authors’ purpose is to quantify and characterize non-Gaussian statistical properties of breast images as influenced by processing of a digital mammogram, different imaging modalities, and breast density. Methods: To quantify non-Gaussian statistical properties, the authors consider histograms of filter responses from the interior of a breast image that have similar properties to receptive fields in the early visual system. They quantify departure from a Gaussian distribution by the relative entropy of the histogram compared to a best-fit Gaussian distribution. This entropy is normalized by the relative entropy of a best-fit Laplacian distribution into a measure they refer to as Laplacian fractional entropy (LFE). They test the LFE on a set of 26 patients recalled at screening for which they have available full-field digital mammography (FFDM), digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), and dedicated breast CT (bCT) images as well as breast density scores and biopsy results. Results: A study of LFE in FFDM comparing the raw “for-processing” transmission data from the device to log-converted density estimates and the processed “for-display” data shows that processing mammographic image data enhances the non-Gaussian content of the image. A check of the methodology using a Gaussian process with a power-law power spectrum shows relatively little bias from the finite extent of the region of interests used. A second study comparing LFE across FFDM, DBT, and bCT modalities shows that each maximized the non-Gaussian content

  10. New developments in medical imaging to detect breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical imaging modalities are used to detect breast cancer, the most common being X-rays (mammography), ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and various radionuclide techniques.2. The purpose of this article is to review these and other novel medical imaging modalities. The American College of Radiology ...

  11. Evaluation of scatter effects on image quality for breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Gang; Mainprize, James G.; Boone, John M.; Yaffe, Martin J. [Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, S-657, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiology, X-ray Imaging Laboratory, U. C. Davis Medical Center, 4701 X Street, Sacramento, California 95817 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, S-657, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    Digital breast tomosynthesis uses a limited number (typically 10-20) of low-dose x-ray projections to produce a pseudo-three-dimensional volume tomographic reconstruction of the breast. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize and evaluate the effect of scattered radiation on the image quality for breast tomosynthesis. In a simulation, scatter point spread functions generated by a Monte Carlo simulation method were convolved over the breast projection to estimate the distribution of scatter for each angle of tomosynthesis projection. The results demonstrate that in the absence of scatter reduction techniques, images will be affected by cupping artifacts, and there will be reduced accuracy of attenuation values inferred from the reconstructed images. The effect of x-ray scatter on the contrast, noise, and lesion signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR) in tomosynthesis reconstruction was measured as a function of the tumor size. When a with-scatter reconstruction was compared to one without scatter for a 5 cm compressed breast, the following results were observed. The contrast in the reconstructed central slice image of a tumorlike mass (14 mm in diameter) was reduced by 30%, the voxel value (inferred attenuation coefficient) was reduced by 28%, and the SDNR fell by 60%. The authors have quantified the degree to which scatter degrades the image quality over a wide range of parameters relevant to breast tomosynthesis, including x-ray beam energy, breast thickness, breast diameter, and breast composition. They also demonstrate, though, that even without a scatter rejection device, the contrast and SDNR in the reconstructed tomosynthesis slice are higher than those of conventional mammographic projection images acquired with a grid at an equivalent total exposure.

  12. Evaluation of scatter effects on image quality for breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Mainprize, James G; Boone, John M; Yaffe, Martin J

    2009-10-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis uses a limited number (typically 10-20) of low-dose x-ray projections to produce a pseudo-three-dimensional volume tomographic reconstruction of the breast. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize and evaluate the effect of scattered radiation on the image quality for breast tomosynthesis. In a simulation, scatter point spread functions generated by a Monte Carlo simulation method were convolved over the breast projection to estimate the distribution of scatter for each angle of tomosynthesis projection. The results demonstrate that in the absence of scatter reduction techniques, images will be affected by cupping artifacts, and there will be reduced accuracy of attenuation values inferred from the reconstructed images. The effect of x-ray scatter on the contrast, noise, and lesion signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR) in tomosynthesis reconstruction was measured as a function of the tumor size. When a with-scatter reconstruction was compared to one without scatter for a 5 cm compressed breast, the following results were observed. The contrast in the reconstructed central slice image of a tumorlike mass (14 mm in diameter) was reduced by 30%, the voxel value (inferred attenuation coefficient) was reduced by 28%, and the SDNR fell by 60%. The authors have quantified the degree to which scatter degrades the image quality over a wide range of parameters relevant to breast tomosynthesis, including x-ray beam energy, breast thickness, breast diameter, and breast composition. They also demonstrate, though, that even without a scatter rejection device, the contrast and SDNR in the reconstructed tomosynthesis slice are higher than those of conventional mammographic projection images acquired with a grid at an equivalent total exposure.

  13. Speckle reduction approach for breast ultrasound image and its application to breast cancer diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Yanxin; Wang Hong; Wang Ying [Ultrasound Department, Second Affiliated Hospital, Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Myocardial Ischemia Mechanism and Treatment, Harbin Medical University, 148 Baojian Road, Harbin 150086, Heilongjiang (China); Guo Yanhui; Cheng Hengda; Zhang Yingtao [School of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Tian Jiawei, E-mail: jwtian2004@yahoo.com.c [Ultrasound Department, Second Affiliated Hospital, Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Myocardial Ischemia Mechanism and Treatment, Harbin Medical University, 148 Baojian Road, Harbin 150086, Heilongjiang (China)

    2010-07-15

    Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate the effects of a speckle reduction algorithm on radiologists' diagnosis of malignant and benign breast lesions on ultrasound (US) images. Methods: Using a database of 603 breast (US) images of 211 cases (109 benign lesions and 102 malignant ones), the original and speckle-reduced images were assessed by five radiologists and final assessment categories were assigned to indicate the probability of malignancy according to BI-RADS-US. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were investigated by the areas (Az) under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of breast lesions on Ultrasound images improved from 88.7% to 94.3%, from 68.6% to 75.2%, respectively, and the area (Az) under ROC curve of diagnosis also increased from 0.843 to 0.939, Z = 4.969, there were significant differences in the Az between the original breast lesions and speckle-reduced ones on Ultrasound images (P < 0.001). The diagnostic accuracy of breast lesions had been highly improved from 78.67% to 92.73% after employing this algorithm. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the promising performance of the proposed speckle reduction algorithm in distinguishing malignant from benign breast lesions which will be useful for breast cancer diagnosis.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of benign phyllodes tumors of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takayuki; Fukutomi, Takashi; Kubochi, Kiyoshi

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to become a useful adjunct in breast imaging. Contrast-enhanced breast MRI has demonstrated a high sensitivity in the detection of benign and malignant breast disease. Our study aimed to correlate the dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI appearance of benign phyllodes tumor of the breast with histopathologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed the MRI findings in eight patients with benign phyllodes tumor of the breast to describe the image characteristics of this disease. The architectural features and enhancement patterns of this tumor were assessed and compared with other breast diseases. MRIs demonstrated some characteristics for large benign phyllodes tumors (more than 3 cm in size). On T(2)-weighted images, they were imaged as spotted tumors in high to iso signal intensity with cystic components or septations inside. In the time-signal intensity curve for the eight patients in our study who underwent dynamic MRI, we demonstrated two patterns of their curve: rapidly and gradually enhanced. In conclusion, MRI findings in benign phyllodes tumor include dynamic curves of gradually and rapidly enhancing types, and a low and inhomogeneous signal intensity on T(2)-weighted images compared with fibroadenoma. These findings appear to be useful for diagnosis.

  15. Computational simulation of breast compression based on segmented breast and fibroglandular tissues on magnetic resonance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Liu, Dongxu; Nie, Ke; Sun, Lizhi; Lin, Muqing; Chang, Daniel; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Su, Min-Ying

    2010-07-01

    This study presents a finite element-based computational model to simulate the three-dimensional deformation of a breast and fibroglandular tissues under compression. The simulation was based on 3D MR images of the breast, and craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique compression, as used in mammography, was applied. The geometry of the whole breast and the segmented fibroglandular tissues within the breast were reconstructed using triangular meshes by using the Avizo® 6.0 software package. Due to the large deformation in breast compression, a finite element model was used to simulate the nonlinear elastic tissue deformation under compression, using the MSC.Marc® software package. The model was tested in four cases. The results showed a higher displacement along the compression direction compared to the other two directions. The compressed breast thickness in these four cases at a compression ratio of 60% was in the range of 5-7 cm, which is a typical range of thickness in mammography. The projection of the fibroglandular tissue mesh at a compression ratio of 60% was compared to the corresponding mammograms of two women, and they demonstrated spatially matched distributions. However, since the compression was based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has much coarser spatial resolution than the in-plane resolution of mammography, this method is unlikely to generate a synthetic mammogram close to the clinical quality. Whether this model may be used to understand the technical factors that may impact the variations in breast density needs further investigation. Since this method can be applied to simulate compression of the breast at different views and different compression levels, another possible application is to provide a tool for comparing breast images acquired using different imaging modalities--such as MRI, mammography, whole breast ultrasound and molecular imaging--that are performed using different body positions and under different compression

  16. A minimum spanning forest based classification method for dedicated breast CT images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, R.; Sechopoulos, I.; Fei, B.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop and test an automated algorithm to classify different types of tissue in dedicated breast CT images. METHODS: Images of a single breast of five different patients were acquired with a dedicated breast CT clinical prototype. The breast CT images were processed by a multiscale

  17. Imaging dose in breast radiotherapy: does breast size affect the dose to the organs at risk and the risk of secondary cancer to the contralateral breast?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batumalai, Vikneswary, E-mail: vikneswary.batumalai@sswahs.nsw.gov.au [Liverpool Cancer Therapy Centre and Ingham Institute, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); South Western Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Quinn, Alexandra; Jameson, Michael [Liverpool Cancer Therapy Centre and Ingham Institute, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia); Delaney, Geoff [Liverpool Cancer Therapy Centre and Ingham Institute, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); South Western Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Collaboration for Cancer Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Holloway, Lois [Liverpool Cancer Therapy Centre and Ingham Institute, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); South Western Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia); School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-03-15

    Correct target positioning is crucial for accurate dose delivery in breast radiotherapy resulting in utilisation of daily imaging. However, the radiation dose from daily imaging is associated with increased probability of secondary induced cancer. The aim of this study was to quantify doses associated with three imaging modalities and investigate the correlation of dose and varying breast size in breast radiotherapy. Planning computed tomography (CT) data sets of 30 breast cancer patients were utilised to simulate the dose received by various organs from a megavoltage computed tomography (MV-CT), megavoltage electronic portal image (MV-EPI) and megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT). The mean dose to organs adjacent to the target volume (contralateral breast, lungs, spinal cord and heart) were analysed. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between imaging dose and primary breast volume and the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of induced secondary cancer was calculated for the contralateral breast. The highest contralateral breast mean dose was from the MV-CBCT (1.79 Gy), followed by MV-EPI (0.22 Gy) and MV-CT (0.11 Gy). A similar trend was found for all organs at risk (OAR) analysed. The primary breast volume inversely correlated with the contralateral breast dose for all three imaging modalities. As the primary breast volume increases, the likelihood of a patient developing a radiation-induced secondary cancer to the contralateral breast decreases. MV-CBCT showed a stronger relationship between breast size and LAR of developing a radiation-induced contralateral breast cancer in comparison with the MV-CT and MV-EPI. For breast patients, imaging dose to OAR depends on imaging modality and treated breast size. When considering the use of imaging during breast radiotherapy, the patient's breast size and contralateral breast dose should be taken into account.

  18. Computerized image analysis: estimation of breast density on mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Chan, H P; Petrick, N; Helvie, M A; Goodsitt, M M; Sahiner, B; Hadjiiski, L M

    2001-06-01

    An automated image analysis tool is being developed for the estimation of mammographic breast density. This tool may be useful for risk estimation or for monitoring breast density change in prevention or intervention programs. In this preliminary study, a data set of 4-view mammograms from 65 patients was used to evaluate our approach. Breast density analysis was performed on the digitized mammograms in three stages. First, the breast region was segmented from the surrounding background by an automated breast boundary-tracking algorithm. Second, an adaptive dynamic range compression technique was applied to the breast image to reduce the range of the gray level distribution in the low frequency background and to enhance the differences in the characteristic features of the gray level histogram for breasts of different densities. Third, rule-based classification was used to classify the breast images into four classes according to the characteristic features of their gray level histogram. For each image, a gray level threshold was automatically determined to segment the dense tissue from the breast region. The area of segmented dense tissue as a percentage of the breast area was then estimated. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, the computer segmentation results were compared to manual segmentation with interactive thresholding by five radiologists. A "true" percent dense area for each mammogram was obtained by averaging the manually segmented areas of the radiologists. We found that the histograms of 6% (8 CC and 8 MLO views) of the breast regions were misclassified by the computer, resulting in poor segmentation of the dense region. For the images with correct classification, the correlation between the computer-estimated percent dense area and the "truth" was 0.94 and 0.91, respectively, for CC and MLO views, with a mean bias of less than 2%. The mean biases of the five radiologists' visual estimates for the same images ranged from 0.1% to 11%. The

  19. Imaging breast lesions using the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope: ongoing clinical experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijblom, M.; Piras, D.; Xia, W.; van Hespen, Johannes C.G.; Klaase, J.M.; van den Engh, F.M.; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2012-01-01

    Current imaging modalities are often not able to detect early stages of breast cancer with high imaging contrast. Visualizing malignancy-associated increased hemoglobin concentrations might improve breast cancer diagnosis. Photoacoustic imaging can visualize hemoglobin in tissue with optical

  20. Appropriate Contrast Enhancement Measures for Brain and Breast Cancer Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Suneet; Porwal, Rabins

    2016-01-01

    Medical imaging systems often produce images that require enhancement, such as improving the image contrast as they are poor in contrast. Therefore, they must be enhanced before they are examined by medical professionals. This is necessary for proper diagnosis and subsequent treatment. We do have various enhancement algorithms which enhance the medical images to different extents. We also have various quantitative metrics or measures which evaluate the quality of an image. This paper suggests the most appropriate measures for two of the medical images, namely, brain cancer images and breast cancer images.

  1. Appropriate Contrast Enhancement Measures for Brain and Breast Cancer Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneet Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging systems often produce images that require enhancement, such as improving the image contrast as they are poor in contrast. Therefore, they must be enhanced before they are examined by medical professionals. This is necessary for proper diagnosis and subsequent treatment. We do have various enhancement algorithms which enhance the medical images to different extents. We also have various quantitative metrics or measures which evaluate the quality of an image. This paper suggests the most appropriate measures for two of the medical images, namely, brain cancer images and breast cancer images.

  2. Targeted Silver Nanoparticles for Dual-Energy Breast X-Ray Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    the applicability of AgNP as contrast agents for use in DE-CE digital breast tomosynthesis and digital mammography . Three objectives have been...silver (Ag) nanoparticle (NP) contrast agent optimized for dual- energy (DE) contrast -enhanced (CE) breast x-ray imaging. CE digital breast imaging...provides an accurate method for decomposition of images into distinct breast tissue and contrast agent signals. At present, DE-CE breast imaging is

  3. Breast image pre-processing for mammographic tissue segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenda; Hogg, Peter; Juette, Arne; Denton, Erika R E; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

    2015-12-01

    During mammographic image acquisition, a compression paddle is used to even the breast thickness in order to obtain optimal image quality. Clinical observation has indicated that some mammograms may exhibit abrupt intensity change and low visibility of tissue structures in the breast peripheral areas. Such appearance discrepancies can affect image interpretation and may not be desirable for computer aided mammography, leading to incorrect diagnosis and/or detection which can have a negative impact on sensitivity and specificity of screening mammography. This paper describes a novel mammographic image pre-processing method to improve image quality for analysis. An image selection process is incorporated to better target problematic images. The processed images show improved mammographic appearances not only in the breast periphery but also across the mammograms. Mammographic segmentation and risk/density classification were performed to facilitate a quantitative and qualitative evaluation. When using the processed images, the results indicated more anatomically correct segmentation in tissue specific areas, and subsequently better classification accuracies were achieved. Visual assessments were conducted in a clinical environment to determine the quality of the processed images and the resultant segmentation. The developed method has shown promising results. It is expected to be useful in early breast cancer detection, risk-stratified screening, and aiding radiologists in the process of decision making prior to surgery and/or treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment and Development of Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Damsgaard

    . This implies that special care must be taken when the imaging problem is formulated. Under such conditions, microwave imaging systems will most often be considerably more sensitive to changes in the electromagnetic properties in certain regions of the breast. The result is that the parameters might......, the distribution of the constitutive parameters is updated in each iteration based on a comparison between the measured signals and the signals computed by a full-wave electromagnetic solver for the assumed distribution of parameters. In this work, a study on development and improvement of the imaging algorithm...... used in the microwave tomographic imaging system is presented. Non-linear microwave tomographic imaging of the breast is a challenging computational problem. The breast is heterogeneous and contains several high-contrast and lossy regions, resulting in large differences in the measured signal levels...

  5. Imaging features of automated breast volume scanner: Correlation with molecular subtypes of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feng-Yang; Lu, Qing; Huang, Bei-Jian; Xia, Han-Sheng; Yan, Li-Xia; Wang, Xi; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Wen-Ping

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between the imaging features obtained by an automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) and molecular subtypes of breast cancer. We examined 303 malignant breast tumours by ABVS for specific imaging features and by immunohistochemical analysis to determine the molecular subtype. ABVS imaging features, including retraction phenomenon, shape, margins, echogenicity, post-acoustic features, echogenic halo, and calcifications were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine the significant predictive factors of the molecular subtypes. By univariate logistic regression analysis, the predictive factors of the Luminal-A subtype (n=128) were retraction phenomenon (odds ratio [OR]=10.188), post-acoustic shadowing (OR=5.112), and echogenic halo (OR=3.263, Pimaging features, especially retraction phenomenon, have a strong correlation with the molecular subtypes, expanding the scope of ultrasound in identifying breast cancer subtypes with confidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Women’s experiences and preferences regarding breast imaging after completing breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandzel S

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Susan Brandzel,1 Dori E Rosenberg,1 Dianne Johnson,1 Mary Bush,1 Karla Kerlikowske,2–5 Tracy Onega,6,7 Louise Henderson,8 Larissa Nekhlyudov,9,10 Wendy DeMartini,11 Karen J Wernli1 1Group Health Research Institute, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Epidemiology, 4Department of Biostatistics, 5Department of Veterans Affairs, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 6Department of Biomedical Data Science, 7Department of Epidemiology, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH, 8Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 9Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 10Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, 11Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Background: After treatment for breast cancer, most women receive an annual surveillance mammography to look for subsequent breast cancers. Supplemental breast MRI is sometimes used in addition to mammography despite the lack of clinical evidence for it. Breast imaging after cancer treatment is an emotionally charged experience, an important part of survivorship care, and a topic about which limited patient information exists. We assessed women’s experiences and preferences about breast cancer surveillance imaging with the goal of determining where gaps in care and knowledge could be filled. Participants and methods: We conducted six focus groups with a convenience sample of 41 women in California, North Carolina, and New Hampshire (USA. Participants were aged 38–75 years, had experienced stage 0–III breast cancer within the previous 5 years, and had completed initial treatment. We used inductive thematic analysis to identify key themes from verbatim transcripts. Results: Women reported various types and frequencies of surveillance imaging and a range of surveillance imaging

  7. Development of a dynamic 4D anthropomorphic breast phantom for contrast-based breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiarashi, Nooshin; Lin, Yuan; Segars, William P.; Ghate, Sujata V.; Ikejimba, Lynda; Chen, Baiyu; Lo, Joseph Y.; Dobbins, James T., III; Nolte, Loren W.; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-03-01

    Mammography is currently the most widely accepted tool for detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, the sensitivity of mammography is reduced in women with dense breast tissue due to tissue overlap, which may obscure lesions. Digital breast tomosynthesis with contrast enhancement reduces tissue overlap and provides additional functional information about lesions (i.e. morphology and kinetics), which in turn may improve lesion characterization. The performance of such techniques is highly dependent on the structural composition of the breast, which varies significantly across patients. Therefore, optimization of breast imaging systems should be done with respect to this patient versatility. Furthermore, imaging techniques that employ contrast require the inclusion of a temporally varying breast composition with respect to the contrast agent kinetics to enable the optimization of the system. To these ends, we have developed a dynamic 4D anthropomorphic breast phantom, which can be used for optimizing a breast imaging system by incorporating material characteristics. The presented dynamic phantom is based on two recently developed anthropomorphic breast phantoms, which can be representative of a whole population through their randomized anatomical feature generation and various compression levels. The 4D dynamic phantom is incorporated with the kinetics of contrast agent uptake in different tissues and can realistically model benign and malignant lesions. To demonstrate the utility of the proposed dynamic phantom, contrast-enhanced digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis were simulated where a ray-tracing algorithm emulated the projections, a filtered back projection algorithm was used for reconstruction, and dual-energy and temporal subtractions were performed and compared.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Breast Interventions: Role in Biopsy Targeting and Lumpectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombos, Eva C; Jagadeesan, Jayender; Richman, Danielle M; Kacher, Daniel F

    2015-11-01

    Contrast-enhanced breast MR imaging is increasingly being used to diagnose breast cancer and to perform biopsy procedures. The American Cancer Society has advised women at high risk for breast cancer to have breast MR imaging screening as an adjunct to screening mammography. This article places special emphasis on biopsy and operative planning involving MR imaging and reviews use of breast MR imaging in monitoring response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Described are peer-reviewed data on currently accepted MR imaging-guided procedures for addressing benign and malignant breast diseases, including intraoperative imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrated imaging of breast hamartoma: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucci, Eleonora; Santoro, Angela; Di Gesú, Cinzia; Ciuffreda, Matteo; Maselli, Giuseppina; Pierro, Antonio; Sallustio, Giuseppina

    2015-01-01

    Hamartoma of the breast is an uncommon, benign, slow-growing mass usually diagnosed in women in the fourth and fifth decade of life undergoing mammography (MX). Here we report two cases of hamartoma of the breast assessed by integrated MX, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. Case 1 was an asymptomatic 47-year-old woman who had never been screened previously. A 90 mm mass was found in her left breast on MX. Case 2 was a 35-year-old woman with pain in her right breast where a 50 mm mass was found on MX. Both patients underwent MRI examination. Breast MRI is an adjunct to MX that can confirm hamartoma diagnosis and exclude rare malignant transformation.

  10. Quantification of background enhancement in breast magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klifa, C; Suzuki, S; Aliu, S; Singer, L; Wilmes, L; Newitt, D; Joe, B; Hylton, N

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To present a novel technique for measuring tissue enhancement in breast fibroglandular tissue regions on contrast-enhanced breast MR images aimed at quantifying the enhancement of breast parenchyma, also known as “background enhancement”. Materials and Methods Our quantitative method for measuring breast MRI background enhancement was evaluated in a population of 16 healthy volunteers. We also demonstrate the use of our new technique in the case study of one subject classified as high risk for developing breast cancer who underwent 3 months of tamoxifen therapy. Results We obtained quantitative measures of background enhancement in all cases. The high-risk patient exhibited a 37% mean reduction in background enhancement with treatment. Conclusion Our quantitative method is a robust and promising tool that may allow investigators to quantify and document the potential adverse effect of background enhancement on diagnostic accuracy in larger populations. PMID:21509883

  11. [Influence of projection data correction on digital breast tomosynthesis imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Yu; Zhang, Hua; Bian, Zhao-Ying; Zeng, Dong; He, Ji; Tian, Xiu-Mei; Ma, Jian-Hua; Huang, Jing

    2017-03-20

    To investigate the effect of detector performance during digital breast tomography (DBT) projection data acquisition on reconstructed image quality. With reference to the traditional detector data correction method and the specific data acquisition pattern in DBT imaging, we utilized dark field correction, light field and its gain correction for processing the projection data collected by the detector. The reconstructed images were evaluated using iterative reconstruction method based on total generalized variation (TGV). In physical breast phantom experiment, the proposed method resulted in a reduced Heel effect caused by nonuniform photon number. The reconstructed DBT images after correction showed obviously improved image quality especially in the details with a low contrast. The dark field correction, light field and its gain correction process for DBT image reconstruction can improve the image quality.

  12. Prototype of Microwave Imaging System for Breast-Cancer Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2009-01-01

    Microwave imaging for breast-cancer detection has received the attention of a large number of research groups in the last decade. In this paper, the imaging system currently being developed at the Technical university of Denmark is presented. This includes a description of the antenna system, the...

  13. Percutaneous Image-Guided Ablation of Breast Tumors: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sag, Alan A.; Maybody, Majid; Comstock, Christopher; Solomon, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous non-surgical image-guided ablation is emerging as an adjunct or alternative to surgery in the management of benign and malignant breast tumors. This review covers the current state of the literature regarding percutaneous image-guided ablation modalities, clinical factors regarding patient selection, and future directions for research.

  14. Percutaneous image-guided ablation of breast tumors: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Alan A; Maybody, Majid; Comstock, Christopher; Solomon, Stephen B

    2014-06-01

    Percutaneous non-surgical image-guided ablation is emerging as an adjunct or alternative to surgery in the management of benign and malignant breast tumors. This review covers the current state of the literature regarding percutaneous image-guided ablation modalities, clinical factors regarding patient selection, and future directions for research.

  15. Body image dissatisfaction in patients undergoing breast reconstruction: Examining the roles of breast symmetry and appearance investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Irene; Reece, Gregory P; Huang, Sheng-Cheng; Mahajan, Kanika; Andon, Johnny; Khanal, Pujjal; Sun, Clement; Nicklaus, Krista; Merchant, Fatima; Markey, Mia K; Fingeret, Michelle Cororve

    2017-11-19

    Reconstruction as part of treatment for breast cancer is aimed at mitigating body image concerns after mastectomy. Although algorithms have been developed to objectively assess breast reconstruction outcomes, associations between objectively quantified breast aesthetic appearance and patient-reported body image outcomes have not been examined. Further, the role of appearance investment in explaining a patient's body image is not well understood. We investigated the extent to which objectively quantified breast symmetry and patient-reported appearance investment were associated with body image dissatisfaction in patients undergoing cancer-related breast reconstruction. Breast cancer patients in different stages of reconstruction (n = 190) completed self-report measures of appearance investment and body image dissatisfaction. Vertical extent and horizontal extent symmetry values, which are indicators of breast symmetry, were calculated from clinical photographs. Associations among breast symmetry, appearance investment, body image dissatisfaction, and patient clinical factors were examined. Multi-variable regression was used to evaluate the extent to which symmetry and appearance investment were associated with body image dissatisfaction. Vertical extent symmetry, but not horizontal extent symmetry, was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Decreased vertical extent symmetry (β = -.19, P < .05) and increased appearance investment (β = .45, P < .001) were significantly associated with greater body image dissatisfaction while controlling for clinical factors. Breast symmetry and patient appearance investment both significantly contribute to an understanding of patient-reported body image satisfaction during breast reconstruction treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging.

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, J.F.; Brussel, A.S. van; Groep, P. van der; Morsink, F.H.; Bult, P.; Wall, E. van der; Diest, P.J. van

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow...

  17. Optical Imaging in Breast Cancer Diagnosis: The Next Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Herranz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among the population of the Western world. Diagnostic methods include mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance; meanwhile, nuclear medicine techniques have a secondary role, being useful in regional assessment and therapy followup. Optical imaging is a very promising imaging technique that uses near-infrared light to assess optical properties of tissues and is expected to play an important role in breast cancer detection. Optical breast imaging can be performed by intrinsic breast tissue contrast alone (hemoglobin, water, and lipid content or with the use of exogenous fluorescent probes that target specific molecules for breast cancer. Major advantages of optical imaging are that it does not use any radioactive components, very high sensitivity, relatively inexpensive, easily accessible, and the potential to be combined in a multimodal approach with other technologies such as mammography, ultrasound, MRI, and positron emission tomography. Moreover, optical imaging agents could, potentially, be used as “theranostics,” combining the process of diagnosis and therapy.

  18. Online advertising by three commercial breast imaging services: message takeout and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Pratt, Iain S; Donovan, Robert J; Lin, Chad; Saunders, Christobel; Slevin, Terry

    2013-10-01

    Mammography is widely acknowledged to be the most cost-effective technique for population screening for breast cancer. Recently in Australia, imaging modalities other than mammography, including thermography, electrical impedance, and computerised breast imaging, have been increasingly promoted as alternative methods of breast cancer screening. This study assessed the impact of three commercial breast imaging companies' promotional material upon consumers' beliefs about the effectiveness of the companies' technology in detecting breast cancer, and consumers' intentions to seek more information or consider having their breasts imaged by these modalities. Results showed 90% of respondents agreed that the companies' promotional material promoted the message that the advertised breast imaging method was effective in detecting breast cancer, and 80% agreed that the material promoted the message that the imaging method was equally or more effective than a mammogram. These findings have implications for women's preference for and uptake of alternative breast imaging services over mammography. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Limb muscle sound speed estimation by ultrasound computed tomography excluding receivers in bone shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaolei; Azuma, Takashi; Lin, Hongxiang; Takeuchi, Hideki; Itani, Kazunori; Tamano, Satoshi; Takagi, Shu; Sakuma, Ichiro

    2017-03-01

    Sarcopenia is the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle ability associated with aging. One reason is the increasing of adipose ratio of muscle, which can be estimated by the speed of sound (SOS), since SOSs of muscle and adipose are different (about 7%). For SOS imaging, the conventional bent-ray method iteratively finds ray paths and corrects SOS along them by travel-time. However, the iteration is difficult to converge for soft tissue with bone inside, because of large speed variation. In this study, the bent-ray method is modified to produce SOS images for limb muscle with bone inside. The modified method includes three steps. First, travel-time is picked up by a proposed Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) with energy term (AICE) method. The energy term is employed for detecting and abandoning the transmissive wave through bone (low energy wave). It results in failed reconstruction for bone, but makes iteration convergence and gives correct SOS for skeletal muscle. Second, ray paths are traced using Fermat's principle. Finally, simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) is employed to correct SOS along ray paths, but excluding paths with low energy wave which may pass through bone. The simulation evaluation was implemented by k-wave toolbox using a model of upper arm. As the result, SOS of muscle was 1572.0+/-7.3 m/s, closing to 1567.0 m/s in the model. For vivo evaluation, a ring transducer prototype was employed to scan the cross sections of lower arm and leg of a healthy volunteer. And the skeletal muscle SOSs were 1564.0+/-14.8 m/s and 1564.1±18.0 m/s, respectively.

  20. Pathologic Findings of Breast Lesions Detected on Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Seema B; Lynch, Beverly; Seiler, Stephen; Hwang, Helena; Sahoo, Sunati

    2017-11-01

    - Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now used routinely for high-risk screening and in the evaluation of the extent of disease in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Morphologic characteristics and the kinetic pattern largely determine how suspicious a breast lesion is on MRI. Because of its high sensitivity, MRI identifies a large number of suspicious lesions. However, the low to moderate specificity and the additional cost have raised questions regarding its frequent use. - To identify the pathologic entities that frequently present as suspicious enhancing lesions and to identify specific MRI characteristics that may be predictive of malignancy. - One hundred seventy-seven MRI-guided biopsies from 152 patients were included in the study. The indication for MRI, MRI features, pathologic findings, and patient demographics were recorded. The MRI findings and the pathology slides were reviewed by a dedicated breast radiologist and breast pathologists. - Seventy-one percent (126 of 177) of MRI-guided breast biopsies were benign, 11% (20 of 177) showed epithelial atypia, and 18% (31 of 177) showed malignancy. The vast majority (84%; 62 of 74) of MRI lesions with persistent kinetics were benign. However, 57% (17 of 30) of lesions with washout kinetics and 65% (62 of 95) of mass lesions were also benign. - Magnetic resonance imaging detects malignancies undetected by other imaging modalities but also detects a wide variety of benign lesions. Benign and malignant lesions identified by MRI share similar morphologic and kinetic features, necessitating biopsy for histologic confirmation.

  1. Automatic breast tissue density estimation scheme in digital mammography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menechelli, Renan C.; Pacheco, Ana Luisa V.; Schiabel, Homero

    2017-03-01

    Cases of breast cancer have increased substantially each year. However, radiologists are subject to subjectivity and failures of interpretation which may affect the final diagnosis in this examination. The high density features in breast tissue are important factors related to these failures. Thus, among many functions some CADx (Computer-Aided Diagnosis) schemes are classifying breasts according to the predominant density. In order to aid in such a procedure, this work attempts to describe automated software for classification and statistical information on the percentage change in breast tissue density, through analysis of sub regions (ROIs) from the whole mammography image. Once the breast is segmented, the image is divided into regions from which texture features are extracted. Then an artificial neural network MLP was used to categorize ROIs. Experienced radiologists have previously determined the ROIs density classification, which was the reference to the software evaluation. From tests results its average accuracy was 88.7% in ROIs classification, and 83.25% in the classification of the whole breast density in the 4 BI-RADS density classes - taking into account a set of 400 images. Furthermore, when considering only a simplified two classes division (high and low densities) the classifier accuracy reached 93.5%, with AUC = 0.95.

  2. Automated breast segmentation in ultrasound computer tomography SAFT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, T.; You, W.; Zapf, M.; Tan, W. Y.; Gemmeke, H.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT) is a promising new imaging system for breast cancer diagnosis. An essential step before further processing is to remove the water background from the reconstructed images. In this paper we present a fully-automated image segmentation method based on three-dimensional active contours. The active contour method is extended by applying gradient vector flow and encoding the USCT aperture characteristics as additional weighting terms. A surface detection algorithm based on a ray model is developed to initialize the active contour, which is iteratively deformed to capture the breast outline in USCT reflection images. The evaluation with synthetic data showed that the method is able to cope with noisy images, and is not influenced by the position of the breast and the presence of scattering objects within the breast. The proposed method was applied to 14 in-vivo images resulting in an average surface deviation from a manual segmentation of 2.7 mm. We conclude that automated segmentation of USCT reflection images is feasible and produces results comparable to a manual segmentation. By applying the proposed method, reproducible segmentation results can be obtained without manual interaction by an expert.

  3. Improving Breast Ultrasound Interpretation in Uganda Using a Condensed Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, John R; Peacock, Sue; Orem, Jackson; Bugeza, Samuel; Muyinda, Zeridah; Porter, Peggy L; Wood, William C; Comis, Robert L; Lehman, Constance D

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a 2-day educational course using a condensed Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (condensed BI-RADS) improved the accuracy of Ugandan healthcare workers interpreting breast ultrasound. The target audience of this intervention was Ugandan healthcare workers involved in performing, interpreting, or acting on the results of breast ultrasound. The educational course consisted of a pretest knowledge assessment, a series of lectures on breast imaging interpretation and standardized reporting using a condensed BI-RADS, and a posttest knowledge assessment. Participants interpreted 53 different ultrasound test cases by selecting the finding type, descriptors for masses, and recommendations. We compared the percent correct on the pretest and posttest based on occupation and training level. Sixty-one Ugandan healthcare workers participated in this study, including 13 radiologists, 13 other physicians, 12 technologists, and 23 midlevel providers. Most groups improved in identifying the finding type (P breast ultrasound education using a condensed BI-RADS improved the interpretive performance of healthcare workers and was particularly successful in reducing the frequency of unnecessary biopsies for normal and benign findings. Multimodal educational efforts to improve accuracy and management of breast ultrasound findings may augment breast cancer early detection efforts in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship of obesity, mammographic breast density, and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Jennifer; Chun, Jennifer; Schwartz, Shira; Schnabel, Freya; Moy, Linda

    The purpose was to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), mammographic breast density, magnetic resonance (MR) background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), and MR fibroglandular tissue (FGT) in women with breast cancer. Our institutional database was queried for patients with preoperative mammography and breast MR imaging. There were 573 women eligible for analysis. Elevated BMI was associated with advanced stage of disease (P=.01), lower mammographic density (Pbreast density and FGT. Higher BMI was also associated with advanced stage disease and nonpalpable tumors on clinical exam. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct-Conversion Molecular Breast Imaging of Invasive Breast Cancer: Imaging Features, Extent of Invasive Disease, and Comparison Between Invasive Ductal and Lobular Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Amy Lynn; Jones, Katie N; Hruska, Carrie B; Geske, Jennifer R; Boughey, Judy C; Rhodes, Deborah J

    2015-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the tumor appearance of invasive breast cancer on direct-conversion molecular breast imaging using a standardized lexicon and to determine how often direct-conversion molecular breast imaging identifies all known invasive tumor foci in the breast, and whether this differs for invasive ductal versus lobular histologic profiles. Patients with prior invasive breast cancer and concurrent direct-conversion molecular breast imaging examinations were retrospectively reviewed. Blinded review of direct-conversion molecular breast imaging examinations was performed by one of two radiologists, according to a validated lexicon. Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings were matched with lesions described on the pathology report to exclude benign reasons for direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings and to document direct-conversion molecular breast imaging-occult tumor foci. Associations between direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings and tumor histologic profiles were examined using chi-square tests. In 286 patients, 390 invasive tumor foci were present in 294 breasts. A corresponding direct-conversion molecular breast imaging finding was present for 341 of 390 (87%) tumor foci described on the pathology report. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) tumor foci were more likely to be a mass (40% IDC vs 15% invasive lobular carcinoma [ILC]; p invasive disease in 79.8% of cases and was more likely to do so for IDC than for ILC (86.1% vs 56.7%; p invasive foci in 249 of 286 (87%) patients. Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging features of invasive cancer, including lesion type and intensity, differ by histologic subtype. Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging is less likely to show all foci of ILC compared with IDC.

  6. Multimodal breast cancer imaging using coregistered dynamic diffuse optical tomography and digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Bernhard B.; Deng, Bin; Singh, Bhawana; Martino, Mark; Selb, Juliette; Fang, Qianqian; Sajjadi, Amir Y.; Cormier, Jayne; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.; Boas, David A.; Saksena, Mansi A.; Carp, Stefan A.

    2017-04-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is emerging as a noninvasive functional imaging method for breast cancer diagnosis and neoadjuvant chemotherapy monitoring. In particular, the multimodal approach of combining DOT with x-ray digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is especially synergistic as DBT prior information can be used to enhance the DOT reconstruction. DOT, in turn, provides a functional information overlay onto the mammographic images, increasing sensitivity and specificity to cancer pathology. We describe a dynamic DOT apparatus designed for tight integration with commercial DBT scanners and providing a fast (up to 1 Hz) image acquisition rate to enable tracking hemodynamic changes induced by the mammographic breast compression. The system integrates 96 continuous-wave and 24 frequency-domain source locations as well as 32 continuous wave and 20 frequency-domain detection locations into low-profile plastic plates that can easily mate to the DBT compression paddle and x-ray detector cover, respectively. We demonstrate system performance using static and dynamic tissue-like phantoms as well as in vivo images acquired from the pool of patients recalled for breast biopsies at the Massachusetts General Hospital Breast Imaging Division.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Versus 3-Dimensional Laser Scanning for Breast Volume Assessment After Breast Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Benjamin H L; Watson, David I; Fosh, Beverley; Yip, Jia Miin; Kleinig, Pakan; Dean, Nicola Ruth

    2017-04-01

    There are several methods available for measuring breast volume in the clinical setting, but the comparability and accuracy of different methods is not well described. The ideal breast volume measurement technique should be low cost, comfortable for the patient, have no ionizing radiation and be non-invasive. Prospective cohort study comparing a 3-dimensional (3D) laser scanner versus noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for breast volume assessment. Subjects were women undergoing breast reconstruction with autologous fat graft. Both types of scan were performed the day before fat grafting and at 6 months postoperatively. Pearson correlations and Bland-Altman tests were performed to compare the assessment methods. Eighteen patients underwent preoperative breast MRI and 3D laser scanning. Eighteen patients also underwent assessment 6 months after surgery. The total number of breasts scanned for comparison was 36, with a total of 72 comparisons for analysis. There was a strong linear association between the 2 methods using a Pearson correlation (r = 0.79; P breast volume. Given the convenience of laser scanning and potential for lower cost compared with MRI, this technique should be considered for quantifying outcomes after complex breast reconstruction when the equipment is available.

  8. Accuracy of diffusion kurtosis imaging in characterization of breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Alexandra; Ghiatas, Abraham; Priovolos, Dimitrios; Veliou, Konstantia; Bougias, Haralambos

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of diffusion kurtosis in the characterization and differentiation of breast lesions. 49 females with 53 breast lesions underwent breast MRI. The MRI magnetic field is 1.5 T, and the protocol is standard MRI sequences, dynamic sequences pre- and post-contrast agent administration and diffusion images. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) was applied as part of our standard breast MRΙ protocol. Two experienced radiologists on breast MRI, blinded to the final diagnosis, reviewed the parametric maps and placed a volume of interest on all slices including each lesion. Kurtosis [K apparent (Kapp)] and corrected apparent diffusion coefficient [D apparent (Dapp)] median values were then calculated from the whole-lesion histogram analysis. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the most effective cut-off values for the differentiation between benign and malignant pathologies. Histological analysis of the breast lesions was performed, and further comparative analysis of the results was performed to investigate the accuracy of the method. Benign (n = 19) and malignant lesions (n = 34) had mean diameters of 20.8 mm (10.1-31.5 mm) and 26.4 mm (10.5-42.3 mm), respectively. The lowest and the highest kurtosis values (Kapp) of malignant lesions were significantly higher than those of benign lesions. A cut-off of 0.71 provided specificity of 93.7% and sensitivity 97.1%, and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.976 (p breast lesions with high Kapp and Dapp sensitivity and specificity rates. Advances in knowledge: DKI is able to distinguish benign from malignant breast pathologies. DKI increases the specificity of breast MRI.

