WorldWideScience

Sample records for breast sound-speed imaging

  1. In vivo breast sound-speed imaging with ultrasound tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Cuiping [KARMANOS CANCER INSTITUTE; Duric, Neb [KARMANOS CANCER INSTITUTE; Littrup, Peter [KARMONOS CANCER INSTITUTE

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a bent-ray ultrasound tomography algorithm with total-variation (TV) regularization. We have applied this algorithm to 61 in vivo breast datasets collected with our in-house clinical prototype for imaging sound-speed distributions in the breast. Our analysis showed that TV regularization could preserve sharper lesion edges than the classic Tikhonov regularization. Furthermore, the image quality of our TV bent-ray sound-speed tomograms was superior to that of the straight-ray counterparts for all types of breasts within BI-RADS density categories 1-4. For all four breast types from fatty to dense, the improvements for average sharpness (in the unit of (m{center_dot} s) {sup -1}) of lesion edges in our TV bent-ray tomograms are between 2.1 to 3.4 fold compared to the straight ray tomograms. Reconstructed sound-speed tomograms illustrated that our algorithm could successfully image fatty and glandular tissues within the breast. We calculated the mean sound-speed values for fatty tissue and breast parenchyma as 1422 {+-} 9 mls (mean{+-} SD) and1487 {+-} 21 mls, respectively. Based on 32 lesions in a cohort of 61 patients, we also found that the mean sound-speed for malignant breast lesions (1548{+-}17 mls) was higher, on average, than that of benign ones (1513{+-}27 mls) (one-sided psound-speed tomograms can be used to assess breast density (, and therefore, breast cancer risk), as well as detect and help differentiate breast lesions. Finally, our sound-speed tomograms may also be a useful tool to monitor clinical response of breast cancer patients to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.

  2. SOUND-SPEED AND ATTENUATION IMAGING OF BREAST TISSUE USING WAVEFORM TOMOGRAPHY OF TRANSMISSION ULTRASOUND DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUANG, LIANJIE [Los Alamos National Laboratory; PRATT, R. GERHARD [Los Alamos National Laboratory; DURIC, NEB [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LITTRUP, PETER [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-25

    Waveform tomography results are presented from 800 kHz ultrasound transmission scans of a breast phantom, and from an in vivo ultrasound breast scan: significant improvements are demonstrated in resolution over time-of-flight reconstructions. Quantitative reconstructions of both sound-speed and inelastic attenuation are recovered. The data were acquired in the Computed Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) system, comprising a 20 cm diameter solid-state ultrasound ring array with 256 active, non-beamforming transducers. Waveform tomography is capable of resolving variations in acoustic properties at sub-wavelength scales. This was verified through comparison of the breast phantom reconstructions with x-ray CT results: the final images resolve variations in sound speed with a spatial resolution close to 2 mm. Waveform tomography overcomes the resolution limit of time-of-flight methods caused by finite frequency (diffraction) effects. The method is a combination of time-of-flight tomography, and 2-D acoustic waveform inversion of the transmission arrivals in ultrasonic data. For selected frequency components of the waveforms, a finite-difference simulation of the visco-acoustic wave equation is used to compute synthetic data in the current model, and the data residuals are formed by subtraction. The residuals are used in an iterative, gradient-based scheme to update the sound-speed and attenuation model to produce a reduced misfit to the data. Computational efficiency is achieved through the use of time-reversal of the data residuals to construct the model updates. Lower frequencies are used first, to establish the long wavelength components of the image, and higher frequencies are introduced later to provide increased resolution.

  3. Determinants of the reliability of ultrasound tomography sound speed estimates as a surrogate for volumetric breast density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: High breast density, as measured by mammography, is associated with increased breast cancer risk, but standard methods of assessment have limitations including 2D representation of breast tissue, distortion due to breast compression, and use of ionizing radiation. Ultrasound tomography (UST) is a novel imaging method that averts these limitations and uses sound speed measures rather than x-ray imaging to estimate breast density. The authors evaluated the reproducibility of measures of speed of sound and changes in this parameter using UST. Methods: One experienced and five newly trained raters measured sound speed in serial UST scans for 22 women (two scans per person) to assess inter-rater reliability. Intrarater reliability was assessed for four raters. A random effects model was used to calculate the percent variation in sound speed and change in sound speed attributable to subject, scan, rater, and repeat reads. The authors estimated the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for these measures based on data from the authors’ experienced rater. Results: Median (range) time between baseline and follow-up UST scans was five (1–13) months. Contributions of factors to sound speed variance were differences between subjects (86.0%), baseline versus follow-up scans (7.5%), inter-rater evaluations (1.1%), and intrarater reproducibility (∼0%). When evaluating change in sound speed between scans, 2.7% and ∼0% of variation were attributed to inter- and intrarater variation, respectively. For the experienced rater’s repeat reads, agreement for sound speed was excellent (ICC = 93.4%) and for change in sound speed substantial (ICC = 70.4%), indicating very good reproducibility of these measures. Conclusions: UST provided highly reproducible sound speed measurements, which reflect breast density, suggesting that UST has utility in sensitively assessing change in density

  4. Determinants of the reliability of ultrasound tomography sound speed estimates as a surrogate for volumetric breast density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodr, Zeina G.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Gierach, Gretchen L., E-mail: GierachG@mail.nih.gov [Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive MSC 9774, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Sak, Mark A.; Bey-Knight, Lisa [Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, 4100 John R, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States); Duric, Nebojsa; Littrup, Peter [Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, 4100 John R, Detroit, Michigan 48201 and Delphinus Medical Technologies, 46701 Commerce Center Drive, Plymouth, Michigan 48170 (United States); Ali, Haythem; Vallieres, Patricia [Henry Ford Health System, 2799 W Grand Boulevard, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Sherman, Mark E. [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Department of Health and Human Services, 9609 Medical Center Drive MSC 9774, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: High breast density, as measured by mammography, is associated with increased breast cancer risk, but standard methods of assessment have limitations including 2D representation of breast tissue, distortion due to breast compression, and use of ionizing radiation. Ultrasound tomography (UST) is a novel imaging method that averts these limitations and uses sound speed measures rather than x-ray imaging to estimate breast density. The authors evaluated the reproducibility of measures of speed of sound and changes in this parameter using UST. Methods: One experienced and five newly trained raters measured sound speed in serial UST scans for 22 women (two scans per person) to assess inter-rater reliability. Intrarater reliability was assessed for four raters. A random effects model was used to calculate the percent variation in sound speed and change in sound speed attributable to subject, scan, rater, and repeat reads. The authors estimated the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for these measures based on data from the authors’ experienced rater. Results: Median (range) time between baseline and follow-up UST scans was five (1–13) months. Contributions of factors to sound speed variance were differences between subjects (86.0%), baseline versus follow-up scans (7.5%), inter-rater evaluations (1.1%), and intrarater reproducibility (∼0%). When evaluating change in sound speed between scans, 2.7% and ∼0% of variation were attributed to inter- and intrarater variation, respectively. For the experienced rater’s repeat reads, agreement for sound speed was excellent (ICC = 93.4%) and for change in sound speed substantial (ICC = 70.4%), indicating very good reproducibility of these measures. Conclusions: UST provided highly reproducible sound speed measurements, which reflect breast density, suggesting that UST has utility in sensitively assessing change in density.

  5. Waveform Inversion with Source Encoding for Breast Sound Speed Reconstruction in Ultrasound Computed Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Kun; Anis, Fatima; Li, Cuiping; Duric, Neb; Anastasio, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) holds great promise for improving the detection and management of breast cancer. Because they are based on the acoustic wave equation, waveform inversion-based reconstruction methods can produce images that possess improved spatial resolution properties over those produced by ray-based methods. However, waveform inversion methods are computationally demanding and have not been applied widely in USCT breast imaging. In this work, source encoding concepts are employed to develop an accelerated USCT reconstruction method that circumvents the large computational burden of conventional waveform inversion methods. This method, referred to as the waveform inversion with source encoding (WISE) method, encodes the measurement data using a random encoding vector and determines an estimate of the sound speed distribution by solving a stochastic optimization problem by use of a stochastic gradient descent algorithm. Both computer-simulation and experimental phantom studies are conduc...

  6. Waveform Inversion with Source Encoding for Breast Sound Speed Reconstruction in Ultrasound Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Matthews, Thomas; Anis, Fatima; Li, Cuiping; Duric, Neb; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) holds great promise for improving the detection and management of breast cancer. Because they are based on the acoustic wave equation, waveform inversion-based reconstruction methods can produce images that possess improved spatial resolution properties over those produced by ray-based methods. However, waveform inversion methods are computationally demanding and have not been applied widely in USCT breast imaging. In this work, source encoding concepts are employed to develop an accelerated USCT reconstruction method that circumvents the large computational burden of conventional waveform inversion methods. This method, referred to as the waveform inversion with source encoding (WISE) method, encodes the measurement data using a random encoding vector and determines an estimate of the sound speed distribution by solving a stochastic optimization problem by use of a stochastic gradient descent algorithm. Both computer-simulation and experimental phantom studies are conducted to demonstrate the use of the WISE method. The results suggest that the WISE method maintains the high spatial resolution of waveform inversion methods while significantly reducing the computational burden. PMID:25768816

  7. Range dependent sediment sound speed profile measurements using the image source method

    OpenAIRE

    PINSON, Samuel; Guillon, Laurent; Holland, Charles

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a range dependent sediment sound speed profile measurement obtained using the image source method. This technique is based on the analysis of the seafloor reflected acoustic wave as a collection of image sources which positions are linked with the thick-nesses and the sound speed of the sediment stack. The data used were acquired by the NURC in 2009 during the Clutter09 experiment. The equipment used was an autonomous undersea vehicle towing a 1600–3500 Hz frequency band s...

  8. Sound speed profile characterization by the image source method

    OpenAIRE

    PINSON, Samuel; Guillon, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of an imaging technique that measures the geoacoustic structure of a seafloor in shallow water areas. The devices used were a broadband 100 Hz–6 kHz acoustic source towed by a ship and a vertical array. Among all the acoustic paths existing in the water column, two are used: the direct one and the seabed-reflected one, the latter being composed of the reflections from the seafloor’s surface as well as that from each buried layer. Due to the good time re...

  9. Comparison of seafloor sound-speed profile measurement between the image source and reflection seismology techniques

    OpenAIRE

    PINSON, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    In the context of sediment characterization, the image source method provides a fast and automated sound-speed profile measurement of the seafloor. In this letter, this method is compared to reflection seismology methods. The comparison highlights similarities in the signal processing and a difference in the basic equations of the wave reflection travel time analysis. Understanding the links between the two methods helps sheds additional light on each method.

  10. Phase aberration correction by multi-stencils fast marching method using sound speed image in ultrasound computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaolei; Azuma, Takashi; Lin, Hongxiang; Imoto, Haruka; Tamano, Satoshi; Takagi, Shu; Umemura, Shin-Ichiro; Sakuma, Ichiro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2016-04-01

    Reflection image from ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) system can be obtained by synthetic aperture technique, however its quality is decreased by phase aberration caused by inhomogeneous media. Therefore, phase aberration correction is important to improve image quality. In this study, multi-stencils fast marching method (MSFMM) is employed for phase correction. The MSFMM is an accurate and fast solution of Eikonal equation which considers the refraction. The proposed method includes two steps. First, the MSFMM is used to compute sound propagation time from each element to each image gird point using sound speed image of USCT. Second, synthetic aperture technique is employed to obtain reflection image using the computed propagation time. To evaluate the proposed method, both numerical simulation and phantom experiment were conducted. With regard to numerical simulation, both quantitative and qualitative comparisons between reflection images with and without phase aberration correction were given. In the quantitative comparison, the diameters of point spread function (PSF) in reflection images of a two layer structure were presented. In the qualitative comparison, reflection images of simple circle and complex breast modes with phase aberration correction show higher quality than that without the correction. In respect to phantom experiment, a piece of breast phantom with artificial glandular structure inside was scanned by a USCT prototype, and the artificial glandular structure is able to be visible more clearly in the reflection image with phase aberration correction than in that without the correction. In this study, a phase aberration correction method by the MSFMM are proposed for reflection image of the USCT.

  11. Seafloor sound-speed profile characterization with non-parallel layering by the image source method: Application to CLUTTER'09 campaign data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Samuel; Holland, Charles W

    2016-08-01

    The image source method was originally developed to estimate sediment sound speed as a function of depth assuming plane-layered sediments. Recently, the technique was extended to treat dipping, i.e., non-parallel layers and was tested using synthetic data. Here, the technique is applied to measured reflection data with dipping layers and mud volcanoes. The data were collected with an autonomous underwater vehicle towing a source (1600-3500 Hz) and a horizontal array of hydrophones. Data were collected every 3 m criss-crossing an area about 1 km(2). The results provide a combination of two-dimensional sections of the sediment sound-speeds plotted in a three-dimensional picture.

  12. SOUND-SPEED TOMOGRAPHY USING FIRST-ARRIVAL TRANSMISSION ULTRASOUND FOR A RING ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUANG, LIANJIE [Los Alamos National Laboratory; QUAN, YOULI [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-31

    Sound-speed tomography images can be used for cancer detection and diagnosis. Tumors have generally higher sound speeds than the surrounding tissue. Quality and resolution of tomography images are primarily determined by the insonification/illumination aperture of ultrasound and the capability of the tomography method for accurately handling heterogeneous nature of the breast. We investigate the capability of an efficient time-of-flight tomography method using transmission ultrasound from a ring array for reconstructing sound-speed images of the breast. The method uses first arrival times of transmitted ultrasonic signals emerging from non-beamforming ultrasound transducers located around a ring. It properly accounts for ray bending within the breast by solving the eikonal equation using a finite-difference scheme. We test and validate the time-of-flight transmission tomography method using synthetic data for numerical breast phantoms containing various objects. In our simulation, the objects are immersed in water within a ring array. Two-dimensional synthetic data are generated using a finite-difference scheme to solve acoustic-wave equation in heterogeneous media. We study the reconstruction accuracy of the tomography method for objects with different sizes and shapes as well as different perturbations from the surrounding medium. In addition, we also address some specific data processing issues related to the tomography. Our tomography results demonstrate that the first-arrival transmission tomography method can accurately reconstruct objects larger than approximately five wavelengths of the incident ultrasound using a ring array.

  13. Development of Ultrasound Tomography for Breast Imaging: Technical Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duric, N; Littrup, P; Babkin, A; Chambers, D; Azevedo, S; Arkady, K; Pevzner, R; Tokarev, M; Holsapple, E

    2004-09-30

    Ultrasound imaging is widely used in medicine because of its benign characteristics and real-time capabilities. Physics theory suggests that the application of tomographic techniques may allow ultrasound imaging to reach its full potential as a diagnostic tool allowing it to compete with other tomographic modalities such as X-ray CT and MRI. This paper describes the construction and use of a prototype tomographic scanner and reports on the feasibility of implementing tomographic theory in practice and the potential of US tomography in diagnostic imaging. Data were collected with the prototype by scanning two types of phantoms and a cadaveric breast. A specialized suite of algorithms was developed and utilized to construct images of reflectivity and sound speed from the phantom data. The basic results can be summarized as follows: (1) A fast, clinically relevant US tomography scanner can be built using existing technology. (2) The spatial resolution, deduced from images of reflectivity, is 0.4 mm. The demonstrated 10 cm depth-of-field is superior to that of conventional ultrasound and the image contrast is improved through the reduction of speckle noise and overall lowering of the noise floor. (3) Images of acoustic properties such as sound speed suggest that it is possible to measure variations in the sound speed of 5 m/s. An apparent correlation with X-ray attenuation suggests that the sound speed can be used to discriminate between various types of soft tissue. (4) Ultrasound tomography has the potential to improve diagnostic imaging in relation to breast cancer detection.

  14. Sound speed in downhole flow measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünalmis, Ö Haldun

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the use of sound speed in flow measurement applications in the high-pressure/high-temperature downhole environment. The propagation speed of a sound wave is a powerful tool to extract useful information from a flowing fluid medium in pipe whether the medium consists of a single-phase or multiphase flow. Considering the complex nature of the flow patterns and changing phase fractions from reservoir to surface, utilizing the propagation speed of sound of a fluid mixture is not a trivial task, especially if the interest is real-time flow measurement. The demanding applications span a wide spectrum from noisy medium originating from fast-moving gas/liquid flows to quiet medium originating from slow-moving liquid/liquid flows. In the current work, multiple flow loop tests are conducted in different facilities to evaluate the direct use of sound speed in flow rate measurement and the results are associated with real-life field examples. A tool analysis map is developed that addresses the use of sound speed for flow measurement under different scenarios. Although most examples are based on strain-based local sensing of the flow, the use of sound speed is independent of the methodology and can be implemented by other methods such as acoustic-based distributed sensing. PMID:27475167

  15. Solar-cycle variation of sound speed near the solar surface

    OpenAIRE

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina

    2011-01-01

    We present evidence that the sound-speed variation with solar activity has a two-layer configuration, similar to the one observed below an active region, which consists of a negative layer near the solar surface and a positive one in the layer immediately below the first one. Frequency differences between the activity minimum and maximum of solar cycle 23, obtained applying global helioseismology to the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on board SOHO, is used to determine the sound-speed variati...

  16. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  17. Optical breast imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, S.M.W.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Optical breast imaging uses near-infrared light to assess the optical properties of breast tissue. It can be performed relying on intrinsic breast tissue contrast alone or with the use of exogenous imaging agents that accumulate at the tumor site. Different tissue components have unique scattering a

  18. Dictionary learning of sound speed profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Bianco, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To provide constraints on their inversion, ocean sound speed profiles (SSPs) often are modeled using empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). However, this regularization, which uses the leading order EOFs with a minimum-energy constraint on their coefficients, often yields low resolution SSP estimates. In this paper, it is shown that dictionary learning, a form of unsupervised machine learning, can improve SSP resolution by generating a dictionary of shape functions for sparse processing (e.g. compressive sensing) that optimally compress SSPs; both minimizing the reconstruction error and the number of coefficients. These learned dictionaries (LDs) are not constrained to be orthogonal and thus, fit the given signals such that each signal example is approximated using few LD entries. Here, LDs describing SSP observations from the HF-97 experiment and the South China Sea are generated using the K-SVD algorithm. These LDs better explain SSP variability and require fewer coefficients than EOFs, describing much of t...

  19. Breast ultrasound tomography with total-variation regularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Cuiping [KARMANOS CANCER INSTIT.; Duric, Neb [KARMANOS CANCER INSTIT

    2009-01-01

    Breast ultrasound tomography is a rapidly developing imaging modality that has the potential to impact breast cancer screening and diagnosis. A new ultrasound breast imaging device (CURE) with a ring array of transducers has been designed and built at Karmanos Cancer Institute, which acquires both reflection and transmission ultrasound signals. To extract the sound-speed information from the breast data acquired by CURE, we have developed an iterative sound-speed image reconstruction algorithm for breast ultrasound transmission tomography based on total-variation (TV) minimization. We investigate applicability of the TV tomography algorithm using in vivo ultrasound breast data from 61 patients, and compare the results with those obtained using the Tikhonov regularization method. We demonstrate that, compared to the Tikhonov regularization scheme, the TV regularization method significantly improves image quality, resulting in sound-speed tomography images with sharp (preserved) edges of abnormalities and few artifacts.

  20. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...... various requirements to be fulfilled in the design of an imaging system for breast cancer detection and some strategies to overcome these limitations....

  1. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...

  2. Using ultrasound tomography to identify the distributions of density throughout the breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Sherman, Mark E.; Gierach, Gretchen L.

    2016-04-01

    Women with high breast density are at increased risk of developing breast cancer. Breast density has usually been defined using mammography as the ratio of fibroglandular tissue to total breast area. Ultrasound tomography (UST) is an emerging modality that can also be used to measure breast density. UST creates tomographic sound speed images of the patient's breast which is useful as sound speed is directly proportional to tissue density. Furthermore, the volumetric and quantitative information contained in the sound speed images can be used to describe the distribution of breast density. The work presented here measures the UST sound speed density distributions of 165 women with negative screening mammography. Frequency distributions of the sound speed voxel information were examined for each patient. In a preliminary analysis, the UST sound speed distributions were averaged across patients and grouped by various patient and density-related factors (e.g., age, body mass index, menopausal status, average mammographic breast density). It was found that differences in the distribution of density could be easily visualized for different patient groupings. Furthermore, findings suggest that the shape of the distributions may be used to identify participants with varying amounts of dense and non-dense tissue.

  3. Reconstruction of sound speed profile through natural generalized inverse technique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, C.S.

    An acoustic model has been developed for reconstruction of vertical sound speed in a near stable or stratified ocean. Generalized inverse method is utilised in the model development. Numerical experiments have been carried out to account...

  4. A novel ultrasonic method for measuring breast density and breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glide-Hurst, Carri K.; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter J.

    2008-03-01

    Women with high mammographic breast density are at 4- to 6-fold increased risk of developing breast cancer compared to women with fatty breasts. However, current breast density estimations rely on mammography, which cannot provide accurate volumetric breast representation. Therefore, we explored two techniques of breast density evaluation via ultrasound tomography. A sample of 93 patients was imaged with our clinical prototype; each dataset contained 45-75 tomograms ranging from near the chest wall through the nipple. Whole breast acoustic velocity was determined by creating image stacks and evaluating the sound speed frequency distribution. Ultrasound percent density (USPD) was determined by segmenting high sound speed areas from each tomogram using k-means clustering, integrating over the entire breast, and dividing by total breast area. Both techniques were independently evaluated using two mammographic density measures: (1) qualitative, determined by a radiologist's visual assessment using BI-RADS Categories, and (2) quantitative, via semi-automatic segmentation to calculate mammographic percent density (MPD) for craniocaudal and medio-lateral oblique mammograms. ~140 m/s difference in acoustic velocity was observed between fatty and dense BI-RADS Categories. Increased sound speed was found with increased BI-RADS Category and quantitative MPD. Furthermore, strong positive associations between USPD, BI-RADS Category, and calculated MPD were observed. These results confirm that utilizing sound speed, both for whole-breast evaluation and segmenting locally, can be implemented to evaluate breast density.

  5. A direct method for photoacoustic tomography with inhomogeneous sound speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhachmi, Zakaria; Glatz, Thomas; Scherzer, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    The standard approach for photoacoustic imaging with variable speed of sound is time reversal, which consists of solving a well-posed final-boundary value problem for the wave equation backwards in time. This paper investigates the iterative Landweber regularization algorithm, where convergence is guaranteed by standard regularization theory, notably also in cases of trapping sound speed or for short measurement times. We formulate and solve the direct and inverse problem on the whole Euclidean space, which is common in standard photoacoustic imaging, but not for time reversal algorithms, where the problems are considered on a domain enclosed by the measurement devices. We formulate both the direct and adjoint photoacoustic operator as the solution of an interior and an exterior differential equation which are coupled by transmission conditions. The former is solved numerically using a Galerkin scheme in space and finite difference discretization in time, while the latter consists of solving a boundary integral equation. We therefore use a boundary element method/finite element method approach for numerical solution of the forward operators. We analyze this method, prove convergence, and provide numerical tests. Moreover, we compare the approach to time reversal.

  6. Sound speed in bubble film of ship wakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As is distinct from general gas-liquid two-phase flow,a large number of bubbles with different diameters belong to ship wakes.Feasibility of Laplace equation,used to calculate wake sound speed(WSS),is confirmed based on differential postula- tion.Defect for calculating the adiabatic sound speed of gases in references is showed,and a concept of WSS is proposed clearly.A minimum WSS of 24.5 m/s is got when bubble ratio reads 0.5 according to the calculation when bubble dimen- sion is less than that of resonance.Also a weak dependence of WSS on pressures is predicted.WSS from calculation corresponds with the experimental data of ref- erences well in high frequency domain,when the actual scale of bubbles is greater than the resonant scale.

  7. Sound speed in bubble film of ship wakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As is distinct from general gas-liquid two-phase flow, a large number of bubbles with different diameters belong to ship wakes. Feasibility of Laplace equation, used to calculate wake sound speed (WSS), is confirmed based on differential postulation. Defect for calculating the adiabatic sound speed of gases in references is showed, and a concept of WSS is proposed clearly. A minimum WSS of 24.5 m/s is got when bubble ratio reads 0.5 according to the calculation when bubble dimension is less than that of resonance. Also a weak dependence of WSS on pressures is predicted. WSS from calculation corresponds with the experimental data of references well in high frequency domain, when the actual scale of bubbles is greater than the resonant scale.

  8. Investigation of Sound Speed Errors in Adaptive Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that adaptive beam-formers provide a significant increase of resolution and contrast, when the propagation speed is known precisely. This paper demonstrates the influence of sound speed errors on two adaptive beamformers; the minimum variance (MV) beamformer and the am......Previous studies have shown that adaptive beam-formers provide a significant increase of resolution and contrast, when the propagation speed is known precisely. This paper demonstrates the influence of sound speed errors on two adaptive beamformers; the minimum variance (MV) beamformer...... drop is proposed; diagonal loading (DL) and forward-backward (FB) averaging of the covariance matrix. The investigations show that DL provides a slightly decreased resolution and amplitude compared to FB. It is noted that APES provides more robust estimates than MV at the mere expense of a slight...

  9. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing radiatio

  10. A New Numerical Algorithm for Thermoacoustic and Photoacoustic Tomography with Variable Sound Speed

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Jianliang; Uhlmann, Gunther; Zhao, Hongkai

    2011-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for reconstructing an unknown source in Thermoacoustic and Photoacoustic Tomography based on the recent advances in understanding the theoretical nature of the problem. We work with variable sound speeds that might be also discontinuous across some surface. The latter problem arises in brain imaging. The new algorithm is based on an explicit formula in the form of a Neumann series. We present numerical examples with non-trapping, trapping and piecewise smooth speeds, as well as examples with data on a part of the boundary. These numerical examples demonstrate the robust performance of the new algorithm.

  11. CMB Power Asymmetry from Primordial Sound Speed Parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yi-Fu; Zhang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The hemispherical power asymmetry in the cosmic microwave background may be explained by the modulation of some primordial cosmological parameter, such as the sound speed of the inflaton. This modulation can be achieved by the perturbation of a light field during inflation. We numerically examine this mechanism and show it can be consistent with current observations. Further, this model predicts that the power asymmetry also exists in the temperature-polarization correlation and polarization autocorrelation with the same shape, and in primordial non-gaussianity of equilateral type with a particular shape. Therefore, our mechanism is observationally detectable in forthcoming experiments.

  12. Metastable sound speed in gas-liquid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursik, J. W.; Hall, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    A new method of calculating speed of sound for two-phase flow is presented. The new equation assumes no phase change during the propagation of an acoustic disturbance and assumes that only the total entropy of the mixture remains constant during the process. The new equation predicts single-phase values for the speed of sound in the limit of all gas or all liquid and agrees with available two-phase, air-water sound speed data. Other expressions used in the two-phase flow literature for calculating two-phase, metastable sound speed are reviewed and discussed. Comparisons are made between the new expression and several of the previous expressions -- most notably a triply isentropic equation as used, a triply isentropic equation as used, among others, by Karplus and by Wallis. Appropriate differences are pointed out and a thermodynamic criterion is derived which must be satisfied in order for the triply isentropic expression to be thermodynamically consistent. This criterion is not satisfied for the cases examined, which included two-phase nitrogen, air-water, two-phase parahydrogen, and steam-water. Consequently, the new equation derived is found to be superior to the other equations reviewed.

  13. Strong Coupling Problem with Time-Varying Sound Speed

    CERN Document Server

    Joyce, Austin

    2011-01-01

    For a single scalar field with unit sound speed, there are exactly three distinct cosmological solutions which produce a scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations in a dynamical attractor background, assuming vacuum initial conditions: slow-roll inflation; a slowly contracting adiabatic ekpyrotic phase, described by a rapidly-varying equation of state; and an adiabatic ekpyrotic phase on a slowly expanding background. Of these three, only inflation remains weakly coupled over a wide range of modes, while the other scenarios can produce at most 12 e-folds of scale invariant and gaussian modes. In this paper, we investigate how allowing the speed of sound of fluctuations to evolve in time affects this classification. While in the presence of a variable sound speed there are many more scenarios which are scale invariant at the level of the two-point function, they generically suffer from strong coupling problems similar to those in the canonical case. There is, however, an exceptional case with superlu...

  14. Molecular breast imaging. An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of molecular imaging is to visualize and quantify biological, physiological and pathological processes at cellular and molecular levels. Molecular imaging using various techniques has recently become established in breast imaging. Currently molecular imaging techniques comprise multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRSI), nuclear imaging by breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI), positron emission tomography (PET) and positron emission mammography (PEM) and combinations of techniques (e.g. PET-CT and multiparametric PET-MRI). Recently, novel techniques for molecular imaging of breast tumors, such as sodium imaging (23Na-MRI), phosphorus spectroscopy (31P-MRSI) and hyperpolarized MRI as well as specific radiotracers have been developed and are currently under investigation. It can be expected that molecular imaging of breast tumors will enable a simultaneous assessment of the multiple metabolic and molecular processes involved in cancer development and thus an improved detection, characterization, staging and monitoring of response to treatment will become possible. (orig.)

  15. Evolution of Imaging in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Evelyn M; Crowley, James; Hagan, Catherine; Atkinson, Lisa L

    2016-06-01

    The following topics are discussed in this article. A historical review of the evolution of breast cancer imaging from thermography through digital breast tomosynthesis, molecular breast imaging, and advanced breast magnetic resonance imaging. Discussion of multiple clinical trials, their strengths, and weaknesses. Historical perspective on the Mammography Quality Standards Act and its relationship with development and implementation of the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). PMID:27029017

  16. Sound Speed and Viscosity of Semi-Relativistic Relic Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Krauss, Lawrence M

    2016-01-01

    Generalized fluid equations, using sound speed $\\ceff^2$ and viscosity $\\cvis^2$ as effective parameters, provide a convenient phenomenological formalism for testing the relic neutrino "null hypothesis," i.e. that that neutrinos are relativistic and free-streaming prior to recombination. In this work, we relax the relativistic assumption and ask "to what extent can the generalized fluid equations accommodate finite neutrino mass?" We consider both the mass of active neutrinos, which are largely still relativistic at recombination $m^2 / T^2 \\sim 0.2$, and the effect of a semi-relativistic sterile component. While there is no one-to-one mapping between mass/mixing parameters and $\\ceff^2$ and $\\cvis^2$, we demonstrate that the existence of a neutrino mass could induce a bias to measurements of $\\ceff^2$ and $\\cvis^2$ at the level of $0.01 m^2 / T^2 \\sim 10^{-3}$.

  17. Sound speed and viscosity of semi-relativistic relic neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Lawrence; Long, Andrew J.

    2016-07-01

    Generalized fluid equations, using sound speed ceff2 and viscosity cvis2 as effective parameters, provide a convenient phenomenological formalism for testing the relic neutrino "null hypothesis," i.e. that that neutrinos are relativistic and free-streaming prior to recombination. In this work, we relax the relativistic assumption and ask "to what extent can the generalized fluid equations accommodate finite neutrino mass?" We consider both the mass of active neutrinos, which are largely still relativistic at recombination m2 / T2 ~ 0.2, and the effect of a semi-relativistic sterile component. While there is no one-to-one mapping between mass/mixing parameters and ceff2 and cvis2, we demonstrate that the existence of a neutrino mass could induce a bias to measurements of ceff2 and cvis2 at the level of 0.01 m2 / T2 ~ 10‑3.

  18. A Method for Direct Localized Sound Speed Estimates Using Registered Virtual Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byram, Brett C.; Trahey, Gregg E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Accurate sound speed estimates are desirable in a number of fields. In an effort to increase the spatial resolution of sound speed estimates, a new method is proposed for direct measurement of sound speed between arbitrary spatial locations. The method uses the sound speed estimator developed...... of both homogeneous and inhomogeneous media. Several different inhomogeneous phantom configurations were used for the physical validation. The simulation validation focused on the limits of target depth and signal-to-noise ratio on virtual detector registration. The simulations also compare the impact...

  19. Smooth 2-D ocean sound speed from Laplace and Laplace-Fourier domain inversion of seismic oceanography data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacic, Tanya M.; Jun, Hyunggu; Rosado, Hayley; Shin, Changsoo

    2016-02-01

    In seismic oceanography, processed images highlight small temperature changes, but inversion is needed to obtain absolute temperatures. Local search-based full waveform inversion has a lower computational cost than global search but requires accurate starting models. Unfortunately, most marine seismic data have little associated hydrographic data and the band-limited nature of seismic data makes extracting the long wavelength sound speed trend directly from seismic data inherently challenging. Laplace and Laplace-Fourier domain inversion (LDI) can use rudimentary starting models without prior information about the medium. Data are transformed to the Laplace domain, and a smooth sound speed model is extracted by examining the zero and low frequency components of the damped wavefield. We applied LDI to five synthetic data sets based on oceanographic features and recovered smoothed versions of our synthetic models, showing the viability of LDI for creating starting models suitable for more detailed inversions.

  20. Ranging in an underwater medium with multiple isogradient sound speed profile layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani, H.; Leus, G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the problem of acoustic ranging between sensor nodes in an underwater environment. The underwater medium is assumed to be composed of multiple isogradient sound speed profile (SSP) layers where in each layer the sound speed is linearly related to the depth. Furthermore, eac

  1. The sound speed of primordial fluctuations in supergravity inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Hetz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We study the realization of slow-roll inflation in $\\mathcal N = 1$ supergravities with a single chiral field. If there is only one flat direction in field space, it is possible to derive a single-field effective field theory (EFT) parametrized by the sound speed $c_s$ at which curvature perturbations propagate during inflation. The value of $c_s$ is determined by the rate of bend of the inflationary trajectory resulting from the shape of the $F$-term potential. We show that $c_s$ must respect an inequality that involves the curvature tensor of the K\\"ahler manifold defining the class of supergravity, as well as the ratio between the mass of fluctuations ortogonal to the inflationary trajectory and the Hubble expansion rate. Because in order to have a reliable EFT this ratio must be large, we find that the inequality implies that $c_s \\simeq 1$. As a consequence, EFT's of inflation derived from $\\mathcal N = 1$ supergravities cannot differ drastically from canonical single field inflation ($c_s = 1$), and non...

  2. Sound Speed of Primordial Fluctuations in Supergravity Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetz, Alexander; Palma, Gonzalo A.

    2016-09-01

    We study the realization of slow-roll inflation in N =1 supergravities where inflation is the result of the evolution of a single chiral field. When there is only one flat direction in field space, it is possible to derive a single-field effective field theory parametrized by the sound speed cs at which curvature perturbations propagate during inflation. The value of cs is determined by the rate of bend of the inflationary path resulting from the shape of the F -term potential. We show that cs must respect an inequality that involves the curvature tensor of the Kähler manifold underlying supergravity, and the ratio M /H between the mass M of fluctuations ortogonal to the inflationary path, and the Hubble expansion rate H . This inequality provides a powerful link between observational constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity and information about the N =1 supergravity responsible for inflation. In particular, the inequality does not allow for suppressed values of cs (values smaller than cs˜0.4 ) unless (a) the ratio M /H is of order 1 or smaller, and (b) the fluctuations of mass M affect the propagation of curvature perturbations by inducing on them a nonlinear dispersion relation during horizon crossing. Therefore, if large non-Gaussianity is observed, supergravity models of inflation would be severely constrained.

  3. Sound speed as a proxy variable to temperature in Fram Strait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushaw, Brian D; Sagen, Hanne; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka

    2016-07-01

    The application of ocean acoustic tomography in Fram Strait requires a careful assessment of the accuracy to which estimates of sound speed from tomography can be converted to estimates of temperature. The Fram Strait environment is turbulent, with warm, salty, northward-flowing North Atlantic water interacting with cold, fresh, southward-flowing Arctic water. The nature of this environment suggests that salinity could play an important role with respect to sound speed. The properties of sound speed with respect to temperature and salinity in this environment were examined using climatological and in situ glider data. In cold water, a factor of about 4.5 m s(-1) °C(-1) can be used to scale between sound speed and temperature. In situ data obtained by gliders were used to determine the ambiguities between temperature, salinity, and sound speed. Tomography provides a depth-averaging measurement. While errors in the sound speed-temperature conversion at particular depths may be 0.2 °C or larger, particularly within 50 m of the surface, such errors are suppressed when the depth is averaged. Using a simple scale factor to compute temperature from sound speed introduced an error of about 20 m °C for depth-averaged temperature, a value less than formal uncertainties estimated from acoustic tomography. PMID:27475184

  4. Breast Imaging after Breast Augmentation with Autologous Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyu Won; Seo, Bo Kyung; Shim, Eddeum; Song, Sung Eun; Cho, Kyu Ran [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Eul Sik [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Ok Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The use of autologous tissue transfer for breast augmentation is an alternative to using foreign implant materials. The benefits of this method are the removal of unwanted fat from other body parts, no risk of implant rupture, and the same feel as real breast tissue. However, sometimes there is a dilemma about whether or not to biopsy for calcifications or masses detected after the procedure is completed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the procedures of breast augmentation with autologous tissues, the imaging features of various complications, and the role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of complications and hidden breast diseases.

  5. The sound speed in southern deepwater zone of the Caspian Sea, off Anzali Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, S.; Abu Bakar, N. B.

    2011-03-01

    Sound velocity determination in seawater is a key component of modern hydrographic surveying; however, little data exists on sound velocity characteristics of the southern Caspian Sea. Hence, a study was undertaken in 2008 to examine the seasonal variability of sound speed in deep-waters of the South Caspian Sea near the Iranian coast. The seasonal cycle of seawater temperature and thermal stratification in the Caspian Sea water created a wide range of spatial and temporal changes of sound speed with relevant differences between shallow water (over the continental shelf) and deep-water area. The collected data showed that seasonal variations of the sound speed were most important in the upper 100 m water depth, while below this level that is in deepwater the changes were small. The maximum values of sound speed were observed at the surface in midsummer around 1517-1519 m s-1 over the continental shelf while the speed of sound was about 1453 m s-1 between 450-470 m depths with no major seasonal variations. Variations in vertical structure of the sound speed were in agreement with temperature changes, while effects of the salinity on the sound speed were little.

  6. Experimental and Other Breast Imaging Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Learn About Cancer Stay Healthy Find Support & Treatment Explore Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Stay Healthy » Find Cancer Early » Exam and Test Descriptions » Mammograms and Other Breast Imaging Procedures » Experimental breast imaging tests Share this Page Close Push ...

  7. Sound speed in air-filled sand and 03ine shallow-layer sandy sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Zuwen

    2009-01-01

    Based on the author's theory for acoustic propagation in granular media and by employing the extinction theorem, the sound speed formulae in these media were derived. The numerical computations of sound speed in 03ine sediments and air-filled sand were carried out, and the results demonstrated that under the normal atmosphere the sound speed in air- filled sand is lower than the sound speed in the air. The numerical results also indicated that the influence of scattering interaction between the grains upon the sound speed in the 03ine shallow-layer sandy sediments has to be taken into account; however, the influence of the viscous-wave interaction can be neglected. The theoretical results obtained from the rigid-granular model seem to match the measured data better than from the elastic-granular model, even the latter model fits better for the real situation, indicating further measurements are necessary in order to gain an insight into this problem thoroughly. Through an analysis of experimental data published in journals a conclusion can be drawn that the theory of granular media is suited to deal with the problems of the sound propagation in air-filled sand better than the theory of porous media.

  8. Imaging Breast Density: Established and Emerging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon-Hor Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammographic density has been proven as an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Women with dense breast tissue visible on a mammogram have a much higher cancer risk than women with little density. A great research effort has been devoted to incorporate breast density into risk prediction models to better estimate each individual’s cancer risk. In recent years, the passage of breast density notification legislation in many states in USA requires that every mammography report should provide information regarding the patient’s breast density. Accurate definition and measurement of breast density are thus important, which may allow all the potential clinical applications of breast density to be implemented. Because the two-dimensional mammography-based measurement is subject to tissue overlapping and thus not able to provide volumetric information, there is an urgent need to develop reliable quantitative measurements of breast density. Various new imaging technologies are being developed. Among these new modalities, volumetric mammographic density methods and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging are the most well studied. Besides, emerging modalities, including different x-ray–based, optical imaging, and ultrasound-based methods, have also been investigated. All these modalities may either overcome some fundamental problems related to mammographic density or provide additional density and/or compositional information. The present review article aimed to summarize the current established and emerging imaging techniques for the measurement of breast density and the evidence of the clinical use of these density methods from the literature.

  9. Image Similarity to Improve the Classification of Breast Cancer Images

    OpenAIRE

    Dave Tahmoush

    2009-01-01

    Techniques in image similarity can be used to improve the classification of breast cancer images. Breast cancer images in the mammogram modality have an abundance of non-cancerous structures that are similar to cancer, which make classification of images as containing cancer especially difficult to work with. Only the cancerous part of the image is relevant, so the techniques must learn to recognize cancer in noisy mammograms and extract features from that cancer to appropriately classify ima...

  10. Dark energy with non-adiabatic sound speed: initial conditions and detectability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' ' Enrico Fermi' ' , Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184, Rome (Italy); Lesgourgues, Julien, E-mail: ballesteros@pd.infn.it, E-mail: julien.lesgourgues@cern.ch [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-10-01

    Assuming that the universe contains a dark energy fluid with a constant linear equation of state and a constant sound speed, we study the prospects of detecting dark energy perturbations using CMB data from Planck, cross-correlated with galaxy distribution maps from a survey like LSST. We update previous estimates by carrying a full exploration of the mock data likelihood for key fiducial models. We find that it will only be possible to exclude values of the sound speed very close to zero, while Planck data alone is not powerful enough for achieving any detection, even with lensing extraction. We also discuss the issue of initial conditions for dark energy perturbations in the radiation and matter epochs, generalizing the usual adiabatic conditions to include the sound speed effect. However, for most purposes, the existence of attractor solutions renders the perturbation evolution nearly independent of these initial conditions.

  11. Effect of dark energy sound speed and equation of state on CDM power spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, Rizwan Ul Haq

    2014-01-01

    We study the influence of equation of state $w$ and effective sound speed $c_e$ of the dark energy perturbations on the cold dark matter(CDM) power spectrum.We consider different cases of the equation of state and the effective sound speed, the cold dark matter power spectrum is found to be generically suppressed in these cases as compared to the $\\Lambda$CDM model. The suppression at different length scales depends on the value of $w$ and $c_e$, and the effect of different $w$ is profoundly seen at all length scales. The influence of sound speed is significantly seen only at the intermediate length scales and is negligible at scales very much larger and smaller than the Hubble scale.

  12. Accuracy limitations on Brillouin lidar measurements of temperature and sound speed in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, E S; Emery, Y; Quan, X; Katz, J W

    1997-09-20

    There are five mutually dependent variables relevant to Brillouin lidar measurements of temperature and sound speed in the ocean; they are (1) the Brillouin shift, (2) the sound speed, (3) the index of refraction, (4) the temperature, and (5) the salinity. We use three well-known relations to analyze rigorously the interdependence of these five variables. Clearly, a Brillouin shift measurement does not provide a stand-alone determination of temperature or sound speed; one more variable or one more relation must be known. The use of mean values of salinity that have been obtained by an analysis of a large set of historical in situ data is considered for this additional relation. PMID:18259560

  13. Sound speed measurements in zirconium using the front surface impact technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed a series of experiments impacting zirconium samples of varying purity level directly onto lithium fluoride (LiF) windows to determine both the Hugoniot and sound speed as a function of stress up to 70 GPa. This front surface impact (FSI) geometry is useful for determining sound speed in shock-compression experiments because wave interactions are mostly eliminated and multiple sample thicknesses are not needed in each experiment. The experimental results show two kinks in the sound speed which correlate well with the location of the α → ω and ω → β transitions, respectively. A rarefaction shock also forms in the release wave in experiments conducted at 31 GPa giving further evidence that this phase transition is being observed.

  14. The different structural scales of the breast and their impact on time-of-flight and diffraction tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huthwaite, Peter [IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON; Simonetti, Francesco [IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON

    2010-02-11

    Ultrasound tomography is an attractive imaging method for the detection of breast cancer. The complex anatomy of the breast with its different spatial scales and material property contrasts make accurate reconstructions very challenging. This paper proposes a hybrid approach whereby Travel-of-Flight and Diffraction Tomography are combined together to achieve high-resolution and high-accuracy sound-speed reconstructions. The method is validated with several numerical phantoms.

  15. Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Fhager, Andreas; Jensen, Peter Damsgaard;

    2011-01-01

    Still more research groups are promoting microwave imaging as a viable supplement or substitution to more conventional imaging modalities. A widespread approach for microwave imaging of the breast is tomographic imaging in which one seeks to reconstruct the distributions of permittivity...

  16. The reconstruction of sound speed in the Marmousi model by the boundary control method

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, I B; Semenov, V S

    2016-01-01

    We present the results on numerical testing of the Boundary Control Method in the sound speed determination for the acoustic equation on semiplane. This method for solving multidimensional inverse problems requires no a priory information about the parameters under reconstruction. The application to the realistic Marmousi model demonstrates that the boundary control method is workable in the case of complicated and irregular field of acoustic rays. By the use of the chosen boundary controls, an `averaged' profile of the sound speed is recovered (the relative error is about $10-15\\%$). Such a profile can be further utilized as a starting approximation for high resolution iterative reconstruction methods.

  17. Sound-Speed Prediction as a Function of Temperature at Discrete Depths in the Bay of Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    P. K. Dineshkumar; J. S. Sastry

    1988-01-01

    Through regression analysis, temperature dependent relationships are developed to predict sound-speed. at discrete depths in the Bay of Bengal, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of sound-speed prediction through polynomial expressions in temperature disregarding salinity variations. A separate regression equation is develbped for the historical sound-speed and temperature data at the standard depths upto 250 m. At specific depths and in the given geographic area in the Bay of Bengal (5-8"...

  18. Sound-Speed Prediction as a Function of Temperature at Discrete Depths in the Bay of Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Dineshkumar

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Through regression analysis, temperature dependent relationships are developed to predict sound-speed. at discrete depths in the Bay of Bengal, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of sound-speed prediction through polynomial expressions in temperature disregarding salinity variations. A separate regression equation is develbped for the historical sound-speed and temperature data at the standard depths upto 250 m. At specific depths and in the given geographic area in the Bay of Bengal (5-8" N, 90-93" E polynomials of temperature are proved to be a precise way to predict sound-speed.

  19. Dose reduction in molecular breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Chowdhury, Samir; Hugg, James W.; Moats, Rex A.; Patt, Bradley E.

    2011-10-01

    Molecular Breast Imaging (MBI) is the imaging of radiolabeled drugs, cells, or nanoparticles for breast cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment. Screening of broad populations of women for breast cancer with mammography has been augmented by the emergence of breast MRI in screening of women at high risk for breast cancer. Screening MBI may benefit the sub-population of women with dense breast tissue that obscures small tumors in mammography. Dedicated breast imaging equipment is necessary to enable detection of early-stage tumors less than 1 cm in size. Recent progress in the development of these instruments is reviewed. Pixellated CZT for single photon MBI imaging of 99mTc-sestamibi gives high detection sensitivity for early-stage tumors. The use of registered collimators in a near-field geometry gives significantly higher detection efficiency - a factor of 3.6-, which translates into an equivalent dose reduction factor given the same acquisition time. The radiation dose in the current MBI procedure has been reduced to the level of a four-view digital mammography study. In addition to screening of selected sub-populations, reduced MBI dose allows for dual-isotope, treatment planning, and repeated therapy assessment studies in the era of molecular medicine guided by quantitative molecular imaging.

  20. Sound speed structure in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Murty, T.V.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, C.S.

    the depth levels 200 to 1500 m is due to the combined effect of variation in the salinity (to a larger extent) and temperature. In the Bay of Bengal though the spatial variation of sound speed is marginal, variations observed between 1500 m are brought about...

  1. Time-angle sensitivity kernels for sound-speed perturbations in a shallow ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulanier, Florian; Nicolas, Barbara; Roux, Philippe; Mars, Jérôme I

    2013-07-01

    Acoustic waves traveling in a shallow-water waveguide produce a set of multiple paths that can be characterized as a geometric approximation by their travel time (TT), direction of arrival (DOA), and direction of departure (DOD). This study introduces the use of the DOA and DOD as additional observables that can be combined to the classical TT to track sound-speed perturbations in an oceanic waveguide. To model the TT, DOA, and DOD variations induced by sound-speed perturbations, the three following steps are used: (1) In the first-order Born approximation, the Fréchet kernel provides a linear link between the signal fluctuations and the sound-speed perturbations; (2) a double-beamforming algorithm is used to transform the signal fluctuations received on two source-receiver arrays in the time, receiver-depth, and source-depth domain into the eigenray equivalent measured in the time, reception-angle and launch angle domain; and finally (3) the TT, DOA, and DOD variations are extracted from the double-beamformed signal variations through a first-order Taylor development. As a result, time-angle sensitivity kernels are defined and used to build a linear relationship between the observable variations and the sound-speed perturbations. This approach is validated with parabolic-equation simulations in a shallow-water ocean context.

  2. Determination of correlation functions of turbulent velocity and sound speed fluctuations by means of ultrasonic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Tatiana A.; Durgin, William W.

    2011-12-01

    An experimental study of the propagation of high-frequency acoustic waves through grid-generated turbulence by means of an ultrasound technique is discussed. Experimental data were obtained for ultrasonic wave propagation downstream of heated and non-heated grids in a wind tunnel. A semi-analytical acoustic propagation model that allows the determination of the spatial correlation functions of the flow field is developed based on the classical flowmeter equation and the statistics of the travel time of acoustic waves traveling through the kinematic and thermal turbulence. The basic flowmeter equation is reconsidered in order to take into account sound speed fluctuations and turbulent velocity fluctuations. It allows deriving an integral equation that relates the correlation functions of travel time, sound speed fluctuations and turbulent velocity fluctuations. Experimentally measured travel time statistics of data with and without grid heating are approximated by an exponential function and used to analytically solve the integral equation. The reconstructed correlation functions of the turbulent velocity and sound speed fluctuations are presented. The power spectral density of the turbulent velocity and sound speed fluctuations are calculated.

  3. Determination of correlation functions of turbulent velocity and sound speed fluctuations by means of ultrasonic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, Tatiana A. [Saint-Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Durgin, William W. [California Polytechnic State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

    2011-12-15

    An experimental study of the propagation of high-frequency acoustic waves through grid-generated turbulence by means of an ultrasound technique is discussed. Experimental data were obtained for ultrasonic wave propagation downstream of heated and non-heated grids in a wind tunnel. A semi-analytical acoustic propagation model that allows the determination of the spatial correlation functions of the flow field is developed based on the classical flowmeter equation and the statistics of the travel time of acoustic waves traveling through the kinematic and thermal turbulence. The basic flowmeter equation is reconsidered in order to take into account sound speed fluctuations and turbulent velocity fluctuations. It allows deriving an integral equation that relates the correlation functions of travel time, sound speed fluctuations and turbulent velocity fluctuations. Experimentally measured travel time statistics of data with and without grid heating are approximated by an exponential function and used to analytically solve the integral equation. The reconstructed correlation functions of the turbulent velocity and sound speed fluctuations are presented. The power spectral density of the turbulent velocity and sound speed fluctuations are calculated. (orig.)

  4. High-resolution imaging with a real-time synthetic aperture ultrasound system: a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lianjie; Labyed, Yassin; Simonetti, Francesco; Williamson, Michael; Rosenberg, Robert; Heintz, Philip; Sandoval, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    It is difficult for ultrasound to image small targets such as breast microcalcifications. Synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging has recently developed as a promising tool to improve the capabilities of medical ultrasound. We use two different tissueequivalent phantoms to study the imaging capabilities of a real-time synthetic aperture ultrasound system for imaging small targets. The InnerVision ultrasound system DAS009 is an investigational system for real-time synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging. We use the system to image the two phantoms, and compare the images with those obtained from clinical scanners Acuson Sequoia 512 and Siemens S2000. Our results show that synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging produces images with higher resolution and less image artifacts than Acuson Sequoia 512 and Siemens S2000. In addition, we study the effects of sound speed on synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging and demonstrate that an accurate sound speed is very important for imaging small targets.

  5. On the estimation of sound speed in two-dimensional Yukawa fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The longitudinal sound speed in two-dimensional Yukawa fluids is estimated using the conventional hydrodynamic expression supplemented by appropriate thermodynamic functions proposed recently by Khrapak et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 083706 (2015)]. In contrast to the existing approaches, such as quasi-localized charge approximation (QLCA) and molecular dynamics simulations, our model provides a relatively simple estimate for the sound speed over a wide range of parameters of interest. At strong coupling, our results are shown to be in good agreement with the results obtained using the QLCA approach and those derived from the phonon spectrum for the triangular lattice. On the other hand, our model is also expected to remain accurate at moderate values of the coupling strength. In addition, the obtained results are used to discuss the influence of the strong coupling effects on the adiabatic index of two-dimensional Yukawa fluids

  6. Global effects of local sound-speed perturbations in the Sun: A theoretical study

    CERN Document Server

    Hanasoge, S M

    2007-01-01

    We study the effect of localized sound-speed perturbations on global mode frequencies by applying techniques of global helioseismology on numerical simulations of the solar acoustic wave field. Extending the method of realization noise subtraction (e.g. Hanasoge et al. 2007) to global modes and exploiting the luxury of full spherical coverage, we are able to achieve very highly resolved frequency differences that are used to study sensitivities and the signatures of the thermal asphericities. We find that (1) global modes are almost twice as sensitive to sound-speed perturbations at the bottom of the convection zone as in comparison to anomalies well in the radiative interior ($r\\lesssim0.55 R_\\odot$), (2) the $m$-degeneracy is lifted ever so slightly, as seen in the $a$ coefficients, and (3) modes that propagate in the vicinity of the perturbations show small amplitude shifts ($\\sim 0.5%$).

  7. Acoustic method for measuring the sound speed of gases over small path lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfert, J S; Checkel, M D; Koch, C R

    2007-05-01

    Acoustic "phase shift" methods have been used in the past to accurately measure the sound speed of gases. In this work, a phase shift method for measuring the sound speed of gases over small path lengths is presented. We have called this method the discrete acoustic wave and phase detection (DAWPD) method. Experimental results show that the DAWPD method gives accurate (+/-3.2 ms) and predictable measurements that closely match theory. The sources of uncertainty in the DAWPD method are examined and it is found that ultrasonic reflections and changes in the frequency ratio of the transducers (the ratio of driving frequency to resonant frequency) can be major sources of error. Experimentally, it is shown how these sources of uncertainty can be minimized. PMID:17552851

  8. Confronting the sound speed of dark energy with future cluster surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Tobias; Eggers Bjaelde, Ole; Hannestad, Steen;

    2012-01-01

    Future cluster surveys will observe galaxy clusters numbering in the hundred thousands. We consider this work how these surveys can be used to constrain dark energy parameters: in particular, the equation of state parameter w and the non-adiabatic sound speed c_s^2. We demonstrate that......, in combination with Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations from Planck, cluster surveys such as that in the ESA Euclid project will be able to determine a time-independent w with subpercent precision. Likewise, if the dark energy sound horizon falls within the length scales probed by the cluster survey......, then c_s^2 can be pinned down to within an order of magnitude. In the course of this work, we also investigate the process of dark energy virialisation in the presence of an arbitrary sound speed. We find that dark energy clustering and virialisation can lead to dark energy contributing to the total...

  9. On the estimation of sound speed in two-dimensional Yukawa fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, I. L., E-mail: Igor.Semenov@dlr.de; Thomas, H. M. [Forschungsgruppe Komplexe Plasmen, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Khrapak, S. A. [Forschungsgruppe Komplexe Plasmen, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Aix-Marseille-Université, CNRS, Laboratoire PIIM, UMR 7345, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2015-11-15

    The longitudinal sound speed in two-dimensional Yukawa fluids is estimated using the conventional hydrodynamic expression supplemented by appropriate thermodynamic functions proposed recently by Khrapak et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 083706 (2015)]. In contrast to the existing approaches, such as quasi-localized charge approximation (QLCA) and molecular dynamics simulations, our model provides a relatively simple estimate for the sound speed over a wide range of parameters of interest. At strong coupling, our results are shown to be in good agreement with the results obtained using the QLCA approach and those derived from the phonon spectrum for the triangular lattice. On the other hand, our model is also expected to remain accurate at moderate values of the coupling strength. In addition, the obtained results are used to discuss the influence of the strong coupling effects on the adiabatic index of two-dimensional Yukawa fluids.

  10. Sound speed and oscillation frequencies for solar models evolved with Los Alamos ATOMIC opacities

    CERN Document Server

    Guzik, Joyce A; Walczak, P; Wood, S R; Mussack, K; Farag, E

    2016-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has calculated a new generation of radiative opacities (OPLIB data using the ATOMIC code) for elements with atomic number Z=1-30 with improved physics input, updated atomic data, and finer temperature grid to replace the Los Alamos LEDCOP opacities released in the year 2000. We calculate the evolution of standard solar models including these new opacities, and compare with models evolved using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory OPAL (Iglesias and Rogers 1996) opacities. We use the solar abundance mixture of Asplund et al. (2009). The new Los Alamos ATOMIC opacities have steeper opacity derivatives than those of OPAL for temperatures and densities of the solar interior radiative zone. We compare the calculated nonadiabatic solar oscillation frequencies and solar interior sound speed to observed frequencies and helioseismic inferences. The calculated sound-speed profiles are similar for models evolved using either the updated Iben evolution code (see \\cite{Guzik2010}), or ...

  11. The effect of sound speed profile on shallow water shipping sound maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertlek, Hüseyin Özkan; Binnerts, Bas; Ainslie, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Sound mapping over large areas can be computationally expensive because of the large number of sources and large source-receiver separations involved. In order to facilitate computation, a simplifying assumption sometimes made is to neglect the sound speed gradient in shallow water. The accuracy of this assumption is investigated for ship generated sound in the Dutch North Sea, for realistic ship and wind distributions. Sound maps are generated for zero, negative and positive gradients for selected frequency bands (56 Hz to 3.6 kHz). The effect of sound speed profile for the decidecade centred at 125 Hz is less than 1.7 dB. PMID:27475218

  12. Sound speed in the Mediterranean Sea: an analysis from a climatological data set

    OpenAIRE

    S. Salon; A. Crise; P. Picco; Marinis, E; O. Gasparini

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of sound speed distribution in the Mediterranean Sea based on climatological temperature and salinity data. In the upper layers, propagation is characterised by upward refraction in winter and an acoustic channel in summer. The seasonal cycle of the Mediterranean and the presence of gyres and fronts create a wide range of spatial and temporal variabilities, with relevant differences between the western and eastern basins. It is shown tha...

  13. A novel method for direct localized sound speed measurement using the virtual source paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byram, Brett; Trahey, Gregg E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    both phantom and simulation results. The phantom consisted of two wire targets located near the transducer's axis at depths of 17 and 28 mm. Using this phantom the sound speed between the wires was measured for a homogeneous (water) medium and for two inhomogeneous (DB-grade castor oil and water......) mediums. The inhomogeneous mediums were arranged as an oil layer, one 6 mm thick and the other 11 mm thick, on top of a water layer. To complement the phantom studies, sources of error for spatial registration of virtual detectors were simulated. The sources of error presented here are multiple sound...... speed layers, and signal-to-noise-ratio. Results are shown for 3 different media. The local sound speed estimates had mean relative errors and standard deviations of 0.0991% plusmn0.655% for a homogeneous medium, and -0.0673%plusmn0.279% and -0.0343%plusmn0.119% for inhomogeneous media with an oil layer...

  14. Molecular Breast Imaging Using Emission Tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopan, O. [University of Florida; Gilland, D. [University of Florida; Weisenberger, Andrew G. [JLAB; Kross, Brian J. [JLAB; Welch, Benjamin L. [Dilon Technologies

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Tour objective is to design a novel SPECT system for molecular breast imaging (MBI) and evaluate its performance. The limited angle SPECT system, or emission tomosynthesis, is designed to achieve 3D images of the breast with high spatial resolution/sensitivity. The system uses a simplified detector motion and is conducive to on-board biopsy and mult-modal imaging with mammography. Methods: The novel feature of the proposed gamma camera is a variable-angle, slant-hole (VASH) collimator, which is well suited for limited angle SPECT of a mildly compressed breast. The collimator holes change slant angle while the camera surface remains flush against the compression paddle. This allows the camera to vary the angular view ({+-}30{degrees}, {+-}45{degrees}) for tomographic imaging while keeping the camera close to the object for high spatial resolution and/or sensitivity. Theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulations were performed assuming a point source and isolated breast phantom. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, contrast and SNR were measured. Results were compared to single-view, planar images and conventional SPECT. For both conventional SPECT and VASH, data were reconstructed using iterative algorithms. Finally, a proof-of-concept VASH collimator was constructed for experimental evaluation. Results: Measured spatial resolution/sensitivity with VASH showed good agreement with theory including depth-of-interaction (DOI) effects. The DOI effect diminished the depth resolution by approximately 2 mm. Increasing the slant angle range from {+-}30{degrees} to {+-}45{degrees} resulted in an approximately 1 mm improvement in the depth resolution. In the breast phantom images, VASH showed improved contrast and SNR over conventional SPECT and improved contrast over planar scintimmammography. Reconstructed images from the proof-of-concept VASH collimator demonstrated reasonable depth resolution capabilities using limited angle projection data. Conclusion: We

  15. Breast ultrasound tomography with two parallel transducer arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lianjie; Shin, Junseob; Chen, Ting; Lin, Youzuo; Gao, Kai; Intrator, Miranda; Hanson, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    Breast ultrasound tomography is an emerging imaging modality to reconstruct the sound speed, density, and ultrasound attenuation of the breast in addition to ultrasound reflection/beamforming images for breast cancer detection and characterization. We recently designed and manufactured a new synthetic-aperture breast ultrasound tomography prototype with two parallel transducer arrays consisting of a total of 768 transducer elements. The transducer arrays are translated vertically to scan the breast in a warm water tank from the chest wall/axillary region to the nipple region to acquire ultrasound transmission and reflection data for whole-breast ultrasound tomography imaging. The distance of these two ultrasound transducer arrays is adjustable for scanning breasts with different sizes. We use our breast ultrasound tomography prototype to acquire phantom and in vivo patient ultrasound data to study its feasibility for breast imaging. We apply our recently developed ultrasound imaging and tomography algorithms to ultrasound data acquired using our breast ultrasound tomography system. Our in vivo patient imaging results demonstrate that our breast ultrasound tomography can detect breast lesions shown on clinical ultrasound and mammographic images.

