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Sample records for breast pet imaging

  1. PET imaging in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombardieri, E.; Crippa, F.

    2001-01-01

    The basis of tumour imaging with PET is a specific uptake mechanism of positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals. Among the potential tracers for breast cancer (fluorodeoxyglucose, methionine, tyrosine, fluoro-estradiol, nor-progesterone), 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose labelled with fluorine (FDG) is the most widely used radiopharmaceutical because breast cancer is particularly avid of FDG and 18 F has the advantages of the a relatively long physical half-life. Mammography is the first choice examination in studying breast masses, due to its very good performances, an excellent compliance and the best value regarding the cost/effectiveness aspects. The FDG uptake in tissue correlates with the histological grade and potential aggressiveness of breast cancer and this may have prognostic consequences. Besides the evaluation of breast lesions, FDG-PET shows a great efficacy in staging lymph node involvement prior surgery and this could have a great value in loco-regional staging. Whole body PET provides also information with regard to metastasis localizations both in soft tissue and bone, and plays an important clinical role mainly in detecting recurrent metastatic disease. In fact for its metabolic characteristics PET visualizes regions of enhanced metabolic activity and can complete other imaging modalities based on structural anatomic changes. Even though CT and MRI show superior resolution characteristics, it has been demonstrated that PET provides more accurate information in discriminating between viable tumour, fibrotic scar or necrosis. These statements are coming from the examination of more than 2000 breast cancer detection

  2. CYBPET: a cylindrical PET system for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimian, A. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Nuclear Research Center for Agriculture and Medicine (NRCAM-AEOI), P.O. BOX. (31485-498), Karaj, Iran, Islamic Republic of and Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, University of Rome, La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: akarimian@nrcam.org; Thompson, C.J. [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC (Canada); Sarkar, S. [Medical physics Department of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and (RCSTIM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raisali, G. [Nuclear Research Center for Agriculture and Medicine (NRCAM-AEOI), P.O. BOX. (31485-498), Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pani, R. [Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Davilu, H. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sardari, D. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-06-11

    We propose a Cylindrical Breast PET (CYBPET) system for breast imaging with patients in the prone position. An individual pendulous breast is covered by thin plastic to provide reduced pressure fixation and surrounded by the crystals inside the CYBPET ring. Each breast is imaged separately. The rest of the body is shielded properly to minimize the contribution of scattered photons from the other breast and the rest of the body. To compare the CYBPET with whole-body PET (WB-PET) the simulations of CYBPET and a WB-PET (GE-Advance) for a 10 mm tumor inside the breast with a lesion to background (breast) activity concentration of 6 to 1 were made. The noise effective count rate (NECR) of CYBPET is about twice that of WB-PET at activity concentrations less than 3.1 {mu}Ci/cc. The spatial resolution of CYBPET is better by 25% than the WB-PET.

  3. CYBPET: a cylindrical PET system for breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimian, A.; Thompson, C.J.; Sarkar, S.; Raisali, G.; Pani, R.; Davilu, H.; Sardari, D.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a Cylindrical Breast PET (CYBPET) system for breast imaging with patients in the prone position. An individual pendulous breast is covered by thin plastic to provide reduced pressure fixation and surrounded by the crystals inside the CYBPET ring. Each breast is imaged separately. The rest of the body is shielded properly to minimize the contribution of scattered photons from the other breast and the rest of the body. To compare the CYBPET with whole-body PET (WB-PET) the simulations of CYBPET and a WB-PET (GE-Advance) for a 10 mm tumor inside the breast with a lesion to background (breast) activity concentration of 6 to 1 were made. The noise effective count rate (NECR) of CYBPET is about twice that of WB-PET at activity concentrations less than 3.1 μCi/cc. The spatial resolution of CYBPET is better by 25% than the WB-PET

  4. High resolution PET breast imager with improved detection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw

    2010-06-08

    A highly efficient PET breast imager for detecting lesions in the entire breast including those located close to the patient's chest wall. The breast imager includes a ring of imaging modules surrounding the imaged breast. Each imaging module includes a slant imaging light guide inserted between a gamma radiation sensor and a photodetector. The slant light guide permits the gamma radiation sensors to be placed in close proximity to the skin of the chest wall thereby extending the sensitive region of the imager to the base of the breast. Several types of photodetectors are proposed for use in the detector modules, with compact silicon photomultipliers as the preferred choice, due to its high compactness. The geometry of the detector heads and the arrangement of the detector ring significantly reduce dead regions thereby improving detection efficiency for lesions located close to the chest wall.

  5. Molecular Imaging in Breast Cancer: From Whole-Body PET/CT to Dedicated Breast PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Koolen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET, with or without integrated computed tomography (CT, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG is based on the principle of elevated glucose metabolism in malignant tumors, and its use in breast cancer patients is frequently being investigated. It has been shown useful for classification, staging, and response monitoring, both in primary and recurrent disease. However, because of the partial volume effect and limited resolution of most whole-body PET scanners, sensitivity for the visualization of small tumors is generally low. To improve the detection and quantification of primary breast tumors with FDG PET, several dedicated breast PET devices have been developed. In this nonsystematic review, we shortly summarize the value of whole-body PET/CT in breast cancer and provide an overview of currently available dedicated breast PETs.

  6. ClearPEM: prototype PET device dedicated to breast imaging

    CERN Multimedia

    Joao Varela

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials have begun in Portugal on a new breast imaging system (ClearPEM) using positron emission tomography (PET). The system, developed by a Portuguese consortium in collaboration with CERN and laboratories participating in the Crystal Clear collaboration, will detect even the smallest tumours and thus help avoid unnecessary biopsies.

  7. Combined SPECT/CT and PET/CT for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Paolo [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); Larobina, Michele [Istituto di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Tommaso De Amicis, 95, Naples I-80145 (Italy); Di Lillo, Francesca [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); Del Vecchio, Silvana [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Avanzate, Via Pansini, 5, Naples I-80131 (Italy); Mettivier, Giovanni, E-mail: mettivier@na.infn.it [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy)

    2016-02-11

    In the field of nuclear medicine imaging, breast imaging for cancer diagnosis is still mainly based on 2D imaging techniques. Three-dimensional tomographic imaging with whole-body PET or SPECT scanners, when used for imaging the breast, has performance limits in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity, which can be overcome only with a dedicated instrumentation. However, only few hybrid imaging systems for PET/CT or SPECT/CT dedicated to the breast have been developed in the last decade, providing complementary functional and anatomical information on normal breast tissue and lesions. These systems are still under development and clinical trials on just few patients have been reported; no commercial dedicated breast PET/CT or SPECT/CT is available. This paper reviews combined dedicated breast PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners described in the recent literature, with focus on their technological aspects.

  8. Development of an Anthropomorphic Breast Phantom for Combined PET, B-Mode Ultrasound and Elastographic Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, J; Lecoq, P; Tavernier, S; Lasaygues, P; Mensah, S; Zhang, D C; Auffray, E; Frisch, B; Varela, J; Wan, M X; Felix, N

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Combining the advantages of different imaging modalities leads to improved clinical results. For example, ultrasound provides good real-time structural information without any radiation and PET provides sensitive functional information. For the ongoing ClearPEM-Sonic project combining ultrasound and PET for breast imaging, we developed a dual-modality PET/Ultrasound (US) phantom. The phantom reproduces the acoustic and elastic properties of human breast tissue and allo...

  9. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of breast tumors with MRI and PET/MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinker, K.; Marino, M.A.; Meyer-Baese, A.; Helbich, T.H.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is an indispensable tool in breast imaging for many indications. Several functional parameters with MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) have been assessed for imaging of breast tumors and their combined application is defined as multiparametric imaging. Available data suggest that multiparametric imaging using different functional MRI and PET parameters can provide detailed information about the hallmarks of cancer and may provide additional specificity. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast comprises established MRI parameters, such as dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), MR proton spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRSI) as well as combinations of radiological and MRI techniques (e.g. PET/CT and PET/MRI) using radiotracers, such as fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast can be performed at different field-strengths (range 1.5-7 T). Emerging parameters comprise novel promising techniques, such as sodium imaging ( 23 Na MRI), phosphorus spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRSI), chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) and hyperpolarized MRI as well as various specific radiotracers. Multiparametric and molecular imaging has multiple applications in breast imaging. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast is an evolving field that will enable improved detection, characterization, staging and monitoring for personalized medicine in breast cancer. (orig.) [de

  10. A 16-channel MR coil for simultaneous PET/MR imaging in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dregely, Isabel; Lanz, Titus; Mueller, Matthias F.; Metz, Stephan; Kuschan, Marika; Nimbalkar, Manoj; Ziegler, Sibylle I.; Nekolla, Stephan G.; Schwaiger, Markus; Bundschuh, Ralph A.; Haase, Axel

    2015-01-01

    To implement and evaluate a dedicated receiver array coil for simultaneous positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) imaging in breast cancer. A 16-channel receiver coil design was optimized for simultaneous PET/MR imaging. To assess MR performance, the signal-to-noise ratio, parallel imaging capability and image quality was evaluated in phantoms, volunteers and patients and compared to clinical standard protocols. For PET evaluation, quantitative 18 F-FDG PET images of phantoms and seven patients (14 lesions) were compared to images without the coil. In PET image reconstruction, a CT-based template of the coil was combined with the MR-acquired attenuation correction (AC) map of the phantom/patient. MR image quality was comparable to clinical MR-only examinations. PET evaluation in phantoms showed regionally varying underestimation of the standardised uptake value (SUV; mean 22 %) due to attenuation caused by the coil. This was improved by implementing the CT-based coil template in the AC (<2 % SUV underestimation). Patient data indicated that including the coil in the AC increased the SUV values in the lesions (21 ± 9 %). Using a dedicated PET/MR breast coil, state-of-the-art MRI was possible. In PET, accurate quantification and image homogeneity could be achieved if a CT-template of this coil was included in the AC for PET image reconstruction. (orig.)

  11. Trends in PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, William W.

    2000-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging is a well established method for obtaining information on the status of certain organs within the human body or in animals. This paper presents an overview of recent trends PET instrumentation. Significant effort is being expended to develop new PET detector modules, especially those capable of measuring depth of interaction. This is aided by recent advances in scintillator and pixellated photodetector technology. The other significant area of effort is development of special purpose PET cameras (such as for imaging breast cancer or small animals) or cameras that have the ability to image in more than one modality (such as PET / SPECT or PET / X-Ray CT)

  12. Development of an Anthropomorphic Breast Phantom for Combined PET, B-Mode Ultrasound and Elastographic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jun; Frisch, Benjamin; Lasaygues, Philippe; Zhang, Dachun; Tavernier, Stefaan; Felix, Nicolas; Lecoq, Paul; Auffray, Etiennette; Varela, Joao; Mensah, Serge; Wan, Mingxi

    2011-06-01

    Combining the advantages of different imaging modalities leads to improved clinical results. For example, ultrasound provides good real-time structural information without any radiation and PET provides sensitive functional information. For the ongoing ClearPEM-Sonic project combining ultrasound and PET for breast imaging, we developed a dual-modality PET/Ultrasound (US) phantom. The phantom reproduces the acoustic and elastic properties of human breast tissue and allows labeling the different tissues in the phantom with different concentrations of FDG. The phantom was imaged with a whole-body PET/CT and with the Supersonic Imagine Aixplorer system. This system allows both B-mode US and shear wave elastographic imaging. US elastography is a new imaging method for displaying the tissue elasticity distribution. It was shown to be useful in breast imaging. We also tested the phantom with static elastography. A 6D magnetic positioning system allows fusing the images obtained with the two modalities. ClearPEM-Sonic is a project of the Crystal Clear Collaboration and the European Centre for Research on Medical Imaging (CERIMED).

  13. Development of an Anthropomorphic Breast Phantom for Combined PET, B-Mode Ultrasound and Elastographic Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, J; Tavernier, S; Lasaygues, P; Mensah, S; Zhang, D C; Auffray, E; Frisch, B; Varela, J; Wan, M X; Felix, N

    2011-01-01

    Combining the advantages of different imaging modalities leads to improved clinical results. For example, ultrasound provides good real-time structural information without any radiation and PET provides sensitive functional information. For the ongoing ClearPEM-Sonic project combining ultrasound and PET for breast imaging, we developed a dual-modality PET/Ultrasound (US) phantom. The phantom reproduces the acoustic and elastic properties of human breast tissue and allows labeling the different tissues in the phantom with different concentrations of FDG. The phantom was imaged with a whole-body PET/CT and with the Supersonic Imagine Aixplorer system. This system allows both B-mode US and shear wave elastographic imaging. US elastography is a new imaging method for displaying the tissue elasticity distribution. It was shown to be useful in breast imaging. We also tested the phantom with static elastography. A 6D magnetic positioning system allows fusing the images obtained with the two modalities. ClearPEM-Soni...

  14. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET imaging in breast carcinoma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathekge, Mike; Lengana, Thabo; Modiselle, Moshe; Vorster, Mariza; Zeevaart, JanRijn; Ebenhan, Thomas [University of Pretoria and Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Maes, Alex [University of Pretoria and Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); AZ Groeninge, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Wiele, Christophe van de [University of Pretoria and Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); University Ghent, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2017-04-15

    To report on imaging findings using {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET in a series of 19 breast carcinoma patients. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET imaging results obtained were compared to routinely performed staging examinations and analyzed as to lesion location and progesterone receptor status. Out of 81 tumor lesions identified, 84% were identified on {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC SUVmean values of distant metastases proved significantly higher (mean, 6.86, SD, 5.68) when compared to those of primary or local recurrences (mean, 2.45, SD, 2.55, p = 0.04) or involved lymph nodes (mean, 3.18, SD, 1.79, p = 0.011). SUVmean values of progesterone receptor-positive lesions proved not significantly different from progesterone receptor-negative lesions. SUV values derived from FDG PET/CT, available in seven patients, and {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT imaging proved weakly correlated (r = 0.407, p = 0.015). {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT imaging in breast carcinoma confirms the reported considerable variation of PSMA expression on human solid tumors using immunohistochemistry. (orig.)