  9. Nuclear Breast Imaging: Clinical Results and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Wendie A

    2016-02-01

    Interest in nuclear breast imaging is increasing because of technical improvements in dedicated devices that allow the use of relatively low doses of radiotracers with high sensitivity for even small breast cancers. For women with newly diagnosed cancer, primary chemotherapy is often recommended, and improved methods of assessing treatment response are of interest. With widespread breast density notification, functional rather than anatomic methods of screening are of increasing interest as well. For a cancer imaging technology to be adopted, several criteria must be met that will be discussed: evidence of clinical benefit with minimal harm, standardized interpretive criteria, direct biopsy guidance, and acceptable cost-effectiveness. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  10. Characterization of Image Quality for 3D Scatter Corrected Breast CT Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachon, Jan H; Shah, Jainil; Tornai, Martin P

    2011-03-16

    The goal of this study was to characterize the image quality of our dedicated, quasi-monochromatic spectrum, cone beam breast imaging system under scatter corrected and non-scatter corrected conditions for a variety of breast compositions. CT projections were acquired of a breast phantom containing two concentric sets of acrylic spheres that varied in size (1-8mm) based on their polar position. The breast phantom was filled with 3 different concentrations of methanol and water, simulating a range of breast densities (0.79-1.0g/cc); acrylic yarn was sometimes included to simulate connective tissue of a breast. For each phantom condition, 2D scatter was measured for all projection angles. Scatter-corrected and uncorrected projections were then reconstructed with an iterative ordered subsets convex algorithm. Reconstructed image quality was characterized using SNR and contrast analysis, and followed by a human observer detection task for the spheres in the different concentric rings. Results show that scatter correction effectively reduces the cupping artifact and improves image contrast and SNR. Results from the observer study indicate that there was no statistical difference in the number or sizes of lesions observed in the scatter versus non-scatter corrected images for all densities. Nonetheless, applying scatter correction for differing breast conditions improves overall image quality.

  11. Evaluation of scatter effects on image quality for breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Mainprize, James G.; Boone, John M.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2007-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis uses a limited number of low-dose x-ray projections to produce a three-dimensional (3D) tomographic reconstruction of the breast. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize and evaluate the effect of scatter radiation on image quality for breast tomosynthesis. Generated by a Monte Carlo simulation method, scatter point spread functions (PSF) were convolved over the field of view (FOV) to estimate the distribution of scatter for each angle of tomosynthesis projection. The results demonstrated that in the absence of scatter reduction techniques, the scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) levels for the average breast are quite high (~0.4 at the centre of mass), and increased with increased breast thickness and with larger FOV. Associated with such levels of x-ray scatter are cupping artifacts, as well as reduced accuracy in reconstruction values. The effect of x-ray scatter on the contrast, noise, and signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR) in tomosynthesis reconstruction was measured as a function of tumour size. For example, the contrast in the reconstructed central slice of a tumour-like mass (14 mm in diameter) was degraded by 30% while the inaccuracy of the voxel value was 28%, and the reduction of SDNR was 60%. We have quantified the degree to which scatter degrades the image quality over a wide range of parameters, including x-ray beam energy, breast thickness, breast diameter, and breast composition. However, even without a scatter rejection device, the contrast and SDNR in the reconstructed tomosynthesis slice is higher than that of conventional mammographic projection images acquired with a grid at an equivalent total exposure.

  12. The adiabatic/entropy decomposition in $P(\\phi^I,X^{IJ})$ theories with multiple sound speeds

    CERN Document Server

    Longden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We consider $P(\\phi^I,X^{IJ})$ theories of multi-field inflation and ask the question of how to define the adiabatic and entropy perturbations, widely used in calculating the curvature and isocurvature power spectra, in this general context. It is found that when the field perturbations propagate with different speeds, these adiabatic and entropy modes are not generally the fundamental (most natural to canonically quantise) degrees of freedom that propagate with a single speed. The alternative fields which do propagate with a single speed are found to be a rotation in field space of the adiabatic and entropy perturbations. We show how this affects the form of the horizon-crossing power spectrum, when there is not a single "adiabatic sound speed" sourcing the curvature perturbation. Special cases of our results are discussed, including $P(X)$ theories where the adiabatic and entropy perturbations are fundamental. We finally look at physical motivations for considering multi-speed models of inflation, particula...

  13. TU-EF-207-00: Advances in Breast Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Breast imaging technology is advancing on several fronts. In digital mammography, the major technological trend has been on optimization of approaches for performing combined mammography and tomosynthesis using the same system. In parallel, photon-counting slot-scan mammography is now in clinical use and more efforts are directed towards further development of this approach for spectral imaging. Spectral imaging refers to simultaneous acquisition of two or more energy-windowed images. Depending on the detector and associated electronics, there are a number of ways this can be accomplished. Spectral mammography using photon-counting detectors can suppress electronic noise and importantly, it enables decomposition of the image into various material compositions of interest facilitating quantitative imaging. Spectral imaging can be particularly important in intravenously injected contrast mammography and eventually tomosynthesis. The various approaches and applications of spectral mammography are discussed. Digital breast tomosynthesis relies on the mechanical movement of the x-ray tube to acquire a number of projections in a predefined arc, typically from 9 to 25 projections over a scan angle of +/−7.5 to 25 degrees depending on the particular system. The mechanical x-ray tube motion requires relatively long acquisition time, typically between 3.7 to 25 seconds depending on the system. Moreover, mechanical scanning may have an effect on the spatial resolution due to internal x-ray filament or external mechanical vibrations. New x-ray source arrays have been developed and they are aimed at replacing the scanned x-ray tube for improved acquisition time and potentially for higher spatial resolution. The potential advantages and challenges of this approach are described. Combination of digital mammography and tomosynthesis in a single system places increased demands on certain functional aspects of the detector and overall performance, particularly in the tomosynthesis

  14. WAVELET BASED SEGMENTATION USING OPTIMAL STATISTICAL FEATURES ON BREAST IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sindhuja

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Elastography is the emerging imaging modality that analyzes the stiffness of the tissue for detecting and classifying breast tumors. Computer-aided detection speeds up the diagnostic process of breast cancer improving the survival rate. A multiresolution approach using Discrete wavelet transform is employed on real time images, using the low-low (LL, low-high (LH, high-low (HL, and high-high (HH sub-bands of Daubechies family. Features are extracted, selected and then finally segmented by K-means clustering algorithm. The proposed work can be extended to Classification of the tumors.

  15. Two-dimensional breast dosimetry improved using three-dimensional breast image data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, John M; Hernandez, Andrew M; Seibert, J Anthony

    2017-06-01

    Conventional mammographic dosimetry has been developed over the past 40 years. Prior to the availability of high-resolution three-dimensional breast images, certain assumptions about breast anatomy were required. These assumptions were based on the information evident on two-dimensional mammograms; they included assumptions of thick skin, a uniform mixture of glandular and adipose tissue, and a median breast density of 50%. Recently, the availability of high-resolution breast CT studies has provided more accurate data about breast anatomy, and this, in turn, has provided the opportunity to update mammographic dosimetry. Based on hundreds of data sets on breast CT volume, a number of studies were performed and reported which have shed light on the basic breast anatomy specific to dosimetry in mammography. It was shown that the average skin thickness of the breast was approximately 1.5 mm, instead of the 4 or 5 mm in the past. In another study, 3-D breast CT data sets were used for validation of the 2-D algorithm developed at the University of Toronto, leading to data suggesting that the overall average breast density is of the order of 16-20%, rather than the previously assumed 50%. Both of these assumptions led to normalized glandular dose (DgN) coefficients which are higher than those of the past. However, a comprehensive study on hundreds of breast CT data sets confirmed the findings of other investigators that there is a more centralized average location of glandular tissue within the breast. Combined with Monte Carlo studies for dosimetry, when accurate models of the distribution of glandular tissue were used, a 30% reduction in the radiation dose (as determined by the DgN coefficient) was found as an average across typical molybdenum and tungsten spectra used clinically. The 30% average reduction was found even when the thinner skin and the lower average breast density were considered. The article reviews three specific anatomic observations made possible

  16. Contrast enhanced imaging with a stationary digital breast tomosynthesis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puett, Connor; Calliste, Jabari; Wu, Gongting; Inscoe, Christina R.; Lee, Yueh Z.; Zhou, Otto; Lu, Jianping

    2017-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) captures some depth information and thereby improves the conspicuity of breast lesions, compared to standard mammography. Using contrast during DBT may also help distinguish malignant from benign sites. However, adequate visualization of the low iodine signal requires a subtraction step to remove background signal and increase lesion contrast. Additionally, attention to factors that limit contrast, including scatter, noise, and artifact, are important during the image acquisition and post-acquisition processing steps. Stationary DBT (sDBT) is an emerging technology that offers a higher spatial and temporal resolution than conventional DBT. This phantom-based study explored contrast-enhanced sDBT (CE sDBT) across a range of clinically-appropriate iodine concentrations, lesion sizes, and breast thicknesses. The protocol included an effective scatter correction method and an iterative reconstruction technique that is unique to the sDBT system. The study demonstrated the ability of this CE sDBT system to collect projection images adequate for both temporal subtraction (TS) and dual-energy subtraction (DES). Additionally, the reconstruction approach preserved the improved contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) achieved in the subtraction step. Finally, scatter correction increased the iodine signal and CNR of iodine-containing regions in projection views and reconstructed image slices during both TS and DES. These findings support the ongoing study of sDBT as a potentially useful tool for contrast-enhanced breast imaging and also highlight the significant effect that scatter has on image quality during DBT.

  17. Quantitative mitochondrial redox imaging of breast cancer metastatic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N.; Nioka, Shoko; Glickson, Jerry D.; Chance, Britton; Li, Lin Z.

    2010-05-01

    Predicting tumor metastatic potential remains a challenge in cancer research and clinical practice. Our goal was to identify novel biomarkers for differentiating human breast tumors with different metastatic potentials by imaging the in vivo mitochondrial redox states of tumor tissues. The more metastatic (aggressive) MDA-MB-231 and less metastatic (indolent) MCF-7 human breast cancer mouse xenografts were imaged with the low-temperature redox scanner to obtain multi-slice fluorescence images of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp). The nominal concentrations of NADH and Fp in tissue were measured using reference standards and used to calculate the Fp redox ratio, Fp/(NADH+Fp). We observed significant core-rim differences, with the core being more oxidized than the rim in all aggressive tumors but not in the indolent tumors. These results are consistent with our previous observations on human melanoma mouse xenografts, indicating that mitochondrial redox imaging potentially provides sensitive markers for distinguishing aggressive from indolent breast tumor xenografts. Mitochondrial redox imaging can be clinically implemented utilizing cryogenic biopsy specimens and is useful for drug development and for clinical diagnosis of breast cancer.

  18. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: protocol optimization, interpretation, and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Savannah C; McDonald, Elizabeth S

    2013-08-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (DWI) has shown promise for improving the positive predictive value of breast MR imaging for detection of breast cancer, evaluating tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and as a noncontrast alternative to MR imaging in screening for breast cancer. However, data quality varies widely. Before implementing DWI into clinical practice, one must understand the pertinent technical considerations and current evidence regarding clinical applications of breast DWI. This article provides an overview of basic principles of DWI, optimization of breast DWI protocols, imaging features of benign and malignant breast lesions, promising clinical applications, and potential future directions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. From Bombs to Breast Cancer Imaging: Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, Rebecca M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-26

    . Currently, there is fierce debate surrounding the age at which breast cancer screening should begin, and once begun, how often it should occur. The American Cancer Society recommends yearly mammograms starting at age 40. On the other hand, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine so early. Rather, the Task Force recommends biennial mammography screening for women aged 50 to 74 years. The ten-year discrepancy in the onset of screening results from recent data suggesting that the frequent use of X-ray radiation during screenings could potentially increase the likelihood of developing cancer. This danger is increased by the low sensitivity and accuracy of mammograms, which sometimes require multiple screenings to yield results. Furthermore, mammograms are often not only inaccurate, but average appalling misdiagnoses rates: about 80% false positives and 15% false negatives. These misdiagnoses lead to unwarranted biopsies at an estimated health care cost of $2 billion per year, while at the same time, resulting in excessive cases of undetected cancer. As such, the National Cancer Institute recommends more studies on the advantages of types and frequency of screenings, as well as alternative screening options. The UST technology developed at LANL could be an alternative option to greatly improve the specificity and sensitivity of breast cancer screening without using ionizing radiation. LANL is developing high-resolution ultrasound tomography algorithms and a clinical ultrasound tomography scanner to conduct patient studies at the UNM Hospital. During UST scanning, the patient lies face-down while her breast, immersed in a tank of warm water, is scanned by phased-transducer arrays. UST uses recorded ultrasound signals to reconstruct a high-resolution three-dimensional image of the breast, showing the spatial distribution of mechanical properties within the breast. Breast cancers are detected by higher values of mechanical properties compared to

  20. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  1. A Partnership Training Program in Breast Cancer Diagnosis: Concept Development of the Next Generation Diagnostic Breast Imaging Using Digital Image Library and Networking Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chouikha, Mohamed F

    2004-01-01

    ...); and Georgetown University (Image Science and Information Systems, ISIS). In this partnership training program, we will train faculty and students in breast cancer imaging, digital image database library techniques and network communication strategy...

  2. Local breast density assessment using reacquired mammographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Eloy; Diaz, Oliver; Martí, Robert; Diez, Yago; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Sentís, Melcior; Martí, Joan; Oliver, Arnau

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the spatial glandular volumetric tissue distribution as well as the density measures provided by Volpara™ using a dataset composed of repeated pairs of mammograms, where each pair was acquired in a short time frame and in a slightly changed position of the breast. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 99 pairs of repeatedly acquired full-field digital mammograms from 99 different patients. The commercial software Volpara™ Density Maps (Volpara Solutions, Wellington, New Zealand) is used to estimate both the global and the local glandular tissue distribution in each image. The global measures provided by Volpara™, such as breast volume, volume of glandular tissue, and volumetric breast density are compared between the two acquisitions. The evaluation of the local glandular information is performed using histogram similarity metrics, such as intersection and correlation, and local measures, such as statistics from the difference image and local gradient correlation measures. Global measures showed a high correlation (breast volume R=0.99, volume of glandular tissue R=0.94, and volumetric breast density R=0.96) regardless the anode/filter material. Similarly, histogram intersection and correlation metric showed that, for each pair, the images share a high degree of information. Regarding the local distribution of glandular tissue, small changes in the angle of view do not yield significant differences in the glandular pattern, whilst changes in the breast thickness between both acquisition affect the spatial parenchymal distribution. This study indicates that Volpara™ Density Maps is reliable in estimating the local glandular tissue distribution and can be used for its assessment and follow-up. Volpara™ Density Maps is robust to small variations of the acquisition angle and to the beam energy, although divergences arise due to different breast compression conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficient iterative image reconstruction algorithm for dedicated breast CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antropova, Natalia; Sanchez, Adrian; Reiser, Ingrid S.; Sidky, Emil Y.; Boone, John; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2016-03-01

    Dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) is currently being studied as a potential screening method for breast cancer. The X-ray exposure is set low to achieve an average glandular dose comparable to that of mammography, yielding projection data that contains high levels of noise. Iterative image reconstruction (IIR) algorithms may be well-suited for the system since they potentially reduce the effects of noise in the reconstructed images. However, IIR outcomes can be difficult to control since the algorithm parameters do not directly correspond to the image properties. Also, IIR algorithms are computationally demanding and have optimal parameter settings that depend on the size and shape of the breast and positioning of the patient. In this work, we design an efficient IIR algorithm with meaningful parameter specifications and that can be used on a large, diverse sample of bCT cases. The flexibility and efficiency of this method comes from having the final image produced by a linear combination of two separately reconstructed images - one containing gray level information and the other with enhanced high frequency components. Both of the images result from few iterations of separate IIR algorithms. The proposed algorithm depends on two parameters both of which have a well-defined impact on image quality. The algorithm is applied to numerous bCT cases from a dedicated bCT prototype system developed at University of California, Davis.

  4. Phase contrast imaging of breast tumours with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivo, A. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aolivo@medphys.ucl.ac.uk; Rigon, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Area Science Park, Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: rigon@ts.infn.it; Vinnicombe, S.J. [Department of Radiology, St. Bartholomews Hospital, Barts and the London NHS Trust, West Smithfield, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.j.vinnicombe@qmul.ac.uk; Cheung, K.C. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: k.c.cheung@dl.ac.uk; Ibison, M. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.ibison@dl.ac.uk; Speller, R.D. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rspeller@medphys.ucl.ac.uk

    2009-06-15

    Even though the potential of phase contrast (PC) imaging has been demonstrated in a number of biological tissue samples, the availability of free-space propagation phase contrast images of real breast tumours is still limited. The aim of this study was to obtain phase contrast images of two different pathological breast specimens containing tumours of differing morphological type at two synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities, and to assess any qualitative improvements in the evaluation and characterisation of the masses through the use of phase contrast imaging. A second aim was to assess the effects of parameters such as detector resolution, beam energy and sample-to-detector distance on image quality using the same breast specimens, as to date these effects have been modelled and discussed only for geometric phantoms. At each synchrotron radiation facility a range of images was acquired with different detectors and by varying the above parameters. Images of the same samples were also acquired with the absorption-based approach to allow a direct comparison and estimation of the advantages specifically ascribable to the PC technique.

  5. Multimodality imaging of TGFβ signaling in breast cancer metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serganova, Inna; Moroz, Ekaterina; Vider, Jelena; Gogiberidze, George; Moroz, Maxim; Pillarsetty, Nagavarakishore; Doubrovin, Michael; Minn, Andy; Thaler, Howard T.; Massague, Joan; Gelovani, Juri; Blasberg, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    The skeleton is a preferred site for breast cancer metastasis. We have developed a multimodality imaging approach to monitor the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway in bone metastases, sequentially over time in the same animal. As model systems, two MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells lines with different metastatic tropisms, SCP2 and SCP3, were transduced with constitutive and TGFβ-inducible reporter genes and were tested in vitro and in living animals. The sites and expansion of metastases were visualized by bioluminescence imaging using a constitutive firefly luciferase reporter, while TGFβ signaling in metastases was monitored by microPET imaging of HSV1-TK/GFP expression with [18F]FEAU and by a more sensitive and cost-effective bioluminescence reporter, based on nonsecreted Gaussia luciferase. Concurrent and sequential imaging of metastases in the same animals provided insight into the location and progression of metastases, and the timing and course of TGFβ signaling. The anticipated and newly observed differences in the imaging of tumors from two related cell lines have demonstrated that TGFβ signal transduction pathway activity can be noninvasively imaged with high sensitivity and reproducibility, thereby providing the opportunity for an assessment of novel treatments that target TGFβ signaling.—Serganova, I., Moroz, E., Vider, J., Gogiberidze, G., Moroz, M., Pillarsetty, N., Doubrovin, M., Minn, A., Thaler, H. T., Massague, J., Gelovani, J., Blasberg, R. Multimodality imaging of TGFβ signaling in breast cancer metastases. PMID:19325038

  6. Assessing Inaccuracies in Automated Information Extraction of Breast Imaging Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacson, Ronilda; Goodrich, Martha E; Harris, Kimberly; Brawarsky, Phyllis; Haas, Jennifer S

    2017-04-01

    We previously identified breast imaging findings from radiology reports using an expert-based information extraction algorithm as part of the National Cancer Institute's Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) initiative. We validate this algorithm and assess inaccuracies in a different institutional setting. Mammography, ultrasound (US), and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports of patients at an academic health system between 4/2013 and 6/2013 were included for analysis. Accuracy of automatically extracting imaging findings using an algorithm developed at a different institution compared to manual gold standard review is reported. Extraction errors are further categorized based on manual review. Precision and recall for extracting BI-RADS categories remain between 0.9 and 1.0, except for MRI (0.7). F measures for extracting other findings are 0.9 for non-mass enhancement (in MRI) and 0.8-0.9 for cysts (in MRI and US). Extracting breast imaging findings resulted in lowest accuracy for findings of calcification (range 0.4-0.6 in mammography) and asymmetric density (0.5-0.7 in mammography). Majority of errors for extracting imaging findings were due to qualifier-based errors, descriptors which indicate absence of findings, missed by automated extraction (e.g., "benign" calcifications). Our information extraction algorithm provides an effective approach to extracting some breast imaging findings for populating a breast screening registry. However, errors in information extraction when utilizing methods in new settings demonstrate that further work is necessary to extract information content from unstructured multi-institutional radiology reports.

  7. Polyvinyl chloride plastisol breast phantoms for ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Isabela Miller; De Matheo, Lucas Lobianco; Costa Júnior, José Francisco Silva; Borba, Cecília de Melo; von Krüger, Marco Antonio; Infantosi, Antonio Fernando Catelli; Pereira, Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasonic phantoms are objects that mimic some features of biological tissues, allowing the study of their interactions with ultrasound (US). In the diagnostic-imaging field, breast phantoms are an important tool for testing performance and optimizing US systems, as well as for training medical professionals. This paper describes the design and manufacture of breast lesions by using polyvinyl chloride plastisol (PVCP) as the base material. Among the materials available for this study, PVCP was shown to be stable, durable, and easy to handle. Furthermore, it is a nontoxic, nonpolluting, and low-cost material. The breast's glandular tissue (image background) was simulated by adding graphite powder with a concentration of 1% to the base material. Mixing PVCP and graphite powder in differing concentrations allows one to simulate lesions with different echogenicity patterns (anechoic, hypoechoic, and hyperechoic). From this mixture, phantom materials were obtained with speed of sound varying from 1379.3 to 1397.9ms(-1) and an attenuation coefficient having values between 0.29 and 0.94dBcm(-1) for a frequency of 1MHz at 24°C. A single layer of carnauba wax was added to the lesion surface in order to evaluate its applicability for imaging. The images of the phantoms were acquired using commercial ultrasound equipment; a specialist rated the images, elaborating diagnoses representative of both benign and malignant lesions. The results indicated that it was possible to easily create a phantom by using low-cost materials, readily available in the market and stable at room temperature, as the basis of ultrasonic phantoms that reproduce the image characteristics of fatty breast tissue and typical lesions of the breast. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Digital image analysis in breast pathology-from image processing techniques to artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Stephanie; Azizpour, Hossein; Smith, Kevin; Hartman, Johan

    2017-11-07

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease in women worldwide. In recent decades, earlier diagnosis and better adjuvant therapy have substantially improved patient outcome. Diagnosis by histopathology has proven to be instrumental to guide breast cancer treatment, but new challenges have emerged as our increasing understanding of cancer over the years has revealed its complex nature. As patient demand for personalized breast cancer therapy grows, we face an urgent need for more precise biomarker assessment and more accurate histopathologic breast cancer diagnosis to make better therapy decisions. The digitization of pathology data has opened the door to faster, more reproducible, and more precise diagnoses through computerized image analysis. Software to assist diagnostic breast pathology through image processing techniques have been around for years. But recent breakthroughs in artificial intelligence (AI) promise to fundamentally change the way we detect and treat breast cancer in the near future. Machine learning, a subfield of AI that applies statistical methods to learn from data, has seen an explosion of interest in recent years because of its ability to recognize patterns in data with less need for human instruction. One technique in particular, known as deep learning, has produced groundbreaking results in many important problems including image classification and speech recognition. In this review, we will cover the use of AI and deep learning in diagnostic breast pathology, and other recent developments in digital image analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Heterogeneous Breast Phantom Development for Microwave Imaging Using Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camerin Hahn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As new algorithms for microwave imaging emerge, it is important to have standard accurate benchmarking tests. Currently, most researchers use homogeneous phantoms for testing new algorithms. These simple structures lack the heterogeneity of the dielectric properties of human tissue and are inadequate for testing these algorithms for medical imaging. To adequately test breast microwave imaging algorithms, the phantom has to resemble different breast tissues physically and in terms of dielectric properties. We propose a systematic approach in designing phantoms that not only have dielectric properties close to breast tissues but also can be easily shaped to realistic physical models. The approach is based on regression model to match phantom's dielectric properties with the breast tissue dielectric properties found in Lazebnik et al. (2007. However, the methodology proposed here can be used to create phantoms for any tissue type as long as ex vivo, in vitro, or in vivo tissue dielectric properties are measured and available. Therefore, using this method, accurate benchmarking phantoms for testing emerging microwave imaging algorithms can be developed.

  10. Heterogeneous Breast Phantom Development for Microwave Imaging Using Regression Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Camerin; Noghanian, Sima

    2012-01-01

    As new algorithms for microwave imaging emerge, it is important to have standard accurate benchmarking tests. Currently, most researchers use homogeneous phantoms for testing new algorithms. These simple structures lack the heterogeneity of the dielectric properties of human tissue and are inadequate for testing these algorithms for medical imaging. To adequately test breast microwave imaging algorithms, the phantom has to resemble different breast tissues physically and in terms of dielectric properties. We propose a systematic approach in designing phantoms that not only have dielectric properties close to breast tissues but also can be easily shaped to realistic physical models. The approach is based on regression model to match phantom's dielectric properties with the breast tissue dielectric properties found in Lazebnik et al. (2007). However, the methodology proposed here can be used to create phantoms for any tissue type as long as ex vivo, in vitro, or in vivo tissue dielectric properties are measured and available. Therefore, using this method, accurate benchmarking phantoms for testing emerging microwave imaging algorithms can be developed. PMID:22550473

  11. 89Zr-bevacizumab PET imaging in primary breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaykema, Sietske B M; Brouwers, Adrienne H; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N; Pleijhuis, Rick G; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Pot, Linda; van Dam, Gooitzen M; van der Meulen, Sibylle B; de Jong, Johan R; Bart, Joost; de Vries, Jakob; Jansen, Liesbeth; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Schröder, Carolien P; de Vries, J

    UNLABELLED: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A is overexpressed in most malignant and premalignant breast lesions. VEGF-A can be visualized noninvasively with PET imaging and using the tracer (89)Zr-labeled bevacizumab. In this clinical feasibility study, we assessed whether VEGF-A in

  12. ClearPEM: prototype PET device dedicated to breast imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Joao Varela

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials have begun in Portugal on a new breast imaging system (ClearPEM) using positron emission tomography (PET). The system, developed by a Portuguese consortium in collaboration with CERN and laboratories participating in the Crystal Clear collaboration, will detect even the smallest tumours and thus help avoid unnecessary biopsies.

  13. Digital Mammography Imaging: Breast Tomosynthesis and Advanced Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Helvie, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses recent developments in advanced derivative technologies associated with digital mammography. Digital breast tomosynthesis – its principles, development, and early clinical trials are reviewed. Contrast enhanced digital mammography and combined imaging systems with digital mammography and ultrasound are also discussed. Although all these methods are currently research programs, they hold promise for improving cancer detection and characterization if early results are con...

  14. Dosimetry in x-ray-based breast imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dance, D.R.; Sechopoulos, I.

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of the mean glandular dose to the breast (MGD) for x-ray based imaging modalities forms an essential part of quality control and is needed for risk estimation and for system design and optimisation. This review considers the development of methods for estimating the MGD for

  15. Comparing different ultrasound imaging methods for breast cancer detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozmen, N.; Dapp, R.; Zapf, M.; Gemmeke, H.; Ruiter, N.V.; Van Dongen, K.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is frequently used to evaluate suspicious masses in breasts. These evaluations could be improved by taking advantage of advanced imaging algorithms, which become feasible for low frequencies if accurate knowledge about the phase and amplitude of the wave field illuminating the volume of

  16. Imaging Appearance and Clinical Impact of Preoperative Breast MRI in Pregnancy-Associated Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kelly S; Green, Lauren A; Lebron, Lizza; Morris, Elizabeth A

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the imaging features of pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) on breast MRI and to consider the impact of preoperative MRI on patient management. A retrospective review of medical records from January 1994 to May 2014 identified 183 women who presented with a new diagnosis of breast cancer during pregnancy or within 1 year postpartum. MR images were available for 53 of these patients, all of whom were included in the study. Clinical history and available breast images were reviewed. The clinical impact of preoperative breast MRI was also recorded. Of the 53 women, nine (17%) presented during pregnancy and 44 (83%) presented during the first year postpartum. The sensitivity of MRI was 98% (52/53). Among the 53 patients, the most common findings of PABC on MRI included a solitary mass (29 patients [55%]), nonmass enhancement (12 patients [23%]), and multiple masses (eight patients [15%]). For 12 patients (23%), MRI showed a pathologically proven larger tumor size or greater extent of disease than did mammography or ultrasound, with an additional eight patients (15%) having findings suspicious for greater extent of disease but having unavailable pathologic data. Breast MRI changed surgical management for 15 patients (28%), with four patients (8%) requiring a larger lumpectomy, seven (13%) no longer being considered candidates for lumpectomy, two (4%) having contralateral disease, and two (4%) having unsuspected metastasis. Breast MRI had a high sensitivity for PABC in our study population. MRI may play an important role in PABC because it changed the surgical management of 28% of patients.

  17. A fuzzy approach for contrast enhancement of mammography breast images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahba, Farhang; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents a fuzzy-based method for contrast enhancement of mammography images. The selection of appropriate parameters for the required transformations is performed based on image-specific characteristics. The extraction of the breast border is the first step in this method. Images are then transformed to the fuzzy domain using a specific function. Next, an algorithm is applied for intensity adaptation where based on the amount of ambiguity, the proposed technique identifies the suitable form of modifications to enhance the image. Experimental results prove our method to be effective and hence of potential for use in computer-aided diagnosis systems.

  18. The propagation of detonation waves in non-ideal condensed-phase explosives confined by high sound-speed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Stefan; Nikiforakis, Nikolaos; Lee, Bok Jik

    2013-08-01

    Highly non-ideal condensed-phase explosives used by the mining industry have a strong detonation velocity dependence on the charge dimension. Detonation velocities can be as low as one third of the theoretically calculated ideal detonation velocity in charge radii close to the failure radius. Under these detonation conditions the flow in the confiner can become subsonic, a flow condition under which classical shock-polar analysis is not applicable. This restriction prohibits the use of popular engineering models like detonation shock dynamics and Wood-Kirkwood type models under these confinement conditions. In addition, it has been found in the literature that subsonic flow in the confiner will increase the influence of the confining material on the detonation performance. In this work, we use a multi-phase model coupled to an elastic-plastic model (for the representation of a confiner) to explore the interaction of detonations under these confiner conditions. An ammonium nitrate based mining emulsion is investigated in aluminium and steel confinement of finite and infinite thickness representing the confiner as either a fluid or an elastic-plastic material. It is found that the presence of elastic waves is negligible close to ideal detonation conditions, but is important close to the failure radius and in detonation conditions with subsonic flow in the confiner. High sound-speed confiners support the detonation through energy transport ahead of the detonation front if desensitisation effects are negligible. The detonation front profiles are found to remain convex even in the most non-ideal detonation conditions, and the detonation front curvature only becomes concave in a localised region close to the confiner edge.

  19. An investigation of image guidance dose for breast radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Rosemerie; Booth, Jeremy T; Bromley, Regina M; Gustafsson, Helen B

    2013-05-06

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is used for external-beam radiation therapy setup and target localization. As with all medical applications of ionizing radiation, radiation exposure should be managed safely and optimized to achieve the necessary image quality using the lowest possible dose. The present study investigates doses from standard kilovoltage kV radiographic and CBCT imaging protocol, and proposes two novel reduced dose CBCT protocols for the setup of breast cancer patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy. The standard thorax kV and low-dose thorax CBCT protocols available on Varian's On-Board Imaging system was chosen as the reference technique for breast imaging. Two new CBCT protocols were created by modifying the low-dose thorax protocol, one with a reduced gantry rotation range ("Under breast" protocol) and the other with a reduced tube current-time product setting ("Low dose thorax 10ms" protocol). The absorbed doses to lungs, heart, breasts, and skin were measured using XRQA2 radiochromic film in an anthropomorphic female phantom. The absorbed doses to lungs, heart, and breasts were also calculated using the PCXMC Monte Carlo simulation software. The effective dose was calculated using the measured doses to the included organs and the ICRP 103 tissue weighting factors. The deviation between measured and simulated organ doses was between 3% and 24%. Reducing the protocol exposure time to half of its original value resulted in a reduction in the absorbed doses of the organs of 50%, while the reduced rotation range resulted in a dose reduction of at least 60%. Absorbed doses obtained from "Low dose thorax 10ms" protocol were higher than the doses from our departments orthogonal kV-kV imaging protocol. Doses acquired from "Under breast" protocol were comparable to the doses measured from the orthogonal kV-kV imaging protocol. The effective dose per fraction using the CBCT for standard low-dose thorax protocol was 5.00 ± 0.30 mSv; for the

  20. Morphological breast imaging: tomography and digital mammography with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longo, Renata E-mail: renata.longo@ts.infn.it; Pani, Silvia; Arfelli, Fulvia; Dreossi, Diego; Olivo, Alessandro; Poropat, Paolo; Quaia, Emilio; Rigon, Luigi; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Palma, Ludovico Dalla; Castelli, Edoardo

    2003-01-21

    A synchrotron radiation-based X-ray source offers a powerful tool for mammography due to the energy spectrum properties and the peculiar laminar beam geometry. Significant improvements in image quality have been achieved by the SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) collaboration, which has designed and built a beamline devoted to medical physics at the SR facility Elettra in Trieste (Italy). The detection system developed for digital mammography consists of a silicon pixel detector with 200x300 {mu}m{sup 2} pixel size and high conversion efficiency. The detector is equipped with a low noise read-out electronics working in single photon counting mode. Mammographic phantoms and in vitro full breast samples have been investigated: the digital images show higher contrast resolution and lower absorbed dose than the images of the same samples obtained at the clinical mammographic unit.The SYRMEP collaboration is carrying out a breast tomography feasibility study to evaluate the image quality and the delivered dose. The SYRMEP beam is an ideal tool for tomography due to the laminar and monochromatic beam with negligible divergence. The experimental set-up and the acquisition protocol have been studied and the tomographic images of full breast samples acquired in the energy range 20-28 keV indicate that good quality images can be obtained with delivered doses comparable to conventional mammography.

  1. A non-rigid registration algorithm for dynamic breast MR images

    OpenAIRE

    Hayton, Paul M.; Brady, Michael; Smith, Stephen M.; Moore, Niall

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic resonance image analysis is a promising technique for diagnosing breast cancer, particularly in women for whom X-ray mammography is ineffective. If breast motion is not corrected for, diagnostic accuracy is significantly reduced. In this paper, we analyse the kinds of motion that arise during image formation and we describe a model based non-rigid registration algorithm to estimate and correct for breast motion. Registration of breast MR images is complicated by the use of a contrast...

  2. Diagnostic Performance of and Breast Tissue Changes at Early Breast MR Imaging Surveillance in Women after Breast Conservation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jeong; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Sung Hun; Youn, In Kyung; Baek, Ji Eun; Lee, Hyun Sil

    2017-09-01

    Purpose To investigate the diagnostic performance and tissue changes in early (1 year or less) breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging surveillance in women who underwent breast conservation therapy for breast cancer. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained. Between April 2014 and June 2016, 414 women (mean age, 51.5 years; range, 21-81 years) who underwent 422 early surveillance breast MR imaging examinations (median, 6.0 months; range, 2-12 months) after breast conservation therapy were studied. The cancer detection rate, positive predictive value of biopsy, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the curve of surveillance MR imaging, mammography, and ultrasonography (US) were assessed. Follow-up was also obtained in 95 women by using positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) changes in the contralateral breast were assessed according to adjuvant therapy by using the McNemar test. Results Of 11 detected cancers, six were seen at MR imaging only, one was seen at MR imaging and mammography, two were seen at MR imaging and US, one was seen at mammography only, and one was seen at PET/CT only. Three MR imaging-depicted cancers were observed at the original tumor bed, and two MR imaging-depicted cancers were observed adjacent to the original tumor. Among two false-negative MR imaging diagnoses (two cases of ductal carcinoma in situ), one cancer had manifested as calcifications at mammography without differentiated enhancement at MR imaging, and the other cancer was detected at PET/CT, but MR imaging results were negative because of marked BPE, which resulted in focal lesion masking. The positive predictive value of biopsy and the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the curve for MR imaging were 32.1% (nine of 28), 81.8% (nine of 11), 95.1% (391 of 411), 94.7% (400 of 422), and 0

  3. Optimization of Tomosynthesis Imaging for Improved Mass and Microcalcification Detection in the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    for Improved Mass and Microcalcification Detection in the Breast PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dan Xia CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Optimization of Tomosynthesis Imaging for Improved Mass and Microcalcification Detection in the Breast 5b...detec- tion of breast cancer [2,3,4]. Although considerable progress has been made, improvements to several areas of breast tomosynthesis technology are

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging texture analysis classification of primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, S A; Purdie, C A; Jordan, L B; Vinnicombe, S; Lerski, R A; Martin, P; Thompson, A M

    2016-02-01

    Patient-tailored treatments for breast cancer are based on histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) subtypes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) texture analysis (TA) may be useful in non-invasive lesion subtype classification. Women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer underwent pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. TA was performed using co-occurrence matrix (COM) features, by creating a model on retrospective training data, then prospectively applying to a test set. Analyses were blinded to breast pathology. Subtype classifications were performed using a cross-validated k-nearest-neighbour (k = 3) technique, with accuracy relative to pathology assessed and receiver operator curve (AUROC) calculated. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess raw entropy feature values. Histological subtype classifications were similar across training (n = 148 cancers) and test sets (n = 73 lesions) using all COM features (training: 75%, AUROC = 0.816; test: 72.5%, AUROC = 0.823). Entropy features were significantly different between lobular and ductal cancers (p cancers demonstrated significantly different entropy features. Entropy features alone were unable to create a robust classification model. Textural differences on contrast-enhanced MR images may reflect underlying lesion subtypes, which merits testing against treatment response. • MR-derived entropy features, representing heterogeneity, provide important information on tissue composition. • Entropy features can differentiate between histological and immunohistochemical subtypes of breast cancer. • Differing entropy features between breast cancer subtypes implies differences in lesion heterogeneity. • Texture analysis of breast cancer potentially provides added information for decision making.

  5. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Jeroen F; van Brussel, Aram S A; van der Groep, Petra; Morsink, Folkert H M; Bult, Peter; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J

    2012-06-13

    Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX) 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6) resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R) that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate.

  6. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen Jeroen F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Methods Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. Results The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET, and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6 resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. Conclusions In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate.

  7. Performance Benchmarks for Screening Breast MR Imaging in Community Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janie M; Ichikawa, Laura; Valencia, Elizabeth; Miglioretti, Diana L; Wernli, Karen; Buist, Diana S M; Kerlikowske, Karla; Henderson, Louise M; Sprague, Brian L; Onega, Tracy; Rauscher, Garth H; Lehman, Constance D

    2017-10-01

    Purpose To compare screening magnetic resonance (MR) imaging performance in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) benchmarks. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board and compliant with HIPAA and included BCSC screening MR examinations collected between 2005 and 2013 from 5343 women (8387 MR examinations) linked to regional Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program registries, state tumor registries, and pathologic information databases that identified breast cancer cases and tumor characteristics. Clinical, demographic, and imaging characteristics were assessed. Performance measures were calculated according to BI-RADS fifth edition and included cancer detection rate (CDR), positive predictive value of biopsy recommendation (PPV2), sensitivity, and specificity. Results The median patient age was 52 years; 52% of MR examinations were performed in women with a first-degree family history of breast cancer, 46% in women with a personal history of breast cancer, and 15% in women with both risk factors. Screening MR imaging depicted 146 cancers, and 35 interval cancers were identified (181 total-54 in situ, 125 invasive, and two status unknown). The CDR was 17 per 1000 screening examinations (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15, 20 per 1000 screening examinations; BI-RADS benchmark, 20-30 per 1000 screening examinations). PPV2 was 19% (95% CI: 16%, 22%; benchmark, 15%). Sensitivity was 81% (95% CI: 75%, 86%; benchmark, >80%), and specificity was 83% (95% CI: 82%, 84%; benchmark, 85%-90%). The median tumor size of invasive cancers was 10 mm; 88% were node negative. Conclusion The interpretative performance of screening MR imaging in the BCSC meets most BI-RADS benchmarks and approaches benchmark levels for remaining measures. Clinical practice performance data can inform ongoing benchmark development and help identify areas for quality improvement. (©) RSNA

  8. Breast-Specific γ-Imaging for the Detection of Mammographically Occult Breast Cancer in Women at Increased Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Rachel F; Ruda, Rachel C; Yang, Jialu L; Coffey, Caitrín M; Rapelyea, Jocelyn A

    2016-05-01

    Breast-specific γ-imaging (BSGI) is a physiologic imaging modality that can detect subcentimeter and mammographically occult breast cancer, with a sensitivity and specificity comparable to MRI. The purpose of this study was to determine the incremental increase in breast cancer detection when BSGI is used as an adjunct to mammography in women at increased risk for breast cancer. All patients undergoing BSGI from April 2010 through January 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Eligible patients were identified as women at increased risk for breast cancer and whose most recent mammogram was benign. Examinations exhibiting focally increased radiotracer uptake were considered positive. Incremental increase in cancer detection was calculated as the percentage of mammographically occult BSGI-detected breast cancer and the number of mammographically occult breast cancers detected per 1,000 women screened. Included in this study were 849 patients in whom 14 BSGI examinations detected mammographically occult breast cancer. Patients ranged in age from 26 to 83 y, with a mean age of 57 y. Eleven of 14 cancers were detected in women with dense breasts. The addition of BSGI to the annual breast screen of asymptomatic women at increased risk for breast cancer yields 16.5 cancers per 1,000 women screened. When high-risk lesions and cancers were combined, BSGI detected 33.0 high-risk lesions and cancers per 1,000 women screened. BSGI is a reliable adjunct modality to screening mammography that increases breast cancer detection by 1.7% (14/849) in women at increased risk for breast cancer, comparable to results reported for breast MRI. BSGI is beneficial in breast cancer detection in women at increased risk, particularly in those with dense breasts. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  9. Comparison of breast specific gamma imaging and molecular breast tomosynthesis in breast cancer detection: Evaluation in phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zongyi; Williams, Mark B

    2015-07-01

    Breast specific gamma imaging or molecular breast imaging (BSGI) obtains 2D images of (99m)Tc sestamibi distribution in the breast. Molecular breast tomosynthesis (MBT) maps the tracer distribution in 3D by acquiring multiple projections over a limited angular range. Here, the authors compare the performance of the two technologies in terms of spatial resolution, lesion contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in phantom studies under conditions of clinically relevant sestamibi dose and imaging time. The systems tested were a Dilon 6800 and a MBT prototype developed at the University of Virginia. Both systems comprise a pixelated sodium iodide scintillator, an array of position sensitive photomultipliers, and a parallel hole collimator. The active areas and energy resolution of the systems are similar. System sensitivity, spatial resolution, lesion contrast, and CNR were measured using a Petri dish, a point source phantom, and a breast phantom containing simulated lesions at two depths, respectively. A single BSGI projection was acquired. Five MBT projections were acquired over ±20°. For both modalities, the total scan count density was comparable to that observed for each in typical 10 min human scans following injection of 22 mCi (814 MBq) of (99m)Tc-sestamibi. To assess the impact of reducing the tracer dose, the pixel counts of projection images were later binomially subsampled by a factor of 2 to give images corresponding to an injected activity of approximately 11 mCi (407 MBq). Both unprocessed (pixelated) BSGI projections and interpolated (smoothed) BSGI images displayed by default on the Dilon 6800 workstation were analyzed. Volumetric images were reconstructed from the MBT projections using a maximum likelihood expectation maximization algorithm and extracted slices were analyzed. Over a depth range of 1.5-7.5 cm, BSGI spatial resolution was 5.6-11.5 mm in unprocessed projections and 5.7-12.0 mm in interpolated images. Over the same range, the in

  10. Mueller matrix polarimetry imaging for breast cancer analysis (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Adam; Vitkin, Alex

    2017-02-01

    Polarized light has many applications in biomedical imaging. The interaction of a biological sample with polarized light reveals information about its biological composition, both structural and functional. The most comprehensive type of polarimetry analysis is to measure the Mueller matrix, a polarization transfer function that completely describes how a sample interacts with polarized light. However, determination of the Mueller matrix requires tissue analysis under many different states of polarized light; a time consuming and measurement intensive process. Here we address this limitation with a new rapid polarimetry system, and use this polarimetry platform to investigate a variety of tissue changes associated with breast cancer. We have recently developed a rapid polarimetry imaging platform based on four photoelastic modulators (PEMs). The PEMs generate fast polarization modulations that allow the complete sample Mueller matrix to be imaged over a large field of view, with no moving parts. This polarimetry system is then demonstrated to be sensitive to a variety of tissue changes that are relevant to breast cancer. Specifically, we show that changes in depolarization can reveal tumor margins, and can differentiate between viable and necrotic breast cancer metastasized to the lymph nodes. Furthermore, the polarimetric property of linear retardance (related to birefringence) is dependent on collagen organization in the extracellular matrix. These findings indicate that our polarimetry platform may have future applications in fields such as breast cancer diagnosis, improving the speed and efficacy of intraoperative pathology, and providing prognostic information that may be beneficial for guiding treatment.