  16. Breast density measurements using ultrasound tomography for patients undergoing tamoxifen treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Sherman, Mark; Boyd, Norman; Gierach, Gretchen

    2013-03-01

    Women with high breast density have an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Women treated with the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer experience a 50% reduction in risk of contralateral breast cancer and overall reduction of similar magnitude has been identified among high-risk women receiving the drug for prevention. Tamoxifen has been shown to reduce mammographic density, and in the IBIS-1 chemoprevention trial, risk reduction and decline in density were significantly associated. Ultrasound tomography (UST) is an imaging modality that can create tomographic sound speed images of the breast. These sound speed images are useful because breast density is proportional to sound speed. The aim of this work is to examine the relationship between USTmeasured breast density and the use of tamoxifen. So far, preliminary results for a small number of patients have been observed and are promising. Correlations between the UST-measured density and mammographic density are strong and positive, while relationships between UST density with some patient specific risk factors behave as expected. Initial results of UST examinations of tamoxifen treated patients show that approximately 45% of the patients have a decrease in density in the contralateral breast after only several months of treatment. The true effect of tamoxifen on UST-measured density cannot yet be fully determined until more data are collected. However, these promising results suggest that UST can be used to reliably assess quantitative changes in breast density over short intervals and therefore suggest that UST may enable rapid assessment of density changes associated with therapeutic and preventative interventions.

  17. Mono- and multimodal registration of optical breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Paul C.; Adams, Arthur; Elias, Sjoerd G.; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Viergever, Max A.; Pluim, Josien P. W.

    2012-08-01

    Optical breast imaging offers the possibility of noninvasive, low cost, and high sensitivity imaging of breast cancers. Poor spatial resolution and a lack of anatomical landmarks in optical images of the breast make interpretation difficult and motivate registration and fusion of these data with subsequent optical images and other breast imaging modalities. Methods used for registration and fusion of optical breast images are reviewed. Imaging concerns relevant to the registration problem are first highlighted, followed by a focus on both monomodal and multimodal registration of optical breast imaging. Where relevant, methods pertaining to other imaging modalities or imaged anatomies are presented. The multimodal registration discussion concerns digital x-ray mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography.

  18. Multimodal optical imaging for detecting breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rakesh; Khan, Ashraf; Wirth, Dennis; Kamionek, Michal; Kandil, Dina; Quinlan, Robert; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2012-06-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate wide-field and high-resolution multimodal optical imaging, including polarization, reflectance, and fluorescence for the intraoperative detection of breast cancer. Lumpectomy specimens were stained with 0.05 mg/ml aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB) and imaged. Wide-field reflectance images were acquired between 390 and 750 nm. Wide-field fluorescence images were excited at 640 nm and registered between 660 and 750 nm. High resolution confocal reflectance and fluorescence images were excited at 642 nm. Confocal fluorescence images were acquired between 670 nm and 710 nm. After imaging, the specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology. Histological slides were compared with wide-field and high-resolution optical images to evaluate correlation of tumor boundaries and cellular morphology, respectively. Fluorescence polarization imaging identified the location, size, and shape of the tumor in all the cases investigated. Averaged fluorescence polarization values of tumor were higher as compared to normal tissue. Statistical analysis confirmed the significance of these differences. Fluorescence confocal imaging enabled cellular-level resolution. Evaluation and statistical analysis of MB fluorescence polarization values registered from single tumor and normal cells demonstrated higher fluorescence polarization from cancer. Wide-field high-resolution fluorescence and fluorescence polarization imaging shows promise for intraoperative delineation of breast cancers.

  19. Measured sound speeds and acoustic nonlinearity parameter in liquid water up to 523 K and 14 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturtevant, Blake T.; Pantea, Cristian; Sinha, Dipen N.

    2016-07-01

    Sound speed in liquid water at temperatures between 275 and 523 K and pressures up to 14 MPa were experimentally determined using a high temperature/high pressure capable acoustic resonance cell. The measurements enabled the determination of the temperature and pressure dependence of sound speed and thus the parameter of acoustic nonlinearly, B/A, over this entire P-T space. Most of the sound speeds measured in this work were found to be within 0.4% of the IAPWS-IF97 formulation, an international standard for calculating sound speed in water as a function of temperature and pressure. The values for B/A determined at laboratory ambient pressure and at temperatures up to 356 K, were found to be in general agreement with values calculated from the IAPWS-IF97 formulation. Additionally, B/A at 293 K was found to be 4.6, in agreement with established literature values.

  20. Breast magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Bo La; Kim, Sun Mi; Jang, Mi Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Despite the high sensitivity of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pathologic confirmation by biopsy is essential because of limited specificity. MRI-guided biopsy is required in patients with lesions only seen on MRI. We review preprocedural considerations and the technique of MRI-guided biopsy, challenging situations and trouble-shooting, and correlation of radiologic and pathologic findings.

  1. Intensive sound speed monitoring in ocean and its impact on the GPS/acoustic seafloor geodetic measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Motoyuki

    2016-04-01

    GPS/acoustic (GPS/A) technique, based on GPS positioning and acoustic ranging, is now getting a popular tool to measure seafloor crustal movement. Several groups in the world have been intensively conducted campaign surveys in the region of scientifically interest. As the technology of measurement has been matured and plenty of data are accumulated, researchers are now aware of the limit of its precision mainly due to unexpected undulation of sound speed in ocean, which significantly degrades acoustic ranging. If sound speed structure keeps its figure during survey period, e.g., more than a couple of hours, it can be estimated by a moving survey to get sufficient paths from various directions to illustrate the structure. However the sound speed structure often varies quickly with in a hour due to internal gravitational wave excited by interaction of tidal current and seafloor topography. In this case one cannot separate temporal and spatial variations. We revisited our numerous sound speed profile data derived from numbers of XBT measurements, which were concurrently carried out with GPS/A survey along the Nankai Trough and Japan Trench. Among the measurements, we found notably short-period variation in sound speed profile through intensive XBT survey repeatedly cast every 6 minutes for one hour, which also appeared in residuals in traveltime of acoustic ranging. The same feature is also found in more moderate rate for semidiurnal undulation, in which vertical oscillation of the middle of the profile can be clearly seen rather than variation of absolute sound speed. This also reflects traveltime residuals in the GPS/A measurement. These typical frequencies represent dominant wavelengths of spatial sound speed variation. In the latter, local horizontal variation can be negligible in the vicinity of a point survey area and the traditional analysis can be applicable that assumes time-varying stratified sound speed structure. In the former case, on the contrary, local

  2. Verification of the helioseismology travel-time measurement technique and the inversion procedure for sound speed using artificial data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed three-dimensional numerical simulations of the solar surface acoustic wave field for the quiet Sun and for three models with different localized sound-speed perturbations in the interior with deep, shallow, and two-layer structures. We used the simulated data generated by two solar acoustics codes that employ the same standard solar model as a background model, but utilize different integration techniques and different models of stochastic wave excitation. Acoustic travel times were measured using a time-distance helioseismology technique, and compared with predictions from ray theory frequently used for helioseismic travel-time inversions. It is found that the measured travel-time shifts agree well with the helioseismic theory for sound-speed perturbations, and for the measurement procedure with and without phase-speed filtering of the oscillation signals. This testing verifies the whole measuring-filtering-inversion procedure for static sound-speed anomalies with small amplitude inside the Sun outside regions of strong magnetic field. It is shown that the phase-speed filtering, frequently used to extract specific wave packets and improve the signal-to-noise ratio, does not introduce significant systematic errors. Results of the sound-speed inversion procedure show good agreement with the perturbation models in all cases. Due to its smoothing nature, the inversion procedure may overestimate sound-speed variations in regions with sharp gradients of the sound-speed profile.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mala; Tanna, Neil; Margolies, Laurie

    2014-12-01

    Silicone breast implants have significantly evolved since their introduction half a century ago, yet implant rupture remains a common and expected complication, especially in patients with earlier-generation implants. Magnetic resonance imaging is the primary modality for assessing the integrity of silicone implants and has excellent sensitivity and specificity, and the Food and Drug Administration currently recommends periodic magnetic resonance imaging screening for silent silicone breast implant rupture. Familiarity with the types of silicone implants and potential complications is essential for the radiologist. Signs of intracapsular rupture include the noose, droplet, subcapsular line, and linguine signs. Signs of extracapsular rupture include herniation of silicone with a capsular defect and extruded silicone material. Specific sequences including water and silicone suppression are essential for distinguishing rupture from other pathologies and artifacts. Magnetic resonance imaging provides valuable information about the integrity of silicone implants and associated complications.

  4. Pitfalls of Imaging in Breast Cancer Diagnosis:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kalantari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nWith the introduction of mammography for early diagnosis of breast cancer a new horizon is created in breast cancer diagnosis. Instead of palpated easy-to-manage lesions, now the surgeon is confronted with non palpable findings on the mammogram, sometimes very difficult for decision, that highlight the importance of the role of the interventional breast radiologist in the team and surgeon-radiologist collaboration. "nThis close collaboration would eliminate many difficulties in correct cancer diagnosis, both for the radiologist and the surgeon. "nIn this study, reviewing interesting difficult cases during the last 8 years, we present all pitfalls in imaging that can be avoided in majority by team work collaboration.  

  5. MR imaging of the breast using Gd-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred selected patients underwent preoperative MR imaging of the breast Gd-DTPA. All carcinomas, fibroadenomas, and instances of mastitis enhanced significantly. Normal breast tissue, nonproliferative dysplasia, and scar tissue did not enhance. Borderline focal or generalized enhancement has been observed in cases of focal or generalized proliferative dysplasia. Compared to mammography, MR imaging yielded significant additional information in 20% of cases; the added information concerned mostly dense breasts and breasts with posttreatment changes. No additional information was obtained in fatty breasts, because of the high accuracy of mammography, and in breasts with proliferative dysplasia, because of their generalized enhancement

  6. Sound speed in the Mediterranean Sea: an analysis from a climatological data set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salon

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of sound speed distribution in the Mediterranean Sea based on climatological temperature and salinity data. In the upper layers, propagation is characterised by upward refraction in winter and an acoustic channel in summer. The seasonal cycle of the Mediterranean and the presence of gyres and fronts create a wide range of spatial and temporal variabilities, with relevant differences between the western and eastern basins. It is shown that the analysis of a climatological data set can help in defining regions suitable for successful monitoring by means of acoustic tomography. Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF decomposition on the profiles, performed on the seasonal cycle for some selected areas, demonstrates that two modes account for more than 98% of the variability of the climatological distribution. Reduced order EOF analysis is able to correctly represent sound speed profiles within each zone, thus providing the a priori knowledge for Matched Field Tomography. It is also demonstrated that salinity can affect the tomographic inversion, creating a higher degree of complexity than in the open oceans.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (marginal and semi-enclosed seas; ocean acoustics

  7. Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice: pressure waves and shear waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer

    2009-06-04

    We have measured the speed of both pressure waves and shear waves as a function of depth between 80 and 500 m depth in South Pole ice with better than 1% precision. The measurements were made using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), an array of transmitters and sensors deployed in the ice at the South Pole in order to measure the acoustic properties relevant to acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos. The transmitters and sensors use piezoceramics operating at {approx}5-25 kHz. Between 200 m and 500 m depth, the measured profile is consistent with zero variation of the sound speed with depth, resulting in zero refraction, for both pressure and shear waves. We also performed a complementary study featuring an explosive signal propagating vertically from 50 to 2250 m depth, from which we determined a value for the pressure wave speed consistent with that determined for shallower depths, higher frequencies, and horizontal propagation with the SPATS sensors. The sound speed profile presented here can be used to achieve good acoustic source position and emission time reconstruction in general, and neutrino direction and energy reconstruction in particular. The reconstructed quantities could also help separate neutrino signals from background.

  8. Ranging in an Underwater Medium with Multiple Isogradient Sound Speed Profile Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ramezani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the problem of acoustic ranging between sensor nodes in an underwater environment. The underwater medium is assumed to be composed of multiple isogradient sound speed profile (SSP layers where in each layer the sound speed is linearly related to the depth. Furthermore, each sensor node is able to measure its depth and can exchange this information with other nodes. Under these assumptions, we first show how the problem of underwater localization can be converted to the traditional range-based terrestrial localization problem when the depth information of the nodes is known a priori. Second, we relate the pair-wise time of flight (ToF measurements between the nodes to their positions. Next, based on this relation, we propose a novel ranging algorithm for an underwater medium. The proposed ranging algorithm considers reflections from the seabed and sea surface. We will show that even without any reflections, the transmitted signal may travel through more than one path between two given nodes. The proposed algorithm analyzes them and selects the fastest one (first arrival path based on the measured ToF and the nodes’ depth measurements. Finally, in order to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm we run several simulations and compare the results with other existing algorithms.

  9. An introduction to microwave imaging for breast cancer detection

    CERN Document Server

    Conceição, Raquel Cruz; O'Halloran, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book collates past and current research on one of the most promising emerging modalities for breast cancer detection. Readers will discover how, as a standalone technology or in conjunction with another modality, microwave imaging has the potential to provide reliable, safe and comfortable breast exams at low cost. Current breast imaging modalities include X- ray, Ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Positron Emission Tomography. Each of these methods suffers from limitations, including poor sensitivity or specificity, high cost, patient discomfort, and exposure to potentially harmful ionising radiation. Microwave breast imaging is based on a contrast in the dielectric properties of breast tissue that exists at microwave frequencies. The book begins by considering the anatomy and dielectric properties of the breast, contrasting historical and recent studies. Next, radar-based breast imaging algorithms are discussed, encompassing both early-stage artefact removal, and data independent and adaptive ...

  10. Computerized detection of breast cancer on automated breast ultrasound imaging of women with dense breasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drukker, Karen, E-mail: kdrukker@uchicago.edu; Sennett, Charlene A.; Giger, Maryellen L. [Department of Radiology, MC2026, The University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection method and investigate its feasibility for detection of breast cancer in automated 3D ultrasound images of women with dense breasts. Methods: The HIPAA compliant study involved a dataset of volumetric ultrasound image data, “views,” acquired with an automated U-Systems Somo•V{sup ®} ABUS system for 185 asymptomatic women with dense breasts (BI-RADS Composition/Density 3 or 4). For each patient, three whole-breast views (3D image volumes) per breast were acquired. A total of 52 patients had breast cancer (61 cancers), diagnosed through any follow-up at most 365 days after the original screening mammogram. Thirty-one of these patients (32 cancers) had a screening-mammogram with a clinically assigned BI-RADS Assessment Category 1 or 2, i.e., were mammographically negative. All software used for analysis was developed in-house and involved 3 steps: (1) detection of initial tumor candidates, (2) characterization of candidates, and (3) elimination of false-positive candidates. Performance was assessed by calculating the cancer detection sensitivity as a function of the number of “marks” (detections) per view. Results: At a single mark per view, i.e., six marks per patient, the median detection sensitivity by cancer was 50.0% (16/32) ± 6% for patients with a screening mammogram-assigned BI-RADS category 1 or 2—similar to radiologists’ performance sensitivity (49.9%) for this dataset from a prior reader study—and 45.9% (28/61) ± 4% for all patients. Conclusions: Promising detection sensitivity was obtained for the computer on a 3D ultrasound dataset of women with dense breasts at a rate of false-positive detections that may be acceptable for clinical implementation.

  11. Molecular Imaging of Biomarkers in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaner, Gary A.; Riedl, Chris C.; Dickler, Maura N.; Jhaveri, Komal; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Weber, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The success of breast cancer therapy is ultimately defined by clinical endpoints such as survival. It is valuable to have biomarkers that can predict the most efficacious therapies or measure response to therapy early in the course of treatment. Molecular imaging has a promising role in complementing and overcoming some of the limitations of traditional biomarkers by providing the ability to perform noninvasive, repeatable whole-body assessments. The potential advantages of imaging biomarkers are obvious and initial clinical studies have been promising, but proof of clinical utility still requires prospective multicenter clinical trials. PMID:26834103

  12. Issues to consider before implementing digital breast tomosynthesis into a breast imaging practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Lara A

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to discuss issues surrounding the implementation of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) into a clinical breast imaging practice and assist radiologists, technologists, and administrators who are considering the addition of this new technology to their practices. CONCLUSION. When appropriate attention is given to image acquisition, interpretation, storage, technologist and radiologist training, patient selection, billing, radiation dose, and marketing, implementation of DBT into a breast imaging practice can be successful.

  13. Using Data Fusion to Characterize Breast Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littrup, P; Duric, N; Leach, R R; Azevedo, S G; Candy, J V; Moore, T; Chambers, D H; Mast, J E; Johnson, S A; Holsapple, E

    2002-01-23

    New ultrasound data, obtained with a circular experimental scanner, are compared with data obtained with standard X-ray CT. Ultrasound data obtained by scanning fixed breast tissue were used to generate images of sound speed and reflectivity. The ultrasound images exhibit approximately 1 mm resolution and about 20 dB of dynamic range. All data were obtained in a circular geometry. X-ray CT scans were used to generate X-ray images corresponding to the same 'slices' obtained with the ultrasound scanner. The good match of sensitivity, resolution and angular coverage between the ultrasound and X-ray data makes possible a direct comparison of the three types of images. We present the results of such a comparison for an excised breast fixed in formalin. The results are presented visually using various types of data fusion. A general correspondence between the sound speed, reflectivity and X-ray morphologies is found. The degree to which data fusion can help characterize tissue is assessed by examining the quantitative correlations between the ultrasound and X-ray images.

  14. Molecular breast imaging with gamma emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, O; Spanu, A; Danieli, R; Madeddu, G

    2013-12-01

    Following a diagnosis of breast cancer (BC), the early detection of local recurrence is important to define appropriate therapeutic strategies and increase the chances of a cure. In fact, despite major progress in surgical treatment, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy protocols, tumor recurrence is still a major problem. Moreover, the diagnosis of recurrence with conventional imaging methods can be difficult as a result of the presence of scar tissue. Molecular breast imaging (MBI) with gamma-ray emitting radiotracers may be very useful in this clinical setting, because it is not affected by the post-therapy morphologic changes. This review summarises the applications of 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-tetrofosmin, the two most employed gamma emitter radiopharmaceuticals for MBI, in the diagnosis of local disease recurrence in patients with BC. The main limitation of MBI using conventional gamma-cameras is the low sensitivity for small BCs. The recent development of hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography devices and especially of high-resolution specific breast cameras can improve the detection rate of sub-centimetric malignant lesions. Nevertheless, probably only the large availability of dedicated cameras will allow the clinical acceptance of MBI as useful complementary diagnostic technique in BC recurrence. The possible role of MBI with specific cameras in monitoring the local response of BC to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is also briefly discussed. PMID:24322791

  15. Self-assembled levan nanoparticles for targeted breast cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Jung; Bae, Pan Kee; Chung, Bong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    We report on the targeted imaging of breast cancer using self-assembled levan nanoparticles. Indocyanine green (ICG) was encapsulated in levan nanoparticles via self-assembly. Levan-ICG nanoparticles were found to be successfully accumulated in breast cancer via specific interaction between fructose moieties in levan and overexpressed glucose transporter 5 in breast cancer cells. PMID:25383444

  16. Inversion for sound speed profile in shallow water using matched-beam processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhongbing; MA Yuanliang; YANG Kunde; YAN Shefeng

    2004-01-01

    To quickly obtain the sound speed profile (SSP) in shallow water by inversion methods, an inversion scheme for SSP in shallow water using matched-beam processing (MBI) is developed. The cost function of MBI is based on matched-beam concept. It is verified experimentally that MBI is feasible and superior in comparison to conventional matched-field inversion (MFI) by using the East China Sea Experiment data. The SSP inverted by MBI using the wide-band explosion signals is in good agreement with the results measured based on conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) in the experiment. And the root of mean square error of the inverted SSP is less than 2 m/s. Research results have shown that MBI is robust with respect to the sediment parameters mismatch. And SSP in shallow water can be more quickly obtained by MBI than by MFI.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON SOUND SPEED PROPAGATING THROUGH HIGH SPEED AERATED FLOW IN OPEN CHANNEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An experiment concerning the sound propaga-tion in aerated open channel flow was designed and conductedin a variable slope chute. The acquisition of sound data wasdone by the hydro-phones installed into the bottom wall of thechute. The data were analyzed and processed by the tape re-corder and a 3562A analyzer. The primary experimetal resultsindicated that the sound speed in aerated flow is varied with the air concentration and highly lower than each of the soundspeed in pure water or air. As released by the derived theoryformula, the minimum sound of 24m/s in aerated flow hap-pened when the air concentration achieved to 50%. This resultshows that the compressibility of high speed aerated flowshould be considered when the air concentration is near to50%. A criterion of compressibility of high speed aerated flowwas also giv. En in this paper.

  18. Non-Gaussianity in multi-sound-speed disformally coupled inflation

    CERN Document Server

    van de Bruck, Carsten; Longden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Most, if not all, scalar-tensor theories are equivalent to General Relativity with a disformally coupled matter sector. In extra-dimensional theories such a coupling can be understood as a result of induction of the metric on a brane that matter is confined to. This article presents a first look at the non-Gaussianities in disformally coupled inflation, a simple two-field model that features a novel kinetic interaction. Cases with both canonical and Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) kinetic terms are taken into account, the latter motivated by the possible extra-dimensional origin of the disformality. The computations are carried out for the equilateral configuration in the slow-roll regime, wherein it is found that the non-Gaussianity is typically rather small and negative. This is despite the fact that the new kinetic interaction causes the perturbation modes to propagate with different sounds speeds, which may both significantly deviate from unity during inflation.

  19. GRB Energies and Eγ - Epeak Correlation with the Jet Expanding Laterally at the Sound Speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A Gamma-ray burst (GRB) is generally believed to be a jet with a small opening angle, this opening angle is usually derived with the afterglow light curve break time using an analytical method. Here we show that the method is not accurate. Using the set of equations of hydrodynamic evolution with the sideways expansion at the local sound speed derived by previous authors and the observed light curve break times, we numerically derive the initial opening angles. Then the collimation-corrected energies (Eγ) for a sample of GRBs are calculated. They are found to show a wide spread, suggesting that the previously declared clustering by some authors may not exist. Also, the Epeak - Eγ relation, claimed by some other authors (Epeak is the spectral peak energy), is found still to hold, with a slightly stronger correlation.

  20. High resolution PET breast imager with improved detection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw

    2010-06-08

    A highly efficient PET breast imager for detecting lesions in the entire breast including those located close to the patient's chest wall. The breast imager includes a ring of imaging modules surrounding the imaged breast. Each imaging module includes a slant imaging light guide inserted between a gamma radiation sensor and a photodetector. The slant light guide permits the gamma radiation sensors to be placed in close proximity to the skin of the chest wall thereby extending the sensitive region of the imager to the base of the breast. Several types of photodetectors are proposed for use in the detector modules, with compact silicon photomultipliers as the preferred choice, due to its high compactness. The geometry of the detector heads and the arrangement of the detector ring significantly reduce dead regions thereby improving detection efficiency for lesions located close to the chest wall.

  1. Ultrasound imaging of the lactating breast: methodology and application

    OpenAIRE

    Geddes Donna T

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Ultrasound imaging has been used extensively to detect abnormalities of the non-lactating breast. In contrast, the use of ultrasound for the investigation of pathology of the lactating breast is limited. Recent studies have re-examined the anatomy of the lactating breast highlighting features unique to this phase of breast development. These features should be taken into consideration along with knowledge of common lactation pathologies in order to make an accurate diagnosis when exa...

  2. Breast imaging technology: Probing physiology and molecular function using optical imaging - applications to breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present review addresses the capacity of optical imaging to resolve functional and molecular characteristics of breast cancer. We focus on recent developments in optical imaging that allow three-dimensional reconstruction of optical signatures in the human breast using diffuse optical tomography (DOT). These technologic advances allow the noninvasive, in vivo imaging and quantification of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and of contrast agents that target the physiologic and molecular functions of tumors. Hence, malignancy differentiation can be based on a novel set of functional features that are complementary to current radiologic imaging methods. These features could enhance diagnostic accuracy, lower the current state-of-the-art detection limits, and play a vital role in therapeutic strategy and monitoring

  3. The imaging features of MACROLANETM in breast augmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacrolaneTM is an injectable, biocompatible, soft-tissue filler that has been available in the UK since 2008 and is promoted for use in breast augmentation. There are few data available on the long-term effects of this relatively new product and concerns have been raised about the implications for breast imaging, in particular breast screening. In this context we present a spectrum of imaging appearances and complications encountered to date.

  4. Acoustic metafluid with anisotropic mass density and tunable sound speed: An approach based on suspensions of orientable anisotropic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitel, Mark; Tse, Stephen; Shan, Jerry

    2011-11-01

    We investigate liquid suspensions of micron-scale, anisotropic particles as potential acoustic metafluids having anisotropic and actively controllable acoustic properties. The effective mass density (and hence the sound propagation speed) of these metafluids can vary because the added mass of an anisotropic particle suspended in the fluid changes with the particle's orientation relative to the direction of the wave propagation. A suspension with disc-like particles oriented broadside to the direction of wave propagation is thus expected to have higher effective inertia and lower sound speed than a suspension with particles with end-on alignment. To test these predictions, sound speed is measured with a time-of-flight method in suspensions of micron-size nickel flakes suspended in oil, with and without magnetic-field-induced alignment of the particles. The sound speed, relative to the unaligned case, is found to decrease for particles oriented broadside to the sound wave, and increase for edgewise alignment. We also investigate the frequency dependence of the effective sound speed, since the added mass effect is expected to diminish as the flow becomes steady at low frequencies. The experimental results are compared to the predictions of a model proposed by Ahuja & Hardee (J. Acoust. Soc. Am 1978) for the acoustic properties of aligned oblate-spheroid suspensions.

  5. A Comparative Study of Sound Speed in Air at Room Temperature between a Pressure Sensor and a Sound Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of sound speed measurements in air using two types of sensor that are widely employed in physics and engineering education, namely a pressure sensor and a sound sensor. A computer-based laboratory with pressure and sound sensors was used to carry out measurements of air through a 60 ml syringe. The fast Fourier…

  6. The current status of imaging diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the incidence and the mortality rate of female breast cancer in our country is increasing, Early diagnosis of breast cancer is particularly important. Precious preoperative staging in the breast cancer is advantageous for the treatment planning. Evaluating the efficacy of chemotherapy is beneficial for adjusting the follow-up plan. Imaging examination has become an important role in breast cancer management. At present, commonly used equipment include mammography, ultrasound, CT, and MRI, etc. This article reviews the present study status of these tools in diagnosis of breast cancer. A reasonable and effective choice of those tools can facilitate clinic diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  7. Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Breast: Imaging Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eun Deok [Department of Clinical Pathology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu 480-717 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Kyun [Department of Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu 480-717 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Soo [Department of Surgery, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu 480-717 (Korea, Republic of); Whang, In Yong [Department of Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu 480-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Focal neuroendocrine differentiation can be found in diverse histological types of breast tumors. However, the term, neuroendocrine breast tumor, indicates the diffuse expression of neuroendocrine markers in more than 50% of the tumor cell population. The imaging features of neuroendocrine breast tumor have not been accurately described due to extreme rarity of this tumor type. We present a case of a pathologically confirmed, primary neuroendocrine breast tumor in a 42-year-old woman, with imaging findings difficult to be differentiated from that of invasive ductal carcinoma.

  8. Breast cancer imaging: A perspective for the next decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karellas, Andrew; Vedantham, Srinivasan [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Breast imaging is largely indicated for detection, diagnosis, and clinical management of breast cancer and for evaluation of the integrity of breast implants. In this work, a prospective view of techniques for breast cancer detection and diagnosis is provided based on an assessment of current trends. The potential role of emerging techniques that are under various stages of research and development is also addressed. It appears that the primary imaging tool for breast cancer screening in the next decade will be high-resolution, high-contrast, anatomical x-ray imaging with or without depth information. MRI and ultrasonography will have an increasingly important adjunctive role for imaging high-risk patients and women with dense breasts. Pilot studies with dedicated breast CT have demonstrated high-resolution three-dimensional imaging capabilities, but several technological barriers must be overcome before clinical adoption. Radionuclide based imaging techniques and x-ray imaging with intravenously injected contrast offer substantial potential as a diagnostic tools and for evaluation of suspicious lesions. Developing optical and electromagnetic imaging techniques hold significant potential for physiologic information and they are likely to be of most value when integrated with or adjunctively used with techniques that provide anatomic information. Experimental studies with breast specimens suggest that phase-sensitive x-ray imaging techniques can provide edge enhancement and contrast improvement but more research is needed to evaluate their potential role in clinical breast imaging. From the technological perspective, in addition to improvements within each modality, there is likely to be a trend towards multi-modality systems that combine anatomic with physiologic information. We are also likely to transition from a standardized screening, where all women undergo the same imaging exam (mammography), to selection of a screening modality or modalities based an

  9. A model-based method for reducing the sound speed induced errors in multi-beam echo-sounder bathymetric measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellen, M.; Siemes, K.; Simons, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for accurately estimating the bathymetry from multi-beam echo-sounder (MBES) travel-time measurements in environments with large variations in the water column sound speeds (both temporally and spatially). In this type of environments the water column sound speeds at the time of

  10. The Constant-Sound-Speed parameterization for NJL models of quark matter in hybrid stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ranea-Sandoval, Ignacio F; Orsaria, Milva G; Contrera, Gustavo A; Weber, Fridolin; Alford, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of pulsars as heavy as 2 solar masses has led astrophysicists to rethink the core compositions of neutron stars, ruling out many models for the nuclear equations of state (EoS). We explore the hybrid stars that occur when hadronic matter is treated in a relativistic mean-field approximation and quark matter is modeled by three-flavor local and non-local Nambu Jona-Lasinio (NJL) models with repulsive vector interactions. The NJL models typically yield equations of state that feature a first order transition to quark matter. Assuming that the quark-hadron surface tension is high enough to disfavour mixed phases, and restricting to EoSes that allow stars to reach 2 solar masses, we find that the appearance of the quark matter core either destabilizes the star immediately (this is typical for non-local NJL models) or leads to a very short hybrid star branch in the mass-radius relation (this is typical for local NJL models). Using the Constant-Sound-Speed parametrization we can see that the reason fo...

  11. Determination of volume fractions in two-phase flows from sound speed measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Anirban [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Osterhoudt, Curtis F. [University of Alaska

    2012-08-15

    Accurate measurement of the composition of oil-water emulsions within the process environment is a challenging problem in the oil industry. Ultrasonic techniques are promising because they are non-invasive and can penetrate optically opaque mixtures. This paper presents a method of determining the volume fractions of two immiscible fluids in a homogenized two-phase flow by measuring the speed of sound through the composite fluid along with the instantaneous temperature. Two separate algorithms are developed by representing the composite density as (i) a linear combination of the two densities, and (ii) a non-linear fractional formulation. Both methods lead to a quadratic equation with temperature dependent coefficients, the root of which yields the volume fraction. The densities and sound speeds are calibrated at various temperatures for each fluid component, and the fitted polynomial is used in the final algorithm. We present results when the new algorithm is applied to mixtures of crude oil and process water from two different oil fields, and a comparison of our results with a Coriolis meter; the difference between mean values is less than 1%. Analytical and numerical studies of sensitivity of the calculated volume fraction to temperature changes and calibration errors are also presented.

  12. Sound speed of scalar field dark energy: weak effects and large uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Sergijenko, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of reconstruction of Lagrangian for the scalar field dark energy with constant effective sound speed $c_s$ is analyzed. The value of $c_s$ is estimated together with other dark energy parameters ($\\Omega_{de}$, $w_0$, $c_a^2$) and rest of cosmological parameters on the basis of data including Planck-2013 results on CMB anisotropy, BAO distance ratios from recent galaxy surveys, magnitude-redshift relations for distant SNe Ia from SNLS3 and Union2.1 compilations and the HST determination of the Hubble constant. For main dark energy and cosmological parameters the following best-fit values and 2$\\sigma$ confidence limits are obtained: $\\Omega_{de}=0.723^{+0.018}_{-0.025}$, $w_0=-1.176^{+0.141}_{-0.128}$, $c_a^2=-1.509^{+0.370}_{-0.102}$, $\\Omega_bh^2=0.0221\\pm0.0005$, $\\Omega_{cdm}h^2=0.119^{+0.005}_{-0.003}$, $h=0.715^{+0.026}_{-0.028}$, $n_s=0.962^{+0.010}_{-0.014}$, $A_s=(2.209^{+0.102}_{-0.112})\\cdot10^{-9}$, $\\tau_{rei}=0.093^{+0.022}_{-0.029}$. It is shown that no value of $c_s$ from the r...

  13. A review of biomechanically informed breast image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, John H.; Vavourakis, Vasileios; Han, Lianghao; Mertzanidou, Thomy; Eiben, Björn; Hawkes, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Breast radiology encompasses the full range of imaging modalities from routine imaging via x-ray mammography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound (both two- and three-dimensional), to more recent technologies such as digital breast tomosynthesis, and dedicated breast imaging systems for positron emission mammography and ultrasound tomography. In addition new and experimental modalities, such as Photoacoustics, Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Electrical Impedance Tomography etc, are emerging. The breast is a highly deformable structure however, and this greatly complicates visual comparison of imaging modalities for the purposes of breast screening, cancer diagnosis (including image guided biopsy), tumour staging, treatment monitoring, surgical planning and simulation of the effects of surgery and wound healing etc. Due primarily to the challenges posed by these gross, non-rigid deformations, development of automated methods which enable registration, and hence fusion, of information within and across breast imaging modalities, and between the images and the physical space of the breast during interventions, remains an active research field which has yet to translate suitable methods into clinical practice. This review describes current research in the field of breast biomechanical modelling and identifies relevant publications where the resulting models have been incorporated into breast image registration and simulation algorithms. Despite these developments there remain a number of issues that limit clinical application of biomechanical modelling. These include the accuracy of constitutive modelling, implementation of representative boundary conditions, failure to meet clinically acceptable levels of computational cost, challenges associated with automating patient-specific model generation (i.e. robust image segmentation and mesh generation) and the complexity of applying biomechanical modelling methods in routine clinical practice.

  14. Ultrasound imaging of the lactating breast: methodology and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geddes Donna T

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ultrasound imaging has been used extensively to detect abnormalities of the non-lactating breast. In contrast, the use of ultrasound for the investigation of pathology of the lactating breast is limited. Recent studies have re-examined the anatomy of the lactating breast highlighting features unique to this phase of breast development. These features should be taken into consideration along with knowledge of common lactation pathologies in order to make an accurate diagnosis when examining the lactating breast. Scanning techniques and ultrasound appearances of the normal lactating breast will be contrasted to those of the non-lactating breast. In addition ultrasound characteristics of common pathologies encountered during lactation will be described.

  15. Micropapillary Lung Cancer with Breast Metastasis Simulating Primary Breast Cancer due to Architectural Distortion on Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Ran; Hong, Eun Kyung; Lee, See Yeon [Center for Breast Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Ro, Jae Yoon [The Methodist Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Houston (United States)

    2012-03-15

    A 47-year-old Korean woman with right middle lobe lung adenocarcinoma, malignant pleural effusion, and multiple lymph node and bone metastases, after three months of lung cancer diagnosis, presented with a palpable right breast mass. Images of the right breast demonstrated architectural distortion that strongly suggested primary breast cancer. Breast biopsy revealed metastatic lung cancer with a negative result for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and mammaglobin, and a positive result for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). We present a case of breast metastasis from a case of lung cancer with an extensive micropapillary component, which was initially misinterpreted as a primary breast cancer due to unusual image findings with architectural distortion.

  16. Advances in Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Breast Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S; Vogel, A J; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2006-01-03

    A review is presented of recent advances in optical imaging and spectroscopy and the use of light for addressing breast cancer issues. Spectroscopic techniques offer the means to characterize tissue components and obtain functional information in real time. Three-dimensional optical imaging of the breast using various illumination and signal collection schemes in combination with image reconstruction algorithms may provide a new tool for cancer detection and monitoring of treatment.

  17. Breast Imaging in Evaluation of Breast Cancer: Radiologist’s Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Sedighi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In every breast imaging, the radiologist confronts these questions:"n1. Finding the lesion"n2. Is the lesion real?"n3. Where the pathology lies"n4. What the lesion is "n5. What should be done about it?"nThe major objective in breast imaging is the detection of breast cancers at a small size and early stage in an effort to reduce mortality."nSome conditions limit evaluation of breast cancer imaging."nWhen additional mammographic views or ultrasound are unable to triangulate the location of a lesion, computed tomography can be very helpful for locating lesions three dimensionally. MRI with and without contrast is the other modality for evaluation of problematic cases or ambiguous findings in other modalities."nImplants present a problem for breast imaging in that they may prevent optimal visualization of the tissues."nA focal asymmetric density may merely represent an island of breast tissue. DCIS, with or without calcification, and metastatic axillary lymph nodes in a normal mammogram are some of the problematic cases of breast cancer."nThis presentation is expected to include real cases of breast cancer with the above-mentioned problems or unusual manifestations, which are resolved by a combination of different imaging modalities.    

  18. Interference of breast implants with echocardiographic image acquisition and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Movahed Mohammad-Reza

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Echocardiography is one of the most important diagnostic testing in cardiology. The presence of a breast implant overlying heart can cause significant impairment of the echocardiographic acoustic window. Breast implants are increasing in popularity in the USA and the Federal Drug and Food Administration (FDA just approved silicone implants again. In this review, the impact of silicone breast implant on the echocardiographic image acquisition and interpretation is discussed.

  19. Breast CT image simulation framework for optimisation of lesion visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, O; Elangovan, P.; Wells, K.; Enshaeifar, S; Veale, MC; Wilson, MD; Seller, P; Cernik, R; Pani, S.

    2013-01-01

    Although X-ray mammography is the gold standard technique for breast cancer detection, it suffers from limitations due to tissue superposition which could either obscure or mimic a breast lesion. Dedicated breast computed-tomography (BrCT) represents an alternative technology with the potential to overcome these limitations. However, this technology is still under investigation in order to study and improve certain parameters (e.g. dose, scattered radiation, etc.). In this work, an image simu...

  20. Sound speed based patient-specific biomechanical modeling for registration of USCT volumes with X-ray mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, T.; Stromboni, A.; Duric, N.; Zapf, M.; Gemmeke, H.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasound Computer Tomography is an upcoming imaging modality for early breast cancer detection. For evaluation of the method, comparison with the standard method X-ray mammography is of strongest interest. To overcome the significant differences in dimensionality and compression state of the breast, in earlier work a registration method based on biomechanical modeling of the breast was proposed. However only homogeneous models could be applied, i.e. inner structures of the breast were neglected. In this work we extend the biomechanical modeling of the breast by estimating patient-specific tissue parameters automatically from the speed of sound volume. Two heterogeneous models are proposed modeling a quadratic and an exponential relationship between speed of sound and tissue stiffness. The models were evaluated using phantom images and clinical data. The size of all lesions is better preserved using heterogeneous models, especially using an exponential relationship. The presented approach yields promising results and gives a physical justification to our registration method. It can be considered as a first step towards a realistic modeling of the breast.

  1. Optimal laser wavelength for photoacoustic imaging of breast microcalcifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeeun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Young Kwak, Jin; Yoo, Yangmo; Song, Tai-Kyong; Ho Chang, Jin

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents photoacoustic imaging (PAI) for real-time detection of micro-scale calcifications (e.g., <1 mm) in the breast, which are an indicator of the cancer occurrence. Optimal wavelength of incident laser for the microcalcification imaging was ascertained through ex vivo experiments with seven breast specimens of volunteers. In the ex vivo experiments, the maximum amplitude of photoacoustic signals from the microcalcifications occurred when the laser wavelength ranged from 690 to 700 nm. This result demonstrated that PAI can serve as a real-time imaging and guidance tool for diagnosis and biopsy of the breast microcalcifications.

  2. Three-dimensional digital breast histopathology imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, G. M.; Peressotti, C.; Mawdsley, G. E.; Eidt, S.; Ge, M.; Morgan, T.; Zubovits, J. T.; Yaffe, M. J.

    2005-04-01

    We have developed a digital histology imaging system that has the potential to improve the accuracy of surgical margin assessment in the treatment of breast cancer by providing finer sampling and 3D visualization. The system is capable of producing a 3D representation of histopathology from an entire lumpectomy specimen. We acquire digital photomicrographs of a stack of large (120 x 170 mm) histology slides cut serially through the entire specimen. The images are then registered and displayed in 2D and 3D. This approach dramatically improves sampling and can improve visualization of tissue structures compared to current, small-format histology. The system consists of a brightfield microscope, adapted with a freeze-frame digital video camera and a large, motorized translation stage. The image of each slide is acquired as a mosaic of adjacent tiles, each tile representing one field-of-view of the microscope, and the mosaic is assembled into a seamless composite image. The assembly is done by a program developed to build image sets at six different levels within a multiresolution pyramid. A database-linked viewing program has been created to efficiently register and display the animated stack of images, which occupies about 80 GB of disk space per lumpectomy at full resolution, on a high-resolution (3840 x 2400 pixels) colour monitor. The scanning or tiling approach to digitization is inherently susceptible to two artefacts which disrupt the composite image, and which impose more stringent requirements on system performance. Although non-uniform illumination across any one isolated tile may not be discernible, the eye readily detects this non-uniformity when the entire assembly of tiles is viewed. The pattern is caused by deficiencies in optical alignment, spectrum of the light source, or camera corrections. The imaging task requires that features as small as 3.2 &mum in extent be seamlessly preserved. However, inadequate accuracy in positioning of the translation

  3. Breast Imaging: How We Manage Diagnostic Technology at a Multidisciplinary Breast Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Tejerina Bernal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the most important aspects and problems related to the management of breast cancer imaging, at a center specialized in breast pathology. We review the established and emerging diagnostic techniques, their indications, and peculiarities: digital mammography, CAD systems, and the recent digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound and complementary elastography, molecular imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging, advanced sequences (diffusion, and positron emission mammography (PEM. The adequate integration and rational management of these techniques is essential, but this is not always easy, in order to achieve a successful diagnosis.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: A clinicial perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Edge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in screening for breast cancer and its use after the diagnosis of breast cancer is discussed. The topic is enormous, with over 5 000 papers published in the last 10 years. In this précis, we focused on articles that examine its clinical relevance. We did not look at economic factors.

  5. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.; Brussel, A.S. van; Groep, P. van der; Morsink, F.H.; Bult, P.; Wall, E. van der; Diest, P.J. van

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers m

  6. Generation of anatomically realistic numerical phantoms for optoacoustic breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Mitsuhashi, Kenji; Appleton, Catherine M.; Oraevsky, Alexander; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    Because optoacoustic tomography (OAT) can provide functional information based on hemoglobin contrast, it is a promising imaging modality for breast cancer diagnosis. Developing an effective OAT breast imaging system requires balancing multiple design constraints, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, computer- simulation studies are often conducted to facilitate this task. However, most existing computer-simulation studies of OAT breast imaging employ simple phantoms such as spheres or cylinders that over-simplify the complex anatomical structures in breasts, thus limiting the value of these studies in guiding real-world system design. In this work, we propose a method to generate realistic numerical breast phantoms for OAT research based on clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The phantoms include a skin layer that defines breast-air boundary, major vessel branches that affect light absorption in the breast, and fatty tissue and fibroglandular tissue whose acoustical heterogeneity perturbs acoustic wave propagation. By assigning realistic optical and acoustic parameters to different tissue types, we establish both optic and acoustic breast phantoms, which will be exported into standard data formats for cross-platform usage.

  7. Image-guided breast biopsy: state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Flynn, E.A.M., E-mail: lizoflynn@doctors.org.u [South East London Breast Screening Programme and National Breast Screening Training Centre, Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Wilson, A.R.M.; Michell, M.J. [South East London Breast Screening Programme and National Breast Screening Training Centre, Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Percutaneous image-guided breast biopsy is widely practised to evaluate predominantly non-palpable breast lesions. There has been steady development in percutaneous biopsy techniques. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was the original method of sampling, followed in the early 1990s by large core needle biopsy. The accuracy of both has been improved by ultrasound and stereotactic guidance. Larger bore vacuum-assisted biopsy devices became available in the late 1990s and are now commonplace in most breast units. We review the different types of breast biopsy devices currently available together with various localization techniques used, focusing on their advantages, limitations and current controversial clinical management issues.

  8. Image-guided breast biopsy: state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, E A M; Wilson, A R M; Michell, M J

    2010-04-01

    Percutaneous image-guided breast biopsy is widely practised to evaluate predominantly non-palpable breast lesions. There has been steady development in percutaneous biopsy techniques. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was the original method of sampling, followed in the early 1990s by large core needle biopsy. The accuracy of both has been improved by ultrasound and stereotactic guidance. Larger bore vacuum-assisted biopsy devices became available in the late 1990s and are now commonplace in most breast units. We review the different types of breast biopsy devices currently available together with various localization techniques used, focusing on their advantages, limitations and current controversial clinical management issues. PMID:20338392

  9. Image-guided breast biopsy: state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous image-guided breast biopsy is widely practised to evaluate predominantly non-palpable breast lesions. There has been steady development in percutaneous biopsy techniques. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was the original method of sampling, followed in the early 1990s by large core needle biopsy. The accuracy of both has been improved by ultrasound and stereotactic guidance. Larger bore vacuum-assisted biopsy devices became available in the late 1990s and are now commonplace in most breast units. We review the different types of breast biopsy devices currently available together with various localization techniques used, focusing on their advantages, limitations and current controversial clinical management issues.

  10. Probing Sound Speed of an Optically-Trapped Bose Gas with Periodically Modulated Interactions by Bragg Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lei; Li, Wu; Chen, Zhu; Zhang, Zhidong; Liang, Zhaoxin

    2014-01-01

    A Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with periodically modulated interactions (PMI) has emerged as a novel kind of periodic superfluid, which has been recently experimentally created using optical Feshbach resonance. In this paper, we are motivated to investigate the superfluidity of a BEC with PMI trapped in an optical lattice (OL). In particular, we explore the effects of PMI on the sound speed and the dynamical structure factor of the model system. Our numerical results, combined with the anal...

  11. Imaging dose in breast radiotherapy: does breast size affect the dose to the organs at risk and the risk of secondary cancer to the contralateral breast?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correct target positioning is crucial for accurate dose delivery in breast radiotherapy resulting in utilisation of daily imaging. However, the radiation dose from daily imaging is associated with increased probability of secondary induced cancer. The aim of this study was to quantify doses associated with three imaging modalities and investigate the correlation of dose and varying breast size in breast radiotherapy. Planning computed tomography (CT) data sets of 30 breast cancer patients were utilised to simulate the dose received by various organs from a megavoltage computed tomography (MV-CT), megavoltage electronic portal image (MV-EPI) and megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT). The mean dose to organs adjacent to the target volume (contralateral breast, lungs, spinal cord and heart) were analysed. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between imaging dose and primary breast volume and the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of induced secondary cancer was calculated for the contralateral breast. The highest contralateral breast mean dose was from the MV-CBCT (1.79 Gy), followed by MV-EPI (0.22 Gy) and MV-CT (0.11 Gy). A similar trend was found for all organs at risk (OAR) analysed. The primary breast volume inversely correlated with the contralateral breast dose for all three imaging modalities. As the primary breast volume increases, the likelihood of a patient developing a radiation-induced secondary cancer to the contralateral breast decreases. MV-CBCT showed a stronger relationship between breast size and LAR of developing a radiation-induced contralateral breast cancer in comparison with the MV-CT and MV-EPI. For breast patients, imaging dose to OAR depends on imaging modality and treated breast size. When considering the use of imaging during breast radiotherapy, the patient's breast size and contralateral breast dose should be taken into account

  12. Imaging dose in breast radiotherapy: does breast size affect the dose to the organs at risk and the risk of secondary cancer to the contralateral breast?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batumalai, Vikneswary, E-mail: vikneswary.batumalai@sswahs.nsw.gov.au [Liverpool Cancer Therapy Centre and Ingham Institute, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); South Western Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Quinn, Alexandra; Jameson, Michael [Liverpool Cancer Therapy Centre and Ingham Institute, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia); Delaney, Geoff [Liverpool Cancer Therapy Centre and Ingham Institute, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); South Western Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Collaboration for Cancer Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Holloway, Lois [Liverpool Cancer Therapy Centre and Ingham Institute, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); South Western Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia); School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-03-15

    Correct target positioning is crucial for accurate dose delivery in breast radiotherapy resulting in utilisation of daily imaging. However, the radiation dose from daily imaging is associated with increased probability of secondary induced cancer. The aim of this study was to quantify doses associated with three imaging modalities and investigate the correlation of dose and varying breast size in breast radiotherapy. Planning computed tomography (CT) data sets of 30 breast cancer patients were utilised to simulate the dose received by various organs from a megavoltage computed tomography (MV-CT), megavoltage electronic portal image (MV-EPI) and megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT). The mean dose to organs adjacent to the target volume (contralateral breast, lungs, spinal cord and heart) were analysed. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between imaging dose and primary breast volume and the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of induced secondary cancer was calculated for the contralateral breast. The highest contralateral breast mean dose was from the MV-CBCT (1.79 Gy), followed by MV-EPI (0.22 Gy) and MV-CT (0.11 Gy). A similar trend was found for all organs at risk (OAR) analysed. The primary breast volume inversely correlated with the contralateral breast dose for all three imaging modalities. As the primary breast volume increases, the likelihood of a patient developing a radiation-induced secondary cancer to the contralateral breast decreases. MV-CBCT showed a stronger relationship between breast size and LAR of developing a radiation-induced contralateral breast cancer in comparison with the MV-CT and MV-EPI. For breast patients, imaging dose to OAR depends on imaging modality and treated breast size. When considering the use of imaging during breast radiotherapy, the patient's breast size and contralateral breast dose should be taken into account.

  13. Evaluation of scatter effects on image quality for breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Gang; Mainprize, James G.; Boone, John M.; Yaffe, Martin J. [Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, S-657, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiology, X-ray Imaging Laboratory, U. C. Davis Medical Center, 4701 X Street, Sacramento, California 95817 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, S-657, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    Digital breast tomosynthesis uses a limited number (typically 10-20) of low-dose x-ray projections to produce a pseudo-three-dimensional volume tomographic reconstruction of the breast. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize and evaluate the effect of scattered radiation on the image quality for breast tomosynthesis. In a simulation, scatter point spread functions generated by a Monte Carlo simulation method were convolved over the breast projection to estimate the distribution of scatter for each angle of tomosynthesis projection. The results demonstrate that in the absence of scatter reduction techniques, images will be affected by cupping artifacts, and there will be reduced accuracy of attenuation values inferred from the reconstructed images. The effect of x-ray scatter on the contrast, noise, and lesion signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR) in tomosynthesis reconstruction was measured as a function of the tumor size. When a with-scatter reconstruction was compared to one without scatter for a 5 cm compressed breast, the following results were observed. The contrast in the reconstructed central slice image of a tumorlike mass (14 mm in diameter) was reduced by 30%, the voxel value (inferred attenuation coefficient) was reduced by 28%, and the SDNR fell by 60%. The authors have quantified the degree to which scatter degrades the image quality over a wide range of parameters relevant to breast tomosynthesis, including x-ray beam energy, breast thickness, breast diameter, and breast composition. They also demonstrate, though, that even without a scatter rejection device, the contrast and SDNR in the reconstructed tomosynthesis slice are higher than those of conventional mammographic projection images acquired with a grid at an equivalent total exposure.

  14. Assessment and Development of Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Damsgaard

    At the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), a 3D tomographic microwave imaging system is currently being developed with the aim of using nonlinear microwave imaging for breast-cancer detection. The imaging algorithm used in the system is based on an iterative Newton-type scheme. In this algorithm...

  15. A minimum spanning forest based classification method for dedicated breast CT images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, R.; Sechopoulos, I.; Fei, B.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop and test an automated algorithm to classify different types of tissue in dedicated breast CT images. METHODS: Images of a single breast of five different patients were acquired with a dedicated breast CT clinical prototype. The breast CT images were processed by a multiscale bila

  16. Nuclear Breast Imaging: Clinical Results and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Wendie A

    2016-02-01

    Interest in nuclear breast imaging is increasing because of technical improvements in dedicated devices that allow the use of relatively low doses of radiotracers with high sensitivity for even small breast cancers. For women with newly diagnosed cancer, primary chemotherapy is often recommended, and improved methods of assessing treatment response are of interest. With widespread breast density notification, functional rather than anatomic methods of screening are of increasing interest as well. For a cancer imaging technology to be adopted, several criteria must be met that will be discussed: evidence of clinical benefit with minimal harm, standardized interpretive criteria, direct biopsy guidance, and acceptable cost-effectiveness.

  17. THE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF 99mTc-MIBI BREAST IMAGING IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF EARLY BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任长才; 金少津; 邹强; 朱汇庆; 王红鹰; 梁春立

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To find an effective, sensitive, specific and noninvasive diagnostic method of breast cancer. Methods: 109 masses of 102 patients with breast lesions smaller than 2 cm in diameter were divided into three groups to undergo 99mTc-MIBI imaging and compared with the results of pathology examination. 20 cases without breast lesions were selected as control. Abnormal condensation of 99mTc-MIBI in the breast reaching 10% higher than that in the counterpart of the healthy breast was regarded as positive. Results: Of 32 breast cancers, positive imaging appeared in 25. Negative imaging were found in 31 of 38 benign breast lesions. Of 39 occult breast lesions, positive imaging appeared in 6 and 3 of them were breast cancer, 2 of 3 patients with slightly increased 99mTc-MIBI imaging threshold were breast cancer also. No positive imaging was found in the control group. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of 99mTc-MIBI was 88.4%, 89.2%, 88.0%, 75.0% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion: 99mTc-MIBI imaging had higher sensitivity and accuracy in the diagnosis of breast cancer and differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions. It could provide useful information for the diagnosis of clinically suspected breast cancer.

  18. High-frequency ultrasound imaging for breast cancer biopsy guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Thomas; Yoon, Changhan; Choi, Hojong; Eliahoo, Payam; Kim, Hyung Ham; Yamashita, Mary W; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda J; Lang, Julie E; Sener, Stephen F; Vallone, John; Martin, Sue E; Kirk Shung, K

    2015-10-01

    Image-guided core needle biopsy is the current gold standard for breast cancer diagnosis. Microcalcifications, an important radiographic finding on mammography suggestive of early breast cancer such as ductal carcinoma in situ, are usually biopsied under stereotactic guidance. This procedure, however, is uncomfortable for patients and requires the use of ionizing radiation. It would be preferable to biopsy microcalcifications under ultrasound guidance since it is a faster procedure, more comfortable for the patient, and requires no radiation. However, microcalcifications cannot reliably be detected with the current standard ultrasound imaging systems. This study is motivated by the clinical need for real-time high-resolution ultrasound imaging of microcalcifications, so that biopsies can be accurately performed under ultrasound guidance. We have investigated how high-frequency ultrasound imaging can enable visualization of microstructures in ex vivo breast tissue biopsy samples. We generated B-mode images of breast tissue and applied the Nakagami filtering technique to help refine image output so that microcalcifications could be better assessed during ultrasound-guided core biopsies. We describe the preliminary clinical results of high-frequency ultrasound imaging of ex vivo breast biopsy tissue with microcalcifications and without Nakagami filtering and the correlation of these images with the pathology examination by hematoxylin and eosin stain and whole slide digital scanning. PMID:26693167

  19. Multicenter prospective study of magnetic resonance imaging prior to breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qian; Liu Yinhua; Xu Ling; Duan Xuening; Li Ting; Qin Naishan; Kang Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background This multicenter prospective study aimed to assess the utility of dynamic enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer.Methods The research subjects were drawn from patients with primary early resectable breast cancer treated in the breast disease centers of six three-level hospitals in Beijing from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012.The participants were allocated to a breast-conserving surgery group (breast-conserving group) or a total mastectomy group (total mastectomy group).Enhanced MRI was used to measure breast volume,longest diameter of tumor and tumor volume.The correlations between these measurements and those derived from histopathologic findings were assessed.The relationships between the success rate of breast-conserving surgery and MRI-and pathology-based measurement results were statistically analyzed in the breast-conserving group.Results The study included 461 cases in the total mastectomy group and 195 in the breast-conserving group.Allocation to these groups was based on clinical indications and patient preferences.The cut-off for concurrence between MRI-and pathology-based measurements of the longest diameter of tumor was set at 0.3 cm.In the total mastectomy group,the confidence interval for 95% concurrence of these measurements was 35.41%-44.63%.Correlation coefficients for MRI and histopathology-based measurements of breast volume,tumor volume and tumor volume/breast volume ratio were r=0.861,0.569,and 0.600,respectively (all P <0.001).In the breast-conserving group,with 0.30 cm taken as the cut-off for concurrence,the 95% confidence interval for MRI and pathology-based measurements of the longest diameter of tumor was 29.98%-44.01%.The subjective and objective success rates for breast-conserving surgery were 100% and 88.54%,respectively.Conclusions There were significant correlations between dynamic enhanced MRI-and histopathology-based measurements of the longest

  20. From Bombs to Breast Cancer Imaging: Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, Rebecca M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-26

    . Currently, there is fierce debate surrounding the age at which breast cancer screening should begin, and once begun, how often it should occur. The American Cancer Society recommends yearly mammograms starting at age 40. On the other hand, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine so early. Rather, the Task Force recommends biennial mammography screening for women aged 50 to 74 years. The ten-year discrepancy in the onset of screening results from recent data suggesting that the frequent use of X-ray radiation during screenings could potentially increase the likelihood of developing cancer. This danger is increased by the low sensitivity and accuracy of mammograms, which sometimes require multiple screenings to yield results. Furthermore, mammograms are often not only inaccurate, but average appalling misdiagnoses rates: about 80% false positives and 15% false negatives. These misdiagnoses lead to unwarranted biopsies at an estimated health care cost of $2 billion per year, while at the same time, resulting in excessive cases of undetected cancer. As such, the National Cancer Institute recommends more studies on the advantages of types and frequency of screenings, as well as alternative screening options. The UST technology developed at LANL could be an alternative option to greatly improve the specificity and sensitivity of breast cancer screening without using ionizing radiation. LANL is developing high-resolution ultrasound tomography algorithms and a clinical ultrasound tomography scanner to conduct patient studies at the UNM Hospital. During UST scanning, the patient lies face-down while her breast, immersed in a tank of warm water, is scanned by phased-transducer arrays. UST uses recorded ultrasound signals to reconstruct a high-resolution three-dimensional image of the breast, showing the spatial distribution of mechanical properties within the breast. Breast cancers are detected by higher values of mechanical properties compared to

  1. Emotional distress in women presenting for breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess anxiety and depression in a sample of women presenting for imaging of breast following a clinical referral. Emotional distress in the women was also assessed in relation to demographic factors, reason for referral, presence for breast symptoms, type of imaging procedure performed and self-reported pain and discomfort during imaging. The study comprised 167 patients. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and a discomfort rating scale were used to assess emotional distress and discomfort or pain experienced during the imaging. While less than 10% of all subjects scored above psychiatric cut-off points for anxiety and depression, 25% and 20% reported significant distress associated with anxiety and depression symptoms respectively. Education alone was associated with higher anxiety scores, while the presence of breast symptoms significantly increased depression scores and reports of specific nonsomatic symptoms of depression. Higher anxiety and depression scores were also associated with pain experienced during the imaging procedure. Emotional distress may negatively impact women's experience of breast imaging. Screening for emotional distress is important within the context of breast imaging. (author)

  2. Appropriate Contrast Enhancement Measures for Brain and Breast Cancer Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneet Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging systems often produce images that require enhancement, such as improving the image contrast as they are poor in contrast. Therefore, they must be enhanced before they are examined by medical professionals. This is necessary for proper diagnosis and subsequent treatment. We do have various enhancement algorithms which enhance the medical images to different extents. We also have various quantitative metrics or measures which evaluate the quality of an image. This paper suggests the most appropriate measures for two of the medical images, namely, brain cancer images and breast cancer images.

  3. Functional Imaging of Breast Tissue and Clinical Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel approach to image hemoglobin concentration(ΔDhb) and oxygen saturation (ΔDoxy) of breast tissue is presented. The scenograph of dual-wavelength (760 and 850 nm) near infrared lights through breast tissue is acquired by high sensitive charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The evaluation criterion of the difference of ΔDhb and ΔDoxy between detected and referenced breast tissue can be obtained by a calculation formula without complicate caculation. This approach is applied to clinic detection in breast tissue. The ongoing clinical experiments indicate that malignant tumor usually exhibits characterize of "higher ΔDhb and lower ΔDoxy", while benign lesion often shows "lower ΔDhb and higher ΔDoxy" or other characters. So it is useful to assist the diagnosis of breast disease.

  4. Breast imaging with SoftVue: initial clinical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; Schmidt, Steven; Cheng, Xiaoyang; Seamans, John; Wallen, Andrea; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    We describe the clinical performance of SoftVue, a breast imaging device based on the principles of ultrasound tomography. Participants were enrolled in an IRB-approved study at Wayne State University, Detroit, MI. The main research findings indicate that SoftVue is able to image the whole uncompressed breast up to cup size H. Masses can be imaged in even the densest breasts with the ability to discern margins and mass shapes. Additionally, it is demonstrated that multi-focal disease can also be imaged. The system was also tested in its research mode for additional imaging capabilities. These tests demonstrated the potential for generating tissue stiffness information for the entire breast using through-transmission data. This research capability differentiates SoftVue from the other whole breast systems on the market. It is also shown that MRI-like images can be generated using alternative processing of the echo data. Ongoing research is focused on validating and quantifying these findings in a larger sample of study participants and quantifying SoftVue's ability to differentiate benign masses from cancer.

  5. Sexuality and body image in younger women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schover, L R

    1994-01-01

    Breast cancer has the potential to be most devastating to the sexual function and self-esteem of premenopausal women. Nevertheless, not one study has systematically compared the impact of breast cancer treatment on sexual issues across age groups. Research shows that younger women with breast cancer have more severe emotional distress than older cohorts. In a group of patients seeking sexual rehabilitation in a cancer center, younger couples were more distressed, but also had the best prognosis with treatment. In theory, loss of a breast or poor breast appearance would be more distressing to women whose youth gives them high expectations for physical beauty. Seeking new dating relationships after breast cancer treatment is a special stressor for single women. Potential infertility also may impact on a woman's self-concept as a sexual person. Systemic treatment disrupts sexual function by causing premature menopause, with estrogen loss leading to vaginal atrophy and androgen loss perhaps decreasing sexual desire and arousability. Research on mastectomy versus breast conservation across all ages of women has demonstrated that general psychological distress, marital satisfaction, and overall sexual frequency and function do not differ between the two treatment groups. Women with breast conservation do rate their body image more highly and are more comfortable with nudity and breast caressing. There is some evidence that breast conservation offers more psychological "protection" for younger women. Research on the impact of breast reconstruction is sparse, but reveals similar patterns. Future studies should use rigorous methodology and focus on the impact of premature menopause and the effectiveness of sexual rehabilitation for younger women. PMID:7999462

  6. Prototype of Microwave Imaging System for Breast-Cancer Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2009-01-01

    Microwave imaging for breast-cancer detection has received the attention of a large number of research groups in the last decade. In this paper, the imaging system currently being developed at the Technical university of Denmark is presented. This includes a description of the antenna system...