  15. 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab PET imaging in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kenji; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Yonemori, Kan; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Junko; Kono, Yuzuru; Honda, Natsuki; Kodaira, Makoto; Yamamoto, Harukaze; Yunokawa, Mayu; Shimizu, Chikako; Hasegawa, Koki; Kanayama, Yousuke; Nozaki, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Wada, Yasuhiro; Tazawa, Shusaku; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the safety, distribution, internal dosimetry, and initial human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive tumor images of (64)Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab in humans. PET was performed on 6 patients with primary or metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer at 1, 24, and 48 h after injection of approximately 130 MBq of the probe (64)Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab. Radioactivity data were collected from the blood, urine, and normal-tissue samples of these 6 patients, and the multiorgan biodistribution and internal dosimetry of the probe were evaluated. Safety data were collected for all the patients after the administration of (64)Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab and during the 1-wk follow-up period. According to our results, the best timing for the assessment of (64)Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab uptake by the tumor was 48 h after injection. Radiation exposure during (64)Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab PET was equivalent to that during conventional (18)F-FDG PET. The radioactivity in the blood was high, but uptake of (64)Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab in normal tissues was low. In 2 patients, (64)Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab PET showed brain metastases, indicative of blood-brain barrier disruptions. In 3 patients, (64)Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab PET imaging also revealed primary breast tumors at the lesion sites initially identified by CT. The findings of this study indicated that (64)Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab PET is feasible for the identification of HER2-positive lesions in patients with primary and metastatic breast cancer. The dosimetry and pharmacologic safety results were acceptable at the dose required for adequate PET imaging.

  16. Integrated PET/MR breast cancer imaging: Attenuation correction and implementation of a 16-channel RF coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehmigen, Mark, E-mail: mark.oehmigen@uni-due.de; Lindemann, Maike E. [High Field and Hybrid MR Imaging, University Hospital Essen, Essen 45147 (Germany); Lanz, Titus [Rapid Biomedical GmbH, Rimpar 97222 (Germany); Kinner, Sonja [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, Essen 45147 (Germany); Quick, Harald H. [High Field and Hybrid MR Imaging, University Hospital Essen, Essen 45147, Germany and Erwin L. Hahn Institute for MR Imaging, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen 45141 (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: This study aims to develop, implement, and evaluate a 16-channel radiofrequency (RF) coil for integrated positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) imaging of breast cancer. The RF coil is designed for optimized MR imaging performance and PET transparency and attenuation correction (AC) is applied for accurate PET quantification. Methods: A 16-channel breast array RF coil was designed for integrated PET/MR hybrid imaging of breast cancer lesions. The RF coil features a lightweight rigid design and is positioned with a spacer at a defined position on the patient table of an integrated PET/MR system. Attenuation correction is performed by generating and applying a dedicated 3D CT-based template attenuation map. Reposition accuracy of the RF coil on the system patient table while using the positioning frame was tested in repeated measurements using MR-visible markers. The MR, PET, and PET/MR imaging performances were systematically evaluated using modular breast phantoms. Attenuation correction of the RF coil was evaluated with difference measurements of the active breast phantoms filled with radiotracer in the PET detector with and without the RF coil in place, serving as a standard of reference measurement. The overall PET/MR imaging performance and PET quantification accuracy of the new 16-channel RF coil and its AC were then evaluated in first clinical examinations on ten patients with local breast cancer. Results: The RF breast array coil provides excellent signal-to-noise ratio and signal homogeneity across the volume of the breast phantoms in MR imaging and visualizes small structures in the phantoms down to 0.4 mm in plane. Difference measurements with PET revealed a global loss and thus attenuation of counts by 13% (mean value across the whole phantom volume) when the RF coil is placed in the PET detector. Local attenuation ranging from 0% in the middle of the phantoms up to 24% was detected in the peripheral regions of the phantoms at

  17. One-Step 18F-Labeling of Estradiol Derivative for PET Imaging of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET imaging is a useful method to evaluate in situ estrogen receptor (ER status for the early diagnosis of breast cancer and optimization of the appropriate treatment strategy. The 18F-labeled estradiol derivative has been successfully used to clinically assess the ER level of breast cancer. In order to simplify the radiosynthesis process, one-step 18F-19F isotope exchange reaction was employed for the 18F-fluorination of the tracer of [18F]AmBF3-TEG-ES. The radiotracer was obtained with the radiochemical yield (RCY of ~61% and the radiochemical purity (RCP of >98% within 40 min. Cell uptake and blocking assays indicated that the tracer could selectively accumulate in the ER-positive human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D. In vivo PET imaging on the MCF-7 tumor-bearing mice showed relatively high tumor uptake (1.4~2.3 %D/g and tumor/muscle uptake ratio (4~6. These results indicated that the tracer is a promising PET imaging agent for ER-positive breast cancers.

  18. Application of PET in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Dong Young

    2002-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an imaging method that employs radionuclide and tomography techniques. Since 1995, we applied PET not only to the diagnosis of breast cancer but also to the detection of abnormalities in the augmented breast and to the detection of metastasis. Until 2001, we evaluated 242 breast cases by PET at PET center of Seoul National University Hospital. Our group has reported serially at the international journals. In the firtst report, PET showed high sensitivity for detecting breast cancer, both the primary and axillary node metastasis. A total of 27 patients underwent breast operations based on PET results at Seoul National University Hospital from 1995 to 1996. The diagnostic accuracy of PET were 97% for the primary tumor mass and 96% for axillary lymph node metastasis. In case of the breast augmented, PET also showed excellent diagnostic results for primary breast cancer and axillary lymph node metastasis where mammography and ultrasound could not diagnose properly. PET also had outstanding results in the detection of recurrent or metastatic breast cancer(sensitivity 94%, specificity 80%, accuracy 89%). In addition, our study gave some evidence that PET could be applied further to evaluate the growth rate of tumors by measuring SUV, and finally to prognosticated the disease. PET could also be applied to evaluate the response after chemotherapy to measure its metabolic rate and size. In conclsion, PET is a highly sensitive, accurate diagnostic tool for breast cancer of primary lesion in various conditions including metastasis

  19. Alpha-v Integrin Targeted PET Imaging of Breast Cancer Angiogenesis and Low-Dose Metronomic Anti-Angiogenic Chemotherapy Efficacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2006-01-01

    ...) To demonstrate the feasibility of PET/18F-RGD to image breast tumor growth spread and angiogenesis as well as quantifying alpha-v integrin expression level during breast tumor neovascularization over time. (3...

  20. Alpha-v Integrin Targeted PET Imaging of Breast Cancer Angiogenesis and Low-Dose Metronomic Anti-Angiogenic Chemotherapy Efficacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2007-01-01

    ...) To demonstrate the feasibility of PET/18F-RGD to image breast tumor growth spread and angiogenesis as well as quantifying alpha v-integrin expression level during breast tumor neovascularization over time. (3...

  1. Dual time point FDG-PET/CT imaging...; Potential tool for diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zytoon, A.A.; Murakami, K.; El-Kholy, M.R.; El-Shorbagy, E.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: This prospective study was designed to assess the utility of the dual time point imaging technique using 2- [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to detect primary breast cancer and to determine whether it is useful for the detection of small and non-invasive cancers, as well as cancers in dense breast tissue. Methods: One hundred and eleven patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent two sequential PET/CT examinations (dual time point imaging) for preoperative staging. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of FDG was measured from both time points. The percentage change in SUVmax (ΔSUVmax%) between time points 1 (SUVmax1) and 2 (SUVmax2) was calculated. The patients were divided into groups: invasive (n = 82), non invasive (n = 29); large (>10 mm; n = 80), small (≤10 mm; n = 31); tumours in dense breasts (n = 61), and tumours in non-dense breasts (n = 50). The tumour:background (T:B) ratios at both time points were measured and the ΔSUVmax%, ΔT:B% values were calculated. All PET study results were correlated with the histopathology results. Results: Of the 111 cancer lesions, 88 (79.3%) showed an increase and 23 (20.7%) showed either no change [10 (9%)] or a decrease [13 (11.7%)] in the SUVmax over time. Of the 111 contralateral normal breasts, nine (8.1%) showed an increase and 102 (91.9%) showed either no change [17 (15.3%)] or a decrease [85 (76.6%)] in the SUVmax over time. The mean ± SD of SUVmax1, SUVmax2, Δ%SUVmax were 4.9 ± 3.6, 6.0 ± 4.5, and 22.6 ± 13.1% for invasive cancers, 4.1 ± 3.8, 4.4 ± 4.8, and -2.4 ± 18.5% for non-invasive cancers, 2.3 ± 1.9, 2.7 ± 2.3, and 12.9 ± 21.1% for small cancers, 5.6 ± 3.7, 6.8 ± 4.8, and 17.3 ± 17.1% for large cancers, 4.9 ± 3.7, 5.8 ± 4.8, and 15.1 ± 17.6% for cancers in dense breast, and 4.5 ± 3.6, 5.4 ± 4.5, and 17.2 ± 19.2% for cancers in non-dense breast. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis

  2. PET/SPECT/CT multimodal imaging in a transgenic mouse model of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisgard, R.; Alberini, J.L.; Jego, B.; Siquier, K.; Theze, B.; Guillermet, S.; Tavitian, B. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Institut d' Imagerie BioMedicale, CEA, 91 - Orsay (France); Inserm, U803, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2008-02-15

    Background. - In the therapy monitoring of breast cancer, conventional imaging methods include ultrasound, mammography, CT and MRI, which are essentially based on tumor size modifications. However these modifications represent a late consequence of the biological response and fail to differentiate scar or necrotic tissue from residual viable tumoral tissue. Therefore, a current objective is to develop tools able to predict early response to treatment. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT) are imaging modalities able to provide extremely sensitive quantitative molecular data and are widely used in humans and animals. Results. - Mammary epithelial cells of female transgenic mice expressing the polyoma middle T onco-protein (Py M.T.), undergo four distinct stages of tumour progression, from pre malignant to malignant stages. Stages are identifiable in the mammary tissue and can lead to the development of distant metastases Longitudinal studies by dynamic whole body acquisitions by multimodal imaging including PET, SPECT and Computed Tomography (CT) allow following the tumoral evolution in Py M.T. mice in comparison with the histopathological analysis. At four weeks of age, mammary hyperplasia was identified by histopathology, but no abnormalities were found by palpation or detected by PET with 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose. Such as in some human mammary cancers, the sodium iodide sym-porter (N.I.S.) in tumoral mammary epithelial cells is expressed in this mouse model. In order to investigate the expression of N.I.S. in the Py M.T. mice mammary tumours, [{sup 99m}Tc]TcO{sub 4} imaging was performed with a dedicated SPECT/CT system camera (B.I.O.S.P.A.C.E. Gamma Imager/CT). Local uptake of [{sup 99m}Tc]TcO{sub 4} was detected as early as four weeks of age. The efficacy of chemotherapy was evaluated in this mouse model using a conventional regimen (Doxorubicine, 100 mg/ kg) administered weekly from nine to

  3. Improved characterization of molecular phenotypes in breast lesions using 18F-FDG PET image homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kunlin; Bhagalia, Roshni; Sood, Anup; Brogi, Edi; Mellinghoff, Ingo K.; Larson, Steven M.

    2015-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using uorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) is commonly used in the assessment of breast lesions by computing voxel-wise standardized uptake value (SUV) maps. Simple metrics derived from ensemble properties of SUVs within each identified breast lesion are routinely used for disease diagnosis. The maximum SUV within the lesion (SUVmax) is the most popular of these metrics. However these simple metrics are known to be error-prone and are susceptible to image noise. Finding reliable SUV map-based features that correlate to established molecular phenotypes of breast cancer (viz. estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression) will enable non-invasive disease management. This study investigated 36 SUV features based on first and second order statistics, local histograms and texture of segmented lesions to predict ER and PR expression in 51 breast cancer patients. True ER and PR expression was obtained via immunohistochemistry (IHC) of tissue samples from each lesion. A supervised learning, adaptive boosting-support vector machine (AdaBoost-SVM), framework was used to select a subset of features to classify breast lesions into distinct phenotypes. Performance of the trained multi-feature classifier was compared against the baseline single-feature SUVmax classifier using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results show that texture features encoding local lesion homogeneity extracted from gray-level co-occurrence matrices are the strongest discriminator of lesion ER expression. In particular, classifiers including these features increased prediction accuracy from 0.75 (baseline) to 0.82 and the area under the ROC curve from 0.64 (baseline) to 0.75.