  11. Wavelength optimization for quantitative spectral imaging of breast tumor margins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Y Lo

    Full Text Available A wavelength selection method that combines an inverse Monte Carlo model of reflectance and a genetic algorithm for global optimization was developed for the application of spectral imaging of breast tumor margins. The selection of wavelengths impacts system design in cost, size, and accuracy of tissue quantitation. The minimum number of wavelengths required for the accurate quantitation of tissue optical properties is 8, with diminishing gains for additional wavelengths. The resulting wavelength choices for the specific probe geometry used for the breast tumor margin spectral imaging application were tested in an independent pathology-confirmed ex vivo breast tissue data set and in tissue-mimicking phantoms. In breast tissue, the optical endpoints (hemoglobin, β-carotene, and scattering that provide the contrast between normal and malignant tissue specimens are extracted with the optimized 8-wavelength set with <9% error compared to the full spectrum (450-600 nm. A multi-absorber liquid phantom study was also performed to show the improved extraction accuracy with optimization and without optimization. This technique for selecting wavelengths can be used for designing spectral imaging systems for other clinical applications.

  12. Fully automatic classification of breast cancer microarray images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Dehghan Khalilabad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A microarray image is used as an accurate method for diagnosis of cancerous diseases. The aim of this research is to provide an approach for detection of breast cancer type. First, raw data is extracted from microarray images. Determining the exact location of each gene is carried out using image processing techniques. Then, by the sum of the pixels associated with each gene, the amount of “genes expression” is extracted as raw data. To identify more effective genes, information gain method on the set of raw data is used. Finally, the type of cancer can be recognized via analyzing the obtained data using a decision tree. The proposed approach has an accuracy of 95.23% in diagnosing the breast cancer types.

  13. Breast Cancer Heterogeneity: MR Imaging Texture Analysis and Survival Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Ko, Eun Sook; Lim, Yaeji; Lee, Kyung Soo; Han, Boo-Kyung; Ko, Eun Young; Hahn, Soo Yeon; Nam, Seok Jin

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To determine the relationship between tumor heterogeneity assessed by means of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging texture analysis and survival outcomes in patients with primary breast cancer. Materials and Methods Between January and August 2010, texture analysis of the entire primary breast tumor in 203 patients was performed with T2-weighted and contrast material-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction MR imaging for preoperative staging. Histogram-based uniformity and entropy were calculated. To dichotomize texture parameters for survival analysis, the 10-fold cross-validation method was used to determine cutoff points in the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to determine the association of texture parameters and morphologic or volumetric information obtained at MR imaging or clinical-pathologic variables with recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results There were 26 events, including 22 recurrences (10 local-regional and 12 distant) and four deaths, with a mean follow-up time of 56.2 months. In multivariate analysis, a higher N stage (RFS hazard ratio, 11.15 [N3 stage]; P = .002, Bonferroni-adjusted α = .0167), triple-negative subtype (RFS hazard ratio, 16.91; P breast cancers that appeared more heterogeneous on T2-weighted images (higher entropy) and those that appeared less heterogeneous on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images (lower entropy) exhibited poorer RFS. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  14. Breast imaging findings in women with BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.J.; Evans, A.J. E-mail: aevans@ncht.trent.nhs.uk; Wilson, A.R.M.; Scott, N.; Cornford, E.J.; Pinder, S.E.; Khan, H.N.; Macmillan, R.D

    2004-10-01

    AIM: To document the breast imaging findings of women with BRCA1 and BRCA2-associated breast carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Family history clinic records identified 18 BRCA1 and 10 BRCA2 cases who collectively were diagnosed with 27 invasive breast carcinomas and four ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions. All underwent pre-operative imaging (29 mammogram and 22 ultrasound examinations). All invasive BRCA-associated breast carcinoma cases were compared with age-matched cases of sporadic breast carcinoma. RESULTS: Within the BRCA cases the age range was 26-62 years, mean 36 years. Two mammograms were normal and 27 (93%) abnormal. The most common mammographic features were defined mass (63%) and microcalcifications (37%). Thirty-four percent of women had a dense mammographic pattern, 59% mixed and 7% fatty. Ultrasound was performed in 22 patients and in 21 (95%) indicated a mass. This was classified as benign in 24%, indeterminate in 29% and malignant in 48%. Mammograms of BRCA1-associated carcinomas more frequently showed a defined mass compared with BRCA2-associated carcinomas, 72 versus 36% (73% control group) whilst mammograms of BRCA2-associated carcinomas more frequently showed microcalcification, 73 versus 12% (8% control group; p<0.001). Thirty-six percent of the BRCA2-associated carcinomas were pure DCIS while none of the BRCA1 associated carcinomas were pure DCIS (p=0.004). Of those patients undergoing regular mammographic screening, 100% of BRCA2-associated carcinomas were detected compared with 75% of BRCA1-associated carcinomas. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the imaging findings of BRCA1 and BRCA2-associated carcinomas differ from each other and from age-matched cases of sporadic breast carcinoma.

  15. Impact of image acquisition timing on image quality for dual energy contrast-enhanced breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Melissa L.; Mainprize, James G.; Puong, Sylvie; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Iordache, Razvan; Muller, Serge; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2012-03-01

    Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital breast tomosynthesis (DE CE-DBT) image quality is affected by a large parameter space including the tomosynthesis acquisition geometry, imaging technique factors, the choice of reconstruction algorithm, and the subject breast characteristics. The influence of most of these factors on reconstructed image quality is well understood for DBT. However, due to the contrast agent uptake kinetics in CE imaging, the subject breast characteristics change over time, presenting a challenge for optimization . In this work we experimentally evaluate the sensitivity of the reconstructed image quality to timing of the low-energy and high-energy images and changes in iodine concentration during image acquisition. For four contrast uptake patterns, a variety of acquisition protocols were tested with different timing and geometry. The influence of the choice of reconstruction algorithm (SART or FBP) was also assessed. Image quality was evaluated in terms of the lesion signal-difference-to-noise ratio (LSDNR) in the central slice of DE CE-DBT reconstructions. Results suggest that for maximum image quality, the low- and high-energy image acquisitions should be made within one x-ray tube sweep, as separate low- and high-energy tube sweeps can degrade LSDNR. In terms of LSDNR per square-root dose, the image quality is nearly equal between SART reconstructions with 9 and 15 angular views, but using fewer angular views can result in a significant improvement in the quantitative accuracy of the reconstructions due to the shorter imaging time interval.

  16. Breast image feature learning with adaptive deconvolutional networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Andrew R.; Drukker, Karen; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2012-03-01

    Feature extraction is a critical component of medical image analysis. Many computer-aided diagnosis approaches employ hand-designed, heuristic lesion extracted features. An alternative approach is to learn features directly from images. In this preliminary study, we explored the use of Adaptive Deconvolutional Networks (ADN) for learning high-level features in diagnostic breast mass lesion images with potential application to computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) and content-based image retrieval (CBIR). ADNs (Zeiler, et. al., 2011), are recently-proposed unsupervised, generative hierarchical models that decompose images via convolution sparse coding and max pooling. We trained the ADNs to learn multiple layers of representation for two breast image data sets on two different modalities (739 full field digital mammography (FFDM) and 2393 ultrasound images). Feature map calculations were accelerated by use of GPUs. Following Zeiler et. al., we applied the Spatial Pyramid Matching (SPM) kernel (Lazebnik, et. al., 2006) on the inferred feature maps and combined this with a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier for the task of binary classification between cancer and non-cancer breast mass lesions. Non-linear, local structure preserving dimension reduction, Elastic Embedding (Carreira-Perpiñán, 2010), was then used to visualize the SPM kernel output in 2D and qualitatively inspect image relationships learned. Performance was found to be competitive with current CADx schemes that use human-designed features, e.g., achieving a 0.632+ bootstrap AUC (by case) of 0.83 [0.78, 0.89] for an ultrasound image set (1125 cases).

  17. CT guided diffuse optical tomography for breast cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikejiang, Reheman; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Dianwen; Li, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has attracted attentions in the last two decades due to its intrinsic sensitivity in imaging chromophores of tissues such as blood, water, and lipid. However, DOT has not been clinically accepted yet due to its low spatial resolution caused by strong optical scattering in tissues. Structural guidance provided by an anatomical imaging modality enhances the DOT imaging substantially. Here, we propose a computed tomography (CT) guided multispectral DOT imaging system for breast cancer detection. To validate its feasibility, we have built a prototype DOT imaging system which consists of a laser at wavelengths of 650 and an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera. We have validated the CT guided DOT reconstruction algorithms with numerical simulations and phantom experiments, in which different imaging setup parameters, such as projection number of measurements, the width of measurement patch, have been investigated. Our results indicate that an EMCCD camera with air cooling is good enough for the transmission mode DOT imaging. We have also found that measurements at six projections are sufficient for DOT to reconstruct the optical targets with 4 times absorption contrast when the CT guidance is applied. Finally, we report our effort and progress on the integration of the multispectral DOT imaging system into a breast CT scanner.

  18. Molecular breast imaging. An update; Molekulare Brustbildgebung. Ein Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, K.; Helbich, T.H.; Magometschnigg, H.; Baltzer, P. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer Molekulare Bildgebung, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria); Fueger, B. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer Molekulare Bildgebung, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria); Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria)

    2014-03-15

    The aim of molecular imaging is to visualize and quantify biological, physiological and pathological processes at cellular and molecular levels. Molecular imaging using various techniques has recently become established in breast imaging. Currently molecular imaging techniques comprise multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), proton MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRSI), nuclear imaging by breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI), positron emission tomography (PET) and positron emission mammography (PEM) and combinations of techniques (e.g. PET-CT and multiparametric PET-MRI). Recently, novel techniques for molecular imaging of breast tumors, such as sodium imaging ({sup 23}Na-MRI), phosphorus spectroscopy ({sup 31}P-MRSI) and hyperpolarized MRI as well as specific radiotracers have been developed and are currently under investigation. It can be expected that molecular imaging of breast tumors will enable a simultaneous assessment of the multiple metabolic and molecular processes involved in cancer development and thus an improved detection, characterization, staging and monitoring of response to treatment will become possible. (orig.) [German] Die molekulare Bildgebung zielt auf die Darstellung, Beschreibung und Quantifizierung biologischer, physiologischer und pathologischer Prozesse auf zellulaerer und molekularer Ebene ab. In den letzten Jahren hat sich die molekulare Bildgebung mit ihren verschiedenen Modalitaeten in der Brustdiagnostik etabliert. Die molekularen Brustbildgebung umfasst derzeit die multiparametrische(MP)-MRT mit funktioneller und morphologischer kontrastmittelverstaerkter MRT (KM-MRT), molekularer diffusionsgewichteter Bildgebung (''diffusion-weighted imaging'', DWI) und metabolischer Protonenspektroskopie ({sup 1}H-MRSI) sowie nuklearmedizinische Verfahren (brustspezifische Gammakamerabildgebung [BSGI], Positronenemissionstomographie [PET], PET

  19. Acceleration of Image Segmentation Algorithm for (Breast) Mammogram Images Using High-Performance Reconfigurable Dataflow Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milankovic, Ivan L; Mijailovic, Nikola V; Filipovic, Nenad D; Peulic, Aleksandar S

    2017-01-01

    Image segmentation is one of the most common procedures in medical imaging applications. It is also a very important task in breast cancer detection. Breast cancer detection procedure based on mammography can be divided into several stages. The first stage is the extraction of the region of interest from a breast image, followed by the identification of suspicious mass regions, their classification, and comparison with the existing image database. It is often the case that already existing image databases have large sets of data whose processing requires a lot of time, and thus the acceleration of each of the processing stages in breast cancer detection is a very important issue. In this paper, the implementation of the already existing algorithm for region-of-interest based image segmentation for mammogram images on High-Performance Reconfigurable Dataflow Computers (HPRDCs) is proposed. As a dataflow engine (DFE) of such HPRDC, Maxeler's acceleration card is used. The experiments for examining the acceleration of that algorithm on the Reconfigurable Dataflow Computers (RDCs) are performed with two types of mammogram images with different resolutions. There were, also, several DFE configurations and each of them gave a different acceleration value of algorithm execution. Those acceleration values are presented and experimental results showed good acceleration.

  20. Objective breast symmetry evaluation using 3-D surface imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Maximilian; Waldenfels, Fee V; Swobodnik, Alexandra; Klöppel, Markus; Pape, Ann-Kathrin; Schuster, Tibor; Raith, Stefan; Kitzler, Elena; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Machens, Hans-Günther; Kovacs, Laszlo

    2012-04-01

    This study develops an objective breast symmetry evaluation using 3-D surface imaging (Konica-Minolta V910(®) scanner) by superimposing the mirrored left breast over the right and objectively determining the mean 3-D contour difference between the 2 breast surfaces. 3 observers analyzed the evaluation protocol precision using 2 dummy models (n = 60), 10 test subjects (n = 300), clinically tested it on 30 patients (n = 900) and compared it to established 2-D measurements on 23 breast reconstructive patients using the BCCT.core software (n = 690). Mean 3-D evaluation precision, expressed as the coefficient of variation (VC), was 3.54 ± 0.18 for all human subjects without significant intra- and inter-observer differences (p > 0.05). The 3-D breast symmetry evaluation is observer independent, significantly more precise (p < 0.001) than the BCCT.core software (VC = 6.92 ± 0.88) and may play a part in an objective surgical outcome analysis after incorporation into clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Spectroscopy (MRS in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a major health problem in women and early detection is of prime importance. Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI provides both physical and physiologic tissue features that are useful in discriminating malignant from benign lesions. Contrast enhanced MRI is valuable for diagnosis of small tumors in dense breast and the structural and kinetic parameters improved the specificity of diagnosing benign from malignant lesions. It is a complimentary modality for preoperative staging, to follow response to therapy, to detect recurrences and for screening high risk women. Diffusion, perfusion and MR elastography have been applied to breast lesion characterization and show promise.In-vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS is a valuable method to obtain the biochemical status of normal and diseased tissues. Malignant tissues contain high concentration of choline containing compounds that can be used as a biochemical marker. MRS helps to increase the specificity of MRI in lesions larger than 1cm and to monitor the tumor response. Various MR techniques show promise primarily as adjunct to the existing standard detection techniques, and its acceptability as a screening method will increase if specificity can be improved. This review presents the progress made in different MRI and MRS techniques in breast cancer management.

  2. Spatial frequency domain imaging for monitoring palpable breast lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Constance M.; Antaki, James F.; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.

    2017-02-01

    We describe a novel approach for monitoring breast lesions, utilizing spatial frequency domain imaging, a diffuse optical imaging method to detect hemoglobin contrast, in combination with mechanical compression of the tissue. The project is motivated by the growing rate of unnecessary breast biopsies, caused by uncertainty in X-ray mammographic diagnoses. We believe there is a need for an alternate means of tracking the progression palpable lesions exhibiting probably benign features, that can be performed non-invasively and hence frequently: at home or in the clinic. The proposed approach capitalizes on two distinguishing properties of cancerous lesions, namely the relative stiffness with respect to surrounding tissue and the optical absorption due to the greater vascularization, hence hemoglobin concentration. The current research project is a pilot study to evaluate the principle on soft, breast tissue-mimicking phantoms containing stiffer, more highly absorbing inclusions. Spatial frequency domain imaging was performed by projecting onto the phantom a series of wide-field patterns at multiple spatial frequencies. Image analysis then was performed to map absorption and scattering properties. The results of the study demonstrate that compression significantly increases the optical contrast observed for inclusions located 10 and 15 mm beneath the surface. In the latter case, the inclusion was not detectable without compression.

  3. Higher-order scene statistics of breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Sohl-Dickstein, Jascha N.; Olshausen, Bruno A.; Eckstein, Miguel P.; Boone, John M.

    2009-02-01

    Researchers studying human and computer vision have found description and construction of these systems greatly aided by analysis of the statistical properties of naturally occurring scenes. More specifically, it has been found that receptive fields with directional selectivity and bandwidth properties similar to mammalian visual systems are more closely matched to the statistics of natural scenes. It is argued that this allows for sparse representation of the independent components of natural images [Olshausen and Field, Nature, 1996]. These theories have important implications for medical image perception. For example, will a system that is designed to represent the independent components of natural scenes, where objects occlude one another and illumination is typically reflected, be appropriate for X-ray imaging, where features superimpose on one another and illumination is transmissive? In this research we begin to examine these issues by evaluating higher-order statistical properties of breast images from X-ray projection mammography (PM) and dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT). We evaluate kurtosis in responses of octave bandwidth Gabor filters applied to PM and to coronal slices of bCT scans. We find that kurtosis in PM rises and quickly saturates for filter center frequencies with an average value above 0.95. By contrast, kurtosis in bCT peaks near 0.20 cyc/mm with kurtosis of approximately 2. Our findings suggest that the human visual system may be tuned to represent breast tissue more effectively in bCT over a specific range of spatial frequencies.

  4. Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer: Present and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eAlcantara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging technologies have undergone explosive growth over the past few decades and now play a central role in clinical oncology. But the truly transformative power of imaging in the clinical management of cancer patients lies ahead. Today, imaging is at a crossroads, with molecularly targeted imaging agents expected to broadly expand the capabilities of conventional anatomical imaging methods. Molecular imaging will allow clinicians to not only see where a tumour is located in the body, but also to visualize the expression and activity of specific molecules (e.g. proteases and protein kinases and biological processes (e.g. apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis that influence tumour behavior and/or response to therapy. Breast cancer, the most common cancer among women and a research area where our group is actively involved, is a very heterogeneous disease with diverse patterns of development and response to treatment. Hence, molecular imaging is expected to have a major impact on this type of cancer, leading to important improvements in diagnosis, individualized treatment, and drug development, as well as our understanding of how breast cancer arises.

  5. Detection of Breast Microcalcifications Under Ultrasound Using Power Doppler and Acoustic Resonance Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weinstein, Susan

    2003-01-01

    .... Our goal with our current project was to utilize breast sonography coupled with the technique of acoustic resonance to image and evaluate the breast micorcalcifications in patients prior to biopsy...

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging texture analysis classification of primary breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, S.A.; Lerski, R.A. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Medical Physics, Dundee (United Kingdom); Purdie, C.A.; Jordan, L.B. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Pathology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Vinnicombe, S. [University of Dundee, Division of Imaging and Technology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Martin, P. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Clinical Radiology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Thompson, A.M. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Surgical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Patient-tailored treatments for breast cancer are based on histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) subtypes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) texture analysis (TA) may be useful in non-invasive lesion subtype classification. Women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer underwent pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. TA was performed using co-occurrence matrix (COM) features, by creating a model on retrospective training data, then prospectively applying to a test set. Analyses were blinded to breast pathology. Subtype classifications were performed using a cross-validated k-nearest-neighbour (k = 3) technique, with accuracy relative to pathology assessed and receiver operator curve (AUROC) calculated. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess raw entropy feature values. Histological subtype classifications were similar across training (n = 148 cancers) and test sets (n = 73 lesions) using all COM features (training: 75 %, AUROC = 0.816; test: 72.5 %, AUROC = 0.823). Entropy features were significantly different between lobular and ductal cancers (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U). IHC classifications using COM features were also similar for training and test data (training: 57.2 %, AUROC = 0.754; test: 57.0 %, AUROC = 0.750). Hormone receptor positive and negative cancers demonstrated significantly different entropy features. Entropy features alone were unable to create a robust classification model. Textural differences on contrast-enhanced MR images may reflect underlying lesion subtypes, which merits testing against treatment response. (orig.)

  7. Optical molecular imaging of hypoxic breast cancer - From prospect to preclinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    van Brussel, A.S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Current imaging modalities for breast cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring either lack sensitivity, specificity, make use of radiation and/or give images of limited resolution. Optical molecular imaging is a novel technique that detects light emitted by (breast)cancer-specific probes with a sensitive camera. As hypoxia is a common condition in solid tumors, proteins upregulated in hypoxic cells are of special interest as target for molecular imaging of breast cancer. In this thesis we revi...

  8. Image Based Biomarker of Breast Cancer Risk: Analysis of Risk Disparity Among Minority Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    visibility of microcalcification (MCs) in clinical images is of critical importance for breast imaging, as MCs can be the only sign of early cancer . To...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0062 TITLE: Image Based Biomarker of Breast Cancer ...Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) – 14 1212 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Image Based Biomarker of Breast Cancer Risk: 5a. CONTRACT

  9. Photoacoustic image patterns of breast carcinoma and comparisons with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and vascular stained histopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijblom, M.; Piras, D.; Brinkhuis, M.; van Hespen, J. C. G.; van den Engh, F. M.; van der Schaaf, M.; Klaase, J. M.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.; Manohar, S.

    2015-07-01

    Photoacoustic (optoacoustic) imaging can visualize vasculature deep in tissue using the high contrast of hemoglobin to light, with the high-resolution possible with ultrasound detection. Since angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancer, leads to increased vascularity, photoacoustics holds promise in imaging breast cancer as shown in proof-of-principle studies. Here for the first time, we investigate if there are specific photoacoustic appearances of breast malignancies which can be related to the tumor vascularity, using an upgraded research imaging system, the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope. In addition to comparisons with x-ray and ultrasound images, in subsets of cases the photoacoustic images were compared with MR images, and with vascular staining in histopathology. We were able to identify lesions in suspect breasts at the expected locations in 28 of 29 cases. We discovered generally three types of photoacoustic appearances reminiscent of contrast enhancement types reported in MR imaging of breast malignancies, and first insights were gained into the relationship with tumor vascularity.

  10. Photoacoustic image patterns of breast carcinoma and comparisons with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and vascular stained histopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijblom, M.; Piras, D.; Brinkhuis, M.; van Hespen, J. C. G.; van den Engh, F. M.; van der Schaaf, M.; Klaase, J. M.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.; Manohar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic (optoacoustic) imaging can visualize vasculature deep in tissue using the high contrast of hemoglobin to light, with the high-resolution possible with ultrasound detection. Since angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancer, leads to increased vascularity, photoacoustics holds promise in imaging breast cancer as shown in proof-of-principle studies. Here for the first time, we investigate if there are specific photoacoustic appearances of breast malignancies which can be related to the tumor vascularity, using an upgraded research imaging system, the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope. In addition to comparisons with x-ray and ultrasound images, in subsets of cases the photoacoustic images were compared with MR images, and with vascular staining in histopathology. We were able to identify lesions in suspect breasts at the expected locations in 28 of 29 cases. We discovered generally three types of photoacoustic appearances reminiscent of contrast enhancement types reported in MR imaging of breast malignancies, and first insights were gained into the relationship with tumor vascularity. PMID:26159440

  11. Glandular breast tissue volume by magnetic resonance imaging in 100 healthy peripubertal girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Louise; Hagen, Casper P; Mieritz, Mikkel G

    2016-01-01

    , and endometrial thickness were assessed by TAUS. RESULTS: Glandular breast tissue volume was positively associated with Tanner stages (r = 0.858, P ...BACKGROUND: Appearance of glandular breast tissue may be difficult to distinguish from fat tissue by palpation, especially in obese girls. To our knowledge, validation of the clinical assessment of pubertal breast stages by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has never been performed. Our objective...... was to report normative data of glandular breast tissue volume and validate the clinical evaluation of pubertal breast staging by MRI of breast tissue and to evaluate circulating reproductive hormone levels and estrogen-dependent transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) parameters as markers of glandular breast tissue...

  12. Diagnosis of breast cancer biopsies using quantitative phase imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Han, Kevin; Luo, Zelun; Macias, Virgilia; Tangella, Krishnarao; Balla, Andre; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    The standard practice in the histopathology of breast cancers is to examine a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue biopsy under a microscope. The pathologist looks at certain morphological features, visible under the stain, to diagnose whether a tumor is benign or malignant. This determination is made based on qualitative inspection making it subject to investigator bias. Furthermore, since this method requires a microscopic examination by the pathologist it suffers from low throughput. A quantitative, label-free and high throughput method for detection of these morphological features from images of tissue biopsies is, hence, highly desirable as it would assist the pathologist in making a quicker and more accurate diagnosis of cancers. We present here preliminary results showing the potential of using quantitative phase imaging for breast cancer screening and help with differential diagnosis. We generated optical path length maps of unstained breast tissue biopsies using Spatial Light Interference Microscopy (SLIM). As a first step towards diagnosis based on quantitative phase imaging, we carried out a qualitative evaluation of the imaging resolution and contrast of our label-free phase images. These images were shown to two pathologists who marked the tumors present in tissue as either benign or malignant. This diagnosis was then compared against the diagnosis of the two pathologists on H&E stained tissue images and the number of agreements were counted. In our experiment, the agreement between SLIM and H&E based diagnosis was measured to be 88%. Our preliminary results demonstrate the potential and promise of SLIM for a push in the future towards quantitative, label-free and high throughput diagnosis.

  13. Precision Sound Velocity Profiles in the Ocean - Volume 5: Sound speed and temperature of Bermuda Waters in Autumn and Winter from October 1964 to March 1966 (NODC Accession 7000472)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A collection of high-resolution, precision simultaneous sound speed and temperature profiles to 2200 m depth, and their envelopes for each station is presented for...

  14. Water temperature, salinity, and sound speed data collected by CTD and XBT from the R/V Falkor in the NW Hawaiian Islands 2014-03 to 2014-06 (NCEI Accession 0137765)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical parameters (water temperature, salinity, and sound speed) were measured as high-resolution profiles at select locations and times using CTD and XBT...

  15. A Modified Harris Corner Detection for Breast IR Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Harris corner detectors, which depend on strong invariance and a local autocorrelation function, display poor detection performance for infrared (IR images with low contrast and nonobvious edges. In addition, feature points detected by Harris corner detectors are clustered due to the numerous nonlocal maxima. This paper proposes a modified Harris corner detector that includes two unique steps for processing IR images in order to overcome the aforementioned problems. Image contrast enhancement based on a generalized form of histogram equalization (HE combined with adjusting the intensity resolution causes false contours on IR images to acquire obvious edges. Adaptive nonmaximal suppression based on eliminating neighboring pixels avoids the clustered features. Preliminary results show that the proposed method can solve the clustering problem and successfully identify the representative feature points of IR breast images.

  16. Convergence of iterative image reconstruction algorithms for Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidky, Emil; Jørgensen, Jakob Heide; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2012-01-01

    solutions can aid in iterative image reconstruction algorithm design. This issue is particularly acute for iterative image reconstruction in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT), where the corresponding data model IS particularly poorly conditioned. The impact of this poor conditioning is that iterative......Most iterative image reconstruction algorithms are based on some form of optimization, such as minimization of a data-fidelity term plus an image regularizing penalty term. While achieving the solution of these optimization problems may not directly be clinically relevant, accurate optimization...... algorithms applied to this system can be slow to converge. Recent developments in first-order algorithms are now beginning to allow for accurate solutions to optimization problems of interest to tomographic imaging in general. In particular, we investigate an algorithm developed by Chambolle and Pock (2011 J...

  17. Digital Mammography Imaging: Breast Tomosynthesis and Advanced Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvie, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis This article discusses recent developments in advanced derivative technologies associated with digital mammography. Digital breast tomosynthesis – its principles, development, and early clinical trials are reviewed. Contrast enhanced digital mammography and combined imaging systems with digital mammography and ultrasound are also discussed. Although all these methods are currently research programs, they hold promise for improving cancer detection and characterization if early results are confirmed by clinical trials. PMID:20868894

  18. Computer-aided prognosis on breast cancer with hematoxylin and eosin histopathology images: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Mei; Li, Yan; Xu, Jun; Gong, Lei; Wang, Lin-Wei; Liu, Wen-Lou; Liu, Juan

    2017-03-01

    With the advance of digital pathology, image analysis has begun to show its advantages in information analysis of hematoxylin and eosin histopathology images. Generally, histological features in hematoxylin and eosin images are measured to evaluate tumor grade and prognosis for breast cancer. This review summarized recent works in image analysis of hematoxylin and eosin histopathology images for breast cancer prognosis. First, prognostic factors for breast cancer based on hematoxylin and eosin histopathology images were summarized. Then, usual procedures of image analysis for breast cancer prognosis were systematically reviewed, including image acquisition, image preprocessing, image detection and segmentation, and feature extraction. Finally, the prognostic value of image features and image feature-based prognostic models was evaluated. Moreover, we discussed the issues of current analysis, and some directions for future research.

  19. Breast Histopathological Image Retrieval Based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yibing; Jiang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Haopeng; Xie, Fengying; Zheng, Yushan; Shi, Huaqiang; Zhao, Yu

    2017-07-01

    In the field of pathology, whole slide image (WSI) has become the major carrier of visual and diagnostic information. Content-based image retrieval among WSIs can aid the diagnosis of an unknown pathological image by finding its similar regions in WSIs with diagnostic information. However, the huge size and complex content of WSI pose several challenges for retrieval. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised, accurate, and fast retrieval method for a breast histopathological image. Specifically, the method presents a local statistical feature of nuclei for morphology and distribution of nuclei, and employs the Gabor feature to describe the texture information. The latent Dirichlet allocation model is utilized for high-level semantic mining. Locality-sensitive hashing is used to speed up the search. Experiments on a WSI database with more than 8000 images from 15 types of breast histopathology demonstrate that our method achieves about 0.9 retrieval precision as well as promising efficiency. Based on the proposed framework, we are developing a search engine for an online digital slide browsing and retrieval platform, which can be applied in computer-aided diagnosis, pathology education, and WSI archiving and management.

  20. A Dataset for Breast Cancer Histopathological Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanhol, Fabio A; Oliveira, Luiz S; Petitjean, Caroline; Heutte, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Today, medical image analysis papers require solid experiments to prove the usefulness of proposed methods. However, experiments are often performed on data selected by the researchers, which may come from different institutions, scanners, and populations. Different evaluation measures may be used, making it difficult to compare the methods. In this paper, we introduce a dataset of 7909 breast cancer histopathology images acquired on 82 patients, which is now publicly available from http://web.inf.ufpr.br/vri/breast-cancer-database. The dataset includes both benign and malignant images. The task associated with this dataset is the automated classification of these images in two classes, which would be a valuable computer-aided diagnosis tool for the clinician. In order to assess the difficulty of this task, we show some preliminary results obtained with state-of-the-art image classification systems. The accuracy ranges from 80% to 85%, showing room for improvement is left. By providing this dataset and a standardized evaluation protocol to the scientific community, we hope to gather researchers in both the medical and the machine learning field to advance toward this clinical application.

  1. Imaging of common breast implants and implant-related complications: A pictorial essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amisha T Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of women undergoing breast implant procedures is increasing exponentially. It is, therefore, imperative for a radiologist to be familiar with the normal and abnormal imaging appearances of common breast implants. Diagnostic imaging studies such as mammography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging are used to evaluate implant integrity, detect abnormalities of the implant and its surrounding capsule, and detect breast conditions unrelated to implants. Magnetic resonance imaging of silicone breast implants, with its high sensitivity and specificity for detecting implant rupture, is the most reliable modality to asses implant integrity. Whichever imaging modality is used, the overall aim of imaging breast implants is to provide the pertinent information about implant integrity, detect implant failures, and to detect breast conditions unrelated to the implants, such as cancer.

  2. Combined SPECT/CT and PET/CT for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Paolo [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); Larobina, Michele [Istituto di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Tommaso De Amicis, 95, Naples I-80145 (Italy); Di Lillo, Francesca [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); Del Vecchio, Silvana [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Avanzate, Via Pansini, 5, Naples I-80131 (Italy); Mettivier, Giovanni, E-mail: mettivier@na.infn.it [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy)

    2016-02-11

    In the field of nuclear medicine imaging, breast imaging for cancer diagnosis is still mainly based on 2D imaging techniques. Three-dimensional tomographic imaging with whole-body PET or SPECT scanners, when used for imaging the breast, has performance limits in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity, which can be overcome only with a dedicated instrumentation. However, only few hybrid imaging systems for PET/CT or SPECT/CT dedicated to the breast have been developed in the last decade, providing complementary functional and anatomical information on normal breast tissue and lesions. These systems are still under development and clinical trials on just few patients have been reported; no commercial dedicated breast PET/CT or SPECT/CT is available. This paper reviews combined dedicated breast PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners described in the recent literature, with focus on their technological aspects.

  3. Imaging of common breast implants and implant-related complications: A pictorial essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amisha T; Jankharia, Bijal B

    2016-01-01

    The number of women undergoing breast implant procedures is increasing exponentially. It is, therefore, imperative for a radiologist to be familiar with the normal and abnormal imaging appearances of common breast implants. Diagnostic imaging studies such as mammography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging are used to evaluate implant integrity, detect abnormalities of the implant and its surrounding capsule, and detect breast conditions unrelated to implants. Magnetic resonance imaging of silicone breast implants, with its high sensitivity and specificity for detecting implant rupture, is the most reliable modality to asses implant integrity. Whichever imaging modality is used, the overall aim of imaging breast implants is to provide the pertinent information about implant integrity, detect implant failures, and to detect breast conditions unrelated to the implants, such as cancer. PMID:27413269

  4. Breast lump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... removed with surgery. Breast infections are treated with antibiotics. If you are diagnosed with breast cancer , you will discuss your options carefully and thoroughly with your provider. Alternative Names Breast mass Images Female breast Breast lumps ...

  5. Development and application of a suite of 4-D virtual breast phantoms for optimization and evaluation of breast imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiarashi, Nooshin; Lo, Joseph Y; Lin, Yuan; Ikejimba, Lynda C; Ghate, Sujata V; Nolte, Loren W; Dobbins, James T; Segars, William P; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-07-01

    Mammography is currently the most widely utilized tool for detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, in women with dense breast tissue, tissue overlap may obscure lesions. Digital breast tomosynthesis can reduce tissue overlap. Furthermore, imaging with contrast enhancement can provide additional functional information about lesions, such as morphology and kinetics, which in turn may improve lesion identification and characterization. The performance of these imaging techniques is strongly dependent on the structural composition of the breast, which varies significantly among patients. Therefore, imaging system and imaging technique optimization should take patient variability into consideration. Furthermore, optimization of imaging techniques that employ contrast agents should include the temporally varying breast composition with respect to the contrast agent uptake kinetics. To these ends, we have developed a suite of 4-D virtual breast phantoms, which are incorporated with the kinetics of contrast agent propagation in different tissues and can realistically model normal breast parenchyma as well as benign and malignant lesions. This development presents a new approach in performing simulation studies using truly anthropomorphic models. To demonstrate the utility of the proposed 4-D phantoms, we present a simplified example study to compare the performance of 14 imaging paradigms qualitatively and quantitatively.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Spectroscopy (MRS in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a major health problem in women and early detection is of prime importance. Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI provides both physical and physiologic tissue features that are useful in discriminating malignant from benign lesions. Contrast enhanced MRI is valuable for diagnosis of small tumors in dense breast and the structural and kinetic parameters improved the specificity of diagnosing benign from malignant lesions. It is a complimentary modality for preoperative staging, to follow response to therapy, to detect recurrences and for screening high risk women. Diffusion, perfusion and MR elastography have been applied to breast lesion characterization and show promise. In-vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS is a valuable method to obtain the biochemical status of normal and diseased tissues. Malignant tissues contain high concentration of choline containing compounds that can be used as a biochemical marker. MRS helps to increase the specificity of MRI in lesions larger than 1cm and to monitor the tumor response. Various MR techniques show promise primarily as adjunct to the existing standard detection techniques, and its acceptability as a screening method will increase if specificity can be improved. This review presents the progress made in different MRI and MRS techniques in beast cancer management.

  7. Photoacoustic imaging of breast microcalcifications: a preliminary study with 8-gauge core-biopsied breast specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga Ram Kim

    Full Text Available We presented the photoacoustic imaging (PAI tool and to evaluate whether microcalcifications in breast tissue can be detected on photoacoustic (PA images.We collected 21 cores containing microcalcifications (n = 11, microcalcification group and none (n = 10, control group in stereotactic or ultrasound (US guided 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsies. Photoacoustic (PA images were acquired through ex vivo experiments by transmitting laser pulses with two different wavelengths (700 nm and 800 nm. The presence of microcalcifications in PA images were blindly assessed by two radiologists and compared with specimen mammography. A ratio of the signal amplitude occurring at 700 nm to that occurring at 800 nm was calculated for each PA focus and was called the PAI ratio.Based on the change of PA signal amplitude between 700 nm and 800 nm, 10 out of 11 specimens containing microcalcifications and 8 out of 10 specimens without calcifications were correctly identified on blind review; the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive and negative predictive values of our blind review were 90.91%, 80.0%, 85.71%, 83.33% and 88.89%. The PAI ratio in the microcalcification group was significantly higher than that in the control group (the median PAI ratio, 2.46 versus 1.11, respectively, P =  .001. On subgroup analysis in the microcalcification group, neither malignant diagnosis nor the number or size of calcification-foci was proven to contribute to PAI ratios.Breast microcalcifications generated distinguishable PA signals unlike breast tissue without calcifications. So, PAI, a non-ionizing and non-invasive hybrid imaging technique, can be an alternative in overcoming the limitations of conventional US imaging.

  8. Breast cancer neoplastic seeding in the setting of image-guided needle biopsies of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Lumarie; Adrada, Beatriz E; Huang, Monica L; Wei, Wei; Candelaria, Rosalind P

    2017-11-01

    To identify clinicopathologic, technical, and imaging features associated with neoplastic seeding (NS) following image-guided needle breast biopsy. We performed an institutional review board-approved retrospective review of patients presenting with a new diagnosis of breast cancer or suspicious breast findings requiring biopsy with subsequent diagnosis of NS. The time from biopsy to NS diagnosis was calculated. Histology, grade, estrogen receptor (ER) status, progesterone receptor (PR) status, HER2 status, T category, and N category were recorded. Biopsy guidance method, needle gauge, and number of passes were reviewed in addition to the mammographic and sonographic features of the primary tumors and the NS. Eight cases of NS were identified in 4010 patients. The mean time from biopsy to NS diagnosis was 60.8 days. The most frequent histology was invasive ductal carcinoma (7/8). Six cases were grade 3 (75.0%). Five primary breast cancers were ER, PR, and HER2 negative (62.5%). Seven patients underwent biopsy with ultrasound guidance. Multiple-insertion, non-coaxial ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy was done in 6 cases. Mammographic presentation of NS was focal asymmetry (3/7 cases), mass (1/7), calcifications only (1/7), or occult (2/7). Sonographic presentation of NS was most often a mass (7/8) with irregular shape (5/7) and without circumscribed margins (6/7) and was occult in 1 case (1/8). NS distribution was subdermal and intradermal. High-grade, triple-negative breast cancers and multiple-insertion, non-coaxial biopsies may be risk factors for NS. NS should be suspected on the basis of the superficial and linear pattern of disease progression in these patients.