  7. Dosimetry in x-ray-based breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dance, David R.; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-10-01

    The estimation of the mean glandular dose to the breast (MGD) for x-ray based imaging modalities forms an essential part of quality control and is needed for risk estimation and for system design and optimisation. This review considers the development of methods for estimating the MGD for mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and dedicated breast CT (DBCT). Almost all of the methodology used employs Monte Carlo calculated conversion factors to relate the measurable quantity, generally the incident air kerma, to the MGD. After a review of the size and composition of the female breast, the various mathematical models used are discussed, with particular emphasis on models for mammography. These range from simple geometrical shapes, to the more recent complex models based on patient DBCT examinations. The possibility of patient-specific dose estimates is considered as well as special diagnostic views and the effect of breast implants. Calculations using the complex models show that the MGD for mammography is overestimated by about 30% when the simple models are used. The design and uses of breast-simulating test phantoms for measuring incident air kerma are outlined and comparisons made between patient and phantom-based dose estimates. The most widely used national and international dosimetry protocols for mammography are based on different simple geometrical models of the breast, and harmonisation of these protocols using more complex breast models is desirable.

  8. Imaging features of complex sclerosing lesions of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myong, Joo Hwa; Choi, Byung Gil; Kim, Sung Hun; Kang, Bong Joo; Lee, Ah Won; Song, Byung Joo [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the imaging features of complex sclerosing lesions of the breast and to assess the rate of upgrade to breast cancer. From March 2008 to May 2012, seven lesions were confirmed as complex sclerosing lesions by ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy. Final results by either surgical excision or follow-up imaging studies were reviewed to assess the rate of upgrade to breast cancer. Two radiologists retrospectively analyzed the imaging findings according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System classification. Five lesions underwent subsequent surgical excision and two of them revealed ductal carcinoma in situ (n=1) and invasive ductal carcinoma (n=1). Our study showed a breast cancer upgrade rate of 28.6% (2 of 7 lesions). Two lesions were stable on imaging follow-up beyond 1 year. The mammographic features included masses (n=4, 57.1%), architectural distortion (n=2, 28.6%), and focal asymmetry (n=1, 14.3%). Common B-mode ultrasonographic features were irregular shape (n=6, 85.7%), spiculated margin (n=5, 71.4 %), and hypoechogenicity (n=7, 100%). The final assessment categories were category 4 (n=6, 85.7%) and category 5 (n=1, 14.3%). The complex sclerosing lesions were commonly mass-like on mammography and showed the suspicious ultrasonographic features of category 4. Due to a high underestimation rate, all complex sclerosing lesions by core needle biopsy should be excised.

  9. Online advertising by three commercial breast imaging services: message takeout and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Pratt, Iain S; Donovan, Robert J; Lin, Chad; Saunders, Christobel; Slevin, Terry

    2013-10-01

    Mammography is widely acknowledged to be the most cost-effective technique for population screening for breast cancer. Recently in Australia, imaging modalities other than mammography, including thermography, electrical impedance, and computerised breast imaging, have been increasingly promoted as alternative methods of breast cancer screening. This study assessed the impact of three commercial breast imaging companies' promotional material upon consumers' beliefs about the effectiveness of the companies' technology in detecting breast cancer, and consumers' intentions to seek more information or consider having their breasts imaged by these modalities. Results showed 90% of respondents agreed that the companies' promotional material promoted the message that the advertised breast imaging method was effective in detecting breast cancer, and 80% agreed that the material promoted the message that the imaging method was equally or more effective than a mammogram. These findings have implications for women's preference for and uptake of alternative breast imaging services over mammography. PMID:23422256

  10. Identification of breast contour for nipple segmentation in breast magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwo, Chih-Ying [Department of Information Management, Chien Hsin University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Gwo, Allen [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Wei, Chia-Hung, E-mail: rogerwei@uch.edu.tw [Department of Information Management, Chien Hsin University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan and Graduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Huang, Pai Jung [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan and Comprehensive Breast Health Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a method to simulate the breast contour and segment the nipple in breast magnetic resonance images. Methods: This study first identifies the chest wall and removes the chest part from the breast MR images. Subsequently, the cleavage and its motion artifacts are removed, distinguishing the separate breasts, where the edge points are sampled for curve fitting. Next, a region growing method is applied to find the potential nipple region. Finally, the potential nipple region above the simulated curve can be removed in order to retain the original smooth contour. Results: The simulation methods can achieve the least root mean square error (RMSE) for certain cases. The proposed YBnd and (Dmin+Dmax)/2 methods are significant due toP = 0.000. The breast contour curve detected by the two proposed methods is closer than that determined by the edge detection method. The (Dmin+Dmax)/2 method can achieve the lowest RMSE of 1.1029 on average, while the edge detection method results in the highest RMSE of 6.5655. This is only slighter better than the comparison methods, which implies that the performance of these methods depends upon the conditions of the cases themselves. Under this method, the maximal Dice coefficient is 0.881, and the centroid difference is 0.36 pixels. Conclusions: The contributions of this study are twofold. First, a method was proposed to identify and segment the nipple in breast MR images. Second, a curve-fitting method was used to simulate the breast contour, allowing the breast to retain its original smooth shape.

  11. Opto-acoustic breast imaging with co-registered ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalev, Jason; Clingman, Bryan; Herzog, Don; Miller, Tom; Stavros, A. Thomas; Oraevsky, Alexander; Kist, Kenneth; Dornbluth, N. Carol; Otto, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    We present results from a recent study involving the ImagioTM breast imaging system, which produces fused real-time two-dimensional color-coded opto-acoustic (OA) images that are co-registered and temporally inter- leaved with real-time gray scale ultrasound using a specialized duplex handheld probe. The use of dual optical wavelengths provides functional blood map images of breast tissue and tumors displayed with high contrast based on total hemoglobin and oxygen saturation of the blood. This provides functional diagnostic information pertaining to tumor metabolism. OA also shows morphologic information about tumor neo-vascularity that is complementary to the morphological information obtained with conventional gray scale ultrasound. This fusion technology conveniently enables real-time analysis of the functional opto-acoustic features of lesions detected by readers familiar with anatomical gray scale ultrasound. We demonstrate co-registered opto-acoustic and ultrasonic images of malignant and benign tumors from a recent clinical study that provide new insight into the function of tumors in-vivo. Results from the Feasibility Study show preliminary evidence that the technology may have the capability to improve characterization of benign and malignant breast masses over conventional diagnostic breast ultrasound alone and to improve overall accuracy of breast mass diagnosis. In particular, OA improved speci city over that of conventional diagnostic ultrasound, which could potentially reduce the number of negative biopsies performed without missing cancers.

  12. Low-frequency sound speed and attenuation in sandy seabottom from long-range broadband acoustic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lin; Zhou, Ji-Xun; Rogers, Peter H

    2010-08-01

    A joint China-U.S. underwater acoustics experiment was conducted in the Yellow Sea with a very flat bottom and a strong and sharp thermocline. Broadband explosive sources were deployed both above and below the thermocline along two radial lines up to 57.2 km and a quarter circle with a radius of 34 km. Two inversion schemes are used to obtain the seabottom sound speed. One is based on extracting normal mode depth functions from the cross-spectral density matrix. The other is based on the best match between the calculated and measured modal arrival times for different frequencies. The inverted seabottom sound speed is used as a constraint condition to extract the seabottom sound attenuation by three methods. The first method involves measuring the attenuation coefficients of normal modes. In the second method, the seabottom sound attenuation is estimated by minimizing the difference between the theoretical and measured modal amplitude ratios. The third method is based on finding the best match between the measured and modeled transmission losses (TLs). The resultant seabottom attenuation, averaged over three independent methods, can be expressed as alpha=(0.33+/-0.02)f(1.86+/-0.04)(dB/m kHz) over a frequency range of 80-1000 Hz.

  13. Verification of the Travel Time Measurement Technique and the Helioseismic Inversion Procedure for Sound Speed Using Artificial Data

    CERN Document Server

    Parchevsky, Konstantin V; Hartlep, Thomas; Kosovichev, Alexander G

    2012-01-01

    We performed 3D numerical simulations of the solar surface wave field for the quiet Sun and for three models with different localized sound-speed variations in the interior with: (i) deep, (ii) shallow, and (iii) two-layer structures. We used simulated data generated by two different codes which use the same standard solar model as a background model, but utilize two different integration techniques and use different models of stochastic wave excitation. Acoustic travel times were measured from all data sets using the time-distance helioseismology technique and compared with the ray theory predictions, frequently used for helioseismic travel-time inversions. It is found that the measured travel-time shifts agree well with the ray theory in both cases with and without phase-speed filtering for the shallow and deep perturbations. This testing verifies the whole measuring-filtering-inversion procedure for sound-speed anomalies inside the Sun. It is shown, that the phase-speed filtering, frequently used to improv...

  14. Experimental Study of Breast Cancer Detection Using UWB Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Alshehri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer detection using UWB imaging is presented in this paper. The study is performed experimentally. Homogeneous breast phantom is constructed using pure petroleum jelly. The tumor is modeled using mixture of water and wheat flour. The breast fatty tissue and tumor tissue are put in breast shaped glass which mimics the skin. The dielectric properties values are comparable to previous study. Neural Network (NN was trained and tested using feature vector which is prepared by performing discrete cosine transform (DCT of the received UWB signals. Very encouraging results were obtained. Up to 100 % tumor existence detection was achieved. Tumor size and location detection rate were 91.3% and 95.6% respectively.

  15. Medical imaging and computers in the diagnosis of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger, Maryellen L.

    2014-09-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and quantitative image analysis (QIA) methods (i.e., computerized methods of analyzing digital breast images: mammograms, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance images) can yield novel image-based tumor and parenchyma characteristics (i.e., signatures that may ultimately contribute to the design of patient-specific breast cancer management plans). The role of QIA/CAD has been expanding beyond screening programs towards applications in risk assessment, diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy as well as in data mining to discover relationships of image-based lesion characteristics with genomics and other phenotypes; thus, as they apply to disease states. These various computer-based applications are demonstrated through research examples from the Giger Lab.

  16. Compositional breast imaging using a dual-energy mammography protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Mammography has a low sensitivity in dense breasts due to low contrast between malignant and normal tissue confounded by the predominant water density of the breast. Water is found in both adipose and fibroglandular tissue and constitutes most of the mass of a breast. However, significant protein mass is mainly found in the fibroglandular tissue where most cancers originate. If the protein compartment in a mammogram could be imaged without the influence of water, the sensitivity and specificity of the mammogram may be improved. This article describes a novel approach to dual-energy mammography, full-field digital compositional mammography (FFDCM), which can independently image the three compositional components of breast tissue: water, lipid, and protein. Methods: Dual-energy attenuation and breast shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional thicknesses. Dual-energy measurements were performed on breast-mimicking phantoms using a full-field digital mammography unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the compositional compartments. They were made of two main stacks of thicknesses around 2 and 4 cm. Twenty-six thickness and composition combinations were used to derive the compositional calibration using a least-squares fitting approach. Results: Very high accuracy was achieved with a simple cubic fitting function with root mean square errors of 0.023, 0.011, and 0.012 cm for the water, lipid, and protein thicknesses, respectively. The repeatability (percent coefficient of variation) of these measures was tested using sequential images and was found to be 0.5%, 0.5%, and 3.3% for water, lipid, and protein, respectively. However, swapping the location of the two stacks of the phantom on the imaging plate introduced further errors showing the need for more complete system uniformity corrections. Finally, a preliminary breast image is presented of each of the compositional

  17. Economic challenges in breast imaging. A survivor's guide to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feig, S A

    2000-07-01

    Most breast imaging centers today operate under financial strain. Among strategies designed to improve their bottom line, more efficient use of the radiologist's time is the most fundamental strategy and the one most likely to succeed in all breast imaging centers. Tasks performed by the radiologist that are not directly related to interpretation and consultation should be shifted to other personnel. Other strategies that may help some breast imaging centers include accepting only self-paying patients, renegotiating the hospital contract, performing more interventional procedures, and extending the hours of operation. Measures that can improve the economic efficiency of screening mammography include batch interpretation of mammograms; paperwork reduction; brief automated reports; limiting requests for previous films from other facilities to only potentially necessary cases; dedicated screening mammography examination rooms; reduction in recall rates; and, in certain circumstances, extension of breast center hours. Measures that can improve the economic efficiency of diagnostic mammography performance and interpretation include dedicated diagnostic mammography examination rooms, automated film rotators, improved scheduling, and efficient work-flow patterns for examination performance. Measures that can improve the economic efficiency of both screening and diagnostic mammography include improved triage of screening and diagnostic patients, reminder telephone calls to confirm mammography appointments, greater use of medical assistants to help the radiologists and technologists, and streamlined film library procedures and operations. Measures that can improve the economic efficiency of breast interventional procedures include preprocedure work-up, establishment of scheduling protocols, and greater involvement of technologists and medical assistants in assisting the radiologist who performs the interventional procedures. All of these methods are intended to create a

  18. Efficient iterative image reconstruction algorithm for dedicated breast CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antropova, Natalia; Sanchez, Adrian; Reiser, Ingrid S.; Sidky, Emil Y.; Boone, John; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2016-03-01

    Dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) is currently being studied as a potential screening method for breast cancer. The X-ray exposure is set low to achieve an average glandular dose comparable to that of mammography, yielding projection data that contains high levels of noise. Iterative image reconstruction (IIR) algorithms may be well-suited for the system since they potentially reduce the effects of noise in the reconstructed images. However, IIR outcomes can be difficult to control since the algorithm parameters do not directly correspond to the image properties. Also, IIR algorithms are computationally demanding and have optimal parameter settings that depend on the size and shape of the breast and positioning of the patient. In this work, we design an efficient IIR algorithm with meaningful parameter specifications and that can be used on a large, diverse sample of bCT cases. The flexibility and efficiency of this method comes from having the final image produced by a linear combination of two separately reconstructed images - one containing gray level information and the other with enhanced high frequency components. Both of the images result from few iterations of separate IIR algorithms. The proposed algorithm depends on two parameters both of which have a well-defined impact on image quality. The algorithm is applied to numerous bCT cases from a dedicated bCT prototype system developed at University of California, Davis.

  19. Polyvinyl chloride plastisol breast phantoms for ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Isabela Miller; De Matheo, Lucas Lobianco; Costa Júnior, José Francisco Silva; Borba, Cecília de Melo; von Krüger, Marco Antonio; Infantosi, Antonio Fernando Catelli; Pereira, Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasonic phantoms are objects that mimic some features of biological tissues, allowing the study of their interactions with ultrasound (US). In the diagnostic-imaging field, breast phantoms are an important tool for testing performance and optimizing US systems, as well as for training medical professionals. This paper describes the design and manufacture of breast lesions by using polyvinyl chloride plastisol (PVCP) as the base material. Among the materials available for this study, PVCP was shown to be stable, durable, and easy to handle. Furthermore, it is a nontoxic, nonpolluting, and low-cost material. The breast's glandular tissue (image background) was simulated by adding graphite powder with a concentration of 1% to the base material. Mixing PVCP and graphite powder in differing concentrations allows one to simulate lesions with different echogenicity patterns (anechoic, hypoechoic, and hyperechoic). From this mixture, phantom materials were obtained with speed of sound varying from 1379.3 to 1397.9ms(-1) and an attenuation coefficient having values between 0.29 and 0.94dBcm(-1) for a frequency of 1MHz at 24°C. A single layer of carnauba wax was added to the lesion surface in order to evaluate its applicability for imaging. The images of the phantoms were acquired using commercial ultrasound equipment; a specialist rated the images, elaborating diagnoses representative of both benign and malignant lesions. The results indicated that it was possible to easily create a phantom by using low-cost materials, readily available in the market and stable at room temperature, as the basis of ultrasonic phantoms that reproduce the image characteristics of fatty breast tissue and typical lesions of the breast. PMID:27153374

  20. Molecular imaging of HER2-positive breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capala, Jacek; Bouchelouche, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    HER2 overexpression is correlated with aggressive tumor behavior and poor clinical outcome. Therefore, HER2 has become an important prognostic and predictive factor, as well as a target for molecular therapies. The article reviews recent advances in molecular imaging of HER2 that could facilitate...... individual approaches to targeted therapy of HER2-positive breast cancers....

  1. ClearPEM: prototype PET device dedicated to breast imaging

    CERN Multimedia

    Joao Varela

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials have begun in Portugal on a new breast imaging system (ClearPEM) using positron emission tomography (PET). The system, developed by a Portuguese consortium in collaboration with CERN and laboratories participating in the Crystal Clear collaboration, will detect even the smallest tumours and thus help avoid unnecessary biopsies.

  2. Nonrigid registration algorithm for longitudinal breast MR images and the preliminary analysis of breast tumor response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Dawant, Benoit M.; Welch, E. Brian; Chakravarthy, A. Bapsi; Freehardt, Darla; Mayer, Ingrid; Kelley, Mark; Meszoely, Ingrid; Gore, John C.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

    2009-02-01

    Although useful for the detection of breast cancers, conventional imaging methods, including mammography and ultrasonography, do not provide adequate information regarding response to therapy. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has emerged as a promising technique to provide relevant information on tumor status. Consequently, accurate longitudinal registration of breast MR images is critical for the comparison of changes induced by treatment at the voxel level. In this study, a nonrigid registration algorithm is proposed to allow for longitudinal registration of breast MR images obtained throughout the course of treatment. We accomplish this by modifying the adaptive bases algorithm (ABA) through adding a tumor volume preserving constraint in the cost function. The registration results demonstrate the proposed algorithm can successfully register the longitudinal breast MR images and permit analysis of the parameter maps. We also propose a novel validation method to evaluate the proposed registration algorithm quantitatively. These validations also demonstrate that the proposed algorithm constrains tumor deformation well and performs better than the unconstrained ABA algorithm.

  3. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen Jeroen F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Methods Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. Results The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET, and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6 resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. Conclusions In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate.

  4. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX) 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6) resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R) that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate

  5. An infrared image based methodology for breast lesions screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, K. C. C.; Vargas, J. V. C.; Reisemberger, G. G.; Freitas, F. N. P.; Oliari, S. H.; Brioschi, M. L.; Louveira, M. H.; Spautz, C.; Dias, F. G.; Gasperin, P.; Budel, V. M.; Cordeiro, R. A. G.; Schittini, A. P. P.; Neto, C. D.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential of utilizing a structured methodology for breast lesions screening, based on infrared imaging temperature measurements of a healthy control group to establish expected normality ranges, and of breast cancer patients, previously diagnosed through biopsies of the affected regions. An analysis of the systematic error of the infrared camera skin temperature measurements was conducted in several different regions of the body, by direct comparison to high precision thermistor temperature measurements, showing that infrared camera temperatures are consistently around 2 °C above the thermistor temperatures. Therefore, a method of conjugated gradients is proposed to eliminate the infrared camera direct temperature measurement imprecision, by calculating the temperature difference between two points to cancel out the error. The method takes into account the human body approximate bilateral symmetry, and compares measured dimensionless temperature difference values (Δ θ bar) between two symmetric regions of the patient's breast, that takes into account the breast region, the surrounding ambient and the individual core temperatures, and doing so, the results interpretation for different individuals become simple and non subjective. The range of normal whole breast average dimensionless temperature differences for 101 healthy individuals was determined, and admitting that the breasts temperatures exhibit a unimodal normal distribution, the healthy normal range for each region was considered to be the dimensionless temperature difference plus/minus twice the standard deviation of the measurements, Δ θ bar ‾ + 2σ Δ θ bar ‾ , in order to represent 95% of the population. Forty-seven patients with previously diagnosed breast cancer through biopsies were examined with the method, which was capable of detecting breast abnormalities in 45 cases (96%). Therefore, the conjugated gradients method was considered effective

  6. Image fusion of Ultrasound Computer Tomography volumes with X-ray mammograms using a biomechanical model based 2D/3D registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, T; Duric, N; Ruiter, N V

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT) is a promising breast imaging modality under development. Comparison to a standard method like mammography is essential for further development. Due to significant differences in image dimensionality and compression state of the breast, correlating USCT images and X-ray mammograms is challenging. In this paper we present a 2D/3D registration method to improve the spatial correspondence and allow direct comparison of the images. It is based on biomechanical modeling of the breast and simulation of the mammographic compression. We investigate the effect of including patient-specific material parameters estimated automatically from USCT images. The method was systematically evaluated using numerical phantoms and in-vivo data. The average registration accuracy using the automated registration was 11.9mm. Based on the registered images a method for analysis of the diagnostic value of the USCT images was developed and initially applied to analyze sound speed and attenuation images based on X-ray mammograms as ground truth. Combining sound speed and attenuation allows differentiating lesions from surrounding tissue. Overlaying this information on mammograms, combines quantitative and morphological information for multimodal diagnosis. PMID:25456144

  7. Monitoring breast masses with ultrasound tomography in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupinacci, Jessica; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Wang, Ding; Li, Cuiping; Schmidt, Steven; Rama, Olsi; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Myc, Lukasz

    2009-02-01

    As part of an ongoing assessment of the in-vivo performance of a operator independent breast imaging device, based on acoustic tomography, we report on new results obtained with patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Five patients were examined with the prototype on multiple occasions corresponding in time to their chemotherapy sessions. Images of reflection, sound speed and attenuation, representing the entire volume of the breast, were reconstructed from the exam data and analyzed for time-dependent changes during the treatment period. It was found that changes in acoustic properties of the tumors could be measured directly from the images. The measured properties include reflectivity, sound speed and attenuation, leading to measurable changes in the volume, shape and internal attributes of the tumors. These measurements were used to monitor the response of the tumors to the therapy with the long term goal of correlating results with pathological and clinical outcomes. Comparisons with tumor size changes based on traditional US and MRI indicates potential for accurate, quantifiable tracking of tumor volume. Furthermore, our tentative results also show declines in internal properties of the tumors, possibly relating to a reduction in tissue stiffness and/or density. Future work will include an expansion of the study to a larger cohort of patients for determining the statistical significance of our findings.

  8. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: multimodality imaging and histopathologic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bo Bae (Department of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)), Email: med20@hanmail.net; Shu, Kwang Sun (Department of Pathology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of))

    2012-02-15

    Background Metaplastic carcinomas are ductal carcinomas that display metaplastic transformation of the glandular epithelium to non-glandular mesenchymal tissue. Metaplastic carcinoma has a poorer prognosis than most other breast cancers, so the differential diagnosis is important. Although many clinical and pathologic findings have been reported, to our knowledge, few imaging findings related to metaplastic carcinoma have been reported. Purpose To investigate whole-breast imaging findings, including mammography, sonography, MRI, and pathologic findings, including immunohistochemical studies of metaplastic carcinomas of the breast. Material and Methods We analyzed 33 cases of metaplastic carcinoma between January 2001 and January 2011. Mammography, ultrasonography, and MRI were recorded retrospectively using the American College of Radiology (ACR) breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon. Immunohistochemical studies of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), p53, and C-erbB-2 were performed. Results The most common mammographic findings were oval shape (37%), circumscribed margin (59%), and high density (74%). The most common sonogfindings were irregular shape (59.4%), microlobulated margin (41%), complex echogenicity (81%), parallel orientation (97%), and posterior acoustic enhancement (50%). Axillary lymph node metastases were noted for 25% of the sonographic examinations. On MRI, the most common findings of margin and shape were irregularity (57% and 52.4%, respectively). High signal intensity was the most common finding on T2-weighted images (57%). Immunohistochemical profile was negative for ER (91%, 29/32) and PR (81%, 26/32). Conclusion Metaplastic carcinomas might display more benign features and less axillary lymph node metastasis than IDC. High signal intensity on T2 MRI images and hormone receptor negativity would be helpful in differentiating this tumor from other breast cancers

  9. Dynamic infrared imaging in identification of breast cancer tissue with combined image processing and frequency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joro, R; Lääperi, A-L; Soimakallio, S; Järvenpää, R; Kuukasjärvi, T; Toivonen, T; Saaristo, R; Dastidar, P

    2008-01-01

    Five combinations of image-processing algorithms were applied to dynamic infrared (IR) images of six breast cancer patients preoperatively to establish optimal enhancement of cancer tissue before frequency analysis. mid-wave photovoltaic (PV) IR cameras with 320x254 and 640x512 pixels were used. The signal-to-noise ratio and the specificity for breast cancer were evaluated with the image-processing combinations from the image series of each patient. Before image processing and frequency analysis the effect of patient movement was minimized with a stabilization program developed and tested in the study by stabilizing image slices using surface markers set as measurement points on the skin of the imaged breast. A mathematical equation for superiority value was developed for comparison of the key ratios of the image-processing combinations. The ability of each combination to locate the mammography finding of breast cancer in each patient was compared. Our results show that data collected with a 640x512-pixel mid-wave PV camera applying image-processing methods optimizing signal-to-noise ratio, morphological image processing and linear image restoration before frequency analysis possess the greatest superiority value, showing the cancer area most clearly also in the match centre of the mammography estimation. PMID:18666012

  10. Automated analysis of image mammogram for breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhasanah, Sampurno, Joko; Faryuni, Irfana Diah; Ivansyah, Okto

    2016-03-01

    Medical imaging help doctors in diagnosing and detecting diseases that attack the inside of the body without surgery. Mammogram image is a medical image of the inner breast imaging. Diagnosis of breast cancer needs to be done in detail and as soon as possible for determination of next medical treatment. The aim of this work is to increase the objectivity of clinical diagnostic by using fractal analysis. This study applies fractal method based on 2D Fourier analysis to determine the density of normal and abnormal and applying the segmentation technique based on K-Means clustering algorithm to image abnormal for determine the boundary of the organ and calculate the area of organ segmentation results. The results show fractal method based on 2D Fourier analysis can be used to distinguish between the normal and abnormal breast and segmentation techniques with K-Means Clustering algorithm is able to generate the boundaries of normal and abnormal tissue organs, so area of the abnormal tissue can be determined.

  11. Roles of biologic breast tissue composition and quantitative image analysis of mammographic images in breast tumor characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukker, Karen; Giger, Maryellen L.; Duewer, Fred; Malkov, Serghei; Flowers, Christopher I.; Joe, Bonnie; Kerlikowske, Karla; Drukteinis, Jennifer S.; Shepherd, John

    2014-03-01

    Purpose. Investigate whether knowledge of the biologic image composition of mammographic lesions provides imagebased biomarkers above and beyond those obtainable from quantitative image analysis (QIA) of X-ray mammography. Methods. The dataset consisted of 45 in vivo breast lesions imaged with the novel 3-component breast (3CB) imaging technique based on dual-energy mammography (15 malignant, 30 benign diagnoses). The 3CB composition measures of water, lipid, and protein thicknesses were assessed and mathematical descriptors, `3CB features', were obtained for the lesions and their periphery. The raw low-energy mammographic images were analyzed with an established in-house QIA method obtaining `QIA features' describing morphology and texture. We investigated the correlation within the `3CB features', within the `QIA features', and between the two. In addition, the merit of individual features in the distinction between malignant and benign lesions was assessed. Results. Whereas many descriptors within the `3CB features' and `QIA features' were, often by design, highly correlated, correlation between descriptors of the two feature groups was much weaker (maximum absolute correlation coefficient 0.58, pappeared equally well-suited for the distinction between malignant and benign lesions, with maximum area under the ROC curve 0.71 for a protein feature (3CB) and 0.71 for a texture feature (QIA). Conclusions. In this pilot study analyzing the new 3CB imaging modality, knowledge of breast tissue composition appeared additive in combination with existing mammographic QIA methods for the distinction between benign and malignant lesions.

  12. Breast image feature learning with adaptive deconvolutional networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Andrew R.; Drukker, Karen; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2012-03-01

    Feature extraction is a critical component of medical image analysis. Many computer-aided diagnosis approaches employ hand-designed, heuristic lesion extracted features. An alternative approach is to learn features directly from images. In this preliminary study, we explored the use of Adaptive Deconvolutional Networks (ADN) for learning high-level features in diagnostic breast mass lesion images with potential application to computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) and content-based image retrieval (CBIR). ADNs (Zeiler, et. al., 2011), are recently-proposed unsupervised, generative hierarchical models that decompose images via convolution sparse coding and max pooling. We trained the ADNs to learn multiple layers of representation for two breast image data sets on two different modalities (739 full field digital mammography (FFDM) and 2393 ultrasound images). Feature map calculations were accelerated by use of GPUs. Following Zeiler et. al., we applied the Spatial Pyramid Matching (SPM) kernel (Lazebnik, et. al., 2006) on the inferred feature maps and combined this with a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier for the task of binary classification between cancer and non-cancer breast mass lesions. Non-linear, local structure preserving dimension reduction, Elastic Embedding (Carreira-Perpiñán, 2010), was then used to visualize the SPM kernel output in 2D and qualitatively inspect image relationships learned. Performance was found to be competitive with current CADx schemes that use human-designed features, e.g., achieving a 0.632+ bootstrap AUC (by case) of 0.83 [0.78, 0.89] for an ultrasound image set (1125 cases).

  13. CT guided diffuse optical tomography for breast cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikejiang, Reheman; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Dianwen; Li, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has attracted attentions in the last two decades due to its intrinsic sensitivity in imaging chromophores of tissues such as blood, water, and lipid. However, DOT has not been clinically accepted yet due to its low spatial resolution caused by strong optical scattering in tissues. Structural guidance provided by an anatomical imaging modality enhances the DOT imaging substantially. Here, we propose a computed tomography (CT) guided multispectral DOT imaging system for breast cancer detection. To validate its feasibility, we have built a prototype DOT imaging system which consists of a laser at wavelengths of 650 and an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera. We have validated the CT guided DOT reconstruction algorithms with numerical simulations and phantom experiments, in which different imaging setup parameters, such as projection number of measurements, the width of measurement patch, have been investigated. Our results indicate that an EMCCD camera with air cooling is good enough for the transmission mode DOT imaging. We have also found that measurements at six projections are sufficient for DOT to reconstruct the optical targets with 4 times absorption contrast when the CT guidance is applied. Finally, we report our effort and progress on the integration of the multispectral DOT imaging system into a breast CT scanner.

  14. Clinical Outcome of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Detected Additional Lesions in Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Gi-Won; Yi, Mi Suk; Lee, Byoung Kil; Youn, Hyun Jo; Jung, Sung Hoo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcome of additional breast lesions identified with breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in breast cancer patients. Methods A total of 153 patients who underwent breast MRI between July 2006 and March 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-three patients (21.6&) were recommended for second-look ultrasound (US) for further characterization of additional lesions detected on breast MRI and these patients constituted our study ...

  15. Improved MR breast images by contrast optimization using artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical relevance of MR imaging of the breast is mainly related to the modelity's ability to differentiate among normal, benign, and malignant tissue and to yield prognostic information. In addition to the MR imaging parameters, morphologic features of these images are calculated. Based on statistical information of a comprehensive, labeled image and knowledge of a data base system, a numerical classifier is deduced. The application of this classifier to all cases leads to estimations of specific tissue types for each pixel. The method is sufficiently sensitive for grading a recognized tissue class. In this manner images with optimal contrast appropriate to particular diagnostic requirements are generated. The discriminant power of each MR imaging parameter as well as of a combination of parameters can be determined objectively with respect to tissue discrimination

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging texture analysis classification of primary breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, S.A.; Lerski, R.A. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Medical Physics, Dundee (United Kingdom); Purdie, C.A.; Jordan, L.B. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Pathology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Vinnicombe, S. [University of Dundee, Division of Imaging and Technology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Martin, P. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Clinical Radiology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Thompson, A.M. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Surgical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Patient-tailored treatments for breast cancer are based on histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) subtypes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) texture analysis (TA) may be useful in non-invasive lesion subtype classification. Women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer underwent pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. TA was performed using co-occurrence matrix (COM) features, by creating a model on retrospective training data, then prospectively applying to a test set. Analyses were blinded to breast pathology. Subtype classifications were performed using a cross-validated k-nearest-neighbour (k = 3) technique, with accuracy relative to pathology assessed and receiver operator curve (AUROC) calculated. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess raw entropy feature values. Histological subtype classifications were similar across training (n = 148 cancers) and test sets (n = 73 lesions) using all COM features (training: 75 %, AUROC = 0.816; test: 72.5 %, AUROC = 0.823). Entropy features were significantly different between lobular and ductal cancers (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U). IHC classifications using COM features were also similar for training and test data (training: 57.2 %, AUROC = 0.754; test: 57.0 %, AUROC = 0.750). Hormone receptor positive and negative cancers demonstrated significantly different entropy features. Entropy features alone were unable to create a robust classification model. Textural differences on contrast-enhanced MR images may reflect underlying lesion subtypes, which merits testing against treatment response. (orig.)

  17. Fast 3-d tomographic microwave imaging for breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk, Tomasz M; Meaney, Paul M; Kaufman, Peter A; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta M; Paulsen, Keith D

    2012-08-01

    Microwave breast imaging (using electromagnetic waves of frequencies around 1 GHz) has mostly remained at the research level for the past decade, gaining little clinical acceptance. The major hurdles limiting patient use are both at the hardware level (challenges in collecting accurate and noncorrupted data) and software level (often plagued by unrealistic reconstruction times in the tens of hours). In this paper we report improvements that address both issues. First, the hardware is able to measure signals down to levels compatible with sub-centimeter image resolution while keeping an exam time under 2 min. Second, the software overcomes the enormous time burden and produces similarly accurate images in less than 20 min. The combination of the new hardware and software allows us to produce and report here the first clinical 3-D microwave tomographic images of the breast. Two clinical examples are selected out of 400+ exams conducted at the Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center (Lebanon, NH). The first example demonstrates the potential usefulness of our system for breast cancer screening while the second example focuses on therapy monitoring. PMID:22562726

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of trilucent TM breast implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To demonstrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of intact and ruptured Trilucent TM implants with imaging and surgical correlation. The appearances of the implant transponder artefact are also described MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the MRI findings in 34 patients with bilateral subpectoral Trilucent TM breast implants (Lipomatrix, Inc./Collagen Aesthetics International Inc., Neuchatel, Switzerland) was performed. Patients under implant surveillance and those with suspected implant rupture formed the study group. Imaging findings were correlated with surgical appearances. RESULTS: Surgical correlation was available in 53% of patients. Fifty per cent (18/36) of implants were intact at surgery, 50% (18/36) of implants were ruptured. Of the 18 ruptured implants, 17 were intracapsular ruptures and one an extracapsular rupture. The sensitivity of MRI for detection of intracapsular rupture in Trilucent TM breast implants was 82% specificity 76%, positive predictive value 78%, negative predictive value 81% and accuracy 79% in this study group. No case of implant rupture was obscured by the transponder artefact. Four implants were found to have 'pseudocapsules' at surgery (5·9%), the implants were intact with fluid present between the implant and capsule. Only one pseudocapsule was demonstrated on MRI. CONCLUSION: Magnetic resonance imaging is currently the most accurate technique for diagnosis of implant rupture in Trilucent TM breast implants. Transponder artefact does not appear to interfere with the assessment of implant rupture. Elson, E. M. et al. (2002)

  19. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI Study of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Ashok

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death worldwide and most serious form of neoplastic diseases in both developed and developing countries. Mammography and ultrasound are the most often used screening methods in breast cancer. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI uses the protons in water and fat to create the image of breast cancer. But recent studies says neoplastic breast lesions contains elevated choline concentration (tCho and altered mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC which can be used as good biomarkers to evaluate the cancer stages even follow up the Neoadjuvent Chemotherapy (NACT.Aim & Objectives:1. To evaluate the relation of age, tCho concentration and mean ADC with breast cancer.2. To estimate the correlation between the factors.3. To calculate the main difference between breast cancer patient before and after menopause.Methods/Study Design: This was a cross sectional, observational study done on 14 randomly selected diagnosed stage I breast cancer patients newly registered in surgery department of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India during 3 months study period. Intentionally 7 of them were selected to be postmenopausal and rest 7 premenopausal. Patients with claustrophobia, serious illness, pacemaker or associated diseases were excluded. Volunteers were selected by lottery method after confirmation of absence of the exclusion criteria in them. All the breast MRS images were taken only after signing the consent form of being a volunteer for the study with breast coil. All the spectroscopic images were analyzed with computer technologies and SPPS software with the help of non-parametric statistical tests.Results/Findings: Mean age of patients were 44.85±6.97 where in premenopausal and postmenopausal women it was 40.14±4.59 and 49.57±5.26 respectively. tCho concentration was high in postmenopausal women (4.85±2.64 mmol/kg vs 3.72±1.64 where unlike to them premenopausal women

  20. Role of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) versus conventional imaging for breast cancer presurgical staging in young women or with dense breast

    OpenAIRE

    Biglia, N.; Bounous, V.E.; Martincich, L.; Panuccio, E.; Liberale, V.; Ottino, L.; Ponzone, R; Sismondi, P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the local staging of breast cancer is currently uncertain. The purpose of this prospective study is to evaluate the accuracy of preoperative MRI compared to conventional imaging in detecting breast cancer and the effect of pre-operative MRI on the surgical treatment in a subgroup of women with dense breasts, young age, invasive lobular cancer (ILC) or multiple lesions. Methods Between Jan...

  1. Imaging Surveillance of Patients with Breast Cancer after Primary Treatment: Current Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung [Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    Women who have been treated for breast cancer are at risk for second breast cancers, such as ipsilateral recurrence or contralateral metachronous breast cancer. As the number of breast cancer survivors increases, interest in patient management and surveillance after treatment has also increased. However, post-treatment surveillance programs for patients with breast cancer have not been firmly established. In this review, we focus on the imaging modalities that have been used in post-treatment surveillance for patients with breast cancer, such as mammography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography, the effectiveness of each modality for detecting recurrence, and how they can be applied to manage patients.

  2. Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasound is not an efficacious screening modality to detect early-stage breast malignancy in a clinically unremarkable population of women. Computed body tomography is similarly not practical for screening because of slice thickness and partial volume averaging, a higher radiation dose than modern mammography, and the lack of availability of such units for such a high throughput requirement. Nevertheless, these two imaging modalities can be very useful in management to guide the least invasive and efficacious treatment of the patient. X-ray mammography remains the principal imaging modality in the search for breast malignancy, but ultrasound is the single most important second study in the diagnostic evaluation of the breast. The combined use of these techniques and the ability to perform guided aspiration and localization procedures can result in a reduction in the surgical removal of benign cysts and reduction in the amount of tissue volume required if excision becomes necessary

  3. Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer: Present and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eAlcantara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging technologies have undergone explosive growth over the past few decades and now play a central role in clinical oncology. But the truly transformative power of imaging in the clinical management of cancer patients lies ahead. Today, imaging is at a crossroads, with molecularly targeted imaging agents expected to broadly expand the capabilities of conventional anatomical imaging methods. Molecular imaging will allow clinicians to not only see where a tumour is located in the body, but also to visualize the expression and activity of specific molecules (e.g. proteases and protein kinases and biological processes (e.g. apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis that influence tumour behavior and/or response to therapy. Breast cancer, the most common cancer among women and a research area where our group is actively involved, is a very heterogeneous disease with diverse patterns of development and response to treatment. Hence, molecular imaging is expected to have a major impact on this type of cancer, leading to important improvements in diagnosis, individualized treatment, and drug development, as well as our understanding of how breast cancer arises.

  4. Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer: Present and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, David; Pernia Leal, Manuel; Garcia, Irene; Garcia-Martin, Maria Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Medical imaging technologies have undergone explosive growth over the past few decades and now play a central role in clinical oncology. But the truly transformative power of imaging in the clinical management of cancer patients lies ahead. Today, imaging is at a crossroads, with molecularly targeted imaging agents expected to broadly expand the capabilities of conventional anatomical imaging methods. Molecular imaging will allow clinicians to not only see where a tumour is located in the body, but also to visualize the expression and activity of specific molecules (e.g. proteases and protein kinases) and biological processes (e.g. apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis) that influence tumour behavior and/or response to therapy. Breast cancer, the most common cancer among women and a research area where our group is actively involved, is a very heterogeneous disease with diverse patterns of development and response to treatment. Hence, molecular imaging is expected to have a major impact on this type of cancer, leading to important improvements in diagnosis, individualized treatment, and drug development, as well as our understanding of how breast cancer arises.

  5. BI-RADS update: mammography, breast ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging of the breast; BI-RADS update: Mammographie, Brustultraschall und Kernspinmammographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, A.; Kurz, K.D.; Moedder, U. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2005-12-01

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) is a quality assurance tool in breast evaluation. A breast imaging lexicon, which has been defined for mammography breast ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging of the breast, standardizes terminology used in reporting findings on breast examinations. Every report ends with the assignment of a final assessment category to describe the risk of malignancy and recommend the action to be taken after the history and results of all breast examinations are taken into account. This article gives a short introduction to breast imaging lexica mammography, breast ultrasound, magnetic resonance of the breast and reviews the literature about the clinical usefulness of the BI-RADS. (orig.)

  6. Ultrasound Imaging Using Diffraction Tomography in a Cylindrical Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D H; Littrup, P

    2002-01-24

    Tomographic images of tissue phantoms and a sample of breast tissue have been produced from an acoustic synthetic array system for frequencies near 500 kHz. The images for sound speed and attenuation show millimeter resolution and demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining high-resolution tomographic images with frequencies that can deeply penetrate tissue. The image reconstruction method is based on the Born approximation to acoustic scattering and is a simplified version of a method previously used by Andre (Andre, et. al., Int. J. Imaging Systems and Technology, Vol 8, No. 1, 1997) for a circular acoustic array system. The images have comparable resolution to conventional ultrasound images at much higher frequencies (3-5 MHz) but with lower speckle noise. This shows the potential of low frequency, deeply penetrating, ultrasound for high-resolution quantitative imaging.

  7. The Ongoing Revolution in Breast Imaging Calls for a Similar Revolution in Breast Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tabár

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication between pathologists and radiologists suffers from a lack of common ground: the pathologists examine cells in ultrathin tissue slices having the area of a postage stamp, while the radiologists examine images of an entire organ, but without seeing the cellular details. The current practice of examining breast cancer specimens is analogous to scrutinizing individual pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, without examining all of them and never putting all the pieces into place. The routine use of large section histopathology technique could help to alleviate much of this problem, especially with nonpalpable, screen-detected breast cancers. The study of three-dimensional (3D images of subgross, thick section pathology specimens by both radiologists and pathologists could greatly assist in the communication of findings.

  8. Fast 3-D Tomographic Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorczyk, Tomasz M.; Meaney, Paul M.; Kaufman, Peter A.; DiFlorio-Alexander, Roberta M.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    Microwave breast imaging (using electromagnetic waves of frequencies around 1 GHz) has mostly remained at the research level for the past decade, gaining little clinical acceptance. The major hurdles limiting patient use are both at the hardware level (challenges in collecting accurate and noncorrupted data) and software level (often plagued by unrealistic reconstruction times in the tens of hours). In this paper we report improvements that address both issues. First, the hardware is able to ...

  9. Digital Mammography Imaging: Breast Tomosynthesis and Advanced Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvie, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis This article discusses recent developments in advanced derivative technologies associated with digital mammography. Digital breast tomosynthesis – its principles, development, and early clinical trials are reviewed. Contrast enhanced digital mammography and combined imaging systems with digital mammography and ultrasound are also discussed. Although all these methods are currently research programs, they hold promise for improving cancer detection and characterization if early results are confirmed by clinical trials. PMID:20868894

  10. Value of breast imaging reporting and data system in Chinese breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the value of breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) in Chinese breast cancer screening. Methods: A total number of 3483 women participated in breast cancer screening with mammography in Hexi district in Tianjin from August to December 2009, which was organized by ministry of public health. BI-RADS assessment categories and recommendations were compared with histological findings. The precision, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Results: Among 3483 screening mammography cases, 267 were almost entirely fat breast, 1245 were scattered fibroglandular, 1890 were dense and 81 extremely dense. There were 1011 patients (29.0%) with category 1, 1741 (50.0%) with category 2, 383 (11.0%) with category 3, 59 patients (1.7%) with category 4 and 16 (0.5%) with category 5 according to BI-RADS assessment categories. Totally, 71 women with 77 lesions were confirmed by histological examinations. There were 29 malignant and 48 benign lesions. The diagnostic precision, sensitivity, specificity of' BI-RADS were 63.6% (49/77), 93.1% (27/29) and 45.8% (22/48). The general PPV of BI-RADS was 50.9% (27/53). The PPV of categories 0.4, 5 were 25.0% (1/4), 36.4% (12/33) and 87.5% (14/16). The NPV of categories 2 and 3 were 90.9% (10/11), 100.0% (12/12). Conclusions: BI-RADS is of much value in assessing the breast malignancy. It is applicable in Chinese breast cancer screening. (authors)

  11. A Modified Harris Corner Detection for Breast IR Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Harris corner detectors, which depend on strong invariance and a local autocorrelation function, display poor detection performance for infrared (IR images with low contrast and nonobvious edges. In addition, feature points detected by Harris corner detectors are clustered due to the numerous nonlocal maxima. This paper proposes a modified Harris corner detector that includes two unique steps for processing IR images in order to overcome the aforementioned problems. Image contrast enhancement based on a generalized form of histogram equalization (HE combined with adjusting the intensity resolution causes false contours on IR images to acquire obvious edges. Adaptive nonmaximal suppression based on eliminating neighboring pixels avoids the clustered features. Preliminary results show that the proposed method can solve the clustering problem and successfully identify the representative feature points of IR breast images.

  12. Photoacoustic image patterns of breast carcinoma and comparisons with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and vascular stained histopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijblom, M.; Piras, D.; Brinkhuis, M.; van Hespen, J. C. G.; van den Engh, F. M.; van der Schaaf, M.; Klaase, J. M.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.; Manohar, S.

    2015-07-01

    Photoacoustic (optoacoustic) imaging can visualize vasculature deep in tissue using the high contrast of hemoglobin to light, with the high-resolution possible with ultrasound detection. Since angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancer, leads to increased vascularity, photoacoustics holds promise in imaging breast cancer as shown in proof-of-principle studies. Here for the first time, we investigate if there are specific photoacoustic appearances of breast malignancies which can be related to the tumor vascularity, using an upgraded research imaging system, the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope. In addition to comparisons with x-ray and ultrasound images, in subsets of cases the photoacoustic images were compared with MR images, and with vascular staining in histopathology. We were able to identify lesions in suspect breasts at the expected locations in 28 of 29 cases. We discovered generally three types of photoacoustic appearances reminiscent of contrast enhancement types reported in MR imaging of breast malignancies, and first insights were gained into the relationship with tumor vascularity.

  13. Photoacoustic imaging of breast microcalcifications: a preliminary study with 8-gauge core-biopsied breast specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga Ram Kim

    Full Text Available We presented the photoacoustic imaging (PAI tool and to evaluate whether microcalcifications in breast tissue can be detected on photoacoustic (PA images.We collected 21 cores containing microcalcifications (n = 11, microcalcification group and none (n = 10, control group in stereotactic or ultrasound (US guided 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsies. Photoacoustic (PA images were acquired through ex vivo experiments by transmitting laser pulses with two different wavelengths (700 nm and 800 nm. The presence of microcalcifications in PA images were blindly assessed by two radiologists and compared with specimen mammography. A ratio of the signal amplitude occurring at 700 nm to that occurring at 800 nm was calculated for each PA focus and was called the PAI ratio.Based on the change of PA signal amplitude between 700 nm and 800 nm, 10 out of 11 specimens containing microcalcifications and 8 out of 10 specimens without calcifications were correctly identified on blind review; the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive and negative predictive values of our blind review were 90.91%, 80.0%, 85.71%, 83.33% and 88.89%. The PAI ratio in the microcalcification group was significantly higher than that in the control group (the median PAI ratio, 2.46 versus 1.11, respectively, P =  .001. On subgroup analysis in the microcalcification group, neither malignant diagnosis nor the number or size of calcification-foci was proven to contribute to PAI ratios.Breast microcalcifications generated distinguishable PA signals unlike breast tissue without calcifications. So, PAI, a non-ionizing and non-invasive hybrid imaging technique, can be an alternative in overcoming the limitations of conventional US imaging.

  14. Sound speed measurement in seawater and its application%海水声速测量方法及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝华; 赵梅

    2013-01-01

    在水声研究和海洋工程中,广泛地需要测量海水声速.纵观水声技术的发展历史,声速及其测量方法和手段一直是水声研究的基本问题.从水下声传播速度的物理特性出发,介绍了典型海洋声速剖面的特征,以声速剖面对声传播的影响为关注对象,示例说明了其对声纳最佳探测深度及声纳探测距离的影响,以及声速测量在大洋测温中的应用.在声速剖面测量方法方面,介绍总结了国内外的声速测量设备的原理、技术发展趋势以及主要产品.最后给出了海洋声速剖面测量的发展展望.%With the development of acoustic technology, the importance of sound speed measurement is explained. The distribution and physical characteristics of seawater sound speed are introduced. Focused on sound propagation problems, the effect of sound speed profile on the best probing depth of sonar and its detection range is discussed. Seawater temperature observation is also taken into account. The sound speed measurement theory is stated, and the development of the equipment is introduced as well. Finally, the prospect of sound speed measurement technology is described.

  15. Imaging of common breast implants and implant-related complications: A pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amisha T; Jankharia, Bijal B

    2016-01-01

    The number of women undergoing breast implant procedures is increasing exponentially. It is, therefore, imperative for a radiologist to be familiar with the normal and abnormal imaging appearances of common breast implants. Diagnostic imaging studies such as mammography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging are used to evaluate implant integrity, detect abnormalities of the implant and its surrounding capsule, and detect breast conditions unrelated to implants. Magnetic resonance imaging of silicone breast implants, with its high sensitivity and specificity for detecting implant rupture, is the most reliable modality to asses implant integrity. Whichever imaging modality is used, the overall aim of imaging breast implants is to provide the pertinent information about implant integrity, detect implant failures, and to detect breast conditions unrelated to the implants, such as cancer.

  16. Imaging of common breast implants and implant-related complications: A pictorial essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amisha T Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of women undergoing breast implant procedures is increasing exponentially. It is, therefore, imperative for a radiologist to be familiar with the normal and abnormal imaging appearances of common breast implants. Diagnostic imaging studies such as mammography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging are used to evaluate implant integrity, detect abnormalities of the implant and its surrounding capsule, and detect breast conditions unrelated to implants. Magnetic resonance imaging of silicone breast implants, with its high sensitivity and specificity for detecting implant rupture, is the most reliable modality to asses implant integrity. Whichever imaging modality is used, the overall aim of imaging breast implants is to provide the pertinent information about implant integrity, detect implant failures, and to detect breast conditions unrelated to the implants, such as cancer.

  17. Population of 100 realistic, patient-based computerized breast phantoms for multi-modality imaging research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segars, W. Paul; Veress, Alexander I.; Wells, Jered R.; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Kiarashi, Nooshin; Lo, Joseph Y.; Samei, Ehsan; Dobbins, James T.

    2014-03-01

    Breast imaging is an important area of research with many new techniques being investigated to further reduce the morbidity and mortality of breast cancer through early detection. Computerized phantoms can provide an essential tool to quantitatively compare new imaging systems and techniques. Current phantoms, however, lack sufficient realism in depicting the complex 3D anatomy of the breast. In this work, we created one-hundred realistic and detailed 3D computational breast phantoms based on high-resolution CT datasets from normal patients. We also developed a finiteelement application to simulate different compression states of the breast, making the phantoms applicable to multimodality imaging research. The breast phantoms and tools developed in this work were packaged into user-friendly software applications to distribute for breast imaging research.

  18. A Dataset for Breast Cancer Histopathological Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanhol, Fabio A; Oliveira, Luiz S; Petitjean, Caroline; Heutte, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Today, medical image analysis papers require solid experiments to prove the usefulness of proposed methods. However, experiments are often performed on data selected by the researchers, which may come from different institutions, scanners, and populations. Different evaluation measures may be used, making it difficult to compare the methods. In this paper, we introduce a dataset of 7909 breast cancer histopathology images acquired on 82 patients, which is now publicly available from http://web.inf.ufpr.br/vri/breast-cancer-database. The dataset includes both benign and malignant images. The task associated with this dataset is the automated classification of these images in two classes, which would be a valuable computer-aided diagnosis tool for the clinician. In order to assess the difficulty of this task, we show some preliminary results obtained with state-of-the-art image classification systems. The accuracy ranges from 80% to 85%, showing room for improvement is left. By providing this dataset and a standardized evaluation protocol to the scientific community, we hope to gather researchers in both the medical and the machine learning field to advance toward this clinical application. PMID:26540668

  19. Phase-contrast X-ray imaging of breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyrilaeinen, Jani; Tenhunen, Mikko (Dept. of Physics, HUCH Cancer Center, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: jani.keyrilainen@hus.fi; Bravin, Alberto (Bio-medical Beamline ID17, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)); Fernandez, Manuel (High Brilliance Beamline ID2, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)); Virkkunen, Pekka (Dept. of Radiology, HUCH Cancer Center, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)); Suortti, Pekka (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-10-15

    When an X-ray wave traverses an object, its amplitude and phase change, resulting in attenuation, interference, and refraction, and in phase-contrast X-ray imaging (PCI) these are converted to intensity changes. The relative change of the X-ray phase per unit path length is even orders of magnitude larger than that of the X-ray amplitude, so that the image contrast based on variation of the X-ray phase is potentially much stronger than the contrast based on X-ray amplitude (absorption contrast). An important medical application of PCI methods is soft-tissue imaging, where the absorption contrast is inherently weak. It is shown by in vitro examples that signs of malignant human breast tumor are enhanced in PCI images. Owing to the strong contrast, the radiation dose can be greatly reduced, so that a high-resolution phase-contrast X-ray tomography of the breast is possible with about 1 mGy mean glandular dose. Scattered radiation carries essential information on the atomic and molecular structure of the object, and particularly small-angle X-ray scattering can be used to trace cancer. The imaging methods developed at the synchrotron radiation facilities will become available in the clinical environment with the ongoing development of compact radiation sources, which produce intense X-ray beams of sufficient coherence. Several developments that are under way are described here

  20. Phase-contrast X-ray imaging of breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyriläinen, Jani; Bravin, Alberto; Fernández, Manuel; Tenhunen, Mikko; Virkkunen, Pekka; Suortti, Pekka

    2010-10-01

    When an X-ray wave traverses an object, its amplitude and phase change, resulting in attenuation, interference, and refraction, and in phase-contrast X-ray imaging (PCI) these are converted to intensity changes. The relative change of the X-ray phase per unit path length is even orders of magnitude larger than that of the X-ray amplitude, so that the image contrast based on variation of the X-ray phase is potentially much stronger than the contrast based on X-ray amplitude (absorption contrast). An important medical application of PCI methods is soft-tissue imaging, where the absorption contrast is inherently weak. It is shown by in vitro examples that signs of malignant human breast tumor are enhanced in PCI images. Owing to the strong contrast, the radiation dose can be greatly reduced, so that a high-resolution phase-contrast X-ray tomography of the breast is possible with about 1 mGy mean glandular dose. Scattered radiation carries essential information on the atomic and molecular structure of the object, and particularly small-angle X-ray scattering can be used to trace cancer. The imaging methods developed at the synchrotron radiation facilities will become available in the clinical environment with the ongoing development of compact radiation sources, which produce intense X-ray beams of sufficient coherence. Several developments that are under way are described here. PMID:20799921

  1. Molecular markers in breast cancer: new tools in imaging and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Although breast cancer is mainly diagnosed by mammography, other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET) are increasingly used. The most recent developments in the field of molecular imaging comprise the application of near-infrared fluorescent labeled (NIRF) tracers for detection of breast cancer. Thus far, only a few molecular imaging tracers have been taken to the clinic of which most are suitable for PET. My thesis describes the e...

  2. Ultrasound imaging of breast tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Kenneth; Umphrey, Heidi; Lockhart, Mark; Robbin, Michelle; Forero-Torres, Andres

    2015-09-01

    A novel image processing strategy is detailed for simultaneous measurement of tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology parameters from a sequence of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) images. After normalization and tumor segmentation, a global time-intensity curve describing contrast agent flow was analyzed to derive surrogate measures of tumor perfusion (i.e., peak intensity, time-to-peak intensity, area under the curve, wash-in rate, wash-out rate). A maximum intensity image was generated from these same segmented image sequences, and each vascular component was skeletonized via a thinning algorithm. This skeletonized data set and collection of vessel segments were then investigated to extract parameters related to the neovascular network and physical architecture (i.e., vessel-to-tissue ratio, number of bifurcations, vessel count, average vessel length and tortuosity). An efficient computation of local perfusion parameters was also introduced and operated by averaging time-intensity curve data over each individual neovascular segment. Each skeletonized neovascular segment was then color-coded by these local measures to produce a parametric map detailing spatial properties of tumor perfusion. Longitudinal DCE-US image data sets were collected in six patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer using a Philips iU22 ultrasound system equipped with a L9-3 transducer and Definity contrast agent. Patients were imaged using US before and after contrast agent dosing at baseline and again at weeks 6, 12, 18 and 24 after treatment started. Preliminary clinical results suggested that breast tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be associated with temporal and spatial changes in DCE-US-derived parametric measures of tumor perfusion. Moreover, changes in neovascular morphology parametric measures may also help identify any breast tumor response (or lack thereof) to systemic treatment. Breast cancer management from early detection to therapeutic

  3. Sound speed and thermal property measurements of inert materials: laser spectroscopy and the diamond-anvil cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaug, J.M.

    1997-07-01

    An indispensable companion to dynamical physics experimentation, static high-pressure diamond-anvil cell research continues to evolve, with laser diagnostic, as an accurate and versatile experimental deep planetary properties have bootstrapped each other in a process that has produced even higher pressures; consistently improved calibrations of temperature and pressure under static and dynamic conditions; and unprecedented data and understanding of materials, their elasticity, equations of state (EOS), and transport properties under extreme conditions. A collection of recent pressure and/or temperature dependent acoustic and thermal measurements and deduced mechanical properties and EOS data are summarized for a wide range of materials including H2, H2O, H2S, D2S, CO2, CH4, N2O, CH3OH,, SiO2, synthetic lubricants, PMMA, single crystal silicates, and ceramic superconductors. Room P&T sound speed measurements are presented for the first time on single crystals of beta-HMX. New high-pressure and temperature diamond cell designed and pressure calibrant materials are reviewed.

  4. Image quality evaluation of breast tomosynthesis with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malliori, A.; Bliznakova, K.; Speller, R. D.; Horrocks, J. A.; Rigon, L.; Tromba, G.; Pallikarakis, N. [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras 26500 (Greece); Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London WVC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Clinical Physics CAU, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste 34127 (Italy); ELETTRA, Basovizza, Trieste 34012 (Italy); Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras 26500 (Greece)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: This study investigates the image quality of tomosynthesis slices obtained from several acquisition sets with synchrotron radiation using a breast phantom incorporating details that mimic various breast lesions, in a heterogeneous background. Methods: A complex Breast phantom (MAMMAX) with a heterogeneous background and thickness that corresponds to 4.5 cm compressed breast with an average composition of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissue was assembled using two commercial phantoms. Projection images using acquisition arcs of 24 Degree-Sign , 32 Degree-Sign , 40 Degree-Sign , 48 Degree-Sign , and 56 Degree-Sign at incident energy of 17 keV were obtained from the phantom with the synchrotron radiation for medical physics beamline at ELETTRA Synchrotron Light Laboratory. The total mean glandular dose was set equal to 2.5 mGy. Tomograms were reconstructed with simple multiple projection algorithm (MPA) and filtered MPA. In the latter case, a median filter, a sinc filter, and a combination of those two filters were applied on the experimental data prior to MPA reconstruction. Visual inspection, contrast to noise ratio, contrast, and artifact spread function were the figures of merit used in the evaluation of the visualisation and detection of low- and high-contrast breast features, as a function of the reconstruction algorithm and acquisition arc. To study the benefits of using monochromatic beams, single projection images at incident energies ranging from 14 to 27 keV were acquired with the same phantom and weighted to synthesize polychromatic images at a typical incident x-ray spectrum with W target. Results: Filters were optimised to reconstruct features with different attenuation characteristics and dimensions. In the case of 6 mm low-contrast details, improved visual appearance as well as higher contrast to noise ratio and contrast values were observed for the two filtered MPA algorithms that exploit the sinc filter. These features are better visualized

  5. Detecting breast microcalcifications using super-resolution ultrasound imaging: a clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lianjie; Labyed, Yassin; Hanson, Kenneth; Sandoval, Daniel; Pohl, Jennifer; Williamson, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Imaging breast microcalcifications is crucial for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. It is challenging for current clinical ultrasound to image breast microcalcifications. However, new imaging techniques using data acquired with a synthetic-aperture ultrasound system have the potential to significantly improve ultrasound imaging. We recently developed a super-resolution ultrasound imaging method termed the phase-coherent multiple-signal classification (PC-MUSIC). This signal subspace method accounts for the phase response of transducer elements to improve image resolution. In this paper, we investigate the clinical feasibility of our super-resolution ultrasound imaging method for detecting breast microcalcifications. We use our custom-built, real-time synthetic-aperture ultrasound system to acquire breast ultrasound data for 40 patients whose mammograms show the presence of breast microcalcifications. We apply our super-resolution ultrasound imaging method to the patient data, and produce clear images of breast calcifications. Our super-resolution ultrasound PC-MUSIC imaging with synthetic-aperture ultrasound data can provide a new imaging modality for detecting breast microcalcifications in clinic without using ionizing radiation.

  6. Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyo Soon; Jeong, Seo In; Choi, You Ri; Kim, Jin Woong; Lee, Ji Shin; Park, Min Ho [Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Kuzmiak, Cherie M. [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To analyze the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast. MR images were retrospectively evaluated in 14 patients (age range: 37-67, mean age: 49 years) with pathologically confirmed invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast. The enhancement type (mass/non-mass), shape, margin, contrast enhancement, and time-intensity curve pattern on the dynamic study were correlated with the histopathologic features. Associated findings, such as edema, nipple change, skin change and enlarged axillary lymph nodes were also studied. The most common features of the masses were irregular shape (12 of 14 patients, 85.8%) and irregular or spiculated margin (11 of 14 patients, 78.7%). The contrast enhancement was heterogeneous in 11 patients (78.7%), rim enhancement in 2 cases (14.2%), and homogeneous in one patient (7.1%). The predominant kinetic pattern was rapid increase (14 of 14, 100%) in the initial phase and washout (11 of 14, 78.7%) in the delayed phase. Associated non-mass like enhancement was shown in 4 patients, representing ductal carcinoma in situ. MR imaging helped detect additional sites of cancer other than the index lesion in 3 patients (21.4%). Enlarged axillary lymphadenopathy was identified in 7 of the 14 patients (50%). Invasive micropapillary carcinoma appears as a mass with an irregular shape, irregular or spiculated margin and heterogeneous enhancement on MR imaging. Though these findings are not specific and are also observed with other breast malignancies, invasive micropapillary carcinoma frequently showed multiple lesions, accompanying non-mass enhancement and axillary lymph node enlargement.