  4. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of breast tumors with MRI and PET/MRI; Multiparametrische und molekulare Bildgebung von Brusttumoren mit MRT und PET-MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, K. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Division fuer Molekulare und Gender Bildgebung, Wien (Austria); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service, New York (United States); State University of Florida, Department of Scientific Computing in Medicine, Florida (United States); Marino, M.A. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Division fuer Molekulare und Gender Bildgebung, Wien (Austria); Policlinico Universitario G. Martino, University of Messina, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Morphologic and Functional Imaging, Messina (Italy); Meyer-Baese, A. [State University of Florida, Department of Scientific Computing in Medicine, Florida (United States); Helbich, T.H. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Division fuer Molekulare und Gender Bildgebung, Wien (Austria)

    2016-07-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is an indispensable tool in breast imaging for many indications. Several functional parameters with MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) have been assessed for imaging of breast tumors and their combined application is defined as multiparametric imaging. Available data suggest that multiparametric imaging using different functional MRI and PET parameters can provide detailed information about the hallmarks of cancer and may provide additional specificity. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast comprises established MRI parameters, such as dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), MR proton spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRSI) as well as combinations of radiological and MRI techniques (e.g. PET/CT and PET/MRI) using radiotracers, such as fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast can be performed at different field-strengths (range 1.5-7 T). Emerging parameters comprise novel promising techniques, such as sodium imaging ({sup 23}Na MRI), phosphorus spectroscopy ({sup 31}P-MRSI), chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) and hyperpolarized MRI as well as various specific radiotracers. Multiparametric and molecular imaging has multiple applications in breast imaging. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast is an evolving field that will enable improved detection, characterization, staging and monitoring for personalized medicine in breast cancer. (orig.) [German] Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) der Brust ist ein etabliertes nichtinvasives bildgebendes Verfahren mit vielfaeltigen Indikationen. In den letzten Jahren wurden zahlreiche funktionelle MRT- und Positronenemissionstomographie(PET)-Parameter in der Brustbildgebung evaluiert, und ihre kombinierte Anwendung ist als multiparametrische Bildgebung definiert. Bisherige Daten legen nahe, dass die multiparametrische Bildgebung mit MRT und PET

  5. Determining efficacy of breast cancer therapy by PET imaging of HER2 mRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paudyal, Bishnuhari; Zhang, Kaijun; Chen, Chang-Po; Wampole, Matthew E.; Mehta, Neil; Mitchell, Edith P.; Gray, Brian D.; Mattis, Jeffrey A.; Pak, Koon Y.; Thakur, Mathew L.; Wickstrom, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Monitoring the effectiveness of therapy early and accurately continues to be challenging. We hypothesize that determination of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) mRNA in malignant breast cancer (BC) cells by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, before and after treatment, would reflect therapeutic efficacy. Method: WT4340, a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) 12-mer complementary to HER2 mRNA was synthesized together with -CSKC, a cyclic peptide, which facilitated internalization of the PNA via IGFR expressed on BC cells, and DOTA that chelated Cu-64. Mice (n = 8) with BT474 ER +/HER2+ human BC received doxorubicin (DOX, 1.5 mg/kg) i.p. once a week for six weeks. Mice (n = 8) without DOX served as controls. All mice were PET imaged with F-18-FDG and 48 h later with Cu-64-WT4340. PET imaging were performed before and 72 h after each treatment. Standardized uptake values (SUVs) were determined and percent change calculated. Animal body weight (BW) and tumor volume (TV) were measured. Results: SUVs for Cu-64-WT4340 after DOX treatment declined by 54% ± 17% after the second dose, 41% ± 15% after the fourth dose, and 29% ± 7% after the sixth dose, compared with 42% ± 22%, 31% ± 18%, and 13% ± 9% (p < 0.05) for F-18-FDG. In untreated mice, the corresponding percent SUVs for Cu-64-WT4340 were 145% ± 82%, 165% ± 39%, and 212% ± 105% of pretreatment SUV, compared with 108% ± 28%, 151% ± 8%, and 152% ± 35.5%, (p < 0.08) for F-18-FDG. TV in mice after second dose was 114.15% ± 61.83%, compared with 144.7% ± 64.4% for control mice. BW of DOX-treated mice was 103.4% ± 7.6% of pretreatment, vs. 100.1% ± 4.3% for control mice. Conclusion: Therapeutic efficacy was apparent sooner by molecular PET imaging than by determination of reduction in TV

  6. Diagnostic PET Imaging of Mammary Microcalcifications Using 64Cu-DOTA-Alendronate in a Rat Model of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Bradley J; Li, Lin; Ciminera, Alexandra K; Chea, Junie; Poku, Erasmus; Bading, James R; Weist, Michael R; Miller, Marcia M; Colcher, David M; Shively, John E

    2017-09-01

    The development of improved breast cancer screening methods is hindered by a lack of cancer-specific imaging agents and effective small-animal models to test them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate as a mammary microcalcification-targeting PET imaging agent, using an ideal rat model. Our long-term goal is to develop 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate for the detection and noninvasive differentiation of malignant versus benign breast tumors with PET. Methods: DOTA-alendronate was synthesized, radiolabeled with 64 Cu, and administered to normal or tumor-bearing aged, female, retired breeder Sprague-Dawley rats for PET imaging. Mammary tissues were subsequently labeled and imaged with light, confocal, and electron microscopy to verify microcalcification targeting specificity of DOTA-alendronate and elucidate the histologic and ultrastructural characteristics of the microcalcifications in different mammary tumor types. Tumor uptake, biodistribution, and dosimetry studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate. Results: 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate was radiolabeled with a 98% yield. PET imaging using aged, female, retired breeder rats showed specific binding of 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate in mammary glands and mammary tumors. The highest uptake of 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate was in malignant tumors and the lowest uptake in benign tumors and normal mammary tissue. Confocal analysis with carboxyfluorescein-alendronate confirmed the microcalcification binding specificity of alendronate derivatives. Biodistribution studies revealed tissue alendronate concentrations peaking within the first hour, then decreasing over the next 48 h. Our dosimetric analysis demonstrated a 64 Cu effective dose within the acceptable range for clinical PET imaging agents and the potential for translation into human patients. Conclusion: 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate is a promising PET imaging agent for the sensitive and specific detection of mammary tumors as

  7. Diagnostic value of FDG PET-CT for detecting primary breast malignancy: comparison with other image modalities and histopathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Na Young; Lee, Jae Hee; Kim, Chung Ho; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Yong An; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Chung, Soo Kyo; Jung, Sang Seol

    2004-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET-CT in detecting the primary breast malignancy with other imaging modalities and to determine whether detectability of PET-CT depends on any factors such as size, differentiation, or nuclear grade of tumor. We evaluated pathologically proven 66 lesions in 61 patients (26-74 years, mean 46.9) who underwent preoperative PET-CT. Other imaging modalities were also evaluated: mammography in 58, US in 49 and MRI in 16. PET-CT images were visually evaluated and peak and mean SUV of mass were measured. For mammography and US, category 4 and 5 lesions as positive, and category 0-3 lesions as negative. For MRI, we used morphology and dynamic kinetic curve data based scoring system; sum of the scores higher than 10 as positive. Sensitivities of each modality were obtained. We analyzed PET-CT positive and negative groups in relation to size, SUV, differentiation and nuclear grade of tumors using paired t-test and Fisher's exact test. 65 among 66 were malignant lesions: invasive ductal carcinoma (n=56), ductal carcinoma in situ (n=3), tubular carcinoma (n=1), medullary carcinoma(n=3), mucinous carcinoma(n=1) and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (n=1). One lesion was benign lesion. Sensitivities of PET-CT, mammography, US, and MRI for detecting malignant mass were 86.2%, 80.7%, 100% and 94.1% respectively. SUV(P) and SUV(M) in PET-CT positive group (5.28±3.24 and 3.56±2.24) was significantly higher than that of PET CT negative group (1.96±0.35 and 1.46±0.44) [p<0.0001 for both]. The size of the primary mass in PET-CT positive group (2.66±1.47) was significantly larger than that in PET-CT negative group (1.52±0.57) (p=0.0002). The nuclear grade and tumor differentiation were not significantly different between two groups. The sensitivity of the FDG PET-CT in detecting primary breast cancer is lower than those of other imaging modalities. The detectability of the FDG PET-CT might be degraded when the tumor is small in size

  8. An algorithm for longitudinal registration of PET/CT images acquired during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Abramson, Richard G; Arlinghaus, Lori R; Chakravarthy, Anuradha Bapsi; Abramson, Vandana; Mayer, Ingrid; Farley, Jaime; Delbeke, Dominique; Yankeelov, Thomas E

    2012-11-16

    By providing estimates of tumor glucose metabolism, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) can potentially characterize the response of breast tumors to treatment. To assess therapy response, serial measurements of FDG-PET parameters (derived from static and/or dynamic images) can be obtained at different time points during the course of treatment. However, most studies track the changes in average parameter values obtained from the whole tumor, thereby discarding all spatial information manifested in tumor heterogeneity. Here, we propose a method whereby serially acquired FDG-PET breast data sets can be spatially co-registered to enable the spatial comparison of parameter maps at the voxel level. The goal is to optimally register normal tissues while simultaneously preventing tumor distortion. In order to accomplish this, we constructed a PET support device to enable PET/CT imaging of the breasts of ten patients in the prone position and applied a mutual information-based rigid body registration followed by a non-rigid registration. The non-rigid registration algorithm extended the adaptive bases algorithm (ABA) by incorporating a tumor volume-preserving constraint, which computed the Jacobian determinant over the tumor regions as outlined on the PET/CT images, into the cost function. We tested this approach on ten breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. By both qualitative and quantitative evaluation, our constrained algorithm yielded significantly less tumor distortion than the unconstrained algorithm: considering the tumor volume determined from standard uptake value maps, the post-registration median tumor volume changes, and the 25th and 75th quantiles were 3.42% (0%, 13.39%) and 16.93% (9.21%, 49.93%) for the constrained and unconstrained algorithms, respectively (p = 0.002), while the bending energy (a measure of the smoothness of the deformation) was 0.0015 (0.0005, 0.012) and 0.017 (0.005, 0

  9. Texture analysis of high-resolution dedicated breast {sup 18}F-FDG PET images correlates with immunohistochemical factors and subtype of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moscoso, Alexis; Dominguez-Prado, Ines; Herranz, Michel; Argibay, Sonia; Silva-Rodriguez, Jesus [Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela CHUS-IDIS, Nuclear Medicine Department and Molecular Imaging Group, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ruibal, Alvaro [Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela CHUS-IDIS, Nuclear Medicine Department and Molecular Imaging Group, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), Molecular Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Fundacion Tejerina, Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Ferreiro, Anxo [Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela CHUS-IDIS, Pharmacy Department and Pharmacology Group, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Albaina, Luis [University Hospital A Coruna (SERGAS), Department of General Surgery, A Coruna (Spain); Pardo-Montero, Juan [Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela CHUS-IDIS, Nuclear Medicine Department and Molecular Imaging Group, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (CHUS), Medical Physics Department, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aguiar, Pablo [Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela CHUS-IDIS, Nuclear Medicine Department and Molecular Imaging Group, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), Molecular Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2018-02-15

    extracted from high-resolution dedicated breast PET images showed new and stronger correlations with immunohistochemical factors and immunohistochemical subtype of breast cancer compared to whole-body PET. (orig.)

  10. Design of a coincidence processing board for a dual-head PET scanner for breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.D.; Toledo, J.; Esteve, R.; Sebastia, A.; Mora, F.J.; Benlloch, J.M.; Fernandez, M.M.; Gimenez, M.; Gimenez, E.N.; Lerche, Ch.W.; Pavon, N.; Sanchez, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a coincidence processing board for a dual-head Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanner for breast imaging. The proposed block-oriented data acquisition system relies on a high-speed DSP processor for fully digital trigger and on-line event processing that surpasses the performance of traditional analog coincidence detection systems. A mixed-signal board has been designed and manufactured. The analog section comprises 12 coaxial inputs (six per head) which are digitized by means of two 8-channel 12-bit 40-MHz ADCs in order to acquire the scintillation pulse, the charge division signals and the depth of interaction within the scintillator. At the digital section, a state-of-the-art FPGA is used as deserializer and also implements the DMA interface to the DSP processor by storing each digitized channel into a fast embedded FIFO memory. The system incorporates a high-speed USB 2.0 interface to the host computer

  11. PET in management of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung-Chul

    2004-01-01

    Full text: PET provides useful information about tumor metabolism enabling accurate visualization of malignant lesions. Approximately 60-80% suspicious lesions on mammography have benign histology and about 10% of breast cancers with palpable mass are not identified in mammography. The key roles of PET technology in breast cancer are in: primary diagnosis, staging, recurrent diseases monitoring and prediction of therapy response. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for the diagnosis of breast cancer has been reported to be 68-100% and 83-100%, respectively. Considering the increasing number of small breast tumors detected by mammography and false negative results, the clinical relevance of FDG-PET for the primary diagnosis is limited. In selected patients, however, for example with dense breasts, breasts implants, augmented breast or after breast surgery, which can affect the accuracy of mammography, and in cases with equivocal mammography, FDG-PET can provide clinically relevant information. PET accurately determines the extent of disease, including the loco-regional lymph node status. Furthermore, whole-body PET imaging promises a high diagnostic accuracy for detecting recurrent or metastatic breast carcinoma with a high positive predictive value. We studied the usefulness of the FDG-PET in 42 preoperative patients with suspected breast cancer in differentiation of lesions. The diagnostic value of FDG-PET in terms of sensitivity and specificity was 95% and 77% respectively in primary mass while it was 73% and 100% for axillary lymph nodes. PET is much more accurate than other conventional modalities. The sensitivity of FDG-PET for correct staging of axillary nodal status is 84-100%. It has the potential to replace conventional procedures for the staging of distant metastases. We observed the sensitivity and the specificity of FDG-PET to be 96% and 85% to detect distant metastases. FDG-PET may become the method of choice for the early assessment of

  12. Imaging and PET - PET/CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Schulthess, G.K.; Hany, Th.F.

    2008-01-01

    PET/CT has grown because the lack of anatomic landmarks in PET makes 'hardware-fusion' to anatomic cross-sectional data extremely useful. Addition of CT to PET improves specificity, but also sensitivity, and adding PET to CT adds sensitivity and specificity in tumor imaging. The synergistic advantage of adding CT is that the attenuation correction needed for PET data can also be derived from the CT data. This makes PET-CT 25-30% faster than PET alone, leading to higher patient throughput and a more comfortable examination for patients typically lasting 20 minutes or less. FDG-PET-CT appears to provide relevant information in the staging and therapy monitoring of many tumors, such as lung carcinoma, colorectal cancer, lymphoma, gynaecological cancers, melanoma and many others, with the notable exception of prostatic cancer. for this cancer, choline derivatives may possibly become useful radiopharmaceuticals. The published literature on the applications of FDG-PET-CT in oncology is still limited but several designed studies have demonstrated the benefits of PET-CT. (authors)

  13. A virtual clinical trial comparing static versus dynamic PET imaging in measuring response to breast cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangerin, Kristen A.; Muzi, Mark; Peterson, Lanell M.; Linden, Hannah M.; Novakova, Alena; Mankoff, David A.; E Kinahan, Paul

    2017-05-01

    We developed a method to evaluate variations in the PET imaging process in order to characterize the relative ability of static and dynamic metrics to measure breast cancer response to therapy in a clinical trial setting. We performed a virtual clinical trial by generating 540 independent and identically distributed PET imaging study realizations for each of 22 original dynamic fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) breast cancer patient studies pre- and post-therapy. Each noise realization accounted for known sources of uncertainty in the imaging process, such as biological variability and SUV uptake time. Four definitions of SUV were analyzed, which were SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVpeak, and SUV50%. We performed a ROC analysis on the resulting SUV and kinetic parameter uncertainty distributions to assess the impact of the variability on the measurement capabilities of each metric. The kinetic macro parameter, K i , showed more variability than SUV (mean CV K i   =  17%, SUV  =  13%), but K i pre- and post-therapy distributions also showed increased separation compared to the SUV pre- and post-therapy distributions (mean normalized difference K i   =  0.54, SUV  =  0.27). For the patients who did not show perfect separation between the pre- and post-therapy parameter uncertainty distributions (ROC AUC  dynamic imaging outperformed SUV in distinguishing metabolic change in response to therapy, ranging from 12 to 14 of 16 patients over all SUV definitions and uptake time scenarios (p  PET imaging.