  9. The rationale, technique, and feasibility of partial breast irradiation using noninvasive image-guided breast brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepel, Jaroslaw T; Hiatt, Jessica R; Sha, Sandra; Leonard, Kara L; Graves, Theresa A; Wiggins, Doreen L; Mastras, Dean; Pittier, Ann; Wazer, David E

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive image-guided breast brachytherapy (NIBB) is a novel approach to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). NIBB is noninvasive, yet maintains a high degree of precision by using breast immobilization and image guidance. This makes NIBB an attractive alternative to existing APBI techniques. Forty patients were enrolled to an institutional review board-approved prospective clinical trial evaluating APBI using NIBB. The NIBB technique is described in detail. Briefly, patients were treated with the breast compressed and immobilized sequentially in two orthogonal axes for each fraction. Radiation was delivered using collimated emissions from a high-dose-rate iridium-192 source via specialized applicators. The prescribed dose was 34.0 Gy in 10 fractions. Feasibility and tolerability of treatment were assessed. All patients completed protocol treatment. The median age was 68 years. Sixty-three percent of patients had invasive carcinoma, and 37% had ductal carcinoma in situ. All were node negative. Ninety-three percent of patients were postmenopausal. Mean tumor size, tumor bed volume, and breast volume were 1.1 cm, 22.4 cc, and 1591 cc, respectively. NIBB treatment was well tolerated. Median patient-reported discomfort was 1 on a 10-point pain scale. Treatment delivery times were reasonable. The average treatment time per axis was 14 min (5-20 min), and the average time from start of first treatment axis to completion of orthogonal axis was 43 min (30-63 min). Acute skin toxicity was Grade 0, 1, and 2 in 20%, 53%, and 28% of patients, respectively. There were no Grade 3 or greater acute toxicities observed. NIBB holds promise as an alternative method to deliver APBI. NIBB is feasible and well tolerated by patients. Further investigation of NIBB to deliver APBI is warranted. Copyright © 2014 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of breast calcification using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatemi-Ardekani, Ali; Boylan, Colm; Noseworthy, Michael D. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada) and Imaging Research Centre, Brain-Body Institute, St. Joseph' s Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 4A6 (Canada); Diagnostic Imaging, St. Joseph' s Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 4A6 (Canada) and Department of Radiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada); Imaging Research Centre, Brain-Body Institute, St. Joseph' s Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 4A6 (Canada); Diagnostic Imaging, St. Joseph' s Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 4A6 (Canada); Department of Radiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5 (Canada) and Electrical and Computer Engineering, and School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    MRI phase and magnitude images provide information about local magnetic field variation ({Delta}B{sub 0}), which can consequently be used to understand tissue properties. Often, phase information is discarded. However, corrected phase images are able to produce contrast as a result of magnetic susceptibility differences and local field inhomogeneities due to the presence of diamagnetic and paramagnetic substances. Three-dimensional (3D) susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) can be used to probe changes in MRI phase evolution and, subsequently, result in an alternate form of contrast between tissues. For example, SWI has been useful in the assessment of negative phase induced {Delta}B{sub 0} modulation due to the presence of paramagnetic substances such as iron. Very little, however, has been done to assess positive phase induced contrast changes resulting from the presence of diamagnetic substances such as precipitated calcium. As ductal carcinoma in situ, which is the precursor of invasive ductal cancer, is often associated with breast microcalcification, the authors proposed using SWI as a possible visualization technique. In this study, breast phantoms containing calcifications (0.4-1.5 mm) were imaged using mammography, computed tomography (CT), and SWI. Corrected phase and magnitude images acquired using SWI allowed identification and correlation of all calcifications seen on CT. As the approach is a 3D technique, it could potentially allow for more accurate localization and biopsy and maybe even reduce the use of gadolinium contrast. Furthermore, the approach may be beneficial to women with dense breast tissue where the ability to detect microcalcification with mammography is reduced.

  11. Ultrasound imaging of breast tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Kenneth; Umphrey, Heidi; Lockhart, Mark; Robbin, Michelle; Forero-Torres, Andres

    2015-09-01

    A novel image processing strategy is detailed for simultaneous measurement of tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology parameters from a sequence of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) images. After normalization and tumor segmentation, a global time-intensity curve describing contrast agent flow was analyzed to derive surrogate measures of tumor perfusion (i.e., peak intensity, time-to-peak intensity, area under the curve, wash-in rate, wash-out rate). A maximum intensity image was generated from these same segmented image sequences, and each vascular component was skeletonized via a thinning algorithm. This skeletonized data set and collection of vessel segments were then investigated to extract parameters related to the neovascular network and physical architecture (i.e., vessel-to-tissue ratio, number of bifurcations, vessel count, average vessel length and tortuosity). An efficient computation of local perfusion parameters was also introduced and operated by averaging time-intensity curve data over each individual neovascular segment. Each skeletonized neovascular segment was then color-coded by these local measures to produce a parametric map detailing spatial properties of tumor perfusion. Longitudinal DCE-US image data sets were collected in six patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer using a Philips iU22 ultrasound system equipped with a L9-3 transducer and Definity contrast agent. Patients were imaged using US before and after contrast agent dosing at baseline and again at weeks 6, 12, 18 and 24 after treatment started. Preliminary clinical results suggested that breast tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be associated with temporal and spatial changes in DCE-US-derived parametric measures of tumor perfusion. Moreover, changes in neovascular morphology parametric measures may also help identify any breast tumor response (or lack thereof) to systemic treatment. Breast cancer management from early detection to therapeutic

  12. Optical molecular imaging of hypoxic breast cancer - From prospect to preclinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brussel, A.S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Current imaging modalities for breast cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring either lack sensitivity, specificity, make use of radiation and/or give images of limited resolution. Optical molecular imaging is a novel technique that detects light emitted by (breast)cancer-specific probes with a

  13. Terahertz Imaging of Three-Dimensional Dehydrated Breast Cancer Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Tyler; Wu, Yuhao; Gauch, John; Campbell, Lucas K.; El-Shenawee, Magda

    2017-06-01

    This work presents the application of terahertz imaging to three-dimensional formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human breast cancer tumors. The results demonstrate the capability of terahertz for in-depth scanning to produce cross section images without the need to slice the tumor. Samples of tumors excised from women diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma are investigated using a pulsed terahertz time domain imaging system. A time of flight estimation is used to obtain vertical and horizontal cross section images of tumor tissues embedded in paraffin block. Strong agreement is shown comparing the terahertz images obtained by electronically scanning the tumor in-depth in comparison with histopathology images. The detection of cancer tissue inside the block is found to be accurate to depths over 1 mm. Image processing techniques are applied to provide improved contrast and automation of the obtained terahertz images. In particular, unsharp masking and edge detection methods are found to be most effective for three-dimensional block imaging.

  14. Automatic outer and inner breast tissue segmentation using multi-parametric MRI images of breast tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakran, Snekha; Chatterjee, Subhajit; Singhal, Meenakshi; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Singh, Anup

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to develop a framework for automatic outer and inner breast tissue segmentation using multi-parametric MRI images of the breast tumor patients; and to perform breast density and tumor tissue analysis. MRI of the breast was performed on 30 patients at 3T-MRI. T1, T2 and PD-weighted(W) images, with and without fat saturation(WWFS), and dynamic-contrast-enhanced(DCE)-MRI data were acquired. The proposed automatic segmentation approach was performed in two steps. In step-1, outer segmentation of breast tissue from rest of body parts was performed on structural images (T2-W/T1-W/PD-W without fat saturation images) using automatic landmarks detection technique based on operations like profile screening, Otsu thresholding, morphological operations and empirical observation. In step-2, inner segmentation of breast tissue into fibro-glandular(FG), fatty and tumor tissue was performed. For validation of breast tissue segmentation, manual segmentation was carried out by two radiologists and similarity coefficients(Dice and Jaccard) were computed for outer as well as inner tissues. FG density and tumor volume were also computed and analyzed. The proposed outer and inner segmentation approach worked well for all the subjects and was validated by two radiologists. The average Dice and Jaccard coefficients value for outer segmentation using T2-W images, obtained by two radiologists, were 0.977 and 0.951 respectively. These coefficient values for FG tissue were 0.915 and 0.875 respectively whereas for tumor tissue, values were 0.968 and 0.95 respectively. The volume of segmented tumor ranged over 2.1 cm3-7.08 cm3. The proposed approach provided automatic outer and inner breast tissue segmentation, which enables automatic calculations of breast tissue density and tumor volume. This is a complete framework for outer and inner breast segmentation method for all structural images.

  15. Automatic outer and inner breast tissue segmentation using multi-parametric MRI images of breast tumor patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snekha Thakran

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to develop a framework for automatic outer and inner breast tissue segmentation using multi-parametric MRI images of the breast tumor patients; and to perform breast density and tumor tissue analysis. MRI of the breast was performed on 30 patients at 3T-MRI. T1, T2 and PD-weighted(W images, with and without fat saturation(WWFS, and dynamic-contrast-enhanced(DCE-MRI data were acquired. The proposed automatic segmentation approach was performed in two steps. In step-1, outer segmentation of breast tissue from rest of body parts was performed on structural images (T2-W/T1-W/PD-W without fat saturation images using automatic landmarks detection technique based on operations like profile screening, Otsu thresholding, morphological operations and empirical observation. In step-2, inner segmentation of breast tissue into fibro-glandular(FG, fatty and tumor tissue was performed. For validation of breast tissue segmentation, manual segmentation was carried out by two radiologists and similarity coefficients(Dice and Jaccard were computed for outer as well as inner tissues. FG density and tumor volume were also computed and analyzed. The proposed outer and inner segmentation approach worked well for all the subjects and was validated by two radiologists. The average Dice and Jaccard coefficients value for outer segmentation using T2-W images, obtained by two radiologists, were 0.977 and 0.951 respectively. These coefficient values for FG tissue were 0.915 and 0.875 respectively whereas for tumor tissue, values were 0.968 and 0.95 respectively. The volume of segmented tumor ranged over 2.1 cm3-7.08 cm3. The proposed approach provided automatic outer and inner breast tissue segmentation, which enables automatic calculations of breast tissue density and tumor volume. This is a complete framework for outer and inner breast segmentation method for all structural images.

  16. Breast Imaging Utilizing Dedicated Gamma Camera and (99m)Tc-MIBI: Experience at the Tel Aviv Medical Center and Review of the Literature Breast Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Sapir, Einat; Golan, Orit; Menes, Tehillah; Weinstein, Yuliana; Lerman, Hedva

    2016-07-01

    The scope of the current article is the clinical role of gamma cameras dedicated for breast imaging and (99m)Tc-MIBI tumor-seeking tracer, as both a screening modality among a healthy population and as a diagnostic modality in patients with breast cancer. Such cameras are now commercially available. The technology utilizing a camera composed of a NaI (Tl) detector is termed breast-specific gamma imaging. The technology of dual-headed camera composed of semiconductor cadmium zinc telluride detectors that directly converts gamma-ray energy into electronic signals is termed molecular breast imaging. Molecular breast imaging system has been installed at the Department of Nuclear medicine at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv in 2009. The article reviews the literature well as our own experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: correlation between the baseline MR imaging findings and responses to therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, Takayoshi; Yuen, Sachiko [Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Breast Imaging and Breast Intervention Section, Naga-izumi, Shizuoka (Japan); Kasami, Masako [Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Pathology, Naga-izumi, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of breast cancer before neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and to compare findings of chemosensitive breast cancer with those of chemoresistant breast cancer. The MR imaging findings before NAC in 120 women undergoing NAC were reviewed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the pathological findings and responses. A complete response (pCR) and marked response were achieved in 12 and 35% of 120 breast cancers in 120 women respectively. Breast cancers with a pCR or marked response were classified as chemosensitive breast cancer. The remaining 64 breast cancers (53%) were classified as chemoresistant breast cancer. Large tumour size, a lesion without mass effect, and very high intratumoural signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images were significantly associated with chemoresistant breast cancer. Lesions with mass effect and washout enhancement pattern were significantly associated with chemosensitive breast cancer. Areas with very high intratumoural signal intensity on T2-weighted images corresponded pathologically to areas of intratumoural necrosis. Several MR imaging features of breast cancer before NAC can help predict the efficacy of NAC. (orig.)

  18. Molecular markers in breast cancer: new tools in imaging and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Although breast cancer is mainly diagnosed by mammography, other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET) are increasingly used. The most recent developments in the field of molecular imaging comprise the application of near-infrared fluorescent labeled (NIRF) tracers for detection of breast cancer. Thus far, only a few molecular imaging tracers have been taken to the clinic of which most are suitable for PET. My thesis describes the e...

  19. MR imaging of medullary carcinoma of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tominaga, Junya [Department of Radiology, Tohoku Rohsai Hospital, 21-3-4 Dainohara Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-8563 (Japan)], E-mail: jrtomi@jf6.so-net.ne.jp; Hama, Hikaru [Department of Radiology, Tohoku Rohsai Hospital, 21-3-4 Dainohara Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-8563 (Japan); Kimura, Noriko [Department of Pathology, Japan National Hospital Organization, Hakodate Hospital, 16-18 Kawahara-cho Hakodate, Hokkaido 041-8512 (Japan); Takahashi, Shoki [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Purpose: To examine the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of medullary carcinoma of the breast and to correlate them with histopathologic features. Materials and methods: Eight patients were retrospectively evaluated with pathologically confirmed medullary carcinoma of the breast. T1-weighted fat-saturated, T2-weighted fast spine echo, and gadolinium-enhanced fat-saturated fast spoiled gradient-echo images were obtained. Interpretation of the MRI findings was based on evaluation of the configuration, internal signal intensity, contrast enhancement, and type of the time-intensity curve. Results: Medullary carcinoma showed a lobular shape and a smooth margin, either homogenous or heterogeneous enhancement and delayed peripheral enhancement in the late phase on contrast-enhanced MRI, and either a plateau or washout type with rapid initial rise on the time-intensity curve of the dynamic study. Conclusion: Although the MRI findings showed a close relationship with histopathologic features of medullary carcinoma, it was difficult to differentiate medullary carcinoma from other histologic types of invasive breast carcinomas.

  20. Multiparametric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of breast cancer development in a transgenic mouse model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Katheryne E; Bachawal, Sunitha V; Tian, Lu; Willmann, Jürgen K

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of multiparametric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging using oxygen saturation, total hemoglobin, and lipid content to differentiate among four different breast histologies...

  1. Breast Tumor Classification Based on a Computerized Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System Feature System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Mengyun; Hu, Yuzhou; Guo, Yi; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jinhua

    2017-08-14

    This work focused on extracting novel and validated digital high-throughput features to present a detailed and comprehensive description of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) with the goal of improving the accuracy of ultrasound breast cancer diagnosis. First, the phase congruency approach was used to segment the tumors automatically. Second, high-throughput features were designed and extracted on the basis of each BI-RADS category. Then features were selected based on the basis of a Student t test and genetic algorithm. Finally, the AdaBoost classifier was used to differentiate benign tumors from malignant ones. Experiments were conducted on a database of 138 pathologically proven breast tumors. The system was compared with 6 state-of-art BI-RADS feature extraction methods. By using leave-one-out cross-validation, our system achieved a highest overall accuracy of 93.48%, a sensitivity of 94.20%, a specificity of 92.75%, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 95.67%, respectively, which were superior to those of other methods. The experiments demonstrated that our computerized BI-RADS feature system was capable of helping radiologists detect breast cancers more accurately and provided more guidance for final decisions. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. Processed images in human perception: A case study in ultrasound breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Moi Hoon [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FH09, Ergonomics and Safety Research Institute, Holywell Park (United Kingdom)], E-mail: M.H.Yap@lboro.ac.uk; Edirisinghe, Eran [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FJ.05, Garendon Wing, Holywell Park, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Bez, Helmut [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, Room N.2.26, Haslegrave Building, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Two main research efforts in early detection of breast cancer include the development of software tools to assist radiologists in identifying abnormalities and the development of training tools to enhance their skills. Medical image analysis systems, widely known as Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) systems, play an important role in this respect. Often it is important to determine whether there is a benefit in including computer-processed images in the development of such software tools. In this paper, we investigate the effects of computer-processed images in improving human performance in ultrasound breast cancer detection (a perceptual task) and classification (a cognitive task). A survey was conducted on a group of expert radiologists and a group of non-radiologists. In our experiments, random test images from a large database of ultrasound images were presented to subjects. In order to gather appropriate formal feedback, questionnaires were prepared to comment on random selections of original images only, and on image pairs consisting of original images displayed alongside computer-processed images. We critically compare and contrast the performance of the two groups according to perceptual and cognitive tasks. From a Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, we conclude that the provision of computer-processed images alongside the original ultrasound images, significantly improve the perceptual tasks of non-radiologists but only marginal improvements are shown in the perceptual and cognitive tasks of the group of expert radiologists.

  3. Classification of breast cancer histology images using Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Araújo

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the main causes of cancer death worldwide. The diagnosis of biopsy tissue with hematoxylin and eosin stained images is non-trivial and specialists often disagree on the final diagnosis. Computer-aided Diagnosis systems contribute to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of this process. Conventional classification approaches rely on feature extraction methods designed for a specific problem based on field-knowledge. To overcome the many difficulties of the feature-based approaches, deep learning methods are becoming important alternatives. A method for the classification of hematoxylin and eosin stained breast biopsy images using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs is proposed. Images are classified in four classes, normal tissue, benign lesion, in situ carcinoma and invasive carcinoma, and in two classes, carcinoma and non-carcinoma. The architecture of the network is designed to retrieve information at different scales, including both nuclei and overall tissue organization. This design allows the extension of the proposed system to whole-slide histology images. The features extracted by the CNN are also used for training a Support Vector Machine classifier. Accuracies of 77.8% for four class and 83.3% for carcinoma/non-carcinoma are achieved. The sensitivity of our method for cancer cases is 95.6%.

  4. Associations between gene expression profiles of invasive breast cancer and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System MRI lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga Ram; Ku, You Jin; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Sei Joong; Min, Byung Soh

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate whether the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) MRI lexicon could reflect the genomic information of breast cancers and to suggest intuitive imaging features as biomarkers. Matched breast MRI data from The Cancer Imaging Archive and gene expression profile from The Cancer Genome Atlas of 70 invasive breast cancers were analyzed. Magnetic resonance images were reviewed according to the BI-RADS MRI lexicon of mass morphology. The cancers were divided into 2 groups of gene clustering by gene set enrichment an alysis. Clinicopathologic and imaging characteristics were compared between the 2 groups. The luminal subtype was predominant in the group 1 gene set and the triple-negative subtype was predominant in the group 2 gene set (55 of 56, 98.2% vs. 9 of 14, 64.3%). Internal enhancement descriptors were different between the 2 groups; heterogeneity was most frequent in group 1 (27 of 56, 48.2%) and rim enhancement was dominant in group 2 (10 of 14, 71.4%). In group 1, the gene sets related to mammary gland development were overexpressed whereas the gene sets related to mitotic cell division were overexpressed in group 2. We identified intuitive imaging features of breast MRI associated with distinct gene expression profiles using the standard imaging variables of BI-RADS. The internal enhancement pattern on MRI might reflect specific gene expression profiles of breast cancers, which can be recognized by visual distinction.

  5. Heterogeneous Anthropomorphic Phantoms with Realistic Dielectric Properties for Microwave Breast Imaging Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Mashal, Alireza; Gao, Fuqiang; Hagness, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a technique for fabricating realistic breast phantoms for microwave imaging experiments. Using oil-in-gelatin dispersions that mimic breast tissue dielectric properties at microwave frequencies, we constructed four heterogeneous phantoms spanning the full range of volumetric breast densities. We performed CT scans and dielectric properties measurements to characterize each phantom.

  6. Avoiding preoperative breast MRI when conventional imaging is sufficient to stage patients eligible for breast conserving therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pengel, Kenneth E., E-mail: k.pengel@nki.nl [Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Loo, Claudette E. [Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wesseling, Jelle [Department of Pathology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pijnappel, Ruud M. [Department of Radiology/Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Rutgers, Emiel J.Th. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gilhuijs, Kenneth G.A. [Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology/Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Aim: To determine when preoperative breast MRI will not be more informative than available breast imaging and can be omitted in patients eligible for breast conserving therapy (BCT). Methods: We performed an MRI in 685 consecutive patients with 692 invasive breast tumors and eligible for BCT based on conventional imaging and clinical examination. We explored associations between patient, tumor, and conventional imaging characteristics and similarity with MRI findings. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to compute the area under the curve (AUC). Results: MRI and conventional breast imaging were similar in 585 of the 692 tumors (85%). At univariate analysis, age (p < 0.001), negative preoperative lymph node status (p = 0.011), comparable tumor diameter at mammography and at ultrasound (p = 0.001), negative HER2 status (p = 0.044), and absence of invasive lobular cancer (p = 0.005) were significantly associated with this similarity. At multivariate analysis, these factors, except HER2 status, retained significant associations. The AUC was 0.68. Conclusions: It is feasible to identify a subgroup of patients prior to preoperative breast MRI, who will most likely show similar results on conventional imaging as on MRI. These findings enable formulation of a practical consensus guideline to determine in which patients a preoperative breast MRI can be omitted.

  7. Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyo Soon; Jeong, Seo In; Choi, You Ri; Kim, Jin Woong; Lee, Ji Shin; Park, Min Ho [Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Kuzmiak, Cherie M. [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To analyze the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast. MR images were retrospectively evaluated in 14 patients (age range: 37-67, mean age: 49 years) with pathologically confirmed invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast. The enhancement type (mass/non-mass), shape, margin, contrast enhancement, and time-intensity curve pattern on the dynamic study were correlated with the histopathologic features. Associated findings, such as edema, nipple change, skin change and enlarged axillary lymph nodes were also studied. The most common features of the masses were irregular shape (12 of 14 patients, 85.8%) and irregular or spiculated margin (11 of 14 patients, 78.7%). The contrast enhancement was heterogeneous in 11 patients (78.7%), rim enhancement in 2 cases (14.2%), and homogeneous in one patient (7.1%). The predominant kinetic pattern was rapid increase (14 of 14, 100%) in the initial phase and washout (11 of 14, 78.7%) in the delayed phase. Associated non-mass like enhancement was shown in 4 patients, representing ductal carcinoma in situ. MR imaging helped detect additional sites of cancer other than the index lesion in 3 patients (21.4%). Enlarged axillary lymphadenopathy was identified in 7 of the 14 patients (50%). Invasive micropapillary carcinoma appears as a mass with an irregular shape, irregular or spiculated margin and heterogeneous enhancement on MR imaging. Though these findings are not specific and are also observed with other breast malignancies, invasive micropapillary carcinoma frequently showed multiple lesions, accompanying non-mass enhancement and axillary lymph node enlargement.

  8. Image guidance of breast cancer surgery using 3-D ultrasound images and augmented reality visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Nakamoto, M; Tamaki, Y; Sasama, T; Sakita, I; Nakajima, Y; Monden, M; Tamura, S

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes augmented reality visualization for the guidance of breast-conservative cancer surgery using ultrasonic images acquired in the operating room just before surgical resection. By combining an optical three-dimensional (3-D) position sensor, the position and orientation of each ultrasonic cross section are precisely measured to reconstruct geometrically accurate 3-D tumor models from the acquired ultrasonic images. Similarly, the 3-D position and orientation of a video camera are obtained to integrate video and ultrasonic images in a geometrically accurate manner. Superimposing the 3-D tumor models onto live video images of the patient's breast enables the surgeon to perceive the exact 3-D position of the tumor, including irregular cancer invasions which cannot be perceived by touch, as if it were visible through the breast skin. Using the resultant visualization, the surgeon can determine the region for surgical resection in a more objective and accurate manner, thereby minimizing the risk of a relapse and maximizing breast conservation. The system was shown to be effective in experiments using phantom and clinical data.

  9. Imaging Findings of Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Breast: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Na; Kook, Shin Ho; Kwag, Hyoun Joo; Choi, Yoon Jung; Sohn, Jin Hee; Park, Yong Lai [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hyo [You and Me Surgery, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    A malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma encountered during adulthood, but the breast is not a common site of involvement for MFH. Several investigators have reported the histopathological and biological features of a MFH involving the breast, but only a few reports have focused on the imaging findings of breast MFHs. To emphasize the importance of arriving at a preoperative diagnosis for the treatment implications, we report here the imaging findings, including the mammography, US and MRI findings, for a MFH of the breast of a 53-year-old woman who presented with a rapid growing huge mass in the right breast.

  10. Screen-detected versus interval cancers: Effect of imaging modality and breast density in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmermans, Lore; Bacher, Klaus; Thierens, Hubert [Ghent University, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, QCC-Gent, Ghent (Belgium); Bleyen, Luc; Herck, Koen van [Ghent University, Centrum voor Preventie en Vroegtijdige Opsporing van Kanker, Ghent (Belgium); Lemmens, Kim; Ongeval, Chantal van; Steen, Andre van [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Martens, Patrick [Centrum voor Kankeropsporing, Bruges (Belgium); Brabander, Isabel de [Belgian Cancer Registry, Brussels (Belgium); Goossens, Mathieu [UZ Brussel, Dienst Kankerpreventie, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-09-15

    To investigate if direct radiography (DR) performs better than screen-film mammography (SF) and computed radiography (CR) in dense breasts in a decentralized organised Breast Cancer Screening Programme. To this end, screen-detected versus interval cancers were studied in different BI-RADS density classes for these imaging modalities. The study cohort consisted of 351,532 women who participated in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme in 2009 and 2010. Information on screen-detected and interval cancers, breast density scores of radiologist second readers, and imaging modality was obtained by linkage of the databases of the Centre of Cancer Detection and the Belgian Cancer Registry. Overall, 67% of occurring breast cancers are screen detected and 33% are interval cancers, with DR performing better than SF and CR. The interval cancer rate increases gradually with breast density, regardless of modality. In the high-density class, the interval cancer rate exceeds the cancer detection rate for SF and CR, but not for DR. DR is superior to SF and CR with respect to cancer detection rates for high-density breasts. To reduce the high interval cancer rate in dense breasts, use of an additional imaging technique in screening can be taken into consideration. (orig.)

  11. Augmented Reality Imaging System: 3D Viewing of a Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David B; Boone, John M; Petricoin, Emanuel; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    To display images of breast cancer from a dedicated breast CT using Depth 3-Dimensional (D3D) augmented reality. A case of breast cancer imaged using contrast-enhanced breast CT (Computed Tomography) was viewed with the augmented reality imaging, which uses a head display unit (HDU) and joystick control interface. The augmented reality system demonstrated 3D viewing of the breast mass with head position tracking, stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence and the use of a 3D cursor and joy-stick enabled fly through with visualization of the spiculations extending from the breast cancer. The augmented reality system provided 3D visualization of the breast cancer with depth perception and visualization of the mass's spiculations. The augmented reality system should be further researched to determine the utility in clinical practice.

  12. Sensitivity of imaging for multifocal-multicentric breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viale Giuseppe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This retrospective study aims to determine: 1 the sensitivity of preoperative mammography (Mx and ultrasound (US, and re-reviewed Mx to detect multifocal multicentric breast carcinoma (MMBC, defined by pathology on surgical specimens, and 2 to analyze the characteristics of both detected and undetected foci on Mx and US. Methods Three experienced breast radiologists re-reviewed, independently, digital mammography of 97 women with MMBC pathologically diagnosed on surgical specimens. The radiologists were informed of all neoplastic foci, and blinded to the original mammograms and US reports. With regards to Mx, they considered the breast density, number of foci, the Mx characteristics of the lesions and their BI-RADS classification. For US, they considered size of the lesions, BI-RADS classification and US pattern and lesion characteristics. According to the histological size, the lesions were classified as: index cancer, 2nd lesion, 3rd lesion, and 4th lesion. Any pathologically identified malignant foci not previously described in the original imaging reports, were defined as undetected or missed lesions. Sensitivity was calculated for Mx, US and re-reviewed Mx for detecting the presence of the index cancer as well as additional satellite lesions. Results Pathological examination revealed 13 multifocal and 84 multicentric cancers with a total of 303 malignant foci (282 invasive and 21 non invasive. Original Mx and US reports had an overall sensitivity of 45.5% and 52.9%, respectively. Mx detected 83/97 index cancers with a sensitivity of 85.6%. The number of lesions undetected by original Mx was 165/303. The Mx pattern of breasts with undetected lesions were: fatty in 3 (1.8%; scattered fibroglandular density in 40 (24.3%, heterogeneously dense in 91 (55.1% and dense in 31 (18.8% cases. In breasts with an almost entirely fatty pattern, Mx sensitivity was 100%, while in fibroglandular or dense pattern it was reduced to 45

  13. Improved MR Images of Breast Lesions with Fast Spectroscopic Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karczmar, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    .... The results demonstrate that HiSS provides improved fat-suppression, contrast and edge delineation compared to conventional imaging. The funded work resulted in several publications listed in this report. We are continuing to optimize this method and are applying for additional funding so that it can be tested in a larger group of women.

  14. Mammographic Image Analysis of Breast Using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesa MAMBWE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various stages of detecting tumours of the breast mammogram images. A Neural Network algorithm is applied for obtaining the complete classification of the tumour into normal or abnormal. The most important procedure or technique for obtaining the classification is the feature extraction, by extracting a few of discriminative features, first-order statistical intensities and gradients. The Image Pre-processing technique is essential prior to Image Segmentation in order to obtain accurate segmentation. Thus mass detection can be carried out. The processes involved in achieving the three techniques mentioned above include global equalization transformation, denoising, binarization, breast orientation determination and the pectoral muscle suppression. The presented feature difference matrices could be created by five features extracted from a suspicious region of interest (ROI. Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM aids the obtaining of statistical features such as correlation, energy, entropy and homogeneity. The other statistical to features to obtain are area, moment, variance, entropy, standard deviation and moment. The Neural network technique yields results of abnormal mammograms.

  15. [Impact of preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging on surgical management: experience of two university hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafaye-Carré, S; Collinet, P; Vinatier, D; Bendavid, S; Place, V; Pruvo, J-P; Faye, N; Barranger, E

    2014-10-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has attained a solid position in the diagnosis of breast cancer but its benefit is still to be confirmed in the preoperative staging. The authors assessed the impact of preoperative breast MRI on surgical management of breast cancer in two university hospitals. This retrospective review was realized in two university hospitals and concerned all patients with breast carcinoma who had a surgical first therapy. We selected 89 patients who underwent preoperative breast MRI in the period between January 2008 and December 2009. The sensitivity of breast MRI for detecting breast tumor was 95%. Fourteen percent of patients had a multifocal disease, 10% a multicentric disease and 2% a synchronous bilateral cancer. The correlation of radiological tumor size with histopathological size was r=0.68 in IRM compared to r=0.45 in conventional imaging (P<0.001). Nineteen additional biopsies were performed and 9.9% of false-positive findings were detected. Retrospectively, planned surgical management was altered in 9% of patients, resulted from use of breast MRI. Six patients had conversion of planned breast conservation to mastectomy and two patients underwent contralateral lumpectomy after discover synchronous bilateral cancer. Breast MRI was very sensitive for the detection of breast carcinoma and improved local staging in almost 9% of patients. But, low specificity of this imaging requires a systematically validation of additional lesions by biopsy before surgical planning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part I. The image acquisition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Hematology and Medical Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, 1701 Upper Gate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Mammography is a very well-established imaging modality for the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, since the introduction of digital imaging to the realm of radiology, more advanced, and especially tomographic imaging methods have been made possible. One of these methods, breast tomosynthesis, has finally been introduced to the clinic for routine everyday use, with potential to in the future replace mammography for screening for breast cancer. In this two part paper, the extensive research performed during the development of breast tomosynthesis is reviewed, with a focus on the research addressing the medical physics aspects of this imaging modality. This first paper will review the research performed on the issues relevant to the image acquisition process, including system design, optimization of geometry and technique, x-ray scatter, and radiation dose. The companion to this paper will review all other aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging, including the reconstruction process.

  17. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part I. The image acquisition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Mammography is a very well-established imaging modality for the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, since the introduction of digital imaging to the realm of radiology, more advanced, and especially tomographic imaging methods have been made possible. One of these methods, breast tomosynthesis, has finally been introduced to the clinic for routine everyday use, with potential to in the future replace mammography for screening for breast cancer. In this two part paper, the extensive research performed during the development of breast tomosynthesis is reviewed, with a focus on the research addressing the medical physics aspects of this imaging modality. This first paper will review the research performed on the issues relevant to the image acquisition process, including system design, optimization of geometry and technique, x-ray scatter, and radiation dose. The companion to this paper will review all other aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging, including the reconstruction process.

  18. Imaging Proteolysis by Living Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Sameni

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant progression is accompanied by degradation of extracellular matrix proteins. Here we describe a novel confocal assay in which we can observe proteolysis by living human breast cancer cells (BT20 and BT549 through the use of quenchedfluorescent protein substrates. Degradation thus was imaged, by confocal optical sectioning, as an accumulation of fluorescent products. With the BT20 cells, fluorescence was localized to pericellular focal areas that coincide with pits in the underlying matrix. In contrast, fluorescence was localized to intracellular vesicles in the BT549 cells, vesicles that also label for lysosomal markers. Neither intracellular nor pericellular fluorescence was observed in the BT549 cells in the presence of cytochalasin B, suggesting that degradation occurred intracellularly and was dependent on endocytic uptake of substrate. In the presence of a cathepsin 13-selective cysteine protease inhibitor, intracellular fluorescence was decreased ~90% and pericellular fluorescence decreased 67% to 96%, depending on the protein substrate. Matrix metallo protease inhibitors reduced pericellular fluorescence ~50%, i.e., comparably to a serine and a broad spectrum cysteine protease inhibitor. Our results suggest that: 1 a proteolytic cascade participates in pericellular digestion of matrix proteins by living human breast cancer cells, and 2 the cysteine protease cathepsin B participates in both pericellular and intracellular digestion of matrix proteins by living human breast cancer cells.

  19. Malignancy rates of non-masslike enhancement on breast magnetic resonance imaging using American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Annamaria; McDonough, Michelle D; DePeri, Elizabeth R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the malignancy rates for non-masslike enhancement on breast magnetic resonance imaging by American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System descriptors. We retrospectively reviewed breast magnetic resonance imaging reports with non-masslike enhancement performed at Mayo Clinic Florida from April 1, 2003, through March 14, 2007. Each descriptor of non-masslike enhancement as per the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System magnetic resonance lexicon was correlated with percutaneous biopsy pathologic results and/or surgical pathologic results and follow-up imaging. Positive predictive values were obtained for each Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System descriptor. We identified 578 incidents of non-masslike enhancement in 378 patients. Of 343 non-masslike enhancements that could be correlated with pathology results, 141 (41.1%) were malignant. Of the malignant lesions, 53% were found to be ductal carcinoma in situ at percutaneous biopsy. Clumped pattern of enhancement and segmental distribution of non-masslike enhancement had the highest sensitivities of 40.5% and 23.5%, respectively. Asymmetric pattern and segmental distribution had the highest positive predictive values of 75.0% and 57.4%, respectively. We concluded that the moderate positive predictive values make it difficult to establish guidelines for management of non-masslike enhancement and reveal the current limitations of breast magnetic resonance imaging. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Use of magnetic resonance imaging in detection of breast cancer recurrence: a systematic review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, Edel Marie

    2012-09-01

    Diagnosis of breast cancer recurrence can be difficult as a result of the presence of scar tissue in the breast. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be superior to traditional imaging in diagnosis of recurrence because of its ability to differentiate malignancy from scarring. Current guidelines on investigation of suspected breast cancer recurrence recommend MRI when other investigations have equivocal findings. We performed the first systematic review on this topic.

  1. A Partnership Training Program in Breast Cancer Research Using Molecular Imaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    tiny calcium deposits that 82 indicate changes within the breast possibly point- 83 ing to cancer . Microcalcifications especially are 84 usually...NUMBER A Partnership Training Program in Breast Cancer Research Using Molecular Imaging Techniques 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-05-1-0291 5c. PROGRAM...assistant were further trained in molecular imaging of breast cancer through seminars and workshops, and are currently conducting two research projects

  2. High-resolution breast tomography at high energy: a feasibility study of phase contrast imaging on a whole breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztrókay, A.; Diemoz, P. C.; Schlossbauer, T.; Brun, E.; Bamberg, F.; Mayr, D.; Reiser, M. F.; Bravin, A.; Coan, P.

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies on phase contrast imaging (PCI) mammography have demonstrated an enhancement of breast morphology and cancerous tissue visualization compared to conventional imaging. We show here the first results of the PCI analyser-based imaging (ABI) in computed tomography (CT) mode on whole and large (>12 cm) tumour-bearing breast tissues. We demonstrate in this work the capability of the technique of working at high x-ray energies and producing high-contrast images of large and complex specimens. One entire breast of an 80-year-old woman with invasive ductal cancer was imaged using ABI-CT with monochromatic 70 keV x-rays and an area detector of 92×92 µm2 pixel size. Sagittal slices were reconstructed from the acquired data, and compared to corresponding histological sections. Comparison with conventional absorption-based CT was also performed. Five blinded radiologists quantitatively evaluated the visual aspects of the ABI-CT images with respect to sharpness, soft tissue contrast, tissue boundaries and the discrimination of different structures/tissues. ABI-CT excellently depicted the entire 3D architecture of the breast volume by providing high-resolution and high-contrast images of the normal and cancerous breast tissues. These results are an important step in the evolution of PCI-CT towards its clinical implementation.

  3. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast DCE-MRI images using bilateral asymmetry of contrast enhancement between two breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Li, Lihua; Zhang, Juan; Shao, Guoliang; Zhang, Chengjie; Zheng, Bin

    2014-02-01

    Dynamic contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) of breasts is an important imaging modality in breast cancer diagnosis with higher sensitivity but relatively lower specificity. The objective of this study is to investigate a new approach to help improve diagnostic performance of DCE-MRI examinations based on the automated detection and analysis of bilateral asymmetry of characteristic kinetic features between the left and right breast. An image dataset involving 130 DCE-MRI examinations was assembled and used in which 80 were biopsy-proved malignant and 50 were benign. A computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme was developed to segment breast areas depicted on each MR image, register images acquired from the sequential MR image scan series, compute average contrast enhancement of all pixels in one breast, and a set of kinetic features related to the difference of contrast enhancement between the left and right breast, and then use a multi-feature based Bayesian belief network to classify between malignant and benign cases. A leave-one-case-out validation method was applied to test CAD performance. The computed area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is 0.78 ± 0.04. The positive and negative predictive values are 0.77 and 0.64, respectively. The study indicates that bilateral asymmetry of kinetic features between the left and right breasts is a potentially useful image biomarker to enhance the detection of angiogenesis associated with malignancy. It also demonstrates the feasibility of applying a simple CAD approach to classify between malignant and benign DCE-MRI examinations based on this new image biomarker.

  4. Body image and its predictors in breast cancer patients receiving surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Lan; Liao, Mei-Nan; Chen, Shu-Ching; Chan, Pei-Ling; Chen, Shin-Cheh

    2012-01-01

    Negative body image may reduce patients' ability to cope with breast cancer after surgery. The purposes of this study were to (1) assess breast cancer patients' perceived level of symptom distress, anxiety, depression, disease impact, and body image and (2) evaluate factors associated with body image in breast cancer patients during the postoperative period. A cross-sectional and correlational design was used to collect data for this study, conducted in northern Taiwan. A set of questionnaires was used to measure body image, symptom distress, anxiety, depression, psychological impact of disease, and demographic and disease-related information. Stepwise regression was conducted to determine significant factors related to body image. Surgical procedure and age were found to be important factors related to body image concerns. Patient receipt of mastectomy and younger age were associated with greater body image concerns. The average age of breast cancer patients is declining in Taiwan, and body image problems in these patients are growing. Several factors are significantly related to body image distress among these patients. By understanding variables associated with breast cancer patients' body image, health professionals can coordinate interventions to improve these women's body image. Among women with breast cancer, those who have received mastectomy and those who are younger are particularly vulnerable to body image concerns. Nursing assessment of body image indicators and implementation of strategies to increase self-confidence and self-acceptance are needed for high-risk women.

  5. Automated Characterization of Breast Lesions Imaged with an Ultrafast DCE-MR Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platel, B.; Mus, R.D.; Welte, T.; Karssemeijer, N.; Mann, R.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) of the breast has become an invaluable tool in the clinical work-up of patients suspected of having breast carcinoma. The purpose of this study is to introduce novel features extracted from the kinetics of contrast agent uptake imaged by

  6. Molecular markers in breast cancer: new tools in imaging and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338877169

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Although breast cancer is mainly diagnosed by mammography, other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET) are increasingly used. The most recent developments in the field of molecular imaging comprise the application of near-infrared

  7. Challenges in the Design of Microwave Imaging Systems for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2011-01-01

    Among the various breast imaging modalities for breast cancer detection, microwave imaging is attractive due to the high contrast in dielectric properties between the cancerous and normal tissue. Due to this reason, this modality has received a significant interest and attention from the microwave...