  7. Bioluminescence imaging of estrogen receptor activity during breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantaggiato, Cristina; Dell'Omo, Giulia; Ramachandran, Balaji; Manni, Isabella; Radaelli, Enrico; Scanziani, Eugenio; Piaggio, Giulia; Maggi, Adriana; Ciana, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ER) are known to play an important regulatory role in mammary gland development as well as in its neoplastic transformation. Although several studies highlighted the contribution of ER signaling in the breast transformation, little is known about the dynamics of ER state of activity during carcinogenesis due to the lack of appropriate models for measuring the extent of receptor signaling in time, in the same animal. To this aim, we have developed a reporter mouse model for the non-invasive in vivo imaging of ER activity: the ERE-Luc reporter mouse. ERE-Luc is a transgenic mouse generated with a firefly luciferase (Luc) reporter gene driven by a minimal promoter containing an estrogen responsive element (ERE). This model allows to measure receptor signaling in longitudinal studies by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Here, we have induced sporadic mammary cancers by treating systemically ERE-Luc reporter mice with DMBA (9,10-dimethyl 1,2-benzanthracene) and measured receptor signaling by in vivo imaging in individual animals from early stage until a clinically palpable tumor appeared in the mouse breast. We showed that DMBA administration induces an increase of bioluminescence in the whole abdominal area 6 h after treatment, the signal rapidly disappears. Several weeks later, strong bioluminescence is observed in the area corresponding to the mammary glands. In vivo and ex vivo imaging analysis demonstrated that this bioluminescent signal is localized in the breast area undergoing neoplastic transformation. We conclude that this non-invasive assay is a novel relevant tool to identify the activation of the ER signaling prior the morphological detection of the neoplastic transformation.

  8. Diagnostic Workup and Costs of a Single Supplemental Molecular Breast Imaging Screen of Mammographically Dense Breasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Carrie B.; Conners, Amy Lynn; Jones, Katie N.; O’Connor, Michael K.; Moriarty, James P.; Boughey, Judy C.; Rhodes, Deborah J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine additional diagnostic workup and costs generated by addition of a single molecular breast imaging (MBI) examination to screening mammography for women with dense breasts. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Women with mammographically dense breasts presenting for screening mammography underwent adjunct MBI performed with 300 MBq 99mTc-sestamibi and a direct-conversion cadmium-zinc-telluride dual-head gamma camera. All subsequent imaging tests and biopsies were tracked for a minimum of 1 year. The positive predictive value of biopsies performed (PPV3), benign biopsy rate, cost per patient screened, and cost per cancer detected were determined. RESULTS A total of 1651 women enrolled in the study. Among the 1585 participants with complete reference standard, screening mammography alone prompted diagnostic workup of 175 (11.0%) patients and biopsy of 20 (1.3%) and yielded five malignancies (PPV3, 25%). Results of combined screening mammography plus MBI prompted diagnostic workup of 279 patients (17.6%) and biopsy of 67 (4.2%) and yielded 19 malignancies (PPV3, 28.4%). The benign biopsy rates were 0.9% (15 of 1585) for screening mammography alone and 3.0% (48 of 1585) for the combination (p cost per patient screened from $176 for mammography alone to $571 for the combination. However, cost per cancer detected was lower for the combination ($47,597) than for mammography alone ($55,851). CONCLUSION The addition of MBI to screening mammography of women with dense breasts increased the overall costs and benign biopsy rate but also increased the cancer detection rate, which resulted in a lower cost per cancer detected than with screening mammography alone. PMID:26001247

  9. Radiofrequency Heat-Enhanced Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: Towards Interventional Molecular Image-Guided Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yurong; Han, Guocan; Wang, Yue; Hu, Xi; Li, Zhiming; Chen, Lumin; Bai, Weixian; Luo, Jingfeng; Zhang, Yajing; Sun, Jihong; Yang, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. Recent developments in minimally invasive interventional radiology techniques have significantly improved breast cancer treatment. This study aimed to develop a novel technique for the local management of breast cancers using radiofrequency heat (RFH). We performed both in vitro experiments using human breast cancer cells and in vivo validation in xenograft animal models with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathological corr...

  10. Sensitivity of imaging for multifocal-multicentric breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viale Giuseppe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This retrospective study aims to determine: 1 the sensitivity of preoperative mammography (Mx and ultrasound (US, and re-reviewed Mx to detect multifocal multicentric breast carcinoma (MMBC, defined by pathology on surgical specimens, and 2 to analyze the characteristics of both detected and undetected foci on Mx and US. Methods Three experienced breast radiologists re-reviewed, independently, digital mammography of 97 women with MMBC pathologically diagnosed on surgical specimens. The radiologists were informed of all neoplastic foci, and blinded to the original mammograms and US reports. With regards to Mx, they considered the breast density, number of foci, the Mx characteristics of the lesions and their BI-RADS classification. For US, they considered size of the lesions, BI-RADS classification and US pattern and lesion characteristics. According to the histological size, the lesions were classified as: index cancer, 2nd lesion, 3rd lesion, and 4th lesion. Any pathologically identified malignant foci not previously described in the original imaging reports, were defined as undetected or missed lesions. Sensitivity was calculated for Mx, US and re-reviewed Mx for detecting the presence of the index cancer as well as additional satellite lesions. Results Pathological examination revealed 13 multifocal and 84 multicentric cancers with a total of 303 malignant foci (282 invasive and 21 non invasive. Original Mx and US reports had an overall sensitivity of 45.5% and 52.9%, respectively. Mx detected 83/97 index cancers with a sensitivity of 85.6%. The number of lesions undetected by original Mx was 165/303. The Mx pattern of breasts with undetected lesions were: fatty in 3 (1.8%; scattered fibroglandular density in 40 (24.3%, heterogeneously dense in 91 (55.1% and dense in 31 (18.8% cases. In breasts with an almost entirely fatty pattern, Mx sensitivity was 100%, while in fibroglandular or dense pattern it was reduced to 45

  11. Processed images in human perception: A case study in ultrasound breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two main research efforts in early detection of breast cancer include the development of software tools to assist radiologists in identifying abnormalities and the development of training tools to enhance their skills. Medical image analysis systems, widely known as Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) systems, play an important role in this respect. Often it is important to determine whether there is a benefit in including computer-processed images in the development of such software tools. In this paper, we investigate the effects of computer-processed images in improving human performance in ultrasound breast cancer detection (a perceptual task) and classification (a cognitive task). A survey was conducted on a group of expert radiologists and a group of non-radiologists. In our experiments, random test images from a large database of ultrasound images were presented to subjects. In order to gather appropriate formal feedback, questionnaires were prepared to comment on random selections of original images only, and on image pairs consisting of original images displayed alongside computer-processed images. We critically compare and contrast the performance of the two groups according to perceptual and cognitive tasks. From a Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, we conclude that the provision of computer-processed images alongside the original ultrasound images, significantly improve the perceptual tasks of non-radiologists but only marginal improvements are shown in the perceptual and cognitive tasks of the group of expert radiologists.

  12. Processed images in human perception: A case study in ultrasound breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Moi Hoon [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FH09, Ergonomics and Safety Research Institute, Holywell Park (United Kingdom)], E-mail: M.H.Yap@lboro.ac.uk; Edirisinghe, Eran [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FJ.05, Garendon Wing, Holywell Park, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Bez, Helmut [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, Room N.2.26, Haslegrave Building, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Two main research efforts in early detection of breast cancer include the development of software tools to assist radiologists in identifying abnormalities and the development of training tools to enhance their skills. Medical image analysis systems, widely known as Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) systems, play an important role in this respect. Often it is important to determine whether there is a benefit in including computer-processed images in the development of such software tools. In this paper, we investigate the effects of computer-processed images in improving human performance in ultrasound breast cancer detection (a perceptual task) and classification (a cognitive task). A survey was conducted on a group of expert radiologists and a group of non-radiologists. In our experiments, random test images from a large database of ultrasound images were presented to subjects. In order to gather appropriate formal feedback, questionnaires were prepared to comment on random selections of original images only, and on image pairs consisting of original images displayed alongside computer-processed images. We critically compare and contrast the performance of the two groups according to perceptual and cognitive tasks. From a Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, we conclude that the provision of computer-processed images alongside the original ultrasound images, significantly improve the perceptual tasks of non-radiologists but only marginal improvements are shown in the perceptual and cognitive tasks of the group of expert radiologists.

  13. Classification System for Identifying Women at Risk for Altered Partial Breast Irradiation Recommendations After Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalchik, Kristin V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Vallow, Laura A., E-mail: vallow.laura@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); McDonough, Michelle [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Thomas, Colleen S.; Heckman, Michael G. [Section of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Peterson, Jennifer L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Adkisson, Cameron D. [Department of General Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Serago, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); McLaughlin, Sarah A. [Department of General Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To study the utility of preoperative breast MRI for partial breast irradiation (PBI) patient selection, using multivariable analysis of significant risk factors to create a classification rule. Methods and Materials: Between 2002 and 2009, 712 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent preoperative bilateral breast MRI at Mayo Clinic Florida. Of this cohort, 566 were retrospectively deemed eligible for PBI according to the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-39 inclusion criteria using physical examination, mammogram, and/or ultrasound. Magnetic resonance images were then reviewed to determine their impact on patient eligibility. The patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated to determine risk factors for altered PBI eligibility after MRI and to create a classification rule. Results: Of the 566 patients initially eligible for PBI, 141 (25%) were found ineligible because of pathologically proven MRI findings. Magnetic resonance imaging detected additional ipsilateral breast cancer in 118 (21%). Of these, 62 (11%) had more extensive disease than originally noted before MRI, and 64 (11%) had multicentric disease. Contralateral breast cancer was detected in 28 (5%). Four characteristics were found to be significantly associated with PBI ineligibility after MRI on multivariable analysis: premenopausal status (P=.021), detection by palpation (P<.001), first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer (P=.033), and lobular histology (P=.002). Risk factors were assigned a score of 0-2. The risk of altered PBI eligibility from MRI based on number of risk factors was 0:18%; 1:22%; 2:42%; 3:65%. Conclusions: Preoperative bilateral breast MRI altered the PBI recommendations for 25% of women. Women who may undergo PBI should be considered for breast MRI, especially those with lobular histology or with 2 or more of the following risk factors: premenopausal, detection by palpation, and first-degree relative with a history of

  14. Classification System for Identifying Women at Risk for Altered Partial Breast Irradiation Recommendations After Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the utility of preoperative breast MRI for partial breast irradiation (PBI) patient selection, using multivariable analysis of significant risk factors to create a classification rule. Methods and Materials: Between 2002 and 2009, 712 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent preoperative bilateral breast MRI at Mayo Clinic Florida. Of this cohort, 566 were retrospectively deemed eligible for PBI according to the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-39 inclusion criteria using physical examination, mammogram, and/or ultrasound. Magnetic resonance images were then reviewed to determine their impact on patient eligibility. The patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated to determine risk factors for altered PBI eligibility after MRI and to create a classification rule. Results: Of the 566 patients initially eligible for PBI, 141 (25%) were found ineligible because of pathologically proven MRI findings. Magnetic resonance imaging detected additional ipsilateral breast cancer in 118 (21%). Of these, 62 (11%) had more extensive disease than originally noted before MRI, and 64 (11%) had multicentric disease. Contralateral breast cancer was detected in 28 (5%). Four characteristics were found to be significantly associated with PBI ineligibility after MRI on multivariable analysis: premenopausal status (P=.021), detection by palpation (P<.001), first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer (P=.033), and lobular histology (P=.002). Risk factors were assigned a score of 0-2. The risk of altered PBI eligibility from MRI based on number of risk factors was 0:18%; 1:22%; 2:42%; 3:65%. Conclusions: Preoperative bilateral breast MRI altered the PBI recommendations for 25% of women. Women who may undergo PBI should be considered for breast MRI, especially those with lobular histology or with 2 or more of the following risk factors: premenopausal, detection by palpation, and first-degree relative with a history of

  15. MR imaging-guided biopsy and localization of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If suspicious lesions found with MR imaging cannot be visualized by either mammography or ultrasound, MR imaging - based guidance systems are needed to guide needle biopsy or to allow localization of the lesion before surgery. The authors give an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of biopsy devices presented by different working groups. Furthermore, MR-compatible needle equipment for interventions of the breast is demonstrated. The angulation of the needle and the type of sequence are the most important factors for signal loss due to susceptibility. The strategy in special problem cases (multicentricity, bilateral lesions) is discussed. Control MR imaging within the first week after open biopsy is the best way to document the complete excision of a suspicious hypervascularized lesion after MR-guided wire localization. At our institute, percutaneous biopsy (36 interventions) revealed benign findings in 67% and malignant lesions in 25% of cases. Three biopsies were insufficient. Histology after MR-guided wire localization (136 interventions) showed benign findings in 51% and malignancy in 49% of cases. The suspicious lesion was missed by the surgeion in three cases. We perform MR-guided interventions of the breast routinely in indicated cases. (orig.)

  16. Image Cytometry Data From Breast Lesions Analyzed using Hybrid Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Sakim, H A; Mat Isa, N A; G Naguib, Raouf; Sherbet, Gajanan

    2005-01-01

    The treatment and therapy to be administered on breast cancer patients are dependent on the stage of the disease at time of diagnosis. It is therefore crucial to determine the stage at the earliest time possible. Tumor dissemination to axillary lymph nodes has been regarded as an indication of tumor aggression, thus the stage of the disease. Neural networks have been employed in many applications including breast cancer prognosis. The performance of the networks have often been quoted based on accuracy and mean squared error. In this paper, the performance of hybrid networks based on Multilayer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function networks to predict axillary lymph node involvement have been investigated. A measurement of how confident the networks are with respect to the results produced is also proposed. The input layer of the networks include four image cytometry features extracted from fine needle aspiration of breast lesions. The highest accuracy achieved by the hybrid networks was 69% only. However, most of the correctly predicted cases had a high confidence level.

  17. Imaging Proteolysis by Living Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Sameni

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant progression is accompanied by degradation of extracellular matrix proteins. Here we describe a novel confocal assay in which we can observe proteolysis by living human breast cancer cells (BT20 and BT549 through the use of quenchedfluorescent protein substrates. Degradation thus was imaged, by confocal optical sectioning, as an accumulation of fluorescent products. With the BT20 cells, fluorescence was localized to pericellular focal areas that coincide with pits in the underlying matrix. In contrast, fluorescence was localized to intracellular vesicles in the BT549 cells, vesicles that also label for lysosomal markers. Neither intracellular nor pericellular fluorescence was observed in the BT549 cells in the presence of cytochalasin B, suggesting that degradation occurred intracellularly and was dependent on endocytic uptake of substrate. In the presence of a cathepsin 13-selective cysteine protease inhibitor, intracellular fluorescence was decreased ~90% and pericellular fluorescence decreased 67% to 96%, depending on the protein substrate. Matrix metallo protease inhibitors reduced pericellular fluorescence ~50%, i.e., comparably to a serine and a broad spectrum cysteine protease inhibitor. Our results suggest that: 1 a proteolytic cascade participates in pericellular digestion of matrix proteins by living human breast cancer cells, and 2 the cysteine protease cathepsin B participates in both pericellular and intracellular digestion of matrix proteins by living human breast cancer cells.

  18. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part I. The image acquisition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Hematology and Medical Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, 1701 Upper Gate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Mammography is a very well-established imaging modality for the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, since the introduction of digital imaging to the realm of radiology, more advanced, and especially tomographic imaging methods have been made possible. One of these methods, breast tomosynthesis, has finally been introduced to the clinic for routine everyday use, with potential to in the future replace mammography for screening for breast cancer. In this two part paper, the extensive research performed during the development of breast tomosynthesis is reviewed, with a focus on the research addressing the medical physics aspects of this imaging modality. This first paper will review the research performed on the issues relevant to the image acquisition process, including system design, optimization of geometry and technique, x-ray scatter, and radiation dose. The companion to this paper will review all other aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging, including the reconstruction process.

  19. The Application of the Edge Sharpening Operator to the Breast Near-Infrared Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The principles of Gradient operator, Laplacian operator, LOG operator and Sobel operator are discussed. Certain features of breast can be extracted in different degrees and aspects from original images by applying four edge sharpening operators to the breast near-infrared imaging. A great number of cases prove that compared with the other three operators, the improved Sobel operator can effectively extract the structural features of the breast from an original image. It can be concluded that the improved Sobel operator can assist in diagnosing breast diseases.

  20. Breast Imaging in the Era of Big Data: Structured Reporting and Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolies, Laurie R.; Pandey, Gaurav; Horowitz, Eliot R.; Mendelson, David S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this article is to describe structured reporting and the development of large databases for use in data mining in breast imaging. CONCLUSION The results of millions of breast imaging examinations are reported with structured tools based on the BI-RADS lexicon. Much of these data are stored in accessible media. Robust computing power creates great opportunity for data scientists and breast imagers to collaborate to improve breast cancer detection and optimize screening algorithms. Data mining can create knowledge, but the questions asked and their complexity require extremely powerful and agile databases. New data technologies can facilitate outcomes research and precision medicine. PMID:26587797

  1. Use of magnetic resonance imaging in detection of breast cancer recurrence: a systematic review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, Edel Marie

    2012-09-01

    Diagnosis of breast cancer recurrence can be difficult as a result of the presence of scar tissue in the breast. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be superior to traditional imaging in diagnosis of recurrence because of its ability to differentiate malignancy from scarring. Current guidelines on investigation of suspected breast cancer recurrence recommend MRI when other investigations have equivocal findings. We performed the first systematic review on this topic.

  2. The imaging features of MACROLANE{sup TM} in breast augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pienaar, W.E., E-mail: wilmipienaar@yahoo.com [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); McWilliams, S. [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Wilding, L.J. [West Middlesex University Hospital, Twickenham Road, Isleworth, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Perera, I.T. [East Kent University Hospital, Ethelbert Road, Canterbury, Kent (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Macrolane{sup TM} is an injectable, biocompatible, soft-tissue filler that has been available in the UK since 2008 and is promoted for use in breast augmentation. There are few data available on the long-term effects of this relatively new product and concerns have been raised about the implications for breast imaging, in particular breast screening. In this context we present a spectrum of imaging appearances and complications encountered to date.

  3. Role of Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Evaluation of Suspicious Breast Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Marwa E Abdelrahman *, Aida M Elshibiny *, Marwa I Fahmy *,

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Diffusion weighted Imaging “DWI” is a specific modality to produce images of tissues weighted with the local microstructural characteristics of water diffusion. DWI can give information as regards cellularity of breast lesions and it can be used for distinguishing between benign and malignant breast lesions, differentiating surgical scar from recurrence and monitoring therapies in locally advanced breast cancerAim of the work: To assess the diagnostic value of diffusion weighted...

  4. Ultrasound tomography of breast tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duric, Nebojsa; Littrup, Peter J.; Holsapple, Earle; Babkin, Alex; Duncan, Robert; Kalinin, Arkady; Pevzner, Roman; Tokarev, Michael

    2003-05-01

    The Karmanos Cancer Institute is developing an ultrasound device for measuring and imaging acoustic parameters of human tissue. This paper discusses the experimental results relating to tomographic reconstructions of phantoms and tissue. The specimens were scanned by the prototype scanner at a frequency of 1.5 MHz using 2 microsecond pulses. The receivers and transmitters were positioned along a ring trajectory having a diameter of 20 cm. The ring plane is translated in the vertical direction allowing for 3-D reconstructions from stacked 2-D planes of data. All ultrasound scans were performed at 10 millimeter slice thickness to generate multiple tomographic images. In a previous SPIE paper we presented preliminary results of ultrasound tomographic reconstruction of formalin-fixed breast tissue. We now present new results from data acquired with the scanner. Images were constructed using both reflection-based and transmission based algorithms. The resulting images demonstrate the ability to detect sub-mm features and to measure acoustic properties such as sound speed. Comparison with conventional ultrasound indicates the potential for better margin definition and acoustic characterization of tissue.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging features of papillary breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarica, Ozgur, E-mail: sozgur@yahoo.com; Uluc, Fatih, E-mail: drfatihuluc@yahoo.com; Tasmali, Deniz, E-mail: deniztasmali@hotmail.com

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: This study was aimed to assess the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of the papillary lesions of the breast and their morphological relationship with the mammary ducts. The potential diagnostic contributory role of ductal oriented protocols to conventional dynamic magnetic resonance examination was also explored. Materials and methods: Retrospective data were collected from 46 patients who had been diagnosed with papillary breast lesions and undergone magnetic resonance examination. The presence of dilated ducts and their morphological relation with the lesion were recorded. Lesions were classified as follows: papilloma, papillomatosis and malignant papillary lesion. Statistical difference between groups was studied for each morphological and dynamic lesion characteristic. Results: Dilated ducts and characteristics of intraductal material can be identified by magnetic resonance imaging. Certain MRI findings such as a mass with crescentic peripheral fluid or focal intraductal mass on T2 weighted images may suggest the presence of an intraductal/papillary lesion. In this respect, non-fatsat T2 weighted images appear particularly useful. There was a significant difference between papilloma and papillomatosis with regard to segmental and heterogeneous contrast enhancement (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). In addition, there was a significant difference between papillomas and carcinomas with regard to homogenous, heterogeneous and segmental contrast enhancement (p < 0.05 for all). On the other hand, papillomatosis and carcinoma did not differ significantly in terms of any of the morphological or dynamical MR criteria compared. Conclusion: Papillary lesions can be detected by MRI. Despite some overlaps in MRI findings between carcinoma, papilloma and papillomatosis, MRI may help differentiate these lesions. Major benefit of retroareolar imaging appears to arise from its ability to demonstrate ductal relation and extension of contrast

  6. Combined photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging of human breast in vivo in the mammographic geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhixing; Lee, Won-Mean; Hooi, Fong Ming; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Pinsky, Renee W.; Mueller, Dean; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L.

    2013-03-01

    This photoacoustic volume imaging (PAVI) system is designed to study breast cancer detection and diagnosis in the mammographic geometry in combination with automated 3D ultrasound (AUS). The good penetration of near-infrared (NIR) light and high receiving sensitivity of a broad bandwidth, 572 element, 2D PVDF array at a low center-frequency of 1MHz were utilized with 20 channel simultaneous acquisition. The feasibility of this system in imaging optically absorbing objects in deep breast tissues was assessed first through experiments on ex vivo whole breasts. The blood filled pseudo lesions were imaged at depths up to 49 mm in the specimens. In vivo imaging of human breasts has been conducted. 3D PAVI image stacks of human breasts were coregistered and compared with 3D ultrasound image stacks of the same breasts. Using the designed system, PAVI shows satisfactory imaging depth and sensitivity for coverage of the entire breast when imaged from both sides with mild compression in the mammographic geometry. With its unique soft tissue contrast and excellent sensitivity to the tissue hemodynamic properties of fractional blood volume and blood oxygenation, PAVI, as a complement to 3D ultrasound and digital tomosynthesis mammography, might well contribute to detection, diagnosis and prognosis for breast cancer.

  7. Molecular markers in breast cancer: new tools in imaging and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Although breast cancer is mainly diagnosed by mammography, other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET) are increasingly used. The most recent developments in the field of molecular imaging comprise the application of near-infrared fluoresc

  8. Scintimammography: The new role of Technetium-99 m Sestamibi imaging for the diagnosis of breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalkhali, I.; Diggles, L. E.; Cutrone, J. A.; Mishkin, F. S. [Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Iraniha, S. [Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance (United States). Surgery

    1997-09-01

    Technetium-99-Sestamibi scintimammography has emerged as a new procedure for the imaging of breast tumors, Currently, a large clinical experience has been developed and the results published. At the present time, the major drawback of this procedure appears to be its low sensitivity for the detection of breast carcinomas smaller than 1 cm in diameter. There are other biologic and technical issues that remain to be overcome to optimally image the breasts. Some of these include: development of a dedicated breast imager using nuclear medicine techniques, development of stereotactic needle localization of the abnormalities that demonstrate focal increase uptake in women with normal mammogram and breast physical examination, manufacturing of a breast compression device so that they can immobilize the breast in place for more adequate imaging, overcoming the issue of unilateral or bilateral diffuse breast uptake that is noted in 7 - 10 percent of the cases and finally determination of optimal dose and imaging factors. This review includes their experience at Harbor-University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center with the use of this agent for breast imaging since 1992.

  9. Mass spectrometry images acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelin in MDA-MB-231 breast tumor models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chughtai, K; Jiang, L.; Greenwood, T.R.; Glunde, K.; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The lipid compositions of different breast tumor microenvironments are largely unknown due to limitations in lipid imaging techniques. Imaging lipid distributions would enhance our understanding of processes occurring inside growing tumors, such as cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis

  10. Preliminary clinical observation of 99mTc-MIBI breast tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective, noninvasive diagnostic method of breast cancer is investigated. 99mTc-MIBI breast tumor imaging was performed in 78 patients with palpable breast mass. All was pathologically proved after operation. Of 78 patients, 42 were breast carcinoma, among them 35 were detected using 99MTc-MIBI scintigraphy. The smallest detectable mass was a infiltrating ductal carcinoma measuring 1.5 cm x 1.5 cm x 1.2 cm. Of 36 patients with benign lesions, 30 with negative result, among the 6 positive one, 5 were big adenoma, 1 was plasma cell mastitis. The sensitivity and specificity of 99mTc-MIBI imaging in detecting breast cancer wa 83.3% either. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy can be used as an accessory method in detecting breast cancer. But it was useless for differentiation between breast cancer and big adenoma

  11. Dual Energy Method for Breast Imaging: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Koukou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual energy methods can suppress the contrast between adipose and glandular tissues in the breast and therefore enhance the visibility of calcifications. In this study, a dual energy method based on analytical modeling was developed for the detection of minimum microcalcification thickness. To this aim, a modified radiographic X-ray unit was considered, in order to overcome the limited kVp range of mammographic units used in previous DE studies, combined with a high resolution CMOS sensor (pixel size of 22.5 μm for improved resolution. Various filter materials were examined based on their K-absorption edge. Hydroxyapatite (HAp was used to simulate microcalcifications. The contrast to noise ratio (CNRtc of the subtracted images was calculated for both monoenergetic and polyenergetic X-ray beams. The optimum monoenergetic pair was 23/58 keV for the low and high energy, respectively, resulting in a minimum detectable microcalcification thickness of 100 μm. In the polyenergetic X-ray study, the optimal spectral combination was 40/70 kVp filtered with 100 μm cadmium and 1000 μm copper, respectively. In this case, the minimum detectable microcalcification thickness was 150 μm. The proposed dual energy method provides improved microcalcification detectability in breast imaging with mean glandular dose values within acceptable levels.

  12. Breast cancer targeting novel microRNA-nanoparticles for imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Arutselvan; Venugopal, Senthil K.; DeNardo, Sally J.; Zern, Mark A.

    2009-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the most prevalent small (~22 nucleotide) regulatory RNA classes in animals. These miRNAs constitute nearly one percent of genes in the human genome, making miRNA genes one of the more abundant types of regulatory molecules. MiRNAs have been shown to play important roles in cell development, apoptosis, and other fundamental biological processes. MiRNAs exert their influence through complementary base-pairing with specific target mRNAs, leading to degradation or translational repression of the targeted mRNA. We have identified and tested a novel microRNA (miR-491) and demonstrated increased apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and in human breast cancer cells (HBT3477) in vitro. We prepared a novel cancer targeting assembly of gold nanoparticles (GNP) with Quantum dots, miR-491, and MAb-ChL6 coupled through streptavidin/biotin for effective transfection, and to induce apoptosis in specific cancer cells for imaging and targeted therapy. The targeting and apoptosis inducing ability was tested by confocal and electron microscopy. The MAb-GNP-miR491-Qdot construct effectively transfected into the HBT3477 cells and induced apoptosis the confirmation of these results would suggest a new class of molecules for the imaging and therapy of breast cancer.

  13. Automatic tissue segmentation of breast biopsies imaged by QPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Nguyen, Tan; Kandel, Mikhail; Marcias, Virgilia; Do, Minh; Tangella, Krishnarao; Balla, Andre; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    The current tissue evaluation method for breast cancer would greatly benefit from higher throughput and less inter-observer variation. Since quantitative phase imaging (QPI) measures physical parameters of tissue, it can be used to find quantitative markers, eliminating observer subjectivity. Furthermore, since the pixel values in QPI remain the same regardless of the instrument used, classifiers can be built to segment various tissue components without need for color calibration. In this work we use a texton-based approach to segment QPI images of breast tissue into various tissue components (epithelium, stroma or lumen). A tissue microarray comprising of 900 unstained cores from 400 different patients was imaged using Spatial Light Interference Microscopy. The training data were generated by manually segmenting the images for 36 cores and labelling each pixel (epithelium, stroma or lumen.). For each pixel in the data, a response vector was generated by the Leung-Malik (LM) filter bank and these responses were clustered using the k-means algorithm to find the centers (called textons). A random forest classifier was then trained to find the relationship between a pixel's label and the histogram of these textons in that pixel's neighborhood. The segmentation was carried out on the validation set by calculating the texton histogram in a pixel's neighborhood and generating a label based on the model learnt during training. Segmentation of the tissue into various components is an important step toward efficiently computing parameters that are markers of disease. Automated segmentation, followed by diagnosis, can improve the accuracy and speed of analysis leading to better health outcomes.

  14. Surface impedance based microwave imaging method for breast cancer screening: contrast-enhanced scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güren, Onan; Çayören, Mehmet; Tükenmez Ergene, Lale; Akduman, Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    A new microwave imaging method that uses microwave contrast agents is presented for the detection and localization of breast tumours. The method is based on the reconstruction of breast surface impedance through a measured scattered field. The surface impedance modelling allows for representing the electrical properties of the breasts in terms of impedance boundary conditions, which enable us to map the inner structure of the breasts into surface impedance functions. Later a simple quantitative method is proposed to screen breasts against malignant tumours where the detection procedure is based on weighted cross correlations among impedance functions. Numerical results demonstrate that the method is capable of detecting small malignancies and provides reasonable localization.

  15. Surface impedance based microwave imaging method for breast cancer screening: contrast-enhanced scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güren, Onan; Çayören, Mehmet; Ergene, Lale Tükenmez; Akduman, Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    A new microwave imaging method that uses microwave contrast agents is presented for the detection and localization of breast tumours. The method is based on the reconstruction of breast surface impedance through a measured scattered field. The surface impedance modelling allows for representing the electrical properties of the breasts in terms of impedance boundary conditions, which enable us to map the inner structure of the breasts into surface impedance functions. Later a simple quantitative method is proposed to screen breasts against malignant tumours where the detection procedure is based on weighted cross correlations among impedance functions. Numerical results demonstrate that the method is capable of detecting small malignancies and provides reasonable localization.

  16. Measuring temperature and humidity dependent sound speed using LabVIEW%基于 LabVIEW 声速测量系统研究声速与温湿度的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管婉青; 郭明俊; 刘尧; 张祥雪

    2013-01-01

      利用USB独立声卡结合虚拟仪器软件LabVIEW开发了声速测量系统,研究了声速与空气的温度、湿度之间的关系,得到了温湿度修正的声速经验公式。%Using USB sound card and LabVIEW software ,a sound speed measurement system was set up .The relationship between sound speed and air temperature and humidity was studied using this system .A revised empirical formula for temperature and humidity dependent sound speed was al-so obtained .

  17. 基于 LabVIEW 声速测量系统研究声速与温湿度的关系%Measuring temperature and humidity dependent sound speed using LabVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管婉青; 郭明俊; 刘尧; 张祥雪

    2013-01-01

      利用USB独立声卡结合虚拟仪器软件LabVIEW开发了声速测量系统,研究了声速与空气的温度、湿度之间的关系,得到了温湿度修正的声速经验公式。%Using USB sound card and LabVIEW software ,a sound speed measurement system was set up .The relationship between sound speed and air temperature and humidity was studied using this system .A revised empirical formula for temperature and humidity dependent sound speed was al-so obtained .

  18. Positive predictive value of additional synchronous breast lesions in whole-breast ultrasonography at the diagnosis of breast cancer: clinical and imaging factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ah Hyun; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Jung [Dept. of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of bilateral whole-breast ultrasonography (BWBU) for detection of synchronous breast lesions on initial diagnosis of breast cancer and evaluate factors affecting the PPV of BWBU according to varying clinicoimaging factors. A total of 75 patients who had synchronous lesions with pathologic confirmation at the initial diagnosis of breast cancer during January 2007 and December 2007 were included. The clinical factors of the patients were evaluated. One observer retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies of the index breast cancer lesion and the synchronous lesion. The PPV for additional biopsy was calculated for BWBU and various clinical and imaging factors affecting the PPV for BWBU were evaluated. The overall PPV for additional biopsy was 25.7% (18 of 70). The PPV for synchronous lesions detected both on mammography and BWBU, and detected only on BWBU, was 76.9% (10 of 13) and 14.3% (7 of 49), respectively. There was no clinical factor affecting the PPV for BWBU. Among the imaging factors, ipsilateral location of the synchronous lesion to the index lesion (P=0.06) showed a marginal statistically significant correlation with malignancy in the synchronous breast lesion. A mass with calcification on mammography presentation (P<0.01), presence of calcification among the ultrasonography findings (P<0.01), and high Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System final assessment (P<0.01) were imaging factors that were associated with malignancy in the additional synchronous lesion. BWBU can detect additional synchronous malignancy at the diagnosis of breast cancer with a relatively high PPV, especially when mammography findings are correlated with ultrasonographic findings.

  19. Positive predictive value of additional synchronous breast lesions in whole-breast ultrasonography at the diagnosis of breast cancer: clinical and imaging factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of bilateral whole-breast ultrasonography (BWBU) for detection of synchronous breast lesions on initial diagnosis of breast cancer and evaluate factors affecting the PPV of BWBU according to varying clinicoimaging factors. A total of 75 patients who had synchronous lesions with pathologic confirmation at the initial diagnosis of breast cancer during January 2007 and December 2007 were included. The clinical factors of the patients were evaluated. One observer retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies of the index breast cancer lesion and the synchronous lesion. The PPV for additional biopsy was calculated for BWBU and various clinical and imaging factors affecting the PPV for BWBU were evaluated. The overall PPV for additional biopsy was 25.7% (18 of 70). The PPV for synchronous lesions detected both on mammography and BWBU, and detected only on BWBU, was 76.9% (10 of 13) and 14.3% (7 of 49), respectively. There was no clinical factor affecting the PPV for BWBU. Among the imaging factors, ipsilateral location of the synchronous lesion to the index lesion (P=0.06) showed a marginal statistically significant correlation with malignancy in the synchronous breast lesion. A mass with calcification on mammography presentation (P<0.01), presence of calcification among the ultrasonography findings (P<0.01), and high Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System final assessment (P<0.01) were imaging factors that were associated with malignancy in the additional synchronous lesion. BWBU can detect additional synchronous malignancy at the diagnosis of breast cancer with a relatively high PPV, especially when mammography findings are correlated with ultrasonographic findings.

  20. Density and sound speed study of hydration of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium based amino acid ionic liquids in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Apparent and partial molar volumes of aqueous AAILs at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K. • Isothermal and adiabatic compressibilities of AAILs in aqueous solution at T = 298.15 K. • Method for direct estimation of hydration numbers due to electrostriction is given. • Internal pressure and hydration numbers for AAILs at T = 298.15 K. • Results obtained demonstrate kosmotropic behavior of AAILs. - Abstract: Amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs) have huge potential in the field of protein chemistry, enzymatic reactions, templates for synthetic study etc. which is due to their distinctive properties like unique acid-base characteristics, tunable hydrophobicity, hydrogen bonding ability and strong hydration effects. To explore the field of bio-ionic liquids for its real life applications and sustainable technology development, it is essential to have better understanding of these newly researched liquid salts in life’s most chosen medium, i.e. in aqueous medium, through study of their physicochemical properties in aqueous solutions. In this context, we are reporting herewith measurements and analysis of volumetric properties in the temperature range of (293.15 to 313.25) K and acoustic properties at 298.15 K in the concentration range of (0.05 to 0.5) mol · kg−1 for aqueous solutions of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium [Bmim] based amino acid ionic liquids, prepared from glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-isoleucine. The experimental density and sound speed data were used to obtain apparent, partial and limiting molar volumes as well as isentropic and isothermal compressibility properties. These data have been further used to understand electrostriction as well as concentration dependence of internal pressure. The hydration numbers for AAILs in aqueous medium were estimated from compressibility data using Passynski method and the estimated ionic hydration numbers are compared with those obtained using activity data. The results are explained in

  1. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Laboratory for Micro and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Philips Technologie GmbH, Roentgenstrasse 24, 22335 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Pathology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Department of Radiology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Institute of Pathology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Interdisciplinary Breast Center Baden, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland and Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-07-31

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  2. Enhanced imaging of microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis through improved image-reconstruction algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidky, Emil Y.; Pan Xiaochuan; Reiser, Ingrid S.; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B. [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: The authors develop a practical, iterative algorithm for image-reconstruction in undersampled tomographic systems, such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Methods: The algorithm controls image regularity by minimizing the image total p variation (TpV), a function that reduces to the total variation when p=1.0 or the image roughness when p=2.0. Constraints on the image, such as image positivity and estimated projection-data tolerance, are enforced by projection onto convex sets. The fact that the tomographic system is undersampled translates to the mathematical property that many widely varied resultant volumes may correspond to a given data tolerance. Thus the application of image regularity serves two purposes: (1) Reduction in the number of resultant volumes out of those allowed by fixing the data tolerance, finding the minimum image TpV for fixed data tolerance, and (2) traditional regularization, sacrificing data fidelity for higher image regularity. The present algorithm allows for this dual role of image regularity in undersampled tomography. Results: The proposed image-reconstruction algorithm is applied to three clinical DBT data sets. The DBT cases include one with microcalcifications and two with masses. Conclusions: Results indicate that there may be a substantial advantage in using the present image-reconstruction algorithm for microcalcification imaging.

  3. Enhanced imaging of microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis through improved image-reconstruction algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidky, Emil Y.; Pan, Xiaochuan; Reiser, Ingrid S.; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The authors develop a practical, iterative algorithm for image-reconstruction in undersampled tomographic systems, such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Methods: The algorithm controls image regularity by minimizing the image total p variation (TpV), a function that reduces to the total variation when p=1.0 or the image roughness whenp=2.0. Constraints on the image, such as image positivity and estimated projection-data tolerance, are enforced by projection onto convex sets. The fact that the tomographic system is undersampled translates to the mathematical property that many widely varied resultant volumes may correspond to a given data tolerance. Thus the application of image regularity serves two purposes: (1) Reduction in the number of resultant volumes out of those allowed by fixing the data tolerance, finding the minimum image TpV for fixed data tolerance, and (2) traditional regularization, sacrificing data fidelity for higher image regularity. The present algorithm allows for this dual role of image regularity in undersampled tomography. Results: The proposed image-reconstruction algorithm is applied to three clinical DBT data sets. The DBT cases include one with microcalcifications and two with masses. Conclusions: Results indicate that there may be a substantial advantage in using the present image-reconstruction algorithm for microcalcification imaging. PMID:19994501

  4. TH-A-18A-01: Innovation in Clinical Breast Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Yang, K [University of Oklahoma, Oklahomoa City, OK (United States); Yaffe, M [University Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Chen, J [GE/U-Systems, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Several novel modalities have been or are on the verge of being introduced into the breast imaging clinic. These include tomosynthesis imaging, dedicated breast CT, contrast-enhanced digital mammography, and automated breast ultrasound, all of which are covered in this course. Tomosynthesis and dedicated breast CT address the problem of tissue superimposition that limits mammography screening performance, by improved or full resolution of the 3D breast morphology. Contrast-enhanced digital mammography provides functional information that allows for visualization of tumor angiogenesis. 3D breast ultrasound has high sensitivity for tumor detection in dense breasts, but the imaging exam was traditionally performed by radiologists. In automated breast ultrasound, the scan is performed in an automated fashion, making for a more practical imaging tool, that is now used as an adjunct to digital mammography in breast cancer screening. This course will provide medical physicists with an in-depth understanding of the imaging physics of each of these four novel imaging techniques, as well as the rationale and implementation of QC procedures. Further, basic clinical applications and work flow issues will be discussed. Learning Objectives: To be able to describe the underlying physical and physiological principles of each imaging technique, and to understand the corresponding imaging acquisition process. To be able to describe the critical system components and their performance requirements. To understand the rationale and implementation of quality control procedures, as well as regulatory requirements for systems with FDA approval. To learn about clinical applications and understand risks and benefits/strength and weakness of each modality in terms of clinical breast imaging.

  5. A minimum spanning forest based classification method for dedicated breast CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, Robert [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30329 (United States); Sechopoulos, Ioannis [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30329 and Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Fei, Baowei, E-mail: bfei@emory.edu [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30329 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To develop and test an automated algorithm to classify different types of tissue in dedicated breast CT images. Methods: Images of a single breast of five different patients were acquired with a dedicated breast CT clinical prototype. The breast CT images were processed by a multiscale bilateral filter to reduce noise while keeping edge information and were corrected to overcome cupping artifacts. As skin and glandular tissue have similar CT values on breast CT images, morphologic processing is used to identify the skin based on its position information. A support vector machine (SVM) is trained and the resulting model used to create a pixelwise classification map of fat and glandular tissue. By combining the results of the skin mask with the SVM results, the breast tissue is classified as skin, fat, and glandular tissue. This map is then used to identify markers for a minimum spanning forest that is grown to segment the image using spatial and intensity information. To evaluate the authors’ classification method, they use DICE overlap ratios to compare the results of the automated classification to those obtained by manual segmentation on five patient images. Results: Comparison between the automatic and the manual segmentation shows that the minimum spanning forest based classification method was able to successfully classify dedicated breast CT image with average DICE ratios of 96.9%, 89.8%, and 89.5% for fat, glandular, and skin tissue, respectively. Conclusions: A 2D minimum spanning forest based classification method was proposed and evaluated for classifying the fat, skin, and glandular tissue in dedicated breast CT images. The classification method can be used for dense breast tissue quantification, radiation dose assessment, and other applications in breast imaging.

  6. A minimum spanning forest based classification method for dedicated breast CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop and test an automated algorithm to classify different types of tissue in dedicated breast CT images. Methods: Images of a single breast of five different patients were acquired with a dedicated breast CT clinical prototype. The breast CT images were processed by a multiscale bilateral filter to reduce noise while keeping edge information and were corrected to overcome cupping artifacts. As skin and glandular tissue have similar CT values on breast CT images, morphologic processing is used to identify the skin based on its position information. A support vector machine (SVM) is trained and the resulting model used to create a pixelwise classification map of fat and glandular tissue. By combining the results of the skin mask with the SVM results, the breast tissue is classified as skin, fat, and glandular tissue. This map is then used to identify markers for a minimum spanning forest that is grown to segment the image using spatial and intensity information. To evaluate the authors’ classification method, they use DICE overlap ratios to compare the results of the automated classification to those obtained by manual segmentation on five patient images. Results: Comparison between the automatic and the manual segmentation shows that the minimum spanning forest based classification method was able to successfully classify dedicated breast CT image with average DICE ratios of 96.9%, 89.8%, and 89.5% for fat, glandular, and skin tissue, respectively. Conclusions: A 2D minimum spanning forest based classification method was proposed and evaluated for classifying the fat, skin, and glandular tissue in dedicated breast CT images. The classification method can be used for dense breast tissue quantification, radiation dose assessment, and other applications in breast imaging

  7. Mammographic quantitative image analysis and biologic image composition for breast lesion characterization and classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drukker, Karen, E-mail: kdrukker@uchicago.edu; Giger, Maryellen L.; Li, Hui [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Duewer, Fred; Malkov, Serghei; Joe, Bonnie; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A. [Radiology Department, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Flowers, Chris I. [Department of Radiology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Drukteinis, Jennifer S. [Department of Radiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether biologic image composition of mammographic lesions can improve upon existing mammographic quantitative image analysis (QIA) in estimating the probability of malignancy. Methods: The study population consisted of 45 breast lesions imaged with dual-energy mammography prior to breast biopsy with final diagnosis resulting in 10 invasive ductal carcinomas, 5 ductal carcinomain situ, 11 fibroadenomas, and 19 other benign diagnoses. Analysis was threefold: (1) The raw low-energy mammographic images were analyzed with an established in-house QIA method, “QIA alone,” (2) the three-compartment breast (3CB) composition measure—derived from the dual-energy mammography—of water, lipid, and protein thickness were assessed, “3CB alone”, and (3) information from QIA and 3CB was combined, “QIA + 3CB.” Analysis was initiated from radiologist-indicated lesion centers and was otherwise fully automated. Steps of the QIA and 3CB methods were lesion segmentation, characterization, and subsequent classification for malignancy in leave-one-case-out cross-validation. Performance assessment included box plots, Bland–Altman plots, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions (invasive and DCIS) was 0.81 (standard error 0.07) for the “QIA alone” method, 0.72 (0.07) for “3CB alone” method, and 0.86 (0.04) for “QIA+3CB” combined. The difference in AUC was 0.043 between “QIA + 3CB” and “QIA alone” but failed to reach statistical significance (95% confidence interval [–0.17 to + 0.26]). Conclusions: In this pilot study analyzing the new 3CB imaging modality, knowledge of the composition of breast lesions and their periphery appeared additive in combination with existing mammographic QIA methods for the distinction between different benign and malignant lesion types.

  8. Characterization of human breast disease using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy and proton magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis provides the fundamental characterization and differentiation of breast tissues using in vivo and ex vivo MR techniques in the hope that these techniques and experimental findings will be used on a larger scale and in a predictive manner in order to improve the specificity of diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. In this dissertation, clinical studies were performed using proton magnetic resonance imaging and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectro-scopy (31P MRS) to characterize and differentiate malignant breast tumors, benign breast tumors and normal breast tissues in vivo. These studies were carried out following the methodical characterization of chemical extracts of malignant breast tumor, benign breast tumor and normal breast parenchymal surgical tissue specimens using high resolution 31P MRS. Alterations in breast tissue metabolism, as a result of pathological processes, were postulated to be responsible for measurable differences between malignant breast tumors, benign breast tumors and normal breast tissues using magnetic resonance techniques. (author). 365 refs.; 37 figs.; 25 tabs

  9. Mitosis Detection for Invasive Breast Cancer Grading in Histopathological Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angshuman; Mukherjee, Dipti Prasad

    2015-11-01

    Histopathological grading of cancer not only offers an insight to the patients' prognosis but also helps in making individual treatment plans. Mitosis counts in histopathological slides play a crucial role for invasive breast cancer grading using the Nottingham grading system. Pathologists perform this grading by manual examinations of a few thousand images for each patient. Hence, finding the mitotic figures from these images is a tedious job and also prone to observer variability due to variations in the appearances of the mitotic cells. We propose a fast and accurate approach for automatic mitosis detection from histopathological images. We employ area morphological scale space for cell segmentation. The scale space is constructed in a novel manner by restricting the scales with the maximization of relative-entropy between the cells and the background. This results in precise cell segmentation. The segmented cells are classified in mitotic and non-mitotic category using the random forest classifier. Experiments show at least 12% improvement in F1 score on more than 450 histopathological images at 40× magnification.

  10. Three-dimensional finite element model for lesion correspondence in breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yan; Li, Lihua; Goldgof, Dmitry; Sarkar, Sudeep; Anton, Sorin; Clark, Robert A.

    2004-05-01

    Predicting breast tissue deformation is of great significance in several medical applications such as biopsy, diagnosis, and surgery. In breast surgery, surgeons are often concerned with a specific portion of the breast, e.g., tumor, which must be located accurately beforehand. Also clinically it is important for combining the information provided by images from several modalities or at different times, for the detection/diagnosis, treatment planning and guidance of interventions. Multi-modality imaging of the breast obtained by X-ray mammography, MRI is thought to be best achieved through some form of data fusion technique. However, images taken by these various techniques are often obtained under entirely different tissue configurations, compression, orientation or body position. In these cases some form of spatial transformation of image data from one geometry to another is required such that the tissues are represented in an equivalent configuration. We propose to use a 3D finite element model for lesion correspondence in breast imaging. The novelty of the approach lies in the following facts: (1) Finite element is the most accurate technique for modeling deformable objects such as breast. The physical soundness and mathematical rigor of finite element method ensure the accuracy and reliability of breast modeling that is essential for lesion correspondence. (2) When both MR and mammographic images are available, a subject-specific 3D breast model will be built from MRIs. If only mammography is available, a generic breast model will be used for two-view mammography reading. (3) Incremental contact simulation of breast compression allows accurate capture of breast deformation and ensures the quality of lesion correspondence. (4) Balance between efficiency and accuracy is achieved through adaptive meshing. We have done intensive research based on phantom and patient data.

  11. Digital Image Processing Technique for Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Cabrera, R.; Guzmán-Sepúlveda, J. R.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; May-Arrioja, D. A.; Ruiz-Pinales, J.; Ibarra-Manzano, O. G.; Aviña-Cervantes, G.; Parada, A. González

    2013-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of death in women and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Primary prevention in the early stages of the disease becomes complex as the causes remain almost unknown. However, some typical signatures of this disease, such as masses and microcalcifications appearing on mammograms, can be used to improve early diagnostic techniques, which is critical for women’s quality of life. X-ray mammography is the main test used for screening and early diagnosis, and its analysis and processing are the keys to improving breast cancer prognosis. As masses and benign glandular tissue typically appear with low contrast and often very blurred, several computer-aided diagnosis schemes have been developed to support radiologists and internists in their diagnosis. In this article, an approach is proposed to effectively analyze digital mammograms based on texture segmentation for the detection of early stage tumors. The proposed algorithm was tested over several images taken from the digital database for screening mammography for cancer research and diagnosis, and it was found to be absolutely suitable to distinguish masses and microcalcifications from the background tissue using morphological operators and then extract them through machine learning techniques and a clustering algorithm for intensity-based segmentation.

  12. Precision Sound Velocity Profiles in the Ocean - Volume 5: Sound speed and temperature of Bermuda Waters in Autumn and Winter from October 1964 to March 1966 (NODC Accession 7000472)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A collection of high-resolution, precision simultaneous sound speed and temperature profiles to 2200 m depth, and their envelopes for each station is presented for...

  13. Water temperature, salinity, and sound speed data collected by CTD and XBT from the R/V Falkor in the NW Hawaiian Islands 2014-03 to 2014-06 (NCEI Accession 0137765)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical parameters (water temperature, salinity, and sound speed) were measured as high-resolution profiles at select locations and times using CTD and XBT...

  14. Challenges in the Design of Microwave Imaging Systems for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2011-01-01

    Among the various breast imaging modalities for breast cancer detection, microwave imaging is attractive due to the high contrast in dielectric properties between the cancerous and normal tissue. Due to this reason, this modality has received a significant interest and attention from the microwav...... and disadvantages of the implemented imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs between the various system requirements are indicated. Some strategies to overcome these limitations are outlined....

  15. Three-Dimensional Imaging as a Novel Approach to Breast Cancer Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Rudolph

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Today surgical planning in reconstruction of female breast cancer patients is limited by the inability of plastic surgeons to define the necessary volume, shape and contour of the breast. A novel approach to breast cancer reconstruction is three-dimensional imaging, which has gained popularity in an array of industries. Three-dimensional (3D images of a patient’s breasts enable a surgeon to not only visually assess the size, shape, contour, and symmetry of the breasts, but also to obtain quantitative breast measurements and make volumetric calculations. The following study is a preliminary analysis of female patient volunteers undergoing unilateral tissue-expander/implant reconstruction by one of two senior authors. 3D images were obtained during routine preoperative and postoperative office visits and served as a guide by the surgeon for surgical planning. Twelve patients have completed 3D assisted unilateral breast reconstruction to date. Overall breast symmetry improved at the completion of reconstruction in the majority of patients. Average postoperative symmetry was 95% as compared to 88% preoperatively. With 3D images plastic surgeons are able to objectively assess their patient, which is an improvement to the current surgical planning that utilizes subjective two-dimensional images and visual estimates.

  16. Detection Efficiency of Microcalcification using Computer Aided Diagnosis in the Breast Ultrasonography Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital Mammography makes it possible to reproduce the entire breast image. And it is used to detect microcalcification and mass which are the most important point of view of nonpalpable early breast cancer, so it has been used as the primary screening test of breast disease. It is reported that microcalcification of breast lesion is important in diagnosis of early breast cancer. In this study, six types of texture features algorithms are used to detect microcalcification on breast US images and the study has analyzed recognition rate of lesion between normal US images and other US images which microcalification is seen. As a result of the experiment, Computer aided diagnosis recognition rate that distinguishes mammography and breast US disease was considerably high 70-98%. The average contrast and entropy parameters were low in ROC analysis, but sensitivity and specificity of four types parameters were over 90%. Therefore it is possible to detect microcalcification on US images. If not only six types of texture features algorithms but also the research of additional parameter algorithm is being continually proceeded and basis of practical use on CAD is being prepared, it can be a important meaning as pre-reading. Also, it is considered very useful things for early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  17. Comparison of standard mammography with digital mammography and digital infrared thermal imaging for breast cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Screen-film mammography (SFM) has been considered the gold standard for breast cancer screening and detection. Despite its recognized value in detecting and characterizing breast disease, mammography has important limitations and its false-negative rate ranges from 4% to 34%. Given these limitations, development of imaging modalities that would enhance, complement, or replace mammography has been a priority. Digital mammography (FFDM) and ...

  18. Elastography of the Breast: Imaging Techniques and Pitfalls in Interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasound (US) elastography is a tool that indicates the hardness of a lesion. Recent studies using elastography with freehand compression have shown similar diagnostic performance to conventional US in differentiating benign lesions from malignant breast masses. On the other hand, the acquired information is not quantitative, and the reliability of the imaging technique to correctly compress the tissue depends on the skill of the operator, resulting in substantial interobserver variability during data acquisition and interpretation. To overcome this, shear wave elastography was developed to provide quantitative information on the tissue elasticity. The system works by remotely inducing mechanical vibrations through the acoustic radiation force created by a focused US beam. This review discusses the principles and examination techniques of the two types of elastography systems and provides practical points to reduce the interobserver variability or errors during data acquisition and interpretation

  19. Speckle noise reduction in breast ultrasound images: SMU (srad median unsharp) approch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image denoising has become a very essential for better information extraction from the image and mainly from so noised ones, such as ultrasound images. In certain cases, for instance in ultrasound images, the noise can restrain information which is valuable for the general practitioner. Consequently medical images are very inconsistent, and it is crucial to operate case to case. This paper presents a novel algorithm SMU (Srad Median Unsharp) for noise suppression in ultrasound breast images in order to realize a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) for breast cancer.

  20. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  1. An interactive method based on the live wire for segmentation of the breast in mammography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewei, Zhang; Tianyue, Wang; Li, Guo; Tingting, Wang; Lu, Xu

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy of computer-aided diagnosis of breast lumps, the authors introduce an improved interactive segmentation method based on Live Wire. This paper presents the Gabor filters and FCM clustering algorithm is introduced to the Live Wire cost function definition. According to the image FCM analysis for image edge enhancement, we eliminate the interference of weak edge and access external features clear segmentation results of breast lumps through improving Live Wire on two cases of breast segmentation data. Compared with the traditional method of image segmentation, experimental results show that the method achieves more accurate segmentation of breast lumps and provides more accurate objective basis on quantitative and qualitative analysis of breast lumps.

  2. An Interactive Method Based on the Live Wire for Segmentation of the Breast in Mammography Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zewei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve accuracy of computer-aided diagnosis of breast lumps, the authors introduce an improved interactive segmentation method based on Live Wire. This paper presents the Gabor filters and FCM clustering algorithm is introduced to the Live Wire cost function definition. According to the image FCM analysis for image edge enhancement, we eliminate the interference of weak edge and access external features clear segmentation results of breast lumps through improving Live Wire on two cases of breast segmentation data. Compared with the traditional method of image segmentation, experimental results show that the method achieves more accurate segmentation of breast lumps and provides more accurate objective basis on quantitative and qualitative analysis of breast lumps.

  3. Breast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with occult breast carcinoma: evaluation on feasibility and correlation with histopathological findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hong; XU Yi-lin; ZHANG Shu-ping; LANG Rong-gang; Chi S.Zee; LIU Pei-fang; FU Li

    2011-01-01

    Background As an uncommon presentation, occult primary breast cancer remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in clinical practice. This study aimed to retrospectively assess the feasibility of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with malignant axillary lymphadenopathy and unknown primary malignancy, and correlation with histopathological characteristics.Methods A total of 35 women with occult breast carcinoma were evaluated with dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. Whole seriate section was used in all cases. MRI performance was assessed and correlated with histopathological findings.Results Twenty-one of 35 patients were found to have primary breast carcinoma histologically. Twenty of the 21 patients had abnormal MR findings and 1 patient had a normal MRI study. Of the remaining 14 patients, 10 were negative on both MRI and surgery. Four had suspicious enhancement on MRI and no corresponding tumor was found. Lesions with mass enhancement were found in 55% (11/20) and ductual and segmental enhancement in 45%. The average diameter of the primary tumors was 15 mm. Invasive ductal carcinomas were found in 81% (17/21). One of 17 invasive ductual carcinomas was too small to be graded. Fourteen of the remaining 16 were classified as grade II and 2 as grade I. Thirty-two of the 35 patients had received estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 examinations and the 12 of 32 were triple-negative breast carcinoma.Conclusions Mass lesions with small size and lesions with ductal or segment enhancement are common MRI features in patients with occult breast cancer. The dominant types of primary tumors are invasive ductal carcinoma with moderate histopathological grade. The rate of triple-negative breast carcinoma may be higher in occult breast cancer.

  4. Automated 3D ultrasound image segmentation to aid breast cancer image interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Peng; Lee, Won-Mean; Roubidoux, Marilyn A; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L

    2016-02-01

    Segmentation of an ultrasound image into functional tissues is of great importance to clinical diagnosis of breast cancer. However, many studies are found to segment only the mass of interest and not all major tissues. Differences and inconsistencies in ultrasound interpretation call for an automated segmentation method to make results operator-independent. Furthermore, manual segmentation of entire three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes is time-consuming, resource-intensive, and clinically impractical. Here, we propose an automated algorithm to segment 3D ultrasound volumes into three major tissue types: cyst/mass, fatty tissue, and fibro-glandular tissue. To test its efficacy and consistency, the proposed automated method was employed on a database of 21 cases of whole breast ultrasound. Experimental results show that our proposed method not only distinguishes fat and non-fat tissues correctly, but performs well in classifying cyst/mass. Comparison of density assessment between the automated method and manual segmentation demonstrates good consistency with an accuracy of 85.7%. Quantitative comparison of corresponding tissue volumes, which uses overlap ratio, gives an average similarity of 74.54%, consistent with values seen in MRI brain segmentations. Thus, our proposed method exhibits great potential as an automated approach to segment 3D whole breast ultrasound volumes into functionally distinct tissues that may help to correct ultrasound speed of sound aberrations and assist in density based prognosis of breast cancer.

  5. Does Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Combined With Conventional Imaging Modalities Decrease the Rates of Surgical Margin Involvement and Reoperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Wen; Chen, Chih-Jung; Lin, Ying-Jen; Chen, Shu-Ling; Wu, Hwa-Koon; Wu, Yu-Ting; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Dar-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to assess whether preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with conventional breast imaging techniques decreases the rates of margin involvement and reexcision. Data on patients who underwent surgery for primary operable breast cancer were obtained from the Changhua Christian Hospital (CCH) breast cancer database. The rate of surgical margin involvement and the rate of reoperation were compared between patients who underwent conventional breast imaging modalities (Group A: mammography and sonography) and those who received breast MRI in addition to conventional imaging (Group B: mammography, sonography, and MRI). A total of 1468 patients were enrolled in this study. Among the 733 patients in Group A, 377 (51.4%) received breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and 356 (48.6%) received mastectomy. Among the 735 patients in Group B, 348 (47.3%) received BCS and 387 (52.7%) received mastectomy. There were no significant differences in operative method between patients who received conventional imaging alone and those that received MRI and conventional imaging (P = 0.13). The rate of detection of pathological multifocal/multicentric breast cancer was markedly higher in patients who received preoperative MRI than in those who underwent conventional imaging alone (14.3% vs 8.6%, P < 0.01). The overall rate of surgical margin involvement was significantly lower in patients who received MRI (5.0%) than in those who received conventional imaging alone (9.0%) (P < 0.01). However, a significant reduction in rate of surgical margin positivity was only observed in patients who received BCS (Group A, 14.6%; Group B, 6.6%, P < 0.01). The overall BCS reoperation rates were 11.7% in the conventional imaging group and 3.2% in the combined MRI group (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in rate of residual cancer in specimens obtained during reoperation between the 2 preoperative imaging groups

  6. Evaluation of the possibility to use thick slabs of reconstructed outer breast tomosynthesis slice images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Hannie; Dustler, Magnus; Tingberg, Anders; Timberg, Pontus

    2016-03-01

    The large image volumes in breast tomosynthesis (BT) have led to large amounts of data and a heavy workload for breast radiologists. The number of slice images can be decreased by combining adjacent image planes (slabbing) but the decrease in depth resolution can considerably affect the detection of lesions. The aim of this work was to assess if thicker slabbing of the outer slice images (where lesions seldom are present) could be a viable alternative in order to reduce the number of slice images in BT image volumes. The suggested slabbing (an image volume with thick outer slabs and thin slices between) were evaluated in two steps. Firstly, a survey of the depth of 65 cancer lesions within the breast was performed to estimate how many lesions would be affected by outer slabs of different thicknesses. Secondly, a selection of 24 lesions was reconstructed with 2, 6 and 10 mm slab thickness to evaluate how the appearance of lesions located in the thicker slabs would be affected. The results show that few malignant breast lesions are located at a depth less than 10 mm from the surface (especially for breast thicknesses of 50 mm and above). Reconstruction of BT volumes with 6 mm slab thickness yields an image quality that is sufficient for lesion detection for a majority of the investigated cases. Together, this indicates that thicker slabbing of the outer slice images is a promising option in order to reduce the number of slice images in BT image volumes.