  14. HER-2-PET imaging with Zr-89-trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnink, T. Oude; Dijkers, E.; Hooge, M. Lub-de; Kosterink, J.; Brouwers, A.; de Jong, J. R.; van Dongen, G.; de Vries, E.

    2009-01-01

    1045 Background: Non-invasive diagnostic tools can optimize and evaluate HER2 directed therapy in HER2 positive breast cancer patients. HER2 imaging with (111)In-trastuzumab SPECT showed promising results (Perik et al, J Clin Oncol. 2006). To further optimize HER2 imaging, we developed

  15. PET/MR in invasive ductal breast cancer: correlation between imaging markers and histological phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Onofrio Antonio; Horn, Gary Lloyd; Signore, Alberto; Iannace, Carlo; Lepore, Maria; Vangel, Mark; Luongo, Angelo; Catalano, Marco; Lehman, Constance; Salvatore, Marco; Soricelli, Andrea; Catana, Ciprian; Mahmood, Umar; Rosen, Bruce Robert

    2017-03-28

    Differences in genetics and receptor expression (phenotypes) of invasive ductal breast cancer (IDC) impact on prognosis and treatment response. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), the most used technique for IDC phenotyping, has some limitations including its invasiveness. We explored the possibility of contrast-enhanced positron emission tomography magnetic resonance (CE-FDG PET/MR) to discriminate IDC phenotypes. 21 IDC patients with IHC assessment of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2), and antigen Ki-67 (Ki67) underwent CE-FDG PET/MR. Magnetic resonance-perfusion biomarkers, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and standard uptake value (SUV) were compared with IHC markers and phenotypes, using a Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA. ER/PR- tumours demonstrated higher Kep mean and SUV max than ER or PR+ tumours. HER2- tumours displayed higher ADC mean , Kep mean , and SUV max than HER2+tumours. Only ADC mean discriminated Ki67⩽14% tumours (lower ADC mean ) from Ki67>14% tumours. PET/MR biomarkers correlated with IHC phenotype in 13 out of 21 patients (62%; P=0.001). Positron emission tomography magnetic resonance might non-invasively help discriminate IDC phenotypes, helping to optimise individual therapy options.

  16. Functional imaging of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer using (64)Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Joanne E; Bading, James R; Colcher, David M; Conti, Peter S; Frankel, Paul H; Carroll, Mary I; Tong, Shan; Poku, Erasmus; Miles, Joshua K; Shively, John E; Raubitschek, Andrew A

    2014-01-01

    between the 2 radiotracers. No toxicities were observed, and estimated radiation dose from (64)Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab was similar to (18)F-FDG. (64)Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab visualizes HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer with high sensitivity and is effective in surveying disseminated disease. A 45-mg trastuzumab predose provides a (64)Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab biodistribution favorable for tumor imaging. (64)Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab PET/CT warrants further evaluation for assessing tumor HER2 expression and individualizing treatments that include trastuzumab.

  17. Quantification of FDG-PET/CT with delayed imaging in patients with newly diagnosed recurrent breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baun, Christina; Falch, Kirsten; Gerke, Oke; Hansen, Jeanette; Nguyen, Tram; Alavi, Abass; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul-Flemming; Hildebrandt, Malene G

    2018-05-09

    Several studies have shown the advantage of delayed-time-point imaging with 18F-FDG-PET/CT to distinguish malignant from benign uptake. This may be relevant in cancer diseases with low metabolism, such as breast cancer. We aimed at examining the change in SUV from 1 h (1h) to 3 h (3h) time-point imaging in local and distant lesions in patients with recurrent breast cancer. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of partial volume correction in the different types of metastases, using semi-automatic quantitative software (ROVER™). One-hundred and two patients with suspected breast cancer recurrence underwent whole-body PET/CT scans 1h and 3h after FDG injection. Semi-quantitative standardised uptake values (SUVmax, SUVmean) and partial volume corrected SUVmean (cSUVmean), were estimated in malignant lesions, and as reference in healthy liver tissue. The change in quantitative measures from 1h to 3h was calculated, and SUVmean was compared to cSUVmean. Metastases were verified by biopsy. Of the 102 included patients, 41 had verified recurrent disease with in median 15 lesions (range 1-70) amounting to a total of 337 malignant lesions included in the analysis. SUVmax of malignant lesions increased from 6.4 ± 3.4 [0.9-19.7] (mean ± SD, min and max) at 1h to 8.1 ± 4.4 [0.7-29.7] at 3h. SUVmax in breast, lung, lymph node and bone lesions increased significantly (p < 0.0001) between 1h and 3h by on average 25, 40, 33, and 27%, respectively. A similar pattern was observed with (uncorrected) SUVmean. Partial volume correction increased SUVmean significantly, by 63 and 71% at 1h and 3h imaging, respectively. The highest impact was in breast lesions at 3h, where cSUVmean increased by 87% compared to SUVmean. SUVs increased from 1h to 3h in malignant lesions, SUVs of distant recurrence were in general about twice as high as those of local recurrence. Partial volume correction caused significant increases in these values. However, it is questionable, if

  18. Oncology PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inubushi, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    At the beginning of this article, likening medical images to 'Where is Waldo?' I indicate the concept of diagnostic process of PET/CT imaging, so that medical physics specialists could understand the role of each imaging modality and infer our distress for image diagnosis. Then, I state the present situation of PET imaging and the basics (e.g. health insurance coverage, clinical significance, principle, protocol, and pitfall) of oncology FDG-PET imaging which accounts for more than 99% of all clinical PET examinations in Japan. Finally, I would like to give a wishful prospect of oncology PET that will expand to be more cancer-specific in order to assess therapeutic effects of emerging molecular targeted drugs targeting the 'hallmarks of cancer'. (author)

  19. Imaging with PET system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Noreen Norfaraheen Lee Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    PET deals with biochemistry and metabolic changes that occur at molecular level. Hence, PET differs fundamentally from other imaging modalities. CT imaging is based on tissue density, whereas MRI conveys anatomic information based on proton density and proton relaxation dynamics. CT and MRI are useful in clinical diagnosis only when disease process has caused significant anatomic alterations. However, in most disease conditions chemical changes precede anatomic changes, that can be detected by PET technology. Thus, PET can provide earliest and unique information about ongoing disease process long before anatomic or structural changes take place. There is no other modality available at present that can replace PET technology. Although PET produces cross-sectional images like that obtained in MRI or CT, they represent circulation, function and metabolism, and not anatomic structure. PET is extremely sensitive measuring quantitatively concentration of tracers in nano to pico-molar range. Thus, PET enables merger of biochemistry and biology in medicine giving birth to molecular medicine that focuses on identifying the molecular errors of disease leading to developing molecular corrections including gene therapy. Molecular imaging with PET has been playing a role in examining the biological nature of a disease condition and its characterization to guide selection and evaluation of treatment. (author)

  20. Initial clinical test of a breast-PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Koren, Courtney; Schreiman, Judith S.; Majewski, Stan; Marano, Gary D.; Abraham, Jame; Kurian, Sobha; Hazard, Hannah; Filburn, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this initial clinical study was to test a new positron emission/tomography imager and biopsy system (PEM/PET) in a small group of selected subjects to assess its clinical imaging capabilities. Specifically, the main task of this study is to determine whether the new system can successfully be used to produce images of known breast cancer and compare them to those acquired by standard techniques. The PEM/PET system consists of two pairs of rotating radiation detectors located beneath a patient table. The scanner has a spatial resolution of ∼2 mm in all three dimensions. The subjects consisted of five patients diagnosed with locally advanced breast cancer ranging in age from 40 to 55 years old scheduled for pre-treatment, conventional whole body PET imaging with F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). The primary lesions were at least 2 cm in diameter. The images from the PEM/PET system demonstrated that this system is capable of identifying some lesions not visible in standard mammograms. Furthermore, while the relatively large lesions imaged in this study where all visualised by a standard whole body PET/CT scanner, some of the morphology of the tumours (ductal infiltration, for example) was better defined with the PEM/PET system. Significantly, these images were obtained immediately following a standard whole body PET scan. The initial testing of the new PEM/PET system demonstrated that the new system is capable of producing good quality breast-PET images compared standard methods.

  1. The value of delayed 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging for differentiating axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Young Sik; Son, Ju Cheol; Park, Cheol Woo

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) have been used as a powerful fusion modality in nuclear medicine not only for detecting cancer but also for staging and therapy monitoring. Nevertheless, there are various causes of FDG uptake in normal and/or benign tissues. The purpose of present study was to investigate whether additional delayed imaging can improve the diagnosis to differentiate the rates of FDG uptake at axillary lymph nodes (ALN) between malignant and benign in breast cancer patients. 180 PET/CT images were obtained for 27 patients with ALN uptake. The patients who had radiotherapy and chemotherapy were excluded from the study. 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan at 50 min (early phase) and 90 min (delayed phase) after 18 F-FDG injection were included in this retrospective study. The staging of cancers was confirmed by final clinical according to radiologic follow-up and pathologic findings. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of ALN was measured at the Syngo Acquisition Workplace by Siemens. The 27 patients included 18 malignant and 9 ALN benign groups and the 18 malignant groups were classified into the 3 groups according to number of metastatic ALN in each patient. ALNs were categorized less than or equal 3 as N1, between 4 to 9 as N2 and more than 10 as N3 group. Results are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation (S.D.) and statistically analyzed by SPSS. As a result, Retention index (RI-SUV max) in metastasis was significantly higher than that in non-metastasis about 5 fold increased. On the other hand, RI-SUV max in N group tended to decrease gradually from N1 to N3. However, we could not prove significance statistically in malignant group with ANOVA. As a consequence, RI-SUV max was good indicator for differentiating ALN positive group from node negative group in breast cancer patients. These results show that dual-time-point scan appears to be useful in distinguishing malignant from benign

  2. Clear-PEM: A PET imaging system dedicated to breast cancer diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, M C; Albuquerque, E; Almeida, F G; Almeida, P; Amaral, P; Auffray, Etiennette; Bento, P; Bruyndonckx, P; Bugalho, R; Carriço, B; Cordeiro, H; Ferreira, M; Ferreira, N C; Gonçalves, F; Lecoq, Paul; Leong, C; Lopes, F; Lousã, P; Luyten, J; Martins, M V; Matela, N; Rato-Mendes, P; Moura, R; Nobre, J; Oliveira, N; Ortigão, C; Peralta, L; Rego, J; Ribeiro, R; Rodrigues, P; Santos, A I; Silva, J C; Silva, M M; Tavernier, Stefaan; Teixeira, I C; Texeira, J P; Trindade, A; Trummer, Julia; Varela, J

    2007-01-01

    The Clear-PEM scanner for positron emission mammography under development is described. The detector is based on pixelized LYSO crystals optically coupled to avalanche photodiodes and readout by a fast low-noise electronic system. A dedicated digital trigger (TGR) and data acquisition (DAQ) system is used for on-line selection of coincidence events with high efficiency, large bandwidth and small dead-time. A specialized gantry allows to perform exams of the breast and of the axilla. In this paper we present results of the measurement of detector modules that integrate the system under construction as well as the imaging performance estimated from Monte Carlo simulated data.

  3. Comparison of diffusion-weighted MR imaging and FDG PET/CT to predict pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Hee; Moon, Woo Kyung; Cho, Nariya; Chang, Jung Min; Im, Seock-Ah; Park, In Ae; Kang, Keon Wook; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young

    2012-01-01

    To compare the use of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) and 18 F-FDG PET/CT to predict pathological complete response (pCR) in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Thirty-four women with 34 invasive breast cancers underwent DWI and PET/CT before and after chemotherapy and before surgery. The percentage changes in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the standardised uptake value (SUV) were calculated, and the diagnostic performances for predicting pCR were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. After surgery, 7/34 patients (20.6%) were found to have pCR. A z values for DWI, PET/CT and the combined use of DWI and PET/CT were 0.910, 0.873 and 0.944, respectively. The best cut-offs for differentiating pCR from non-pCR were a 54.9% increase in the ADC and a 63.9% decrease in the SUV. DWI showed 100% (7/7) sensitivity and 70.4% (19/27) specificity and PET/CT showed 100% sensitivity and 77.8% (21/27) specificity. When DWI and PET/CT were combined, there was a trend towards improved specificity compared with DWI. DWI and FDG PET/CT show similar diagnostic accuracy for predicting pCR to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. The combined use of DWI and FDG PET/CT has the potential to improve specificity in predicting pCR. (orig.)