  8. Classification System for Identifying Women at Risk for Altered Partial Breast Irradiation Recommendations After Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalchik, Kristin V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Vallow, Laura A., E-mail: vallow.laura@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); McDonough, Michelle [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Thomas, Colleen S.; Heckman, Michael G. [Section of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Peterson, Jennifer L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Adkisson, Cameron D. [Department of General Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Serago, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); McLaughlin, Sarah A. [Department of General Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To study the utility of preoperative breast MRI for partial breast irradiation (PBI) patient selection, using multivariable analysis of significant risk factors to create a classification rule. Methods and Materials: Between 2002 and 2009, 712 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent preoperative bilateral breast MRI at Mayo Clinic Florida. Of this cohort, 566 were retrospectively deemed eligible for PBI according to the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-39 inclusion criteria using physical examination, mammogram, and/or ultrasound. Magnetic resonance images were then reviewed to determine their impact on patient eligibility. The patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated to determine risk factors for altered PBI eligibility after MRI and to create a classification rule. Results: Of the 566 patients initially eligible for PBI, 141 (25%) were found ineligible because of pathologically proven MRI findings. Magnetic resonance imaging detected additional ipsilateral breast cancer in 118 (21%). Of these, 62 (11%) had more extensive disease than originally noted before MRI, and 64 (11%) had multicentric disease. Contralateral breast cancer was detected in 28 (5%). Four characteristics were found to be significantly associated with PBI ineligibility after MRI on multivariable analysis: premenopausal status (P=.021), detection by palpation (P<.001), first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer (P=.033), and lobular histology (P=.002). Risk factors were assigned a score of 0-2. The risk of altered PBI eligibility from MRI based on number of risk factors was 0:18%; 1:22%; 2:42%; 3:65%. Conclusions: Preoperative bilateral breast MRI altered the PBI recommendations for 25% of women. Women who may undergo PBI should be considered for breast MRI, especially those with lobular histology or with 2 or more of the following risk factors: premenopausal, detection by palpation, and first-degree relative with a history of

  9. Incremental cancer detection using breast ultrasonography versus breast magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongying; Plaxco, Jeri S; Wei, Wei; Huo, Lei; Candelaria, Rosalind P; Kuerer, Henry M; Yang, Wei T

    2016-09-01

    To compare the incremental cancer detection rate (ICDR) using bilateral whole-breast ultrasonography (BWBUS) vs dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in patients with primary breast cancer. A retrospective database search in a single institution identified 259 patients with breast cancer diagnosed from January 2011 to August 2014 who underwent mammography, BWBUS and MRI before surgery. Patient characteristics, tumour characteristics and lesions seen on each imaging modality were recorded. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for each modality were calculated. ICDRs according to index tumour histology and receptor status were also evaluated. The effect of additional cancer detection on surgical planning was obtained from the medical records. A total of 266 additional lesions beyond 273 index malignancies were seen on at least 1 modality, of which 121 (45%) lesions were malignant and 145 (55%) lesions were benign. MRI was significantly more sensitive than BWBUS (p = 0.01), while BWBUS was significantly more accurate and specific than MRI (p < 0.0001). Compared with mammography, the ICDRs using BWBUS and MRI were significantly higher for oestrogen receptor-positive and triple-negative cancers, but not for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive cancers. 22 additional malignant lesions in 18 patients were seen on MRI only. Surgical planning remained unchanged in 8 (44%) of those 18 patients. MRI was more sensitive than BWBUS, while BWBUS was more accurate and specific than MRI. MRI-detected additional malignant lesions did not change surgical planning in almost half of these patients. BWBUS may be a cost-effective and practical tool in breast cancer staging.

  10. Association between Parenchymal Enhancement of the Contralateral Breast in Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging and Outcome of Patients with Unilateral Invasive Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Bas; Dmitriev, Ivan; Loo, C.E.; Pijnappel, Ruud; Gilhuijs, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To retrospectively investigate whether parenchymal enhancement in dynamic contrast material–enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the contralateral breast in patients with unilateral invasive breast cancer is associated with therapy outcome. Materials and Methods After obtaining

  11. Deep learning and three-compartment breast imaging in breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukker, Karen; Huynh, Benjamin Q.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Malkov, Serghei; Avila, Jesus I.; Fan, Bo; Joe, Bonnie; Kerlikowske, Karla; Drukteinis, Jennifer S.; Kazemi, Leila; Pereira, Malesa M.; Shepherd, John

    2017-03-01

    We investigated whether deep learning has potential to aid in the diagnosis of breast cancer when applied to mammograms and biologic tissue composition images derived from three-compartment (3CB) imaging. The dataset contained diagnostic mammograms and 3CB images (water, lipid, and protein content) of biopsy-sampled BIRADS 4 and 5 lesions in 195 patients. In 58 patients, the lesion manifested as a mass (13 malignant vs. 45 benign), in 87 as microcalcifications (19 vs. 68), and in 56 as (focal) asymmetry or architectural distortion (11 vs. 45). Six patients had both a mass and calcifications. For each mammogram and corresponding 3CB images, a 128x128 region of interest containing the lesion was selected by an expert radiologist and used directly as input to a deep learning method pretrained on a very large independent set of non-medical images. We used a nested leave-one-out-by-case (patient) model selection and classification protocol. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the task of distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions was used as performance metric. For the cases with mammographic masses, the AUC increased from 0.83 (mammograms alone) to 0.89 (mammograms+3CB, p=.162). For the microcalcification and asymmetry/architectural distortion cases the AUC increased from 0.84 to 0.91 (p=.116) and from 0.61 to 0.87 (p=.006), respectively. Our results indicate great potential for the application of deep learning methods in the diagnosis of breast cancer and additional knowledge of the biologic tissue composition appeared to improve performance, especially for lesions mammographically manifesting as asymmetries or architectural distortions.

  12. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nariya [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics.

  13. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariya Cho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics.

  14. Review: Receptor Targeted Nuclear Imaging of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone U. Dalm

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Receptor targeted nuclear imaging directed against molecular markers overexpressed on breast cancer (BC cells offers a sensitive and specific method for BC imaging. Currently, a few targets such as estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, somatostatin receptor (SSTR, and the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR are being investigated for this purpose. Expression of these targets is BC subtype dependent and information that can be gained from lesion visualization is dependent on the target; ER-targeting radiotracers, e.g., can be used to monitor response to anti-estrogen treatment. Here we give an overview of the studies currently under investigation for receptor targeted nuclear imaging of BC. Main findings of imaging studies are summarized and (potential purposes of lesion visualization by targeting these molecular markers are discussed. Since BC is a very heterogeneous disease and molecular target expression can vary per subtype, but also during disease progression or under influence of treatment, radiotracers for selected imaging purposes should be chosen carefully.

  15. Task-based optimization of image reconstruction in breast CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Adrian A.; Sidky, Emil Y.; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate a task-based assessment of image quality in dedicated breast CT in order to optimize the number of projection views acquired. The methodology we employ is based on the Hotelling Observer (HO) and its associated metrics. We consider two tasks: the Rayleigh task of discerning between two resolvable objects and a single larger object, and the signal detection task of classifying an image as belonging to either a signalpresent or signal-absent hypothesis. HO SNR values are computed for 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 projection view images, with the total imaging radiation dose held constant. We use the conventional fan-beam FBP algorithm and investigate the effect of varying the width of a Hanning window used in the reconstruction, since this affects both the noise properties of the image and the under-sampling artifacts which can arise in the case of sparse-view acquisitions. Our results demonstrate that fewer projection views should be used in order to increase HO performance, which in this case constitutes an upper-bound on human observer performance. However, the impact on HO SNR of using fewer projection views, each with a higher dose, is not as significant as the impact of employing regularization in the FBP reconstruction through a Hanning filter.

  16. Mammographic quantitative image analysis and biologic image composition for breast lesion characterization and classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drukker, Karen, E-mail: kdrukker@uchicago.edu; Giger, Maryellen L.; Li, Hui [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Duewer, Fred; Malkov, Serghei; Joe, Bonnie; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A. [Radiology Department, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Flowers, Chris I. [Department of Radiology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Drukteinis, Jennifer S. [Department of Radiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether biologic image composition of mammographic lesions can improve upon existing mammographic quantitative image analysis (QIA) in estimating the probability of malignancy. Methods: The study population consisted of 45 breast lesions imaged with dual-energy mammography prior to breast biopsy with final diagnosis resulting in 10 invasive ductal carcinomas, 5 ductal carcinomain situ, 11 fibroadenomas, and 19 other benign diagnoses. Analysis was threefold: (1) The raw low-energy mammographic images were analyzed with an established in-house QIA method, “QIA alone,” (2) the three-compartment breast (3CB) composition measure—derived from the dual-energy mammography—of water, lipid, and protein thickness were assessed, “3CB alone”, and (3) information from QIA and 3CB was combined, “QIA + 3CB.” Analysis was initiated from radiologist-indicated lesion centers and was otherwise fully automated. Steps of the QIA and 3CB methods were lesion segmentation, characterization, and subsequent classification for malignancy in leave-one-case-out cross-validation. Performance assessment included box plots, Bland–Altman plots, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions (invasive and DCIS) was 0.81 (standard error 0.07) for the “QIA alone” method, 0.72 (0.07) for “3CB alone” method, and 0.86 (0.04) for “QIA+3CB” combined. The difference in AUC was 0.043 between “QIA + 3CB” and “QIA alone” but failed to reach statistical significance (95% confidence interval [–0.17 to + 0.26]). Conclusions: In this pilot study analyzing the new 3CB imaging modality, knowledge of the composition of breast lesions and their periphery appeared additive in combination with existing mammographic QIA methods for the distinction between different benign and malignant lesion types.

  17. Evaluation of a breast software model for 2D and 3D X-ray imaging studies of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneva, Yanka; Bliznakova, Kristina; Cockmartin, Lesley; Marinov, Stoyko; Buliev, Ivan; Mettivier, Giovanni; Bosmans, Hilde; Russo, Paolo; Marshall, Nicholas; Bliznakov, Zhivko

    2017-09-01

    In X-ray imaging, test objects reproducing breast anatomy characteristics are realized to optimize issues such as image processing or reconstruction, lesion detection performance, image quality and radiation induced detriment. Recently, a physical phantom with a structured background has been introduced for both 2D mammography and breast tomosynthesis. A software version of this phantom and a few related versions are now available and a comparison between these 3D software phantoms and the physical phantom will be presented. The software breast phantom simulates a semi-cylindrical container filled with spherical beads of different diameters. Four computational breast phantoms were generated with a dedicated software application and for two of these, physical phantoms are also available and they are used for the side by side comparison. Planar projections in mammography and tomosynthesis were simulated under identical incident air kerma conditions. Tomosynthesis slices were reconstructed with an in-house developed reconstruction software. In addition to a visual comparison, parameters like fractal dimension, power law exponent β and second order statistics (skewness, kurtosis) of planar projections and tomosynthesis reconstructed images were compared. Visually, an excellent agreement between simulated and real planar and tomosynthesis images is observed. The comparison shows also an overall very good agreement between parameters evaluated from simulated and experimental images. The computational breast phantoms showed a close match with their physical versions. The detailed mathematical analysis of the images confirms the agreement between real and simulated 2D mammography and tomosynthesis images. The software phantom is ready for optimization purpose and extrapolation of the phantom to other breast imaging techniques. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cupping artifact correction and automated classification for high-resolution dedicated breast CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Shengyong; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Fei, Baowei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and test an automated algorithm to classify the different tissues present in dedicated breast CT images. Methods: The original CT images are first corrected to overcome cupping artifacts, and then a multiscale bilateral filter is used to reduce noise while keeping edge information on the images. As skin and glandular tissues have similar CT values on breast CT images, morphologic processing is used to identify the skin mask based on its position information. A modified fuzzy C-means (FCM) classification method is then used to classify breast tissue as fat and glandular tissue. By combining the results of the skin mask with the FCM, the breast tissue is classified as skin, fat, and glandular tissue. To evaluate the authors’ classification method, the authors use Dice overlap ratios to compare the results of the automated classification to those obtained by manual segmentation on eight patient images. Results: The correction method was able to correct the cupping artifacts and improve the quality of the breast CT images. For glandular tissue, the overlap ratios between the authors’ automatic classification and manual segmentation were 91.6% ± 2.0%. Conclusions: A cupping artifact correction method and an automatic classification method were applied and evaluated for high-resolution dedicated breast CT images. Breast tissue classification can provide quantitative measurements regarding breast composition, density, and tissue distribution. PMID:23039675

  19. DIEP Flap Breast Reconstruction Using 3-dimensional Surface Imaging and a Printed Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Tomita, MD, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Recent advances in 3-dimensional (3D surface imaging technologies allow for digital quantification of complex breast tissue. We performed 11 unilateral breast reconstructions with deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP flaps (5 immediate, 6 delayed using 3D surface imaging for easier surgery planning and 3D-printed molds for shaping the breast neoparenchyma. A single- or double-pedicle flap was preoperatively planned according to the estimated tissue volume required and estimated total flap volume. The DIEP flap was then intraoperatively shaped with a 3D-printed mold that was based on a horizontally inverted shape of the contralateral breast. Cosmetic outcomes were assessed as satisfactory, as confirmed by the postoperative 3D measurements of bilateral breasts. We believe that DIEP flap reconstruction assisted with 3D surface imaging and a 3D-printed mold is a simple and quick method for rebuilding a symmetric breast.

  20. A comparison of body image, marital satisfaction, and public health among breast cancer patients with breast evacuation, breast keeping and normal people in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Esfandiari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose and background: despite outstanding breakthroughs in medical sciences, breast cancer is still considered one of the most important disease and the most prevalent women cancer and the second reason of death among them. The present study was conducted aiming to compare public health and marital satisfaction among breast cancer patients with breast evacuation, breast keeping and normal women in Tehran. Material and methods: the method of the present study, due to the lack of interference to alter the research variables, was causal comparative. The statistical population included all women with breast cancer and normal women in the city of Tehran. From these people in each group (breast cancer patients with breast evacuation, breast keeping and normal people 80 individuals were selected through available sampling from clients of medical centers and special hospitals in Tehran during October 2012 to December 2013. The applied instruments were the questionnaires of public health, body image, and marital satisfaction. The achieved data were analyzed via one-way ANOVA and Tukey test by SPSS software. Findings: the results of the analysis showed that there is a significant difference between the mean scores of marital satisfaction, body image and public health in three groups (women with cancer who evacuated their breast, those who didn't and normal ones(p<0.01. Conclusion: according to the findings of the present study the women with breast cancer are in more different state in variables of marital satisfaction, mental health and body image comparing to normal group. So it seems necessary for cancer treatment centers to consider psychological treatment courses for these people.

  1. Using X-Ray Mammograms to Assist in Microwave Breast Image Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Curtis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current clinical breast imaging modalities include ultrasound, magnetic resonance (MR imaging, and the ubiquitous X-ray mammography. Microwave imaging, which takes advantage of differing electromagnetic properties to obtain image contrast, shows potential as a complementary imaging technique. As an emerging modality, interpretation of 3D microwave images poses a significant challenge. MR images are often used to assist in this task, and X-ray mammograms are readily available. However, X-ray mammograms provide 2D images of a breast under compression, resulting in significant geometric distortion. This paper presents a method to estimate the 3D shape of the breast and locations of regions of interest from standard clinical mammograms. The technique was developed using MR images as the reference 3D shape with the future intention of using microwave images. Twelve breast shapes were estimated and compared to ground truth MR images, resulting in a skin surface estimation accurate to within an average Euclidean distance of 10 mm. The 3D locations of regions of interest were estimated to be within the same clinical area of the breast as corresponding regions seen on MR imaging. These results encourage investigation into the use of mammography as a source of information to assist with microwave image interpretation as well as validation of microwave imaging techniques.

  2. Contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography: a promising new imaging tool in breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalji, Ulrich; Lobbes, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography (CEDM) is a promising new breast imaging tool for breast cancer detection. In CEDM, an iodine-based contrast agent is intravenously administered and subsequently, dual-energy mammography is performed. This results in a set of images containing both a regular mammogram and an image that contains contrast enhancement information. Preliminary studies have indicated that CEDM is superior to conventional mammography and might even match the diagnostic performance of breast MRI. In this review, the imaging technique, protocol and patient handling of CEDM is presented. Furthermore, an overview of current results on CEDM and potential future indications are outlined.

  3. TH-A-18A-01: Innovation in Clinical Breast Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Yang, K [University of Oklahoma, Oklahomoa City, OK (United States); Yaffe, M [University Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Chen, J [GE/U-Systems, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Several novel modalities have been or are on the verge of being introduced into the breast imaging clinic. These include tomosynthesis imaging, dedicated breast CT, contrast-enhanced digital mammography, and automated breast ultrasound, all of which are covered in this course. Tomosynthesis and dedicated breast CT address the problem of tissue superimposition that limits mammography screening performance, by improved or full resolution of the 3D breast morphology. Contrast-enhanced digital mammography provides functional information that allows for visualization of tumor angiogenesis. 3D breast ultrasound has high sensitivity for tumor detection in dense breasts, but the imaging exam was traditionally performed by radiologists. In automated breast ultrasound, the scan is performed in an automated fashion, making for a more practical imaging tool, that is now used as an adjunct to digital mammography in breast cancer screening. This course will provide medical physicists with an in-depth understanding of the imaging physics of each of these four novel imaging techniques, as well as the rationale and implementation of QC procedures. Further, basic clinical applications and work flow issues will be discussed. Learning Objectives: To be able to describe the underlying physical and physiological principles of each imaging technique, and to understand the corresponding imaging acquisition process. To be able to describe the critical system components and their performance requirements. To understand the rationale and implementation of quality control procedures, as well as regulatory requirements for systems with FDA approval. To learn about clinical applications and understand risks and benefits/strength and weakness of each modality in terms of clinical breast imaging.

  4. A minimum spanning forest based classification method for dedicated breast CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, Robert [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30329 (United States); Sechopoulos, Ioannis [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30329 and Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Fei, Baowei, E-mail: bfei@emory.edu [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30329 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To develop and test an automated algorithm to classify different types of tissue in dedicated breast CT images. Methods: Images of a single breast of five different patients were acquired with a dedicated breast CT clinical prototype. The breast CT images were processed by a multiscale bilateral filter to reduce noise while keeping edge information and were corrected to overcome cupping artifacts. As skin and glandular tissue have similar CT values on breast CT images, morphologic processing is used to identify the skin based on its position information. A support vector machine (SVM) is trained and the resulting model used to create a pixelwise classification map of fat and glandular tissue. By combining the results of the skin mask with the SVM results, the breast tissue is classified as skin, fat, and glandular tissue. This map is then used to identify markers for a minimum spanning forest that is grown to segment the image using spatial and intensity information. To evaluate the authors’ classification method, they use DICE overlap ratios to compare the results of the automated classification to those obtained by manual segmentation on five patient images. Results: Comparison between the automatic and the manual segmentation shows that the minimum spanning forest based classification method was able to successfully classify dedicated breast CT image with average DICE ratios of 96.9%, 89.8%, and 89.5% for fat, glandular, and skin tissue, respectively. Conclusions: A 2D minimum spanning forest based classification method was proposed and evaluated for classifying the fat, skin, and glandular tissue in dedicated breast CT images. The classification method can be used for dense breast tissue quantification, radiation dose assessment, and other applications in breast imaging.

  5. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) versus breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): A retrospective comparison in 66 breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Roth, R; Germaine, P; Ren, S; Lee, M; Hunter, K; Tinney, E; Liao, L

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively compare the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) with that of breast magnetic resonance imaging (BMRI) in breast cancer detection using parameters, including sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), lesion size, morphology, lesion and background enhancement, and examination time. A total of 48 women (mean age, 56years±10.6 [SD]) with breast lesions detected between October 2012 and March 2014 were included. Both CESM and BMRI were performed for each patient within 30 days. The enhancement intensity of lesions and breast background parenchyma was subjectively assessed for both modalities and was quantified for comparison. Statistical significance was analyzed using paired t-test for mean size of index lesions in all malignant breasts (an index lesion defined as the largest lesion in each breast), and a mean score of enhancement intensity for index lesions and breast background. PPV, sensitivity, and accuracy were calculated for both CESM and BMRI. The average duration time of CESM and MRI examinations was also compared. A total of 66 lesions were identified, including 62 malignant and 4 benign lesions. Both CESM and BMRI demonstrated a sensitivity of 100% for detection of breast cancer. There was no statistically significant difference between the mean size of index lesions (P=0.108). The enhancement intensity of breast background was significantly lower for CESM than for BMRI (P0.05). The average examination time for CESM was significantly shorter than that of BMRI (P<0.01). CESM has similar sensitivity than BMRI in breast cancer detection, with higher PPV and less background enhancement. CESM is associate with significantly shorter exam time thus a more accessible alternative to BMRI, and has the potential to play an important tool in breast cancer detection and staging. Copyright © 2016 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  6. Extended hidden Markov model for optimized segmentation of breast thermography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, E.; Montazeri, M. A.; Zekri, M.; Sadri, S.

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed form of cancer in women. Thermography has been shown to provide an efficient screening modality for detecting breast cancer as it is able to detect small tumors and hence can lead to earlier diagnosis. This paper presents a novel extended hidden Markov model (EHMM), for optimized segmentation of breast thermogram for more effective image interpretation and easier analysis of Infrared (IR) thermal patterns. Competitive advantage of EHMM method refers to handling random sampling of the breast IR images with re-estimation of the model parameters. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by applying EHMM segmentation method on the images of IUT_OPTIC database and compared with previously related methods. Simulation results indicate the remarkable capabilities of the proposed approach. It is worth noting that the presented algorithm is able to map semi hot regions into distinct areas and extract the regions of breast thermal images significantly, while the execution time is reduced.

  7. Joint Reconstruction of Absorbed Optical Energy Density and Sound Speed Distribution in Photoacoustic Computed Tomography: A numerical Investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Chao; Schoonover, Robert W; Wang, Lihong V; Anastasio, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is a rapidly emerging bioimaging modality that seeks to reconstruct an estimate of the absorbed optical energy density within an object. Conventional PACT image reconstruction methods assume a constant speed-of-sound (SOS), which can result in image artifacts when acoustic aberrations are significant. It has been demonstrated that incorporating knowledge of an object's SOS distribution into a PACT image reconstruction method can improve image quality. However, in many cases, the SOS distribution cannot be accurately and/or conveniently estimated prior to the PACT experiment. Because variations in the SOS distribution induce aberrations in the measured photoacoustic wavefields, certain information regarding an object's SOS distribution is encoded in the PACT measurement data. Based on this observation, a joint reconstruction (JR) problem has been proposed in which the SOS distribution is concurrently estimated along with the sought-after absorbed optical energy density ...

  8. Positive predictive value of additional synchronous breast lesions in whole-breast ultrasonography at the diagnosis of breast cancer: clinical and imaging factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ah Hyun; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Jung [Dept. of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of bilateral whole-breast ultrasonography (BWBU) for detection of synchronous breast lesions on initial diagnosis of breast cancer and evaluate factors affecting the PPV of BWBU according to varying clinicoimaging factors. A total of 75 patients who had synchronous lesions with pathologic confirmation at the initial diagnosis of breast cancer during January 2007 and December 2007 were included. The clinical factors of the patients were evaluated. One observer retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies of the index breast cancer lesion and the synchronous lesion. The PPV for additional biopsy was calculated for BWBU and various clinical and imaging factors affecting the PPV for BWBU were evaluated. The overall PPV for additional biopsy was 25.7% (18 of 70). The PPV for synchronous lesions detected both on mammography and BWBU, and detected only on BWBU, was 76.9% (10 of 13) and 14.3% (7 of 49), respectively. There was no clinical factor affecting the PPV for BWBU. Among the imaging factors, ipsilateral location of the synchronous lesion to the index lesion (P=0.06) showed a marginal statistically significant correlation with malignancy in the synchronous breast lesion. A mass with calcification on mammography presentation (P<0.01), presence of calcification among the ultrasonography findings (P<0.01), and high Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System final assessment (P<0.01) were imaging factors that were associated with malignancy in the additional synchronous lesion. BWBU can detect additional synchronous malignancy at the diagnosis of breast cancer with a relatively high PPV, especially when mammography findings are correlated with ultrasonographic findings.

  9. Analysis of percent density estimates from digital breast tomosynthesis projection images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakic, Predrag R.; Kontos, Despina; Zhang, Cuiping; Yaffe, Martin J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2007-03-01

    Women with dense breasts have an increased risk of breast cancer. Breast density is typically measured as the percent density (PD), the percentage of non-fatty (i.e., dense) tissue in breast images. Mammographic PD estimates vary, in part, due to the projective nature of mammograms. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a novel radiographic method in which 3D images of the breast are reconstructed from a small number of projection (source) images, acquired at different positions of the x-ray focus. DBT provides superior visualization of breast tissue and has improved sensitivity and specificity as compared to mammography. Our long-term goal is to test the hypothesis that PD obtained from DBT is superior in estimating cancer risk compared with other modalities. As a first step, we have analyzed the PD estimates from DBT source projections since the results would be independent of the reconstruction method. We estimated PD from MLO mammograms (PD M) and from individual DBT projections (PD T). We observed good agreement between PD M and PD T from the central projection images of 40 women. This suggests that variations in breast positioning, dose, and scatter between mammography and DBT do not negatively affect PD estimation. The PD T estimated from individual DBT projections of nine women varied with the angle between the projections. This variation is caused by the 3D arrangement of the breast dense tissue and the acquisition geometry.

  10. Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging in breast-conserving surgery: assessing intraoperative techniques in tissue-simulating breast phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleijhuis, R G; Langhout, G C; Helfrich, W; Themelis, G; Sarantopoulos, A; Crane, L M A; Harlaar, N J; de Jong, J S; Ntziachristos, V; van Dam, G M

    2011-01-01

    Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) results in tumour-positive surgical margins in up to 40% of the patients. Therefore, new imaging techniques are needed that support the surgeon with real-time feedback on tumour location and margin status. In this study, the potential of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging in BCS for pre- and intraoperative tumour localization, margin status assessment and detection of residual disease was assessed in tissue-simulating breast phantoms. Breast-shaped phantoms were produced with optical properties that closely match those of normal breast tissue. Fluorescent tumour-like inclusions containing indocyanine green (ICG) were positioned at predefined locations in the phantoms to allow for simulation of (i) preoperative tumour localization, (ii) real-time NIRF-guided tumour resection, and (iii) intraoperative margin assessment. Optical imaging was performed using a custom-made clinical prototype NIRF intraoperative camera. Tumour-like inclusions in breast phantoms could be detected up to a depth of 21 mm using a NIRF intraoperative camera system. Real-time NIRF-guided resection of tumour-like inclusions proved feasible. Moreover, intraoperative NIRF imaging reliably detected residual disease in case of inadequate resection. We evaluated the potential of NIRF imaging applications for BCS. The clinical setting was simulated by exploiting tissue-like breast phantoms with fluorescent tumour-like agarose inclusions. From this evaluation, we conclude that intraoperative NIRF imaging is feasible and may improve BCS by providing the surgeon with imaging information on tumour location, margin status, and presence of residual disease in real-time. Clinical studies are needed to further validate these results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Image guided versus palpation guided core needle biopsy of palpable breast masses: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Smriti Hari; Swati Kumari; Anurag Srivastava; Sanjay Thulkar; Sandeep Mathur; Prasad Thotton Veedu

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Biopsy of palpable breast masses can be performed manually by palpation guidance or under imaging guidance. Based on retrospective studies, image guided biopsy is considered more accurate than palpation guided breast biopsy; however, these techniques have not been compared prospectively. We conducted this prospective study to verify the superiority and determine the size of beneficial effect of image guided biopsy over palpation guided biopsy. Methods: Over a period o...

  12. Label-free imaging of human breast tissues using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaliang; Gao, Liang; Wang, Zhiyong; Thrall, Michael J.; Luo, Pengfei; Wong, Kelvin K.; Wong, Stephen T.

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is a common disease in women. Current imaging and diagnostic methods for breast cancer confront several limitations, like time-consuming, invasive and with a high cost. Alternative strategies are in high demand to alleviate patients' trauma and lower medical expenses. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging technique offers many advantages, including label-free, sub-wavelength spatial resolution and video-rate imaging speed. Therefore, it has been demonstrated as a powerful tool for various biomedical applications. In this study, we present a label-free fast imaging method to identify breast cancer and its subtypes using CARS microscopy. Human breast tissues, including normal, benign and invasive carcinomas, were imaged ex vivo using a custom-built CARS microscope. Compared with results from corresponding hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains, the CARS technique has demonstrated its capability in identifying morphological features in a similar way as in H&E stain. These features can be used to distinguish breast cancer from normal and benign tissues, and further separate cancer subtypes from each other. Our pilot study suggests that CARS microscopy could be used as a routine examination tool to characterize breast cancer ex vivo. Moreover, its label-free and fast imaging properties render this technique as a promising approach for in vivo and real-time imaging and diagnosis of breast cancer.

  13. Overuse of imaging the male breast-findings in 557 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapid, Oren; Siebenga, Pieter; Zonderland, Harmien M

    2015-01-01

    Gynecomastia is the most common abnormality of the male breast. However, breast cancer may occur, albeit with a significantly lower incidence than in females. Imaging is often used as part of the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the utilization and outcome of imaging with mammography or ultrasound of the male breast in a university hospital's department of radiology. A retrospective study assessing the imaging of the male breast in 557 patients over a 10-year period. Referral was done mainly by general surgeons and general practitioners. The most common indication was enlargement of the breast, described as gynecomastia or swelling in 74% of patients, followed by pain in 24% and "lumps" in 10%. The modalities used were mammography in 65%, ultrasound in 51% and both in 26%. Most examinations, 519, were BI-RADS 1 or 2, and 38 were BI-RADS 3 or higher. Altogether 160 patients had additional fine-needle aspiration or biopsy. Malignancies were diagnosed in five patients (0.89%). Imaging had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 99%. The positive predictive value was 44% and the negative predictive value 99.8%. Malignancies are rare in the male breast. The probability of finding cancer when performing imaging of clinically benign findings in the male breast is negligible. Imaging is not warranted unless there are suspicious abnormalities. Routine imaging of gynecomastia should be discouraged. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Imaging of metastases from breast cancer to uncommon sites: a pictorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toguchi, Masafumi; Matsuki, Mitsuru; Numoto, Isao; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Imaoka, Izumi; Ishii, Kazunari; Yamashita, Rikiya; Inada, Yuki; Monzawa, Shuichi; Kobayashi, Hisato; Murakami, Takamichi

    2016-06-01

    There are three types of breast cancer recurrence which can occur after initial treatment: local, regional, and distant. Distant metastases are more frequent than local and regional recurrences. It usually occurs several years after the primary breast cancer, although it is sometimes diagnosed at the same time as the primary breast cancer. Although the common distant metastases are bone, lung and liver, breast cancer has the potential to metastasize to almost any region of the body. Early detection and treatment of distant metastases improves the prognosis, therefore radiologists and clinicians should recognize the possibility of metastasis from breast cancer and grasp the imaging characteristics. In this report, we demonstrate the imaging characteristics of metastases from breast cancer to uncommon sites.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: current practice and future developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muldoon, J. [St. Michael' s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast. MRI has proven to be a key tool in the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer and it plays a very important role in the evaluation of response to therapy. Breast MRI is highly sensitive and is able to detect lesions, which are occult on mammography and ultrasound. With the introduction of contrast agents, advances in surface coil technology and focused work in optimal scan protocols, breast MRI has continued to evolve as a valuable adjunctive breast-imaging tool. This review will give a summary of current criteria and techniques that may be used in the detection, diagnosis and excision of breast lesions. (author)

  16. Detection Efficiency of Microcalcification using Computer Aided Diagnosis in the Breast Ultrasonography Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Soo; Ko, Seong Jin; Kang, Se Sik; Kim, Jung Hoon; Choi, Seok Yoon; Kim, Chang Soo [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Pusan, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung Hu [Dept. of Health Science, Graduate School of Kosin University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Digital Mammography makes it possible to reproduce the entire breast image. And it is used to detect microcalcification and mass which are the most important point of view of nonpalpable early breast cancer, so it has been used as the primary screening test of breast disease. It is reported that microcalcification of breast lesion is important in diagnosis of early breast cancer. In this study, six types of texture features algorithms are used to detect microcalcification on breast US images and the study has analyzed recognition rate of lesion between normal US images and other US images which microcalification is seen. As a result of the experiment, Computer aided diagnosis recognition rate that distinguishes mammography and breast US disease was considerably high 70-98%. The average contrast and entropy parameters were low in ROC analysis, but sensitivity and specificity of four types parameters were over 90%. Therefore it is possible to detect microcalcification on US images. If not only six types of texture features algorithms but also the research of additional parameter algorithm is being continually proceeded and basis of practical use on CAD is being prepared, it can be a important meaning as pre-reading. Also, it is considered very useful things for early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  17. Generation of anatomically realistic numerical phantoms for photoacoustic and ultrasonic breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Zhou, Weimin; Matthews, Thomas P; Appleton, Catherine M; Anastasio, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) and ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) are emerging modalities for breast imaging. As in all emerging imaging technologies, computer-simulation studies play a critically important role in developing and optimizing the designs of hardware and image reconstruction methods for PACT and USCT. Using computer-simulations, the parameters of an imaging system can be systematically and comprehensively explored in a way that is generally not possible through experimentation. When conducting such studies, numerical phantoms are employed to represent the physical properties of the patient or object to-be-imaged that influence the measured image data. It is highly desirable to utilize numerical phantoms that are realistic, especially when task-based measures of image quality are to be utilized to guide system design. However, most reported computer-simulation studies of PACT and USCT breast imaging employ simple numerical phantoms that oversimplify the complex anatomical structures in the human female breast. We develop and implement a methodology for generating anatomically realistic numerical breast phantoms from clinical contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data. The phantoms will depict vascular structures and the volumetric distribution of different tissue types in the breast. By assigning optical and acoustic parameters to different tissue structures, both optical and acoustic breast phantoms will be established for use in PACT and USCT studies.

  18. Generation of anatomically realistic numerical phantoms for photoacoustic and ultrasonic breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Zhou, Weimin; Matthews, Thomas P.; Appleton, Catherine M.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2017-04-01

    Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) and ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) are emerging modalities for breast imaging. As in all emerging imaging technologies, computer-simulation studies play a critically important role in developing and optimizing the designs of hardware and image reconstruction methods for PACT and USCT. Using computer-simulations, the parameters of an imaging system can be systematically and comprehensively explored in a way that is generally not possible through experimentation. When conducting such studies, numerical phantoms are employed to represent the physical properties of the patient or object to-be-imaged that influence the measured image data. It is highly desirable to utilize numerical phantoms that are realistic, especially when task-based measures of image quality are to be utilized to guide system design. However, most reported computer-simulation studies of PACT and USCT breast imaging employ simple numerical phantoms that oversimplify the complex anatomical structures in the human female breast. We develop and implement a methodology for generating anatomically realistic numerical breast phantoms from clinical contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data. The phantoms will depict vascular structures and the volumetric distribution of different tissue types in the breast. By assigning optical and acoustic parameters to different tissue structures, both optical and acoustic breast phantoms will be established for use in PACT and USCT studies.

  19. Elastography of the Breast: Imaging Techniques and Pitfalls in Interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Woo Kyung; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Ultrasound (US) elastography is a tool that indicates the hardness of a lesion. Recent studies using elastography with freehand compression have shown similar diagnostic performance to conventional US in differentiating benign lesions from malignant breast masses. On the other hand, the acquired information is not quantitative, and the reliability of the imaging technique to correctly compress the tissue depends on the skill of the operator, resulting in substantial interobserver variability during data acquisition and interpretation. To overcome this, shear wave elastography was developed to provide quantitative information on the tissue elasticity. The system works by remotely inducing mechanical vibrations through the acoustic radiation force created by a focused US beam. This review discusses the principles and examination techniques of the two types of elastography systems and provides practical points to reduce the interobserver variability or errors during data acquisition and interpretation

  20. Fourier domain image fusion for differential X-ray phase-contrast breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, Eduardo; Sperl, Jonathan I; Bequé, Dirk; Benz, Tobias; Scherer, Kai; Herzen, Julia; Sztrókay-Gaul, Anikó; Hellerhoff, Karin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Cozzini, Cristina; Grandl, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    X-Ray Phase-Contrast (XPC) imaging is a novel technology with a great potential for applications in clinical practice, with breast imaging being of special interest. This work introduces an intuitive methodology to combine and visualize relevant diagnostic features, present in the X-ray attenuation, phase shift and scattering information retrieved in XPC imaging, using a Fourier domain fusion algorithm. The method allows to present complementary information from the three acquired signals in one single image, minimizing the noise component and maintaining visual similarity to a conventional X-ray image, but with noticeable enhancement in diagnostic features, details and resolution. Radiologists experienced in mammography applied the image fusion method to XPC measurements of mastectomy samples and evaluated the feature content of each input and the fused image. This assessment validated that the combination of all the relevant diagnostic features, contained in the XPC images, was present in the fused image as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The body image drawing analysis in women with breast disease and breast cancer: anxiety, colour and depression categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Matti; Ollonen, Paula

    2010-02-01

    Wirsching et al. introduced a psychosocial risk scale (PRS) for psychological identification of breast cancer patients before biopsy and found that women with cancer had a tendency to draw bigger drawings than the women with a benign tumour. To our knowledge, the associations between the body image drawing analysis and the risk of breast cancer are rarely considered together in a prospective study. This study is an extension of the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study. Women with breast symptoms were referred by physicians to the Kuopio University Hospital (Finland) and were asked to participate in this study. These women (n=115) were interviewed, and all study variables were obtained before any diagnostic procedures were carried out, so neither the investigator nor the participants knew the final diagnosis of breast symptoms at the time of the interview. The research method used was the semistructured in-depth interview method. The investigator used the Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) to evaluate the depression of the study participants. All participants were also asked to complete standardized questionnaires (Beck depression inventory and Spielberger trait inventory). The overall content of the Body Image Drawing was estimated using a 3-point scale: symbolistic, partly symbolistic, or humanlike. Two raters scored the body image drawings independently and the final scores were formed by comparing the separate scores of the two raters. The raters evaluated the difficulty of giving a score in a 5-point scale during scoring. The clinical examination and biopsy showed breast cancer (BC) in 34 patients, benign breast disease (BBD) in 53 patients, and 28 individuals were shown to be healthy (HSS). The results indicated that the breast cancer patients tended to use the colours with blue and the tones of brown and black in the body image drawings than the BBD and HSS groups. The HSS group used the colours with yellow more often than did the other groups. The

  2. Three Dimensional Breast Cancer Models for X-Ray Imaging Research

    OpenAIRE

    Bliznakov, Zhivko; Chernogorova, Yanita; Bliznakova, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the development of realistic 3D physical and computational models of breast tumours with irregular shapes is an urgent requirement. The availability of such models is a powerful tool for the development of new technologies for precise definition of the boundaries of these cancers. Biomedical engineering unit at the Technical University of Varna (TUV) is present in this area both at modelling and simulation of computational breast phantoms and x-ray breast imaging techniques. To adva...

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breasts: Clinical practice and further development

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Zorica; Spasić Nenad

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breasts was introduced in clinical practice over 10 years ago. The method is based on visualization of morphology of the lesion and pathophysiology of their vascularization. It is useful complementary method to mammography and breasts ultrasound, with potential to detect clinically or mammography occult lesions. Compared to the conventional visualization methods, MRI of the breasts is more sensitive, although specificity of the method is lower than sens...

  4. Readout-segmented echo-planar imaging in diffusion-weighted mr imaging in breast cancer: comparison with single-shot echo-planar imaging in image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Ju; Kim, Sung Hun; Kang, Bong Joo; Park, Chang Suk; Kim, Hyeon Sook; Son, Yo Han; Porter, David Andrew; Song, Byung Joo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the image quality of standard single-shot echo-planar imaging (ss-EPI) and that of readout-segmented EPI (rs-EPI) in patients with breast cancer. Seventy-one patients with 74 breast cancers underwent both ss-EPI and rs-EPI. For qualitative comparison of image quality, three readers independently assessed the two sets of diffusion-weighted (DW) images. To evaluate geometric distortion, a comparison was made between lesion lengths derived from contrast enhanced MR (CE-MR) images and those obtained from the corresponding DW images. For assessment of image parameters, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), lesion contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. The rs-EPI was superior to ss-EPI in most criteria regarding the qualitative image quality. Anatomical structure distinction, delineation of the lesion, ghosting artifact, and overall image quality were significantly better in rs-EPI. Regarding the geometric distortion, lesion length on ss-EPI was significantly different from that of CE-MR, whereas there were no significant differences between CE-MR and rs-EPI. The rs-EPI was superior to ss-EPI in SNR and CNR. Readout-segmented EPI is superior to ss-EPI in the aspect of image quality in DW MR imaging of the breast.

  5. Computer-based automated estimation of breast vascularity and correlation with breast cancer in DCE-MRI images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, Spiros A; Vassiou, Katerina G; Lavdas, Eleftherios N; Cavouras, Dionisis A; Kalatzis, Ioannis K; Asvestas, Pantelis A; Arvanitis, Dimitrios L; Fezoulidis, Ioannis V; Glotsos, Dimitris T

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with gadolinium constitutes one of the most promising protocols for boosting up the sensitivity in breast cancer detection. The aim of this study was twofold: first to design an image processing methodology to estimate the vascularity of the breast region in DCE-MRI images and second to investigate whether the differences in the composition/texture and vascularity of normal, benign and malignant breasts may serve as potential indicators regarding the presence of the disease. Clinical material comprised thirty nine cases examined on a 3.0-T MRI system (SIGNA HDx; GE Healthcare). Vessel segmentation was performed using a custom made modification of the Seeded Region Growing algorithm that was designed in order to identify pixels belonging to the breast vascular network. Two families of features were extracted: first, morphological and textural features from segmented images in order to quantify the extent and the properties of the vascular network; second, textural features from the whole breast region in order to investigate whether the nature of the disease causes statistically important changes in the texture of affected breasts. Results have indicated that: (a) the texture of vessels presents statistically significant differences (pbreast region for malignant and non-malignant breasts, produced statistically significant differences (pbreasts may be used for the discrimination of non-malignant from malignant patients, and (d) an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.908 (AUC) was found when features were combined in a logistic regression prediction rule according to ROC analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nuclear imaging of the breast: Translating achievements in instrumentation into clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Carrie B.; O'Connor, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Approaches to imaging the breast with nuclear medicine and/or molecular imaging methods have been under investigation since the late 1980s when a technique called scintimammography was first introduced. This review charts the progress of nuclear imaging of the breast over the last 20 years, covering the development of newer techniques such as breast specific gamma imaging, molecular breast imaging, and positron emission mammography. Key issues critical to the adoption of these technologies in the clinical environment are discussed, including the current status of clinical studies, the efforts at reducing the radiation dose from procedures associated with these technologies, and the relevant radiopharmaceuticals that are available or under development. The necessary steps required to move these technologies from bench to bedside are also discussed. PMID:23635248

  7. Imaging of breast cancer with mid- and long-wave infrared camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joro, R; Lääperi, A-L; Dastidar, P; Soimakallio, S; Kuukasjärvi, T; Toivonen, T; Saaristo, R; Järvenpää, R

    2008-01-01

    In this novel study the breasts of 15 women with palpable breast cancer were preoperatively imaged with three technically different infrared (IR) cameras - micro bolometer (MB), quantum well (QWIP) and photo voltaic (PV) - to compare their ability to differentiate breast cancer from normal tissue. The IR images were processed, the data for frequency analysis were collected from dynamic IR images by pixel-based analysis and from each image selectively windowed regional analysis was carried out, based on angiogenesis and nitric oxide production of cancer tissue causing vasomotor and cardiogenic frequency differences compared to normal tissue. Our results show that the GaAs QWIP camera and the InSb PV camera demonstrate the frequency difference between normal and cancerous breast tissue; the PV camera more clearly. With selected image processing operations more detailed frequency analyses could be applied to the suspicious area. The MB camera was not suitable for tissue differentiation, as the difference between noise and effective signal was unsatisfactory.