  7. An Object-Oriented Simulator for 3D Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Seyyedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT is an innovative imaging modality that provides 3D reconstructed images of breast to detect the breast cancer. Projections obtained with an X-ray source moving in a limited angle interval are used to reconstruct 3D image of breast. Several reconstruction algorithms are available for DBT imaging. Filtered back projection algorithm has traditionally been used to reconstruct images from projections. Iterative reconstruction algorithms such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART were later developed. Recently, compressed sensing based methods have been proposed in tomosynthesis imaging problem. We have developed an object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT imaging system using C++ programming language. The simulator is capable of implementing different iterative and compressed sensing based reconstruction methods on 3D digital tomosynthesis data sets and phantom models. A user friendly graphical user interface (GUI helps users to select and run the desired methods on the designed phantom models or real data sets. The simulator has been tested on a phantom study that simulates breast tomosynthesis imaging problem. Results obtained with various methods including algebraic reconstruction technique (ART and total variation regularized reconstruction techniques (ART+TV are presented. Reconstruction results of the methods are compared both visually and quantitatively by evaluating performances of the methods using mean structural similarity (MSSIM values.

  8. Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehouwer, B.L.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) breast MRI plays an important role in the detection and staging of breast cancer. It has a high sensitivity of approximately 0.90 for the detection breast cancer, although the specificity of 0.72 is relatively low. Therefore, research has focused on improving specific

  9. Nanoradiopharmaceuticals for breast cancer imaging: development, characterization, and imaging in inducted animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcinelli, Michelle Alvares; Albernaz, Marta de Souza; Szwed, Marzena; Iscaife, Alexandre; Leite, Kátia Ramos Moreira; Junqueira, Mara de Souza; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; da Silva, Emerson Oliveira; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies as polymeric nanoparticles are quite interesting and endow this new drug category with many advantages, especially by reducing the number of adverse reactions and, in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, also reducing the amount of radiation (dose) administered to the patient. In this study, a nanoradiopharmaceutical was developed using polylactic acid (PLA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/montmorillonite (MMT)/trastuzumab nanoparticles labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) for breast cancer imaging. In order to confirm the nanoparticle formation, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering were performed. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticle and biodistribution with 99mTc in healthy and inducted animals were also measured. The results from atomic force microscopy showed that the nanoparticles were spherical, with a size range of ~200–500 nm. The dynamic light scattering analysis demonstrated that over 90% of the nanoparticles produced had a size of 287 nm with a zeta potential of −14,6 mV. The cytotoxicity results demonstrated that the nanoparticles were capable of reaching breast cancer cells. The biodistribution data demonstrated that the PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab nanoparticles labeled with 99mTc have great renal clearance and also a high uptake by the lesion, as ~45% of the PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab nanoparticles injected were taken up by the lesion. The data support PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab labeled with 99mTc nanoparticles as nanoradiopharmaceuticals for breast cancer imaging. PMID:27713638

  10. Enhanced imaging of microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis through improved image-reconstruction algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Sidky, Emil Y; Reiser, Ingrid S; Nishikawa, Robert M; Moore, Richard H; Kopans, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: We develop a practical, iterative algorithm for image-reconstruction in under-sampled tomographic systems, such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). METHOD: The algorithm controls image regularity by minimizing the image total $p$-variation (TpV), a function that reduces to the total variation when $p=1.0$ or the image roughness when $p=2.0$. Constraints on the image, such as image positivity and estimated projection-data tolerance, are enforced by projection onto convex sets (POCS). The fact that the tomographic system is under-sampled translates to the mathematical property that many widely varied resultant volumes may correspond to a given data tolerance. Thus the application of image regularity serves two purposes: (1) reduction of the number of resultant volumes out of those allowed by fixing the data tolerance, finding the minimum image TpV for fixed data tolerance, and (2) traditional regularization, sacrificing data fidelity for higher image regularity. The present algorithm allows for this...

  11. Features of undiagnosed breast cancers at screening breast MR imaging and potential utility of computer-aided evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mirinae; Cho, Nariya; Bea, Min Sun; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Won Hwa; Lee, Su Hyun; Chu, A Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the features of undiagnosed breast cancers on prior screening breast magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients who were subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer, as well as the potential utility of MR-computer-aided evaluation (CAE). Between March 2004 and May 2013, of the 72 consecutive pairs of prior negative MR images and subsequent MR images with diagnosed cancers (median interval, 32.8 months; range, 5.4-104.6 months), 36 (50%) had visible findings (mean size, 1.0 cm; range, 0.3-5.2 cm). The visible findings were divided into either actionable or under threshold groups by the blinded review by 5 radiologists. MR imaging features, reasons for missed cancer, and MR-CAE features according to actionability were evaluated. Of the 36 visible findings on prior MR images, 33.3% (12 of 36) of the lesions were determined to be actionable and 66.7% (24 of 36) were underthreshold; 85.7% (6 of 7) of masses and 31.6% (6 of 19) of non-mass enhancements were classified as actionable lesions. Mimicking physiologic enhancements (27.8%, 10 of 36) and small lesion size (27.8%, 10 of 36) were the most common reasons for missed cancer. Actionable findings tended to show more washout or plateau kinetic patterns on MR-CAE than underthreshold findings, as the 100% of actionable findings and 46.7% of underthreshold findings showed washout or plateau (p = 0.008). MR-CAE has the potential for reducing the number of undiagnosed breast cancers on screening breast MR images, the majority of which are caused by mimicking physiologic enhancements or small lesion size.

  12. ‘It was daunting’: Experience of women with a diagnosis of breast cancer attending for breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: A quarter of cancer cases worldwide are attributed to breast cancer. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis and care. Increasing value is placed on patient experience to inform service delivery. The main aim was to explore the experiences of women attending for diagnostic tests prior to and after diagnosis in order to inform practice. Methods: A convenience sample (n = 16) was recruited throughout the North-east of Scotland. A qualitative, exploratory and longitudinal study design was employed using semi-structured interviews. Twenty five interviews took place, with seven participants taking part in a single interview, a further seven and one participants taking part in two and three interviews respectively. Interviews were recorded, transcripts produced and analysed following the thematic approach. Results: Twelve participants attended imaging after discovering a breast lump and four via breast screening. Participants demonstrated differing attitudes to printed information material, and this changed over time. Imaging was ‘something to just get on and have done’ and almost without exception mammography was described as painful. The descriptions of invasive breast imaging provide a hitherto unknown insight into these procedures. Skill and attitude of staff was described as essential to the quality of the experience. This longitudinal study enabled women returning for follow-up procedures to identify their issues. Conclusion: This study provided a unique insight of the experiences of women when attending breast imaging. By listening to their narrative we can learn how services may be improved, and include this perspective to develop a quality patient-centred imaging service

  13. Extra-mammary findings detected on breast magnetic resonance imaging: A pictorial Essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is used for various indications. Contrary to computed tomography as a staging tool, breast MRI focuses on the breast parenchyma and axilla. In spite of narrow field of view, many structures such as the anterior portion of the lungs, mediastinum, bony structures and the liver are included which should not be neglected because the abnormalities detected on the above structures may influence the staging and provide a clue to systemic metastasis, which results in the change of treatment strategy. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to review the unexpected extra-mammary findings seen on the preoperative breast MRI.

  14. Extra-mammary findings detected on breast magnetic resonance imaging: A pictorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Hee Jung; Choi, Ji Soo; Ko, Kyung Ran [National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is used for various indications. Contrary to computed tomography as a staging tool, breast MRI focuses on the breast parenchyma and axilla. In spite of narrow field of view, many structures such as the anterior portion of the lungs, mediastinum, bony structures and the liver are included which should not be neglected because the abnormalities detected on the above structures may influence the staging and provide a clue to systemic metastasis, which results in the change of treatment strategy. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to review the unexpected extra-mammary findings seen on the preoperative breast MRI.

  15. Anatomy-Correlated Breast Imaging and Visual Grading Analysis Using Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound™

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuanow, Elaine; Malik, Bilal; Obuchowski, Nancy A.; Wiskin, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study presents correlations between cross-sectional anatomy of human female breasts and Quantitative Transmission (QT) Ultrasound, does discriminate classifier analysis to validate the speed of sound correlations, and does a visual grading analysis comparing QT Ultrasound with mammography. Materials and Methods. Human cadaver breasts were imaged using QT Ultrasound, sectioned, and photographed. Biopsies confirmed microanatomy and areas were correlated with QT Ultrasound images. Measurements were taken in live subjects from QT Ultrasound images and values of speed of sound for each identified anatomical structure were plotted. Finally, a visual grading analysis was performed on images to determine whether radiologists' confidence in identifying breast structures with mammography (XRM) is comparable to QT Ultrasound. Results. QT Ultrasound identified all major anatomical features of the breast, and speed of sound calculations showed specific values for different breast tissues. Using linear discriminant analysis overall accuracy is 91.4%. Using visual grading analysis readers scored the image quality on QT Ultrasound as better than on XRM in 69%–90% of breasts for specific tissues. Conclusions. QT Ultrasound provides accurate anatomic information and high tissue specificity using speed of sound information. Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound can distinguish different types of breast tissue with high resolution and accuracy.

  16. Phase-contrast x-ray imaging of the breast: recent developments towards clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, P.; Bravin, A.; Tromba, G.

    2013-12-01

    Breast imaging is one of the most demanding and delicate radiological applications. Mammography is the primary diagnosis tool in breast cancer detection and national screening programmes. Recognition of breast cancer depends on the detection of subtle architectural distortion, masses showing near normal breast tissue density, skin thickening and microcalcifications. The small differences in attenuation of x-rays between normal and malignant tissue result in low contrast and make cancer detection difficult in conventional x-ray absorption mammography. Because of these challenging aspects, breast imaging has been the first and most explored diagnostic field in phase-contrast imaging research. This novel imaging method has been extensively used and has demonstrated a unique capability in producing high-contrast and sensitive images at quasi-histological resolution. The most recent and significant technical developments are introduced and results obtained by the application of various phase-contrast imaging techniques for breast imaging are reported. The first phase-contrast mammography clinical trials project is also presented and the short- and long-term future perspectives of the method are discussed.

  17. Breast histopathology image segmentation using spatio-colour-texture based graph partition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, A D; Mushrif, M M; Pangarkar, M A; Meshram, N

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel integrated spatio-colour-texture based graph partitioning method for segmentation of nuclear arrangement in tubules with a lumen or in solid islands without a lumen from digitized Hematoxylin-Eosin stained breast histology images, in order to automate the process of histology breast image analysis to assist the pathologists. We propose a new similarity based super pixel generation method and integrate it with texton representation to form spatio-colour-texture map of Breast Histology Image. Then a new weighted distance based similarity measure is used for generation of graph and final segmentation using normalized cuts method is obtained. The extensive experiments carried shows that the proposed algorithm can segment nuclear arrangement in normal as well as malignant duct in breast histology tissue image. For evaluation of the proposed method the ground-truth image database of 100 malignant and nonmalignant breast histology images is created with the help of two expert pathologists and the quantitative evaluation of proposed breast histology image segmentation has been performed. It shows that the proposed method outperforms over other methods. PMID:26708167

  18. Transmission RF diffuse optical tomography instrument for human breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kijoon; Konecky, Soren D.; Choe, Regine; Ban, Han Y.; Corlu, Alper; Durduran, Turgut; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel clinical breast diffuse optical tomography (DOT) instrument for CW and RF data acquisition in transmission geometry. It is designed to be able to acquire a massive amount of data in a short amount of time available for patient measurement by using a 209-channel galvo-based fast optical switch and a fast electron-multiplying CCD. In addition to CW measurements, RF measurements were made by using an electro-optic modulator for source modulation and a gain-modulated image intensifier for detection. The patient bed has many clinically-oriented features as well as improved data acquisition rate and transmission RF measurement capability. A series of preliminary results will be shown, including a heterodyne RF experiment for bulk property measurement and a CW experiment for 3D imaging. In order to deal with large data size, a linear reconstruction algorithm that exploits separability of the inverse problem in Fourier domain is used for fast and memory-load-free reconstruction.

  19. Digital image analysis outperforms manual biomarker assessment in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhammar, Gustav; Fuentes Martinez, Nelson; Lippert, Michael; Tobin, Nicholas P; Mølholm, Ida; Kis, Lorand; Rosin, Gustaf; Rantalainen, Mattias; Pedersen, Lars; Bergh, Jonas; Grunkin, Michael; Hartman, Johan

    2016-04-01

    In the spectrum of breast cancers, categorization according to the four gene expression-based subtypes 'Luminal A,' 'Luminal B,' 'HER2-enriched,' and 'Basal-like' is the method of choice for prognostic and predictive value. As gene expression assays are not yet universally available, routine immunohistochemical stains act as surrogate markers for these subtypes. Thus, congruence of surrogate markers and gene expression tests is of utmost importance. In this study, 3 cohorts of primary breast cancer specimens (total n=436) with up to 28 years of survival data were scored for Ki67, ER, PR, and HER2 status manually and by digital image analysis (DIA). The results were then compared for sensitivity and specificity for the Luminal B subtype, concordance to PAM50 assays in subtype classification and prognostic power. The DIA system used was the Visiopharm Integrator System. DIA outperformed manual scoring in terms of sensitivity and specificity for the Luminal B subtype, widely considered the most challenging distinction in surrogate subclassification, and produced slightly better concordance and Cohen's κ agreement with PAM50 gene expression assays. Manual biomarker scores and DIA essentially matched each other for Cox regression hazard ratios for all-cause mortality. When the Nottingham combined histologic grade (Elston-Ellis) was used as a prognostic surrogate, stronger Spearman's rank-order correlations were produced by DIA. Prognostic value of Ki67 scores in terms of likelihood ratio χ(2) (LR χ(2)) was higher for DIA that also added significantly more prognostic information to the manual scores (LR-Δχ(2)). In conclusion, the system for DIA evaluated here was in most aspects a superior alternative to manual biomarker scoring. It also has the potential to reduce time consumption for pathologists, as many of the steps in the workflow are either automatic or feasible to manage without pathological expertise. PMID:26916072

  20. Segmentation of the whole breast from low-dose chest CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Salvatore, Mary; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2015-03-01

    The segmentation of whole breast serves as the first step towards automated breast lesion detection. It is also necessary for automatically assessing the breast density, which is considered to be an important risk factor for breast cancer. In this paper we present a fully automated algorithm to segment the whole breast in low-dose chest CT images (LDCT), which has been recommended as an annual lung cancer screening test. The automated whole breast segmentation and potential breast density readings as well as lesion detection in LDCT will provide useful information for women who have received LDCT screening, especially the ones who have not undergone mammographic screening, by providing them additional risk indicators for breast cancer with no additional radiation exposure. The two main challenges to be addressed are significant range of variations in terms of the shape and location of the breast in LDCT and the separation of pectoral muscles from the glandular tissues. The presented algorithm achieves robust whole breast segmentation using an anatomy directed rule-based method. The evaluation is performed on 20 LDCT scans by comparing the segmentation with ground truth manually annotated by a radiologist on one axial slice and two sagittal slices for each scan. The resulting average Dice coefficient is 0.880 with a standard deviation of 0.058, demonstrating that the automated segmentation algorithm achieves results consistent with manual annotations of a radiologist.

  1. Validation of the instrument "Body image after breast cancer" in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina de Oliveira Gonçalves; Maria da Consolação Gomes Cunha Fernandes Tavares; Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho Campana; César Cabello

    2014-01-01

    The body image is an important aspect to be considered during the treatment of women with breast cancer. Therefore, we understand the importance of the quality of an instrument that evaluates this condition. The instrument validated in this study can bring new possibilities of studying the effects of cancer treatments on body image. Validation of the questionnaire, translation, cultural adaptation and pre-tests were done with women with breast cancer residents of the States of Alagoas, Pernam...

  2. Image reconstruction for a Positron Emission Tomograph optimized for breast cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virador, Patrick R.G.

    2000-04-01

    The author performs image reconstruction for a novel Positron Emission Tomography camera that is optimized for breast cancer imaging. This work addresses for the first time, the problem of fully-3D, tomographic reconstruction using a septa-less, stationary, (i.e. no rotation or linear motion), and rectangular camera whose Field of View (FOV) encompasses the entire volume enclosed by detector modules capable of measuring Depth of Interaction (DOI) information. The camera is rectangular in shape in order to accommodate breasts of varying sizes while allowing for soft compression of the breast during the scan. This non-standard geometry of the camera exacerbates two problems: (a) radial elongation due to crystal penetration and (b) reconstructing images from irregularly sampled data. Packing considerations also give rise to regions in projection space that are not sampled which lead to missing information. The author presents new Fourier Methods based image reconstruction algorithms that incorporate DOI information and accommodate the irregular sampling of the camera in a consistent manner by defining lines of responses (LORs) between the measured interaction points instead of rebinning the events into predefined crystal face LORs which is the only other method to handle DOI information proposed thus far. The new procedures maximize the use of the increased sampling provided by the DOI while minimizing interpolation in the data. The new algorithms use fixed-width evenly spaced radial bins in order to take advantage of the speed of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), which necessitates the use of irregular angular sampling in order to minimize the number of unnormalizable Zero-Efficiency Bins (ZEBs). In order to address the persisting ZEBs and the issue of missing information originating from packing considerations, the algorithms (a) perform nearest neighbor smoothing in 2D in the radial bins (b) employ a semi-iterative procedure in order to estimate the unsampled data

  3. Image reconstruction for a Positron Emission Tomograph optimized for breast cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author performs image reconstruction for a novel Positron Emission Tomography camera that is optimized for breast cancer imaging. This work addresses for the first time, the problem of fully-3D, tomographic reconstruction using a septa-less, stationary, (i.e. no rotation or linear motion), and rectangular camera whose Field of View (FOV) encompasses the entire volume enclosed by detector modules capable of measuring Depth of Interaction (DOI) information. The camera is rectangular in shape in order to accommodate breasts of varying sizes while allowing for soft compression of the breast during the scan. This non-standard geometry of the camera exacerbates two problems: (a) radial elongation due to crystal penetration and (b) reconstructing images from irregularly sampled data. Packing considerations also give rise to regions in projection space that are not sampled which lead to missing information. The author presents new Fourier Methods based image reconstruction algorithms that incorporate DOI information and accommodate the irregular sampling of the camera in a consistent manner by defining lines of responses (LORs) between the measured interaction points instead of rebinning the events into predefined crystal face LORs which is the only other method to handle DOI information proposed thus far. The new procedures maximize the use of the increased sampling provided by the DOI while minimizing interpolation in the data. The new algorithms use fixed-width evenly spaced radial bins in order to take advantage of the speed of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), which necessitates the use of irregular angular sampling in order to minimize the number of unnormalizable Zero-Efficiency Bins (ZEBs). In order to address the persisting ZEBs and the issue of missing information originating from packing considerations, the algorithms (a) perform nearest neighbor smoothing in 2D in the radial bins (b) employ a semi-iterative procedure in order to estimate the unsampled data

  4. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors: Automated measurement development for full field digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, E. E.; Sellers, T. A.; Lu, B. [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Division of Population Sciences, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Heine, J. J. [Department of Cancer Imaging and Metabolism, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors are used for standardized mammographic reporting and are assessed visually. This reporting is clinically relevant because breast composition can impact mammographic sensitivity and is a breast cancer risk factor. New techniques are presented and evaluated for generating automated BI-RADS breast composition descriptors using both raw and calibrated full field digital mammography (FFDM) image data.Methods: A matched case-control dataset with FFDM images was used to develop three automated measures for the BI-RADS breast composition descriptors. Histograms of each calibrated mammogram in the percent glandular (pg) representation were processed to create the new BR{sub pg} measure. Two previously validated measures of breast density derived from calibrated and raw mammograms were converted to the new BR{sub vc} and BR{sub vr} measures, respectively. These three measures were compared with the radiologist-reported BI-RADS compositions assessments from the patient records. The authors used two optimization strategies with differential evolution to create these measures: method-1 used breast cancer status; and method-2 matched the reported BI-RADS descriptors. Weighted kappa (κ) analysis was used to assess the agreement between the new measures and the reported measures. Each measure's association with breast cancer was evaluated with odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for body mass index, breast area, and menopausal status. ORs were estimated as per unit increase with 95% confidence intervals.Results: The three BI-RADS measures generated by method-1 had κ between 0.25–0.34. These measures were significantly associated with breast cancer status in the adjusted models: (a) OR = 1.87 (1.34, 2.59) for BR{sub pg}; (b) OR = 1.93 (1.36, 2.74) for BR{sub vc}; and (c) OR = 1.37 (1.05, 1.80) for BR{sub vr}. The measures generated by method-2 had κ between 0.42–0.45. Two of these

  5. Including Antenna Models in Microwave Imaging for Breast-Cancer Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Meincke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Microwave imaging is emerging as a tool for screening for breast cancer, but the lack of methods for including the characteristics of the antennas of the imaging systems in the imaging algorithms limits their performance. In this paper, a method for incorporating the full antenna characteristics,...

  6. Discuss about the False Appearance in Experiment of Sound Speed Measurement%声速测量实验假象的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙航宾; 黄笃之; 张禹涛

    2011-01-01

    应用共振干涉测量法测定空气中的声速,相同条件下多台仪器重复测量实验,对实验结果进行数据处理和误差分析表明:对于某些声速测量仪,当换能器之间的距离小于10毫米时,在移动换能器测量声速的过程中出现了假峰现象,它对实验测量结果造成了很大影响。当使两换能器之间的距离大于10毫米开始测量,可以避免假象对测量结果的影响。%The detailed data processing and error analysis to the results of experiments,applying Resonate Interference Law to measure the sound speed in the air under same conditions repeatedly,show that the results of some Velocity Measuring Instruments come out false peak appearance when moving the transducer from 0 mm to 10mm;it influences the correctness of the experiments.This paper suggests that it can avoid false appearance to start measuring the sound speed when the transducer passes the point of 10mm.

  7. Review of Metaplastic Carcinoma of the Breast: Imaging Findings and Pathologic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Leddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaplastic carcinoma (MPC, an uncommon but often aggressive breast cancer, can be challenging to differentiate from other types of breast cancer and even benign lesions based on the imaging appearance. It has a variable pathology classification system. These types of tumors are generally rapidly growing palpable masses. MPCs on imaging can present with imaging features similar to invasive ductal carcinoma and probably even benign lesions. The purpose of this article is to review MPC of the breast including the pathology subtypes, imaging features, and imaging pathology correlations. By understanding the clinical picture, pathology, and overlap in imaging characteristics of MPC with invasive ductal carcinoma and probably benign lesions can assist in diagnosing these difficult malignancies.

  8. Breast MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    MRI - breast; Magnetic resonance imaging - breast; Breast cancer - MRI; Breast cancer screening - MRI ... your stomach on a narrow table with your breasts hanging down into cushioned openings. The table slides ...

  9. Image and pathological changes after microwave ablation of breast cancer: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wenbin [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiang, Yanni [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Chen, Lin; Ling, Lijun; Liang, Mengdi; Pan, Hong [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Wang, Siqi [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Ding, Qiang [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Liu, Xiaoan, E-mail: liuxiaoan@126.com [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Wang, Shui, E-mail: ws0801@hotmail.com [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We report successful experience of MWA in breast cancer under local anesthesia. • We report MR imaging evaluation of microwave ablation zone in breast cancer. • Pathological changes after microwave ablation in breast cancer was reported. • 2 min MWA caused an ablation zone with three diameters > 2 cm in breast cancer. - Abstract: Purpose: To prospectively assess MR imaging evaluation of the ablation zone and pathological changes after microwave ablation (MWA) in breast cancer. Materials and methods: Twelve enrolled patients, diagnosed with non-operable locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), were treated by MWA and then neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by surgery. MR imaging was applied to evaluate the effect of MWA. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied to analyze the ablated area. Results: All MWA procedures were performed successfully under local anesthesia. For a mean duration of 2.15 min, the mean largest, middle and smallest diameters in the ablated zone 24-h post-ablation in MR imaging were 2.98 cm ± 0.53, 2.51 cm ± 0.41 and 2.23 cm ± 0.41, respectively. The general shape of the ablation zone was close to a sphere. The ablated area became gradually smaller in MR imaging. No adverse effects related to MWA were noted in all 12 patients during and after MWA. HE staining could confirm the effect about 3 months after MWA, which was confirmed by TEM. Conclusions: 2 min MWA can cause an ablation zone with three diameters larger than 2 cm in breast cancer, which may be suitable for the local treatment of breast cancer up to 2 cm in largest diameter. However, the long-term effect of MWA in the treatment of small breast cancer should be determined in the future.

  10. Thermoacoustic tomography arising in brain imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanov, Plamen

    2010-01-01

    We study the mathematical model of thermoacoustic and photoacoustic tomography when the sound speed has a jump across a smooth surface. This models the change of the sound speed in the skull when trying to image the human brain. We derive an explicit inversion formula in the form of a convergent Neumann series under the assumptions that all singularities from the support of the source reach the boundary.

  11. Breast imaging technology: Recent advances in imaging endogenous or transferred gene expression utilizing radionuclide technologies in living subjects - applications to breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of imaging technologies is being investigated as tools for studying gene expression in living subjects. Two technologies that use radiolabeled isotopes are single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). A relatively high sensitivity, a full quantitative tomographic capability, and the ability to extend small animal imaging assays directly into human applications characterize radionuclide approaches. Various radiolabeled probes (tracers) can be synthesized to target specific molecules present in breast cancer cells. These include antibodies or ligands to target cell surface receptors, substrates for intracellular enzymes, antisense oligodeoxynucleotide probes for targeting mRNA, probes for targeting intracellular receptors, and probes for genes transferred into the cell. We briefly discuss each of these imaging approaches and focus in detail on imaging reporter genes. In a PET reporter gene system for in vivo reporter gene imaging, the protein products of the reporter genes sequester positron emitting reporter probes. PET subsequently measures the PET reporter gene dependent sequestration of the PET reporter probe in living animals. We describe and review reporter gene approaches using the herpes simplex type 1 virus thymidine kinase and the dopamine type 2 receptor genes. Application of the reporter gene approach to animal models for breast cancer is discussed. Prospects for future applications of the transgene imaging technology in human gene therapy are also discussed. Both SPECT and PET provide unique opportunities to study animal models of breast cancer with direct application to human imaging. Continued development of new technology, probes and assays should help in the better understanding of basic breast cancer biology and in the improved management of breast cancer patients

  12. Basic research and clinical application of optical molecular imaging in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a rapidly developing biomedical imaging technology,in vivo optical molecular imaging has been widely applied in various research fields owing to its unique real-time, quantitative and noninvasive characteristics. The applications of in vivo optical imaging technology in the basic and clinical research of breast cancer were reviewed, including detection of distant metastasis,tumor apoptosis, cell cycle, hypoxia and angiogenesis, ER-mediated molecular pathway, breast cancer stem cells, early diagnosis, sentinel node biopsy, evaluation of drug efficacy and detection of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) expression. They all seem to have a promising potential in in vivo optical molecular imaging. (authors)

  13. The effect of breast composition on absorbed dose and image contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the effect of breast composition on the average whole breast dose, average glandular dose, and image contrast in mammography, using both computational and experimental methods. Three glandular/adipose compositions were considered: 30/70, 50/50, and 70/30 by weight, for both 3- and 5-cm breast thickness. Absorbed dose was found to increase with greater glandular content and this increase is more pronounced for thick breasts and softer beams. For typical screen-film x-ray beams, the average dose to a highly glandular breast is nearly twice the dose to a highly adipose breast and the average glandular dose about 40% higher. Dose was reduced when higher energy beams were employed. The use of a grid increased the dose by a factor of 2.0 to 2.6. Finally, the measured image contrast decreases with increasing breast glandularity, to a greater extent in small breasts and when low energy beams were employed

  14. Factors Associated with Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Use among Medicare Beneficiaries with Nonmetastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Louise M; Weiss, Julie; Hubbard, Rebecca A; O'Donoghue, Cristina; DeMartini, Wendy B; Buist, Diana S M; Kerlikowske, Karla; Goodrich, Martha; Virnig, Beth; Tosteson, Anna N A; Lehman, Constance D; Onega, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use among Medicare beneficiaries with breast cancer has substantially increased from 2005 to 2009. We sought to identify factors associated with preoperative breast MRI use among women diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or stage I-III invasive breast cancer (IBC). Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results and Medicare data from 2005 to 2009 we identified women ages 66 and older with DCIS or stage I-III IBC who underwent breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy. We compared preoperative breast MRI use by patient, tumor and hospital characteristics stratified by DCIS and IBC using multivariable logistic regression. From 2005 to 2009, preoperative breast MRI use increased from 5.9% to 22.4% of women diagnosed with DCIS and 7.0% to 24.3% of women diagnosed with IBC. Preoperative breast MRI use was more common among women who were younger, married, lived in higher median income zip codes and had no comorbidities. Among women with IBC, those with lobular disease, smaller tumors (2 cm). The likelihood of receiving preoperative breast MRI is similar for women diagnosed with DCIS and IBC. Use of MRI is more common in women with IBC for tumors that are lobular and smaller while for DCIS MRI is used for evaluation of larger lesions. PMID:26511204

  15. Conspicuity of breast cancer according to histopathological type and breast density when imaged by full-field digital mammography compared with screen-film mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the conspicuity of different histopathological types of breast cancer according to breast density and mammographic imaging in patients with screen-detected breast cancers undergoing both full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and screen-film mammography (SFM) in the United Kingdom National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP). 185 patients underwent routine screening with SFM followed by further imaging using FFDM with consequent diagnosis of breast cancer. All SFM and soft-copy FFDM images were evaluated by two readers in an independent, retrospective review. The visualisation and conspicuity of the mammographic abnormality were recorded and graded using a four-level scale. Conspicuity of breast cancer was qualitatively evaluated. Breast density and conspicuity were correlated with histopathological diagnosis and inter-observer correlation was calculated. Mixed Model ANOVA demonstrated significant differences between FFDM and SFM (p < 0.001) and breast densities (p = 0.009): conspicuity of the mammographic abnormality (p < 0.001) and visualisation of the dominant mammographic feature (p < 0.001) were significantly greater with FFDM than SFM. This held true for both readers and for all histopathological tumour types with no significant differences between each tumour type. FFDM is significantly superior to SFM for conspicuity of screen-detected breast cancers for all histopathological types and breast densities. (orig.)

  16. Molecular Imaging Probes for Diagnosis and Therapy Evaluation of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer death in women where early detection and accurate assessment of therapy response can improve clinical outcomes. Molecular imaging, which includes PET, SPECT, MRI, and optical modalities, provides noninvasive means of detecting biological processes and molecular events in vivo. Molecular imaging has the potential to enhance our understanding of breast cancer biology and effects of drug action during both preclinical and clinical phases of drug development. This has led to the identification of many molecular imaging probes for key processes in breast cancer. Hormone receptors, growth factor receptor, and angiogenic factors, such as ER, PR, HER2, and VEGFR, have been adopted as imaging targets to detect and stage the breast cancer and to monitor the treatment efficacy. Receptor imaging probes are usually composed of targeting moiety attached to a signaling component such as a radionuclide that can be detected using dedicated instruments. Current molecular imaging probes involved in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy evaluation are reviewed, and future of molecular imaging for the preclinical and clinical is explained.

  17. Analysis on the characteristics of sound speed in the northern South China Sea based on Argo data%基于Argo观测资料的南海北部海域声速场时空特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟涛; 张韧; 王辉瓒; 安玉柱; 陈建; 段志刚

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Argo profile data of nearly 5 years,the spatial-temporal variation characteristics of sound speed profiles in northern South China Sea were analyzed by Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF),and then the sound speed characteristics for different depths were obtained by interpolating the scattered Argo sound speed data into regular gridded data.The results were shown as follows:The first 1-6 modes reflected the main features of the sound speed structure.The first mode,with an obvious year cycle,was closely related to the mixed layer.The second mode,with a phase contrary to the first mode,mainly worked in the subsurface.The third mode mainly affected the layers beneath the subsurface.The horizontal distributions of sound speed were different at each depth,and the sound speed at surface was notably influenced by water temperature while the sound speed below the surface was closely relative to the circulation system and water mass displacement.Cold eddy caused low sound speed zones.Both the Luzon cold eddy and the Vietnam cold eddy caused low sound speed zones.%利用近5年的Argo剖面序列,通过经验正交函数(EOF)分析,分析了南海北部海域声速垂直结构的时空变化特征和声速场水平分布特征.分析表明:EOF的前6个模态反映了海区声速结构的主要变化,可以很好地表示声速剖面.第1模态具有明显的年变化周期,主要受海洋混合层季节性变化影响;第2模态与第1模态时间函数具有明显的反向变化特征,主要对次表层进行调制;第3模态主要影响次表层以下声速变化;表层声速分布与深层声速分布有明显的差异,表层声速主要受海水温度变化的影响,深层声速分布与南海环流系统关系密切;冷涡的存在会引起声速场的低值中心.

  18. Cerenkov luminescence imaging of human breast cancer: a Monte Carlo simulations study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is a novel molecular imaging technique based on the detection of Cerenkov light produced by beta particles traveling through biological tissues. In this paper we simulated using 18F and 90Y the possibility of detecting Cerenkov luminescence in human breast tissues, in order to evaluate the potential of the CLI technique in a clinical setting. A human breast digital phantom was obtained from an 18F-FDG CT-PET scan. The spectral features of the breast surface emission were obtained as well as the simulated images obtainable by a cooled CCD detector. The simulated images revealed a signal to noise ratio equal to 6 for a 300 s of acquisition time. We concluded that a dedicated human Cerenkov imaging detector can be designed in order to offer a valid low cost alternative to diagnostic techniques in nuclear medicine, in particular allowing the detection of beta-minus emitters used in radiotherapy

  19. Identification of occult breast lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging with targeted ultrasound: A prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aracava, Márcia M., E-mail: marcia.aracava@gmail.com; Chojniak, Rubens, E-mail: chojniak@uol.com.br; Souza, Juliana A., E-mail: julianaalves79@hotmail.com; Bitencourt, Almir G.V., E-mail: almirgvb@yahoo.com.br; Marques, Elvira F., E-mail: elvira.marques@ig.com.br

    2014-03-15

    Objective: To verify the capacity of targeted ultrasound (US) to identify additional lesions detected on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but occult to initial mammography, US and clinical examinations. Methods: This prospective study included 68 additional relevant breast lesions identified on MRI of 49 patients. As an inclusion criterion, breast US and mammography were required and performed up to six months before MRI. These lesions were then subjected to targeted “second-look” US up to 2 weeks after MRI, performed by one or two radiologists with expertise on breast imaging. Lesions were evaluated according to the established Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. Results: Targeted US identified 46/68 (67.6%) lesions revealed by MRI. No significant associations were observed between US identification and the type of lesion, dimensions, morphological characteristics and enhancement pattern according to MRI findings. Targeted US identified 100% of BI-RADS category 5 lesions, 90% of category 4 lesions, and just over 50% of category 3 lesions (p < 0.05). There was significant agreement (p < 0.001) between MRI and US BI-RADS classification for all three categories. Conclusion: Targeted US can identify a large proportion of the lesions detected by breast MRI, especially those at high risk of malignancy, when performed by a professional with experience in both breast US and MRI.

  20. Is general practitioner access to breast imaging safe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, G.D. [Breast Unit, Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Llantrisant (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: garyosborn2@aol.com; Gahir, J.K. [Breast Unit, Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Llantrisant (United Kingdom); Preece, K. [Cancer Services, Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Llantrisant (United Kingdom); Vaughan-Williams, E. [Breast Unit, Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Llantrisant (United Kingdom); Gower-Thomas, K. [Radiology, Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Llantrisant (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the consultant radiologist run open-access breast radiology service (OAR) to investigate whether the system was safe or whether cancers were being missed. METHODS: A retrospective review of the national cancer registry database to identify patients presenting with symptomatic breast cancer in the catchment area of the Royal Glamorgan Hospital (RGH) from April 2000 to April 2002 was performed. Pathology, radiology and outpatient records were reviewed to identify patients previously assessed at the RGH. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients with breast cancer were diagnosed via the OAR and 159 by the breast clinic (BC). Twelve patients with breast cancer were diagnosed after their initial presentation. Eight patients had been previously seen for benign breast lesions. Four patients had missed breast cancers (two were initially seen via the BC and two via the OAR). A significant difference in the number of cancers missed by the two referral routes was not observed (p=0.221). CONCLUSION: OAR is as accurate a means of diagnosing breast cancer as traditional rapid access BCs. Women presenting with discrete lumps with no radiological abnormality should still undergo assessment with clinical fine core-biopsy.

  1. Nanoradiopharmaceuticals for breast cancer imaging: development, characterization, and imaging in inducted animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarcinelli MA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Michelle Alvares Sarcinelli,1,2 Marta de Souza Albernaz,3 Marzena Szwed,4 Alexandre Iscaife,2 Kátia Ramos Moreira Leite,2 Mara de Souza Junqueira,5 Emerson Soares Bernardes,6 Emerson Oliveira da Silva,1 Maria Ines Bruno Tavares,1 Ralph Santos-Oliveira7 1Instituto de Macromoléculas Professora Eloisa Mano Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Laboratory of Medical Investigation, Faculty of Medicine, São Paulo University, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Radiopharmacy Sector, University Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 4Department of Thermobiology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland; 5Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, São Paulo University, São Paulo, Brazil; 6Radiopharmacy Center, Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN, São Paulo, Brazil; 7Laboratory of Nanoradiopharmaceuticals, Zona Oeste State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Abstract: Monoclonal antibodies as polymeric nanoparticles are quite interesting and endow this new drug category with many advantages, especially by reducing the number of adverse reactions and, in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, also reducing the amount of radiation (dose administered to the patient. In this study, a nanoradiopharmaceutical was developed using polylactic acid (PLA/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/montmorillonite (MMT/trastuzumab nanoparticles labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc for breast cancer imaging. In order to confirm the nanoparticle formation, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering were performed. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticle and biodistribution with 99mTc in healthy and inducted animals were also measured. The results from atomic force microscopy showed that the nanoparticles were spherical, with a size range of ~200–500 nm. The dynamic light scattering analysis demonstrated that over 90% of the nanoparticles produced had a size of 287 nm with a zeta

  2. Molecular Imaging in Breast Cancer: From Whole-Body PET/CT to Dedicated Breast PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Koolen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET, with or without integrated computed tomography (CT, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG is based on the principle of elevated glucose metabolism in malignant tumors, and its use in breast cancer patients is frequently being investigated. It has been shown useful for classification, staging, and response monitoring, both in primary and recurrent disease. However, because of the partial volume effect and limited resolution of most whole-body PET scanners, sensitivity for the visualization of small tumors is generally low. To improve the detection and quantification of primary breast tumors with FDG PET, several dedicated breast PET devices have been developed. In this nonsystematic review, we shortly summarize the value of whole-body PET/CT in breast cancer and provide an overview of currently available dedicated breast PETs.

  3. Effect of shaped filter design on dose and image quality in breast CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of shaped filters specifically designed for dedicated breast computed tomography (CT) scanners on dose and image quality. Optimization of filter shape and material in fan direction was performed using two different design methods, one aiming at homogeneous noise distributions in the CT images and the other aiming at a uniform dose distribution in the breast. The optimal filter thickness as a function of fan angle was determined iteratively to fulfil the above mentioned criteria for each breast diameter. Different filter materials (aluminium, copper, carbon, polytetrafluoroethylene) and breast phantoms with diameters between 80–180 mm were investigated. Noise uniformity in the reconstructed images, obtained from CT simulations based on ray-tracing methods, and dose in the breast, calculated with a Monte Carlo software tool, were used as figure of merit. Furthermore, CT-value homogeneity, the distribution of noise in cone direction, spatial resolution from centre to periphery and the contrast-to-noise ratio weighted by dose (CNRD) were evaluated. In addition, the decrease of scatter due to shaped filters was investigated. Since only few or one filter are practical in clinical CT systems, the effects of one shaped filter for different breast diameters were also investigated. In this case the filter, designed for the largest breast diameter, was simulated at variable source-to-filter distances depending on breast diameter. With the filter design method aiming at uniform noise distribution best results were obtained for aluminium as the filter material. Noise uniformity improved from 20% down to 5% and dose was reduced by about 30–40% for all breast diameters. No decrease of noise uniformity in cone direction, CT-value homogeneity, spatial resolution and the CNRD was detected with the shaped filter. However, a small improvement of CNRD was observed. Furthermore, a scatter reduction of about 20–30% and a more

  4. A nonlinear biomechanical model based registration method for aligning prone and supine MR breast images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lianghao; Hipwell, John H; Eiben, Björn; Barratt, Dean; Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sebastien; Hawkes, David J

    2014-03-01

    Preoperative diagnostic magnetic resonance (MR) breast images can provide good contrast between different tissues and 3-D information about suspicious tissues. Aligning preoperative diagnostic MR images with a patient in the theatre during breast conserving surgery could assist surgeons in achieving the complete excision of cancer with sufficient margins. Typically, preoperative diagnostic MR breast images of a patient are obtained in the prone position, while surgery is performed in the supine position. The significant shape change of breasts between these two positions due to gravity loading, external forces and related constraints makes the alignment task extremely difficult. Our previous studies have shown that either nonrigid intensity-based image registration or biomechanical modelling alone are limited in their ability to capture such a large deformation. To tackle this problem, we proposed in this paper a nonlinear biomechanical model-based image registration method with a simultaneous optimization procedure for both the material parameters of breast tissues and the direction of the gravitational force. First, finite element (FE) based biomechanical modelling is used to estimate a physically plausible deformation of the pectoral muscle and the major deformation of breast tissues due to gravity loading. Then, nonrigid intensity-based image registration is employed to recover the remaining deformation that FE analyses do not capture due to the simplifications and approximations of biomechanical models and the uncertainties of external forces and constraints. We assess the registration performance of the proposed method using the target registration error of skin fiducial markers and the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of fibroglandular tissues. The registration results on prone and supine MR image pairs are compared with those from two alternative nonrigid registration methods for five breasts. Overall, the proposed algorithm achieved the best registration

  5. Fat suppression techniques in breast magnetic resonance imaging: a critical comparison and state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin C

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chen Lin, Clark David Rogers, Shadie Majidi Department of Radiology and Imaging Science, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Robust and accurate fat suppression is highly desirable in breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI because it can considerably improve the image quality and lesion conspicuity. However, fat suppression is also more challenging in the breast compared with other regions in the body. Technical advances have been made over time to make fat suppression more efficient and reliable. Combined with other innovations, breast MRI continues to be the most sensitive and comprehensive diagnostic modality in the detection and evaluation of breast lesions. This review offers a critical comparison of various fat suppression techniques in breast MRI including spectral-selective excitation and saturation techniques based on the chemical shift difference between fat and water, the inversion recovery techniques based on the T1 relaxation time difference, the hybrid spectral-selective inversion recovery techniques, and the new Dixon fat and water separation techniques based on the phase difference between fat and water signal at different echo times. This review will also cover less frequently used techniques such as slice-selective gradient reversal. For each fat suppression technique in breast MRI, a detailed explanation of the technical principle, the advantages and disadvantages, the approaches for optimization as well as the clinical examples are included. The additional challenges of fat suppression in breast MRI at higher field strength and in the presence of metallic and silicone implants are also discussed. Keywords: breast MRI, fat suppression, dynamic contrast enhanced imaging, diffusion weighted imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy

  6. Mouse Models of Breast Cancer: Platforms for Discovering Precision Imaging Diagnostics and Future Cancer Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, H Charles; Buck, Jason R; Cook, Rebecca S

    2016-02-01

    Representing an enormous health care and socioeconomic challenge, breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Although many of the challenges associated with preventing, treating, and ultimately curing breast cancer are addressable in the laboratory, successful translation of groundbreaking research to clinical populations remains an important barrier. Particularly when compared with research on other types of solid tumors, breast cancer research is hampered by a lack of tractable in vivo model systems that accurately recapitulate the relevant clinical features of the disease. A primary objective of this article was to provide a generalizable overview of the types of in vivo model systems, with an emphasis primarily on murine models, that are widely deployed in preclinical breast cancer research. Major opportunities to advance precision cancer medicine facilitated by molecular imaging of preclinical breast cancer models are discussed.

  7. Effect of the glandular composition on digital breast tomosynthesis image quality and dose optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the image quality assessment for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a breast phantom with an average percentage of 50 % glandular tissue is seldom used, which may not be representative of the breast tissue composition of the women undergoing such examination. This work aims at studying the effect of the glandular composition of the breast on the image quality taking into consideration different sizes of lesions. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the state-of-the-art computer program PENELOPE to validate the image acquisition system of the DBT equipment as well as to calculate the mean glandular dose for each projection image and for different breast compositions. The integrated PENELOPE imaging tool (PenEasy) was used to calculate, in mammography, for each clinical detection task the X-ray energy that maximises the figure of merit. All the 2D cranial-caudal projections for DBT were simulated and then underwent the reconstruction process applying the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique. Finally, through signal-to-noise ratio analysis, the image quality in DBT was assessed. (authors)

  8. Effect of the glandular composition on digital breast tomosynthesis image quality and dose optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, T; Ribeiro, A; Di Maria, S; Belchior, A; Cardoso, J; Matela, N; Oliveira, N; Janeiro, L; Almeida, P; Vaz, P

    2015-07-01

    In the image quality assessment for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a breast phantom with an average percentage of 50 % glandular tissue is seldom used, which may not be representative of the breast tissue composition of the women undergoing such examination. This work aims at studying the effect of the glandular composition of the breast on the image quality taking into consideration different sizes of lesions. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the state-of-the-art computer program PENELOPE to validate the image acquisition system of the DBT equipment as well as to calculate the mean glandular dose for each projection image and for different breast compositions. The integrated PENELOPE imaging tool (PenEasy) was used to calculate, in mammography, for each clinical detection task the X-ray energy that maximises the figure of merit. All the 2D cranial-caudal projections for DBT were simulated and then underwent the reconstruction process applying the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique. Finally, through signal-to-noise ratio analysis, the image quality in DBT was assessed.

  9. Anatomical background noise power spectrum in differential phase contrast breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-03-01

    In x-ray breast imaging, the anatomical noise background of the breast has a significant impact on the detection of lesions and other features of interest. This anatomical noise is typically characterized by a parameter, β, which describes a power law dependence of anatomical noise on spatial frequency (the shape of the anatomical noise power spectrum). Large values of β have been shown to reduce human detection performance, and in conventional mammography typical values of β are around 3.2. Recently, x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) and the associated dark field imaging methods have received considerable attention as possible supplements to absorption imaging for breast cancer diagnosis. However, the impact of these additional contrast mechanisms on lesion detection is not yet well understood. In order to better understand the utility of these new methods, we measured the β indices for absorption, DPC, and dark field images in 15 cadaver breast specimens using a benchtop DPC imaging system. We found that the measured β value for absorption was consistent with the literature for mammographic acquisitions (β = 3.61±0.49), but that both DPC and dark field images had much lower values of β (β = 2.54±0.75 for DPC and β = 1.44±0.49 for dark field). In addition, visual inspection showed greatly reduced anatomical background in both DPC and dark field images. These promising results suggest that DPC and dark field imaging may help provide improved lesion detection in breast imaging, particularly for those patients with dense breasts, in whom anatomical noise is a major limiting factor in identifying malignancies.

  10. Incidental breast masses detected by computed tomography: are any imaging features predictive of malignancy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Gareth.Porter@phnt.swest.nhs.uk; Steel, J.; Paisley, K.; Watkins, R. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Holgate, C. [Department of Histopathology, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    Aim: To review the outcome of further assessment of breast abnormalities detected incidentally by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and to determine whether any MDCT imaging features were predictive of malignancy. Material and methods: The outcome of 34 patients referred to the Primrose Breast Care Unit with breast abnormalities detected incidentally using MDCT was prospectively recorded. Women with a known diagnosis of breast cancer were excluded. CT imaging features and histological diagnoses were recorded and the correlation assessed using Fisher's exact test. Results: Of the 34 referred patients a malignant diagnosis was noted in 11 (32%). There were 10 breast malignancies (seven invasive ductal carcinomas, one invasive lobular carcinoma, two metastatic lesions) and one axillary lymphoma. CT features suggestive of breast malignancy were spiculation [6/10 (60%) versus 0/24 (0%) p = 0.0002] and associated axillary lymphadenopathy [3/10 (33%) versus 0/20 (0%) p = 0.030]. Conversely, a well-defined mass was suggestive of benign disease [10/24 (42%) versus 0/10 (0%); p = 0.015]. Associated calcification, ill-definition, heterogeneity, size, and multiplicity of lesions were not useful discriminating CT features. There was a non-significant trend for lesions in involuted breasts to be more frequently malignant than in dense breasts [6/14 (43%) versus 4/20 (20%) p = 0.11]. Conclusion: In the present series there was a significant rate (32%) of malignancy in patients referred to the breast clinic with CT-detected incidental breast lesions. The CT features of spiculation or axillary lymphadenopathy are strongly suggestive of malignancy.

  11. Fully automated quantitative analysis of breast cancer risk in DCE-MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Luan; Hu, Xiaoxin; Gu, Yajia; Li, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) in dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) images are two important indices for breast cancer risk assessment in the clinical practice. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a fully automated scheme for quantitative analysis of FGT and BPE in DCE-MR images. Our fully automated method consists of three steps, i.e., segmentation of whole breast, fibroglandular tissues, and enhanced fibroglandular tissues. Based on the volume of interest extracted automatically, dynamic programming method was applied in each 2-D slice of a 3-D MR scan to delineate the chest wall and breast skin line for segmenting the whole breast. This step took advantages of the continuity of chest wall and breast skin line across adjacent slices. We then further used fuzzy c-means clustering method with automatic selection of cluster number for segmenting the fibroglandular tissues within the segmented whole breast area. Finally, a statistical method was used to set a threshold based on the estimated noise level for segmenting the enhanced fibroglandular tissues in the subtraction images of pre- and post-contrast MR scans. Based on the segmented whole breast, fibroglandular tissues, and enhanced fibroglandular tissues, FGT and BPE were automatically computed. Preliminary results of technical evaluation and clinical validation showed that our fully automated scheme could obtain good segmentation of the whole breast, fibroglandular tissues, and enhanced fibroglandular tissues to achieve accurate assessment of FGT and BPE for quantitative analysis of breast cancer risk.

  12. Regional spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue using pulsed terahertz transmission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Tyler; El-Shenawee, Magda; Campbell, Lucas

    2016-03-01

    This work seeks to obtain the properties of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tumor tissues using transmission imaging and spectroscopy. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast tumors are first sectioned into slices of 20 μm and 30 μm and placed between two tsurupica slides. The slides are then scanned in a pulsed terahertz system using transmission imaging. The tissue regions in adjacent pathology section are compared to the transmission imaging scan in order to define a region of points over which to average the electrical properties results from the scan.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging appearances in primary and secondary angiosarcoma of the breast.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Ailbhe C

    2014-04-01

    Angiosarcomas are malignant tumours of endovascular origin. They are rare tumours accounting for 0.04-1% of all breast malignancies. Two different forms are described: primary, occurring in young women, and secondary angiosarcoma, which occurs in older women with a history of breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Imaging findings on mammography and ultrasound are non-specific, but magnetic resonance imaging with dynamic contrast enhancement is more informative. We present two cases - one of primary and one of secondary angiosarcoma - and review the imaging findings.

  14. Characterization of materials for optimal near-infrared and x-ray imaging of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, Kelly; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Pogue, Brian W; Brooks, Ken; Defreitas, Ken; Shaw, Ian; Poplack, Steven P; Paulsen, Keith D

    2012-09-01

    Development of a detector case for complete co-registration of images in a non-fiber-based combined near-infrared spectral tomography and digital breast tomosynthesis, required analysis to find materials that could support a breast under full mammographic compression without affecting the x-ray images or the quality of the near infrared measurements. Several possible solutions were considered, and many types of plastics were tested in the development of the detector case. Light channeling within the detector case changed the data obtained in resin and agarose phantoms, lowering recovered absorption values. Additional developments focusing on blocking stray light were successful and permitted a normal subject imaging exam.

  15. Breast varices: imaging findings of an unusual presentation of collateral pathways in superior vena caval syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezdemir, Ayseguel E-mail: aozdemir@tip.gazi.edu.tr; Ilgit, Erhan T.; Konus, Oeznur L.; Cetin, Meltem; Oezsunar, Yelda

    2000-11-01

    Imaging findings are presented of an unusual pathway of collateral circulation consisting of bilateral and diffuse dilated breast veins from a patient with long standing superior vena caval syndrome. The main importance of this case is the extent of the collateral development through the breast veins, serving as the major pathway of collateral circulation. Identification of this unusual collateral development, which resembles breast varices, was performed with contrast-enhanced chest CT scans, digital subtraction venography, color Doppler ultrasonography, and mammographic studies. Collateral development was secondary to a long segment idiopathic venous occlusion involving bilateral subclavian and brachiocephalic veins as well as vena cava superior. We conclude that dilated breast veins when detected on any imaging modality should raise the suspicion of central venous obstruction.

  16. Differential diagnosis of breast cancer using quantitative, label-free and molecular vibrational imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaliang; Li, Fuhai; Gao, Liang; Wang, Zhiyong; Thrall, Michael J; Shen, Steven S; Wong, Kelvin K; Wong, Stephen T C

    2011-08-01

    We present a label-free, chemically-selective, quantitative imaging strategy to identify breast cancer and differentiate its subtypes using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. Human normal breast tissue, benign proliferative, as well as in situ and invasive carcinomas, were imaged ex vivo. Simply by visualizing cellular and tissue features appearing on CARS images, cancerous lesions can be readily separated from normal tissue and benign proliferative lesion. To further distinguish cancer subtypes, quantitative disease-related features, describing the geometry and distribution of cancer cell nuclei, were extracted and applied to a computerized classification system. The results show that in situ carcinoma was successfully distinguished from invasive carcinoma, while invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma were also distinguished from each other. Furthermore, 80% of intermediate-grade IDC and 85% of high-grade IDC were correctly distinguished from each other. The proposed quantitative CARS imaging method has the potential to enable rapid diagnosis of breast cancer.

  17. Geometric calibration for a SPECT system dedicated to breast imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-Wei; WEI Long; CAO Xue-Xiang; WANG Lu; HUANG Xian-Chao; CHAI Pei; YUN Ming-Kai; ZHANG Yu-Bao; ZHANG Long; SHAN Bao-Ci

    2012-01-01

    Geometric calibration is critical to the accurate SPECT reconstruction.In this paper,a geometric calibration method was developed for a dedicated breast SPECT system with a tilted parallel beam (TPB)orbit.The acquisition geometry of the breast SPECT was firstly characterized.And then its projection model was established based on the acquisition geometry.Finally,the calibration results were obtained using a nonlinear optimization method that fitted the measured projections to the model.Monte Carlo data of the breast SPECT were used to verify the calibration method.Simulation results showed that the geometric parameters with reasonable accuracy could be obtained by the proposed method.

  18. Risk of Needle-track Seeding After Diagnostic Image-guided Core Needle Biopsy in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Rebecca; Horiuchi, Kent; Parker, Steve H.; Ratzer, Erick R.; Fenoglio, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Image-guided core needle biopsy (IGCNB) is an accepted technique for sampling nonpalpable mammographically detected suspicious breast lesions. However, the concern for needle-track seeding in malignant lesions remains. An alternative to IGCNB is needle-localization breast biopsy (NLBB). No study has been done to compare the local recurrence rate of breast cancer after IGCNB versus NLBB. Methods: We have retrospectively reviewed the local recurrence of breast cancer in patients diag...

  19. Mitosis detection in breast cancer histology images with deep neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cireşan, Dan C; Giusti, Alessandro; Gambardella, Luca M; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We use deep max-pooling convolutional neural networks to detect mitosis in breast histology images. The networks are trained to classify each pixel in the images, using as context a patch centered on the pixel. Simple postprocessing is then applied to the network output. Our approach won the ICPR 2012 mitosis detection competition, outperforming other contestants by a significant margin.

  20. Local binary pattern texture-based classification of solid masses in ultrasound breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica M. S.; Sehgal, Chandra M.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality among women. Ultrasound examination can be used to assess breast masses, complementarily to mammography. Ultrasound images reveal tissue information in its echoic patterns. Therefore, pattern recognition techniques can facilitate classification of lesions and thereby reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies. Our hypothesis was that image texture features on the boundary of a lesion and its vicinity can be used to classify masses. We have used intensity-independent and rotation-invariant texture features, known as Local Binary Patterns (LBP). The classifier selected was K-nearest neighbors. Our breast ultrasound image database consisted of 100 patient images (50 benign and 50 malignant cases). The determination of whether the mass was benign or malignant was done through biopsy and pathology assessment. The training set consisted of sixty images, randomly chosen from the database of 100 patients. The testing set consisted of forty images to be classified. The results with a multi-fold cross validation of 100 iterations produced a robust evaluation. The highest performance was observed for feature LBP with 24 symmetrically distributed neighbors over a circle of radius 3 (LBP24,3) with an accuracy rate of 81.0%. We also investigated an approach with a score of malignancy assigned to the images in the test set. This approach provided an ROC curve with Az of 0.803. The analysis of texture features over the boundary of solid masses showed promise for malignancy classification in ultrasound breast images.

  1. Clinical experiences with photoacoustic breast imaging: the appearance of suspicious lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijblom, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes photoacoustic (PA) imaging of suspicious breast lesions. In PA imaging, the tissue of interest is illuminated by short pulses of laser light, usually in the near infrared (NIR) regime. Upon absorption by primarily the tumor vasculature, the light causes a small temperature incr

  2. Phantom experiments with a microwave imaging system for breast-cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2009-01-01

    Microwave imaging is emerging as a promising technique for breast-cancer detection. In this paper, the microwave imaging system currently being developed at the Technical University of Denmark is introduced. This system consists of 32 antennas positioned in a cylindrical setup, each equipped...

  3. Joint Reconstruction of Absorbed Optical Energy Density and Sound Speed Distribution in Photoacoustic Computed Tomography: A numerical Investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Chao; Schoonover, Robert W; Wang, Lihong V; Anastasio, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is a rapidly emerging bioimaging modality that seeks to reconstruct an estimate of the absorbed optical energy density within an object. Conventional PACT image reconstruction methods assume a constant speed-of-sound (SOS), which can result in image artifacts when acoustic aberrations are significant. It has been demonstrated that incorporating knowledge of an object's SOS distribution into a PACT image reconstruction method can improve image quality. However, in many cases, the SOS distribution cannot be accurately and/or conveniently estimated prior to the PACT experiment. Because variations in the SOS distribution induce aberrations in the measured photoacoustic wavefields, certain information regarding an object's SOS distribution is encoded in the PACT measurement data. Based on this observation, a joint reconstruction (JR) problem has been proposed in which the SOS distribution is concurrently estimated along with the sought-after absorbed optical energy density ...

  4. Real-time optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer using an interleaved two laser imaging system coregistered with ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, Sergey A.; Fronheiser, Matthew P.; Nadvoretsky, Vyacheslav; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Su, Richard; Conjusteau, André; Mehta, Ketan; Otto, Pamela; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2010-02-01

    We present results from a clinical case study on imaging breast cancer using a real-time interleaved two laser optoacoustic imaging system co-registered with ultrasound. The present version of Laser Optoacoustic Ultrasonic Imaging System (LOUIS) utilizes a commercial linear ultrasonic transducer array, which has been modified to include two parallel rectangular optical bundles, to operate in both ultrasonic (US) and optoacoustic (OA) modes. In OA mode, the images from two optical wavelengths (755 nm and 1064 nm) that provide opposite contrasts for optical absorption of oxygenated vs deoxygenated blood can be displayed simultaneously at a maximum rate of 20 Hz. The real-time aspect of the system permits probe manipulations that can assist in the detection of the lesion. The results show the ability of LOUIS to co-register regions of high absorption seen in OA images with US images collected at the same location with the dual modality probe. The dual wavelength results demonstrate that LOUIS can potentially provide breast cancer diagnostics based on different intensities of OA images of the lesion obtained at 755 nm and 1064 nm. We also present new data processing based on deconvolution of the LOUIS impulse response that helps recover original optoacoustic pressure profiles. Finally, we demonstrate the image analysis tool that provides automatic detection of the tumor boundary and quantitative metrics of the optoacoustic image quality. Using a blood vessel phantom submerged in a tissue-like milky background solution we show that the image contrast is minimally affected by the phantom distance from the LOUIS probe until about 60-65 mm. We suggest using the image contrast for quantitative assessment of an OA image of a breast lesion, as a part of the breast cancer diagnostics procedure.

  5. A Case of Granulocytic Sarcoma of the Breast: Imaging Findings and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Radmehr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Granulocytic sarcoma (GS or chloroma is a solid tumor composed of extramedullary proliferation of myeloid cells. It can appear in a variety of locations, but it is rare, especially in the breast. Diagnosis of GS in the breast could be a challenge for clinicians, radiologists, and even pathologists; especially, in the absence of clinical history. "nIn this report, we present imaging features of a 20-year-old woman with relapse of acute myeloid leu-kemia as GS in her left breast and a brief review of the literature

  6. Aesthetic breast augmentation with hyaluronic acid: imaging findings and implications for radiological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divanei Aparecida Bottaro Criado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available New injectable fillers such as hyaluronic acid have recently been employed as a non-surgical alternative to implants such as silicone for aesthetic breast enhancement. Although their utilization is not yet widespread in Brazil, radiologists should be aware of the imaging findings in this context and of the implications of the presence of this filler for the radiological evaluation in the screening for breast cancer.

  7. Aesthetic breast augmentation with hyaluronic acid: imaging findings and implications for radiological assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Divanei Aparecida Bottaro Criado; Fernanda Del Campo Braojos; Ulysses dos Santos Torres; Marcos Pontes Muniz

    2012-01-01

    New injectable fillers such as hyaluronic acid have recently been employed as a non-surgical alternative to implants such as silicone for aesthetic breast enhancement. Although their utilization is not yet widespread in Brazil, radiologists should be aware of the imaging findings in this context and of the implications of the presence of this filler for the radiological evaluation in the screening for breast cancer.

  8. Multi-Band Miniaturized Patch Antennas for a Compact, Shielded Microwave Breast Imaging Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Suzette M; Al-Joumayly, Mudar A; Burfeindt, Matthew J; Behdad, Nader; Hagness, Susan C

    2013-12-18

    We present a comprehensive study of a class of multi-band miniaturized patch antennas designed for use in a 3D enclosed sensor array for microwave breast imaging. Miniaturization and multi-band operation are achieved by loading the antenna with non-radiating slots at strategic locations along the patch. This results in symmetric radiation patterns and similar radiation characteristics at all frequencies of operation. Prototypes were fabricated and tested in a biocompatible immersion medium. Excellent agreement was obtained between simulations and measurements. The trade-off between miniaturization and radiation efficiency within this class of patch antennas is explored via a numerical analysis of the effects of the location and number of slots, as well as the thickness and permittivity of the dielectric substrate, on the resonant frequencies and gain. Additionally, we compare 3D quantitative microwave breast imaging performance achieved with two different enclosed arrays of slot-loaded miniaturized patch antennas. Simulated array measurements were obtained for a 3D anatomically realistic numerical breast phantom. The reconstructed breast images generated from miniaturized patch array data suggest that, for the realistic noise power levels assumed in this study, the variations in gain observed across this class of multi-band patch antennas do not significantly impact the overall image quality. We conclude that these miniaturized antennas are promising candidates as compact array elements for shielded, multi-frequency microwave breast imaging systems.