  4. (64)Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab PET imaging and HER2 specificity of brain metastases in HER2-positive breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Hiroaki; Hamada, Akinobu; Yoshida, Masayuki; Shimma, Schuichi; Hashimoto, Jun; Yonemori, Kan; Tani, Hitomi; Miyakita, Yasuji; Kanayama, Yousuke; Wada, Yasuhiro; Kodaira, Makoto; Yunokawa, Mayu; Yamamoto, Harukaze; Shimizu, Chikako; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether brain metastases from HER2-positive breast cancer could be detected noninvasively using positron emission tomography (PET) with (64)Cu-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-trastuzumab. PET was performed on five patients with brain metastases from HER2-positive breast cancer, at 24 or 48 h after the injection of approximately 130 MBq of the probe (64)Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab. Radioactivity in metastatic brain tumors was evaluated based on PET images in five patients. Autoradiography, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis were performed in one surgical case to confirm HER2 specificity of (64)Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab. Metastatic brain lesions could be visualized by (64)Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab PET in all of five cases, which might indicated that trastuzumab passes through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The HER2 specificity of (64)Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab was demonstrated in one patient by autoradiography, immunohistochemistry, and LC-MS/MS. Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab PET could be a potential noninvasive procedure for serial identification of metastatic brain lesions in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. UMIN000004170.

  5. Optimized production, quality control, biological evaluation and PET/CT imaging of {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-617 in breast adenocarcinoma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi, Mehdi; Yousefnia, Hassan; Bahrami-Samani, Ali; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Alirezapour, Behrouz [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalilian, Amir Reza; Geramifa, Parham; Beiki, Davood [Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Research Center for Nuclear Medicine; Maus, Stephan [Univ. Medical Centre Mainz (Germany). Clinic of Nuclear Medicine

    2017-08-01

    Optimized production, quality control and preclinical evaluation of {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-617 as a PET radiotracer for PSMA-positive malignancies as well as successful application in imaging of breast adenocarcinomas are reported. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-617 radiolabeling and QC optimization, stability, log P, biodistribution in breast adenocarcinomas-bearing mice (direct and blockade studies) and also PET/CT imaging was performed. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-617 complex was prepared in high radiochemical purity (>96%, ITLC, HPLC) and specific activity of 300-310 GBq/mM at 95 C using 2-4 micrograms of the peptide in 10 min followed by solid phase purification. The tracer was stable in serum and final formulation for at least 120 min. The log P was -1.98. Western blot test on the tumor cell homogenates demonstrated distinct existence of the PSMA on the surface. The biodistribution of the tracer demonstrated specific kidney and tumor significant uptake using blocking study. Significant tumor:blood and tumor:muscle ratio uptake observed at 30 min post-injection (2.69 and 19.1, respectively). A reduction of 40-80% off tumor uptake in the study time period observed using blocking test. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-617 can be proposing a possible tracer for PET imaging of breast adenocarcinomas and other breast malignancies.

  6. Multi-modality PET-CT imaging of breast cancer in an animal model using nanoparticle x-ray contrast agent and 18F-FDG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, C. T.; Ghaghada, K.; Espinosa, G.; Strong, L.; Annapragada, A.

    2011-03-01

    Multi-modality PET-CT imaging is playing an important role in the field of oncology. While PET imaging facilitates functional interrogation of tumor status, the use of CT imaging is primarily limited to anatomical reference. In an attempt to extract comprehensive information about tumor cells and its microenvironment, we used a nanoparticle xray contrast agent to image tumor vasculature and vessel 'leakiness' and 18F-FDG to investigate the metabolic status of tumor cells. In vivo PET/CT studies were performed in mice implanted with 4T1 mammary breast cancer cells.Early-phase micro-CT imaging enabled visualization 3D vascular architecture of the tumors whereas delayedphase micro-CT demonstrated highly permeable vessels as evident by nanoparticle accumulation within the tumor. Both imaging modalities demonstrated the presence of a necrotic core as indicated by a hypo-enhanced region in the center of the tumor. At early time-points, the CT-derived fractional blood volume did not correlate with 18F-FDG uptake. At delayed time-points, the tumor enhancement in 18F-FDG micro-PET images correlated with the delayed signal enhanced due to nanoparticle extravasation seen in CT images. The proposed hybrid imaging approach could be used to better understand tumor angiogenesis and to be the basis for monitoring and evaluating anti-angiogenic and nano-chemotherapies.

  7. PET Imaging on Dynamic Metabolic Changes after Combination Therapy of Paclitaxel and the Traditional Chinese Medicine in Breast Cancer-Bearing Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Wang, Ling; Liu, Hao; Song, Fahuan; Xu, Caiyun; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Qing; Wu, Shuang; Zhu, Yunqi; Dong, Ying; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to non-invasively evaluate the anticancer activity of a traditional Chinese medicine-Huaier, combined with paclitaxel (PTX) in breast cancer bearing mice by detecting dynamic metabolic changes with positron emission tomography (PET). Balb/c nude mice were randomly divided into one of the four groups: Huaier, PTX, PTX + Huaier, or the control. PET imaging with 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose ([ 18 F]FDG) was performed to monitor the metabolic changes in BT474 (luminal B) and MDA-MB-231 (triple-negative) breast cancer xenografts. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) study was performed immediately after the final PET scan to assess the expressions of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phospho-AKT (p-AKT), caspase-3, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Compared to the control group, [ 18 F]FDG accumulation demonstrated a significant decrease in PTX + Huaier (p PET imaging could be a potential non-invasive approach to assess the metabolic changes after chemotherapy combined with traditional Chinese medicine in the breast cancer.

  8. Improved detection of breast cancer on FDG-PET cancer screening using breast positioning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaida, Hayato; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Fujii, Teruhiko; Kurata, Seiji; Ogo, Etsuyo; Hayabuchi, Naofumi; Tanaka, Maki

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of breast cancer by positron emission tomography cancer screening using a breast positioning device. Between January 2004 and January 2006, 1,498 healthy asymptomatic individuals underwent cancer screening by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) at our institution; 660 of 1498 asymptomatic healthy women underwent breast PET imaging in the prone position using the breast positioning device to examine the mammary glands in addition to whole-body PET imaging. All subjects that showed abnormal 18 F-FDG uptake in the mammary glands were referred for further examination or surgery at our institution or a local hospital. Our data were compared with the histopathological findings or findings of other imaging modalities in our institution and replies from the doctors at another hospital. Of the 660 participants, 7 (1.06%) were found to have breast cancers at a curable stage. All the seven cancers were detected by breast PET imaging, but only five of these were detected by whole-body PET imaging; the other two were detected by breast PET imaging using the breast positioning device. In cancer screening, prone breast imaging using a positioning device may help to improve the detection rate of breast cancer. However, overall cancer including mammography and ultrasonography screening should be performed to investigate the false-negative cases and reduce false-positive cases. The effectiveness of prone breast PET imaging in cancer screening should be investigated using a much larger number of cases in the near future. (author)

  9. PET imaging of inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscombe, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases are common place and often chronic. Most inflammatory cells have increased uptake of glucose which is enhanced in the presence of local cytokines. Therefore, imaging glucose metabolism by the means of 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) holds significant promise in imaging focal inflammation. Most of the work published involved small series of patients with either vasculitis, sarcoid or rheumatoid arthritis. It would appear that FDG PET is a simple and effective technique to identify inflammatory tissue in these conditions. There is even some work to suggest that by comparing baseline and early post therapy scans clinical outcome can be predicted. This would appear to be true with vasculitis as well as retroperitoneal fibrosis. The number of patients in each study is small but the evidence is compelling enough to recommend FDG PET imaging in the routine care of these patients.

  10. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: prediction of pathologic response with PET/CT and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging--prospective assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Ukihide; Miyake, Mototaka; Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Terauchi, Takashi; Kubota, Kazunori; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Macapinlac, Homer A

    2012-04-01

    To clarify whether fluorine 18 ((18)F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging performed after two cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) can be used to predict pathologic response in breast cancer. Institutional human research committee approval and written informed consent were obtained. Accuracy after two cycles of NAC for predicting pathologic complete response (pCR) was examined in 142 women (mean age, 57 years: range, 43-72 years) with histologically proved breast cancer between December 2005 and February 2009. Quantitative PET/CT and DCE MR imaging were performed at baseline and after two cycles of NAC. Parameters of PET/CT and of blood flow and microvascular permeability at DCE MR were compared with pathologic response. Patients were also evaluated after NAC by using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 based on DCE MR measurements and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria and PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (PERCIST) 1.0 based on PET/CT measurements. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine continuous variables at PET/CT and DCE MR to predict pCR, and diagnostic accuracies were compared with the McNemar test. Significant decrease from baseline of all parameters at PET/CT and DCE MR was observed after NAC. Therapeutic response was obtained in 24 patients (17%) with pCR and 118 (83%) without pCR. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy to predict pCR were 45.5%, 85.5%, and 82.4%, respectively, with RECIST and 70.4%, 95.7%, and 90.8%, respectively, with EORTC and PERCIST. Multiple logistic regression revealed three significant independent predictors of pCR: percentage maximum standardized uptake value (%SUV(max)) (odds ratio [OR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11, 1.34; P PET/CT is superior to DCE MR for the prediction of pCR (%SUV(max) [90.1%] vs %κ

  11. Predictive and prognostic value of FDG-PET/CT imaging and different response evaluation criteria after primary systemic therapy of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tőkés, Tímea; Kajáry, Kornélia; Szentmártoni, Gyöngyvér; Lengyel, Zsolt; Györke, Tamás; Torgyík, László; Somlai, Krisztián; Tőkés, Anna-Mária; Kulka, Janina; Dank, Magdolna

    2017-01-01

    (1) To predict pathological complete remission (pCR) and survival after primary systemic therapy (PST) in patients diagnosed with breast cancer by using two different PET/CT based scores: a simplified PERCIST-based PET/CT score (Method 1) and a combined PET/CT score supplemented with the morphological results of the RECIST system (Method 2) and (2) to assess the effect of different breast carcinoma subtypes on tumor response and its evaluation. Eighty-eight patients were enrolled in the study who underwent PET/CT imaging before and after PST. PET/CTs were evaluated by changes in maximum Standardized Uptake Value (SUVmax) and tumor size. Method 1 and 2 were applied to predict pathological complete remission (pCR). Kaplan-Meier analyses for survival were performed. Classification into biological subtypes was performed based on the pre-therapeutic tumor characteristics. A total of 30/88 patients showed pCR (34.1 %). Comparing pCR/non-pCR patient groups, significant differences were detected by changes in SUVmax (p evaluation with Method 2 and not with Method 1. In our study, neither clinical nor pathological CR were predictors of longer progression-free survival. Our results suggest that combined PET/CT criteria are more predictive of pCR. The effect of biological subtypes is significant on pCR rate as well as on the changes in FDG-uptake and morphological tumor response. Response evaluation with combined criteria was also able to reflect the differences between the biological behavior of breast tumor subtypes.

  12. Comprehensive imaging of tumor recurrence in breast cancer patients using whole-body MRI at 1.5 and 3 T compared to FDG-PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Gerwin P. [Institute of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals Munich-Grosshadern, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany)], E-mail: gerwin.schmidt@med.uni-muenchen.de; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea [Institute of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals Munich-Grosshadern, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Haug, Alexander [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospitals Munich-Grosshadern, 81377 Munich (Germany); Heinemann, Volker [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospitals Munich-Grosshadern, 81377 Munich (Germany); Bauerfeind, Ingo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospitals Munich-Grosshadern, 81377 Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [Institute of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals Munich-Grosshadern, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Schoenberg, Stefan O. [Institute of Clinical Radiology University Hospital Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic accuracy for the detection of tumor recurrence in breast cancer patients using whole-body-MRI (WB-MRI) at 1.5 or 3 T compared to FDG-PET-CT. Materials and methods: Thirty-three female patients with breast cancer and suspicion of recurrence underwent FDG-PET-CT and WB-MRI. Coronal T1w-TSE- and STIR-sequences, HASTE-imaging of the lungs, contrast-enhanced T1w- and T2w-TSE-sequences of the liver, brain and abdomen were performed, using a WB-MRI-scanner at 1.5 (n = 23) or 3 T (n = 10). Presence of local recurrence, lymph node involvement and distant metastatic disease was assessed using clinical and radiological follow-up as a standard of reference. Results: Tumor recurrence was found in 20 of 33 patients. Overall 186 malignant foci were detected with WB-MRI and PET-CT. Both modalities revealed two recurrent tumors of the breast. PET-CT detected more lymph node metastases (n = 21) than WB-MRI (n = 16). WB-MRI was more precise in the detection of distant metastases (n = 154 versus n = 147). Sensitivity was 93% (172/186) and 91% (170/186) for WB-MRI and PET-CT, specificity was 86% (66/77) and 90% (69/77), respectively. Examination times for WB-MRI at 1.5 and 3 T were 51 and 43 min, respectively, examination time for PET-CT was 103 min. Conclusion: WB-MRI and PET-CT are useful for the detection of tumor recurrence in the follow-up of breast cancer. WB-MRI is highly sensitive to distant metastatic disease. PET-CT is more sensitive in detecting lymph node involvement. Tumor screening with WB-MRI is feasible at 1.5 and 3 T, scan time is further reduced at 3 T with identical resolution.