  8. An Interactive Method Based on the Live Wire for Segmentation of the Breast in Mammography Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zewei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve accuracy of computer-aided diagnosis of breast lumps, the authors introduce an improved interactive segmentation method based on Live Wire. This paper presents the Gabor filters and FCM clustering algorithm is introduced to the Live Wire cost function definition. According to the image FCM analysis for image edge enhancement, we eliminate the interference of weak edge and access external features clear segmentation results of breast lumps through improving Live Wire on two cases of breast segmentation data. Compared with the traditional method of image segmentation, experimental results show that the method achieves more accurate segmentation of breast lumps and provides more accurate objective basis on quantitative and qualitative analysis of breast lumps.

  9. Segmentation of the pectoral muscle in breast MR images using structure tensor and deformable model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myungeun; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2012-02-01

    Recently, breast MR images have been used in wider clinical area including diagnosis, treatment planning, and treatment response evaluation, which requests quantitative analysis and breast tissue segmentation. Although several methods have been proposed for segmenting MR images, segmenting out breast tissues robustly from surrounding structures in a wide range of anatomical diversity still remains challenging. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a practical and general-purpose approach for segmenting the pectoral muscle boundary based on the structure tensor and deformable model. The segmentation work flow comprises four key steps: preprocessing, detection of the region of interest (ROI) within the breast region, segmenting the pectoral muscle and finally extracting and refining the pectoral muscle boundary. From experimental results we show that the proposed method can segment the pectoral muscle robustly in diverse patient cases. In addition, the proposed method will allow the application of the quantification research for various breast images.

  10. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  11. Nanoradiopharmaceuticals for breast cancer imaging: development, characterization, and imaging in inducted animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcinelli, Michelle Alvares; Albernaz, Marta de Souza; Szwed, Marzena; Iscaife, Alexandre; Leite, Kátia Ramos Moreira; Junqueira, Mara de Souza; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; da Silva, Emerson Oliveira; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies as polymeric nanoparticles are quite interesting and endow this new drug category with many advantages, especially by reducing the number of adverse reactions and, in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, also reducing the amount of radiation (dose) administered to the patient. In this study, a nanoradiopharmaceutical was developed using polylactic acid (PLA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/montmorillonite (MMT)/trastuzumab nanoparticles labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) for breast cancer imaging. In order to confirm the nanoparticle formation, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering were performed. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticle and biodistribution with 99mTc in healthy and inducted animals were also measured. The results from atomic force microscopy showed that the nanoparticles were spherical, with a size range of ~200–500 nm. The dynamic light scattering analysis demonstrated that over 90% of the nanoparticles produced had a size of 287 nm with a zeta potential of −14,6 mV. The cytotoxicity results demonstrated that the nanoparticles were capable of reaching breast cancer cells. The biodistribution data demonstrated that the PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab nanoparticles labeled with 99mTc have great renal clearance and also a high uptake by the lesion, as ~45% of the PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab nanoparticles injected were taken up by the lesion. The data support PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab labeled with 99mTc nanoparticles as nanoradiopharmaceuticals for breast cancer imaging. PMID:27713638

  12. Involvement of Machine Learning for Breast Cancer Image Classification: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah-Al Nahid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the largest causes of women’s death in the world today. Advance engineering of natural image classification techniques and Artificial Intelligence methods has largely been used for the breast-image classification task. The involvement of digital image classification allows the doctor and the physicians a second opinion, and it saves the doctors’ and physicians’ time. Despite the various publications on breast image classification, very few review papers are available which provide a detailed description of breast cancer image classification techniques, feature extraction and selection procedures, classification measuring parameterizations, and image classification findings. We have put a special emphasis on the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN method for breast image classification. Along with the CNN method we have also described the involvement of the conventional Neural Network (NN, Logic Based classifiers such as the Random Forest (RF algorithm, Support Vector Machines (SVM, Bayesian methods, and a few of the semisupervised and unsupervised methods which have been used for breast image classification.

  13. An object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyedi, Saeed; Cengiz, Kubra; Kamasak, Mustafa; Yildirim, Isa

    2013-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an innovative imaging modality that provides 3D reconstructed images of breast to detect the breast cancer. Projections obtained with an X-ray source moving in a limited angle interval are used to reconstruct 3D image of breast. Several reconstruction algorithms are available for DBT imaging. Filtered back projection algorithm has traditionally been used to reconstruct images from projections. Iterative reconstruction algorithms such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) were later developed. Recently, compressed sensing based methods have been proposed in tomosynthesis imaging problem. We have developed an object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) imaging system using C++ programming language. The simulator is capable of implementing different iterative and compressed sensing based reconstruction methods on 3D digital tomosynthesis data sets and phantom models. A user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) helps users to select and run the desired methods on the designed phantom models or real data sets. The simulator has been tested on a phantom study that simulates breast tomosynthesis imaging problem. Results obtained with various methods including algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and total variation regularized reconstruction techniques (ART+TV) are presented. Reconstruction results of the methods are compared both visually and quantitatively by evaluating performances of the methods using mean structural similarity (MSSIM) values.

  14. An Object-Oriented Simulator for 3D Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Seyyedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT is an innovative imaging modality that provides 3D reconstructed images of breast to detect the breast cancer. Projections obtained with an X-ray source moving in a limited angle interval are used to reconstruct 3D image of breast. Several reconstruction algorithms are available for DBT imaging. Filtered back projection algorithm has traditionally been used to reconstruct images from projections. Iterative reconstruction algorithms such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART were later developed. Recently, compressed sensing based methods have been proposed in tomosynthesis imaging problem. We have developed an object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT imaging system using C++ programming language. The simulator is capable of implementing different iterative and compressed sensing based reconstruction methods on 3D digital tomosynthesis data sets and phantom models. A user friendly graphical user interface (GUI helps users to select and run the desired methods on the designed phantom models or real data sets. The simulator has been tested on a phantom study that simulates breast tomosynthesis imaging problem. Results obtained with various methods including algebraic reconstruction technique (ART and total variation regularized reconstruction techniques (ART+TV are presented. Reconstruction results of the methods are compared both visually and quantitatively by evaluating performances of the methods using mean structural similarity (MSSIM values.

  15. Study of the reduced field-of-view diffusion-weighted imaging of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Haibo; Li, Yadi; Li, Hui; Wang, Bo; Hu, Bin

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to compare the imaging quality, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, and application values between reduced field-of-view diffusion-weighted imaging (rFOV DWI) and single-shot echo-planar-imaging diffusion-weighted imaging (SS-EPI DWI) of breast tissue. For 87 cases (75 with normal breast tissue, 12 with mammary cancer), breasts were scanned with SS-EPI DWI and rFOV DWI (b values, 800 s/mm(2)). Image quality and ADC values of breast tissue images were compared between SS-EPI DWI and rFOV DWI. The average image quality score for the 87 cases was 4.73 in rFOV DWI and 3.62 in SS-EPI DWI. The difference was statistically significant (P breast tissue was 1.696 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s by rFOV DWI and 1.832 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s by SS-EPI DWI, and the difference was statistically significant (P breast cancer was 1.065 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s by rFOV DWI and 1.192 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s by SS-EPI DWI, which was a statistically significant difference (P images with higher resolution and less distortion than SS-EPI DWI, and this difference may be helpful in disease diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. PET Imaging of Estrogen Metabolism in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ding, Yu-Shin

    2000-01-01

    .... Catecholestrogens are broken down by an enzyme called catechol-O- methyltransferase (COMT). COMT is known to be elevated in malignant breast tumors, and abnormal COMT genetics have recently been found in individuals with breast cancer...

  17. PET Imaging of Estrogen Metabolism in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ding, Yu-Shin

    2001-01-01

    .... Catecholestrogens are broken down by an enzyme called catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). COMT is known to be elevated in malignant breast tumors, and abnormal COMT genetics have recently been found in individuals with breast cancer...

  18. PET Imaging of Estrogen Metabolism in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ding, Yu-Shin

    2002-01-01

    .... Catecholestrogens are broken down by an enzyme called catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). COMT is known to be elevated in malignant breast tumors, and abnormal COMT genetics have recently been found in individuals with breast cancer...

  19. Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast Cancer via Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Studies of Mouse Models and Clinical Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    lesion in sagittal view. Mean sag - ittal-view lesion size was 29 mm 18 (standard deviation). BREAST IMAGING: MR Characteristics of Pure Ductal...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-06-1-0329 TITLE: Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast ...CONTRACT NUMBER Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast Cancer via Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Studies of Mouse Models and Clinical Implementation

  20. Breast imaging using the Twente photoacoustic mammoscope (PAM): new clinical measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijblom, Michelle; Piras, D.; ten Tije, Ellen; Xia, W.; van Hespen, Johannes C.G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang; Klaase, Joost; van den Engh, Frank; van Leeuwen, Ton

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, yearly about 450,000 women die from the consequences of breast cancer. Current imaging modalities are not optimal in discriminating benign from malignant tissue. Visualizing the malignancy-associated increased hemoglobin concentration might significantly improve early diagnosis of breast

  1. Influence of Body Image in Women Undergoing Treatment for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Ana Carolina Lagos; Freitas-Junior, Ruffo; Prates, Mariana Ferreira Oliveira; Veloso, Márcia de Faria; Barros, Norami de Moura

    2017-04-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the self-esteem of women with and without breast cancer regarding their body image. Methods A quantitative, case-control study in which 90 women with breast cancer were evaluated in the case group, and 77 women without breast cancer in the control group. For data collection, the body satisfaction scale (BSS), a scale adapted and validated in Brazil, and the Rosenberg self-esteem questionnaire were used. For the statistical analysis of the data, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (IBM-SPSS, Chicago, Il, US), version 16.0 was used. Results Compared with the women without breast cancer, those with breast cancer were more dissatisfied with body image related to appearance. Women undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy were more dissatisfied with their appearance compared with those with cancer who were not undergoing this treatment. Mastectomy also accounted for more dissatisfaction concerning appearance among women who underwent the procedure compared with the women who were submitted to breast-conserving therapy. Conclusion Women with breast cancer were more dissatisfied with their body image compared with those without breast cancer, particularly following mastectomy or during chemotherapy. The self-esteem was found to be negatively affected in patients who were dissatisfied with their body image. Thieme-Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  2. Electronic portal images (EPIs) based position verification for the breast simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, Nanna M; van Dijk-Peters, Femke B J; Langendijk, Johannes a; Maduro, John H; van 't Veld, Aart a

    Background and purpose: To develop a method based on electronic portal images (EPIs) for the position verification of breast cancer patients that are treated with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique. Method: 3D setup errors of the breast outline and the thoracic wall were determined from

  3. Breast imaging using the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope (PAM): new clinical measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijblom, M.; Piras, D.; ten Tije, E.M.; Xia, W.; van Hespen, Johannes C.G.; Klaase, J.M.; van den Engh, F.M.; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang; Ramanujam, Nirmala; Popp, Jurgen

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, yearly about 450,000 women die from the consequences of breast cancer. Current imaging modalities are not optimal in discriminating benign from malignant tissue. Visualizing the malignancy-associated increased hemoglobin concentration might significantly improve early diagnosis of breast

  4. Body image concerns during pregnancy are associated with a shorter breast feeding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy; Rance, J; Warren, L

    2015-01-01

    breast feeding is affected by numerous psycho-social factors. Antenatal concerns such as embarrassment regarding public feeding and the impact of breast feeding upon breast shape are known to lead to artificial milk use. However, although work has explored the relationship between maternal weight and infant feeding, wider body image concerns have not been examined. The aim of the current study was to explore the association between maternal body image concerns during pregnancy upon intended and actual breast feeding duration. a two stage self report questionnaire completed during pregnancy and at six months post partum. mothers were recruited from local mother and infant groups, nurseries and online mother and infant forums. 128 pregnant women completed both stages. phase one: completion of a questionnaire exploring body image during pregnancy (concerns about stretch marks, weight gain and appearance) and planned breast feeding duration during the second/third trimester of pregnancy (body image, weight, intended duration) followed by a second questionnaire measuring actual breast feeding duration and breast feeding experiences. factor analysis revealed three primary body image concerns: pregnancy body image, prospective postnatal body image and dieting during pregnancy. Higher concerns on all three factors were associated with both intended and actual shorter breast feeding duration. Amongst mothers who stopped breast feeding before six months, those with higher body image concerns were more likely to report stopping due to embarrassment or the perceived impact upon their breast shape. The relationship was not explained by maternal weight, although a higher residual weight gain at six months was associated with a shorter breast feeding duration. mothers who are affected negatively by changes to their body during pregnancy may be less likely to plan to or initiate breast feeding potentially due to underlying issues such as embarrassment or perceived impact of

  5. Cowden Syndrome Presenting as Breast Cancer: Imaging and Clinical Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mirinae [Dept. of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nariya; Moon, Hyeong Gon [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hye Shin [Dept. of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Cowden syndrome is an uncommon, autosomal dominant disease which is characterized by multiple hamartomas of the skin, mucous membrane, brain, breast, thyroid, and gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis of Cowden syndrome implicates an increased risk of developing breast cancer. We report a case of a 22-year-old woman with Cowden syndrome that presented as breast cancer with concomitant bilateral exuberant benign masses in both breasts.

  6. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging of breast lesions: Initial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hebatallah Hassan Mamdouh Hassan

    2013-03-31

    Mar 31, 2013 ... detection of breast cancer using digital mammography, with special reflection on the ... and characterization of breast cancer.2 Additional lesions seen by MRI that are not ..... A 42 years old female with family history of breast cancer and microcalcification on follow-up (high risk) developed right axillary lump ...

  7. PLSA-based pathological image retrieval for breast cancer with color deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yibing; Shi, Jun; Jiang, Zhiguo; Feng, Hao

    2013-10-01

    Digital pathological image retrieval plays an important role in computer-aided diagnosis for breast cancer. The retrieval results of an unknown pathological image, which are generally previous cases with diagnostic information, can provide doctors with assistance and reference. In this paper, we develop a novel pathological image retrieval method for breast cancer, which is based on stain component and probabilistic latent semantic analysis (pLSA) model. Specifically, the method firstly utilizes color deconvolution to gain the representation of different stain components for cell nuclei and cytoplasm, and then block Gabor features are conducted on cell nuclei, which is used to construct the codebook. Furthermore, the connection between the words of the codebook and the latent topics among images are modeled by pLSA. Therefore, each image can be represented by the topics and also the high-level semantic concepts of image can be described. Experiments on the pathological image database for breast cancer demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  8. Pilot study of quantitative analysis of background enhancement on breast MR images: association with menstrual cycle and mammographic breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaranelo, Anabel M; Carrillo, Maria Claudia; Fleming, Rachel; Jacks, Lindsay M; Kulkarni, Supriya R; Crystal, Pavel

    2013-06-01

    To perform semiautomated quantitative analysis of the background enhancement (BE) in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer and to correlate it with mammographic breast density and menstrual cycle. Informed consent was waived after the research ethics board approved this study. Results of 177 consecutive preoperative breast magnetic resonance (MR) examinations performed from February to December 2009 were reviewed; 147 female patients (median age, 48 years; range, 26-86 years) were included. Ordinal values of BE and breast density were described by two independent readers by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. The BE coefficient (BEC) was calculated thus: (SI2 · 100/SI1) - 100, where SI is signal intensity, SI2 is the SI enhancement measured in the largest anteroposterior dimension in the axial plane 1 minute after the contrast agent injection, and SI1is the SI before contrast agent injection. BEC was used for the quantitative analysis of BE. Menstrual cycle status was based on the last menstrual period. The Wilcoxon rank-sum or Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare quantitative assessment groups. Cohen weighted κ was used to evaluate agreement. Of 147 patients, 68 (46%) were premenopausal and 79 (54%) were postmenopausal. The quantitative BEC was associated with the menstrual status (BEC in premenopausal women, 31.48 ± 20.68 [standard deviation]; BEC in postmenopausal women, 25.65 ± 16.74; P = .02). The percentage of overall BE was higher when the MR imaging was performed in women in the inadequate phase of the cycle (breast density groups. Premenopausal women with breast cancer, and specifically women in the inadequate phase of the cycle, presented with higher quantitative BE than postmenopausal women. No association was found between BE and breast density.

  9. Characterization of the homogeneous tissue mixture approximation in breast imaging dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Bliznakova, Kristina; Qin Xulei; Fei Baowei; Feng, Steve Si Jia [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, 1701 Upper Gate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Patras School of Health Sciences, 26500 Rio-Patras (Greece); Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 1701 Upper Gate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 1701 Upper Gate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the estimate of normalized glandular dose in mammography and breast CT imaging obtained using the actual glandular tissue distribution in the breast to that obtained using the homogeneous tissue mixture approximation. Methods: Twenty volumetric images of patient breasts were acquired with a dedicated breast CT prototype system and the voxels in the breast CT images were automatically classified into skin, adipose, and glandular tissue. The breasts in the classified images underwent simulated mechanical compression to mimic the conditions present during mammographic acquisition. The compressed thickness for each breast was set to that achieved during each patient's last screening cranio-caudal (CC) acquisition. The volumetric glandular density of each breast was computed using both the compressed and uncompressed classified images, and additional images were created in which all voxels representing adipose and glandular tissue were replaced by a homogeneous mixture of these two tissues in a proportion corresponding to each breast's volumetric glandular density. All four breast images (compressed and uncompressed; heterogeneous and homogeneous tissue) were input into Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the normalized glandular dose during mammography (compressed breasts) and dedicated breast CT (uncompressed breasts). For the mammography simulations the x-ray spectra used was that used during each patient's last screening CC acquisition. For the breast CT simulations, two x-ray spectra were used, corresponding to the x-ray spectra with the lowest and highest energies currently being used in dedicated breast CT prototype systems under clinical investigation. The resulting normalized glandular dose for the heterogeneous and homogeneous versions of each breast for each modality was compared. Results: For mammography, the normalized glandular dose based on the homogeneous tissue approximation was, on average, 27% higher than that

  10. Image reconstruction for a Positron Emission Tomograph optimized for breast cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virador, Patrick R.G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-04-01

    The author performs image reconstruction for a novel Positron Emission Tomography camera that is optimized for breast cancer imaging. This work addresses for the first time, the problem of fully-3D, tomographic reconstruction using a septa-less, stationary, (i.e. no rotation or linear motion), and rectangular camera whose Field of View (FOV) encompasses the entire volume enclosed by detector modules capable of measuring Depth of Interaction (DOI) information. The camera is rectangular in shape in order to accommodate breasts of varying sizes while allowing for soft compression of the breast during the scan. This non-standard geometry of the camera exacerbates two problems: (a) radial elongation due to crystal penetration and (b) reconstructing images from irregularly sampled data. Packing considerations also give rise to regions in projection space that are not sampled which lead to missing information. The author presents new Fourier Methods based image reconstruction algorithms that incorporate DOI information and accommodate the irregular sampling of the camera in a consistent manner by defining lines of responses (LORs) between the measured interaction points instead of rebinning the events into predefined crystal face LORs which is the only other method to handle DOI information proposed thus far. The new procedures maximize the use of the increased sampling provided by the DOI while minimizing interpolation in the data. The new algorithms use fixed-width evenly spaced radial bins in order to take advantage of the speed of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), which necessitates the use of irregular angular sampling in order to minimize the number of unnormalizable Zero-Efficiency Bins (ZEBs). In order to address the persisting ZEBs and the issue of missing information originating from packing considerations, the algorithms (a) perform nearest neighbor smoothing in 2D in the radial bins (b) employ a semi-iterative procedure in order to estimate the unsampled data

  11. Potential Impact of Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Breast on Patient Selection for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehr, Marietta, E-mail: marietta.kuehr@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Center of Integrated Oncology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Wolfgarten, Matthias; Stoelzle, Marco [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Center of Integrated Oncology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Leutner, Claudia [Department of Radiology, Center of Integrated Oncology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Hoeller, Tobias [Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Schrading, Simone; Kuhl, Christiane; Schild, Hans [Department of Radiology, Center of Integrated Oncology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Kuhn, Walther; Braun, Michael [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Center of Integrated Oncology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) after breast-conserving therapy is currently under investigation in prospective randomized studies. Multifocality and multicentricity are exclusion criteria for APBI. Preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect ipsilateral and contralateral invasive tumor foci or ductal carcinoma in situ in addition to conventional diagnostic methods (clinical examination, mammography, and ultrasonography). The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the impact of preoperative MRI on patient selection for APBI. Methods and Materials: From 2002 to 2007, a total of 579 consecutive, nonselected patients with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer received preoperative breast MRI in addition to conventional imaging studies at the Bonn University Breast Cancer Center. In retrospect, 113 patients would have met the criteria for APBI using conventional imaging workup (clinical tumor size {<=}3 cm; negative axillary lymph node status; unifocal disease; no evidence of distant metastases; no invasive lobular carcinoma, ductal and lobular carcinoma in situ, or Paget's disease). We analyzed the amount of additional ipsilateral and contralateral tumor foci detected by MRI. Results: MRI detected additional tumor foci in 8.8% of patients eligible for APBI (11 tumor foci in 10 of 113 patients), either ipsilateral (n = 7, 6.2%) or contralateral (n = 4, 3.5%). In 1 patient, MRI helped detect additional tumor focus both ipsilaterally and contralaterally. Conclusions: Preoperative breast MRI is able to identify additional tumor foci in a clinically relevant number of cases in this highly selected group of patients with low-risk disease and may be useful in selecting patients for APBI.

  12. Breast histopathology image segmentation using spatio-colour-texture based graph partition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, A D; Mushrif, M M; Pangarkar, M A; Meshram, N

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel integrated spatio-colour-texture based graph partitioning method for segmentation of nuclear arrangement in tubules with a lumen or in solid islands without a lumen from digitized Hematoxylin-Eosin stained breast histology images, in order to automate the process of histology breast image analysis to assist the pathologists. We propose a new similarity based super pixel generation method and integrate it with texton representation to form spatio-colour-texture map of Breast Histology Image. Then a new weighted distance based similarity measure is used for generation of graph and final segmentation using normalized cuts method is obtained. The extensive experiments carried shows that the proposed algorithm can segment nuclear arrangement in normal as well as malignant duct in breast histology tissue image. For evaluation of the proposed method the ground-truth image database of 100 malignant and nonmalignant breast histology images is created with the help of two expert pathologists and the quantitative evaluation of proposed breast histology image segmentation has been performed. It shows that the proposed method outperforms over other methods. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. Photoacoustic imaging for deep targets in the breast using a multichannel 2D array transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhixing; Wang, Xueding; Morris, Richard F.; Padilla, Frederic R.; Lecarpentier, Gerald L.; Carson, Paul L.

    2011-03-01

    A photoacoustic (PA) imaging system was developed to achieve high sensitivity for the detection and characterization of vascular anomalies in the breast in the mammographic geometry. Signal detection from deep in the breast was achieved by a broadband 2D PVDF planar array that has a round shape with one side trimmed straight to improve fit near the chest wall. This array has 572 active elements and a -6dB bandwidth of 0.6-1.7 MHz. The low frequency enhances imaging depth and increases the size of vascular collections displayed without edge enhancement. The PA signals from all the elements go through low noise preamplifiers in the probe that are very close to the array elements for optimized noise control. Driven by 20 independent on-probe signal processing channels, imaging with both high sensitivity and good speed was achieved. To evaluate the imaging depth and the spatial resolution of this system,2.38mm I.D. artificial vessels embedded deeply in ex vivo breasts harvested from fresh cadavers and a 3mm I.D. tube in breast mimicking phantoms made of pork loin and fat tissues were imaged. Using near-infrared laser light with incident energy density within the ANSI safety limit, imaging depths of up to 49 mm in human breasts and 52 mm in phantoms were achieved. With a high power tunable laser working on multiple wavelengths, this system might contribute to 3D noninvasive imaging of morphological and physiological tissue features throughout the breast.

  14. Phase-contrast x-ray imaging of the breast: recent developments towards clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, P.; Bravin, A.; Tromba, G.

    2013-12-01

    Breast imaging is one of the most demanding and delicate radiological applications. Mammography is the primary diagnosis tool in breast cancer detection and national screening programmes. Recognition of breast cancer depends on the detection of subtle architectural distortion, masses showing near normal breast tissue density, skin thickening and microcalcifications. The small differences in attenuation of x-rays between normal and malignant tissue result in low contrast and make cancer detection difficult in conventional x-ray absorption mammography. Because of these challenging aspects, breast imaging has been the first and most explored diagnostic field in phase-contrast imaging research. This novel imaging method has been extensively used and has demonstrated a unique capability in producing high-contrast and sensitive images at quasi-histological resolution. The most recent and significant technical developments are introduced and results obtained by the application of various phase-contrast imaging techniques for breast imaging are reported. The first phase-contrast mammography clinical trials project is also presented and the short- and long-term future perspectives of the method are discussed.

  15. Optical imaging correlates with magnetic resonance imaging breast density and reveals composition changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In addition to being a risk factor for breast cancer, breast density has been hypothesized to be a surrogate biomarker for predicting response to endocrine-based chemotherapies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a noninvasive bedside scanner based on diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) provides quantitative metrics to measure and track changes in breast tissue composition and density. To access a broad range of densities in a limited patient population, we performed optical measurements on the contralateral normal breast of patients before and during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). In this work, DOSI parameters, including tissue hemoglobin, water, and lipid concentrations, were obtained and correlated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-measured fibroglandular tissue density. We evaluated how DOSI could be used to assess breast density while gaining new insight into the impact of chemotherapy on breast tissue. Methods This was a retrospective study of 28 volunteers undergoing NAC treatment for breast cancer. Both 3.0-T MRI and broadband DOSI (650 to 1,000 nm) were obtained from the contralateral normal breast before and during NAC. Longitudinal DOSI measurements were used to calculate breast tissue concentrations of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, water, and lipid. These values were compared with MRI-measured fibroglandular density before and during therapy. Results Water (r = 0.843; P < 0.001), deoxyhemoglobin (r = 0.785; P = 0.003), and lipid (r = -0.707; P = 0.010) concentration measured with DOSI correlated strongly with MRI-measured density before therapy. Mean DOSI parameters differed significantly between pre- and postmenopausal subjects at baseline (water, P < 0.001; deoxyhemoglobin, P = 0.024; lipid, P = 0.006). During NAC treatment measured at about 90 days, significant reductions were observed in oxyhemoglobin for pre- (-20.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI), -32.7 to -7.4) and postmenopausal subjects (-20

  16. Extra-mammary findings detected on breast magnetic resonance imaging: A pictorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Hee Jung; Choi, Ji Soo; Ko, Kyung Ran [National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is used for various indications. Contrary to computed tomography as a staging tool, breast MRI focuses on the breast parenchyma and axilla. In spite of narrow field of view, many structures such as the anterior portion of the lungs, mediastinum, bony structures and the liver are included which should not be neglected because the abnormalities detected on the above structures may influence the staging and provide a clue to systemic metastasis, which results in the change of treatment strategy. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to review the unexpected extra-mammary findings seen on the preoperative breast MRI.

  17. Image guided versus palpation guided core needle biopsy of palpable breast masses: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smriti Hari

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in palpable breast masses, image guided biopsy was superior to palpation guided biopsy in terms of sensitivity, false negative rate and repeat biopsy rates.

  18. Temporal Subtraction of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Images for Improved Mass Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Christina M

    2007-01-01

    .... The purpose of this project is to determine the feasibility of using temporal subtraction on DBT phantom images to allow for easier and earlier detection of breast cancer than with either technique alone...

  19. Optimization of Tomosynthesis Imaging for Improved Mass and Microcalcification Detection in the Breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xia, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this research is to obtain systematic understandings of the effects of various physical factors that are important in breast tomosynthesis imaging and to develop techniques for effectively...

  20. Preclinical and clinical applications of specific molecular imaging for HER2-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Jianjing; Xu, Wengui; Wang, Ping

    2017-08-01

    Precision medicine and personalized therapy are receiving increased attention, and molecular-subtype classification has become crucial in planning therapeutic schedules in clinical practice for patients with breast cancer. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is associated with high-grade breast tumors, high rates of lymph-node involvement, high risk of recurrence, and high resistance to general chemotherapy. Analysis of HER2 expression is highly important for doctors to identify patients who can benefit from trastuzumab therapy and monitor the response and efficacy of treatment. In recent years, significant efforts have been devoted to achieving specific and noninvasive HER2-positive breast cancer imaging in vivo. In this work, we reviewed existing literature on HER2 imaging in the past decade and summarized the studies from different points of view, such as imaging modalities and HER2-specific probes. We aimed to improve the understanding on the translational process in molecular imaging for HER2 breast cancer.

  1. Quantitative 3D high resolution transmission ultrasound tomography: creating clinically relevant images (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskin, James; Klock, John; Iuanow, Elaine; Borup, Dave T.; Terry, Robin; Malik, Bilal H.; Lenox, Mark

    2017-03-01

    There has been a great deal of research into ultrasound tomography for breast imaging over the past 35 years. Few successful attempts have been made to reconstruct high-resolution images using transmission ultrasound. To this end, advances have been made in 2D and 3D algorithms that utilize either time of arrival or full wave data to reconstruct images with high spatial and contrast resolution suitable for clinical interpretation. The highest resolution and quantitative accuracy result from inverse scattering applied to full wave data in 3D. However, this has been prohibitively computationally expensive, meaning that full inverse scattering ultrasound tomography has not been considered clinically viable. Here we show the results of applying a nonlinear inverse scattering algorithm to 3D data in a clinically useful time frame. This method yields Quantitative Transmission (QT) ultrasound images with high spatial and contrast resolution. We reconstruct sound speeds for various 2D and 3D phantoms and verify these values with independent measurements. The data are fully 3D as is the reconstruction algorithm, with no 2D approximations. We show that 2D reconstruction algorithms can introduce artifacts into the QT breast image which are avoided by using a full 3D algorithm and data. We show high resolution gross and microscopic anatomic correlations comparing cadaveric breast QT images with MRI to establish imaging capability and accuracy. Finally, we show reconstructions of data from volunteers, as well as an objective visual grading analysis to confirm clinical imaging capability and accuracy.

  2. Features of undiagnosed breast cancers at screening breast MR imaging and potential utility of computer-aided evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mirinae; Cho, Nariya; Bea, Min Sun; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Won Hwa; Lee, Su Hyun; Chu, A Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the features of undiagnosed breast cancers on prior screening breast magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients who were subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer, as well as the potential utility of MR-computer-aided evaluation (CAE). Between March 2004 and May 2013, of the 72 consecutive pairs of prior negative MR images and subsequent MR images with diagnosed cancers (median interval, 32.8 months; range, 5.4-104.6 months), 36 (50%) had visible findings (mean size, 1.0 cm; range, 0.3-5.2 cm). The visible findings were divided into either actionable or under threshold groups by the blinded review by 5 radiologists. MR imaging features, reasons for missed cancer, and MR-CAE features according to actionability were evaluated. Of the 36 visible findings on prior MR images, 33.3% (12 of 36) of the lesions were determined to be actionable and 66.7% (24 of 36) were underthreshold; 85.7% (6 of 7) of masses and 31.6% (6 of 19) of non-mass enhancements were classified as actionable lesions. Mimicking physiologic enhancements (27.8%, 10 of 36) and small lesion size (27.8%, 10 of 36) were the most common reasons for missed cancer. Actionable findings tended to show more washout or plateau kinetic patterns on MR-CAE than underthreshold findings, as the 100% of actionable findings and 46.7% of underthreshold findings showed washout or plateau (p = 0.008). MR-CAE has the potential for reducing the number of undiagnosed breast cancers on screening breast MR images, the majority of which are caused by mimicking physiologic enhancements or small lesion size.

  3. The Effects of Applying Breast Compression in Dynamic Contrast Material–enhanced MR Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macura, Katarzyna J.; Kamel, Ihab R.; Bluemke, David A.; Jacobs, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of breast compression on breast cancer masses, contrast material enhancement of glandular tissue, and quality of magnetic resonance (MR) images in the identification and characterization of breast lesions. Materials and Methods This was a HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board–approved retrospective study, with waiver of informed consent. Images from 300 MR imaging examinations in 149 women (mean age ± standard deviation, 51.5 years ± 10.9; age range, 22–76 years) were evaluated. The women underwent diagnostic MR imaging (no compression) and MR-guided biopsy (with compression) between June 2008 and February 2013. Breast compression was expressed as a percentage relative to the noncompressed breast. Percentage enhancement difference was calculated between noncompressed- and compressed-breast images obtained in early and delayed contrast-enhanced phases. Breast density, lesion type (mass vs non-masslike enhancement [NMLE]), lesion size, percentage compression, and kinetic curve type were evaluated. Linear regression, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and κ test were performed. Results Mean percentage compression was 31.3% ± 9.2 (range, 5.8%–53.2%). Percentage enhancement was higher in noncompressed- versus compressed-breast studies in early (146% ± 66 vs 107% ± 42, respectively; P breast lesions, 12% (seven of 59) were significantly smaller when compressed, which led to underestimation of TNM classification (P Breast masses (n = 35) showed significantly higher early percentage enhancement (157% ± 71) than lesions with NMLE (n = 15, 120% ± 40; P = .02) and a percentage enhancement difference (47.5% ± 64 vs 17% ± 28, respectively; P = .023). Kinetic curve performance for identifying invasive cancer decreased after compression (area under ROC curve = 0.53 vs 0.71, respectively; P = .02). Breast compression resulted in complete loss of enhancement of nine of 210 lesions (4%). Conclusion Breast

  4. Frequency and Clinical Significance of Extramammary Findings on Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Sneha; Thomas, Alexandra; Yang, Limin; Moore, Catherine; Xia, Chang; Schroeder, Mary C

    2016-10-01

    Use of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for screening and local staging of breast cancer has increased. With this, questions have emerged regarding the management and effect of extramammary findings (EMFs) reported on breast MRI. Breast MRI studies performed between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 at the University of Iowa were analyzed. Data were collected regarding number and location of EMFs, characteristics of the patients who had a breast MRI, and time to first treatment among the patients who had a breast MRI for stage I-III breast cancer. During the study period, 1305 breast MRIs were obtained in 772 women. An EMF was found in 140 studies (10.7%) and 113 women (14.6%). EMFs were more likely in MRIs of older patients (50 vs. 54 years, P = .004) and postmenopausal women (P = .001). Anatomically, most EMFs were seen in the liver (89 of 140) or bone (21 of 140). Eight women (0.6%) had an EMF on breast MRI that led to upstaging to stage IV breast cancer. For patients with stage I-III breast cancer, the finding of an EMF on breast MRI did not affect time to initial cancer treatment (13 vs. 14 days; P = .586). EMFs on breast MRI are seen with some frequency and occur more commonly in older, postmenopausal women. In our study, most EMFs were benign and did not affect patient outcome with regard to upstaging to stage IV disease or time to cancer treatment. A very small portion of studies revealed subclinical advanced breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Image-guided focused ultrasound ablation of breast cancer: current status, challenges, and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, A.C.; Gianfelice, D.; Daniel, B.L.; Mali, W.P.T.M.; Bosch, M.A.A.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    Image-guided focussed ultrasound (FUS) ablation is a noninvasive procedure that has been used for treatment of benign or malignant breast tumours. Image-guidance during ablation is achieved either by using real-time ultrasound (US) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The past decade phase I

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: recommendations from the EUSOMA working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Boetes, Carla; Borisch, Bettina; Decker, Thomas; Federico, Massimo; Gilbert, Fiona J; Helbich, Thomas; Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia H; Kaiser, Werner A; Kerin, Michael J; Mansel, Robert E; Marotti, Lorenza; Martincich, Laura; Mauriac, Louis; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Orecchia, Roberto; Panizza, Pietro; Ponti, Antonio; Purushotham, Arnie D; Regitnig, Peter; Del Turco, Marco Rosselli; Thibault, Fabienne; Wilson, Robin

    2010-05-01

    The use of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is rapidly increasing. EUSOMA organised a workshop in Milan on 20-21st October 2008 to evaluate the evidence currently available on clinical value and indications for breast MRI. Twenty-three experts from the disciplines involved in breast disease management - including epidemiologists, geneticists, oncologists, radiologists, radiation oncologists, and surgeons - discussed the evidence for the use of this technology in plenary and focused sessions. This paper presents the consensus reached by this working group. General recommendations, technical requirements, methodology, and interpretation were firstly considered. For the following ten indications, an overview of the evidence, a list of recommendations, and a number of research issues were defined: staging before treatment planning; screening of high-risk women; evaluation of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy; patients with breast augmentation or reconstruction; occult primary breast cancer; breast cancer recurrence; nipple discharge; characterisation of equivocal findings at conventional imaging; inflammatory breast cancer; and male breast. The working group strongly suggests that all breast cancer specialists cooperate for an optimal clinical use of this emerging technology and for future research, focusing on patient outcome as primary end-point. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Image guided versus palpation guided core needle biopsy of palpable breast masses: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Smriti; Kumari, Swati; Srivastava, Anurag; Thulkar, Sanjay; Mathur, Sandeep; Veedu, Prasad Thotton

    2016-05-01

    Biopsy of palpable breast masses can be performed manually by palpation guidance or under imaging guidance. Based on retrospective studies, image guided biopsy is considered more accurate than palpation guided breast biopsy; however, these techniques have not been compared prospectively. We conducted this prospective study to verify the superiority and determine the size of beneficial effect of image guided biopsy over palpation guided biopsy. Over a period of 18 months, 36 patients each with palpable breast masses were randomized into palpation guided and image guided breast biopsy arms. Ultrasound was used for image guidance in 33 patients and mammographic (stereotactic) guidance in three patients. All biopsies were performed using 14 gauge automated core biopsy needles. Inconclusive, suspicious or imaging-histologic discordant biopsies were repeated. Malignancy was found in 30 of 36 women in palpation guided biopsy arm and 27 of 36 women in image guided biopsy arm. Palpation guided biopsy had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 46.7, 100, 100, 27.3 per cent, respectively, for diagnosing breast cancer. Nineteen of 36 women (52.8%) required repeat biopsy because of inadequate samples (7 of 19), suspicious findings (2 of 19) or imaging-histologic discordance (10 of 19). On repeat biopsy, malignancy was found in all cases of imaging-histologic discordance. Image guided biopsy had 96.3 per cent sensitivity and 100 per cent specificity. There was no case of inadequate sample or imaging-histologic discordance with image guided biopsy. Our results showed that in palpable breast masses, image guided biopsy was superior to palpation guided biopsy in terms of sensitivity, false negative rate and repeat biopsy rates.

  8. Microwave power imaging for ultra-wide band early breast cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wenyi

    Due to the critical need for complementary or/and alternative modalities to current X-ray mammography for early-stage breast cancer detection, a 3D active microwave imaging system has been developed. This thesis presents a detailed method for rapid, high contrast microwave imaging for the purpose of breast survey. In the proposed imaging system, several transmitters polarized in different directions take turns sending out a low-power UWB pulse into the breast; backscattered signals are recorded by a synthetic aperture antenna array. These backscattered signals are passed through a beamformer, which spatially focuses the waveforms to image backscattered energy as a function of location in the breast. A simple Delay-and-Sum algorithm is applied to test the proposed multistatic multi-polarized detection scheme. The obtained 2-D and 3-D numerical results have demonstrated the feasibility and superiority of detecting small malignant breast tumors using our antenna strategy. An improved algorithm of microwave power imaging for detecting small breast tumors within an MRI-derived phantom is also introduced. Our imaging results demonstrate that a high-quality image can be reached without solving the inverse problem. To set up an experimental system for future clinical investigation, we developed two Vivaldi antennas, which have a notable broad band property, good radiation pattern, and a suitable size for breast cancer detection. Finally, an antenna array which consists of eight proposed Vivaldi antennas is introduced. By conveniently moving up/down and rotating this antenna array, it can be used for the multistatic breast cancer imaging and qualified for our multi-polarized scan mode.

  9. Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of infrared imaging of the breast: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Yuh-Ming; Tsai Yuh-Show; Chien Kuo-Liong; Chen Chin-Yu; Chang King-Jen; Wang Jane; Teng Yu-Chuan; Shih Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The study was conducted to investigate the diagnostic performance of infrared (IR) imaging of the breast using an interpretive model derived from a scoring system. Methods The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of our hospital. A total of 276 women (mean age = 50.8 years, SD 11.8) with suspicious findings on mammograms or ultrasound received IR imaging of the breast before excisional biopsy. The interpreting radiologists scored the lesions using a scoring...

  10. Association Between Imaging Characteristics and Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingxiang; Ma, Jie

    2017-04-01

    Breast cancer can be divided into four major molecular subtypes based on the expression of hormone receptor (estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, HER2 status, and molecular proliferation rate (Ki67). In this study, we sought to investigate the association between breast cancer subtype and radiological findings in the Chinese population. Medical records of 300 consecutive invasive breast cancer patients were reviewed from the database: the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The imaging characteristics of the lesions were evaluated. The molecular subtypes of breast cancer were classified into four types: luminal A, luminal B, HER2 overexpressed (HER2), and basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between the subtype (dependent variable) and mammography or 15 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicators (independent variables). Luminal A and B subtypes were commonly associated with "clustered calcification distribution," "nipple invasion," or "skin invasion" (P cancers showed association with persistent enhancement in the delayed phase on MRI and "clustered calcification distribution" on mammography (P breast tumor, which are potentially useful tools in the diagnosis and subtyping of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MRI of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Breast Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast ... limitations of MRI of the Breast? What is MRI of the Breast? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  12. Review of Metaplastic Carcinoma of the Breast: Imaging Findings and Pathologic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Leddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaplastic carcinoma (MPC, an uncommon but often aggressive breast cancer, can be challenging to differentiate from other types of breast cancer and even benign lesions based on the imaging appearance. It has a variable pathology classification system. These types of tumors are generally rapidly growing palpable masses. MPCs on imaging can present with imaging features similar to invasive ductal carcinoma and probably even benign lesions. The purpose of this article is to review MPC of the breast including the pathology subtypes, imaging features, and imaging pathology correlations. By understanding the clinical picture, pathology, and overlap in imaging characteristics of MPC with invasive ductal carcinoma and probably benign lesions can assist in diagnosing these difficult malignancies.