  9. Clinical evaluation of fat suppressed fast-SPGR sequence of the breast MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Mitsuyuki; Hasegawa, Makoto; Matsubara, Tadashi [Yokohama Sakae Kyosai Hospital (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    MR-mammography by fat suppressed Fast-SPGR was evaluated for diagnosis and determination of invasion of tumor. Dynamic MRIs were performed in 12 phases, such as, before infusion of contrast media, right after and one to ten minutes after infusion with interval of one minute. In 15 patients (breast cancer, fibroadenoma, lymphocytic lobulitits and cystic intraductal papilloma), underwent MRI, the images were compared with pathological findings. Ten cases were confirmed as malignancy among 11 cases of breast cancer (sensitivity 91%). Eleven cases were confirmed as breast cancer among 12 cases diagnosed as breast cancer by MRI (specificity 92%). In 12 of all 15 cases, benignity or malignancy was checked correctly (accuracy 80%). Invasion of breast cancer was defined as the deep color dyeing area which was neighbored with the tumor in early stage of cystography. Eight of 11 cases were diagnosed precisely with fat suppression image, and nine were by subtraction image. Diagnosis was possible only by subtraction image in a case of scirrhous carcinoma accompanied with intradutal invasion. The area of invasion was not defined correctly in the case accompanied by mastopathy. It is difficult to evaluate benignity or malignancy of mammary gland tumor only by dynamic MRI, it is necessary to diagnose the shape and deep color image of tumor generally. (K.H.)

  10. Imaging Features of AlloDerm® Used in Postmastectomy Breast Reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine U Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this pictorial essay is to demonstrate the imaging features (ultrasound, mammogram, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of AlloDerm® (LifeCell Corp.; Branchburg, NJ, an acellular dermal matrix sometimes used in both primary and reconstructive breast surgeries. AlloDerm® is derived from cadaveric dermis and provides an immunologically inert scaffold in tissue reconstruction. Since there is little literature on the imaging of this substance, radiologists may be unfamiliar with its appearance in breast imaging. For this manuscript, ex vivo and in vivo images of AlloDerm® in postmastectomy patients were evaluated using different imaging modalities. The appearance of AlloDerm® can vary based on length of time postsurgery and incorporation into the host. AlloDerm® appears as an isodense to glandular tissue on a mammogram and isoechoic to glandular tissue on ultrasound imaging. On MRI, in comparison with normal breast parenchyma, AlloDerm® is hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging and isointense on T1-weighted imaging and demonstrates mild enhancement. To the best of the authors′ knowledge, this is the first multimodality imaging description of AlloDerm® used in postmastectomy patients. The conformation of AlloDerm® at surgical placement and the degree of host cell migration and neoangiogenesis are factors to take into consideration when performing diagnostic evaluations; and, familiarity with the various imaging appearances of AlloDerm® can be helpful to exclude residual or recurrent disease.

  11. Metabolic Imaging of Breast Cancer and the Normal Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar Butt, Sadia

    biological systems - breast cancer and normal brain. Breast cancer metabolism was longitudinally monitored in a mouse model using MRS of hyperpolirized pyruvate. The results demonstrated that we could monitor the changes in metabolism with increasing disease severity. The normal cerebral metabolism of α......-ketoisocaproate (KIC) was studied in the rat brain. The findings showed that hyperpolarized KIC is a promising substrate for in vivo evaluation of specific enzymatic activity....

  12. Full Intelligent Cancer Classification of Thermal Breast Images to Assist Physician in Clinical Diagnostic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, AmirEhsan; Pak, Fatemeh; Firouzmand, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. The important key to treat the breast cancer is early detection of it because according to many pathological studies more than 75% - 80% of all abnormalities are still benign at primary stages; so in recent years, many studies and extensive research done to early detection of breast cancer with higher precision and accuracy. Infra-red breast thermography is an imaging technique based on recording temperature distribution patterns of breast tissue. Compared with breast mammography technique, thermography is more suitable technique because it is noninvasive, non-contact, passive and free ionizing radiation. In this paper, a full automatic high accuracy technique for classification of suspicious areas in thermogram images with the aim of assisting physicians in early detection of breast cancer has been presented. Proposed algorithm consists of four main steps: pre-processing & segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. At the first step, using full automatic operation, region of interest (ROI) determined and the quality of image improved. Using thresholding and edge detection techniques, both right and left breasts separated from each other. Then relative suspected areas become segmented and image matrix normalized due to the uniqueness of each person's body temperature. At feature extraction stage, 23 features, including statistical, morphological, frequency domain, histogram and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) based features are extracted from segmented right and left breast obtained from step 1. To achieve the best features, feature selection methods such as minimum Redundancy and Maximum Relevance (mRMR), Sequential Forward Selection (SFS), Sequential Backward Selection (SBS), Sequential Floating Forward Selection (SFFS), Sequential Floating Backward Selection (SFBS) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) have been used at step 3. Finally to classify and TH labeling procedures

  13. Serum calcium levels, TRPM7, TRPC1, microcalcifications, and breast cancer using breast imaging reporting and data system scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandavilli S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Shravya Mandavilli,1 Brij B Singh,2 Abe E Sahmoun11Department of Internal Medicine, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Fargo, ND, USA; 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USABackground: An association between higher serum calcium (Ca2+ levels and breast cancer has been previously reported. However, little is known regarding the relationship between serum Ca2+ levels and the expression of Ca2+ channels in the presence of breast microcalcifications.Methods: A retrospective analysis of women newly diagnosed with breast microcalcifications was performed based on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS. The expression of TRPC1, TRPC3, and TRPM7 using normal biopsy without microcalcifications (controls and infiltrating ductal carcinoma with microcalcifications was evaluated.Results: Data on 138 women were analyzed. Seventy percent of women had a BI-RADS score (1–3 corresponding to benign disease. Seventy-six percent of women with a BI-RADS score (4 or 5 were diagnosed with breast cancer, 56% were cancers in situ, and 93% were infiltrating ductal carcinomas. No difference in the distribution of corrected serum Ca2+ levels between BI-RADS scores (1–3 and BI-RADS scores (4–5 (P = 0.82 was observed. Serum Ca2+ levels were similar in women without cancer and women diagnosed with breast cancer (P = 0.94. However, the expression of TRPM7 and TRPC1, but not TRPC3, Ca2+ channels were increased in infiltrating ductal carcinoma samples with microcalcifications when compared with age-matched controls without calcification or cancer.Conclusion: We observed an increase in the expression of TRPM7 and TRPC1 Ca2+ channels in infiltrating ductal carcinoma samples with microcalcifications, whereas no change in serum Ca2+ levels was observed. Together these data suggest that increased expression of these channels might

  14. Coded aperture coherent scatter imaging for breast cancer detection: a Monte Carlo evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Manu N.; Morris, Robert E.; Greenberg, Joel A.; Samei, Ehsan; Kapadia, Anuj J.

    2016-03-01

    It is known that conventional x-ray imaging provides a maximum contrast between cancerous and healthy fibroglandular breast tissues of 3% based on their linear x-ray attenuation coefficients at 17.5 keV, whereas coherent scatter signal provides a maximum contrast of 19% based on their differential coherent scatter cross sections. Therefore in order to exploit this potential contrast, we seek to evaluate the performance of a coded- aperture coherent scatter imaging system for breast cancer detection and investigate its accuracy using Monte Carlo simulations. In the simulations we modeled our experimental system, which consists of a raster-scanned pencil beam of x-rays, a bismuth-tin coded aperture mask comprised of a repeating slit pattern with 2-mm periodicity, and a linear-array of 128 detector pixels with 6.5-keV energy resolution. The breast tissue that was scanned comprised a 3-cm sample taken from a patient-based XCAT breast phantom containing a tomosynthesis- based realistic simulated lesion. The differential coherent scatter cross section was reconstructed at each pixel in the image using an iterative reconstruction algorithm. Each pixel in the reconstructed image was then classified as being either air or the type of breast tissue with which its normalized reconstructed differential coherent scatter cross section had the highest correlation coefficient. Comparison of the final tissue classification results with the ground truth image showed that the coded aperture imaging technique has a cancerous pixel detection sensitivity (correct identification of cancerous pixels), specificity (correctly ruling out healthy pixels as not being cancer) and accuracy of 92.4%, 91.9% and 92.0%, respectively. Our Monte Carlo evaluation of our experimental coded aperture coherent scatter imaging system shows that it is able to exploit the greater contrast available from coherently scattered x-rays to increase the accuracy of detecting cancerous regions within the breast.

  15. Feeling like me again: a grounded theory of the role of breast reconstruction surgery in self-image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, L N; Newman, E F; Adair, P

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to develop a theoretical understanding of the role of breast reconstruction in women's self-image. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women from breast cancer support groups who had undergone breast reconstruction surgery. A grounded theory methodology was used to explore their experiences. The study generated a model of 'breast cancer, breast reconstruction and self-image', with a core category entitled 'feeling like me again' and two principal categories of 'normal appearance' and 'normal life'. A further two main categories, 'moving on' and 'image of sick person' were generated. The results indicated a role of breast reconstruction in several aspects of self-image including the restoration of pre-surgery persona, which further promoted adjustment.

  16. Validity of breast-specific gamma imaging for Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 4 lesions on mammography and/or ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Jeng; Yu, Yeong Beom; Park, Kyoung Sik; Chung, Hyun Woo; So, Young; Choi, Nami; Kim, Mi Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) in Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 4 lesions on mammography and/or ultrasound. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 162 patients who underwent BSGI in BI-RADS 4 lesions on mammography and/or ultrasound. Results Of the 162 breast lesions, 66 were malignant tumors and 96 were benign tumors. Sensitivity and specificity of BSGI were 90.9% and 78.1%, and positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 74.1% and 92.6%. The sensitivity or specificity of mammography and ultrasound were 74.2% and 56.3% and 87.9% and 19.8%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of BSGI for breast lesions ≤1 cm were 88.0% and 86.8%, while the values of beast lesions >1 cm were 92.7% and 61.5%. The sensitivity or specificity of BSGI and mammography for patients with dense breasts were 92.0% and 81.3% and 72.0% and 50.0%, respectively. 26 patients showed neither a nodule nor microcalcification on ultrasound, but showed suspicious calcification on mammography. The sensitivity and specificity of BSGI with microcalcification only lesion were 75.0% and 94.4%. Conclusion This study demonstrated that BSGI had shown high sensitivity and specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive values in BI-RADS 4 lesions on ultrasound and/or mammography. BSGI showed excellent results in dense breasts, in lesions that are less than 1 cm in size and lesions with suspicious microcalcification only. PMID:27073789

  17. The effects of gantry tilt on breast dose and image noise in cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Michael E.; Gandhi, Diksha; Schmidt, Taly Gilat [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233 (United States); Stevens, Grant M. [GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 (United States); Foley, W. Dennis [Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This study investigated the effects of tilted-gantry acquisition on image noise and glandular breast dose in females during cardiac computed tomography (CT) scans. Reducing the dose to glandular breast tissue is important due to its high radiosensitivity and limited diagnostic significance in cardiac CT scans.Methods: Tilted-gantry acquisition was investigated through computer simulations and experimental measurements. Upon IRB approval, eight voxelized phantoms were constructed from previously acquired cardiac CT datasets. Monte Carlo simulations quantified the dose deposited in glandular breast tissue over a range of tilt angles. The effects of tilted-gantry acquisition on breast dose were measured on a clinical CT scanner (CT750HD, GE Healthcare) using an anthropomorphic phantom with MOSFET dosimeters in the breast regions. In both simulations and experiments, scans were performed at gantry tilt angles of 0°–30°, in 5° increments. The percent change in breast dose was calculated relative to the nontilted scan for all tilt angles. The percent change in noise standard deviation due to gantry tilt was calculated in all reconstructed simulated and experimental images.Results: Tilting the gantry reduced the breast dose in all simulated and experimental phantoms, with generally greater dose reduction at increased gantry tilts. For example, at 30° gantry tilt, the dosimeters located in the superior, middle, and inferior breast regions measured dose reductions of 74%, 61%, and 9%, respectively. The simulations estimated 0%–30% total breast dose reduction across the eight phantoms and range of tilt angles. However, tilted-gantry acquisition also increased the noise standard deviation in the simulated phantoms by 2%–50% due to increased pathlength through the iodine-filled heart. The experimental phantom, which did not contain iodine in the blood, demonstrated decreased breast dose and decreased noise at all gantry tilt angles.Conclusions: Tilting the

  18. Preliminary results of acoustic radiation force impulses (ARFI) ultrasound imaging of solid suspicious breast lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Ye; Liping Wang; Yuan Huang; Youbin Deng

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to make the qualitative and quantitative analysis to breast lesions usingacoustic radiation force impulses (ARFI), and assess the diagnostic value of ARFI for differentiation between benign andmalignant solid breast masses, meanwhile evaluate the influences of ARFI with breast imaging reporting and data system(BI-RADS) of suspicious masses. Methods: Seventy-five women with 86 breast lesions underwent conventional breast ultrasoundexamination. Then B-mode BI-RADS features and assessments were recorded and standard breast US supplementedby ARFI elastographic examination were repeated. The data were recorded and analyzed as following: area ratio of breastlesion, the shear-wave velocity, the ratio of the shear-wave velocity between lesions and surrounding normal tissues, andaccording to the elastographic data reconsidered the BI-RADS category, all the results have been correlated with pathologicalresults and make statistical evaluations of ARFI for differentiation between benign and malignant solid breast masses.Meantime our study has correlated the adjusted BI-RADS category of suspicious breast lesions with the pathological resultsand made assessment. Results: Thirty-eight patients were malignant breast carcinoma (31 invasive ductal carcinoma, 5intraductal carcinoma in situ, 2 medullary carcinoma, 2 invasive lobular carcinoma), 48 patients were benign breast lesions(23 fibroadenoma, 12 benign nodular hyperplasia, 5 phyllodes tumor, 6 adenosis, 2 intraductal papilloma). Underwent conventionalbreast ultrasound exam, 42 cases were BI-RADS category 3, 23 cases were BI-RADS category 4. When addingelastographic data, 46 cases were BI-RADS category 3 and 20 cases were BI-RADS category 4. Compared with pathologicalresults showed for both the specificity of BIRADS features and the area under ROC curve has risen. Virtual touch tissue imaging(VTI) and virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) data showed the area ratio (AR) between

  19. Normal breast tissue stiffness measured by a new ultrasound technique: Virtual touch tissue imaging quantification (VTIQ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate normal breast tissue stiffness with virtual touch tissue imaging quantification (VTIQ) using prospectively collected data. Materials and Methods: B-mode ultrasound and VTIQ were performed in 132 breasts in 97 women. Mean values of VTIQ for parenchyma and fatty tissue were compared between those measured in healthy breasts and in the surrounding of histologically proven benign and malignant breast lesions. Moreover we reviewed VTIQ values according to breast density measured by the American College of Radiology (ACR) categories. In addition we analyzed re-test reliability of VTIQ. Results: In 132 breasts the mean VTIQ values in parenchyma were significantly higher than in fatty tissue (3.23 m/s ± 0.74 versus 2.5 m/s ± 0.61; p < 0.0001). In healthy breasts as well as in the surrounding of a benign or malignant lesions the VTIQ values of parenchyma were similar (p = 0.12). In fatty tissue, small differences between mean VTIQ values of 2.25 m/s ± 0.51, 2.52 m/s ± 0.48 and 2.65 m/s ± 0.71 (p = 0.01) in the respective groups were observed. The comparison of mean VTIQ values of parenchyma and fatty tissue in more and less dense breasts (ACR 1 + 2 versus ACR 3 + 4 breasts) also yielded no statistically significant difference. The re-test reliability of VTIQ assessed with three independent measurements was moderate (interclass-correlation of 0.52 (p < 0.0001)). Conclusion: VTIQ is a reliable method for measuring the stiffness of breast tissue. We propose standard values for healthy parenchyma and fatty tissues independent of the surrounding tissue or the ACR category

  20. Imaging screening of breast cancer: primary results in 5307 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the values of three screening methods for the detection of early breast cancer, and to analyze the features of the screening cancer. Methods: The first screening of breast cancer were performed in 5307 women who aged from 20 to 76 years with median age of 49 years. The three screening methods included physical examination with ultrasound and mammography, physical examination with mammography and mammography only. The rate of recall, biopsy, cancer detection of three methods were analyzed and the mammographic findings were reviewed. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used for the statistics. Results: The recall rates were 4.90% (49/1001), 6.90% (166/2407) and 4. 48% (85/1899) in three methods respectively, the biopsy rates were 1.60% (16/1001), 1.04% (25/2407) and 0.63% (12/1899), the cancer detection rates were 0.50% (5/1001), 0.17% (4/2407) and 0 (0/1899). There were statistical differences among the three groups (χ2=12.99,6.264,8.764, P<0.05). Physical examination with ultrasound and mammography had the highest cancer detection rate, ten breast cancers were detected and 8 were early stage breast cancer. Of seven cancers detected by mammography, only two were found by ultrasound. A cluster of calcifications were found in 2 cases, linear calcifications in 2 cases. One case presented as a asymmetric density, one as a asymmetric density with calcifications, one as multiple nodules with a cluster of calcifications. Two breast cancers presented as asymmetric density were missed on mammography and diagnosed correctly after retrospective review. Conclusion: Physical examination with ultrasound and mammography is the best method for breast cancer screening. The breast cancer can be detected by mammography earlier than other methods. (authors)

  1. Silicone-selective multishot echo-planar imaging for rapid MRI survey of breast implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Kumita, Shinichiro; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Aoki, Ritsu [Nippon Medical School, Department of Plastic Surgery, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of silicone-selective multishot echo-planar imaging (EPI) for the rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) survey of breast implants. Twenty patients with bilateral breast implants underwent MRI. The use of inversion recovery and magnetization transfer pulses led to silicone-selective images. The rapid MRI survey required only 43 s, which accurately distinguished between silicone and non-silicone materials in the implants, and therefore induced the final MRI sequences appropriate for the detailed characterization of the implants. In 5 of the 20 patients, the rapid MRI survey showed implanted materials that were not indicated from clinical information. This silicone-selective multishot EPI allows a rapid survey of breast implants, which is useful to avoid unnecessary sequences in these patients. (orig.)

  2. Investigation of near infrared autofluorescence imaging for the detection of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Bold, R; White, R d; Ramsamooj, R

    2005-08-19

    Detection of breast cancer in fresh tissue obtained from surgery is investigated using Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging under laser excitation at 532-nm and 632.8-nm. The differences in intensity between the three main components of breast tissue (cancer, fibrous and adipose) are estimated and compared to those obtained from cross-polarized light scattering images recorded under polarized illumination at 700-nm. The optical spectroscopic images for each tissue sample were subsequently compared with the histopathology slides. The experimental results indicate that the intensity of the near-infrared emission is considerably different in breast cancer compared to that of the adjacent non-neoplastic tissues (adipose and fibrous tissue). The experimental results suggest that 632.8-nm excitation offers key advantages compared to 532-nm excitation.

  3. Database-guided breast tumor detection and segmentation in 2D ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingdan; Zhou, Shaohua K.; Brunke, Shelby; Lowery, Carol; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2010-03-01

    Ultrasonography is a valuable technique for diagnosing breast cancer. Computer-aided tumor detection and segmentation in ultrasound images can reduce labor cost and streamline clinic workflows. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic system to detect and segment breast tumors in 2D ultrasound images. Our system, based on database-guided techniques, learns the knowledge of breast tumor appearance exemplified by expert annotations. For tumor detection, we train a classifier to discriminate between tumors and their background. For tumor segmentation, we propose a discriminative graph cut approach, where both the data fidelity and compatibility functions are learned discriminatively. The performance of the proposed algorithms is demonstrated on a large set of 347 images, achieving a mean contour-to-contour error of 3.75 pixels with about 4.33 seconds.

  4. Optical tomography of the breast using a multi-channel time-resolved imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A time-resolved optical tomography system has been used to generate cross-sectional images of the human breast. Images are reconstructed using an iterative, nonlinear algorithm and measurements of mean photon flight time relative to those acquired on a homogeneous reference phantom. Thirty-eight studies have been performed on three healthy volunteers and 21 patients with a variety of breast lesions including cancer. We have successfully detected 17 out of 19 lesions, and shown that optical images of the healthy breast of the same volunteer display a heterogeneity which is repeatable over a period of months. However, results also indicate that the lack of accurate quantitation of optical parameters and limited morphological information limits the ability to characterize different types of lesions and distinguish benign from malignant tissues. Drawbacks of our current methodology and plans for overcoming them are discussed

  5. The Role of Preoperative Bilateral Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patient Selection for Partial Breast Irradiation in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin V. Kowalchik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS are often candidates for breast-conserving therapy, and one option for radiation treatment is partial breast irradiation (PBI. This study evaluates the use of preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for PBI selection in DCIS patients. Methods. Between 2002 and 2009, 136 women with newly diagnosed DCIS underwent a preoperative bilateral breast MRI at Mayo Clinic in Florida. One hundred seventeen women were deemed eligible for PBI by the NSABP B-39 (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project, Protocol B-39 inclusion criteria using physical examination, mammogram, and/or ultrasound. MRIs were reviewed for their impact on patient eligibility, and findings were pathologically confirmed. Results. Of the 117 patients, 23 (20% were found ineligible because of pathologically proven MRI findings. MRI detected additional ipsilateral breast cancer in 21 (18% patients. Of these women, 15 (13% had more extensive disease than originally noted before MRI, and 6 (5% had multicentric disease in the ipsilateral breast. In addition, contralateral breast cancer was detected in 4 (4%. Conclusions. Preoperative breast MRI altered the PBI recommendations for 20% of women. Bilateral breast MRI should be an integral part of the preoperative evaluation of all patients with DCIS being considered for PBI.

  6. Analysis of breast imaging reporting and data system category 4 complex cystic masses of the breast: Do all the complex cystic breast masses merit a biopsy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ha Yeon; Chang, Yun Woo [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    To investigate whether sonographic findings can predict malignancy in complex echoic breast masses using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon and to demonstrate the need for biopsy recommendations for all complex breast masses. 135 pathologically proven complex echoic masses detected on sonography were identified. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic findings according to the BI-RADS lexicon which include shape, margin, orientation, lesion boundary, posterior acoustic features, and vascularity. The sonographic findings were correlated with the pathology and mammographic findings. Differentiation between the sonographic appearance of benign and malignant complex cystic lesions was evaluated using the chi-square test or the Mann-Whitney U test. 59.3% (80/135) were benign lesions and 40.7% (55/135) were malignant lesions. Malignant lesions were correlated with irregular (p < 0.001), nonparallel (p = 0.023), noncircumscribed (p < 0.001), echogenic halo (p < 0.001), increased vascularity (p = 0.001) and large size (p = 0.002) compared to benign lesions. However, 12.7% (7/55) of benign looking complex cystic masses were proved to be malignant. All seven lesions had malignant microcalcifications or abnormality on mammography. Using the sonographic BI-RADS lexicon can be useful for differentiating between malignant and benign complex cystic breast masses. Notably, 12.7% of the complex cystic lesions showing a benign appearance on sonography were pathologically proven malignant. Therefore, radiologist should recommend biopsy for complex cystic lesions.

  7. Analysis of breast imaging reporting and data system category 4 complex cystic masses of the breast: Do all the complex cystic breast masses merit a biopsy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate whether sonographic findings can predict malignancy in complex echoic breast masses using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon and to demonstrate the need for biopsy recommendations for all complex breast masses. 135 pathologically proven complex echoic masses detected on sonography were identified. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic findings according to the BI-RADS lexicon which include shape, margin, orientation, lesion boundary, posterior acoustic features, and vascularity. The sonographic findings were correlated with the pathology and mammographic findings. Differentiation between the sonographic appearance of benign and malignant complex cystic lesions was evaluated using the chi-square test or the Mann-Whitney U test. 59.3% (80/135) were benign lesions and 40.7% (55/135) were malignant lesions. Malignant lesions were correlated with irregular (p < 0.001), nonparallel (p = 0.023), noncircumscribed (p < 0.001), echogenic halo (p < 0.001), increased vascularity (p = 0.001) and large size (p = 0.002) compared to benign lesions. However, 12.7% (7/55) of benign looking complex cystic masses were proved to be malignant. All seven lesions had malignant microcalcifications or abnormality on mammography. Using the sonographic BI-RADS lexicon can be useful for differentiating between malignant and benign complex cystic breast masses. Notably, 12.7% of the complex cystic lesions showing a benign appearance on sonography were pathologically proven malignant. Therefore, radiologist should recommend biopsy for complex cystic lesions.

  8. Breast cancer screening: emerging role of new imaging techniques as adjuncts to mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssami, Nehmat; Lord, Sarah J; Ciatto, Stefano

    2009-05-01

    Early detection of breast cancer has been shown to reduce breast cancer deaths in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mammography in women aged 50-69 years, with weaker evidence of benefit in those aged 40-49 or 70 years and older. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography have been evaluated in breast cancer screening, relative to, or in addition to, mammography, in selected populations; neither test has been examined in an RCT, and thus evidence of associated screening benefit is uncertain. MRI is more sensitive than mammography in screening women with suspected or proven inherited mutations of the breast cancer genes. The addition of MRI in screening this population detects 8-24 additional cancers per 1000 screens, but also significantly increases a woman's risk of being recalled for investigation or surgical biopsy for false-positive findings. In Australia, Medicare funding for MRI screening of women in specific risk groups was announced in February 2009. Ultrasonography can detect cancers not identified on mammography in asymptomatic women with dense breast tissue. Incremental ultrasound cancer detection is reported in 0.27%-0.46% of women with mammography-negative dense breasts; evidence varies on its association with false-positive findings. Computer-aided detection (CAD) is a complementary tool to mammography, prompting the reader to consider lesions on the mammogram that may represent cancer. Emerging evidence and improved CAD technology are likely to help define its role in breast screening. PMID:19413520

  9. 3-T breast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with suspicious microcalcifications on mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehouwer, B.L.; Merckel, L.G.; Verkooijen, H.M.; Peters, N.H.G.M.; Mali, W.P.T.M.; Veldhuis, W.B.; Bosch, M.A.A.J. van den [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mann, R.M. [University Medical Center St Radboud, Departement of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Duvivier, K.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Peeters, P.H.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-03-15

    To investigate the diagnostic value of 3-Tesla (T) breast MRI in patients presenting with microcalcifications on mammography. Between January 2006 and May 2009, 123 patients with mammographically detected BI-RADS 3-5 microcalcifications underwent 3-T breast MRI before undergoing breast biopsy. All MRIs of the histopathologically confirmed index lesions were reviewed by two breast radiologists. The detection rate of invasive carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was evaluated, as well as the added diagnostic value of MRI over mammography and breast ultrasound. At pathology, 40/123 (33 %) lesions proved malignant; 28 (70 %) DCIS and 12 (30 %) invasive carcinoma. Both observers detected all invasive malignancies at MRI, as well as 79 % (observer 1) and 86 % (observer 2) of in situ lesions. MRI in addition to conventional imaging led to a significant increase in area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve from 0.67 (95 % CI 0.56-0.79) to 0.79 (95 % CI 0.70-0.88, observer 1) and to 0.80 (95 % CI 0.71-0.89, observer 2), respectively. 3-T breast MRI was shown to add significant value to conventional imaging in patients presenting with suspicious microcalcifications on mammography. (orig.)

  10. Non-invasive estimation of the metabolic heat production of breast tumors using digital infrared imaging

    CERN Document Server

    González, Francisco Javier

    2011-01-01

    In this work the metabolic heat generated by breast tumors was estimated indirectly and noninvasively from digital infrared images and numerically simulating a simplified breast model and a cancerous tumor, this parameter can be of clinical importance since it has been related to the doubling volume's time and malignancy for that particular tumor. The results indicate that digital infrared imaging has the potential to estimate in a non-invasive way the malignancy of a tumor by calculating its metabolic heat generation from bioheat thermal transfer models.

  11. Medical image segmentation to estimate HER2 gene status in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Navarro, Guillermo; Acirón-Pomar, José Manuel; Vilchez-Sorribas, Enrique; Zambrano, Eddie Galarza

    2016-02-01

    This work deals with the estimation of HER2 Gene status in breast tumour images treated with in situ hybridization techniques (ISH). We propose a simple algorithm to obtain the amplification factor of HER2 gene. The obtained results are very close to those obtained by specialists in a manual way. The developed algorithm is based on colour image segmentation and has been included in a software application tool for breast tumour analysis. The developed tool focus on the estimation of the seriousness of tumours, facilitating the work of pathologists and contributing to a better diagnosis.

  12. Low Rates of Additional Cancer Detection by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Patients Who Undergo Preoperative Mammography and Ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jisun; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Ahn, Soo Kyung; Shin, Hee-Chul; You, Jee-Man; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung; Park, In-Ae; Noh, Dong-Young

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the efficacy of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting additional malignancies in breast cancer patients newly diagnosed by breast ultrasonography and mammography. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1,038 breast cancer patients who underwent preoperative mammography, bilateral breast ultrasonography, and subsequent breast MRI between August 2007 and December 2010 at single institution in Korea. MRI-detected additional lesions were defined as...

  13. Dynamic Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging without Complications in a Patient with Dual-Chamber Demand Pacemaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardanelli, F.; Lupo, P.; Esseridou, A.; Fausto, A.; Quarenghi, M. [Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy). Depts. of Radiology, Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology Center

    2006-02-15

    Mammography and ultrasound indicated a cancer of the right breast in a 77-year-old woman with a dual-chamber demand pacemaker. The patient was not pacemaker-dependent. She underwent breast 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (dynamic gradient echo sequence with Gd-DOTA 0.1 mmol/kg). Before the patient entered the MR room, the configuration of the device was changed (the response to magnet was switched from asynchronous to off and the rate-responsive algorithm was disabled). No relevant modifications of heart rhythm or rate were observed during the MR examination. No symptom was reported. Immediately after the examination, the pacemaker interrogation showed neither program changes nor alert warnings. MRI detected a bifocal cancer in the right breast which allowed tailored breast-conserving treatment to be initiated. Histopathology confirmed a bifocal invasive ductal carcinoma.

  14. Molecular imaging of HER2-positive breast cancer: a step toward an individualized 'image and treat' strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capala, Jacek; Bouchelouche, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    HER2 overexpression is correlated with aggressive tumor behavior and poor clinical outcome. Therefore, HER2 has become an important prognostic and predictive factor, as well as a target for molecular therapies. The article reviews recent advances in molecular imaging of HER2 that could facilitate...... individual approaches to targeted therapy of HER2-positive breast cancers....

  15. Detecting breast microcalcifications using super-resolution and wave-equation ultrasound imaging: a numerical phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lianjie; Simonetti, Francesco; Huthwaite, Peter; Rosenberg, Robert; Williamson, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Ultrasound image resolution and quality need to be significantly improved for breast microcalcification detection. Super-resolution imaging with the factorization method has recently been developed as a promising tool to break through the resolution limit of conventional imaging. In addition, wave-equation reflection imaging has become an effective method to reduce image speckles by properly handling ultrasound scattering/diffraction from breast heterogeneities during image reconstruction. We explore the capabilities of a novel super-resolution ultrasound imaging method and a wave-equation reflection imaging scheme for detecting breast microcalcifications. Super-resolution imaging uses the singular value decomposition and a factorization scheme to achieve an image resolution that is not possible for conventional ultrasound imaging. Wave-equation reflection imaging employs a solution to the acoustic-wave equation in heterogeneous media to backpropagate ultrasound scattering/diffraction waves to scatters and reconstruct images of heterogeneities. We construct numerical breast phantoms using in vivo breast images, and use a finite-difference wave-equation scheme to generate ultrasound data scattered from inclusions that mimic microcalcifications. We demonstrate that microcalcifications can be detected at full spatial resolution using the super-resolution ultrasound imaging and wave-equation reflection imaging methods.

  16. Detecting breast microcalcifications using super-resolution and wave-equation ultrasound imaging: a numerical phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Simonetti, Francesco [IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON; Huthwaite, Peter [IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON; Rosenberg, Robert [UNM; Williamson, Michael [UNM

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound image resolution and quality need to be significantly improved for breast microcalcification detection. Super-resolution imaging with the factorization method has recently been developed as a promising tool to break through the resolution limit of conventional imaging. In addition, wave-equation reflection imaging has become an effective method to reduce image speckles by properly handling ultrasound scattering/diffraction from breast heterogeneities during image reconstruction. We explore the capabilities of a novel super-resolution ultrasound imaging method and a wave-equation reflection imaging scheme for detecting breast microcalcifications. Super-resolution imaging uses the singular value decomposition and a factorization scheme to achieve an image resolution that is not possible for conventional ultrasound imaging. Wave-equation reflection imaging employs a solution to the acoustic-wave equation in heterogeneous media to backpropagate ultrasound scattering/diffraction waves to scatters and form images of heterogeneities. We construct numerical breast phantoms using in vivo breast images, and use a finite-difference wave-equation scheme to generate ultrasound data scattered from inclusions that mimic microcalcifications. We demonstrate that microcalcifications can be detected at full spatial resolution using the super-resolution ultrasound imaging and wave-equation reflection imaging methods.

  17. Three-Dimensional Surface Imaging is an Effective Tool for Measuring Breast Volume: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Yeon; Kim, Min Jung; Lew, Dae Hyun; Song, Seung Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate breast volume assessment is a prerequisite to preoperative planning, as well as intraoperative decision making in breast reconstruction surgery. The use of three-dimensional surface imaging (3D scanning) to assess breast volume has many advantages. However, before employing 3D scanning in the field, the tool's validity should be demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to confirm the validity of 3D-scanning technology for evaluating breast volume. Methods We reviewed the charts of 25 patients who underwent breast reconstruction surgery immediately after total mastectomy. Breast volumes using the Axis Three 3D scanner, water-displacement technique, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained bilaterally in the preoperative period. During the operation, the tissue removed during total mastectomy was weighed and the specimen volume was calculated from the weight. Then, we compared the volume obtained from 3D scanning with those obtained using the water-displacement technique, MRI, and the calculated volume of the tissue removed. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of breast volumes obtained from 3D scanning, as compared to the volumes obtained using the water-displacement technique and specimen weight, demonstrated excellent reliability. The ICC of breast volumes obtained using 3D scanning, as compared to those obtained by MRI, demonstrated substantial reliability. Passing-Bablok regression showed agreement between 3D scanning and the water-displacement technique, and showed a linear association of 3D scanning with MRI and specimen volume, respectively. Conclusions When compared with the classical water-displacement technique and MRI-based volumetry, 3D scanning showed significant reliability and a linear association with the other two methods.

  18. Three-Dimensional Surface Imaging is an Effective Tool for Measuring Breast Volume: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Yeon; Kim, Min Jung; Lew, Dae Hyun; Song, Seung Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate breast volume assessment is a prerequisite to preoperative planning, as well as intraoperative decision making in breast reconstruction surgery. The use of three-dimensional surface imaging (3D scanning) to assess breast volume has many advantages. However, before employing 3D scanning in the field, the tool's validity should be demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to confirm the validity of 3D-scanning technology for evaluating breast volume. Methods We reviewed the charts of 25 patients who underwent breast reconstruction surgery immediately after total mastectomy. Breast volumes using the Axis Three 3D scanner, water-displacement technique, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained bilaterally in the preoperative period. During the operation, the tissue removed during total mastectomy was weighed and the specimen volume was calculated from the weight. Then, we compared the volume obtained from 3D scanning with those obtained using the water-displacement technique, MRI, and the calculated volume of the tissue removed. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of breast volumes obtained from 3D scanning, as compared to the volumes obtained using the water-displacement technique and specimen weight, demonstrated excellent reliability. The ICC of breast volumes obtained using 3D scanning, as compared to those obtained by MRI, demonstrated substantial reliability. Passing-Bablok regression showed agreement between 3D scanning and the water-displacement technique, and showed a linear association of 3D scanning with MRI and specimen volume, respectively. Conclusions When compared with the classical water-displacement technique and MRI-based volumetry, 3D scanning showed significant reliability and a linear association with the other two methods. PMID:27689050

  19. Differential diagnosis of breast masses in South Korean premenopausal women using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leproux, Anaïs; Kim, You Me; Min, Jun Won; McLaren, Christine E.; Chen, Wen-Pin; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Lee, Seung-ha; Chung, Phil-Sang; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-07-01

    Young patients with dense breasts have a relatively low-positive biopsy rate for breast cancer (˜1 in 7). South Korean women have higher breast density than Westerners. We investigated the benefit of using a functional and metabolic imaging technique, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI), to help the standard of care imaging tools to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in premenopausal Korean women. DOSI uses near-infrared light to measure breast tissue composition by quantifying tissue concentrations of water (ctH2O), bulk lipid (ctLipid), deoxygenated (ctHHb), and oxygenated (ctHbO2) hemoglobin. DOSI spectral signatures specific to abnormal tissue and absent in healthy tissue were also used to form a malignancy index. This study included 19 premenopausal subjects (average age 41±9), corresponding to 11 benign and 10 malignant lesions. Elevated lesion to normal ratio of ctH2O, ctHHb, ctHbO2, total hemoglobin (THb=ctHHb+ctHbO2), and tissue optical index (ctHHb×ctH2O/ctLipid) were observed in the malignant lesions compared to the benign lesions (p90% sensitivity and specificity. Malignant lesions showed significantly higher metabolism and perfusion than benign lesions. DOSI spectral features showed high discriminatory power for distinguishing malignant and benign lesions in dense breasts of the Korean population.

  20. Large-angle x-ray scatter in Talbot–Lau interferometry for breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo simulations were used to investigate large-angle x-ray scatter at design energy of 25 keV during small field of view (9.6 cm × 5 cm) differential phase contrast imaging of the breast using Talbot–Lau interferometry. Homogenous, adipose and fibroglandular breasts of uniform thickness ranging from 2 to 8 cm encompassing the field of view were modeled. Theoretically determined transmission efficiencies of the gratings were used to validate the Monte Carlo simulations, followed by simulations to determine the x-ray scatter reaching the detector. The recorded x-ray scatter was classified into x-ray photons that underwent at least one Compton interaction (incoherent scatter) and Rayleigh interaction alone (coherent scatter) for further analysis. Monte Carlo based estimates of transmission efficiencies showed good correspondence (r2>0.99) with theoretical estimates. Scatter-to-primary ratio increased with increasing breast thickness, ranging from 0.11 to 0.22 for 2–8 cm thick adipose breasts and from 0.12 to 0.28 for 2–8 cm thick fibroglandular breasts. The analyzer grating reduced incoherent scatter by ∼18% for 2 cm thick adipose breast and by ∼35% for 8 cm thick fibroglandular breast. Coherent scatter was the dominant contributor to the total scatter. Coherent-to-incoherent scatter ratio ranged from 2.2 to 3.1 for 2–8 cm thick adipose breasts and from 2.7 to 3.4 for 2–8 cm thick fibroglandular breasts. (paper)

  1. Imaging of breast cancer with mid- and long-wave infrared camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joro, R; Lääperi, A-L; Dastidar, P; Soimakallio, S; Kuukasjärvi, T; Toivonen, T; Saaristo, R; Järvenpää, R

    2008-01-01

    In this novel study the breasts of 15 women with palpable breast cancer were preoperatively imaged with three technically different infrared (IR) cameras - micro bolometer (MB), quantum well (QWIP) and photo voltaic (PV) - to compare their ability to differentiate breast cancer from normal tissue. The IR images were processed, the data for frequency analysis were collected from dynamic IR images by pixel-based analysis and from each image selectively windowed regional analysis was carried out, based on angiogenesis and nitric oxide production of cancer tissue causing vasomotor and cardiogenic frequency differences compared to normal tissue. Our results show that the GaAs QWIP camera and the InSb PV camera demonstrate the frequency difference between normal and cancerous breast tissue; the PV camera more clearly. With selected image processing operations more detailed frequency analyses could be applied to the suspicious area. The MB camera was not suitable for tissue differentiation, as the difference between noise and effective signal was unsatisfactory. PMID:18432466

  2. MR imaging of brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients without palpable recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingawi, S.S. (Department of Radiology, St. Paul' s Hospital, Vancouver, BC (Canada) Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada) Radiology Department, Vancouver General Hospital, BC (Canada)); Bilbey, J.H. (Department of Radiology, St. Paul' s Hospital, Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Munk, P.L.; Marchinkow, L.O. (Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Poon, P.Y. (Department of Diagnostic Imaging, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Allan, B.M. (Department of Neurology, Vancouver Hospital, Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Olivotto, I.A. (Division of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada))

    1999-06-01

    Objective. To investigate the role of MR imaging in detecting brachial plexus (BP) abnormalities in breast cancer patients with plexopathy but without palpable masses.Design. MR imaging of the BP was performed on 26 breast cancer patients with brachial plexopathy without palpable regional masses, using 0.5 T and 1.5 T imaging systems. Findings were correlated with the clinical diagnoses.Patients. Twenty-six patients with brachial plexopathy and history of breast cancer were enrolled in the study. All patients presented with plexopathy symptoms. Fourteen patients were positive and 12 patients were indeterminate for BP metastasis according to clinical criteria.Results and conclusion. MR imaging demonstrated masses involving the BP representing metastases in two patients. Nine patients had other regional abnormalities with a normal brachial plexus. It is concluded that MR imaging is useful in the assessment and direction of therapy of brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients by detecting both metastases to the BP as well as other abnormalities, unrelated to the BP, which may explain the patient's symptoms. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs.

  3. Reproducing 2D breast mammography images with 3D printed phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Matthew; Ghammraoui, Bahaa; Badal, Andreu

    2016-03-01

    Mammography is currently the standard imaging modality used to screen women for breast abnormalities and, as a result, it is a tool of great importance for the early detection of breast cancer. Physical phantoms are commonly used as surrogates of breast tissue to evaluate some aspects of the performance of mammography systems. However, most phantoms do not reproduce the anatomic heterogeneity of real breasts. New fabrication technologies, such as 3D printing, have created the opportunity to build more complex, anatomically realistic breast phantoms that could potentially assist in the evaluation of mammography systems. The primary objective of this work is to present a simple, easily reproducible methodology to design and print 3D objects that replicate the attenuation profile observed in real 2D mammograms. The secondary objective is to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of the competing 3D printing technologies, and characterize the x-ray properties of the different materials they use. Printable phantoms can be created using the open-source code introduced in this work, which processes a raw mammography image to estimate the amount of x-ray attenuation at each pixel, and outputs a triangle mesh object that encodes the observed attenuation map. The conversion from the observed pixel gray value to a column of printed material with equivalent attenuation requires certain assumptions and knowledge of multiple imaging system parameters, such as x-ray energy spectrum, source-to-object distance, compressed breast thickness, and average breast material attenuation. A detailed description of the new software, a characterization of the printed materials using x-ray spectroscopy, and an evaluation of the realism of the sample printed phantoms are presented.

  4. Breast reconstruction - methods and imaging; Brustaugmentation - Methoden und Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleiderer, B.; Weigel, S.; Hurtienne, B.; Heindel, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2007-12-15

    Silicon implants are used for breast reconstruction or for cosmetic operations. The contribution outlines the role of mammography, sonography and MR for defect assessment, tumour detection and monitoring after prosthesis implantation. Instrument adjustment for mammographic screening of patients with implants is gone into. Autologic reconstruction techniques and protocols of secondary and tertiary early detection are presented. (orig.)

  5. Full Angle Spatial Compound of ARFI images for breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Salido, Nuria; Medina, Luis; Camacho, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    Automated ultrasound breast imaging would overcome most of the limitations that precludes conventional hand-held echography to be an effective screening method for breast cancer diagnosis. If a three dimensional (3D) ultrasound dataset is acquired without manual intervention of the technician, repeatability and patient follow-up could be improved. Furthermore, depending on the system configuration, resolution and contrast could be enhanced with regard to conventional echography, improving lesion detectability and evaluation. Having multiple modalities is another major advantage of these automated systems, currently under development by several research groups. Because of their circular structure, some of them include through-transmission measurements that allow constructing speed of sound and attenuation maps, which adds complementary information to the conventional reflectivity B-Mode image. This work addresses the implementation of the Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging technique in a Full Angle Spatial Compound (FASC) automated breast imaging system. It is of particular interest because of the high specificity of ARFI for breast cancer diagnosis, by representing tissue elasticity differences rather than acoustic reflectivity. First, the image formation process is analyzed and a compounding strategy is proposed for ARFI-FASC. Then, experimental results with a prototype system and two gelatin phantoms are presented: Phantom A with a hard inclusion in a soft background, and phantom B with three soft inclusions in a hard background and with three steel needles. It is demonstrated that the full angle composition of ARFI images improves image quality, enhancing Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) from 4.9 to 20.6 and 3.6 to 13.5 in phantoms A and B respectively. Furthermore, this CNR increase improved detectability of small structures (needles) with regard to images obtained from a single location, in which image texture masked their presence. PMID:27362998

  6. The Relationship of Body Image with Psychological Distress in Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Moradi Manesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Surgery and adjuvant therapies lead to body image problems and psychological distress in young women with breast cancer. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship of body image with psychological distress in women with breast cancer. Methods: This correlation study was carried out on 294 women with breast cancer at Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, in 2011. The selection of the participants was based on purposive sampling. The Body image was assessed by BIS. The Psychological distress was assessed by DASS-21. The collected data was analyzed by Pearson correlation and Independent sample test. Results: Results showed that body image had a significant positive relationship with psychological distress (P < 0.001. Furthermore, younger women had greater trouble about body image and experienced greater psychological distress compared to elder women. Conclusion: This study showed that dissatisfaction about body image accompanied psychological distress. Also, younger women experience greater difficulties about body image and psychological distress. Therefore, suitable psychological interventions are recommended.

  7. Development of an Anthropomorphic Breast Phantom for Combined PET, B-Mode Ultrasound and Elastographic Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, J; Tavernier, S; Lasaygues, P; Mensah, S; Zhang, D C; Auffray, E; Frisch, B; Varela, J; Wan, M X; Felix, N

    2011-01-01

    Combining the advantages of different imaging modalities leads to improved clinical results. For example, ultrasound provides good real-time structural information without any radiation and PET provides sensitive functional information. For the ongoing ClearPEM-Sonic project combining ultrasound and PET for breast imaging, we developed a dual-modality PET/Ultrasound (US) phantom. The phantom reproduces the acoustic and elastic properties of human breast tissue and allows labeling the different tissues in the phantom with different concentrations of FDG. The phantom was imaged with a whole-body PET/CT and with the Supersonic Imagine Aixplorer system. This system allows both B-mode US and shear wave elastographic imaging. US elastography is a new imaging method for displaying the tissue elasticity distribution. It was shown to be useful in breast imaging. We also tested the phantom with static elastography. A 6D magnetic positioning system allows fusing the images obtained with the two modalities. ClearPEM-Soni...

  8. The study of 18F-FDG DHC imaging used for diagnosing breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) dual-head coincidence (DHC) imaging for detecting breast cancer and axillary lymph node metastases. Methods: Thirty-one female patients were studied by 18F-FDG DHC imaging, and 21 of them received fine needle aspiration biopsy after 18F-FDG DHC imaging. The results of 18F-FDG DHC imaging and fine needle aspiration biopsy were compared with those of histopathology. Results: 1) Among the 26 cases of breast carcinoma by 18F-FDG DHC imaging, the FDG uptake of 21 cases showed positive. The lesion diameters ranged from 1.7-8 (mean 3.2 ±1.6) cm, the lesion/background (L/B) ratio range was 1.4-7.3 (mean 2.4 ±1.3). The other 5 malignancies were negative, their diameter range was 0.8-3.3 (mean 1.9) cm. 2) Ten cases of the malignancies were confirmed with axillary lymph node metastases. Three cases by 18F-FDG DHC imaging were positive. Those lymph node diameters were 1.4, 1.8 and 5.2 cm, respectively. The L/B ratios were 1.3, 1.5 and 6.2, respectively. The other 7 cases were negative. The lymph node diameter range was 0.2-1.8 cm. 3) Twenty-one cases received fine needle aspiration biopsy. Tumor cells were found in 13 cases. 4) The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 18F-FDG DHC imaging for diagnosing primary breast carcinoma were 80.8%, 5/5 and 83.9%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 18F-FDG DHC imaging for diagnosing lymph node metastases were 30.0%, 100% and 77.4%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy for diagnosing primary breast carcinoma were 72.2%, 3/3 and 76.2%, respectively. 5) There was no significant difference between the sensitivity of 18F-FDG DHC imaging and fine needle aspiration biopsy (P>0.05). Conclusion: 18F-FDG DHC imaging possesses higher sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of breast cancer. It can be used as a noninvasive modality for evaluating breast cancer

  9. Photoacoustic imaging of breast tumor vascularization: a comparison with MRI and histopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijblom, Michelle; Piras, Daniele; van den Engh, Frank M.; Klaase, Joost M.; Brinkhuis, Mariël.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2013-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females. Early diagnosis improves the survival chances for the disease and that is why there is an ongoing search for improved methods for visualizing breast cancer. One of the hallmarks of breast cancer is the increase in tumor vascularization that is associated with angiogenesis: a crucial factor for survival of malignancies. Photoacoustic imaging can visualize the malignancyassociated increased hemoglobin concentration with optical contrast and ultrasound resolution, without the use of ionizing radiation or contrast agents and is therefore theoretically an ideal method for breast imaging. Previous clinical studies using the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope (PAM), which works in forward mode using a single wavelength (1064 nm), showed that malignancies can indeed be identified in the photoacoustic imaging volume as high contrast areas. However, the specific appearance of the malignancies led to questions about the contrast mechanism in relation to tumor vascularization. In this study, the photoacoustic lesion appearance obtained with an updated version of PAM is compared with the lesion appearance on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), both in general (19 patients) and on an individual basis (7 patients). Further, in 3 patients an extended histopathology protocol is being performed in which malignancies are stained for vascularity using an endothelial antibody: CD31. The correspondence between PAM and MRI and between PAM and histopathology makes it likely that the high photoacoustic contrast at 1064 nm is indeed largely the consequence of the increased tumor vascularization.

  10. Detection of incidental vertebral fractures in breast imaging: the potential role of MR localisers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzocchi, Alberto [Orthopaedic Institute, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Bologna (Italy); Bologna Univ. (Italy). Imaging Div.; Spinnato, Paolo; Garzillo, Giorgio; Ciccarese, Federica [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Imaging Div.; Albisinni, Ugo; Mignani, Stefano; Battista, Giuseppe [Orthopaedic Institute, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Bologna (Italy); Rossi, Cristina [Parma Univ. (Italy). Imaging Div.

    2012-12-15

    Incidental diagnosis of vertebral fractures (VFs) may represent a key point in the assessment of bone health status. Our purpose was to retrospectively evaluate localisation sequences (MR-loc) of breast MRI as a potential tool to detect osteoporotic VFs. MR-loc sagittal images of 856 breast MRIs were reviewed by three expert musculoskeletal radiologists with a semiquantitative approach to detecting VFs. Anamnesis and data of patients were investigated. Official breast MRI and previous imaging reports were checked to understand if VFs or other relevant bone findings were known in patients' clinical history. A total of 780/856 female patients (91.1 %) undergoing MRI for oncological reasons and 76/856 (8.9 %) with non-oncological aims were recruited into the study (54.7 {+-} 12.2 years old, 21-89 years); 57/856 MR-loc images (6.7 %) were considered inadequate for diagnostic purposes and were excluded from the analysis. MR-loc detected VFs in 71/799 patients (8.9 %). VFs were neither reported nor previously known in the clinical history of 63/71 patients (88.7 %; P < 0.001). No mention of VFs was found in any breast MR reports. In four patients MR-loc identified vertebral metastases. A systematic evaluation of MR-loc may offer additional clinical information to prevent unrecognised VFs. MR-loc may screen for VFs in other imaging settings. (orig.)

  11. Clinical value of mammography, ultrasound and MR imaging during the first year after breast conserving therapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the accuracy of lesion detection and characterization and to determine the agreement of observers, methods and timing of mammography (MX), ultrasound (US) and MR imaging (MRI) during the first year after breast conserving therapy: Materials and Methods: The study included 20 patients diagnosed with breast cancer of stages equal or inferior to T2 N1bi M0 after breast conserving therapy and subsequent radiotherapy. Patients with any history of breast diseases in the affected or contralateral breast were excluded. Patients were examined before and at 3, 6 and 12 months after adjuvant radiotherapy with MX, US and dynamic MR mammography. Additional US and MRI were performed 3 months after radiotherapy. All 220 examinations were retrospectively read in a randomized order by two independent readers, blinded for the results of the other examinations. The outcome after 2.5 years of follow-up was used as gold standard. Histological examination was available in one case. Lesion detection and specificity were assessed including kappa values for different reliabilities between observers, timing and methods. The kappa values were used to characterize the degree of agreement as follows: >0.8 very good; 0.6 - 0.8 good; 0.4 - 0.6 fair; 0.2 - 0.4 minimal; and <0.2 negligible. Results: Based on the interpretation of all available findings (clinical examination, MX, US, MRT and histology in one case), 20 patients observed for a mean period of 2.5 years had no evidence of intramammary recurrence. Therefore the sensitivity of the various methods could not be assessed. The reading of certainly no lesion was given by MRI in 43%, by MX in 30% and by US in 5% of all examinations (p<0.05). True negative findings were observed by MRI in 94.4%, by MX in 90.4% and by US in 82.5%. Reliability between observers, timing and imaging methods was 0.496, 0.411, and 0.215 for lesion detection and 0.303, 0.282, and 0.030 for lesion characterization. (orig.)

  12. Usefulness and biological background of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images in patients with primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images were obtained between September 1998 and May 2000 from 44 primary breast cancer patients who were scheduled to undergo breast-conserving surgery. The MR images and clinico-pathological findings were analyzed to investigate the risk factors for histologically positive margins and histologically positive lymph node metastases. We elucidated the relationship between MR images and the biological background of breast cancer. The following interesting findings were made from these analyses. An irregular shape and unclear border of the tumor mass and the coexistence of daughter nodule(s) were significant risk factors for positive-surgical margins; an irregularly shaped tumor mass and spiculated tumor mass were significant risk factors for positive lymph node metastases; breast tumors with a strand-like appearance had a significantly lower histological grade; breast tumors with high contrast enhancement ratios had a significantly higher nuclear grade and progesterone receptor negativity; and breast tumors showing a ring-like enhancement expressed a low level of VEGF. These findings suggest that preoperative MR images of primary breast cancer provide not only useful information on the extent of breast tumors and the possibility of lymph node metastasis but also on the malignant potency and hormone responsiveness of breast tumors. (author)

  13. Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Women Treated with Toremifene for Premenstrual Mastalgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oksa, S. (Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Satakunta Central Hospital, Pori (Finland)); Parkkola, R. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Turku, Turku (Finland)); Luukkaala, T.; Maeenpaeae, J. (Medical School, Univ. of Tampere, Tampere (Finland))

    2009-11-15

    Background: Toremifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has been shown to be effective in alleviating premenstrual breast pain. However, the exact mechanism by which toremifene and related compounds work in premenstrual mastalgia is poorly understood. Purpose: To find out if the effect of toremifene on breast would be detectable with dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: This randomized, double-blind crossover study was performed on women suffering from marked premenstrual mastalgia. Ten women were randomized to receive either toremifene (20 mg) or placebo from cycle day 15 until next menstruation for three menstrual cycles. After a washout period, the treatment was crossed over for three additional cycles. The MRI evaluations were performed premenstrually at the end of each treatment phase. Breast pain and quality-of-life scores were collected from one baseline cycle and from all the treatment cycles. Results: Nine patients were evaluable for this analysis. Both the enhancement ratio and the maximum slope of enhancement tended to be smaller during the toremifene cycles as compared to placebo. On the left side, the difference in the maximum slope of enhancement between toremifene and placebo was statistically significant (median 5.150 [range 3.7-6.7] and 6.500 [range 4.9-9.5], respectively; P=0.047). T2 relaxation times as well as breast pain and quality-of-life scores were inconsistent. Conclusion: Use of toremifene is associated with measurable changes in dynamic breast MRI findings in women with cyclic breast pain

  14. Application of imaging mass spectrometry for the molecular diagnosis of human breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xinxin; He, Jiuming; Li, Tiegang; Lu, Zhaohui; Sun, Jian; Meng, Yunxiao; Abliz, Zeper; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Distinguishing breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a key step in breast surgery, especially to determine whether DCIS is associated with tumor cell micro-invasion. However, there is currently no reliable method to obtain molecular information for breast tumor analysis during surgery. Here, we present a novel air flow-assisted ionization (AFAI) mass spectrometry imaging method that can be used in ambient environments to differentiate breast cancer by analyzing lipids. In this study, we demonstrate that various subtypes and histological grades of IDC and DCIS can be discriminated using AFAI-MSI: phospholipids were more abundant in IDC than in DCIS, whereas fatty acids were more abundant in DCIS than in IDC. The classification of specimens in the subtype and grade validation sets showed 100% and 78.6% agreement with the histopathological diagnosis, respectively. Our work shows the rapid classification of breast cancer utilizing AFAI-MSI. This work suggests that this method could be developed to provide surgeons with nearly real-time information to guide surgical resections. PMID:26868906

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilewskie, Melissa; King, Tari A

    2014-07-15

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer remains controversial. Here we review the current use of breast MRI and the impact of MRI on short-term surgical outcomes and rates of local recurrence. In addition, we address the use of MRI in specific patient populations, such as those with ductal carcinoma in situ, invasive lobular carcinoma, and occult primary breast cancer, and discuss the potential role of MRI for assessing response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Although MRI has improved sensitivity compared with conventional imaging, this has not translated into improved short-term surgical outcomes or long-term patient benefit, such as improved local control or survival, in any patient population. MRI is an important diagnostic test in the evaluation of patients presenting with occult primary breast cancer and has shown promise in monitoring response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy; however, the data do not support the routine use of perioperative MRI in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Cancer 2014;120:120:2080-2089. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  16. Electrical impedance scanning in breast tumor imaging: correlation with the growth pattern of lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kan; WANG Ting; FU Feng; JI Zhen-yu; LIU Rui-gang; LIAO Qi-mei; DONG Xiu-zhen

    2009-01-01

    Background This study researched the electric impedance properties of breast tissue and demonstrated the differentcharacteristic of electrical impedance scanning (EIS) images.Methods The impedance character of 40 malignant tumors, 34 benign tumors and some normal breast tissue from 69patients undergoing breast surgery was examined by EIS in vivo measurement and mammography screening, with aseries of frequencies set between 100 Hz-100 kHz in the ex vivo spectroscopy measurement.Results Of the 39 patients with 40 malignant tumors, 24 showed bright spots, 11 showed dark areas in EIS and 5showed no specific image. Of the 30 patients with 34 benign tumors there were almost no specific abnormality shown inthe EIS results. Primary ex vivo spectroscopy experiments showed that the resistivity of various breast tissue take thefollowing pattern: adipose tissue>cancerous tissue>mammary gland and benign tumor tissue.Conclusions There are significant differences in the electrical impedance properties between cancerous tissue andhealthy tissue. The impedivity of benign tumor is lower, and is at the same level with that of the mammary glandulartissue. The distinct growth pattern of breast lesions determined the different electrical impedance characteristics in theEIS results.

  17. Evaluation of some ratio effects in 99mTc-MIBI imaging of breast tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effectiveness of using some ratios in 99mTc-MIBI imaging fbr the diagnosis of breast tumors was evaluated. After 100 patients with the breast tumor underwent 99mTc-MIBI imaging, the ratios of tunor to contralateral uptake (T/N). tumor to heart uptake (T/H), and tumor to sternum uptake (T/S) were obtained and then analysed about their reproducibility and values in differentiating benign breast lesion the from malignant tumor. To detect breast cancers, the sensitivity, specificit y and accuracy of T/N were 92%, 90% and 91%, respectively. However, those of T/S were 70% (p <0.01), 74% (p <0.05), 72% (p <0.01), and those of T/H were 74%(p <0.05). 76% (p >0.05). 75% (p <0.01). The average coefticients of variation(CV) of T/N, T/S and T/H were 9.439±9.712. 4.856+4.420 (p >0.05), and 3.736±3.489 (p <0.05). It was found that T/N had the best sensitivity, specificity and accuracy todetect the breast cancer, but its reproducibility is poor. On the other hand, T/H has better reproducibility.

  18. Tryptophan metabolism in breast cancers: molecular imaging and immunohistochemistry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Tryptophan oxidation via the kynurenine pathway is an important mechanism of tumoral immunoresistance. Increased tryptophan metabolism via the serotonin pathway has been linked to malignant progression in breast cancer. In this study, we combined quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) with tumor immunohistochemistry to analyze tryptophan transport and metabolism in breast cancer. Methods: Dynamic α-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT) PET was performed in nine women with stage II–IV breast cancer. PET tracer kinetic modeling was performed in all tumors. Expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO; the initial and rate-limiting enzyme of the kynurenine pathway) and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1; the initial enzyme of the serotonin pathway) was assessed by immunostaining of resected tumor specimens. Results: Tumor AMT uptake peaked at 5–20 min postinjection in seven tumors; the other two cases showed protracted tracer accumulation. Tumor standardized uptake values (SUVs) varied widely (2.6–9.8) and showed a strong positive correlation with volume of distribution values derived from kinetic analysis (P < .01). Invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 6) showed particularly high AMT SUVs (range, 4.7–9.8). Moderate to strong immunostaining for LAT1, IDO and TPH1 was detected in most tumor cells. Conclusions: Breast cancers show differential tryptophan kinetics on dynamic PET. SUVs measured 5–20 min postinjection reflect reasonably the tracer's volume of distribution. Further studies are warranted to determine if in vivo AMT accumulation in these tumors is related to tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine and serotonin pathways.

  19. Clinical experiences with photoacoustic breast imaging: the appearance of suspicious lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Heijblom, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes photoacoustic (PA) imaging of suspicious breast lesions. In PA imaging, the tissue of interest is illuminated by short pulses of laser light, usually in the near infrared (NIR) regime. Upon absorption by primarily the tumor vasculature, the light causes a small temperature increase, which is converted into a pressure wave by the process of thermoelastic expansion. This pressure wave can be detected by ultrasound detectors with the appropriate frequency and bandwidth. The...