  13. The positron emission mammography/tomography breast imaging and biopsy system (PEM/PET): design, construction and phantom-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Majewski, Stan; Smith, Mark F.; Proffitt, James; Hammond, William; Srinivasan, Amarnath; McKisson, John; Popov, Vladimir; Weisenberger, Andrew; Judy, Clifford O.; Kross, Brian; Ramasubramanian, Srikanth; Banta, Larry E.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Champley, Kyle

    2008-02-01

    Tomographic breast imaging techniques can potentially improve detection and diagnosis of cancer in women with radiodense and/or fibrocystic breasts. We have developed a high-resolution positron emission mammography/tomography imaging and biopsy device (called PEM/PET) to detect and guide the biopsy of suspicious breast lesions. PET images are acquired to detect suspicious focal uptake of the radiotracer and guide biopsy of the area. Limited-angle PEM images could then be used to verify the biopsy needle position prior to tissue sampling. The PEM/PET scanner consists of two sets of rotating planar detector heads. Each detector consists of a 4 × 3 array of Hamamatsu H8500 flat panel position sensitive photomultipliers (PSPMTs) coupled to a 96 × 72 array of 2 × 2 × 15 mm3 LYSO detector elements (pitch = 2.1 mm). Image reconstruction is performed with a three-dimensional, ordered set expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm parallelized to run on a multi-processor computer system. The reconstructed field of view (FOV) is 15 × 15 × 15 cm3. Initial phantom-based testing of the device is focusing upon its PET imaging capabilities. Specifically, spatial resolution and detection sensitivity were assessed. The results from these measurements yielded a spatial resolution at the center of the FOV of 2.01 ± 0.09 mm (radial), 2.04 ± 0.08 mm (tangential) and 1.84 ± 0.07 mm (axial). At a radius of 7 cm from the center of the scanner, the results were 2.11 ± 0.08 mm (radial), 2.16 ± 0.07 mm (tangential) and 1.87 ± 0.08 mm (axial). Maximum system detection sensitivity of the scanner is 488.9 kcps µCi-1 ml-1 (6.88%). These promising findings indicate that PEM/PET may be an effective system for the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer.

  14. The positron emission mammography/tomography breast imaging and biopsy system (PEM/PET): design, construction and phantom-based measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raylman, Raymond R [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Majewski, Stan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Smith, Mark F [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Proffitt, James [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Hammond, William [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Srinivasan, Amarnath [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); McKisson, John [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Popov, Vladimir [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Weisenberger, Andrew [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Judy, Clifford O [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Kross, Brian [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Ramasubramanian, Srikanth [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Banta, Larry E [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Kinahan, Paul E [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Champley, Kyle [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2008-02-07

    Tomographic breast imaging techniques can potentially improve detection and diagnosis of cancer in women with radiodense and/or fibrocystic breasts. We have developed a high-resolution positron emission mammography/tomography imaging and biopsy device (called PEM/PET) to detect and guide the biopsy of suspicious breast lesions. PET images are acquired to detect suspicious focal uptake of the radiotracer and guide biopsy of the area. Limited-angle PEM images could then be used to verify the biopsy needle position prior to tissue sampling. The PEM/PET scanner consists of two sets of rotating planar detector heads. Each detector consists of a 4 x 3 array of Hamamatsu H8500 flat panel position sensitive photomultipliers (PSPMTs) coupled to a 96 x 72 array of 2 x 2 x 15 mm{sup 3} LYSO detector elements (pitch = 2.1 mm). Image reconstruction is performed with a three-dimensional, ordered set expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm parallelized to run on a multi-processor computer system. The reconstructed field of view (FOV) is 15 x 15 x 15 cm{sup 3}. Initial phantom-based testing of the device is focusing upon its PET imaging capabilities. Specifically, spatial resolution and detection sensitivity were assessed. The results from these measurements yielded a spatial resolution at the center of the FOV of 2.01 {+-} 0.09 mm (radial), 2.04 {+-} 0.08 mm (tangential) and 1.84 {+-} 0.07 mm (axial). At a radius of 7 cm from the center of the scanner, the results were 2.11 {+-} 0.08 mm (radial), 2.16 {+-} 0.07 mm (tangential) and 1.87 {+-} 0.08 mm (axial). Maximum system detection sensitivity of the scanner is 488.9 kcps {mu}Ci{sup -1} ml{sup -1} (6.88%). These promising findings indicate that PEM/PET may be an effective system for the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer.

  15. Non-invasive breast biopsy method using GD-DTPA contrast enhanced MRI series and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Alphonso William

    This study was undertaken to develop a nonsurgical breast biopsy from Gd-DTPA Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance (CE-MR) images and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series. A five-step process was developed to accomplish this. (1) Dynamic PET series were nonrigidly registered to the initial frame using a finite element method (FEM) based registration that requires fiducial skin markers to sample the displacement field between image frames. A commercial FEM package (ANSYS) was used for meshing and FEM calculations. Dynamic PET image series registrations were evaluated using similarity measurements SAVD and NCC. (2) Dynamic CE-MR series were nonrigidly registered to the initial frame using two registration methods: a multi-resolution free-form deformation (FFD) registration driven by normalized mutual information, and a FEM-based registration method. Dynamic CE-MR image series registrations were evaluated using similarity measurements, localization measurements, and qualitative comparison of motion artifacts. FFD registration was found to be superior to FEM-based registration. (3) Nonlinear curve fitting was performed for each voxel of the PET/CT volume of activity versus time, based on a realistic two-compartmental Patlak model. Three parameters for this model were fitted; two of them describe the activity levels in the blood and in the cellular compartment, while the third characterizes the washout rate of F-18-FDG from the cellular compartment. (4) Nonlinear curve fitting was performed for each voxel of the MR volume of signal intensity versus time, based on a realistic two-compartment Brix model. Three parameters for this model were fitted: rate of Gd exiting the compartment, representing the extracellular space of a lesion; rate of Gd exiting a blood compartment; and a parameter that characterizes the strength of signal intensities. Curve fitting used for PET/CT and MR series was accomplished by application of the Levenburg-Marquardt nonlinear regression

  16. Metabolic imaging using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    There is growing evidence that myocardial metabolism plays a key role not only in ischaemic heart disease but also in a variety of diseases which involve myocardium globally, such as heart failure and diabetes mellitus. Understanding myocardial metabolism in such diseases helps to elucidate the pathophysiology and assists in making therapeutic decisions. As well as providing information on regional changes, PET can deliver quantitative information about both regional and global changes in metabolism. This capability of quantitative measurement is one of the major advantages of PET along with physiological positron tracers, especially relevant in evaluating diseases which involve the whole myocardium. This review discusses major PET tracers for metabolic imaging and their clinical applications and contributions to research regarding ischaemic heart disease and other diseases such as heart failure and diabetic heart disease. Future applications of positron metabolic tracers for the detection of vulnerable plaque are also highlighted briefly. (orig.)

  17. 18F-FDG-PET/CT in patients with breast cancer and rising Ca 15-3 with negative conventional imaging: A multicentre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassetto, Gaia; Fornasiero, Adriano; Otello, Daniele; Bonciarelli, Giorgio; Rossi, Elena; Nashimben, Ottorino; Minicozzi, Anna Maria; Crepaldi, Giorgio; Pasini, Felice; Facci, Enzo; Mandoliti, Giovanni; Marzola, Maria Cristina; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Rubello, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Breast cancer is the second cause of death in women in Europe and North America. The mortality of this disease can be reduced with effective therapy and regular follow up to detect early recurrence. Tumor markers are sensitive in detecting recurrent or residual disease but imaging is required to customize the therapeutic option. Rising tumor markers and negative conventional imaging (US, X-mammography, CT and MR) poses a management problem. Our aim is to assess the role of 18 F-FDG-PET/CT in the management of post-therapy patients with rising markers but negative conventional imaging. Materials and methods: In the period from January 2008 to September 2009, 89 female patients with breast cancer who developed post-therapy rising markers (serum Ca 15-3 levels = 64.8 ± 16.3 U/mL) but negative clinical examination and conventional imaging were investigated with 18 F-FDG-PET/CT. Results: Tumor deposits were detected in 40/89 patients in chest wall, internal mammary nodes, lungs, liver and skeleton. The mean SUVmax value calculated in these lesions was 6.6 ± 1.7 (range 3.1–12.8). In 23/40 patients solitary small lesion were amenable to radical therapy. In 7 out of these 23 patients a complete disease remission lasting more than 1 year was observed. Conclusions: 18 F-FDG-PET/CT may have a potential role in asymptomatic patients with rising markers and negative conventional imaging. Our findings agree with other studies in promoting regular investigations such as tumor markers and 18 F-FDG-PET/CT rather than awaiting the developments of physical symptoms as suggested by current guidelines since the timely detection of early recurrence may have a major impact on therapy and survival.

  18. {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG-PET/CT) Imaging in the Staging and Prognosis of Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberini, J.L.; Wartski, M.; Gontier, E.; Madar, O.; Pecking, A.P. [Nuclear Medicine Department, Cancer Research Center Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Lerebours, F. [Oncology Department, Cancer Research Center Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Fourme, E. [Biostatistics Department, Cancer Research Center Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Le Stanc, E. [Nuclear Medicine Department, Foch Hospital, Suresnes (France); Cherel, P. [Radiology Department, Cancer Research Center Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Alberini, J.L. [School of Medicine, Versailles Saint-Quentin University (France)

    2009-07-01

    Background: To prospectively assess fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) staging and prognosis value in patients with suspected inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). Methods: Sixty-two women (mean age 50.7 {+-} 11.4 years) presenting with unilateral inflammatory breast tumors (59 invasive carcinomas; 3 mastitis) underwent a PET/CT scan before biopsy. Results: PET/CT scan was positive for the primary malignant tumor in 100% and false positive in 2 of 3 benign mastitis. In 59 IBC patients, FDG nodal foci were detected in axillary (90%; n = 53) and extra-axillary areas (56%; n = 33) ipsilateral to the cancer. Compared with clinical examination, the axillary lymph node status by PET/CT was upstaged and down staged in 35 and 5 patients, respectively. In 7 of 9 N0 patients, the axillary lymph node positivity on PET/CT was correct, as revealed by pathological post surgery assessment (not available in the 2 remaining patients). The nodal foci were compared with preoperative fine needle aspiration and/or pathological post chemotherapy findings available in 44 patients and corresponded to 38 true positive, 4 false-negative, and 2 false-positive cases. In 18 of 59 IBC patients (31%), distant lesions were found. On the basis of a univariate analysis of the first enrolled patients (n = 42), among 28 patients who showed intense tumoral uptake (standard uptake value(max){>=}5), the 11 patients with distant lesions had a worse prognosis than the 17 patients without distant lesions (P =.04). Conclusions: FDG-PET/CT imaging provides additional invaluable information regarding nodal status or distant metastases in IBC patients and should be considered in the initial staging. It seems also that some prognostic information can be derived from FDG uptake characteristics. (authors)

  19. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG-PET/CT) Imaging in the Staging and Prognosis of Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberini, J.L.; Wartski, M.; Gontier, E.; Madar, O.; Pecking, A.P.; Lerebours, F.; Fourme, E.; Le Stanc, E.; Cherel, P.; Alberini, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To prospectively assess fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) staging and prognosis value in patients with suspected inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). Methods: Sixty-two women (mean age 50.7 ± 11.4 years) presenting with unilateral inflammatory breast tumors (59 invasive carcinomas; 3 mastitis) underwent a PET/CT scan before biopsy. Results: PET/CT scan was positive for the primary malignant tumor in 100% and false positive in 2 of 3 benign mastitis. In 59 IBC patients, FDG nodal foci were detected in axillary (90%; n = 53) and extra-axillary areas (56%; n = 33) ipsilateral to the cancer. Compared with clinical examination, the axillary lymph node status by PET/CT was upstaged and down staged in 35 and 5 patients, respectively. In 7 of 9 N0 patients, the axillary lymph node positivity on PET/CT was correct, as revealed by pathological post surgery assessment (not available in the 2 remaining patients). The nodal foci were compared with preoperative fine needle aspiration and/or pathological post chemotherapy findings available in 44 patients and corresponded to 38 true positive, 4 false-negative, and 2 false-positive cases. In 18 of 59 IBC patients (31%), distant lesions were found. On the basis of a univariate analysis of the first enrolled patients (n = 42), among 28 patients who showed intense tumoral uptake (standard uptake value(max)≥5), the 11 patients with distant lesions had a worse prognosis than the 17 patients without distant lesions (P =.04). Conclusions: FDG-PET/CT imaging provides additional invaluable information regarding nodal status or distant metastases in IBC patients and should be considered in the initial staging. It seems also that some prognostic information can be derived from FDG uptake characteristics. (authors)

  20. Relationship between functional imaging and immunohistochemical markers and prediction of breast cancer subtype: a PET/MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Grimaldi, Anna Maria; Cavaliere, Carlo; Inglese, Marianna; Mirabelli, Peppino; Monti, Serena; Ferbo, Umberto; Nicolai, Emanuele; Soricelli, Andrea; Catalano, Onofrio Antonio; Aiello, Marco; Salvatore, Marco

    2018-04-25

    The aim of this study was to determine if functional parameters extracted from the hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) correlate with the immunohistochemical markers of breast cancer (BC) lesions, to assess their ability to predict BC subtype. This prospective study was approved by the institution's Ethics Committee, and all patients provided written informed consent. A total of 50 BC patients at diagnosis underwent PET/MRI before pharmacological and surgical treatment. For each primary lesion, the following data were extracted: morphological data including tumour-node-metastasis stage and lesion size; apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC); perfusion data including forward volume transfer constant (Ktrans), reverse efflux volume transfer constant (Kep) and extravascular extracellular space volume (Ve); and metabolic data including standardized uptake value (SUV), lean body mass (SUL), metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis. Immunohistochemical reports were used to determine receptor status (oestrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2), cellular differentiation status (grade), and proliferation index (Ki67) of the tumour lesions. Correlation studies (Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman's test), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and multivariate analysis were performed. Association studies were performed to assess the correlations between imaging and histological prognostic markers of BC. Imaging biomarkers, which significantly correlated with biological markers, were selected to perform ROC curve analysis to determine their ability to discriminate among BC subtypes. SUV max , SUV mean and SUL were able to discriminate between luminal A and luminal B subtypes (AUC SUVmean  = 0.799; AUC SUVmax  = 0.833; AUC SUL  = 0.813) and between luminal A and nonluminal subtypes (AUC SUVmean  = 0.926; AUC SUVmax  = 0.917; AUC SUL  = 0.945), and the lowest SUV and

  1. PET Imaging of Steroid Receptor Expression in Breast and Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, G. A. P.; Helmond, F. A.; Dierckx, R. A.; de Vries, Emma; de Vries, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The vast majority of breast and prostate cancers express specific receptors for steroid hormones, which play a pivotal role in tumor progression. Because of the efficacy of endocrine therapy combined with its relatively mild side-effects, this intervention has nowadays become the treatment of choice