  13. Body image issues after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy with breast reconstruction in healthy women at risk for hereditary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopie, Jessica P; Mureau, Marc A M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Ter Kuile, Moniek M; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B E; Timman, Reinier; Tibben, Aad

    2013-09-01

    The outcome of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy with breast reconstruction (BPM-IBR) in healthy BRCA1/2 mutation carriers can be potentially burdensome for body image and the intimate relationship. Therefore, in the current analysis the impact on body image, sexual and partner relationship satisfaction was prospectively investigated in women opting for BPM-IBR as well as cancer distress and general quality of life. Healthy women undergoing BPM-IBR completed questionnaires preoperatively (T0, n = 48), at 6 months (T1, n = 44) and after finishing breast reconstruction (median 21 months, range 12-35) (T2, n = 36). With multi-level regression analyses the course of outcome variables was investigated and a statistically significant change in body image and/or sexual and partner relationship satisfaction was predicted by baseline covariates. Body image significantly decreased at T1. At T2 sexual relationship satisfaction and body image tended to be lower compared to baseline. The overall partner relationship satisfaction did not significantly change. At T2, 37 % of the women reported that their breasts felt unpleasantly, 29 % was not satisfied with their breast appearance and 21 % felt embarrassed for their naked body. Most body image issues remained unchanged in 30 % of the women. A negative body image was predicted by high preoperative cancer distress. BPM-IBR was associated with adverse impact on body image in a substantial subgroup, but satisfaction with the overall sexual and partner relationship did not significantly change in time. The psychosocial impact of BPM-IBR in unaffected women should not be underestimated. Psychological support should ideally be integrated both before and after BPM-IBR.

  14. Segmentation of the whole breast from low-dose chest CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Salvatore, Mary; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2015-03-01

    The segmentation of whole breast serves as the first step towards automated breast lesion detection. It is also necessary for automatically assessing the breast density, which is considered to be an important risk factor for breast cancer. In this paper we present a fully automated algorithm to segment the whole breast in low-dose chest CT images (LDCT), which has been recommended as an annual lung cancer screening test. The automated whole breast segmentation and potential breast density readings as well as lesion detection in LDCT will provide useful information for women who have received LDCT screening, especially the ones who have not undergone mammographic screening, by providing them additional risk indicators for breast cancer with no additional radiation exposure. The two main challenges to be addressed are significant range of variations in terms of the shape and location of the breast in LDCT and the separation of pectoral muscles from the glandular tissues. The presented algorithm achieves robust whole breast segmentation using an anatomy directed rule-based method. The evaluation is performed on 20 LDCT scans by comparing the segmentation with ground truth manually annotated by a radiologist on one axial slice and two sagittal slices for each scan. The resulting average Dice coefficient is 0.880 with a standard deviation of 0.058, demonstrating that the automated segmentation algorithm achieves results consistent with manual annotations of a radiologist.

  15. Body image disturbance and surgical decision making in egyptian post menopausal breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoma, Ashraf M; Mohamed, Madiha H; Nouman, Nashaat; Amin, Mahmoud; Ibrahim, Ibtihal M; Tobar, Salwa S; Gaffar, Hanan E; Aboelez, Warda F; Ali, Salwa E; William, Soheir G

    2009-08-13

    In most developing countries, as in Egypt; postmenopausal breast cancer cases are offered a radical form of surgery relying on their unawareness of the subsequent body image disturbance. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of breast cancer surgical choice; Breast Conservative Therapy (BCT) versus Modified Radical Mastectomy (MRM); on body image perception among Egyptian postmenopausal cases. One hundred postmenopausal women with breast cancer were divided into 2 groups, one group underwent BCT and the other underwent MRM. Pre- and post-operative assessments of body image distress were done using four scales; Breast Impact of Treatment Scale (BITS), Impact of Event Scale (IES), Situational Discomfort Scale (SDS), and Body Satisfaction Scale (BSS). Preoperative assessment showed no statistical significant difference regarding cognitive, affective, behavioral and evaluative components of body image between both studied groups. While in postoperative assessment, women in MRM group showed higher levels of body image distress among cognitive, affective and behavioral aspects. Body image is an important factor for postmenopausal women with breast cancer in developing countries where that concept is widely ignored. We should not deprive those cases from their right of less mutilating option of treatment as BCT.

  16. Body image disturbance and surgical decision making in egyptian post menopausal breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaffar Hanan E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most developing countries, as in Egypt; postmenopausal breast cancer cases are offered a radical form of surgery relying on their unawareness of the subsequent body image disturbance. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of breast cancer surgical choice; Breast Conservative Therapy (BCT versus Modified Radical Mastectomy (MRM; on body image perception among Egyptian postmenopausal cases. Methods One hundred postmenopausal women with breast cancer were divided into 2 groups, one group underwent BCT and the other underwent MRM. Pre- and post-operative assessments of body image distress were done using four scales; Breast Impact of Treatment Scale (BITS, Impact of Event Scale (IES, Situational Discomfort Scale (SDS, and Body Satisfaction Scale (BSS. Results Preoperative assessment showed no statistical significant difference regarding cognitive, affective, behavioral and evaluative components of body image between both studied groups. While in postoperative assessment, women in MRM group showed higher levels of body image distress among cognitive, affective and behavioral aspects. Conclusion Body image is an important factor for postmenopausal women with breast cancer in developing countries where that concept is widely ignored. We should not deprive those cases from their right of less mutilating option of treatment as BCT.

  17. Effect of a gel retainment dam on automated ultrasound coverage in a dual-modality breast imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Goodsitt, Mitchell M; Padilla, Frederic; Fowlkes, J Brian; Hooi, Fong Ming; Lashbrook, Christine R; Thomenius, Kai E; Carson, Paul L

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate a possible improvement in ultrasound coverage for a dual-modality breast imaging system in the mammographic geometry. A pilot study was performed to evaluate use of a rubber dam to retain ultrasound gel and improve imaging coverage at the breast periphery on a combined imaging system consisting of an ultrasound scanner and a digital x-ray tomosynthesis unit. Several dams were constructed to encompass the shapes of various sizes of compressed breasts. Visual tracings of the breast-to-paddle contact area and breast periphery were made for 8 breasts to estimate coverage area. Two readers independently reviewed the resulting images and were asked to rate the overall breast image quality. The percentages of breast in contact with the paddle were greater (P image quality of automated ultrasound with the rubber dam was consistently judged to be superior to that without the dam. This method can enhance the absolute and percentage area of the breast in contact with the paddle, reducing noncontact gaps at the breast periphery. Gently pressing the breast periphery with the dam inserted toward the chest wall improves coverage in automated breast ultrasound scanning.

  18. Image-guided focused ultrasound ablation of breast cancer: current status, challenges, and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, A.C.; Mali, W.P.T.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gianfelice, D. [University Health Network C/O Toronto General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada); Daniel, B.L. [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Bosch, M.A.A.J. van den [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Lucas MR Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Image-guided focussed ultrasound (FUS) ablation is a non-invasive procedure that has been used for treatment of benign or malignant breast tumours. Image-guidance during ablation is achieved either by using real-time ultrasound (US) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The past decade phase I studies have proven MRI-guided and US-guided FUS ablation of breast cancer to be technically feasible and safe. We provide an overview of studies assessing the efficacy of FUS for breast tumour ablation as measured by percentages of complete tumour necrosis. Successful ablation ranged from 20% to 100%, depending on FUS system type, imaging technique, ablation protocol, and patient selection. Specific issues related to FUS ablation of breast cancer, such as increased treatment time for larger tumours, size of ablation margins, methods used for margin assessment and residual tumour detection after FUS ablation, and impact of FUS ablation on sentinel node procedure are presented. Finally, potential future applications of FUS for breast cancer treatment such as FUS-induced anti-tumour immune response, FUS-mediated gene transfer, and enhanced drug delivery are discussed. Currently, breast-conserving surgery remains the gold standard for breast cancer treatment. (orig.)

  19. SEGMENTATION AND CORRELATION OF OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY AND X-RAY IMAGES FOR BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JONATHAN G. SUN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pre-operative X-ray mammography and intraoperative X-ray specimen radiography are routinely used to identify breast cancer pathology. Recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT have enabled its use for the intraoperative assessment of surgical margins during breast cancer surgery. While each modality offers distinct contrast of normal and pathological features, there is an essential need to correlate image-based features between the two modalities to take advantage of the diagnostic capabilities of each technique. We compare OCT to X-ray images of resected human breast tissue and correlate different tissue features between modalities for future use in real-time intraoperative OCT imaging. X-ray imaging (specimen radiography is currently used during surgical breast cancer procedures to verify tumor margins, but cannot image tissue in situ. OCT has the potential to solve this problem by providing intraoperative imaging of the resected specimen as well as the in situ tumor cavity. OCT and micro-CT (X-ray images are automatically segmented using different computational approaches, and quantitatively compared to determine the ability of these algorithms to automatically differentiate regions of adipose tissue from tumor. Furthermore, two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D results are compared. These correlations, combined with real-time intraoperative OCT, have the potential to identify possible regions of tumor within breast tissue which correlate to tumor regions identified previously on X-ray imaging (mammography or specimen radiography.

  20. Early Breast Cancer Diagnosis Using Microwave Imaging via Space-Frequency Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulapalli, Spandana

    The conventional breast cancer detection methods have limitations ranging from ionizing radiations, low specificity to high cost. These limitations make way for a suitable alternative called Microwave Imaging, as a screening technique in the detection of breast cancer. The discernible differences between the benign, malignant and healthy breast tissues and the ability to overcome the harmful effects of ionizing radiations make microwave imaging, a feasible breast cancer detection technique. Earlier studies have shown the variation of electrical properties of healthy and malignant tissues as a function of frequency and hence stimulates high bandwidth requirement. A Ultrawideband, Wideband and Narrowband arrays have been designed, simulated and optimized for high (44%), medium (33%) and low (7%) bandwidths respectively, using the EM (electromagnetic software) called FEKO. These arrays are then used to illuminate the breast model (phantom) and the received backscattered signals are obtained in the near field for each case. The Microwave Imaging via Space-Time (MIST) beamforming algorithm in the frequency domain, is next applied to these near field backscattered monostatic frequency response signals for the image reconstruction of the breast model. The main purpose of this investigation is to access the impact of bandwidth and implement a novel imaging technique for use in the early detection of breast cancer. Earlier studies show the implementation of the MIST imaging algorithm on the time domain signals via a frequency domain beamformer. The performance evaluation of the imaging algorithm on the frequency response signals has been carried out in the frequency domain. The energy profile of the breast in the spatial domain is created via the frequency domain Parseval's theorem. The beamformer weights calculated using these the MIST algorithm (not including the effect of the skin) has been calculated for Ultrawideband, Wideband and Narrowband arrays, respectively

  1. Background enhancement of mammary glandular tissue on breast dynamic MRI: imaging features and effect on assessment of breast cancer extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Takayoshi; Kasami, Masako; Watanabe, Junichiro

    2012-07-01

    Just as mammographic breast density influences mammographic sensitivity, the degree of background enhancement in breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may influence the sensitivity of breast MRI. The purpose of this study is to assess the influence of background enhancement on the accuracy of breast cancer extent assessment using MRI and to assess the correlation between the accuracy of breast cancer extent assessment and the kinetic analysis of background enhancement in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Seventy bilateral breast MRI examinations were evaluated to assess the extent of a known primary tumor. Background enhancement was classified into four categories by visual assessment: minimal, mild, moderate, and marked, in the early dynamic phase and in the late dynamic phase. The correlation of the results with histological findings was examined. Background enhancement grade showed a significant tendency to increase during dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. When classifying background enhancement at early dynamic phase, the accuracy of tumor extent assessment by MRI with moderate/marked background enhancement was 60%, which was lower than the 78% accuracy with minimal/mild background enhancement, but not significantly so (p = 0.153). When classifying background enhancement at late dynamic phase, the accuracy with moderate/marked background enhancement was 61%, which was significantly lower than the 83% accuracy with minimal/mild background enhancement (p = 0.034). There was no tumor-size-related bias between the groups (p = 0.089). The degree of background enhancement on breast MRI affects the accuracy of breast cancer extent assessment, especially at late dynamic phase.

  2. Breast density quantification using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with bias field correction: A postmortem study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Huanjun; Johnson, Travis; Lin, Muqing; Le, Huy Q.; Ducote, Justin L.; Su, Min-Ying; Molloi, Sabee, E-mail: symolloi@uci.edu [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Quantification of breast density based on three-dimensional breast MRI may provide useful information for the early detection of breast cancer. However, the field inhomogeneity can severely challenge the computerized image segmentation process. In this work, the effect of the bias field in breast density quantification has been investigated with a postmortem study. Methods: T1-weighted images of 20 pairs of postmortem breasts were acquired on a 1.5 T breast MRI scanner. Two computer-assisted algorithms were used to quantify the volumetric breast density. First, standard fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering was used on raw images with the bias field present. Then, the coherent local intensity clustering (CLIC) method estimated and corrected the bias field during the iterative tissue segmentation process. Finally, FCM clustering was performed on the bias-field-corrected images produced by CLIC method. The left–right correlation for breasts in the same pair was studied for both segmentation algorithms to evaluate the precision of the tissue classification. Finally, the breast densities measured with the three methods were compared to the gold standard tissue compositions obtained from chemical analysis. The linear correlation coefficient, Pearson'sr, was used to evaluate the two image segmentation algorithms and the effect of bias field. Results: The CLIC method successfully corrected the intensity inhomogeneity induced by the bias field. In left–right comparisons, the CLIC method significantly improved the slope and the correlation coefficient of the linear fitting for the glandular volume estimation. The left–right breast density correlation was also increased from 0.93 to 0.98. When compared with the percent fibroglandular volume (%FGV) from chemical analysis, results after bias field correction from both the CLIC the FCM algorithms showed improved linear correlation. As a result, the Pearson'sr increased from 0.86 to 0.92 with the bias field

  3. Background parenchymal uptake on molecular breast imaging as a breast cancer risk factor: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Carrie B; Scott, Christopher G; Conners, Amy Lynn; Whaley, Dana H; Rhodes, Deborah J; Carter, Rickey E; O'Connor, Michael K; Hunt, Katie N; Brandt, Kathleen R; Vachon, Celine M

    2016-04-26

    Molecular breast imaging (MBI) is a functional test used for supplemental screening of women with mammographically dense breasts. Additionally, MBI depicts variable levels of background parenchymal uptake (BPU) within nonmalignant, dense fibroglandular tissue. We investigated whether BPU is a risk factor for breast cancer. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of 3027 eligible women who had undergone MBI between February 2004 and February 2014. Sixty-two incident breast cancer cases were identified. A total of 179 controls were matched on age, menopausal status, and MBI year. Two radiologists blinded to case status independently assessed BPU as one of four categories: photopenic, minimal to mild, moderate, or marked. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the associations (OR) of BPU categories (moderate or marked vs. minimal to mild or photopenic) and breast cancer risk, adjusted for other risk factors. The median age was 60.2 years (range 38-86 years) for cases vs. 60.2 years (range 38-88 years) for controls (p = 0.88). Women with moderate or marked BPU had a 3.4-fold (95 % CI 1.6-7.3) and 4.8-fold (95 % CI 2.1-10.8) increased risk of breast cancer, respectively, compared with women with photopenic or minimal to mild BPU, for two radiologists. The results were similar after adjustment for BI-RADS density (OR 3.3 [95 % CI 1.6-7.2] and OR 4.6 [95 % CI 2.1-10.5]) or postmenopausal hormone use (OR 3.6 [95 % CI 1.7-7.7] and OR 5.0 [95 % CI 2.2-11.4]). The association of BPU with breast cancer remained in analyses limited to postmenopausal women only (OR 3.8 [95 % CI 1.5-9.3] and OR 4.1 [95 % CI 1.6-10.2]) and invasive breast cancer cases only (OR 3.6 [95 % CI 1.5-8.8] and OR 4.4 [95 % CI 1.7-11.1]). Variable BPU was observed among women with similar mammographic density; the distribution of BPU categories differed across density categories (p risk factor for breast cancer. Among women with dense breasts, who

  4. Image and pathological changes after microwave ablation of breast cancer: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wenbin [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiang, Yanni [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Chen, Lin; Ling, Lijun; Liang, Mengdi; Pan, Hong [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Wang, Siqi [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Ding, Qiang [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Liu, Xiaoan, E-mail: liuxiaoan@126.com [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Wang, Shui, E-mail: ws0801@hotmail.com [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We report successful experience of MWA in breast cancer under local anesthesia. • We report MR imaging evaluation of microwave ablation zone in breast cancer. • Pathological changes after microwave ablation in breast cancer was reported. • 2 min MWA caused an ablation zone with three diameters > 2 cm in breast cancer. - Abstract: Purpose: To prospectively assess MR imaging evaluation of the ablation zone and pathological changes after microwave ablation (MWA) in breast cancer. Materials and methods: Twelve enrolled patients, diagnosed with non-operable locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), were treated by MWA and then neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by surgery. MR imaging was applied to evaluate the effect of MWA. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied to analyze the ablated area. Results: All MWA procedures were performed successfully under local anesthesia. For a mean duration of 2.15 min, the mean largest, middle and smallest diameters in the ablated zone 24-h post-ablation in MR imaging were 2.98 cm ± 0.53, 2.51 cm ± 0.41 and 2.23 cm ± 0.41, respectively. The general shape of the ablation zone was close to a sphere. The ablated area became gradually smaller in MR imaging. No adverse effects related to MWA were noted in all 12 patients during and after MWA. HE staining could confirm the effect about 3 months after MWA, which was confirmed by TEM. Conclusions: 2 min MWA can cause an ablation zone with three diameters larger than 2 cm in breast cancer, which may be suitable for the local treatment of breast cancer up to 2 cm in largest diameter. However, the long-term effect of MWA in the treatment of small breast cancer should be determined in the future.

  5. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors: Automated measurement development for full field digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, E. E.; Sellers, T. A.; Lu, B. [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Division of Population Sciences, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Heine, J. J. [Department of Cancer Imaging and Metabolism, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors are used for standardized mammographic reporting and are assessed visually. This reporting is clinically relevant because breast composition can impact mammographic sensitivity and is a breast cancer risk factor. New techniques are presented and evaluated for generating automated BI-RADS breast composition descriptors using both raw and calibrated full field digital mammography (FFDM) image data.Methods: A matched case-control dataset with FFDM images was used to develop three automated measures for the BI-RADS breast composition descriptors. Histograms of each calibrated mammogram in the percent glandular (pg) representation were processed to create the new BR{sub pg} measure. Two previously validated measures of breast density derived from calibrated and raw mammograms were converted to the new BR{sub vc} and BR{sub vr} measures, respectively. These three measures were compared with the radiologist-reported BI-RADS compositions assessments from the patient records. The authors used two optimization strategies with differential evolution to create these measures: method-1 used breast cancer status; and method-2 matched the reported BI-RADS descriptors. Weighted kappa (κ) analysis was used to assess the agreement between the new measures and the reported measures. Each measure's association with breast cancer was evaluated with odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for body mass index, breast area, and menopausal status. ORs were estimated as per unit increase with 95% confidence intervals.Results: The three BI-RADS measures generated by method-1 had κ between 0.25–0.34. These measures were significantly associated with breast cancer status in the adjusted models: (a) OR = 1.87 (1.34, 2.59) for BR{sub pg}; (b) OR = 1.93 (1.36, 2.74) for BR{sub vc}; and (c) OR = 1.37 (1.05, 1.80) for BR{sub vr}. The measures generated by method-2 had κ between 0.42–0.45. Two of these

  6. Numerical MRI-based breast model for microwave imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Rubino, Roselena

    2012-01-01

    English: Nowadays, the most popular technique for breast cancer detection is the mammography. Due to its drawbacks, other alternative/complementary methods are being researched. In this master thesis, the feasibility of the UWB Magnitude-Combined (MC-UWB) tomographic algorithm is assessed for the breast cancer detection application. This process is done by creating a numerical breast model, calculating its direct problem, applying the algorithm to solve the inverse problem to finally present ...

  7. Nanoradiopharmaceuticals for breast cancer imaging: development, characterization, and imaging in inducted animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarcinelli MA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Michelle Alvares Sarcinelli,1,2 Marta de Souza Albernaz,3 Marzena Szwed,4 Alexandre Iscaife,2 Kátia Ramos Moreira Leite,2 Mara de Souza Junqueira,5 Emerson Soares Bernardes,6 Emerson Oliveira da Silva,1 Maria Ines Bruno Tavares,1 Ralph Santos-Oliveira7 1Instituto de Macromoléculas Professora Eloisa Mano Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Laboratory of Medical Investigation, Faculty of Medicine, São Paulo University, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Radiopharmacy Sector, University Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 4Department of Thermobiology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland; 5Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, São Paulo University, São Paulo, Brazil; 6Radiopharmacy Center, Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN, São Paulo, Brazil; 7Laboratory of Nanoradiopharmaceuticals, Zona Oeste State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Abstract: Monoclonal antibodies as polymeric nanoparticles are quite interesting and endow this new drug category with many advantages, especially by reducing the number of adverse reactions and, in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, also reducing the amount of radiation (dose administered to the patient. In this study, a nanoradiopharmaceutical was developed using polylactic acid (PLA/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/montmorillonite (MMT/trastuzumab nanoparticles labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc for breast cancer imaging. In order to confirm the nanoparticle formation, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering were performed. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticle and biodistribution with 99mTc in healthy and inducted animals were also measured. The results from atomic force microscopy showed that the nanoparticles were spherical, with a size range of ~200–500 nm. The dynamic light scattering analysis demonstrated that over 90% of the nanoparticles produced had a size of 287 nm with a zeta

  8. Digital breast tomosynthesis for detecting multifocal and multicentric breast cancer: influence of acquisition geometry on model observer performance in breast phantom images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Gezheng; Park, Subok; Markey, Mia K.

    2017-03-01

    Multifocal and multicentric breast cancer (MFMC), i.e., the presence of two or more tumor foci within the same breast, has an immense clinical impact on treatment planning and survival outcomes. Detecting multiple breast tumors is challenging as MFMC breast cancer is relatively uncommon, and human observers do not know the number or locations of tumors a priori. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), in which an x-ray beam sweeps over a limited angular range across the breast, has the potential to improve the detection of multiple tumors.1, 2 However, prior efforts to optimize DBT image quality only considered unifocal breast cancers (e.g.,3-9), so the recommended geometries may not necessarily yield images that are informative for the task of detecting MFMC. Hence, the goal of this study is to employ a 3D multi-lesion (ml) channelized-Hotelling observer (CHO) to identify optimal DBT acquisition geometries for MFMC. Digital breast phantoms and simulated DBT scanners of different geometries (e.g., wide or narrow arc scans, different number of projections in each scan) were used to generate image data for the simulation study. Multiple 3D synthetic lesions were inserted into different breast regions to simulate MF cases and MC cases. 3D partial least squares (PLS) channels, and 3D Laguerre-Gauss (LG) channels were estimated to capture discriminant information and correlations among signals in locally varying anatomical backgrounds, enabling the model observer to make both image-level and location-specific detection decisions. The 3D ml-CHO with PLS channels outperformed that with LG channels in this study. The simulated MC cases and MC cases were not equally difficult for the ml-CHO to detect across the different simulated DBT geometries considered in this analysis. Also, the results suggest that the optimal design of DBT may vary as the task of clinical interest changes, e.g., a geometry that is better for finding at least one lesion may be worse for counting the

  9. Effect of Bismuth Breast Shielding on Radiation Dose and Image Quality in Coronary CT Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Elliston, Carl D.; Groves, Daniel W.; Cheng, Bin; Wolff, Steven D.; Pearson, Gregory D. N.; Peters, M. Robert; Johnson, Lynne L.; Bokhari, Sabahat; Johnson, Gary W.; Bhatia, Ketan; Pozniakoff, Theodore; Brenner, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is associated with high radiation dose to the female breasts. Bismuth breast shielding offers the potential to significantly reduce dose to the breasts and nearby organs, but the magnitude of this reduction and its impact on image quality and radiation dose have not been evaluated. Methods Radiation doses from CCTA to critical organs were determined using metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors positioned in a customized anthropomorphic whole-body dosimetry verification phantom. Image noise and signal were measured in regions of interest (ROIs) including the coronary arteries. Results With bismuth shielding, breast radiation dose was reduced 46–57% depending on breast size and scanning technique, with more moderate dose reduction to the heart, lungs, and esophagus. However, shielding significantly decreased image signal (by 14.6 HU) and contrast (by 28.4 HU), modestly but significantly increased image noise in ROIs in locations of coronary arteries, and decreased contrast-to-noise ratio by 20.9%.. Conclusions While bismuth breast shielding can significantly decrease radiation dose to critical organs, it is associated with an increase in image noise, decrease in contrast-to-noise, and changes tissue attenuation characteristics in the location of the coronary arteries. PMID:22068687

  10. Molecular Imaging Probes for Diagnosis and Therapy Evaluation of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingqing; Li, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer death in women where early detection and accurate assessment of therapy response can improve clinical outcomes. Molecular imaging, which includes PET, SPECT, MRI, and optical modalities, provides noninvasive means of detecting biological processes and molecular events in vivo. Molecular imaging has the potential to enhance our understanding of breast cancer biology and effects of drug action during both preclinical and clinical phases of drug development. This has led to the identification of many molecular imaging probes for key processes in breast cancer. Hormone receptors, growth factor receptor, and angiogenic factors, such as ER, PR, HER2, and VEGFR, have been adopted as imaging targets to detect and stage the breast cancer and to monitor the treatment efficacy. Receptor imaging probes are usually composed of targeting moiety attached to a signaling component such as a radionuclide that can be detected using dedicated instruments. Current molecular imaging probes involved in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy evaluation are reviewed, and future of molecular imaging for the preclinical and clinical is explained. PMID:23533377

  11. Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xinwen; Gan, Yu; Chang, Ernest W.; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Feldman, Sheldon; Hendon, Christine P.

    2017-02-01

    We employed a home-built ultrahigh resolution (UHR) OCT system at 800nm to image human breast cancer sample ex vivo. The system has an axial resolution of 2.72µm and a lateral resolution of 5.52µm with an extended imaging range of 1.78mm. Over 900 UHR OCT volumes were generated on specimens from 23 breast cancer cases. With better spatial resolution, detailed structures in the breast tissue were better defined. Different types of breast cancer as well as healthy breast tissue can be well delineated from the UHR OCT images. To quantitatively evaluate the advantages of UHR OCT imaging of breast cancer, features derived from OCT intensity images were used as inputs to a machine learning model, the relevance vector machine. A trained machine learning model was employed to evaluate the performance of tissue classification based on UHR OCT images for differentiating tissue types in the breast samples, including adipose tissue, healthy stroma and cancerous region. For adipose tissue, grid-based local features were extracted from OCT intensity data, including standard deviation, entropy, and homogeneity. We showed that it was possible to enhance the classification performance on distinguishing fat tissue from non-fat tissue by using the UHR images when compared with the results based on OCT images from a commercial 1300 nm OCT system. For invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and normal stroma differentiation, the classification was based on frame-based features that portray signal penetration depth and tissue reflectivity. The confusing matrix indicated a sensitivity of 97.5% and a sensitivity of 77.8%.

  12. Breast contrast-enhanced MR imaging: semiautomatic detection of vascular map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Roberta; Sansone, Mario; Filice, Salvatore; Petrillo, Antonella

    2016-03-01

    The diagnostic value of breast vascular maps using contrast-enhanced MR imaging has recently been explored. We propose a semiautomatic method to obtain breast vascular maps and to measure the number of blood vessels in the breast. From January 2011 to December 2013, 188 patients underwent breast contrast-enhanced MRI; patients with unilateral and histopathologically confirmed breast lesions were included in this study; 123 patients had malignant lesions and 65 patients had benign tissue diagnoses. Breast semiautomatic vascular map detection was performed using Hessian matrix-based method and morphologic operators. Blood vessels detection was compared with radiologic interpretation findings to evaluate algorithm goodness. Increase in vascularity associated with ipsilateral cancer was also assessed. Chi square test was used to observe statistically significant difference. A total of 1315 blood vessels were identified using semiautomatic procedure; 1034 were correctly classified (78.7 %), 261 (19.8 %) were incorrectly classified, and 20 (1.5 %) were missing. A significant association was found between one-sided increased breast vascularity and ipsilateral malignancy (p breast cancer could be performed with semiautomatic vascular mapping of contrast-enhanced MR imaging.

  13. A case of recurrence-mimicking charcoal granuloma in a breast cancer patient: Ultrasound,CT, PET/CT and breast-specific gamma imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dae Woong; Park, Ji Yeon; Park, Noh Hyuck; Kim, Seon Jeong; Shin, Hyuck Jai; Lee, Jeong Ju [Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Seong Yoon [Div. of Hematology-Oncology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Charcoal remains stable without causing a foreign body reaction and it may be used for preoperative localization of a non-palpable breast mass. However, cases of post-charcoal-marking granuloma have only rarely been reported in the breast, and a charcoal granuloma can be misdiagnosed as malignancy. Herein, we report the ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT, and breast-specific gamma imaging findings of recurrence-mimicking charcoal granuloma after breast conserving surgery, following localization with charcoal in a breast cancer patient.

  14. Screening breast magnetic resonance imaging in women with atypia or lobular carcinoma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Theresa; Cyr, Amy; Margenthaler, Julie

    2015-02-01

    Atypical lesions and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) are associated with an increased risk of breast malignancy. The utility of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening in this cohort of women after excision of a high-risk lesion has not been previously established. The objective of this study was to investigate outcomes of breast MRI surveillance in this subgroup of high-risk patients. We performed a retrospective review of women who required excision of an atypical lesion or LCIS who underwent at least one screening breast MRI from April 2005-December 2011. We collected information on demographics, number of second-look imaging studies recommended, number of biopsies performed and pathologic outcomes. A total of 179 patients met the inclusion criteria, including 131 (73%) with atypical lesions and 48 (27%) with LCIS. Second-look imaging was recommended for 31 of 131 (23.7%) patients with atypical lesions and 8 of 48 (16.7%) with LCIS. Ten biopsies were performed in the atypical cohort (7.6%) with two revealing a malignancy (Positive Predictive Value [PPV] of 20%). In the LCIS cohort, five biopsies were performed (10.4%) with one revealing a malignancy (PPV of 20%). The benefit of breast MRI surveillance in patients after excision of atypical lesions or LCIS has not been clearly delineated previously. Our data demonstrate that the use of screening breast MRI in this cohort results in additional work-up in one-fifth of patients, but a PPV of only 20%. Large, prospective studies would be needed to determine whether breast cancer outcomes differ between patients undergoing conventional breast screening and those undergoing conventional breast screening plus breast MRI surveillance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Automated detection of breast cancer in resected specimens with fluorescence lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Jennifer E.; Gorpas, Dimitris; Unger, Jakob; Darrow, Morgan; Bold, Richard J.; Marcu, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Re-excision rates for breast cancer lumpectomy procedures are currently nearly 25% due to surgeons relying on inaccurate or incomplete methods of evaluating specimen margins. The objective of this study was to determine if cancer could be automatically detected in breast specimens from mastectomy and lumpectomy procedures by a classification algorithm that incorporated parameters derived from fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm). This study generated a database of co-registered histologic sections and FLIm data from breast cancer specimens (N  =  20) and a support vector machine (SVM) classification algorithm able to automatically detect cancerous, fibrous, and adipose breast tissue. Classification accuracies were greater than 97% for automated detection of cancerous, fibrous, and adipose tissue from breast cancer specimens. The classification worked equally well for specimens scanned by hand or with a mechanical stage, demonstrating that the system could be used during surgery or on excised specimens. The ability of this technique to simply discriminate between cancerous and normal breast tissue, in particular to distinguish fibrous breast tissue from tumor, which is notoriously challenging for optical techniques, leads to the conclusion that FLIm has great potential to assess breast cancer margins. Identification of positive margins before waiting for complete histologic analysis could significantly reduce breast cancer re-excision rates.

  16. A 16-channel MR coil for simultaneous PET/MR imaging in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Dregely, Isabel; Lanz, Titus; Metz, Stephan; Mueller, Matthias F; Kuschan, Marika; Nimbalkar, Manoj; Ralph A. Bundschuh; Ziegler, Sibylle I; Haase, Axel; Nekolla, Stephan G.; Schwaiger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To implement and evaluate a dedicated receiver array coil for simultaneous positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) imaging in breast cancer.METHODS: A 16-channel receiver coil design was optimized for simultaneous PET/MR imaging. To assess MR performance, the signal-to-noise ratio, parallel imaging capability and image quality was evaluated in phantoms, volunteers and patients and compared to clinical standard protocols. For PET evaluation, quantitative (18) F-FDG...

  17. Evaluation of women with breast disease using body image drawing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Matti; Ollonen, Paula

    2010-06-01

    Wirsching et al. introduced a psychosocial risk scale (PRS) for psychological identification of breast cancer patients before biopsy and found that women with cancer had a tendency create bigger drawings than the women with a benign tumour. To our knowledge, the associations between body image drawing analysis and the risk of breast cancer have rarely been considered together in a prospective study. This study is an extension of the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study. Women with breast symptoms were referred by physicians to the Kuopio University Hospital (Finland) and were asked to participate in this study. These women (n=115) were interviewed, and all study variables were obtained before any diagnostic procedures were carried out, so neither the investigator nor the participants knew the final diagnosis of breast symptoms at the time of the interview. The research method used was the semistructured in-depth interview method. The investigator used the Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) to evaluate the depression of the study participants. All participants were also asked to complete standardized questionnaires (Beck depression inventory and Spielberger trait inventory). The overall content of the body image drawing was estimated using a 3-point scale: symbolistic, partly symbolistic, or humanlike. Two raters scored the body image drawings independently and the final scores were formed by comparing the separate scores of the two raters. The raters evaluated the difficulty of giving a score on a 5-point scale during scoring. The clinical examination and biopsy showed breast cancer (BC) in 34 patients, benign breast disease (BBD) in 53 patients, and 28 individuals were shown to be healthy (HSS). The results indicated that breast cancer patients tended to make a body image drawing of a bigger size, and to draw a less positive body image than did those in the BBD and HSS groups. The BC group also made a less differentiated and less complete body image drawing

  18. A nonlinear biomechanical model based registration method for aligning prone and supine MR breast images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lianghao; Hipwell, John H; Eiben, Björn; Barratt, Dean; Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sebastien; Hawkes, David J

    2014-03-01

    Preoperative diagnostic magnetic resonance (MR) breast images can provide good contrast between different tissues and 3-D information about suspicious tissues. Aligning preoperative diagnostic MR images with a patient in the theatre during breast conserving surgery could assist surgeons in achieving the complete excision of cancer with sufficient margins. Typically, preoperative diagnostic MR breast images of a patient are obtained in the prone position, while surgery is performed in the supine position. The significant shape change of breasts between these two positions due to gravity loading, external forces and related constraints makes the alignment task extremely difficult. Our previous studies have shown that either nonrigid intensity-based image registration or biomechanical modelling alone are limited in their ability to capture such a large deformation. To tackle this problem, we proposed in this paper a nonlinear biomechanical model-based image registration method with a simultaneous optimization procedure for both the material parameters of breast tissues and the direction of the gravitational force. First, finite element (FE) based biomechanical modelling is used to estimate a physically plausible deformation of the pectoral muscle and the major deformation of breast tissues due to gravity loading. Then, nonrigid intensity-based image registration is employed to recover the remaining deformation that FE analyses do not capture due to the simplifications and approximations of biomechanical models and the uncertainties of external forces and constraints. We assess the registration performance of the proposed method using the target registration error of skin fiducial markers and the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of fibroglandular tissues. The registration results on prone and supine MR image pairs are compared with those from two alternative nonrigid registration methods for five breasts. Overall, the proposed algorithm achieved the best registration

  19. Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer: Comparison of Contrast-enhanced Spectral Mammography and Breast MR Imaging in the Evaluation of Extent of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Felker, Stephanie A; Tekchandani, Leena; Thomas, Mariam; Gupta, Esha; Andrews-Tang, Denise; Roth, Antoinette; Sayre, James; Rahbar, Guita

    2017-11-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic performances of contrast material-enhanced spectral mammography and breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of index and secondary cancers in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer by using histologic or imaging follow-up as the standard of reference. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant, retrospective study included 52 women who underwent breast MR imaging and contrast-enhanced spectral mammography for newly diagnosed unilateral breast cancer between March 2014 and October 2015. Of those 52 patients, 46 were referred for contrast-enhanced spectral mammography and targeted ultrasonography because they had additional suspicious lesions at MR imaging. In six of the 52 patients, breast cancer had been diagnosed at an outside institution. These patients were referred for contrast-enhanced spectral mammography and targeted US as part of diagnostic imaging. Images from contrast-enhanced spectral mammography were analyzed by two fellowship-trained breast imagers with 2.5 years of experience with contrast-enhanced spectral mammography. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were calculated for both imaging modalities and compared by using the Bennett statistic. Results Fifty-two women with 120 breast lesions were included for analysis (mean age, 50 years; range, 29-73 years). Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography had similar sensitivity to MR imaging (94% [66 of 70 lesions] vs 99% [69 of 70 lesions]), a significantly higher PPV than MR imaging (93% [66 of 71 lesions] vs 60% [69 of 115 lesions]), and fewer false-positive findings than MR imaging (five vs 45) (P contrast-enhanced spectral mammography depicted 11 of the 11 secondary cancers (100%) and MR imaging depicted 10 (91%). Conclusion Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography is potentially as sensitive as MR imaging in the evaluation of extent of disease in newly diagnosed

  20. Breast and Tumour Volume Measurements in Breast Cancer Patients Using 3-D Automated Breast Volume Scanner Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagendijk, M; Vos, E L; Ramlakhan, K P; Verhoef, C; Koning, A H J; van Lankeren, W; Koppert, L B

    2018-01-03

    The resection volume in relation to the breast volume is known to influence cosmetic outcome following breast-conserving therapy. It was hypothesised that three-dimensional ultrasonography (3-D US) could be used to preoperatively assess breast and tumour volume and show high association with histopathological measurements. Breast volume by the 3D-US was compared to the water displacement method (WDM), mastectomy specimen weight, 3-D MRI and three different calculations for breast volume on mammography. Tumour volume by the 3-D US was compared to the histopathological tumour volume and 3-D MRI. Relatedness was based on the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Bland-Altman plots were used to graphically display the agreement for the different assessment techniques. All measurements were performed by one observer. A total of 36 patients were included, 20 and 23 for the evaluation of breast and tumour volume (ductal invasive carcinomas), respectively. 3-D US breast volume showed 'excellent' association with WDM, ICC 0.92 [95% CI (0.80-0.97)]. 3-D US tumour volume showed a 'excellent' association with histopathological tumour volume, ICC 0.78 [95% CI (0.55-0.91)]. Bland-Altman plots showed an increased overestimation in lager tumour volumes measured by 3-D MRI compared to histopathological volume. 3-D US showed a high association with gold standard WDM for the preoperative assessment of breast volume and the histopathological measurement of tumour volume. 3-D US is an patient-friendly preoperative available technique to calculate both breast volume and tumour volume. Volume measurements are promising in outcome prediction of intended breast-conserving treatment.

  1. Finite-element modeling of compression and gravity on a population of breast phantoms for multimodality imaging simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Gregory M; Kiarashi, Nooshin; Lo, Joseph Y; Samei, E; Segars, W P

    2016-05-01

    The authors are developing a series of computational breast phantoms based on breast CT data for imaging research. In this work, the authors develop a program that will allow a user to alter the phantoms to simulate the effect of gravity and compression of the breast (craniocaudal or mediolateral oblique) making the phantoms applicable to multimodality imaging. This application utilizes a template finite-element (FE) breast model that can be applied to their presegmented voxelized breast phantoms. The FE model is automatically fit to the geometry of a given breast phantom, and the material properties of each element are set based on the segmented voxels contained within the element. The loading and boundary conditions, which include gravity, are then assigned based on a user-defined position and compression. The effect of applying these loads to the breast is computed using a multistage contact analysis in FEBio, a freely available and well-validated FE software package specifically designed for biomedical applications. The resulting deformation of the breast is then applied to a boundary mesh representation of the phantom that can be used for simulating medical images. An efficient script performs the above actions seamlessly. The user only needs to specify which voxelized breast phantom to use, the compressed thickness, and orientation of the breast. The authors utilized their FE application to simulate compressed states of the breast indicative of mammography and tomosynthesis. Gravity and compression were simulated on example phantoms and used to generate mammograms in the craniocaudal or mediolateral oblique views. The simulated mammograms show a high degree of realism illustrating the utility of the FE method in simulating imaging data of repositioned and compressed breasts. The breast phantoms and the compression software can become a useful resource to the breast imaging research community. These phantoms can then be used to evaluate and compare imaging

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging appearances in primary and secondary angiosarcoma of the breast.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Ailbhe C

    2014-04-01

    Angiosarcomas are malignant tumours of endovascular origin. They are rare tumours accounting for 0.04-1% of all breast malignancies. Two different forms are described: primary, occurring in young women, and secondary angiosarcoma, which occurs in older women with a history of breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Imaging findings on mammography and ultrasound are non-specific, but magnetic resonance imaging with dynamic contrast enhancement is more informative. We present two cases - one of primary and one of secondary angiosarcoma - and review the imaging findings.