  20. Differential expression of growth factor receptors and membrane-bound tumor markers for imaging in male and female breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen F Vermeulen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Male breast cancer accounts for 0.5-1% of all breast cancers and is generally diagnosed at higher stage than female breast cancers and therefore might benefit from earlier detection and targeted therapy. Except for HER2 and EGFR, little is known about expression of growth factor receptors in male breast cancer. We therefore investigated expression profiles of growth factor receptors and membrane-bound tumor markers in male breast cancer and gynecomastia, in comparison with female breast cancer. METHODS: Tissue microarrays containing 133 male breast cancer and 32 gynecomastia cases were stained by immunohistochemistry for a panel of membrane-bound targets and compared with data on 266 female breast cancers. RESULTS: Growth factor receptors were variably expressed in 4.5% (MET up to 38.5% (IGF1-R of male breast cancers. Compared to female breast cancer, IGF1-R and carbonic anhydrase 12 (CAXII were more frequently and CD44v6, MET and FGFR2 less frequently expressed in male breast cancer. Expression of EGFR, HER2, CAIX, and GLUT1 was not significantly different between male and female breast cancer. Further, 48.1% of male breast cancers expressed at least one and 18.0% expressed multiple growth factor receptors. Since individual membrane receptors are expressed in only half of male breast cancers, a panel of membrane markers will be required for molecular imaging strategies to reach sensitivity. A potential panel of markers for molecular imaging, consisting of EGFR, IGF1-R, FGFR2, CD44v6, CAXII, GLUT1, and CD44v6 was positive in 77% of male breast cancers, comparable to female breast cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Expression patterns of growth factor receptors and hypoxia membrane proteins in male breast cancer are different from female breast cancer. For molecular imaging strategies, a putative panel consisting of markers for EGFR, IGF1-R, FGFR2, GLUT1, CAXII, CD44v6 was positive in 77% of cases and might be considered for development of

  1. A 16-channel MR coil for simultaneous PET/MR imaging in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dregely, Isabel [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Munich (Germany); Department of Radiological Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lanz, Titus; Mueller, Matthias F. [Rapid Biomedical GmbH, Rimpar (Germany); Metz, Stephan [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Munich (Germany); Kuschan, Marika [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Munich (Germany); IMETUM, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Nimbalkar, Manoj; Ziegler, Sibylle I.; Nekolla, Stephan G.; Schwaiger, Markus [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Munich (Germany); Bundschuh, Ralph A. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Munich (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Bonn, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Bonn (Germany); Haase, Axel [IMETUM, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    To implement and evaluate a dedicated receiver array coil for simultaneous positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) imaging in breast cancer. A 16-channel receiver coil design was optimized for simultaneous PET/MR imaging. To assess MR performance, the signal-to-noise ratio, parallel imaging capability and image quality was evaluated in phantoms, volunteers and patients and compared to clinical standard protocols. For PET evaluation, quantitative {sup 18} F-FDG PET images of phantoms and seven patients (14 lesions) were compared to images without the coil. In PET image reconstruction, a CT-based template of the coil was combined with the MR-acquired attenuation correction (AC) map of the phantom/patient. MR image quality was comparable to clinical MR-only examinations. PET evaluation in phantoms showed regionally varying underestimation of the standardised uptake value (SUV; mean 22 %) due to attenuation caused by the coil. This was improved by implementing the CT-based coil template in the AC (<2 % SUV underestimation). Patient data indicated that including the coil in the AC increased the SUV values in the lesions (21 ± 9 %). Using a dedicated PET/MR breast coil, state-of-the-art MRI was possible. In PET, accurate quantification and image homogeneity could be achieved if a CT-template of this coil was included in the AC for PET image reconstruction. (orig.)

  2. The Korean Version of the Body Image Scale-Reliability and Validity in a Sample of Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Khang, Dongwoo; Rim, Hyo-Deog; Woo, Jungmin

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Body Image Scale (BIS) developed in collaboration with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Study Group is a brief questionnaire for measuring body image concerns in patients with cancer. This study sought to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Body Image Scale (K-BIS). Methods The participants consisted of 155 postoperative breast cancer patients (56 breast conserving surgery, 56 mastectomy, and 43 o...

  3. Dual energy contrast enhanced breast imaging optimization using contrast to noise ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, C. D.; Royle, G.; Speller, R.

    2007-03-01

    The properties of dual energy contrast enhanced breast imaging have been analyzed by imaging a 4 cm breast equivalent phantom consisting of adipose and glandular equivalent plastics. This phantom had superimposed another thin plastic which incorporated a 2 mm deep cylinder filled with iodinated contrast media. The iodine projected thicknesses used for this study was 3 mg/cm2. Low and high energy spectra that straddle the iodine K-edge were used. Critical parameters such as the energy spectra and exposure are discussed, along with post processing by means of nonlinear energy dependent function. The dual energy image was evaluated using the relative contrast to noise ratio of a 2.5 mm x 2.5 mm region of the image at the different iodine concentrations incorporating different breast composition with respect to the noniodinated areas. Optimum results were achieved when the low and high-energy images were used in such a way that relative contrast to noise ratio of the iodine with respect to the background tissue was maximum. A figure of merit suggests that higher noise levels can be tolerated at the benefit of lower exposure. Contrast media kinetics of a phantom incorporating a water flow of 20.4 ml/min through the plastic cylinder suggests that time domain imaging could be performed with this approach. The results suggest that optimization of dual energy contrast enhanced mammography has the potential to lead to the development of perfusion digital mammography.

  4. Fusion of digital breast tomosynthesis images via wavelet synthesis for improved lesion conspicuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Harishwaran; Pomponiu, Victor; Zheng, Bin; Whiting, Bruce; Gur, David

    2014-03-01

    Full-field digital mammography (FFDM) is the most common screening procedure for detecting early breast cancer. However, due to complications such as overlapping breast tissue in projection images, the efficacy of FFDM reading is reduced. Recent studies have shown that digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), in combination with FFDM, increases detection sensitivity considerably while decreasing false-positive, recall rates. There is a huge interest in creating diagnostically accurate 2-D interpretations from the DBT slices. Most of the 2-D syntheses rely on visualizing the maximum intensities (brightness) from each slice through different methods. We propose a wavelet based fusion method, where we focus on preserving holistic information from larger structures such as masses while adding high frequency information that is relevant and helpful for diagnosis. This method enables the spatial generation of a 2D image from a series of DBT images, each of which contains both smooth and coarse structures distributed in the wavelet domain. We believe that the wavelet-synthesized images, generated from their DBT image datasets, provide radiologists with improved lesion and micro-calcification conspicuity as compared with FFDM images. The potential impact of this fusion method is (1) Conception of a device-independent, data-driven modality that increases the conspicuity of lesions, thereby facilitating early detection and potentially reducing recall rates; (2) Reduction of the accompanying radiation dose to the patient.

  5. Detection of breast surgical margins with optical coherence tomography imaging: a concept evaluation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastru, Dan; Chang, Ernest W.; Miclos, Sorin; Pitman, Martha B.; Patel, Ankit; Iftimia, Nicusor

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the concept of using high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to rapidly assess surgical specimens and determine if cancer positive margins were left behind in the surgical bed. A mouse model of breast cancer was used in this study. Surgical specimens from 30 animals were investigated with OCT and automated interpretation of the OCT images was performed and tested against histopathology findings. Specimens from 10 animals were used to build a training set of OCT images, while the remaining 20 specimens were used for a validation set of images. The validation study showed that automated interpretation of OCT images can differentiate tissue types and detect cancer positive margins with at least 81% sensitivity and 89% specificity. The findings of this pilot study suggest that OCT imaging of surgical specimens and automated interpretation of OCT data may enable in the future real-time feedback to the surgeon about margin status in patients with breast cancer, and potentially with other types of cancers. Currently, such feedback is not provided and if positive margins are left behind, patients have to undergo another surgical procedure. Therefore, this approach can have a potentially high impact on breast surgery outcome.

  6. Estrogen Receptor-Targeted Contrast Agents for Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Breast Cancer Hormonal Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Adi; Degani, Hadassa

    2016-01-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) α is overexpressed in most breast cancers, and its level serves as a major prognostic factor. It is important to develop quantitative molecular imaging methods that specifically detect ER in vivo and assess its function throughout the entire primary breast cancer and in metastatic breast cancer lesions. This study presents the biochemical and molecular features, as well as the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) effects of two novel ER-targeted contrast agents (CAs), based on pyridine-tetra-acetate-Gd(III) chelate conjugated to 17β-estradiol (EPTA-Gd) or to tamoxifen (TPTA-Gd). The experiments were conducted in solution, in human breast cancer cells, and in severe combined immunodeficient mice implanted with transfected ER-positive and ER-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts. Binding studies with ER in solution and in human breast cancer cells indicated affinities in the micromolar range of both CAs. Biochemical and molecular studies in breast cancer cell cultures showed that both CAs exhibit estrogen-like agonistic activity, enhancing cell proliferation, as well as upregulating cMyc oncogene and downregulating ER expression levels. The MRI longitudinal relaxivity was significantly augmented by EPTA-Gd in ER-positive cells as compared to ER-negative cells. Dynamic contrast-enhanced studies with EPTA-Gd in vivo indicated specific augmentation of the MRI water signal in the ER-positive versus ER-negative xenografts, confirming EPTA-Gd-specific interaction with ER. In contrast, TPTA-Gd did not show increased enhancement in ER-positive tumors and did not appear to interact in vivo with the tumors' ER. However, TPTA-Gd was found to interact strongly with muscle tissue, enhancing muscle signal intensity in a mechanism independent of the presence of ER. The specificity of EPTA-Gd interaction with ER in vivo was further verified by acute and chronic competition with tamoxifen. The chronic tamoxifen treatment also revealed that this

  7. Estrogen receptor targeted contrast agents for molecular magnetic resonance imaging of breast cancer hormonal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi ePais

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The estrogen receptor α (ER is over expressed in most breast cancers and its level serves as a major prognostic factor. It is important to develop quantitative molecular imaging methods that specifically detect ER in vivo and assess its function throughout the entire primary breast cancer, as well as in metastatic breast cancer lesions. This study presents the biochemical and molecular features, as well as the magnetic resonance imaging effects of two novel ER- targeted contrast agents (CAs based on pyridine-tetra-acetate-Gd(III chelate conjugated to 17β-estradiol (EPTA-Gd or to tamoxifen (TPTA-Gd. The experiments were conducted in solution, in human breast cancer cells and in severe combined immunodeficient mice implanted with transfected ER-positive and ER-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts. Binding studies with ER in solution and in human breast cancer cells indicated affinities in the micromolar range of both CAs. Biochemical and molecular studies in breast cancer cell cultures showed that both CAs exhibit estrogen like agonistic activity, enhancing cell proliferation, as well as up-regulating cMyc oncogene and down-regulating ER expression levels. The MRI longitudinal relaxivity was significantly augmented by EPTA-Gd in ER-positive cells as compared to ER-negative cells. Dynamic contrast enhanced studies with EPTA-Gd in vivo indicated specific augmentation of the MRI water signal in the ER-positive versus ER-negative xenografts, confirming EPTA-Gd specific interaction with ER. In contrast, TPTA-Gd did not show increased enhancement in ER-positive tumors and did not appear to interact in vivo with the tumors’ ER. However, TPTA-Gd was found to interact strongly with muscle tissue, enhancing muscle signal intensity in a mechanism independent of the presence of ER. The specificity of EPTA-Gd interaction with ER in vivo was further verified by acute and chronic competition with tamoxifen. The chronic tamoxifen treatment also

  8. Online gamma-camera imaging of 103Pd seeds (OGIPS) for permanent breast seed implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Ananth; Caldwell, Curtis B.; Keller, Brian M.; Reznik, Alla; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2007-09-01

    Permanent brachytherapy seed implantation is being investigated as a mode of accelerated partial breast irradiation for early stage breast cancer patients. Currently, the seeds are poorly visualized during the procedure making it difficult to perform a real-time correction of the implantation if required. The objective was to determine if a customized gamma-camera can accurately localize the seeds during implantation. Monte Carlo simulations of a CZT based gamma-camera were used to assess whether images of suitable quality could be derived by detecting the 21 keV photons emitted from 74 MBq 103Pd brachytherapy seeds. A hexagonal parallel hole collimator with a hole length of 38 mm, hole diameter of 1.2 mm and 0.2 mm septa, was modeled. The design of the gamma-camera was evaluated on a realistic model of the breast and three layers of the seed distribution (55 seeds) based on a pre-implantation CT treatment plan. The Monte Carlo simulations showed that the gamma-camera was able to localize the seeds with a maximum error of 2.0 mm, using only two views and 20 s of imaging. A gamma-camera can potentially be used as an intra-procedural image guidance system for quality assurance for permanent breast seed implantation.

  9. Online gamma-camera imaging of {sup 103}Pd seeds (OGIPS) for permanent breast seed implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, Ananth [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto (Canada); Caldwell, Curtis B [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto (Canada); Keller, Brian M [Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (Canada); Reznik, Alla [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto (Canada); Pignol, Jean-Philippe [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto (Canada)

    2007-09-21

    Permanent brachytherapy seed implantation is being investigated as a mode of accelerated partial breast irradiation for early stage breast cancer patients. Currently, the seeds are poorly visualized during the procedure making it difficult to perform a real-time correction of the implantation if required. The objective was to determine if a customized gamma-camera can accurately localize the seeds during implantation. Monte Carlo simulations of a CZT based gamma-camera were used to assess whether images of suitable quality could be derived by detecting the 21 keV photons emitted from 74 MBq {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy seeds. A hexagonal parallel hole collimator with a hole length of 38 mm, hole diameter of 1.2 mm and 0.2 mm septa, was modeled. The design of the gamma-camera was evaluated on a realistic model of the breast and three layers of the seed distribution (55 seeds) based on a pre-implantation CT treatment plan. The Monte Carlo simulations showed that the gamma-camera was able to localize the seeds with a maximum error of 2.0 mm, using only two views and 20 s of imaging. A gamma-camera can potentially be used as an intra-procedural image guidance system for quality assurance for permanent breast seed implantation.

  10. Critical analysis of the images methods in detection and diagnosis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The female breast cancer is a relevant health issue among female population, due its incidence and remarkable effects in the biological, psychological and social levels. Its early diagnosis is important because it allows more effective treatments and enhances changes of cure, even allowing conservative surgical procedures. To make this possible it is essential the periodic breast imaging exams. The available imaging methods to date are: mammography, ultrasonography, thermography, nuclear medicine, computed tomography and MRI. All these methods have their advantages and disadvantages, applications and limitations and some are even in experimental stages. These methods must exercised in association to become more effective. Mammography is still, beyond and doubt the elected breast exam. even though imperfect. It must be performed repeatedly at periodic intervals depending upon the intrinsic conditions of the patient. The other methods complement the mammographic findings, clearing some of them. In this paper, the imaging methods available in our environmental for detected diagnosis of the early breast cancer are analyzed with emphasis in mammography and ultrasonography. Their advantages, disadvantages, indications and limitations are discussed. (author)

  11. Quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has received growing interest in recent years due to its high capability in visualizing soft tissue. Breast imaging became the focus of particular attention as it is considered the most promising candidate for a first clinical application of this contrast modality. In this study, we investigate quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) at conventional polychromatic x-ray sources. Different breast specimens have been scanned at a laboratory phase-contrast imaging setup and were correlated to histopathology. Ascertained tumor types include phylloides tumor, fibroadenoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Identified tissue types comprising adipose, fibroglandular and tumor tissue have been analyzed in terms of phase-contrast Hounsfield units and are compared to high-quality, high-resolution data obtained with monochromatic synchrotron radiation, as well as calculated values based on tabulated tissue properties. The results give a good impression of the method’s prospects and limitations for potential tumor detection and the associated demands on such a phase-contrast breast CT system. Furthermore, the evaluated quantitative tissue values serve as a reference for simulations and the design of dedicated phantoms for phase-contrast mammography. (paper)

  12. Quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, M.; Herzen, J.; Grandl, S.; Auweter, S.; Mayr, D.; Hipp, A.; Chabior, M.; Sarapata, A.; Achterhold, K.; Zanette, I.; Weitkamp, T.; Sztrókay, A.; Hellerhoff, K.; Reiser, M.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-04-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has received growing interest in recent years due to its high capability in visualizing soft tissue. Breast imaging became the focus of particular attention as it is considered the most promising candidate for a first clinical application of this contrast modality. In this study, we investigate quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) at conventional polychromatic x-ray sources. Different breast specimens have been scanned at a laboratory phase-contrast imaging setup and were correlated to histopathology. Ascertained tumor types include phylloides tumor, fibroadenoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Identified tissue types comprising adipose, fibroglandular and tumor tissue have been analyzed in terms of phase-contrast Hounsfield units and are compared to high-quality, high-resolution data obtained with monochromatic synchrotron radiation, as well as calculated values based on tabulated tissue properties. The results give a good impression of the method’s prospects and limitations for potential tumor detection and the associated demands on such a phase-contrast breast CT system. Furthermore, the evaluated quantitative tissue values serve as a reference for simulations and the design of dedicated phantoms for phase-contrast mammography.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of radial sclerosing lesions (radial scars) of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda, Anna, E-mail: annalinda33@gmail.com [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Zuiani, Chiara; Londero, Viviana [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Cedolini, Carla [Department of Surgery, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Girometti, Rossano; Bazzocchi, Massimo [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To identify magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) features of radial sclerosing lesions (RSLs) of the breast. Methods and materials: The radiologic and pathologic records for 4629 consecutive patients undergoing MR examinations of the breast were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who received a pathologic diagnosis of RSL without atypia or carcinoma at surgical excision were identified. The MR images were evaluated according to the BI-RADS-MRI lexicon by two experienced breast radiologists. The frequency of morphologic and kinetic patterns and of BI-RADS-MRI assessment categories was calculated. Results: Twenty-nine patients with 29 surgically excised RSL were identified. Nine (31%) RSL were MR-occult; the remaining 20 (69%) RSL presented as masses (10/20, 50%), architectural distortions (5/20, 25%), non-mass lesions (4/20, 20%), and focus (1/20, 5%). Kinetic analysis was performed in 18 RSL: enhancement features were benign in 9 (50%) cases, suspicious in 7 (39%) cases and indeterminate in 2 (11%) cases. Twelve (41%) MR examinations were assessed as suspicious (BI-RADS-MRI 4 and 5), and 17 (59%) as negative (BI-RADS-MRI 1) or benign (BI-RADS-MRI 2 and 3). Conclusion: RSLs are often visualized on MR imaging. Just as in mammography and sonography, RSL can have variable morphologic and kinetic features, and not infrequently they can mimic invasive carcinoma of the breast.

  14. Quantum dots-based double-color imaging of HER2 positive breast cancer invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiu-Li, E-mail: usually.158@163.com [Department of Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Peng, Chun-Wei, E-mail: pqc278@163.com [Department of Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Chuang, E-mail: chenc2469@163.com [Department of Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yang, Xue-Qin, E-mail: yxqjenny@126.com [Department of Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hu, Ming-Bai, E-mail: humingbai@126.com [Department of Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Xia, He-Shun, E-mail: xiaheshun@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pathology, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Liu, Shao-Ping, E-mail: lsp_77@126.com [Department of Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430071 (China); and others

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} HER2 level is closely related to the biologic behaviors of breast cancer cells. {yields} A new method to simultaneously image HER2 and type IV collagen was established. {yields} HER2 status and type IV collagen degradation predict breast cancer invasion. {yields} The complex interactions between tumor and its environment were revealed. -- Abstract: It has been well recognized that human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) level in breast cancer (BC) is closely related to the malignant biologic behaviors of the tumor, including invasion and metastasis. Yet, there has been a lack of directly observable evidence to support such notion. Here we report a quantum dots (QDs)-based double-color imaging technique to simultaneously show the HER2 level on BC cells and the type IV collagen in the tumor matrix. In benign breast tumor, the type IV collagen was intact. With the increasing of HER2 expression level, there has been a progressive decrease in type IV collagen around the cancer nest. At HER2 (3+) expression level, there has virtually been a total destruction of type IV collagen. Moreover, HER2 (3+) BC cells also show direct invasion into the blood vessels. This novel imaging method provides direct observable evidence to support the theory that the HER2 expression level is directly related to BC invasion.

  15. Noninvasive enhanced mid-IR imaging of breast cancer development in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jason R.; Young, Madison A.; Dréau, D.; Trammell, Susan R.

    2015-11-01

    Lumpectomy coupled with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy is commonly used to treat breast cancer patients. We are developing an enhanced thermal IR imaging technique that has the potential to provide real-time imaging to guide tissue excision during a lumpectomy by delineating tumor margins. This enhanced thermal imaging method is a combination of IR imaging (8 to 10 μm) and selective heating of blood (˜0.5°C) relative to surrounding water-rich tissue using LED sources at low powers. Postacquisition processing of these images highlights temporal changes in temperature and the presence of vascular structures. In this study, fluorescent, standard thermal, and enhanced thermal imaging modalities, as well as physical caliper measurements, were used to monitor breast cancer tumor volumes over a 30-day study period in 19 mice implanted with 4T1-RFP tumor cells. Tumor volumes calculated from fluorescent imaging follow an exponential growth curve for the first 22 days of the study. Cell necrosis affected the tumor volume estimates based on the fluorescent images after day 22. The tumor volumes estimated from enhanced thermal imaging, standard thermal imaging, and caliper measurements all show exponential growth over the entire study period. A strong correlation was found between tumor volumes estimated using fluorescent imaging, standard IR imaging, and caliper measurements with enhanced thermal imaging, indicating that enhanced thermal imaging monitors tumor growth. Further, the enhanced IR images reveal a corona of bright emission along the edges of the tumor masses associated with the tumor margin. In the future, this IR technique might be used to estimate tumor margins in real time during surgical procedures.

  16. Development of a multi-spectral, multi-geometry computational model for X-ray breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of novel applications in X-ray breast imaging warrants new research for image acquisition optimisation. A simulation model was developed to investigate the influence of different imaging techniques and acquisition parameters. It was modelled in Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended and contains an X-ray tube with photon production, a breast model and anti-scatter grid model. This paper describes the simulation model, compares the results with experimental and literature data and presents the influence of breast and anti-scatter grid parameters on scatter radiation. (authors)

  17. Tumour Delineation using Statistical Properties of The Breast US Images and Vector Quantization based Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Kekre

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is most common and leading cause of death among women. With improvement in the imaging modalities it is possible to diagnose the cancer at an early stage moreover treatment at an early stage reduces the mortality rate. B-mode ultrasound (US imaging is very illustrious and reliable technique in early detection of masses in the breast. Though it is complimentary to the mammography, dense breast tissues can be examined more efficiently and detects the small nodules that are usually not observed in mammography. Segmentation of US images gives the clear understanding of nature and growth of the tumor. But some inherent artifact of US images makes this process difficult and computationally inefficient. Many methods are discussed in the literature for US image segmentation, each method has its pros and cons. In this paper, initially region merging based watershed and marker-controlled watershed transforms are discussed and implemented. In the subsequent sections we proposed a method for segmentation, based on clustering. Proposed method consists of three stages, in first stage probability images and its equalized histogram images are obtained from the original US images without any preprocessing. In the next stage, we used VQ based clustering technique with LBG, KPE and KEVR codebook generation algorithm followed by sequential cluster merging. Last stage is the post processing, where we removed unwanted regions from the selected cluster image by labeling the connected components and moreover used morphological operation for closing the holes in the final segmented image. Finally, results by our method are compared with initially discussed methods.

  18. An imaging evaluation of the simultaneously integrated boost breast radiotherapy technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turley, Jessica; Claridge Mackonis, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate in-field megavoltage (MV) imaging of simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) breast fields to determine its feasibility in treatment verification for the SIB breast radiotherapy technique, and to assess whether the current-imaging protocol and treatment margins are sufficient. For nine patients undergoing SIB breast radiotherapy, in-field MV images of the SIB fields were acquired on days that regular treatment verification imaging was performed. The in-field images were matched offline according to the scar wire on digitally reconstructed radiographs. The offline image correction results were then applied to a margin recipe formula to calculate safe margins that account for random and systematic uncertainties in the position of the boost volume when an offline correction protocol has been applied. After offline assessment of the acquired images, 96% were within the tolerance set in the current department-imaging protocol. Retrospectively performing the maximum position deviations on the Eclipse™ treatment planning system demonstrated that the clinical target volume (CTV) boost received a minimum dose difference of 0.4% and a maximum dose difference of 1.4% less than planned. Furthermore, applying our results to the Van Herk margin formula to ensure that 90% of patients receive 95% of the prescribed dose, the calculated CTV margins were comparable to the current departmental procedure used. Based on the in-field boost images acquired and the feasible application of these results to the margin formula the current CTV-planning target volume margins used are appropriate for the accurate treatment of the SIB boost volume without additional imaging.

  19. An imaging evaluation of the simultaneously integrated boost breast radiotherapy technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate in-field megavoltage (MV) imaging of simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) breast fields to determine its feasibility in treatment verification for the SIB breast radiotherapy technique, and to assess whether the current-imaging protocol and treatment margins are sufficient. For nine patients undergoing SIB breast radiotherapy, in-field MV images of the SIB fields were acquired on days that regular treatment verification imaging was performed. The in-field images were matched offline according to the scar wire on digitally reconstructed radiographs. The offline image correction results were then applied to a margin recipe formula to calculate safe margins that account for random and systematic uncertainties in the position of the boost volume when an offline correction protocol has been applied. After offline assessment of the acquired images, 96% were within the tolerance set in the current department-imaging protocol. Retrospectively performing the maximum position deviations on the Eclipse™ treatment planning system demonstrated that the clinical target volume (CTV) boost received a minimum dose difference of 0.4% and a maximum dose difference of 1.4% less than planned. Furthermore, applying our results to the Van Herk margin formula to ensure that 90% of patients receive 95% of the prescribed dose, the calculated CTV margins were comparable to the current departmental procedure used. Based on the in-field boost images acquired and the feasible application of these results to the margin formula the current CTV-planning target volume margins used are appropriate for the accurate treatment of the SIB boost volume without additional imaging

  20. Model-based estimation of breast percent density in raw and processed full-field digital mammography images from image-acquisition physics and patient-image characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brad M.; Nathan, Diane L.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2012-03-01

    Breast percent density (PD%), as measured mammographically, is one of the strongest known risk factors for breast cancer. While the majority of studies to date have focused on PD% assessment from digitized film mammograms, digital mammography (DM) is becoming increasingly common, and allows for direct PD% assessment at the time of imaging. This work investigates the accuracy of a generalized linear model-based (GLM) estimation of PD% from raw and postprocessed digital mammograms, utilizing image acquisition physics, patient characteristics and gray-level intensity features of the specific image. The model is trained in a leave-one-woman-out fashion on a series of 81 cases for which bilateral, mediolateral-oblique DM images were available in both raw and post-processed format. Baseline continuous and categorical density estimates were provided by a trained breast-imaging radiologist. Regression analysis is performed and Pearson's correlation, r, and Cohen's kappa, κ, are computed. The GLM PD% estimation model performed well on both processed (r=0.89, pbreast PD% could allow for a reproducible estimation of breast density, providing a rapid risk assessment tool for clinical practice.

  1. A multi-image approach to CADx of breast cancer with integration into PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elter, Matthias; Wittenberg, Thomas; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2009-02-01

    While screening mammography is accepted as the most adequate technique for the early detection of breast cancer, its low positive predictive value leads to many breast biopsies performed on benign lesions. Therefore, we have previously developed a knowledge-based system for computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) of mammographic lesions. It supports the radiologist in the discrimination of benign and malignant lesions. So far, our approach operates on the lesion level and employs the paradigm of content-based image retrieval (CBIR). Similar lesions with known diagnosis are retrieved automatically from a library of references. However, radiologists base their diagnostic decisions on additional resources, such as related mammographic projections, other modalities (e.g. ultrasound, MRI), and clinical data. Nonetheless, most CADx systems disregard the relation between the craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral-oblique (MLO) views of conventional mammography. Therefore, we extend our approach to the full case level: (i) Multi-frame features are developed that jointly describe a lesion in different views of mammography. Taking into account the geometric relation between different images, these features can also be extracted from multi-modal data; (ii) the CADx system architecture is extended appropriately; (iii) the CADx system is integrated into the radiology information system (RIS) and the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Here, the framework for image retrieval in medical applications (IRMA) is used to support access to the patient's health care record. Of particular interest is the application of the proposed CADx system to digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), which has the potential to succeed digital mammography as the standard technique for breast cancer screening. The proposed system is a natural extension of CADx approaches that integrate only two modalities. However, we are still collecting a large enough database of breast lesions with images from

  2. Workflow improvements for digital breast tomosynthesis: computerized generation of enhanced synthetic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotin, Sergei V.; Yin, Yin; Haldankar, Hrishikesh; Hoffmeister, Jeffrey W.; Periaswamy, Senthil

    2016-03-01

    In a typical 2D mammography workflow scenario, a computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithm is used as a second reader producing marks for a radiologist to review. In the case of 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), the display of CAD detections at multiple reconstruction heights would lead to an increased image browsing and interpretation time. We propose an alternative approach in which an algorithm automatically identifies suspicious regions of interest from 3D reconstructed DBT slices and then merges the findings with the corresponding 2D synthetic projection image which is then reviewed. The resultant enhanced synthetic 2D image combines the benefits of a familiar 2D breast view with superior appearance of suspicious locations from 3D slices. Moreover, clicking on 2D suspicious locations brings up the display of the corresponding 3D regions in a DBT volume allowing navigation between 2D and 3D images. We explored the use of these enhanced synthetic images in a concurrent read paradigm by conducting a study with 5 readers and 30 breast exams. We observed that the introduction of the enhanced synthetic view reduced radiologist's average interpretation time by 5.4%, increased sensitivity by 6.7% and increased specificity by 15.6%.

  3. A Prospective Evaluation of T2-Weighted First-Pass Perfusion MR Imaging In Diagnosing Breast Neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoJuanUu; RenyouZhai; TaoJiang; LiWang

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the results from breast cancer patients who undergo T2-weighted first-pass perfusion imaging after dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging during the same examination,and to evaluate if T2-weighted imaging can provide additional diagnostic information over that obtained with Tl-weiahted imaaina.METHODS Twenty-nine patients with breast lesions verified by pathology (benign 12, malignant 17) underwent MR imaging with dynamic contrast-enhanced Tl-weighted imaging of the entire breasts,immediately followed by 6-sections of T2-weighted first-pass perfusion imaging of the lesions. The diagnostic indices were acquired by individual 3D Tl-weighted enhancement rate criterion and the T2 signalintensity loss rate criterion. The sensitivity and specificity were calculated and the 2 methods were compared.RESULTS With the dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging there was a significant differences breast lesions (t=2.563, P=0.016)overlap between the signal intensitybetween the benign and malignant However we found a considerable increase in the carcinomas and thatin the benign lesions, for a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 25%.With T2-weighted first-pass perfusion imaging, there was a very significant difference between the benign and malignant breast lesions(t=4.777,P<0.001), and the overlap between the signal intensity decrease in the carcinomas and that of the benign lesions on the T2-weighted images was less pronounced than the overlap in the T1-weighted images, for a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 75%.CONCLUSION T2-weighted first-pass perfusion imaging may help differentiate between benign and malignant breast lesions with a higher level of specificity. The combination of T1-weighted and T2-weighted imaging is feasible in a single patient examination and may improve breast MR imaging.

  4. The diagnosis of silicone breast-implant rupture: clinical findings compared with findings at magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Fryzek, Jon P; Kjøller, Kim;

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the usefulness of clinical examination in the evaluation of breast-implant integrity, using the diagnosis at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the "gold standard." Fifty-five women with 109 implants underwent a breast examination either just before or shortly after...

  5. Mammography with and without radiolucent positioning sheets : Comparison of projected breast area, pain experience, radiation dose and technical image quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Janine; ten Voorde, Marloes; van Engen, Ruben E.; van Landsveld-Verhoeven, Cary; Pijnappel, Ruud; Droogh-de Greve, Kitty; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare projected breast area, image quality, pain experience and radiation dose between mammography performed with and without radiolucent positioning sheets. Methods: 184 women screened in the Dutch breast screening programme (May-June 2012) provided written informed consent to have on

  6. Non-puerperal mastitis masking pre-existing breast malignancy: Importance of follow-up imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Jin Kyung; Woo, Jeong Joo; Lee, Seung A [Eulji General Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the breast with common symptoms of pain, swelling, erythema, warmth, and fever. Diagnosis of mastitis is easily made on the basis of typical symptoms and ultrasonographic findings, such as diffusely increased echogenicity of the parenchyma and subcutaneous fat, or skin thickening. However, when it occurs in women middle-aged or older, associated malignancy should be considered. In our cases, we detected irregular hypoechoic malignant masses after the disappearance of inflammatory changes. Therefore, when non-puerperal women have inflammatory signs on their breast, follow-up imaging should be performed. In particular, in the case of persistent or growing palpability after the recovery of breast inflammation, percutaneous core biopsy and short-term follow-up with ultrasonography should be considered to exclude the associated malignancy.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging on complications of breast augmentation with injected hydrophilic polyacrylamide gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-ying; KONG Xiang-quan; TIAN Zhi-xiong; QIU Da-sheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ The injection augmentation mammaplasty for cosmetic purpose has been popular recently in China. Two kinds of injectable material are used clinically, autologous fat and biomaterial. The fat injection for breast augmentation is in question with the major problems of progressive fat re-absorption,microcalcification, and fat liquefaction.1 Now, the principal alloplastic biomaterial for injection augmentation mammaplasty in China is hydrophilic polyacrylamide gel (HPAAG). Although thousands of breasts have been augmented with HPAAG and it seems to be a good biocompatible material, some complications develop after HPAAG injection augmentation mammaplasty.2-4 The patients had to undergo surgery to remove the injected HPAAG and associated lesions. Ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be taken preoperatively to demonstrate the distribution of injected HPAAG and associated lesions.5 In this report, the diagnostic value and clinical significance of MRI on the complications of HPAAG breast augmentation were discussed.

  8. Computer-aided breast MR image feature analysis for prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify a new clinical marker based on quantitative kinetic image features analysis and assess its feasibility to predict tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: The authors assembled a dataset involving breast MR images acquired from 68 cancer patients before undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Among them, 25 patients had complete response (CR) and 43 had partial and nonresponse (NR) to chemotherapy based on the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors. The authors developed a computer-aided detection scheme to segment breast areas and tumors depicted on the breast MR images and computed a total of 39 kinetic image features from both tumor and background parenchymal enhancement regions. The authors then applied and tested two approaches to classify between CR and NR cases. The first one analyzed each individual feature and applied a simple feature fusion method that combines classification results from multiple features. The second approach tested an attribute selected classifier that integrates an artificial neural network (ANN) with a wrapper subset evaluator, which was optimized using a leave-one-case-out validation method. Results: In the pool of 39 features, 10 yielded relatively higher classification performance with the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) ranging from 0.61 to 0.78 to classify between CR and NR cases. Using a feature fusion method, the maximum AUC = 0.85 ± 0.05. Using the ANN-based classifier, AUC value significantly increased to 0.96 ± 0.03 (p < 0.01). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that quantitative analysis of kinetic image features computed from breast MR images acquired prechemotherapy has potential to generate a useful clinical marker in predicting tumor response to chemotherapy

  9. Computer-aided breast MR image feature analysis for prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghaei, Faranak; Tan, Maxine; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin, E-mail: Bin.Zheng-1@ou.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Hollingsworth, Alan B. [Mercy Women’s Center, Mercy Health Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73120 (United States); Qian, Wei [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To identify a new clinical marker based on quantitative kinetic image features analysis and assess its feasibility to predict tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: The authors assembled a dataset involving breast MR images acquired from 68 cancer patients before undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Among them, 25 patients had complete response (CR) and 43 had partial and nonresponse (NR) to chemotherapy based on the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors. The authors developed a computer-aided detection scheme to segment breast areas and tumors depicted on the breast MR images and computed a total of 39 kinetic image features from both tumor and background parenchymal enhancement regions. The authors then applied and tested two approaches to classify between CR and NR cases. The first one analyzed each individual feature and applied a simple feature fusion method that combines classification results from multiple features. The second approach tested an attribute selected classifier that integrates an artificial neural network (ANN) with a wrapper subset evaluator, which was optimized using a leave-one-case-out validation method. Results: In the pool of 39 features, 10 yielded relatively higher classification performance with the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) ranging from 0.61 to 0.78 to classify between CR and NR cases. Using a feature fusion method, the maximum AUC = 0.85 ± 0.05. Using the ANN-based classifier, AUC value significantly increased to 0.96 ± 0.03 (p < 0.01). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that quantitative analysis of kinetic image features computed from breast MR images acquired prechemotherapy has potential to generate a useful clinical marker in predicting tumor response to chemotherapy.

  10. Stacked Sparse Autoencoder (SSAE) for Nuclei Detection on Breast Cancer Histopathology Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Qingshan; Gilmore, Hannah; Wu, Jianzhong; Tang, Jinghai; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    Automated nuclear detection is a critical step for a number of computer assisted pathology related image analysis algorithms such as for automated grading of breast cancer tissue specimens. The Nottingham Histologic Score system is highly correlated with the shape and appearance of breast cancer nuclei in histopathological images. However, automated nucleus detection is complicated by 1) the large number of nuclei and the size of high resolution digitized pathology images, and 2) the variability in size, shape, appearance, and texture of the individual nuclei. Recently there has been interest in the application of "Deep Learning" strategies for classification and analysis of big image data. Histopathology, given its size and complexity, represents an excellent use case for application of deep learning strategies. In this paper, a Stacked Sparse Autoencoder (SSAE), an instance of a deep learning strategy, is presented for efficient nuclei detection on high-resolution histopathological images of breast cancer. The SSAE learns high-level features from just pixel intensities alone in order to identify distinguishing features of nuclei. A sliding window operation is applied to each image in order to represent image patches via high-level features obtained via the auto-encoder, which are then subsequently fed to a classifier which categorizes each image patch as nuclear or non-nuclear. Across a cohort of 500 histopathological images (2200 × 2200) and approximately 3500 manually segmented individual nuclei serving as the groundtruth, SSAE was shown to have an improved F-measure 84.49% and an average area under Precision-Recall curve (AveP) 78.83%. The SSAE approach also out-performed nine other state of the art nuclear detection strategies. PMID:26208307

  11. Changes in MR imaging appearance of breast cancer after intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the characteristic change in breast cancer related to chemotherapeutic response (CR) and the effect of invasion and toxicity in the skin and pectoralis muscle exist on MR imaging after intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy. A total of 11 patients with histologically proven breast cancer underwent MR study before and after chemotherapy. Changes in images and the dynamic curveafter-chemotherapy were evaluated, including time to maximum signal intensity (SI) and the early phase enhance ratio (EPER) in the tumor. In the tumor, changes in the dynamic curve, time to maximum SI, EPER and necrosis did not correlate with CR, but change in SI on T2-weighted images was suggested to do so. Changes in the dynamic curve and images in the pectoralis muscle and in images on the skin were suggested to correlate with CR. In addition, images changed for the worse in many cases of invasion and toxicity in the pectoralis muscle and in some cases of invasion in the skin. In conclusion, tumors had fewer imaging changes correlating with CR after intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy. Changes for the worse in images of the pectoralis muscle and skin may be useful for the evaluation of invasion. (author)

  12. A Modified Harris Corner Detection for Breast IR Image

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Harris corner detectors, which depend on strong invariance and a local autocorrelation function, display poor detection performance for infrared (IR) images with low contrast and nonobvious edges. In addition, feature points detected by Harris corner detectors are clustered due to the numerous nonlocal maxima. This paper proposes a modified Harris corner detector that includes two unique steps for processing IR images in order to overcome the aforementioned problems. Image contrast enhancemen...

  13. Diffusion-weighted imaging of normal fibroglandular breast tissue : influence of microperfusion and fat suppression technique on the apparent diffusion coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, Paul; Dorrius, Monique D.; Kappert, Peter; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Sijens, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of microperfusion and fat suppression technique on the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values obtained with diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) of normal fibroglandular breast tissue was investigated. Seven volunteers (14 breasts) were scanned using diffusion weighting factors (b val

  14. Densities, viscosities, sound speed, and IR studies of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone with cyclohexylamine, cyclohexanol, and cyclohexene at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K. Rayapa; Kumar, D. Bala Karuna [Department of Chemistry, Andhra Loyola College, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh (India); Rao, G. Srinivasa [Department of Physics, Andhra Loyola College, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh (India); Anila, P. [Department of Chemistry, Andhra Loyola College, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh (India); Rambabu, C., E-mail: crbpublications@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2014-08-20

    Highlights: • Density, sound, speed, and viscosities are measured at a temperature range of 303.15–318.15 K. • Excess thermodynamic properties are computed. • All the binary systems under study are non ideal solutions. • Thermodynamic findings are in good agreement with IR data. - Abstact: Densities, viscosities, and speeds of sound of the binary liquid mixtures of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) with cyclohexylamine (CHA), cyclohexanol (CHOL) and cyclohexene (CHE) at temperatures of 303.15–318.15 K are measured over the entire composition range. From the experimental values excess molar volume V{sub m}{sup E}, deviation in isentropic compressibility Δk{sub s,} excess free length L{sub f}{sup E}, deviation in viscosity Δη are computed. The variation with the temperature and concentration is discussed in terms of molecular interactions. All the excess parameters and deviations are fitted to Redlich–Kister polynomial equation to estimate the binary interaction parameters and mean deviation from the regression lines. The sign and magnitude of the computed parameters are discussed to reveal the nature and type of interactions existing between the component molecules in the binary mixtures. Thermodynamic investigations under the present study reveal the strong inter molecular interactions between the unlike molecules in the binary systems of NMP + CHA, NMP + CHOL, whereas in the other binary system NMP + CHE the reverse trend is observed due to dispersion forces. The strength of interaction of CHA, CHOL, and CHE with NMP found to follow the order: CHA > CHOL > CHE. FT-IR studies of these mixtures have been estimated and analyzed to study the interactions between unlike molecules. A good agreement is observed between the excess parameters and FT-IR studies.

  15. Densities, viscosities, sound speed, and IR studies of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone with cyclohexylamine, cyclohexanol, and cyclohexene at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Density, sound, speed, and viscosities are measured at a temperature range of 303.15–318.15 K. • Excess thermodynamic properties are computed. • All the binary systems under study are non ideal solutions. • Thermodynamic findings are in good agreement with IR data. - Abstact: Densities, viscosities, and speeds of sound of the binary liquid mixtures of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) with cyclohexylamine (CHA), cyclohexanol (CHOL) and cyclohexene (CHE) at temperatures of 303.15–318.15 K are measured over the entire composition range. From the experimental values excess molar volume VmE, deviation in isentropic compressibility Δks, excess free length LfE, deviation in viscosity Δη are computed. The variation with the temperature and concentration is discussed in terms of molecular interactions. All the excess parameters and deviations are fitted to Redlich–Kister polynomial equation to estimate the binary interaction parameters and mean deviation from the regression lines. The sign and magnitude of the computed parameters are discussed to reveal the nature and type of interactions existing between the component molecules in the binary mixtures. Thermodynamic investigations under the present study reveal the strong inter molecular interactions between the unlike molecules in the binary systems of NMP + CHA, NMP + CHOL, whereas in the other binary system NMP + CHE the reverse trend is observed due to dispersion forces. The strength of interaction of CHA, CHOL, and CHE with NMP found to follow the order: CHA > CHOL > CHE. FT-IR studies of these mixtures have been estimated and analyzed to study the interactions between unlike molecules. A good agreement is observed between the excess parameters and FT-IR studies

  16. Experimental observations of detonation in ammonium-nitrate-fuel-oil (ANFO) surrounded by a high-sound speed, shockless, aluminum confiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klyanda, Charles B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Short, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Detonations in explosive mixtures of ammonium-nitrate-fuel-oil (ANFO) confined by aluminum allow for transport of detonation energy ahead of the detonation front due to the aluminum sound speed exceeding the detonation velocity. The net effect of this energy transport on the detonation is unclear. It could enhance the detonation by precompressing the explosive near the wall. Alternatively, it could desensitize the explosive by crushing porosity required for shock initiation or destroying confinement ahead of the detonation. As these phenomena are not well understood, most numerical explosive models are unable to account for them. But with slowly detonating, non-ideal high explosive (NIHE) systems becoming increasing prevalent, proper understanding and prediction of the performance of these metal-confined NIHE systems is desirable. Experiments are discussed that measured the effect of this ANFO detonation energy transported upstream of the front by an aluminum confining tube. Detonation velocity, detonation front curvature, and aluminum response are recorded as a function of confiner wall thickness and length. Front curvature profiles display detonation acceleration near the confining surface, which is attributed to energy transported upstream modifying the flow. Average detonation velocities were seen to increase with increasing confiner thickness due to the additional inertial confinement of the reaction zone flow. Significant radial sidewall tube motion was observed immediately ahead of the detonation. Axial motion was also detected which interfered with the front curvature measurements in some cases. It was concluded that the confiner was able to transport energy ahead of the detonation and that this transport has a definite effect on the detonation.

  17. Early detection of breast cancer: a molecular optical imaging approach using novel estrogen conjugate fluorescent dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shubhadeep; Jose, Iven

    2011-02-01

    Estrogen induced proliferation of mutant cells is widely understood to be the one of major risk determining factor in the development of breast cancer. Hence determination of the Estrogen Receptor[ER] status is of paramount importance if cancer pathogenesis is to be detected and rectified at an early stage. Near Infrared Fluorescence [NIRf] Molecular Optical Imaging is emerging as a powerful tool to monitor bio-molecular changes in living subjects. We discuss pre-clinical results in our efforts to develop an optical imaging diagnostic modality for the early detection of breast cancer. We have successfully carried out the synthesis and characterization of a novel target-specific NIRf dye conjugate aimed at measuring Estrogen Receptor[ER] status. The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-β estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of Indocyanine Green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1,1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5-carboxylic acid, sodium salt. In-vitro studies regarding specific binding and endocytocis of the dye performed on ER+ve [MCF-7] and control [MDA-MB-231] adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell lines clearly indicated nuclear localization of the dye for MCF-7 as compared to plasma level staining for MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells showed ~4.5-fold increase in fluorescence signal intensity compared to MDA-MB-231. A 3-D mesh model mimicking the human breast placed in a parallel-plate DOT Scanner is created to examine the in-vivo efficacy of the dye before proceeding with clinical trials. Photon migration and florescence flux intensity is modeled using the finite-element method with the coefficients (quantum yield, molar extinction co-efficient etc.) pertaining to the dye as obtained from photo-physical and in-vitro studies. We conclude by stating that this lipophilic dye can be potentially used as a target specific exogenous contrast agent in molecular optical imaging for early detection of breast cancer.

  18. A comparison of image interpretation times in full field digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Susan; Connor, Sophie; Lim, Yit; Tate, Catriona; Entwistle, Helen; Morris, Julie; Whiteside, Sigrid; Sergeant, Jamie; Wilson, Mary; Beetles, Ursula; Boggis, Caroline; Gilbert, Fiona

    2013-03-01

    Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) provides three-dimensional images of the breast that enable radiologists to discern whether densities are due to overlapping structures or lesions. To aid assessment of the cost-effectiveness of DBT for screening, we have compared the time taken to interpret DBT images and the corresponding two-dimensional Full Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) images. Four Consultant Radiologists experienced in reading FFDM images (4 years 8 months to 8 years) with training in DBT interpretation but more limited experience (137-407 cases in the past 6 months) were timed reading between 24 and 32 two view FFDM and DBT cases. The images were of women recalled from screening for further assessment and women under surveillance because of a family history of breast cancer. FFDM images were read before DBT, according to local practice. The median time for readers to interpret FFDM images was 17.0 seconds, with an interquartile range of 12.3-23.6 seconds. For DBT, the median time was 66.0 seconds, and the interquartile range was 51.1-80.5 seconds. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Reading times were significantly longer in family history clinics (p<0.01). Although it took approximately four times as long to interpret DBT than FFDM images, the cases were more complex than would be expected for routine screening, and with higher mammographic density. The readers were relatively inexperienced in DBT interpretation and may increase their speed over time. The difference in times between clinics may be due to increased throughput at assessment, or decreased density.

  19. High-Resolution CT Imaging of Single Breast Cancer Microcalcifications In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Liu, Fangbing; Hoppin, Jack; Lunsford, Elaine P.; Lackas, Christian; Hesterman, Jacob; Lenkinski, Robert E.; Fujii, Hirofumi; Frangioni, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Microcalcification is a hallmark of breast cancer and a key diagnostic feature for mammography. We recently described the first robust animal model of breast cancer microcalcification. In this study, we hypothesized that high-resolution computed tomography (CT) could potentially detect the genesis of a single microcalcification in vivo and quantify its growth over time. Using a commercial CT scanner, we systematically optimized acquisition and reconstruction parameters. Two ray-tracing image reconstruction algorithms were tested, a voxel-driven “fast” cone beam algorithm (FCBA) and a detector-driven “exact” cone beam algorithm (ECBA). By optimizing acquisition and reconstruction parameters, we were able to achieve a resolution of 104 µm full-width at half maximum (FWHM). At an optimal detector sampling frequency, ECBA provided a 28 µm (21%) FWHM improvement in resolution over FCBA. In vitro, we were able to image a single 300 µm by 100 µm hydroxyapatite crystal. In a syngeneic rat model of breast cancer, we were able to detect the genesis of a single microcalcification in vivo and follow its growth longitudinally over weeks. Taken together, this study provides an in vivo “gold standard” for the development of calcification-specific contrast agents and a model system for studying the mechanism of breast cancer microcalcification. PMID:21504703

  20. Application of a Novel Microvascular Imaging Technique in Breast Lesion Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongfeng, Zhao; Ping, Zhou; Wengang, Liu; Yang, Shao; Shuangming, Tian

    2016-09-01

    Conventional power Doppler imaging (PDI) and the novel Superb Microvascular Imaging (SMI) technique were applied to observe the distribution of microvessels in 135 breast lesions, using semi-quantitative grading, penetrating vessel evaluation and flow distribution pattern to evaluate diagnostic efficacy. Compared with PDI, SMI detected more flow signals and details of microvessels. Further, when a centrally distributed branching or diffusing mode was used as a criterion for diagnosing malignancy, SMI improved diagnosis of breast masses. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of SMI-assessed flow distribution were 85.4%, 92.6%, 83.3% and 93.5%, respectively, compared with 70.7%, 92.6%, 80.5% and 87.9% for PDI. We also found that flow distribution pattern analysis is superior to semi-quantitative grading and the penetrating vessel method in differentiating malignant breast lesions. Our work here further supports SMI as a novel and promising technique in visualizing microvasculature in breast lesions that may be of paramount use in initial diagnosis as well as follow-up assessment in various treatment regimes.

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of novel breast imaging modalities based on coherent x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghammraoui, Bahaa; Badal, Andreu

    2014-07-01

    We present upgraded versions of MC-GPU and penEasy_Imaging, two open-source Monte Carlo codes for the simulation of radiographic projections and CT, that have been extended and validated to account for the effect of molecular interference in the coherent x-ray scatter. The codes were first validation by comparison between simulated and measured energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) spectra. A second validation was by evaluation of the rejection factor of a focused anti-scatter grid. To exemplify the capabilities of the new codes, the modified MC-GPU code was used to examine the possibility of characterizing breast tissue composition and microcalcifications in a volume of interest inside a whole breast phantom using EDXRD and to simulate a coherent scatter computed tomography (CSCT) system based on first generation CT acquisition geometry. It was confirmed that EDXRD and CSCT have the potential to characterize tissue composition inside a whole breast. The GPU-accelerated code was able to simulate, in just a few hours, a complete CSCT acquisition composed of 9758 independent pencil-beam projections. In summary, it has been shown that the presented software can be used for fast and accurate simulation of novel breast imaging modalities relying on scattering measurements and therefore can assist in the characterization and optimization of promising modalities currently under development.

  2. Advanced Imaging and Receipt of Guideline Concordant Care in Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Diana S. M.; Gold, Laura S.; Zeliadt, Steven; Hunter Merrill, Rachel; Etzioni, Ruth; Ramsey, Scott D.; Sullivan, Sean D.; Kessler, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Objective. It is unknown whether advanced imaging (AI) is associated with higher quality breast cancer (BC) care. Materials and Methods. Claims and Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data were linked for women diagnosed with incident stage I-III BC between 2002 and 2008 in western Washington State. We examined receipt of preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or AI (defined as computed tomography [CT]/positron emission tomography [PET]/PET/CT) versus mammogram and/or ultrasound (M-US) alone and receipt of guideline concordant care (GCC) using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Of 5247 women, 67% received M-US, 23% MRI, 8% CT, and 3% PET/PET-CT. In 2002, 5% received MRI and 5% AI compared to 45% and 12%, respectively, in 2008. 79% received GCC, but GCC declined over time and was associated with younger age, urban residence, less comorbidity, shorter time from diagnosis to surgery, and earlier year of diagnosis. Breast MRI was associated with GCC for lumpectomy plus radiation therapy (RT) (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.08–2.26, and p = 0.02) and AI was associated with GCC for adjuvant chemotherapy for estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) BC (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.59, and p = 0.01). Conclusion. GCC was associated with prior receipt of breast MRI and AI for lumpectomy plus RT and adjuvant chemotherapy for ER+ BC, respectively. PMID:27525122

  3. Advanced Imaging and Receipt of Guideline Concordant Care in Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Trice Loggers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. It is unknown whether advanced imaging (AI is associated with higher quality breast cancer (BC care. Materials and Methods. Claims and Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data were linked for women diagnosed with incident stage I-III BC between 2002 and 2008 in western Washington State. We examined receipt of preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or AI (defined as computed tomography [CT]/positron emission tomography [PET]/PET/CT versus mammogram and/or ultrasound (M-US alone and receipt of guideline concordant care (GCC using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Of 5247 women, 67% received M-US, 23% MRI, 8% CT, and 3% PET/PET-CT. In 2002, 5% received MRI and 5% AI compared to 45% and 12%, respectively, in 2008. 79% received GCC, but GCC declined over time and was associated with younger age, urban residence, less comorbidity, shorter time from diagnosis to surgery, and earlier year of diagnosis. Breast MRI was associated with GCC for lumpectomy plus radiation therapy (RT (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.08–2.26, and p=0.02 and AI was associated with GCC for adjuvant chemotherapy for estrogen-receptor positive (ER+ BC (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.59, and p=0.01. Conclusion. GCC was associated with prior receipt of breast MRI and AI for lumpectomy plus RT and adjuvant chemotherapy for ER+ BC, respectively.

  4. Accuracy in tangential breast treatment set-up; A portal imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tienhoven, G. van; Lanson, J.H.; Crabeels, D.; Heukelom, S.; Mijnheer, B.J. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1991-12-01

    To test accuracy and reproducibility of tangential breast treatment set-up used in The Netherlands Cancer Institute, a portal imaging study was performed in 12 patients treated for early stage breast cancer. With an on-line electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images were obtained of each patient in several fractions and compared with simulator films and with each other. In 5 patients multiple images (on the average 7) per fraction were obtained to evaluate set-up variations due to respiratory movement. The central lung distance (CLD) and other set-up parameters varied within 1 fraction about 1mm (1SD). The average variation of these parameters between various fractions was about 2 mm (1SD). The differences between simulator and treatment set-up over all patients and all fractions was on the average 2-3mm for the central beam edge to skin distance and CLD. It can be concluded that the tangential breast treatment set-up is very stable and reproducible and that respiration does not have a significant influence on treatment volume. EPID appears to be an adequate tool for studies of treatment set-up accuracy like this. (author). 35 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs.

  5. High-performance near-infrared imaging for breast cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.; El-Sherif, Ashraf F.

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for the noninvasive determination of the size, position, and optical properties of tumors in the human breast. The tumor is first detected by photothermal imaging. It is then sized, located, and optically characterized using designed digital image processing and edge-detection pattern recognition. The method assumes that the tumor is spherical and inhomogeneous and embedded in an otherwise homogeneous tissue. Heat energy is deposited in the tissue by absorption of near-infrared (NIR) Nd:YAG laser radiation, and its subsequent conversion to heat via vibrational relaxation causes a rise in temperature of the tissue. The tumor absorbs and scatters NIR light more strongly than the surrounding healthy tissue. Heat will diffuse through the tissue, causing a rise in temperature of the surrounding tissue. Differentiation between normal and cancerous tissues is determined using IR thermal imaging. Results are presented on a 55-year-old patient with a papillary breast cancer. We found that these results provide the clinician with more detailed information about breast lesions detected by photothermal imaging and thereby enhance its potential for specificity.

  6. Early breast cancer detection method based on a simulation study of single-channel passive microwave radiometry imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, Spiros A.; Savva, Andonis D.; Asvestas, Pantelis A.; Nikolopoulos, Christos D.; Capsalis, Christos N.; Cavouras, Dionisis A.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to provide a methodology for detecting temperature alterations in human breast, based on single channel microwave radiometer imaging. Radiometer measurements were simulated by modelling the human breast, the temperature distribution, and the antenna characteristics. Moreover, a simulated lesion of variable size and position in the breast was employed to provide for slight temperature changes in the breast. To detect the presence of a lesion, the temperature distribution in the breast was reconstructed. This was accomplished by assuming that temperature distribution is the mixture of distributions with unknown parameters, which were determined by means of the least squares and the singular value decomposition methods. The proposed method was validated in a variety of scenarios by altering the lesion size and location and radiometer position. The method proved capable in identifying temperature alterations caused by lesions, at different locations in the breast.

  7. In vivo photoacoustic molecular imaging of breast carcinoma with folate receptor-targeted indocyanine green nanoprobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huina; Liu, Chengbo; Gong, Xiaojing; Hu, Dehong; Lin, Riqiang; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Yan, Meng; Chen, Jingqin; Cai, Lintao; Song, Liang

    2014-11-01

    As an optical-acoustic hybrid imaging technology, photoacoustic imaging uniquely combines the advantages of rich optical contrast with high ultrasonic resolution in depth, opening up many new possibilities not attainable with conventional pure optical imaging technologies. To perform photoacoustic molecular imaging, optically absorbing exogenous contrast agents are needed to enhance the signals from specifically targeted disease activity. In this work, we designed and developed folate receptor targeted, indocyanine green dye doped poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) lipid nanoparticles (FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs) for molecular photoacoustic imaging of tumor. The fabricated FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs exhibited good aqueous stability, a high folate-receptor targeting efficiency, and remarkable optical absorption in near-infrared wavelengths, providing excellent photoacoustic signals in vitro. Furthermore, after intravenous administration of FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, mice bearing MCF-7 breast carcinomas showed significantly enhanced photoacoustic signals in vivo in the tumor regions, compared with those using non-targeted ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs. Given the existing wide clinical use of ICG and PLGA, the developed FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, in conjunction with photoacoustic imaging technology, offer a great potential to be translated into the clinic for non-ionizing molecular imaging of breast cancer in vivo.

  8. In vivo photoacoustic molecular imaging of breast carcinoma with folate receptor-targeted indocyanine green nanoprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huina; Liu, Chengbo; Gong, Xiaojing; Hu, Dehong; Lin, Riqiang; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Yan, Meng; Chen, Jingqin; Cai, Lintao; Song, Liang

    2014-11-01

    As an optical-acoustic hybrid imaging technology, photoacoustic imaging uniquely combines the advantages of rich optical contrast with high ultrasonic resolution in depth, opening up many new possibilities not attainable with conventional pure optical imaging technologies. To perform photoacoustic molecular imaging, optically absorbing exogenous contrast agents are needed to enhance the signals from specifically targeted disease activity. In this work, we designed and developed folate receptor targeted, indocyanine green dye doped poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) lipid nanoparticles (FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs) for molecular photoacoustic imaging of tumor. The fabricated FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs exhibited good aqueous stability, a high folate-receptor targeting efficiency, and remarkable optical absorption in near-infrared wavelengths, providing excellent photoacoustic signals in vitro. Furthermore, after intravenous administration of FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, mice bearing MCF-7 breast carcinomas showed significantly enhanced photoacoustic signals in vivo in the tumor regions, compared with those using non-targeted ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs. Given the existing wide clinical use of ICG and PLGA, the developed FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, in conjunction with photoacoustic imaging technology, offer a great potential to be translated into the clinic for non-ionizing molecular imaging of breast cancer in vivo.

  9. A Global Covariance Descriptor for Nuclear Atypia Scoring in Breast Histopathology Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adnan Mujahid; Sirinukunwattana, Korsuk; Rajpoot, Nasir

    2015-09-01

    Nuclear atypia scoring is a diagnostic measure commonly used to assess tumor grade of various cancers, including breast cancer. It provides a quantitative measure of deviation in visual appearance of cell nuclei from those in normal epithelial cells. In this paper, we present a novel image-level descriptor for nuclear atypia scoring in breast cancer histopathology images. The method is based on the region covariance descriptor that has recently become a popular method in various computer vision applications. The descriptor in its original form is not suitable for classification of histopathology images as cancerous histopathology images tend to possess diversely heterogeneous regions in a single field of view. Our proposed image-level descriptor, which we term as the geodesic mean of region covariance descriptors, possesses all the attractive properties of covariance descriptors lending itself to tractable geodesic-distance-based k-nearest neighbor classification using efficient kernels. The experimental results suggest that the proposed image descriptor yields high classification accuracy compared to a variety of widely used image-level descriptors.

  10. Radiogenomic analysis of breast cancer: dynamic contrast enhanced - magnetic resonance imaging based features are associated with molecular subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijian; Fan, Ming; Zhang, Juan; Zheng, Bin; Wang, Xiaojia; Li, Lihua

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumor with upgrading incidence in females. The key to decrease the mortality is early diagnosis and reasonable treatment. Molecular classification could provide better insights into patient-directed therapy and prognosis prediction of breast cancer. It is known that different molecular subtypes have different characteristics in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. Therefore, we assumed that imaging features can reflect molecular information in breast cancer. In this study, we investigated associations between dynamic contrasts enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) features and molecular subtypes in breast cancer. Sixty patients with breast cancer were enrolled and the MR images were pre-processed for noise reduction, registration and segmentation. Sixty-five dimensional imaging features including statistical characteristics, morphology, texture and dynamic enhancement in breast lesion and background regions were semiautomatically extracted. The associations between imaging features and molecular subtypes were assessed by using statistical analyses, including univariate logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression. The results of multivariate regression showed that imaging features are significantly associated with molecular subtypes of Luminal A (p=0.00473), HER2-enriched (p=0.00277) and Basal like (p=0.0117), respectively. The results indicated that three molecular subtypes are correlated with DCE-MRI features in breast cancer. Specifically, patients with a higher level of compactness or lower level of skewness in breast lesion are more likely to be Luminal A subtype. Besides, the higher value of the dynamic enhancement at T1 time in normal side reflect higher possibility of HER2-enriched subtype in breast cancer.