  2. Clinicopathological and prognostic relevance of uptake level using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography fusion imaging (18F-FDG PET/CT) in primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Shigeto; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Asakawa, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    Using integrated 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography fusion imaging ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT), the clinical significance of 18 F-FDG uptake was evaluated in patients with primary breast cancer. Clinicopathological correlation with the level of maximum standardized uptake values (SUV) 60 min obtained from preoperative 18 F-FDG PET/CT were examined in 152 patients with primary breast cancer. The prognostic impact of the level of SUV was explored using simulated prognosis derived from computed program Adjuvant! in 136 (89%) patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). High SUV level was significantly correlated with tumor invasive size (≤2 cm) (P 18 F-FDG would be predictive of poor prognosis in patients with primary breast cancer, and aggressive features of cancer cells in patients with early breast cancer. 18 F-FDG PET/CT could be a useful tool to pretherapeutically predict biological characteristics and baseline risk of breast cancer. (author)

  3. Evaluation of a Hanging-Breast PET System for Primary Tumor Visualization in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer: Comparison With Standard PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Suzana C; Rebolleda, José Ferrér; Koolen, Bas B; Wesseling, Jelle; Jurado, Raúl Sánchez; Stokkel, Marcel P M; Del Puig Cózar Santiago, María; van der Noort, Vincent; Rutgers, Emiel J Th; Valdés Olmos, Renato A

    2016-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the performance of a mammography with molecular imaging PET (MAMMI-PET) system for breast imaging in the hanging-breast position for the visualization of primary breast cancer lesions and to compare this method with whole-body PET/CT. Between March 2011 and March 2014, a prospective evaluation included women with one or more histologically confirmed primary breast cancer lesions (index lesions). After injection of 180-240 MBq of (18)F-FDG, whole-body PET/CT and MAMMI-PET acquisitions were performed, index lesions were scored 0, 1, or 2 for FDG uptake relative to background. Detection and FDG uptake were compared by breast length, maximal tumor diameter, affected breast quadrants, tumor grade, and histologic and immunologic sub-types. Finally, the two PET modalities were compared for detection of index lesions. For 234 index lesions (diameter, 5-170 mm), the overall sensitivity was 88.9% for MAMMI-PET and 91% for PET/CT (p = 0.61). Twenty-three (9.8%) index lesions located too close to the pectoral muscle were missed with MAMMI-PET, and 20 index lesions were missed with PET/CT. Lesion visibility on MAMMI-PET images was influenced by tumor grade (p = 0.034) but not by cancer subtype (p = 0.65). Although in an overall evaluation MAMMI-PET was not superior to PET/CT, MAMMI-PET does have higher sensitivity for primary breast cancer lesions within the scanning range of the device. Optimization of the positioning device may increase visualization of the most dorsal lesions.

  4. Intra-image referencing for simplified assessment of HER2-expression in breast cancer metastases using the Affibody molecule ABY-025 with PET and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Dan; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Olofsson, Helena; Carlsson, Joergen; Lindman, Henrik [Uppsala University, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala (Sweden); Velikyan, Irina; Soerensen, Jens [Uppsala University, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim [Affibody AB, Solna (Sweden)

    2017-08-15

    In phase I/II-studies radiolabelled ABY-025 Affibody molecules identified human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression in breast cancer metastases using PET and SPECT imaging. Here, we wanted to investigate the utility of a simple intra-image normalization using tumour-to-reference tissue-ratio (T/R) as a HER2 status discrimination strategy to overcome potential issues related to cross-calibration of scanning devices. Twenty-three women with pre-diagnosed HER2-positive/negative metastasized breast cancer were scanned with [{sup 111}In]-ABY-025 SPECT/CT (n = 7) or [{sup 68}Ga]-ABY-025 PET/CT (n = 16). Uptake was measured in all metastases and in normal spleen, lung, liver, muscle, and blood pool. Normal tissue uptake variation and T/R-ratios were established for various time points and for two different doses of injected peptide from a total of 94 whole-body image acquisitions. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to verify HER2 expression in 28 biopsied metastases. T/R-ratios were compared to IHC findings to establish the best reference tissue for each modality and each imaging time-point. The impact of shed HER2 in serum was investigated. Spleen was the best reference tissue across modalities, followed by blood pool and lung. Spleen-T/R was highly correlated to PET SUV in metastases after 2 h (r = 0.96,P < 0.001) and reached an accuracy of 100% for discriminating IHC HER2-positive and negative metastases at 4 h (PET) and 24 h (SPECT) after injection. In a single case, shed HER2 resulted in intense tracer retention in blood. In the remaining patients shed HER2 was elevated, but without significant impact on ABY-025 biodistribution. T/R-ratios using spleen as reference tissue accurately quantify HER2 expression with radiolabelled ABY-025 imaging in breast cancer metastases with SPECT and PET. Tracer binding to shed HER2 in serum might affect quantification in the extreme case. (orig.)

  5. Combined approach of perioperative 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging and intraoperative 18F-FDG handheld gamma probe detection for tumor localization and verification of complete tumor resection in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knopp Michael V

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT has become an established method for detecting hypermetabolic sites of known and occult disease and is widely used in oncology surgical planning. Intraoperatively, it is often difficult to localize tumors and verify complete resection of tumors that have been previously detected on diagnostic PET/CT at the time of the original evaluation of the cancer patient. Therefore, we propose an innovative approach for intraoperative tumor localization and verification of complete tumor resection utilizing 18F-FDG for perioperative PET/CT imaging and intraoperative gamma probe detection. Methods Two breast cancer patients were evaluated. 18F-FDG was administered and PET/CT was acquired immediately prior to surgery. Intraoperatively, tumors were localized and resected with the assistance of a handheld gamma probe. Resected tumors were scanned with specimen PET/CT prior to pathologic processing. Shortly after the surgical procedure, patients were re-imaged with PET/CT utilizing the same preoperatively administered 18F-FDG dose. Results One patient had primary carcinoma of breast and a metastatic axillary lymph node. The second patient had a solitary metastatic liver lesion. In both cases, preoperative PET/CT verified these findings and demonstrated no additional suspicious hypermetabolic lesions. Furthermore, intraoperative gamma probe detection, specimen PET/CT, and postoperative PET/CT verified complete resection of the hypermetabolic lesions. Conclusion Immediate preoperative and postoperative PET/CT imaging, utilizing the same 18F-FDG injection dose, is feasible and image quality is acceptable. Such perioperative PET/CT imaging, along with intraoperative gamma probe detection and specimen PET/CT, can be used to verify complete tumor resection. This innovative approach demonstrates promise for assisting the oncologic surgeon in localizing and

  6. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging versus dynamic contrast-enhanced CT for staging and prognosis of inflammatory breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champion, Laurence; Edeline, Veronique; Giraudet, Anne-Laure; Wartski, Myriam [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Saint-Cloud (France); Lerebours, Florence [Service d' Oncologie Medicale, Saint-Cloud (France); Cherel, Pascal [Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Service de Radiologie, Saint-Cloud (France); Bellet, Dominique [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Saint-Cloud (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Pharmacologie Chimique et Genetique and Imagerie, Inserm U1022 CNRS UMR 8151, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques, Paris (France); Alberini, Jean-Louis [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Saint-Cloud (France); Universite Versailles Saint-Quentin, Faculte de medecine, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France)

    2013-08-15

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive type of breast cancer with a poor prognosis. Locoregional staging is based on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) CT or MRI. The aim of this study was to compare the performances of FDG PET/CT and DCE CT in locoregional staging of IBC and to assess their respective prognostic values. The study group comprised 50 women (median age: 51 {+-} 11 years) followed in our institution for IBC who underwent FDG PET/CT and DCE CT scans (median interval 5 {+-} 9 days). CT enhancement parameters were net maximal enhancement, net early enhancement and perfusion. The PET/CT scans showed intense FDG uptake in all primary tumours. Concordance rate between PET/CT and DCE CT for breast tumour localization was 92 %. No significant correlation was found between SUVmax and CT enhancement parameters in primary tumours (p > 0.6). PET/CT and DCE CT results were poorly correlated for skin infiltration (kappa = 0.19). Ipsilateral foci of increased axillary FDG uptake were found in 47 patients (median SUV: 7.9 {+-} 5.4), whereas enlarged axillary lymph nodes were observed on DCE CT in 43 patients. Results for axillary node involvement were fairly well correlated (kappa = 0.55). Nineteen patients (38 %) were found to be metastatic on PET/CT scan with a significant shorter progression-free survival than patients without distant lesions (p = 0.01). In the primary tumour, no statistically significant difference was observed between high and moderate tumour FDG uptake on survival, using an SUVmax cut-off of 5 (p = 0.7 and 0.9), or between high and low tumour enhancement on DCE CT (p > 0.8). FDG PET/CT imaging provided additional information concerning locoregional involvement to that provided by DCE CT on and allowed detection of distant metastases in the same whole-body procedure. Tumour FDG uptake or CT enhancement parameters were not correlated and were not found to have any prognostic value. (orig.)

  7. A case of recurrence-mimicking charcoal granuloma in a breast cancer patient: Ultrasound,CT, PET/CT and breast-specific gamma imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dae Woong; Park, Ji Yeon; Park, Noh Hyuck; Kim, Seon Jeong; Shin, Hyuck Jai; Lee, Jeong Ju [Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Seong Yoon [Div. of Hematology-Oncology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Charcoal remains stable without causing a foreign body reaction and it may be used for preoperative localization of a non-palpable breast mass. However, cases of post-charcoal-marking granuloma have only rarely been reported in the breast, and a charcoal granuloma can be misdiagnosed as malignancy. Herein, we report the ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT, and breast-specific gamma imaging findings of recurrence-mimicking charcoal granuloma after breast conserving surgery, following localization with charcoal in a breast cancer patient.

  8. Performance evaluation of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García Hernández, Trinitat, E-mail: mtrinitat@eresa.com; Vicedo González, Aurora; Brualla González, Luis; Granero Cabañero, Domingo [Department of Medical Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Ferrer Rebolleda, Jose; Sánchez Jurado, Raúl; Puig Cozar Santiago, Maria del [Department of Nuclear Medicine, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Roselló Ferrando, Joan [Department of Medical Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Valencia 46010 (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Early stage breast cancers may not be visible on a whole-body PET scan. To overcome whole-body PET limitations, several dedicated breast positron emission tomography (DbPET) systems have emerged nowadays aiming to improve spatial resolution. In this work the authors evaluate the performance of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner (Mammi-PET, Oncovision). Methods: Global status, uniformity, sensitivity, energy, and spatial resolution were measured. Spheres of different sizes (2.5, 4, 5, and 6 mm diameter) and various 18 fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) activity concentrations were randomly inserted in a gelatine breast phantom developed at our institution. Several lesion-to-background ratios (LBR) were simulated, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 30:1, and 50:1. Images were reconstructed using different voxel sizes. The ability of experienced reporters to detect spheres was tested as a function of acquisition time, LBR, sphere size, and matrix reconstruction voxel size. For comparison, phantoms were scanned in the DbPET camera and in a whole body PET (WB-PET). Two patients who just underwent WB-PET/CT exams were imaged with the DbPET system and the images were compared. Results: The measured absolute peak sensitivity was 2.0%. The energy resolution was 24.0% ± 1%. The integral and differential uniformity were 10% and 6% in the total field of view (FOV) and 9% and 5% in the central FOV, respectively. The measured spatial resolution was 2.0, 1.9, and 1.7 mm in the radial, tangential, and axial directions. The system exhibited very good detectability for spheres ≥4 mm and LBR ≥10 with a sphere detection of 100% when acquisition time was set >3 min/bed. For LBR = 5 and acquisition time of 7 min the detectability was 100% for spheres of 6 mm and 75% for spheres of 5, 4, and 2.5 mm. Lesion WB-PET detectability was only comparable to the DbPET camera for lesion sizes ≥5 mm when acquisition time was >3 min and LBR > 10. Conclusions: The DbPET has a good

  9. Performance evaluation of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Hernández, Trinitat; Vicedo González, Aurora; Brualla González, Luis; Granero Cabañero, Domingo; Ferrer Rebolleda, Jose; Sánchez Jurado, Raúl; Puig Cozar Santiago, Maria del; Roselló Ferrando, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Early stage breast cancers may not be visible on a whole-body PET scan. To overcome whole-body PET limitations, several dedicated breast positron emission tomography (DbPET) systems have emerged nowadays aiming to improve spatial resolution. In this work the authors evaluate the performance of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner (Mammi-PET, Oncovision). Methods: Global status, uniformity, sensitivity, energy, and spatial resolution were measured. Spheres of different sizes (2.5, 4, 5, and 6 mm diameter) and various 18 fluorodeoxyglucose ("1"8F-FDG) activity concentrations were randomly inserted in a gelatine breast phantom developed at our institution. Several lesion-to-background ratios (LBR) were simulated, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 30:1, and 50:1. Images were reconstructed using different voxel sizes. The ability of experienced reporters to detect spheres was tested as a function of acquisition time, LBR, sphere size, and matrix reconstruction voxel size. For comparison, phantoms were scanned in the DbPET camera and in a whole body PET (WB-PET). Two patients who just underwent WB-PET/CT exams were imaged with the DbPET system and the images were compared. Results: The measured absolute peak sensitivity was 2.0%. The energy resolution was 24.0% ± 1%. The integral and differential uniformity were 10% and 6% in the total field of view (FOV) and 9% and 5% in the central FOV, respectively. The measured spatial resolution was 2.0, 1.9, and 1.7 mm in the radial, tangential, and axial directions. The system exhibited very good detectability for spheres ≥4 mm and LBR ≥10 with a sphere detection of 100% when acquisition time was set >3 min/bed. For LBR = 5 and acquisition time of 7 min the detectability was 100% for spheres of 6 mm and 75% for spheres of 5, 4, and 2.5 mm. Lesion WB-PET detectability was only comparable to the DbPET camera for lesion sizes ≥5 mm when acquisition time was >3 min and LBR > 10. Conclusions: The DbPET has a good performance