  3. A Partnership Training Program in Breast Cancer Research Using Molecular Imaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    mucinous carcinoma, Paget’s disease of the nipple, Phyllodes Tumor , and tubular carcinoma.3 Breast cancer is grouped into stages which indicate the...1) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Enhancement by Tumor Cell Targeted Immunoliposome Complex Delivered Contrast Agent, and (2) Imaging the Effects of...Macrophage Function on Tumor Progression. The broad training program includes: mentoring research, seminars, workshops, and laboratory internships. A

  4. HER-2-PET imaging with Zr-89-trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnink, T. Oude; Dijkers, E.; Hooge, M. Lub-de; Kosterink, J.; Brouwers, A.; de Jong, J. R.; van Dongen, G.; de Vries, E.

    2009-01-01

    1045 Background: Non-invasive diagnostic tools can optimize and evaluate HER2 directed therapy in HER2 positive breast cancer patients. HER2 imaging with (111)In-trastuzumab SPECT showed promising results (Perik et al, J Clin Oncol. 2006). To further optimize HER2 imaging, we developed

  5. Clinical experiences with photoacoustic breast imaging: the appearance of suspicious lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijblom, M.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes photoacoustic (PA) imaging of suspicious breast lesions. In PA imaging, the tissue of interest is illuminated by short pulses of laser light, usually in the near infrared (NIR) regime. Upon absorption by primarily the tumor vasculature, the light causes a small temperature

  6. "Our organs have a purpose": body image acceptance in Latina breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buki, Lydia P; Reich, Micaela; Lehardy, Emaan N

    2016-11-01

    Studies examining body image concerns among breast cancer survivors have primarily captured the experiences of non-Latina white women. Thus, little is known about body image concerns among Latinas. To address this gap, we examined Latina breast cancer survivors' lived experiences related to body image. Twenty-seven Latina breast cancer survivors provided data through focus groups and individual interviews as part of a larger study conducted by the first author. In the current paper, we conducted a secondary thematic analysis to uncover women's experiences unique to body image concerns. We identified 2 themes related to women's experiences with body image: (a) perceptions of loss and reconstruction and (b) process of achieving body image acceptance. The salience of these themes varied as a function of survivorship stage and type of surgery. Body image concerns are distressing for Latina breast cancer survivors. Accepting their altered appearance was an ongoing and complex process. Clinical implications include the need for psychoeducational programs and tailored interventions to enhance women's body image acceptance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Local binary pattern texture-based classification of solid masses in ultrasound breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica M. S.; Sehgal, Chandra M.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality among women. Ultrasound examination can be used to assess breast masses, complementarily to mammography. Ultrasound images reveal tissue information in its echoic patterns. Therefore, pattern recognition techniques can facilitate classification of lesions and thereby reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies. Our hypothesis was that image texture features on the boundary of a lesion and its vicinity can be used to classify masses. We have used intensity-independent and rotation-invariant texture features, known as Local Binary Patterns (LBP). The classifier selected was K-nearest neighbors. Our breast ultrasound image database consisted of 100 patient images (50 benign and 50 malignant cases). The determination of whether the mass was benign or malignant was done through biopsy and pathology assessment. The training set consisted of sixty images, randomly chosen from the database of 100 patients. The testing set consisted of forty images to be classified. The results with a multi-fold cross validation of 100 iterations produced a robust evaluation. The highest performance was observed for feature LBP with 24 symmetrically distributed neighbors over a circle of radius 3 (LBP24,3) with an accuracy rate of 81.0%. We also investigated an approach with a score of malignancy assigned to the images in the test set. This approach provided an ROC curve with Az of 0.803. The analysis of texture features over the boundary of solid masses showed promise for malignancy classification in ultrasound breast images.

  8. Improving three-dimensional mechanical imaging of breast lesions with principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Mohit; Wang, Yuqi; Hall, Timothy J; Barbone, Paul E; Oberai, Assad A

    2017-08-01

    Elastography has emerged as a new tool for detecting and diagnosing many types of diseases including breast cancer. To date, most clinical applications of elastography have utilized two-dimensional strain images. The goal of this paper is to present a new quasi-static elastography technique that yields shear modulus images in three dimensions. An automated breast volume scanner was used to acquire ultrasound images of the breast as it was gently compressed. Cross-correlation between successive images was used to determine the displacement within the tissue. The resulting displacement field was filtered of all but compressive motion through principal component analysis. This displacement field was used to infer spatial distribution of shear modulus by solving a 3D elastic inverse problem. Three dimensional shear modulus images of benign breast lesions for two subjects were generated using the techniques described above. It was found that the lesions were visualized more clearly in images generated using the displacement data de-noised through the use of principal components. We have presented experimental and algorithmic techniques that lead to three-dimensional imaging of shear modulus using quasi-static elastography. This work demonstrates feasibility of this approach, and lays the foundation for images of other, more informative, mechanical parameters. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. Molecular Imaging in Breast Cancer: From Whole-Body PET/CT to Dedicated Breast PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Koolen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET, with or without integrated computed tomography (CT, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG is based on the principle of elevated glucose metabolism in malignant tumors, and its use in breast cancer patients is frequently being investigated. It has been shown useful for classification, staging, and response monitoring, both in primary and recurrent disease. However, because of the partial volume effect and limited resolution of most whole-body PET scanners, sensitivity for the visualization of small tumors is generally low. To improve the detection and quantification of primary breast tumors with FDG PET, several dedicated breast PET devices have been developed. In this nonsystematic review, we shortly summarize the value of whole-body PET/CT in breast cancer and provide an overview of currently available dedicated breast PETs.

  10. Breast cancer detection among young survivors of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma with screening magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, Minh Thi; Cigsar, Candemir; Ahmed, Sameera; Ng, Andrea; Diller, Lisa; Millar, B-A; Crystal, Pavel; Hodgson, David C

    2014-08-15

    Female survivors of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) who have received chest radiotherapy are at increased risk of breast cancer. Guidelines for early breast cancer screening among these survivors are based on little data regarding clinical outcomes. This study reports outcomes of breast cancer screening with MRI and mammography (MMG) after childhood HL. We evaluated the results of breast MRI and MMG screening among 96 female survivors of childhood HL treated with chest radiotherapy. Outcomes measured included imaging sensitivity and specificity, breast cancer characteristics, and incidence of additional imaging and breast biopsy. Median age at first screening was 30 years, and the median number of MRI screening rounds was 3. Ten breast cancers were detected in 9 women at a median age of 39 years (range, 24-43 years). Half were invasive and half were preinvasive. The median size of invasive tumors was 8 mm (range, 3-15 mm), and none had lymph node involvement. Sensitivity and specificity of the screening modalities were as follows: for MRI alone, 80% and 93.5%, respectively; MMG alone, 70% and 95%, respectively; both modalities combined, 100% and 88.6%, respectively. All invasive tumors were detected by MRI. Additional investigations were required in 52 patients, (54%), and 26 patients (27%) required breast biopsy, with 10 patients requiring more than 1 biopsy. Screening including breast MRI with MMG has high sensitivity and specificity in pediatric HL survivors, with breast cancers detected at an early stage, although it is associated with a substantial rate of additional investigations. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  11. Incidental breast masses detected by computed tomography: are any imaging features predictive of malignancy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Gareth.Porter@phnt.swest.nhs.uk; Steel, J.; Paisley, K.; Watkins, R. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Holgate, C. [Department of Histopathology, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    Aim: To review the outcome of further assessment of breast abnormalities detected incidentally by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and to determine whether any MDCT imaging features were predictive of malignancy. Material and methods: The outcome of 34 patients referred to the Primrose Breast Care Unit with breast abnormalities detected incidentally using MDCT was prospectively recorded. Women with a known diagnosis of breast cancer were excluded. CT imaging features and histological diagnoses were recorded and the correlation assessed using Fisher's exact test. Results: Of the 34 referred patients a malignant diagnosis was noted in 11 (32%). There were 10 breast malignancies (seven invasive ductal carcinomas, one invasive lobular carcinoma, two metastatic lesions) and one axillary lymphoma. CT features suggestive of breast malignancy were spiculation [6/10 (60%) versus 0/24 (0%) p = 0.0002] and associated axillary lymphadenopathy [3/10 (33%) versus 0/20 (0%) p = 0.030]. Conversely, a well-defined mass was suggestive of benign disease [10/24 (42%) versus 0/10 (0%); p = 0.015]. Associated calcification, ill-definition, heterogeneity, size, and multiplicity of lesions were not useful discriminating CT features. There was a non-significant trend for lesions in involuted breasts to be more frequently malignant than in dense breasts [6/14 (43%) versus 4/20 (20%) p = 0.11]. Conclusion: In the present series there was a significant rate (32%) of malignancy in patients referred to the breast clinic with CT-detected incidental breast lesions. The CT features of spiculation or axillary lymphadenopathy are strongly suggestive of malignancy.

  12. Fully automated quantitative analysis of breast cancer risk in DCE-MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Luan; Hu, Xiaoxin; Gu, Yajia; Li, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) in dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) images are two important indices for breast cancer risk assessment in the clinical practice. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a fully automated scheme for quantitative analysis of FGT and BPE in DCE-MR images. Our fully automated method consists of three steps, i.e., segmentation of whole breast, fibroglandular tissues, and enhanced fibroglandular tissues. Based on the volume of interest extracted automatically, dynamic programming method was applied in each 2-D slice of a 3-D MR scan to delineate the chest wall and breast skin line for segmenting the whole breast. This step took advantages of the continuity of chest wall and breast skin line across adjacent slices. We then further used fuzzy c-means clustering method with automatic selection of cluster number for segmenting the fibroglandular tissues within the segmented whole breast area. Finally, a statistical method was used to set a threshold based on the estimated noise level for segmenting the enhanced fibroglandular tissues in the subtraction images of pre- and post-contrast MR scans. Based on the segmented whole breast, fibroglandular tissues, and enhanced fibroglandular tissues, FGT and BPE were automatically computed. Preliminary results of technical evaluation and clinical validation showed that our fully automated scheme could obtain good segmentation of the whole breast, fibroglandular tissues, and enhanced fibroglandular tissues to achieve accurate assessment of FGT and BPE for quantitative analysis of breast cancer risk.

  13. Imaging Features of AlloDerm® Used in Postmastectomy Breast Reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine U Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this pictorial essay is to demonstrate the imaging features (ultrasound, mammogram, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of AlloDerm® (LifeCell Corp.; Branchburg, NJ, an acellular dermal matrix sometimes used in both primary and reconstructive breast surgeries. AlloDerm® is derived from cadaveric dermis and provides an immunologically inert scaffold in tissue reconstruction. Since there is little literature on the imaging of this substance, radiologists may be unfamiliar with its appearance in breast imaging. For this manuscript, ex vivo and in vivo images of AlloDerm® in postmastectomy patients were evaluated using different imaging modalities. The appearance of AlloDerm® can vary based on length of time postsurgery and incorporation into the host. AlloDerm® appears as an isodense to glandular tissue on a mammogram and isoechoic to glandular tissue on ultrasound imaging. On MRI, in comparison with normal breast parenchyma, AlloDerm® is hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging and isointense on T1-weighted imaging and demonstrates mild enhancement. To the best of the authors′ knowledge, this is the first multimodality imaging description of AlloDerm® used in postmastectomy patients. The conformation of AlloDerm® at surgical placement and the degree of host cell migration and neoangiogenesis are factors to take into consideration when performing diagnostic evaluations; and, familiarity with the various imaging appearances of AlloDerm® can be helpful to exclude residual or recurrent disease.

  14. Densities, viscosities, sound speed, and IR studies of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone with cyclohexylamine, cyclohexanol, and cyclohexene at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K. Rayapa; Kumar, D. Bala Karuna [Department of Chemistry, Andhra Loyola College, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh (India); Rao, G. Srinivasa [Department of Physics, Andhra Loyola College, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh (India); Anila, P. [Department of Chemistry, Andhra Loyola College, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh (India); Rambabu, C., E-mail: crbpublications@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2014-08-20

    Highlights: • Density, sound, speed, and viscosities are measured at a temperature range of 303.15–318.15 K. • Excess thermodynamic properties are computed. • All the binary systems under study are non ideal solutions. • Thermodynamic findings are in good agreement with IR data. - Abstact: Densities, viscosities, and speeds of sound of the binary liquid mixtures of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) with cyclohexylamine (CHA), cyclohexanol (CHOL) and cyclohexene (CHE) at temperatures of 303.15–318.15 K are measured over the entire composition range. From the experimental values excess molar volume V{sub m}{sup E}, deviation in isentropic compressibility Δk{sub s,} excess free length L{sub f}{sup E}, deviation in viscosity Δη are computed. The variation with the temperature and concentration is discussed in terms of molecular interactions. All the excess parameters and deviations are fitted to Redlich–Kister polynomial equation to estimate the binary interaction parameters and mean deviation from the regression lines. The sign and magnitude of the computed parameters are discussed to reveal the nature and type of interactions existing between the component molecules in the binary mixtures. Thermodynamic investigations under the present study reveal the strong inter molecular interactions between the unlike molecules in the binary systems of NMP + CHA, NMP + CHOL, whereas in the other binary system NMP + CHE the reverse trend is observed due to dispersion forces. The strength of interaction of CHA, CHOL, and CHE with NMP found to follow the order: CHA > CHOL > CHE. FT-IR studies of these mixtures have been estimated and analyzed to study the interactions between unlike molecules. A good agreement is observed between the excess parameters and FT-IR studies.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breasts: Clinical practice and further development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Zorica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the breasts was introduced in clinical practice over 10 years ago. The method is based on visualization of morphology of the lesion and pathophysiology of their vascularization. It is useful complementary method to mammography and breasts ultrasound, with potential to detect clinically or mammography occult lesions. Compared to the conventional visualization methods, MRI of the breasts is more sensitive, although specificity of the method is lower than sensitivity. The indications for MRI of the breasts are: differentiation between recurrent malignant disease and postoperative or post irradiation changes, local cancer staging in preoperative planning, breasts implants, axillary metastases with occult primary tumor and cases with inconclusive conventional imaging. The limitations of MRI of the al Bezanijska kosa, Belgrade breasts are: low sensitivity for in situ carcinomas, false negative results for 10% carcinomas and hormone-induced false positive results. The further development of the method includes: breasts cancer screening in the patients with high risk, monitoring of the effects of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, MR-guided biopsy and new contrast agents.

  16. 64Cu-DOTA-Trastuzumab PET Imaging in Women with HER2-Overexpressing Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Breast Cancer. J Clin Oncol. May 20, 2006 2006;24(15):2276-2282. Williams L, Somlo G, Zhan J, et al. A pilot imaging trial of 111In- Herceptin in...metastat breast cancer patients receiving cold Herceptin therapy. Therapy with Antibodies and Immunoconjucates. 2008. Wong JYC, Raubitschek A, Yamauchi...labeled trastuzumab was prepared according to procedures defined in IND #109971. The antibody ( Herceptin , purchased from Genentech) was conjugated with

  17. High and low frequency subharmonic imaging of angiogenesis in a murine breast cancer model

    OpenAIRE

    Dahibawkar, Manasi; Forsberg, Mark A.; Gupta, Aditi; Jaffe, Samantha; Dulin, Kelly; Eisenbrey, John R.; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G.; Forsberg, Anya I.; Dave, Jaydev K.; Marshall, Andrew; Machado, Priscilla; Fox, Traci B.; Liu, Ji-Bin; Forsberg, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    This project compared quantifiable measures of tumor vascularity obtained from contrast-enhanced high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) subharmonic ultrasound imaging (SHI) to 3 immunohistochemical markers of angiogenesis in a murine breast cancer model (since angiogenesis is an important marker of malignancy and the target of many novel cancer treatments). Nineteen athymic, nude, female rats were implanted with 5×106 breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) in the mammary fat pad. The contrast a...

  18. A comparative study of coping skills and body image: Mastectomized vs. lumpectomized patients with breast carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mahapatro, Fiona; Parkar, Shubhangi R.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of breast cancer encompasses not only physical, but also social and psychological implications because of the importance of the breast in a woman's body image, sexuality and motherhood. Women may experience a range of concerns and fears including physical appearance and disfigurement, the uncertainty about recurrence and the fear of death. There are no Indian studies on this subject. Aim: This study explores the various concerns of mastectomized and lumpectomized (br...

  19. Breast Cancer Imaging Using the Near-Infrared Fluorescent Agent, CLR1502

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Korb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive margins after breast conservation surgery represent a significant problem in the treatment of breast cancer. The near-infrared fluorescence agent CLR1502 (Cellectar Biosciences, Madison, WI was studied in a preclinical breast cancer model to determine imaging properties and ability to detect small islands of malignancy. Nude mice bearing human breast cancer flank xenografts were given a systemic injection of CLR1502, and imaging was performed using LUNA (Novadaq Technologies Inc., Richmond, BC and Pearl Impulse (LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE devices. Normal tissues were examined for fluorescence signal, and conventional and fluorescence histology was performed using the Odyssey scanner. Peak tumor to background ratio occurred 2 days after injection with CLR1502. The smallest amount of tumor that was imaged and detected using these devices was 1.9 mg, equivalent to 1.9 × 106 cells. The highest fluorescence signal was seen in tumor and normal lymph node tissue, and the lowest fluorescence signal was seen in muscle and plasma. Human breast cancer tumors can be imaged in vivo with multiple optical imaging platforms using CLR1502. This pilot study supports further investigations of this fluorescent agent for improving surgical resection of malignancies, with the goal of eventual clinical translation.

  20. Breast Cancer Imaging Using the Near-Infrared Fluorescent Agent, CLR1502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Melissa L; Warram, Jason M; Grudzinski, Joseph; Weichert, Jamey; Jeffery, Justin; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2015-01-01

    Positive margins after breast conservation surgery represent a significant problem in the treatment of breast cancer. The near-infrared fluorescence agent CLR1502 (Cellectar Biosciences, Madison, WI) was studied in a preclinical breast cancer model to determine imaging properties and ability to detect small islands of malignancy. Nude mice bearing human breast cancer flank xenografts were given a systemic injection of CLR1502, and imaging was performed using LUNA (Novadaq Technologies Inc., Richmond, BC) and Pearl Impulse (LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE) devices. Normal tissues were examined for fluorescence signal, and conventional and fluorescence histology was performed using the Odyssey scanner. Peak tumor to background ratio occurred 2 days after injection with CLR1502. The smallest amount of tumor that was imaged and detected using these devices was 1.9 mg, equivalent to 1.9 × 106 cells. The highest fluorescence signal was seen in tumor and normal lymph node tissue, and the lowest fluorescence signal was seen in muscle and plasma. Human breast cancer tumors can be imaged in vivo with multiple optical imaging platforms using CLR1502. This pilot study supports further investigations of this fluorescent agent for improving surgical resection of malignancies, with the goal of eventual clinical translation.

  1. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer using cytological images: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Monjoy; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2016-10-01

    Cytological evaluation by microscopic image-based characterization [imprint cytology (IC) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC)] plays an integral role in primary screening/detection of breast cancer. The sensitivity of IC and FNAC as a screening tool is dependent on the image quality and the pathologist's level of expertise. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is used to assists the pathologists by developing various machine learning and image processing algorithms. This study reviews the various manual and computer-aided techniques used so far in breast cytology. Diagnostic applications were studied to estimate the role of CAD in breast cancer diagnosis. This paper presents an overview of image processing and pattern recognition techniques that have been used to address several issues in breast cytology-based CAD including slide preparation, staining, microscopic imaging, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and diagnostic classification. This review provides better insights to readers regarding the state of the art the knowledge on CAD-based breast cancer diagnosis to date. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Expected resolution and detectability of adenocarcinoma tumors within human breast in time-resolved images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandjbakhche, Amir H.; Nossal, Ralph J.; Dadmarz, Roya; Schwartzentruber, Douglas; Bonner, Robert F.

    1995-04-01

    The prospects for time-resolved optical mammography rests on the ability to detect adenocarcinoma within the breast with sufficient resolution and specificity to compete with X-ray mammography. We characterized the optical properties of an unusually large (6 cm diameter) fresh adenocarcinoma and normal breast tissue (determined by histology to be predominantly adipose tissue) obtained from a patient undergoing mastectomy. Large specimens (5 mm thick and 3 cm wide) allowed the determination of absorption and scattering coefficients and their spatial heterogeneity as probed with a 1 mm diameter laser beam at 633 nm and 800 nm utilizing total reflectance and transmittance measure with integrating spheres. The difference between scattering coefficients of the malignant tumor and those of normal (principally adipose) breast tissue at 633 nm was much greater than the heterogeneity within each sample. This scattering difference is the principal source of contrast, particularly in time-resolved images. However, the high scattering coefficient of normal breast tissue at 633 nm limits the practicality of time-resolved mammography of a human breast compressed to 5 cm. Although the scattering coefficient of the normal breast tissue decreases at 800 nm, the differences between the optical properties of normal and abnormal breast tissue also are reduced. We used these empirical results in theoretical expressions obtained from random walk theory to quantify the expected resolution, contrast, and the detected intensity of 3, 6, and 9 mm tumors within otherwise homogeneous human breasts as a function of the gating-time of time-resolved optical mammography.

  3. Miniature spectral imaging device for wide-field quantitative functional imaging of the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Brandon S.; Llopis, Antonio; Palmer, Gregory M.; McCachren, Samuel S., III; Senlik, Ozlem; Miller, David; Brooke, Martin A.; Jokerst, Nan M.; Geradts, Joseph; Greenup, Rachel; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a portable, breast margin assessment probe leveraging diffuse optical spectroscopy to quantify the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins during breast conserving surgery. The approach presented here leverages a custom-made 16-channel annular photodiode imaging array (arranged in a 4×4 grid), a raster-scanning imaging platform with precision pressure control, and compressive sensing with an optimized set of eight wavelengths in the visible spectral range. A scalable Monte-Carlo-based inverse model is used to generate optical property [μs‧(λ) and μa(λ)] measures for each of the 16 simultaneously captured diffuse reflectance spectra. Subpixel sampling (0.75 mm) is achieved through incremental x, y raster scanning of the imaging probe, providing detailed optical parameter maps of breast margins over a 2×2 cm2 area in ˜9 min. The morphological landscape of a tumor margin is characterized using optical surrogates for the fat to fibroglandular content ratio, which has demonstrated diagnostic utility in delineating tissue subtypes in the breast.

  4. Breast Cancer Screening for Average-Risk Women: Recommendations From the ACR Commission on Breast Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticciolo, Debra L; Newell, Mary S; Hendrick, R Edward; Helvie, Mark A; Moy, Linda; Monsees, Barbara; Kopans, Daniel B; Eby, Peter R; Sickles, Edward A

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death for women in the United States. Before the introduction of widespread mammographic screening in the mid-1980s, the death rate from breast cancer in the US had remained unchanged for more than 4 decades. Since 1990, the death rate has declined by at least 38%. Much of this change is attributed to early detection with mammography. ACR breast cancer screening experts have reviewed data from RCTs, observational studies, US screening data, and other peer-reviewed literature to update our recommendations. Mammography screening has consistently been shown to significantly reduce breast cancer mortality over a variety of study designs. The ACR recommends annual mammography screening starting at age 40 for women of average risk of developing breast cancer. Our recommendation is based on maximizing proven benefits, which include a substantial reduction in breast cancer mortality afforded by regular screening and improved treatment options for those diagnosed with breast cancer. The risks associated with mammography screening are also considered to assist women in making an informed choice. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Backscattering analysis of high frequency ultrasonic imaging for ultrasound-guided breast biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Thomas; Akiyama, Takahiro; Lee, Changyang; Martin, Sue E.; Shung, K. Kirk

    2017-03-01

    A new ultrasound-guided breast biopsy technique is proposed. The technique utilizes conventional ultrasound guidance coupled with a high frequency embedded ultrasound array located within the biopsy needle to improve the accuracy in breast cancer diagnosis.1 The array within the needle is intended to be used to detect micro- calcifications indicative of early breast cancers such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Backscattering analysis has the potential to characterize tissues to improve localization of lesions. This paper describes initial results of the application of backscattering analysis of breast biopsy tissue specimens and shows the usefulness of high frequency ultrasound for the new biopsy related technique. Ultrasound echoes of ex-vivo breast biopsy tissue specimens were acquired by using a single-element transducer with a bandwidth from 41 MHz to 88 MHz utilizing a UBM methodology, and the backscattering coefficients were calculated. These values as well as B-mode image data were mapped in 2D and matched with each pathology image for the identification of tissue type for the comparison to the pathology images corresponding to each plane. Microcalcifications were significantly distinguished from normal tissue. Adenocarcinoma was also successfully differentiated from adipose tissue. These results indicate that backscattering analysis is able to quantitatively distinguish tissues into normal and abnormal, which should help radiologists locate abnormal areas during the proposed ultrasound-guided breast biopsy with high frequency ultrasound.

  6. A novel method based on learning automata for automatic lesion detection in breast magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Leila; Azmi, Reza

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer continues to be a significant public health problem in the world. Early detection is the key for improving breast cancer prognosis. In this way, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as a powerful tool for the detection of breast cancer. Breast MRI presently has two major challenges. First, its specificity is relatively poor, and it detects many false positives (FPs). Second, the method involves acquiring several high-resolution image volumes before, during, and after the injection of a contrast agent. The large volume of data makes the task of interpretation by the radiologist both complex and time-consuming. These challenges have led to the development of the computer-aided detection systems to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the interpretation process. Detection of suspicious regions of interests (ROIs) is a critical preprocessing step in dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI data evaluation. In this regard, this paper introduces a new automatic method to detect the suspicious ROIs for breast DCE-MRI based on region growing. The results indicate that the proposed method is thoroughly able to identify suspicious regions (accuracy of 75.39 ± 3.37 on PIDER breast MRI dataset). Furthermore, the FP per image in this method is averagely 7.92, which shows considerable improvement comparing to other methods like ROI hunter.

  7. Segmentation of breast ultrasound images based on active contours using neutrosophic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfollahi, Mahsa; Gity, Masoumeh; Ye, Jing Yong; Mahlooji Far, A

    2017-08-18

    Ultrasound imaging is an effective approach for diagnosing breast cancer, but it is highly operator-dependent. Recent advances in computer-aided diagnosis have suggested that it can assist physicians in diagnosis. Definition of the region of interest before computer analysis is still needed. Since manual outlining of the tumor contour is tedious and time-consuming for a physician, developing an automatic segmentation method is important for clinical application. The present paper represents a novel method to segment breast ultrasound images. It utilizes a combination of region-based active contour and neutrosophic theory to overcome the natural properties of ultrasound images including speckle noise and tissue-related textures. First, due to inherent speckle noise and low contrast of these images, we have utilized a non-local means filter and fuzzy logic method for denoising and image enhancement, respectively. This paper presents an improved weighted region-scalable active contour to segment breast ultrasound images using a new feature derived from neutrosophic theory. This method has been applied to 36 breast ultrasound images. It generates true-positive and false-positive results, and similarity of 95%, 6%, and 90%, respectively. The purposed method indicates clear advantages over other conventional methods of active contour segmentation, i.e., region-scalable fitting energy and weighted region-scalable fitting energy.

  8. Methods for mitigating the effect of noise, interference, and model error on microwave breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burfeindt, Matthew J.

    Microwave inverse scattering shows promise for meeting important clinical needs in breast imaging that arise due to drawbacks in traditional imaging technologies. The dielectric contrast between different breast tissue types, the 3-D nature of various inverse scattering algorithms, as well as microwave technology's relative safety and low cost motivate a microwave-based approach. However, challenges remain for this type of imaging technique, as it requires solving a linear system that is ill-posed and underdetermined, thus making it sensitive to noise, interference, and mismatch between the assumed and actual properties of the propagation environment. In this document, we report a series of studies performed with the goal of mitigating the effect of these types of signal errors on the imaging results. We conduct a numerical feasibility study to demonstrate the efficacy of microwave breast imaging using an enclosed array of miniaturized, multi-band patch antennas designed to account for the ill-posed nature of the imaging problem. We then conduct several experimental studies with an array prototype, wherein we characterize the sensitivity of the array to model error as well as create experimental reconstructions of both geometrically-simple objects and an MRI-derived 3-D-printed breast phantom. Lastly, we incorporate a beamforming-enhancement into the imaging algorithm with the goal of making it less sensitive to signal error.

  9. A Rim-Enhanced Mass with Central Cystic Changes on MR Imaging: How to Distinguish Breast Cancer from Inflammatory Breast Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Wang, Dengbin; Fei, Xiaochun; Ruan, Mei; Chai, Weimin; Xu, Lin; Li, Xiaoxiao

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the capacity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to distinguish breast cancer from inflammatory breast diseases manifesting as a rim-enhanced mass with central cystic changes. Materials and Methods Forty cases of breast cancer and 52 of inflammatory breast diseases showing a rim-enhanced mass with central cystic changes were retrospectively reviewed. All cases underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and 31 of them underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Morphological features, dynamic parameters and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were comparatively analyzed using univariate analysis and binary logistic regression analysis. Results Breast cancer had a significantly thicker wall than the inflammatory breast diseases (Pbreast diseases (P = 0.003). On DWI, 86.7% of breast cancers demonstrate a peripheral hyperintensity whereas 93.8% of inflammatory breast diseases had a central hyperintensity (Pbreast diseases, breast cancers had a lower ADC value for the wall (1.09×10−3 mm2/s vs 1.42×10−3 mm2/s, Pbreast cancer and inflammatory breast diseases could present as a rim-enhanced mass with central cystic changes on MRI. Integrated analysis of the MR findings can allow for an accurate differential diagnosis. PMID:24598845

  10. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category 3 for magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karen A

    2014-12-01

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 3 signifies a probably benign finding and should be reserved for those findings that have a less than 2% risk of malignancy. There are limited data defining the use of this category in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the imaging features of probably benign lesions are not well defined. Most recent studies have shown that the frequency of use of BI-RADS 3 is comparable with that reported in mammography and ultrasound and that the rate of malignancy is within the targeted range. Several findings, once assessed as BI-RADS 3, are now known to represent benign entities, such as variations of background parenchymal enhancement and intramammary lymph nodes. A subset of masses, foci, and nonmass enhancement can appropriately be assigned BI-RADS 3 on baseline MRI. The BI-RADS 3 is most appropriately used for round, dot-like foci, which are unique and separate from background parenchymal enhancement and for oval masses with circumscribed margins and homogeneous enhancement, such as those typically seen in incidental fibroadenomas. The BI-RADS 3 may also be appropriate for a focal or regional distribution of nonmass enhancement without suspicious features.

  11. The utility of the "bull's-eye" artifact on breast elasticity imaging in reducing breast lesion biopsy rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Richard G; Lackey, Amanda E

    2011-09-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate the accuracy of the "bull's-eye" artifact of elasticity imaging (EI) in determining the benignity of cystic breast lesions and to determine the utility of such artifact in reducing the biopsy rate of the benign lesions. This study was performed under local institutional review board supervision and was in compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996. A retrospective review of 383 breast lesions from 309 consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic breast ultrasonography with EI (Siemens Antares or Siemens S2000; Siemens Healthcare, Mountain View, Calif) was conducted. The B-mode characteristics of those lesions determined whether biopsy was conducted. Pathological reports of the biopsied lesions were reviewed. Lesions demonstrating the bull's-eye artifact on EI were determined. The accuracy of the artifact in determining the benignity of cystic breast lesions was determined. Of the 383 lesions, 243 lesions were recommended for biopsy based on the B-mode characteristics (biopsy rate, 63.4%). Of those 243 lesions, 62 lesions demonstrated the bull's-eye artifact on EI, and all were confirmed benign cysts on pathological reports. Of the 181 lesions without the artifact, 116 were benign noncystic lesions, and 65 were malignant noncystic lesions. Hence, within the biopsied lesions, the bull's-eye artifact had perfect sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value in determining pathologically proven benign cysts. If the artifact can be used as a criterion to exclude lesions from biopsy, then the biopsy rate will be 181 (47.3%) of 383, significantly lower than the 63.4% biopsy rate without using this criteria (P breast cysts and has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of unnecessary breast biopsy.

  12. Estimation of T2 relaxation time of breast cancer: Correlation with clinical, imaging and pathological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mirinae; Sohn, Yu Mee [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jung Kyu; Jahng, Geon Ho; Rhee, Sun Jung; Oh, Jang Hoon; Won, Kyu Yeoun [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the T2* relaxation time in breast cancer, and to evaluate the association between the T2* value with clinical-imaging-pathological features of breast cancer. Between January 2011 and July 2013, 107 consecutive women with 107 breast cancers underwent multi-echo T2*-weighted imaging on a 3T clinical magnetic resonance imaging system. The Student's t test and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare the T2* values of cancer for different groups, based on the clinical-imaging-pathological features. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to find independent predictive factors associated with the T2* values. Of the 107 breast cancers, 92 were invasive and 15 were ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The mean T2* value of invasive cancers was significantly longer than that of DCIS (p = 0.029). Signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and histologic grade of invasive breast cancers showed significant correlation with T2* relaxation time in univariate and multivariate analysis. Breast cancer groups with higher signal intensity on T2WI showed longer T2* relaxation time (p = 0.005). Cancer groups with higher histologic grade showed longer T2* relaxation time (p = 0.017). The T2* value is significantly longer in invasive cancer than in DCIS. In invasive cancers, T2* relaxation time is significantly longer in higher histologic grades and high signal intensity on T2WI. Based on these preliminary data, quantitative T2* mapping has the potential to be useful in the characterization of breast cancer.

  13. Image quality and breast dose of 24 screen-film combinations for mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakopoulou, A D; Tsalafoutas, I A; Georgiou, E K; Yakoumakis, E N

    2006-02-01

    In this study the effect of different mammographic screen-film combinations on image quality and breast dose, and the correlation between the various image quality parameters, breast dose and the sensitometric parameters of a film were investigated. Three Agfa (MR5-II, HDR, HT), two Kodak (Min-R M, Min-R 2000), one Fuji (AD-M), one Konica (CM-H) and one Ferrania (HM plus) single emulsion mammographic films were combined with three intensifying screens (Agfa HDS, Kodak Min-R 2190 and Fuji AD-MA). The film characteristics were determined by sensitometry, while the image quality and the dose to the breast of the resulting 24 screen-film combinations were assessed using a mammography quality control phantom. For each combination, three images of the phantom were acquired with optical density within three different ranges. Two observers assessed the quality of the 72 phantom images obtained, while the breast dose was calculated from the exposure data required for each image. Large differences among screen-film combinations in terms of image quality and breast dose were identified however, that, could not be correlated with the film's sensitometric characteristics. All films presented the best resolution when combined with the HDS screen at the expense of speed, and the largest speed when combined with the AD-MA screen, without degradation of the overall image quality. However, an ideal screen-film combination presenting the best image quality with the least dose was not identified. It is also worth mentioning that the best performance for a film was not necessarily obtained when this was combined with the screen provided by the same manufacturer. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that comparison of films based on their sensitometric characteristics are of limited value for clinical practice, as their performance is strongly affected by the screens with which they are combined.

  14. The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme: its role as an assessment and stratification tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, J. M. H.; van Doorne-Nagtegaal, H. J.; Zonderland, H. M.; van Tinteren, H.; Visser, O.; Verbeek, A. L. M.; den Heeten, G. J.; Broeders, M. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the suitability of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) as a quality assessment tool in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme. The data of 93,793 screened women in the Amsterdam screening region (November 2005-July 2006) were reviewed. BI-RADS categories, work-up,

  15. The effects of gantry tilt on breast dose and image noise in cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Michael E.; Gandhi, Diksha; Schmidt, Taly Gilat [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233 (United States); Stevens, Grant M. [GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 (United States); Foley, W. Dennis [Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This study investigated the effects of tilted-gantry acquisition on image noise and glandular breast dose in females during cardiac computed tomography (CT) scans. Reducing the dose to glandular breast tissue is important due to its high radiosensitivity and limited diagnostic significance in cardiac CT scans.Methods: Tilted-gantry acquisition was investigated through computer simulations and experimental measurements. Upon IRB approval, eight voxelized phantoms were constructed from previously acquired cardiac CT datasets. Monte Carlo simulations quantified the dose deposited in glandular breast tissue over a range of tilt angles. The effects of tilted-gantry acquisition on breast dose were measured on a clinical CT scanner (CT750HD, GE Healthcare) using an anthropomorphic phantom with MOSFET dosimeters in the breast regions. In both simulations and experiments, scans were performed at gantry tilt angles of 0°–30°, in 5° increments. The percent change in breast dose was calculated relative to the nontilted scan for all tilt angles. The percent change in noise standard deviation due to gantry tilt was calculated in all reconstructed simulated and experimental images.Results: Tilting the gantry reduced the breast dose in all simulated and experimental phantoms, with generally greater dose reduction at increased gantry tilts. For example, at 30° gantry tilt, the dosimeters located in the superior, middle, and inferior breast regions measured dose reductions of 74%, 61%, and 9%, respectively. The simulations estimated 0%–30% total breast dose reduction across the eight phantoms and range of tilt angles. However, tilted-gantry acquisition also increased the noise standard deviation in the simulated phantoms by 2%–50% due to increased pathlength through the iodine-filled heart. The experimental phantom, which did not contain iodine in the blood, demonstrated decreased breast dose and decreased noise at all gantry tilt angles.Conclusions: Tilting the

  16. Phantom experiments with a microwave imaging system for breast-cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2009-01-01

    Microwave imaging is emerging as a promising technique for breast-cancer detection. In this paper, the microwave imaging system currently being developed at the Technical University of Denmark is introduced. This system consists of 32 antennas positioned in a cylindrical setup, each equipped with...... with its own transceiver module. The images are reconstructed using a Newton-based algorithm to solve the nonlinear inverse scattering problem....

  17. A 16-channel MR coil for simultaneous PET/MR imaging in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dregely, Isabel; Lanz, Titus; Metz, Stephan; Mueller, Matthias F; Kuschan, Marika; Nimbalkar, Manoj; Bundschuh, Ralph A; Ziegler, Sibylle I; Haase, Axel; Nekolla, Stephan G; Schwaiger, Markus

    2015-04-01

    To implement and evaluate a dedicated receiver array coil for simultaneous positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) imaging in breast cancer. A 16-channel receiver coil design was optimized for simultaneous PET/MR imaging. To assess MR performance, the signal-to-noise ratio, parallel imaging capability and image quality was evaluated in phantoms, volunteers and patients and compared to clinical standard protocols. For PET evaluation, quantitative (18) F-FDG PET images of phantoms and seven patients (14 lesions) were compared to images without the coil. In PET image reconstruction, a CT-based template of the coil was combined with the MR-acquired attenuation correction (AC) map of the phantom/patient. MR image quality was comparable to clinical MR-only examinations. PET evaluation in phantoms showed regionally varying underestimation of the standardised uptake value (SUV; mean 22 %) due to attenuation caused by the coil. This was improved by implementing the CT-based coil template in the AC (PET/MR breast coil, state-of-the-art MRI was possible. In PET, accurate quantification and image homogeneity could be achieved if a CT-template of this coil was included in the AC for PET image reconstruction. • State-of-the-art breast MRI using a dedicated PET/MR breast coil is feasible. • A multi-channel design facilitates shorter MR acquisition times via parallel imaging. • An MR coil inside a simultaneous PET/MR system causes PET photon attenuation. • Including a coil CT-template in PET image reconstruction results in recovering accurate quantification.

  18. A software platform for phase contrast x-ray breast imaging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliznakova, K; Russo, P; Mettivier, G; Requardt, H; Popov, P; Bravin, A; Buliev, I

    2015-06-01

    To present and validate a computer-based simulation platform dedicated for phase contrast x-ray breast imaging research. The software platform, developed at the Technical University of Varna on the basis of a previously validated x-ray imaging software simulator, comprises modules for object creation and for x-ray image formation. These modules were updated to take into account the refractive index for phase contrast imaging as well as implementation of the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory of the propagating x-ray waves. Projection images are generated in an in-line acquisition geometry. To test and validate the platform, several phantoms differing in their complexity were constructed and imaged at 25 keV and 60 keV at the beamline ID17 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The software platform was used to design computational phantoms that mimic those used in the experimental study and to generate x-ray images in absorption and phase contrast modes. The visual and quantitative results of the validation process showed an overall good correlation between simulated and experimental images and show the potential of this platform for research in phase contrast x-ray imaging of the breast. The application of the platform is demonstrated in a feasibility study for phase contrast images of complex inhomogeneous and anthropomorphic breast phantoms, compared to x-ray images generated in absorption mode. The improved visibility of mammographic structures suggests further investigation and optimisation of phase contrast x-ray breast imaging, especially when abnormalities are present. The software platform can be exploited also for educational purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of near infrared autofluorescence imaging for the detection of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Bold, R; White, R d; Ramsamooj, R

    2005-08-19

    Detection of breast cancer in fresh tissue obtained from surgery is investigated using Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging under laser excitation at 532-nm and 632.8-nm. The differences in intensity between the three main components of breast tissue (cancer, fibrous and adipose) are estimated and compared to those obtained from cross-polarized light scattering images recorded under polarized illumination at 700-nm. The optical spectroscopic images for each tissue sample were subsequently compared with the histopathology slides. The experimental results indicate that the intensity of the near-infrared emission is considerably different in breast cancer compared to that of the adjacent non-neoplastic tissues (adipose and fibrous tissue). The experimental results suggest that 632.8-nm excitation offers key advantages compared to 532-nm excitation.

  20. How Can Advanced Imaging Be Used to Mitigate Potential Breast Cancer Overdiagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Habib; McDonald, Elizabeth S; Lee, Janie M; Partridge, Savannah C; Lee, Christoph I

    2016-06-01

    Radiologists, as administrators and interpreters of screening mammography, are considered by some to be major contributors to the potential harms of screening, including overdiagnosis and overtreatment. In this article, we outline current efforts within the breast imaging community toward mitigating screening harms, including the widespread adoption of tomosynthesis and potentially adjusting screening frequency and thresholds for image-guided breast biopsy. However, the emerging field of breast radiomics may offer the greatest promise for reducing overdiagnosis by identifying imaging-based biomarkers strongly associated with tumor biology, and therefore helping prevent the harms of unnecessary treatment for indolent cancers. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.