  11. Evaluation of breast microcalcifications according to breast imaging reporting and data system criteria and Le Gal's classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelsuen, Meltem; Demirkazik, Figen Basaran E-mail: fdemirka@hacettepe.edu.com; Ariyuerek, Macit

    2003-09-01

    Introduction/objective: Our aim was to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of the analysis of breast microcalcifications according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) and Le Gal's classification in identification of malignancy, and to assess the interobserver agreement using these criteria. Methods and material: Eighty-two patients with breast microcalcifications on their screening mammograms underwent surgical excision after a needle localization at our institution between July 1993 and June 2000. The mammograms were examined by two experienced mammographers retrospectively and independently. Each observer noted the morphology, distribution, associated findings, final assessment categories of microcalcifications according to BI-RADS criteria and the morphologic type of microcalcifications according to Le Gal's classification. The PPVs for each radiologist and the interobserver agreement were determined by using these data and histologic findings. Results: Histopathologic results yielded malignancy in 25 (30%) cases. The evaluation of microcalcifications according to BI-RADS criteria revealed PPVs of 17% and 25% for category 4 lesions, and 68% and 44% for categoy 5 lesions. In the assessment of microcalcifications according to Le Gal's classification, the PPV of type 4 lesions was 45% (for both observers), whereas the PPVs of type 5 lesions were 70% and 50%. The interobserver agreement was fair in evaluation of morphology of microcalcifications ({kappa}: 0.31), distribution of microcalcifications ({kappa}: 0.29), final assessment categories ({kappa}: 0.27), and moderate in evaluation of associated findings ({kappa}: 0.48) by using BI-RADS lexicon. It was higher for the assessment of milk of calcium and round microcalcifications than other typically benign microcalcifications, and for fine linear or fine linear branching microcalifications than other probably malignant calcifications. There was a fair interobserver agreement

  12. New breast cancer prognostic factors identified by computer-aided image analysis of HE stained histopathology images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Mei; Qu, Ai-Ping; Wang, Lin-Wei; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Yang, Fang; Xiang, Qing-Ming; Maskey, Ninu; Yang, Gui-Fang; Liu, Juan; Li, Yan

    2015-05-29

    Computer-aided image analysis (CAI) can help objectively quantify morphologic features of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) histopathology images and provide potentially useful prognostic information on breast cancer. We performed a CAI workflow on 1,150 HE images from 230 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. We used a pixel-wise support vector machine classifier for tumor nests (TNs)-stroma segmentation, and a marker-controlled watershed algorithm for nuclei segmentation. 730 morphologic parameters were extracted after segmentation, and 12 parameters identified by Kaplan-Meier analysis were significantly associated with 8-year disease free survival (P < 0.05 for all). Moreover, four image features including TNs feature (HR 1.327, 95%CI [1.001-1.759], P = 0.049), TNs cell nuclei feature (HR 0.729, 95%CI [0.537-0.989], P = 0.042), TNs cell density (HR 1.625, 95%CI [1.177-2.244], P = 0.003), and stromal cell structure feature (HR 1.596, 95%CI [1.142-2.229], P = 0.006) were identified by multivariate Cox proportional hazards model to be new independent prognostic factors. The results indicated that CAI can assist the pathologist in extracting prognostic information from HE histopathology images for IDC. The TNs feature, TNs cell nuclei feature, TNs cell density, and stromal cell structure feature could be new prognostic factors.

  13. Ensuring convergence in total-variation-based reconstruction for accurate microcalcification imaging in breast X-ray CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jakob Heide; Sidky, Emil Y.; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2011-01-01

    Breast X-ray CT imaging is being considered in screening as an extension to mammography. As a large fraction of the population will be exposed to radiation, low·dose imaging is essential. Iterative image reconstruction based on solving an optimization problem, such as Total-Variation minimization...

  14. Computer-aided global breast MR image feature analysis for prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy: performance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Faranak; Tan, Maxine; Hollingsworth, Alan B.; Zheng, Bin; Cheng, Samuel

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has been used increasingly in breast cancer diagnosis and assessment of cancer treatment efficacy. In this study, we applied a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to automatically segment breast regions depicting on MR images and used the kinetic image features computed from the global breast MR images acquired before neoadjuvant chemotherapy to build a new quantitative model to predict response of the breast cancer patients to the chemotherapy. To assess performance and robustness of this new prediction model, an image dataset involving breast MR images acquired from 151 cancer patients before undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy was retrospectively assembled and used. Among them, 63 patients had "complete response" (CR) to chemotherapy in which the enhanced contrast levels inside the tumor volume (pre-treatment) was reduced to the level as the normal enhanced background parenchymal tissues (post-treatment), while 88 patients had "partially response" (PR) in which the high contrast enhancement remain in the tumor regions after treatment. We performed the studies to analyze the correlation among the 22 global kinetic image features and then select a set of 4 optimal features. Applying an artificial neural network trained with the fusion of these 4 kinetic image features, the prediction model yielded an area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.83+/-0.04. This study demonstrated that by avoiding tumor segmentation, which is often difficult and unreliable, fusion of kinetic image features computed from global breast MR images without tumor segmentation can also generate a useful clinical marker in predicting efficacy of chemotherapy.

  15. Glucosamine-Bound Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probes with Lysosomal Specificity for Breast Tumor Imaging1

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Cong; Greenwood, Tiffany R; Glunde, Kristine

    2008-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging of lysosomes will be useful 1) to elucidate the role of lysosomal parameters in cancer, 2) to diagnose malignant lesions, and 3) to evaluate future lysosome-targeted anticancer therapies. Lysosome-specific labeling of glucosamine-bound near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes, IR-1 and IR-2, but not control probe IR-15 without the glucosamine moiety, was observed by fluorescence microscopy in human breast epithelial cell lines. Lysosome labeling and tumor specificity of thes...

  16. Glucosamine-Bound Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probes with Lysosomal Specificity for Breast Tumor Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Cong Li; Greenwood, Tiffany R; Kristine Glunde

    2008-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging of lysosomes will be useful 1) to elucidate the role of lysosomal parameters in cancer, 2) to diagnose malignant lesions, and 3) to evaluate future lysosome-targeted anticancer therapies. Lysosome-specific labeling of glucosamine-bound near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes, IR-1 and IR-2, but not control probe IR-15 without the glucosamine moiety, was observed by fluorescence microscopy in human breast epithelial cell lines. Lysosome labeling and tumor specificity of thes...

  17. The Added Value of Color Parameters in Analyzing Elastographic Images of Ultrasound Detected Breast Focal Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    DUMA, MARIA MAGDALENA; CHIOREAN, ANGELICA RITA; FEIER, DIANA SORINA; FLOREA, MADALINA; CHIOREAN, MARCO; RUSU, GEORGETA MIHAELA; DUDEA, SORIN MARIAN; SFRANGEU, SILVIU ANDREI

    2015-01-01

    Aims The purpose of the study was to determine if the color quantitative analysis obtained on elastographic images of breast lesions could improve the benign-malignant differentiation, and also to identify some of the circumstances which would benefit most from such an analysis. Patients and methods The study design was a longitudinal prospective one, all data being acquired between May 2007 and September 2008. The US device used: Hitachi 8500 EUB machine with elastography option. For suspici...

  18. Imaging results of multi-modal ultrasound computerized tomography system designed for breast diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opieliński, Krzysztof J; Pruchnicki, Piotr; Gudra, Tadeusz; Podgórski, Przemysław; Kurcz, Jacek; Kraśnicki, Tomasz; Sąsiadek, Marek; Majewski, Jarosław

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, in the era of common computerization, transmission and reflection methods are intensively developed in addition to improving classical ultrasound methods (US) for imaging of tissue structure, in particular ultrasound transmission tomography UTT (analogous to computed tomography CT which uses X-rays) and reflection tomography URT (based on the synthetic aperture method used in radar imaging techniques). This paper presents and analyses the results of ultrasound transmission tomography imaging of the internal structure of the female breast biopsy phantom CIRS Model 052A and the results of the ultrasound reflection tomography imaging of a wire sample. Imaging was performed using a multi-modal ultrasound computerized tomography system developed with the participation of a private investor. The results were compared with the results of imaging obtained using dual energy CT, MR mammography and conventional US method. The obtained results indicate that the developed UTT and URT methods, after the acceleration of the scanning process, thus enabling in vivo examination, may be successfully used for detection and detailed characterization of breast lesions in women. PMID:25759234

  19. Digital Processing and Segmentation of Breast Microcalcifications Images Obtained by a Si Microstrips Detector: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Claudia. C.; Angulo, Abril A.

    2007-02-01

    We present the preliminary results of digital processing and segmentation of breast microcalcifications images. They were obtained using a Bede X ray tube with Cu anode, which was fixed at 20 kV and 1 mA. Different biopsies were scanned using a 128 Si microstrips detector. Total scanning resulted in a data matrix, which corresponded with the image of each biopsy. We manipulated the contrast of the images using histograms and filters in the frequency domain in Matlab. Then we intended to investigate about different contour models for the segmentation of microcalcifications boundaries, which were based on the contrast and shape of the image. These algorithms could be applied to mammographic images, which may be obtained by digital mammography or digitizing conventional mammograms.

  20. Diagnostic Performance of Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Non-Calcified Equivocal Breast Findings: Results from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennani-Baiti, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the performance of MRI for diagnosis of breast cancer in non-calcified equivocal breast findings. Materials and Methods We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of peer-reviewed studies in PubMed from 01/01/1986 until 06/15/2015. Eligible were studies applying dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI as an adjunct to conventional imaging (mammography, ultrasound) to clarify equivocal findings without microcalcifications. Reference standard for MRI findings had to be established by histopathological sampling or imaging follow-up of at least 12 months. Number of true or false positives and negatives and other characteristics were extracted, and possible bias was determined using the QUADAS-2 applet. Statistical analyses included data pooling and heterogeneity testing. Results Fourteen out of 514 studies comprising 2,316 lesions met our inclusion criteria. Pooled diagnostic parameters were: sensitivity (99%, 95%-CI: 93–100%), specificity (89%, 95%-CI: 85–92%), PPV (56%, 95%-CI: 42–70%) and NPV (100%, 95%-CI: 99–100%). These estimates displayed significant heterogeneity (P<0.001). Conclusions Breast MRI demonstrates an excellent diagnostic performance in case of non-calcified equivocal breast findings detected in conventional imaging. However, considering the substantial heterogeneity with regard to prevalence of malignancy, problem solving criteria need to be better defined. PMID:27482715

  1. Clinical Application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Management of Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon-Hor Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC, also termed primary, induction, or preoperative chemotherapy, is traditionally used to downstage inoperable breast cancer. In recent years it has been increasingly used for patients who have operable cancers in order to facilitate breast-conserving surgery, achieve better cosmetic outcome, and improve prognosis by reaching pathologic complete response (pCR. Many studies have demonstrated that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can assess residual tumor size after NAC, and that provides critical information for planning of the optimal surgery. NAC also allows for timely adjustment of administered drugs based on response, so ineffective regimens could be terminated early to spare patients from unnecessary toxicity while allowing other effective regimens to work sooner. This review article summarizes the clinical application of MRI during NAC. The use of different MR imaging methods, including dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, proton MR spectroscopy, and diffusion-weighted MRI, to monitor and evaluate the NAC response, as well as how changes of parameters measured at an early time after initiation of a drug regimen can predict final treatment outcome, are reviewed. MRI has been proven a valuable tool and will continue to provide important information facilitating individualized image-guided treatment and personalized management for breast cancer patients undergoing NAC.

  2. Automatic ultrasound image enhancement for 2D semi-automatic breast-lesion segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kongkuo; Hall, Christopher S.

    2014-03-01

    Breast cancer is the fastest growing cancer, accounting for 29%, of new cases in 2012, and second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States and worldwide. Ultrasound (US) has been used as an indispensable tool for breast cancer detection/diagnosis and treatment. In computer-aided assistance, lesion segmentation is a preliminary but vital step, but the task is quite challenging in US images, due to imaging artifacts that complicate detection and measurement of the suspect lesions. The lesions usually present with poor boundary features and vary significantly in size, shape, and intensity distribution between cases. Automatic methods are highly application dependent while manual tracing methods are extremely time consuming and have a great deal of intra- and inter- observer variability. Semi-automatic approaches are designed to counterbalance the advantage and drawbacks of the automatic and manual methods. However, considerable user interaction might be necessary to ensure reasonable segmentation for a wide range of lesions. This work proposes an automatic enhancement approach to improve the boundary searching ability of the live wire method to reduce necessary user interaction while keeping the segmentation performance. Based on the results of segmentation of 50 2D breast lesions in US images, less user interaction is required to achieve desired accuracy, i.e. < 80%, when auto-enhancement is applied for live-wire segmentation.

  3. Cisplatin Prodrug-Conjugated Gold Nanocluster for Fluorescence Imaging and Targeted Therapy of the Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fangyuan; Feng, Bing; Yu, Haijun; Wang, Dangge; Wang, Tingting; Liu, Jianping; Meng, Qingshuo; Wang, Siling; Zhang, Pengcheng; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Theranostic nanomedicine has emerged as a promising modality for cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we report the fabrication of fluorescence gold nanoclusters (GNC) conjugated with a cisplatin prodrug and folic acid (FA) (FA-GNC-Pt) for fluorescence imaging and targeted chemotherapy of breast cancer. The physio-chemical properties of FA-GNC-Pt nanoparticles are thoroughly characterized by fluorescence/UV-Vis spectroscopic measurement, particle size and zeta-potential examination. We find that FA-modification significantly accelerated the cellular uptake and increased the cytotoxicity of GNC-Pt nanoparticles in murine 4T1 breast cancer cells. Fluorescence imaging in vivo using 4T1 tumor bearing nude mouse model shows that FA-GNC-Pt nanoparticles selectively accumulate in the orthotopic 4T1 tumor and generate strong fluorescence signal due to the tumor targeting effect of FA. Moreover, we demonstrate that FA-GNC-Pt nanoparticles significantly inhibit the growth and lung metastasis of the orthotopically implanted 4T1 breast tumors. All these data imply a good potential of the GNC-based theranostic nanoplatform for fluorescence tumor imaging and cancer therapy. PMID:27022415

  4. Task-based strategy for optimized contrast enhanced breast imaging: Analysis of six imaging techniques for mammography and tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikejimba, Lynda C., E-mail: lci@duke.edu [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Kiarashi, Nooshin [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Ghate, Sujata V. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Lo, Joseph Y. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The use of contrast agents in breast imaging has the capability of enhancing nodule detectability and providing physiological information. Accordingly, there has been a growing trend toward using iodine as a contrast medium in digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Widespread use raises concerns about the best way to use iodine in DM and DBT, and thus a comparison is necessary to evaluate typical iodine-enhanced imaging methods. This study used a task-based observer model to determine the optimal imaging approach by analyzing six imaging paradigms in terms of their ability to resolve iodine at a given dose: unsubtracted mammography and tomosynthesis, temporal subtraction mammography and tomosynthesis, and dual energy subtraction mammography and tomosynthesis. Methods: Imaging performance was characterized using a detectability index d{sup ′}, derived from the system task transfer function (TTF), an imaging task, iodine signal difference, and the noise power spectrum (NPS). The task modeled a 10 mm diameter lesion containing iodine concentrations between 2.1 mg/cc and 8.6 mg/cc. TTF was obtained using an edge phantom, and the NPS was measured over several exposure levels, energies, and target-filter combinations. Using a structured CIRS phantom, d{sup ′} was generated as a function of dose and iodine concentration. Results: For all iodine concentrations and dose, temporal subtraction techniques for mammography and tomosynthesis yielded the highest d{sup ′}, while dual energy techniques for both modalities demonstrated the next best performance. Unsubtracted imaging resulted in the lowest d{sup ′} values for both modalities, with unsubtracted mammography performing the worst out of all six paradigms. Conclusions: At any dose, temporal subtraction imaging provides the greatest detectability, with temporally subtracted DBT performing the highest. The authors attribute the successful performance to excellent cancellation of

  5. Task-based strategy for optimized contrast enhanced breast imaging: Analysis of six imaging techniques for mammography and tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The use of contrast agents in breast imaging has the capability of enhancing nodule detectability and providing physiological information. Accordingly, there has been a growing trend toward using iodine as a contrast medium in digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Widespread use raises concerns about the best way to use iodine in DM and DBT, and thus a comparison is necessary to evaluate typical iodine-enhanced imaging methods. This study used a task-based observer model to determine the optimal imaging approach by analyzing six imaging paradigms in terms of their ability to resolve iodine at a given dose: unsubtracted mammography and tomosynthesis, temporal subtraction mammography and tomosynthesis, and dual energy subtraction mammography and tomosynthesis. Methods: Imaging performance was characterized using a detectability index d′, derived from the system task transfer function (TTF), an imaging task, iodine signal difference, and the noise power spectrum (NPS). The task modeled a 10 mm diameter lesion containing iodine concentrations between 2.1 mg/cc and 8.6 mg/cc. TTF was obtained using an edge phantom, and the NPS was measured over several exposure levels, energies, and target-filter combinations. Using a structured CIRS phantom, d′ was generated as a function of dose and iodine concentration. Results: For all iodine concentrations and dose, temporal subtraction techniques for mammography and tomosynthesis yielded the highest d′, while dual energy techniques for both modalities demonstrated the next best performance. Unsubtracted imaging resulted in the lowest d′ values for both modalities, with unsubtracted mammography performing the worst out of all six paradigms. Conclusions: At any dose, temporal subtraction imaging provides the greatest detectability, with temporally subtracted DBT performing the highest. The authors attribute the successful performance to excellent cancellation of inplane structures and

  6. Large-scale computations on histology images reveal grade-differentiating parameters for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsinis Constantine

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor classification is inexact and largely dependent on the qualitative pathological examination of the images of the tumor tissue slides. In this study, our aim was to develop an automated computational method to classify Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E stained tissue sections based on cancer tissue texture features. Methods Image processing of histology slide images was used to detect and identify adipose tissue, extracellular matrix, morphologically distinct cell nuclei types, and the tubular architecture. The texture parameters derived from image analysis were then applied to classify images in a supervised classification scheme using histologic grade of a testing set as guidance. Results The histologic grade assigned by pathologists to invasive breast carcinoma images strongly correlated with both the presence and extent of cell nuclei with dispersed chromatin and the architecture, specifically the extent of presence of tubular cross sections. The two parameters that differentiated tumor grade found in this study were (1 the number density of cell nuclei with dispersed chromatin and (2 the number density of tubular cross sections identified through image processing as white blobs that were surrounded by a continuous string of cell nuclei. Classification based on subdivisions of a whole slide image containing a high concentration of cancer cell nuclei consistently agreed with the grade classification of the entire slide. Conclusion The automated image analysis and classification presented in this study demonstrate the feasibility of developing clinically relevant classification of histology images based on micro- texture. This method provides pathologists an invaluable quantitative tool for evaluation of the components of the Nottingham system for breast tumor grading and avoid intra-observer variability thus increasing the consistency of the decision-making process.

  7. Discrimination of breast microcalcifications using a strain-compounding technique with ultrasound speckle factor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yin-Yin; Li, Chia-Hui; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Chang, King-Jen; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2014-06-01

    The usefulness of breast ultrasound could be extended by improving the detection of microcalcifications by being able to detect and enhance microcalcifications while simultaneously eliminating hyperechoic spots (e.g., speckle noise and fibrocystic changes) that can be mistaken for microcalcifications (i.e., false microcalcifications). This study investigated the use of a strain-compounding technique with speckle factor (SF) imaging to analyze the degree of scatterer redistributions in breast tissues under strain conditions for identifying microcalcifications and false microcalcifications. The efficacy of the proposed method was tested by collecting raw data of ultrasound backscattered signals from 26 lesions at BI-RADS category 4 or 5 with suspicious microcalcifications. The different strain conditions were created by applying manual compression to deform the breast lesion. For each region in which microcalcifications were suspected, estimates of the SNR of the strain-compounding B-scan images and estimates of the mean SF (SFavg) in the strain-compounding SF images were calculated. Compared with microcalcifications, the severity of speckle of the false microcalcifications would be easily degraded under compressive strain conditions. The results demonstrated that the SNR estimates in the strain-compounding B-scan images for microcalcifications and false microcalcifications were 5.22 ± 1.04 (mean ± standard deviation) and 4.62 ± 1.09, respectively; the corresponding SFavg estimates in the strain-compounding SF images were 0.47 ± 0.10 and 0.22 ± 0.10 (p < 0.01). The mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve using the SNR estimate was 0.71, whereas that using the SFavg estimate was 0.94. These findings indicate that the strain-compounding SF imaging method is more effective at discriminating between microcalcifications and false microcalcifications. PMID:24859659

  8. Minimal elastographic modeling of breast cancer for model based tumor detection in a digital image elasto tomography (DIET) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Thomas F.; Muller, Natalie; Hann, Christopher E.; Chase, J. Geoffrey

    2011-03-01

    Digital Image Elasto Tomography (DIET) is a non-invasive breast cancer screening technology that images the surface motion of a breast under harmonic mechanical actuation. A new approach capturing the dynamics and characteristics of tumor behavior is presented. A simple mechanical model of the breast is used to identify a transfer function relating the input harmonic actuation to the output surface displacements using imaging data of a silicone phantom. Areas of higher stiffness cause significant changes of damping and resonant frequencies as seen in the resulting Bode plots. A case study on a healthy and tumor silicone breast phantom shows the potential for this model-based method to clearly distinguish cancerous and healthy tissue as well as correctly predicting the tumor position.

  9. Impact of fibroglandular tissue and background parenchymal enhancement on diffusion weighted imaging of breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacconi, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.iacconi@tin.it [Breast Unit, USL1 Massa-Carrara, Piazza Monzoni 2, Carrara 54033 (Italy); Thakur, Sunitha B., E-mail: thakurs@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Dershaw, David D., E-mail: dershawd@mskcc.org [Department of Radiology – Breast Imaging Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Brooks, Jennifer, E-mail: brooksj@mskcc.org [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 307 East 63rd Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Fry, Charles W., E-mail: charles_fry@nymc.edu [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Morris, Elizabeth A., E-mail: morrise@mskcc.org [Department of Radiology – Breast Imaging Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Aim of the paper is to evaluate if the amount of fibroglandular breast tissue (FGT) and the background enhancement(BPE) influence the detection of lesions and their quantitative analysis in diffusion weighted imaging(DWI) • The structure of the breast, including both FGT and BPE, as well as the menopausal status of the patient are not a relevant factor for lesion identification in DWI. • Quantitative analysis of normal breast is not uniform and is influenced by the amount of fibroglandular tissue,while there is no influence of background parenchymal enhancement. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the influence of the amount of fibroglandular breast tissue (FGT) and background-parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on lesion detection, quantitative analysis of normal breast tissue and of breast lesions on DWI. Materials and methods: IRB approved this retrospective study on focal findings at contrast-enhanced (CE) breast MR and DWI performed during July–December 2011. Patients with cysts, previous irradiation, silicone implants and current chemotherapy were excluded. DWI with fat suppression was acquired before dynamic acquisition (b factors: 0.1000 s/mm{sup 2}) using 1.5 and 3 T scanners. Using correlation with dynamic and T2 images, ROIs were drawn free-hand within the borders of any visible lesion and in contralateral normal breast. Fisher's exact test to evaluate visibility and Wilcoxon-rank-sum test for comparison of ADC values were used. The amount of FGT and BPE was visually assessed by concurrent MRI. Analysis was stratified by menopausal status. Results: 25/127 (20%) lesions were excluded for technical reasons. 65/102 (64%) lesions were visible on DWI (median diameter: 1.85 cm). Mass lesions (M) were more visible (43/60 = 72%) than non-mass enhancement (NME) (22/42 = 52%) and malignant lesions were more visible (55/72 = 76%) than benign (10/30 = 33%). BPE and FGT did not influence visibility of M (p = 0.35 and p = 0.57 respectively) as well

  10. Effect of Sound Speed Profiles in Shallow Sea on Detection Range of Dipping Sonar%浅海声速剖面对吊放声纳探测距离的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲晓慧; 喻荣兵; 邱玮玮

    2011-01-01

    The detection range of dipping sonar is related to not only the equipment performance, but also the environment characteristics and the depth of dipping sonar in the water. In this study, acoustic propagation characteristic of different sound speed profiles in the shallow sea was first set forth, and several kinds of typical sound speed profiles were analyzed by simulating ray trace. Then by modeling and calculating the sonar, underwater acoustic environment and target, the active detection range of dipping sonar of different sound speed profiles is simulated by ray model. At last, the effect of the depth in the water of active dipping sonar on the detection range was analyzed. The result shows that the detection range is different if the depth in the water of active dipping sonar is different in the different sound speed profiles, and the performance of sonar can be well exerted and the targets of different depth can be best detected when finding the optimum detection depth of different sound speed profiles.%吊放声纳的作用距离不仅和自身设备性能有关,还和海洋水声环境特性及吊放声纳入水深度有着密切的关系.本文阐述了浅海不同声速剖面中的声传播特性,通过仿真声线轨迹分析了几种典型的浅海声速剖面对声传播的影响.通过对声纳、水声环境以及目标的模型化计算,利用射线模型仿真了几种不同声速剖面情况下吊放声纳的主动作用距离.分析了吊放声纳入水深度对浅海目标主动作用距离的影响.仿真分析结果表明,不同的声速剖面下,声纳的入水深度不同,它们的探测距离也不同,找到最佳的探测距离对应的入水深度,能够充分发挥声纳自身的性能,得到对各深度目标的最好探测.

  11. Comparison of the diagnostic performances of diffusion parameters in diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging of breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakir, Ozgur, E-mail: cakirozgur@hotmail.com; Arslan, Arzu, E-mail: arzu.s.arslan@gmail.com; Inan, Nagihan, E-mail: nagihaninan@yahoo.com.tr; Anık, Yonca, E-mail: yoncaanik@yahoo.com; Sarısoy, Tahsin, E-mail: htsarisoy@yahoo.com; Gumustas, Sevtap, E-mail: svtgumustas@yahoo.com; Akansel, Gur, E-mail: gakansel@gmail.com

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the diffusion parameters measured by conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for discrimination of malignant breast lesions from benign lesions and the normal breast. Materials and methods: The study included 52 women with 55 breast lesions (30 malignant, 25 benign). DTI and DWI were performed complementary to dynamic contrast MRI at 3T. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of DWI, mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values of DTI were measured for lesions and contralateral breast parenchyma in each patient. We used b factors of 0, 50, 850, 1000 and 1500 s/mm{sup 2} for DWI and b 0 and 1000 s/mm{sup 2} for DTI. ADC, MD and FA values were compared between malignant and benign lesions, and the normal parenchyma by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Diffusion parameters showed no difference according to menopausal status in the normal breast. ADC and MD values of the malignant lesions were significantly lower than benign lesions and normal parenchyma (p = 0.001). The FA showed no statistical significance. With the cut-off values of ≤1.23 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s (b 0–1000 s/mm{sup 2}) and ≤1.12 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s (b 0–1500 s/mm{sup 2}), ADC showed 92.85% and 96.15% sensitivity; 72.22% and 73.52% PPV, respectively. With a cut-off value of ≤1.27 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s (b 1000 s/mm{sup 2}), MD was 100% sensitive with a PPV of 65.90%. Comparing the diagnostic performance of the parameters in DTI with DWI, we obtained similar efficiency of ADC with b values of 0,1000 and 0,1500 s/mm{sup 2} and MD with a b value of 0, 1000 s/mm{sup 2} (AUC = 0.82 ± 0.07). Conclusion: ADC of DWI and MD of DTI values provide significant discriminative factors for benign and malignant breast lesions. FA measurement was not discriminative. Supported with clinical and dynamic contrast MRI findings, DWI and DTI findings provide significant

  12. Predictive model for contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the breast: Is it feasible in malignant risk assessment of breast imaging reporting and data system 4 lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Chen, Ji-Dong; Chen, Qing; Yue, Lin-Xian; Zhou, Guo; Lan, Cheng; Li, Yi; Wu, Chi-Hua; Lu, Jing-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To build and evaluate predictive models for contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) of the breast to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. METHODS: A total of 235 breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) 4 solid breast lesions were imaged via CEUS before core needle biopsy or surgical resection. CEUS results were analyzed on 10 enhancing patterns to evaluate diagnostic performance of three benign and three malignant CEUS models, with pathological results used as the gold standard. A logistic regression model was developed basing on the CEUS results, and then evaluated with receiver operating curve (ROC). RESULTS: Except in cases of enhanced homogeneity, the rest of the 9 enhancement appearances were statistically significant (P biopsy, and provide accurate BI-RADS classification. PMID:27358688

  13. Automated 3D ultrasound image segmentation for assistant diagnosis of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxin; Gu, Peng; Lee, Won-Mean; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Du, Sidan; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L.

    2016-04-01

    Segmentation of an ultrasound image into functional tissues is of great importance to clinical diagnosis of breast cancer. However, many studies are found to segment only the mass of interest and not all major tissues. Differences and inconsistencies in ultrasound interpretation call for an automated segmentation method to make results operator-independent. Furthermore, manual segmentation of entire three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes is time-consuming, resource-intensive, and clinically impractical. Here, we propose an automated algorithm to segment 3D ultrasound volumes into three major tissue types: cyst/mass, fatty tissue, and fibro-glandular tissue. To test its efficacy and consistency, the proposed automated method was employed on a database of 21 cases of whole breast ultrasound. Experimental results show that our proposed method not only distinguishes fat and non-fat tissues correctly, but performs well in classifying cyst/mass. Comparison of density assessment between the automated method and manual segmentation demonstrates good consistency with an accuracy of 85.7%. Quantitative comparison of corresponding tissue volumes, which uses overlap ratio, gives an average similarity of 74.54%, consistent with values seen in MRI brain segmentations. Thus, our proposed method exhibits great potential as an automated approach to segment 3D whole breast ultrasound volumes into functionally distinct tissues that may help to correct ultrasound speed of sound aberrations and assist in density based prognosis of breast cancer.

  14. Application analysis of breast magnetic resonance imaging in occult breast cancer and breast-conserving surgery%乳腺 MRI 在隐匿性乳腺癌和保乳手术中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芹; 马行天; 石岚

    2014-01-01

    目的::探讨乳腺核磁共振成像(MRI)在隐匿性乳腺癌和保乳手术中的应用价值。方法:对120例隐匿性乳腺癌及早期患者进行 MRI 检查,对检查结果进行分析和归纳。结果:入组的58例隐匿性乳腺癌患者 MRI 检查,发现乳腺病灶32例,其中19例经病理证实为原发灶,确诊率为32.7%;入组的62例拟行保乳手术的乳腺癌患者 MRI 检查,有25例发现多中心病灶,其中23例放弃保乳手术。结论:MRI 检查对检出隐匿性乳腺癌原发灶有着有较高的分辨率,对多中心乳腺癌的显示以及明确乳腺癌的保乳适应症,有着重要的临床价值。%Objective: To discuss application values of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in occult breast cancer and breast-conserving surgery. Methods: Breast MRI was performed in 120 grouped patients. The examination results were analyzed and summarized. Results: In the 58 cases of occult breast cancer patients with breast MRI, 32 cases were found with breast lesions, in which 19 cases were confirmed by pathology as the original site; the diagnosis rate was 32. 7% . In the 62 cases of breast cancer being performed breast-conserving surgery with breast MRI, multiple lesions was found in 25 cases, in which 23 cases gave up breast-con-serving surgery. Conclusions: Breast MRI has a higher resolution in finding the primary lesion of occult breast cancer, and has impor-tant value in the display of breast cancers with multicentric lesions and the indication of breast-conserving surgery.

  15. How to measure breast cancer tumoral size at MR imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassin-Naggara, I., E-mail: isabelle.thomassin@tnn.aphp.fr [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Institut Universitaire de Cancérologie (IUC) Pierre et Marie Curie, Cancer Est, Paris (France); Siles, Pascale [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Institut Universitaire de Cancérologie (IUC) Pierre et Marie Curie, Cancer Est, Paris (France); Trop, I. [Department of Radiology, Centre de recherche et d’investigation des maladies du sein (CRID), Hôtel Dieu, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Montréal (CHUM) (Canada); Chopier, J. [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Institut Universitaire de Cancérologie (IUC) Pierre et Marie Curie, Cancer Est, Paris (France); Darai, E. [Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Institut Universitaire de Cancérologie (IUC) Pierre et Marie Curie, Cancer Est, Paris (France); Bazot, M. [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Institut Universitaire de Cancérologie (IUC) Pierre et Marie Curie, Cancer Est, Paris (France); and others

    2013-12-01

    Objective: To compare the accuracy of different MR sequences to measure tumor size. Methods: Eighty-six women (mean age: 53 years (30–78)) who underwent preoperative MRI for breast cancer were included. Maximal diameters of the index tumor (IT) and of the whole extent of the tumor (WET) were measured on T2-weighted (T2W) sequences, on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) T1-weighted (T1W) sequences and on Maximal Intensity Projection (MIP) reconstructions. Agreements with pathological size were evaluated using concordance correlation coefficient (k). Results: Median pathological size of IT was 20 mm (13–25 mm, interquartile range). Median pathological size of the WET was 29 mm (16–50 mm, interquartile range). Measurement of IT showed a good concordance with pathological size, with best results using T2W (k = 0.690) compared to MIP (k = 0.667), early-subtracted DCE frame (k = 0.630) and early-native DCE frame (k = 0.588). IT was visible on T2W in 83.7% and accurately measured within 5 mm in 69.9%. Measurement of WET was superior using early-subtracted DCE frame (k = 0.642) compared to late-native frame (k = 0.635), early-native frame (k = 0.631), late-subtracted frame (k = 0.620) and MIP (k = 0.565). However, even using early-subtracted frame, WET was accurately measured within 5 mm only 39.3%. Conclusion: If visible, IT size is best measured on T2W with a good accuracy (69%) whereas WET is best estimated on early-subtracted DCE frame. However, when adjacent additional sites exist around IT, suspected surrounding disease components need to be proved by pathological analysis.

  16. How to measure breast cancer tumoral size at MR imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the accuracy of different MR sequences to measure tumor size. Methods: Eighty-six women (mean age: 53 years (30–78)) who underwent preoperative MRI for breast cancer were included. Maximal diameters of the index tumor (IT) and of the whole extent of the tumor (WET) were measured on T2-weighted (T2W) sequences, on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) T1-weighted (T1W) sequences and on Maximal Intensity Projection (MIP) reconstructions. Agreements with pathological size were evaluated using concordance correlation coefficient (k). Results: Median pathological size of IT was 20 mm (13–25 mm, interquartile range). Median pathological size of the WET was 29 mm (16–50 mm, interquartile range). Measurement of IT showed a good concordance with pathological size, with best results using T2W (k = 0.690) compared to MIP (k = 0.667), early-subtracted DCE frame (k = 0.630) and early-native DCE frame (k = 0.588). IT was visible on T2W in 83.7% and accurately measured within 5 mm in 69.9%. Measurement of WET was superior using early-subtracted DCE frame (k = 0.642) compared to late-native frame (k = 0.635), early-native frame (k = 0.631), late-subtracted frame (k = 0.620) and MIP (k = 0.565). However, even using early-subtracted frame, WET was accurately measured within 5 mm only 39.3%. Conclusion: If visible, IT size is best measured on T2W with a good accuracy (69%) whereas WET is best estimated on early-subtracted DCE frame. However, when adjacent additional sites exist around IT, suspected surrounding disease components need to be proved by pathological analysis

  17. Breast conserving therapy with accelerated partial breast versus external beam whole breast irradiation: comparison of imaging sequela and complications in a matched population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticciolo, Debra L; Biggs, Kelly; Gist, Ashley K; Sincleair, Spencer T; Hajdik, Rodney L; Nipper, Michael L; Schnitker, James B

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate and compare the imaging sequela and complications of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with those occurring in patients treated with standard external beam therapy. Patient selection included those who met the criteria for possible ABPI: age 45 or older; cancer stage T1N0M0 or ductal carcinoma in situ 3 cm or less, and negative surgical margins. One hundred and ninety seven had complete records and films available for review. Ninety-seven (49%) were treated with APBI (MammoSite) and 100(51%) were treated with external beam. Image findings for APBI versus external beam were: distortion 90(93%) versus 83(83%), seroma 67(69%) versus 7(7%), skin edema 52(54%) versus 47(47%), increased stroma 75(77%) versus 66(66%), calcifications 10(10%) versus 6(6%), and fat necrosis 12(12%) versus 6(6%). For APBI, skin and stromal edema was more commonly focal. At imaging, the seroma rate was statistically and significantly different between the two treatment modes (p < 0.0001). For patients treated with APBI, seroma formation was not related to balloon size and only weakly related to lumpectomy cavity size. The complication rate was significantly higher for those treated with APBI (36 versus 20%) and the types and treatment of complications differed. There were three recurrences among the APBI group and none among those treated with external beam radiation. PMID:21306469

  18. MPGD for breast cancer prevention: a high resolution and low dose radiation medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, R. M.; Cerquera, E. A.; Mañana, G.

    2012-07-01

    Early detection of small calcifications in mammograms is considered the best preventive tool of breast cancer. However, existing digital mammography with relatively low radiation skin exposure has limited accessibility and insufficient spatial resolution for small calcification detection. Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) and associated technologies, increasingly provide new information useful to generate images of microscopic structures and make more accessible cutting edge technology for medical imaging and many other applications. In this work we foresee and develop an application for the new information provided by a MPGD camera in the form of highly controlled images with high dynamical resolution. We present a new Super Detail Image (S-DI) that efficiently profits of this new information provided by the MPGD camera to obtain very high spatial resolution images. Therefore, the method presented in this work shows that the MPGD camera with SD-I, can produce mammograms with the necessary spatial resolution to detect microcalcifications. It would substantially increase efficiency and accessibility of screening mammography to highly improve breast cancer prevention.

  19. Separable and non-separable discrete wavelet transform based texture features and image classification of breast thermograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etehadtavakol, Mahnaz; Ng, E. Y. K.; Chandran, Vinod; Rabbani, Hossien

    2013-11-01

    Highly sensitive infrared cameras can produce high-resolution diagnostic images of the temperature and vascular changes of breasts. Wavelet transform based features are suitable in extracting the texture difference information of these images due to their scale-space decomposition. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of extracted features in differentiating between breast lesions by comparing the two corresponding pectoral regions of two breast thermograms. The pectoral regions of breastsare important because near 50% of all breast cancer is located in this region. In this study, the pectoral region of the left breast is selected. Then the corresponding pectoral region of the right breast is identified. Texture features based on the first and the second sets of statistics are extracted from wavelet decomposed images of the pectoral regions of two breast thermograms. Principal component analysis is used to reduce dimension and an Adaboost classifier to evaluate classification performance. A number of different wavelet features are compared and it is shown that complex non-separable 2D discrete wavelet transform features perform better than their real separable counterparts.

  20. Diffusion-weighted imaging in breast cancer: relationship between apparent diffusion coefficient and tumour aggressiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantini, M.; Belli, P.; Rinaldi, P. [Department of Bio-Sciences and Radiological Imaging, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Bufi, E., E-mail: reagandus@alice.i [Department of Bio-Sciences and Radiological Imaging, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Giardina, G. [Department of Bio-Sciences and Radiological Imaging, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Franceschini, G. [Department of Surgery, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Petrone, G. [Department of Pathology, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Bonomo, L. [Department of Bio-Sciences and Radiological Imaging, Catholic University, Rome (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Aim: To assess the utility of diffusion-weighted imaging in diagnosing and characterizing breast malignancy. Materials and methods: From April 2006 to April 2009, all consecutive patients with breast cancer undergoing breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and subsequent surgery in our hospital were enrolled in this study. MRI was performed using a 1.5 T MRI unit using a dedicated, bilateral, four-channel breast coil. The MRI protocol included a diffusion sequence acquired using b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm{sup 2}. For each malignant lesion the relationships between tumour grade and histology and the relative value of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were analysed. Results: There were 136 female patients with 162 lesions. Histology revealed 149 invasive carcinomas and 13 ductal carcinomas in situ. There were 34 grade 1, 61 grade 2, and 67 grade 3 lesions. The mean ADC value of all malignant lesions was 1.03 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. The mean ADC values for invasive and in situ carcinomas were 1.03 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s and 1.05 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The mean ADC values for grade 1, 2, and 3 tumours were 1.25 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, 1.02 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, and 0.92 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, respectively. A statistically significant (p < 0.001) inverse correlation was disclosed between the ADC value and the tumour grading. The mean ADC value of the 'less aggressive' group of disease (G1 and in situ lesions) was 1.19 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, whereas the mean ADC value of the 'more aggressive' group (G2-G3 invasive carcinomas) was 0.96 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The study confirms the usefulness of diffusion imaging in assessing the aggressiveness of breast tumours. ADC appears to be a promising parameter in the evaluation of the degree of malignancy of breast cancer tissue.

  1. Quantitative analysis of elastography images in the detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative method for breast cancer diagnosis based on elastosonography images in order to reduce whenever possible unnecessary biopsies. The proposed method was validated by correlating the results of quantitative analysis with the diagnosis assessed by histopathologic exam. Material and methods: 109 images of breast lesions (50 benign and 59 malignant) were acquired with the traditional B-mode technique and with elastographic modality. Images in Digital Imaging and COmmunications in Medicine format (DICOM) were exported into a software, written in Visual Basic, especially developed to perform this study. The lesion was contoured and the mean grey value and softness inside the region of interest (ROI) were calculated. The correlations between variables were investigated and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the proposed method. Pathologic results were used as standard reference. Results: Both the mean grey value and the softness inside the ROI resulted statistically different at the t test for the two populations of lesions (i.e., benign versus malignant): p < 0.0001. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.924 (0.834–0.973) and 0.917 (0.826–0.970) for the mean grey value and for the softness respectively. Conclusions: Quantitative elastosonography is a promising ultrasound technique in the detection of breast cancer but large prospective trials are necessary to determine whether quantitative analysis of images can help to overcome some pitfalls of the methodic.

  2. Collimator design for a dedicated molecular breast imaging-guided biopsy system: Proof-of-concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinmann, Amanda L.; Hruska, Carrie B.; Conners, Amy L.; O' Connor, Michael K. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Molecular breast imaging (MBI) is a dedicated nuclear medicine breast imaging modality that employs dual-head cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) gamma cameras to functionally detect breast cancer. MBI has been shown to detect breast cancers otherwise occult on mammography and ultrasound. Currently, a MBI-guided biopsy system does not exist to biopsy such lesions. Our objective was to consider the utility of a novel conical slant-hole (CSH) collimator for rapid (<1 min) and accurate monitoring of lesion position to serve as part of a MBI-guided biopsy system. Methods: An initial CSH collimator design was derived from the dimensions of a parallel-hole collimator optimized for MBI performed with dual-head CZT gamma cameras. The parameters of the CSH collimator included the collimator height, cone slant angle, thickness of septa and cones of the collimator, and the annular areas exposed at the base of the cones. These parameters were varied within the geometric constraints of the MBI system to create several potential CSH collimator designs. The CSH collimator designs were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. The model included a breast compressed to a thickness of 6 cm with a 1-cm diameter lesion located 3 cm from the collimator face. The number of particles simulated was chosen to represent the count density of a low-dose, screening MBI study acquired with the parallel-hole collimator for 10 min after a {approx}150 MBq (4 mCi) injection of Tc-99m sestamibi. The same number of particles was used for the CSH collimator simulations. In the resulting simulated images, the count sensitivity, spatial resolution, and accuracy of the lesion depth determined from the lesion profile width were evaluated. Results: The CSH collimator design with default parameters derived from the optimal parallel-hole collimator provided 1-min images with error in the lesion depth estimation of 1.1 {+-} 0.7 mm and over 21 times the lesion count sensitivity relative to 1-min images

  3. Comparisons of different contrast resolution effects on a computer-aided detection system intended to cluster microcalcifications detected in dense breast images

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Fátima L. S.; Schiabel, Hamero; Escarpinati, Mauricio C.; Góes, Cláudio E.

    2001-01-01

    Clustered microcalcifications, which are frequently an important signal of possible cancer, are usually hidden in dense breast images, adding more difficulty in mammogram medical analysis. In this work we evaluate the performance of a previously developed computer-aided detection scheme, modified for application to dense breast images. The main focus of this investigation was on the effect of different contrast resolutions on the processing performance. We have processed dense breast images d...

  4. Molecular photoacoustic imaging of breast cancer using an actively targeted conjugated polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasundaram G

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghayathri Balasundaram,1,* Chris Jun Hui Ho,1,* Kai Li,2 Wouter Driessen,3 US Dinish,1 Chi Lok Wong,1 Vasilis Ntziachristos,3 Bin Liu,2 Malini Olivo1,41Bio-Optical Imaging Group, Singapore Bioimaging Consortium (SBIC, 2Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR, Singapore; 3Institute of Biological and Medical Imaging, Helmholtz Center Munich, Neuherberg, Germany; 4School of Physics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Conjugated polymers (CPs are upcoming optical contrast agents in view of their unique optical properties and versatile synthetic chemistry. Biofunctionalization of these polymer-based nanoparticles enables molecular imaging of biological processes. In this work, we propose the concept of using a biofunctionalized CP for noninvasive photoacoustic (PA molecular imaging of breast cancer. In particular, after verifying the PA activity of a CP nanoparticle (CP dots in phantoms and the targeting efficacy of a folate-functionalized version of the same (folate-CP dots in vitro, we systemically administered the probe into a folate receptor-positive (FR+ve MCF-7 breast cancer xenograft model to demonstrate the possible application of folate-CP dots for imaging FR+ve breast cancers in comparison to CP dots with no folate moieties. We observed a strong PA signal at the tumor site of folate-CP dots-administered mice as early as 1 hour after administration as a result of the active targeting of the folate-CP dots to the FR+ve tumor cells but a weak PA signal at the tumor site of CP-dots-administered mice as a result of the passive accumulation of the probe by enhanced permeability and retention effect. We also observed that folate-CP dots produced ~4-fold enhancement in the PA signal in the tumor, when compared to CP dots. These observations demonstrate the great potential of this active-targeting CP to be used

  5. Positron emission mammography in breast cancer presurgical planning: comparisons with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, Kathy; The, Juliette; Velasquez, Maria Victoria; Kahn, Simone; Saady, Matthew; Mahal, Ravinder; Chrystal, Larraine [Boca Raton Regional Hospital, Radiology Department, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Narayanan, Deepa [Naviscan, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kalinyak, Judith E. [Naviscan, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the performance characteristics of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission mammography (PEM) with breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a presurgical imaging and planning option for index and ipsilateral lesions in patients with newly diagnosed, biopsy-proven breast cancer. Two hundred and eight women >25 years of age (median age = 59.7 {+-} 14.1 years) with biopsy-proven primary breast cancer enrolled in this prospective, single-site study. MRI, PEM, and whole-body positron emission tomography (WBPET) were conducted on each patient within 7 business days. PEM and WBPET images were acquired on the same day after intravenous administration of 370 MBq of FDG (median = 432.9 MBq). PEM and MRI images were blindly evaluated, compared with final surgical histopathology, and the sensitivity determined. Substudy analysis compared the sensitivity of PEM versus MRI in patients with different menopausal status, breast density, and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) as well as determination of performance characteristics for additional ipsilateral lesion detection. Two hundred and eight patients enrolled in the study of which 87% (182/208) were analyzable. Of these analyzable patients, 26.4% (48/182), 7.1% (13/182), and 64.2% (120/182) were pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal, respectively, and 48.4% (88/182) had extremely or heterogeneously dense breast tissue, while 33.5% (61/182) had a history of HRT use. Ninety-two percent (167/182) underwent core biopsy for index lesion diagnosis. Invasive cancer was found in 77.5% (141/182), while ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and/or Paget's disease were found in 22.5% (41/182) of patients. Both PEM and MRI had index lesion depiction sensitivity of 92.8% and both were significantly better than WBPET (67.9%, p < 0.001, McNemar's test). For index lesions, PEM and MRI had equivalent sensitivity of various tumors, categorized by tumor stage as well as similar invasive

  6. Positive predictive value of additional synchronous breast lesions in whole-breast ultrasonography at the diagnosis of breast cancer: clinical and imaging factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ah Hyun Kim; Min Jung Kim; Eun-Kyung Kim; Byeong-Woo Park; Hee Jung Moon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of bilateral whole-breast ultrasonography (BWBU) for detection of synchronous breast lesions on initial diagnosis of breast cancer and evaluate factors affecting the PPV of BWBU according to varying clinicoimaging factors. Methods: A total of 75 patients who had synchronous lesions with pathologic confirmation at the initial diagnosis of breast cancer during January 2007 and December 2007 were included. The clinical factors of the pa...

  7. On generating cell exemplars for detection of mitotic cells in breast cancer histopathology images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloraidi, Nada A; Sirinukunwattana, Korsuk; Khan, Adnan M; Rajpoot, Nasir M

    2014-01-01

    Mitotic activity is one of the main criteria that pathologists use to decide the grade of the cancer. Computerised mitotic cell detection promises to bring efficiency and accuracy into the grading process. However, detection and classification of mitotic cells in breast cancer histopathology images is a challenging task because of the large intra-class variation in the visual appearance of mitotic cells in various stages of cell division life cycle. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that cells in histopathology images can be effectively represented using cell exemplars derived from sub-images of various kinds of cells in an image for the purposes of mitotic cell classification. We compare three methods for generating exemplar cells. The methods have been evaluated in terms of classification performance on the MITOS dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that eigencells combined with support vector machines produce reasonably high detection accuracy among all the methods.

  8. Modified Bi-Rads Scoring of Breast Imaging Findings Improves Clinical Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Howard; Sheth, Pulin A; Parisky, Yuri R; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda J; Sheth, Sindu; Tripathy, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    In contrast with the reporting requirements currently mandated under the Federal Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA), we propose a modification of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (Bi-Rads) in which a concluding assessment category is assigned, not to the examination as a whole, but to every potentially malignant abnormality observed. This modification improves communication between the radiologist and the attending clinician, thereby facilitating clinical judgment leading to appropriate management. In patients with breast cancer eligible for breast conserving therapy, application of this modification brings to attention the necessity for such patients to undergo pretreatment biopsies of all secondary, synchronous ipsilateral lesions scored Bi-Rads 3-5. All contralateral secondary lesions scored Bi-Rads 3-5 also require pretreatment biopsies. The application of this modification of the MSQA demonstrates the necessity to alter current recommendations ("short-interval follow-up") for secondary, synchronous Bi-Rads 3 ("probably benign") image-detected abnormalities prior to treatment of the index malignancy.

  9. The Diagnostic Value of Superb Microvascular Imaging (SMI) in Detecting Blood Flow Signals of Breast Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Li, Gang; Li, Jing; Ren, Wei-dong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The correlation between color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) and Superb Microvascular Imaging (SMI) for detecting blood flow in breast lesions was investigated, as was the diagnostic value of SMI in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesions. These lesions were evaluated using both CDFI and SMI according to Adler's method. Pathologic examination showed 57 malignant lesions and 66 benign lesions. The number of blood vessels in a single mass was detected by 2 techniques (SMI and CDFI), and the difference between the 2 values (SMI-CDFI) was calculated. The optimal threshold for the diagnosis of malignant neoplasms and the diagnostic performances of SMI, CDFI, and SMI-CDFI were calculated. For the total lesions and malignant lesions alone, the difference between SMI and CDFI for detecting blood flow was significant (P < 0.01), but the difference was not significant for benign lesions (P = 0.15). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64–0.82) for CDFI; 0.81 (95% CI: 0.74–0.89) for SMI; and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82–0.95) for SMI-CDFI. Furthermore, the modality of “SMI-CDFI” showed the best diagnostic performance. SMI provides further microvessel information in breast lesions. The diagnostic modality of “SMI-CDFI” can improve the diagnostic performance of ultrasound in the differentiation between benign and malignant masses. PMID:26356718

  10. Neuroendocrine differentiated breast carcinoma: imaging features correlated with clinical and histopathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenhan-Bilgen, Isil; Ustuen, Esin Emin; Memis, Aysenur [Department of Radiology, Ege University Hospital, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Zekioglu, Osman; Erhan, Yildiz [Department of Pathology, Ege University Hospital, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey)

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the imaging features of neuroendocrine differentiated breast carcinoma (NEDBC) and to correlate the radiological findings with the clinical and histopathological findings. A retrospective review of the mammograms of 1845 histopathologically proven breast cancer cases revealed five NEDBC. The clinical, imaging, and histopathological findings were analyzed. On mammography, a high-density mass was seen in all patients. The shape of the mass was round in 4 and irregular in 1 patient. The margins were spiculated in 2, indistinct in 1, microlobulated in 1, and partially obscured in 1 patient. On sonography, 4 patients had homogeneously hypoechoic masses with normal sound transmission. In 1 patient the mass was heterogeneously hypoechoic with mild posterior acoustic enhancement. The margins were microlobulated in 2, irregular in 2, and well-circumscribed in 1 patient. Neuroendocrine differentiated breast carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of mammographically dense, round masses with predominantly spiculated or lobulated margins. Sonographically, they mostly present as irregular or microlobulated, homogeneously hypoechoic masses with normal sound transmission. (orig.)

  11. Clinical usefulness of breast-specific gamma imaging as an adjunct modality to mammography for diagnosis of breast cancer: a systemic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) as an adjunct modality to mammography for detecting breast cancer. Comprehensive searches of MEDLINE (1984 to August 2012) and EMBASE (1994 to August 2012) were performed. A summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) was constructed to summarize the overall test performance of BSGI. The sensitivities for detecting subcentimetre cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were pooled. The potential of BSGI to complement mammography was also evaluated by identifying mammography-occult breast cancer. Analysis of the studies revealed that the overall validity estimates of BSGI in detecting breast cancer were as follows: sensitivity 95 % (95 % CI 93-96 %), specificity 80 % (95 % CI 78-82 %), positive likelihood ratio 4.63 (95 % CI 3.13-6.85), negative likelihood ratio 0.08 (95 % CI 0.05-0.14), and diagnostic odds ratio 56.67 (95 % CI 26.68-120.34). The area under the SROC was 0.9552 and the Q* point was 0.8977. The pooled sensitivities for detecting subcentimetre cancer and DCIS were 84 % (95 % CI 80-88 %) and 88 % (95 % CI 81-92 %), respectively. Among patients with normal mammography, 4 % were diagnosed with breast cancer by BSGI, and among those with mammography suggestive of malignancy or new biopsy-proven breast cancer, 6 % were diagnosed with additional cancers in the breast by BSGI. BSGI had a high diagnostic performance as an excellent adjunct modality to mammography for detecting breast cancer. The ability to identify subcentimetre cancer and DCIS was also high. (orig.)

  12. Clinical usefulness of breast-specific gamma imaging as an adjunct modality to mammography for diagnosis of breast cancer: a systemic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yu.; Wei, Wei; Yang, Hua-Wei; Liu, Jian-Lun [Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Department of Breast Surgery of Guangxi Cancer Hospital, Nanning, Guangxi (China)

    2013-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) as an adjunct modality to mammography for detecting breast cancer. Comprehensive searches of MEDLINE (1984 to August 2012) and EMBASE (1994 to August 2012) were performed. A summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) was constructed to summarize the overall test performance of BSGI. The sensitivities for detecting subcentimetre cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were pooled. The potential of BSGI to complement mammography was also evaluated by identifying mammography-occult breast cancer. Analysis of the studies revealed that the overall validity estimates of BSGI in detecting breast cancer were as follows: sensitivity 95 % (95 % CI 93-96 %), specificity 80 % (95 % CI 78-82 %), positive likelihood ratio 4.63 (95 % CI 3.13-6.85), negative likelihood ratio 0.08 (95 % CI 0.05-0.14), and diagnostic odds ratio 56.67 (95 % CI 26.68-120.34). The area under the SROC was 0.9552 and the Q* point was 0.8977. The pooled sensitivities for detecting subcentimetre cancer and DCIS were 84 % (95 % CI 80-88 %) and 88 % (95 % CI 81-92 %), respectively. Among patients with normal mammography, 4 % were diagnosed with breast cancer by BSGI, and among those with mammography suggestive of malignancy or new biopsy-proven breast cancer, 6 % were diagnosed with additional cancers in the breast by BSGI. BSGI had a high diagnostic performance as an excellent adjunct modality to mammography for detecting breast cancer. The ability to identify subcentimetre cancer and DCIS was also high. (orig.)

  13. Semi-automatic breast ultrasound image segmentation based on mean shift and graph cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wu, Weiwei; Wu, Shuicai; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Lin, Chung-Chih; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Tianfu

    2014-10-01

    Computerized tumor segmentation on breast ultrasound (BUS) images remains a challenging task. In this paper, we proposed a new method for semi-automatic tumor segmentation on BUS images using Gaussian filtering, histogram equalization, mean shift, and graph cuts. The only interaction required was to select two diagonal points to determine a region of interest (ROI) on an input image. The ROI image was shrunken by a factor of 2 using bicubic interpolation to reduce computation time. The shrunken image was smoothed by a Gaussian filter and then contrast-enhanced by histogram equalization. Next, the enhanced image was filtered by pyramid mean shift to improve homogeneity. The object and background seeds for graph cuts were automatically generated on the filtered image. Using these seeds, the filtered image was then segmented by graph cuts into a binary image containing the object and background. Finally, the binary image was expanded by a factor of 2 using bicubic interpolation, and the expanded image was processed by morphological opening and closing to refine the tumor contour. The method was implemented with OpenCV 2.4.3 and Visual Studio 2010 and tested for 38 BUS images with benign tumors and 31 BUS images with malignant tumors from different ultrasound scanners. Experimental results showed that our method had a true positive rate (TP) of 91.7%, a false positive (FP) rate of 11.9%, and a similarity (SI) rate of 85.6%. The mean run time on Intel Core 2.66 GHz CPU and 4 GB RAM was 0.49 ± 0.36 s. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method may be useful in BUS image segmentation.

  14. Semi-automatic breast ultrasound image segmentation based on mean shift and graph cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wu, Weiwei; Wu, Shuicai; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Lin, Chung-Chih; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Tianfu

    2014-10-01

    Computerized tumor segmentation on breast ultrasound (BUS) images remains a challenging task. In this paper, we proposed a new method for semi-automatic tumor segmentation on BUS images using Gaussian filtering, histogram equalization, mean shift, and graph cuts. The only interaction required was to select two diagonal points to determine a region of interest (ROI) on an input image. The ROI image was shrunken by a factor of 2 using bicubic interpolation to reduce computation time. The shrunken image was smoothed by a Gaussian filter and then contrast-enhanced by histogram equalization. Next, the enhanced image was filtered by pyramid mean shift to improve homogeneity. The object and background seeds for graph cuts were automatically generated on the filtered image. Using these seeds, the filtered image was then segmented by graph cuts into a binary image containing the object and background. Finally, the binary image was expanded by a factor of 2 using bicubic interpolation, and the expanded image was processed by morphological opening and closing to refine the tumor contour. The method was implemented with OpenCV 2.4.3 and Visual Studio 2010 and tested for 38 BUS images with benign tumors and 31 BUS images with malignant tumors from different ultrasound scanners. Experimental results showed that our method had a true positive rate (TP) of 91.7%, a false positive (FP) rate of 11.9%, and a similarity (SI) rate of 85.6%. The mean run time on Intel Core 2.66 GHz CPU and 4 GB RAM was 0.49 ± 0.36 s. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method may be useful in BUS image segmentation. PMID:24759696

  15. Four dimensional optoacoustic imaging of perfusion in preclinical breast tumor model in vivo (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís.; Ermolayev, Vladimir; Mandal, Subhamoy; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Imaging plays an increasingly important role in clinical management and preclinical studies of cancer. Application of optical molecular imaging technologies, in combination with highly specific contrast agent approaches, eminently contributed to understanding of functional and histological properties of tumors and anticancer therapies. Yet, optical imaging exhibits deterioration in spatial resolution and other performance metrics due to light scattering in deep living tissues. High resolution molecular imaging at the whole-organ or whole-body scale may therefore bring additional understanding of vascular networks, blood perfusion and microenvironment gradients of malignancies. In this work, we constructed a volumetric multispectral optoacoustic tomography (vMSOT) scanner for cancer imaging in preclinical models and explored its capacity for real-time 3D intravital imaging of whole breast cancer allografts in mice. Intrinsic tissue properties, such as blood oxygenation gradients, along with the distribution of externally administered liposomes carrying clinically-approved indocyanine green dye (lipo-ICG) were visualized in order to study vascularization, probe penetration and extravasation kinetics in different regions of interest within solid tumors. The use of v-MSOT along with the application of volumetric image analysis and perfusion tracking tools for studies of pathophysiological processes within microenvironment gradients of solid tumors demonstrated superior volumetric imaging system performance with sustained competitive resolution and imaging depth suitable for investigations in preclinical cancer models.

  16. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for prediction of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Juzhong; Fan, Ming; Zheng, Bin; Shao, Guoliang; Zhang, Juan; Li, Lihua

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of women death in the United States. Currently, Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy (NAC) has become standard treatment paradigms for breast cancer patients. Therefore, it is important to find a reliable non-invasive assessment and prediction method which can evaluate and predict the response of NAC on breast cancer. The Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) approach can reflect dynamic distribution of contrast agent in tumor vessels, providing important basis for clinical diagnosis. In this study, the efficacy of DCE-MRI on evaluation and prediction of response to NAC in breast cancer was investigated. To this end, fifty-seven cases of malignant breast cancers with MRI examination both before and after two cycle of NAC were analyzed. After pre-processing approach for segmenting breast lesions and background regions, 126-dimensional imaging features were extracted from DCE-MRI. Statistical analyses were then performed to evaluate the associations between the extracted DCE-MRI features and the response to NAC. Specifically, pairwise t test was used to calculate differences of imaging features between MRI examinations before-and-after NAC. Moreover, the associations of these image features with response to NAC were assessed using logistic regression. Significant association are found between response to NAC and the features of lesion morphology and background parenchymal enhancement, especially the feature of background enhancement in normal side of breast (P=0.011). Our study indicate that DCE-MRI features can provide candidate imaging markers to predict response of NAC in breast cancer.

  17. A computerized global MR image feature analysis scheme to assist diagnosis of breast cancer: a preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qian [College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); Li, Lihua, E-mail: lilh@hdu.edu.cn [College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); Zhang, Juan; Shao, Guoliang [Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, 310010 (China); Zheng, Bin [College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Objectives: To develop a new computer-aided detection scheme to compute a global kinetic image feature from the dynamic contrast enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and test the feasibility of using the computerized results for assisting classification between the DCE-MRI examinations associated with malignant and benign tumors. Materials and Methods: The scheme registers sequential images acquired from each DCE-MRI examination, segments breast areas on all images, searches for a fraction of voxels that have higher contrast enhancement values and computes an average contrast enhancement value of selected voxels. Combination of the maximum contrast enhancement values computed from two post-contrast series in one of two breasts is applied to predict the likelihood of the examination being positive for breast cancer. The scheme performance was evaluated when applying to a retrospectively collected database including 80 malignant and 50 benign cases. Results: In each of 91% of malignant cases and 66% of benign cases, the average contrast enhancement value computed from the top 0.43% of voxels is highe