  10. Correlation of breast cancer subtypes, based on estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2, with functional imaging parameters from {sup 68}Ga-RGD PET/CT and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hai-Jeon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, The Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Keon Wook; Jeong, Jae Min; Chung, June-Key [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, The Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, In Kook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kangwon National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chuncheon, Kangwon-Do (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nariya [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Seock-Ah [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Sunjoo [Dankook University, Department of Molecular Biology, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Song [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, The Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyeong Cheon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Sang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, The Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, The Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Imaging biomarkers from functional imaging modalities were assessed as potential surrogate markers of disease status. Specifically, in this prospective study, we investigated the relationships between functional imaging parameters and histological prognostic factors and breast cancer subtypes. In total, 43 patients with large or locally advanced invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) were analyzed (47.6 ± 7.5 years old). {sup 68}Ga-Labeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) were performed. The maximum and average standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub avg}) from RGD PET/CT and SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub avg} from FDG PET/CT were the imaging parameters used. For histological prognostic factors, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression was identified using immunohistochemistry (IHC) or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Four breast cancer subtypes, based on ER/PR and HER2 expression (ER/PR+,Her2-, ER/PR+,Her2+, ER/PR-,Her2+, and ER/PR-,Her2-), were considered. Quantitative FDG PET parameters were significantly higher in the ER-negative group (15.88 ± 8.73 vs 10.48 ± 6.01, p = 0.02 for SUV{sub max}; 9.40 ± 5.19 vs 5.92 ± 4.09, p = 0.02 for SUV{sub avg}) and the PR-negative group (8.37 ± 4.94 vs 4.79 ± 3.93, p = 0.03 for SUV{sub avg}). Quantitative RGD PET parameters were significantly higher in the HER2-positive group (2.42 ± 0.59 vs 2.90 ± 0.75, p = 0.04 for SUV{sub max}; 1.60 ± 0.38 vs 1.95 ± 0.53, p = 0.04 for SUV{sub avg}) and showed a significant positive correlation with the HER2/CEP17 ratio (r = 0.38, p = 0.03 for SUV{sub max} and r = 0.46, p < 0.01 for SUV{sub avg}). FDG PET parameters showed significantly higher values in the ER/PR-,Her2- subgroup versus the ER/PR+,Her2- or ER/PR+,Her2+ subgroups, while RGD PET parameters showed significantly lower values in the ER

  11. PET imaging in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria, Daniele de Paula; Copray, Sjef; Buchpiguel, Carlos; Dierckx, Rudi; de Vries, Erik

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a non-invasive technique for quantitative imaging of biochemical and physiological processes in animals and humans. PET uses probes labeled with a radioactive isotope, called PET tracers, which can bind to or be converted by a specific biological target and thus

  12. Design Optimization of a TOF, Breast PET Scanner

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eunsin; Werner, Matthew E.; Karp, Joel S.; Surti, Suleman

    2013-01-01

    A dedicated breast positron emission tomography (PET) scanner with limited angle geometry can provide flexibility in detector placement around the patient as well as the ability to combine it with other imaging modalities. A primary challenge of a stationary limited angle scanner is the reduced image quality due to artifacts present in the reconstructed image leading to a loss in quantitative information. Previously it has been shown that using time-of-flight (TOF) information in image recons...

  13. Simultaneous PET and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiping Shao; Cherry, Simon R.; Meadors, Ken; Siegel, Stefan; Silverman, Robert W.; Farahani, Keyvan; Marsden, Paul K.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a prototype PET detector which is compatible with a clinical MRI system to provide simultaneous PET and MR imaging. This single-slice PET system consists of 48 2x2x10mm 3 LSO crystals in a 38 mm diameter ring configuration that can be placed inside the receiver coil of the MRI system, coupled to three multi-channel photomultipliers housed outside the main magnetic field via 4 m long and 2 mm diameter optical fibres. The PET system exhibits 2 mm spatial resolution, 41% energy resolution at 511 keV and 20 ns timing resolution. Simultaneous PET and MR phantom images were successfully acquired. (author)

  14. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and breast cancer in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavayssiere, Robert; Cabee, Anne-Elizabeth; Filmont, Jean-Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    The landscape of oncologic practice has changed deeply during the past few years and there is now a need, through a multidisciplinary approach, for imaging to provide accurate evaluation of morphology and function and to guide treatment (Image Guided Therapy). Increasing emphasis has been put on Position Emission Tomography (PET) role in various cancers among clinicians and patients despite a general context of healthcare expenditure limitation. Positron Emission Tomography has currently a limited role in breast cancer, but also general radiologists and specialists should be aware of these indications, especially when staging aggressive cancers and looking for recurrence. Currently, the hybrid systems associating PET and Computed Tomography (CT) and in the same device [Rohren EM, Turkington TG, Coleman RE. Clinical applications of PET in oncology. Radiology 2004;231:305-32; Blodgett TM, Meltzer CM, Townsend DW. PET/CT: form and function. Radiology 2007;242:360-85; von Schulthess GK, Steinert HC, Hany TF. Integrated PET/CT: current applications and futures directions. Radiology 2006;238(2):405-22], or PET-CT, are more commonly used and the two techniques are adding their potentialities. Other techniques, MRI in particular, may also compete with PET in some instance and as far as ionizing radiations dose limitation is considered, some breast cancers becoming some form of a chronic disease. Breast cancer is a very complex, non-uniform, disease and molecular imaging at large may contribute to a better knowledge and to new drugs development. Ongoing research, Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) and new tracers, are likely to bring improvements in patient care [Kelloff GJ, Hoffman JM, Johnson B, et al. Progress and promise of FDG-PET Imaging for cancer patient management and oncologic drug development. Clin Cancer Res 2005;1(April (8)): 2005

  15. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and breast cancer in clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavayssiere, Robert [Centre d' Imagerie Paris-Nord, 1, avenue Charles Peguy, 95200 Sarcelles (France); Institut du Sein Henri Hartmann (ISHH), 1, rue des Dames Augustines, 92200 Neuilly sur Seine (France)], E-mail: cab.lav@wanadoo.fr; Cabee, Anne-Elizabeth [Centre d' Imagerie Paris-Nord, 1, avenue Charles Peguy, 95200 Sarcelles (France); Institut du Sein Henri Hartmann (ISHH), 1, rue des Dames Augustines, 92200 Neuilly sur Seine (France); Centre RMX, 80, avenue Felix Faure, 75105 Paris (France); Filmont, Jean-Emmanuel [Institut du Sein Henri Hartmann (ISHH), 1, rue des Dames Augustines, 92200 Neuilly sur Seine (France); American Hospital of Paris, Nuclear Medicine, 63, boulevard Victor Hugo - BP 109, 92202 Neuilly sur Seine Cedex (France)

    2009-01-15

    The landscape of oncologic practice has changed deeply during the past few years and there is now a need, through a multidisciplinary approach, for imaging to provide accurate evaluation of morphology and function and to guide treatment (Image Guided Therapy). Increasing emphasis has been put on Position Emission Tomography (PET) role in various cancers among clinicians and patients despite a general context of healthcare expenditure limitation. Positron Emission Tomography has currently a limited role in breast cancer, but also general radiologists and specialists should be aware of these indications, especially when staging aggressive cancers and looking for recurrence. Currently, the hybrid systems associating PET and Computed Tomography (CT) and in the same device [Rohren EM, Turkington TG, Coleman RE. Clinical applications of PET in oncology. Radiology 2004;231:305-32; Blodgett TM, Meltzer CM, Townsend DW. PET/CT: form and function. Radiology 2007;242:360-85; von Schulthess GK, Steinert HC, Hany TF. Integrated PET/CT: current applications and futures directions. Radiology 2006;238(2):405-22], or PET-CT, are more commonly used and the two techniques are adding their potentialities. Other techniques, MRI in particular, may also compete with PET in some instance and as far as ionizing radiations dose limitation is considered, some breast cancers becoming some form of a chronic disease. Breast cancer is a very complex, non-uniform, disease and molecular imaging at large may contribute to a better knowledge and to new drugs development. Ongoing research, Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) and new tracers, are likely to bring improvements in patient care [Kelloff GJ, Hoffman JM, Johnson B, et al. Progress and promise of FDG-PET Imaging for cancer patient management and oncologic drug development. Clin Cancer Res 2005;1(April (8)): 2005].

  16. Radiopharmacological evaluation of 6-deoxy-6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-fructose as a radiotracer for PET imaging of GLUT5 in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Melinda, E-mail: mwuest@ualberta.c [Department of Oncology, University of Alberta - Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB-T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Trayner, Brendan J. [Department of Physiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB-T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Grant, Tina N. [Department of Physiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB-T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB-T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Jans, Hans-Soenke; Mercer, John R.; Murray, David [Department of Oncology, University of Alberta - Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB-T6G 1Z2 (Canada); West, Frederick G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB-T6G 1Z2 (Canada); McEwan, Alexander J.B.; Wuest, Frank [Department of Oncology, University of Alberta - Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB-T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Cheeseman, Chris I. [Department of Physiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB-T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    Introduction: Several clinical studies have shown low or no expression of GLUT1 in breast cancer patients, which may account for the low clinical specificity and sensitivity of 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG) used in positron emission tomography (PET). Therefore, it has been proposed that other tumor characteristics such as the high expression of GLUT2 and GLUT5 in many breast tumors could be used to develop alternative strategies to detect breast cancer. Here we have studied the in vitro and in vivo radiopharmacological profile of 6-deoxy-6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-fructose (6-[{sup 18}F]FDF) as a potential PET radiotracer to image GLUT5 expression in breast cancers. Methods: Uptake of 6-[{sup 18}F]FDF was studied in murine EMT-6 and human MCF-7 breast cancer cells over 60 min and compared to [{sup 18}F]FDG. Biodistribution of 6-[{sup 18}F]FDF was determined in BALB/c mice. Tumor uptake was studied with dynamic small animal PET in EMT-6 tumor-bearing BALB/c mice and human xenograft MCF-7 tumor-bearing NIH-III mice in comparison to [{sup 18}F]FDG. 6-[{sup 18}F]FDF metabolism was investigated in mouse blood and urine. Results: 6-[{sup 18}F]FDF is taken up by EMT-6 and MCF-7 breast tumor cells independent of extracellular glucose levels but dependent on the extracellular concentration of fructose. After 60 min, 30{+-}4% (n=9) and 12{+-}1% (n=7) ID/mg protein 6-[{sup 18}F]FDF was found in EMT-6 and MCF-7 cells, respectively. 6-deoxy-6-fluoro-D-fructose had a 10-fold higher potency than fructose to inhibit 6-[{sup 18}F]FDF uptake into EMT-6 cells. Biodistribution in normal mice revealed radioactivity uptake in bone and brain. Radioactivity was accumulated in EMT-6 tumors reaching 3.65{+-}0.30% ID/g (n=3) at 5 min post injection and decreasing to 1.75{+-}0.03% ID/g (n=3) at 120 min post injection. Dynamic small animal PET showed significantly lower radioactivity uptake after 15 min post injection in MCF-7 tumors [standard uptake value (SUV)=0

  17. Breast cancer detection using high-resolution breast PET compared to whole-body PET or PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinyak, Judith E. [Naviscan Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Berg, Wendie A. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Magee-Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Schilling, Kathy [Boca Raton Regional Hospital, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Madsen, Kathleen S. [Certus International, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States); Narayanan, Deepa [Naviscan Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Tartar, Marie [Scripps Clinic, Scripps Green Hospital, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-02-15

    To compare the performance characteristics of positron emission mammography (PEM) with those of whole-body PET (WBPET) and PET/CT in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. A total of 178 women consented to PEM for presurgical planning in an IRB-approved protocol and also underwent either WBPET (n = 69) or PET/CT (n = 109) imaging, as per usual care at three centers. Tumor detection sensitivity, positive predictive values, and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake were compared between the modalities. The effects of tumor size, type, and grade on detection were examined. The chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests were used to compare distributions between groups, and McNemar's test was used to compare distributions for paired data within subject groups, i.e. PEM versus WBPET or PEM versus PET/CT. The mean age of the women was 59 ± 12 years (median 60 years, range 26-89 years), with a mean invasive index tumor size of 1.6 ± 0.8 cm (median 1.5 cm, range 0.5-4.0 cm). PEM detected more index tumors (61/66, 92 %) than WBPET (37/66, 56 %; p < 0.001) or PET/CT (95/109, 87 % vs. 104/109, 95 % for PEM; p < 0.029). Sensitivity for the detection of additional ipsilateral malignancies was also greater with PEM (7/15, 47 %) than with WBPET (1/15, 6.7 %; p = 0.014) or PET/CT (3/23, 13 % vs. 13/23, 57 % for PEM; p = 0.003). Index tumor detection decreased with decreasing invasive tumor size for both WBPET (p = 0.002) and PET/CT (p < 0.001); PEM was not significantly affected (p = 0.20). FDG uptake, quantified in terms of maximum PEM uptake value, was lowest in ductal carcinoma in situ (median 1.5, range 0.7-3.0) and invasive lobular carcinoma (median 1.5, range 0.7-3.4), and highest in grade III invasive ductal carcinoma (median 3.1, range 1.4-12.9). PEM was more sensitive than either WBPET or PET/CT in showing index and additional ipsilateral breast tumors and remained highly sensitive for tumors smaller than 1 cm. (orig.)

  18. MicroPET/CT Imaging of AXL Downregulation by HSP90 Inhibition in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanqin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AXL receptor tyrosine kinase is overexpressed in a number of solid tumor types including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC. AXL is considered an important regulator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT and a potential therapeutic target for TNBC. In this work, we used microPET/CT with 64Cu-labeled anti-human AXL antibody (64Cu-anti-hAXL to noninvasively interrogate the degradation of AXL in vivo in response to 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG, a potent inhibitor of HSP90. 17-AAG treatment caused significant decline in AXL expression in orthotopic TNBC MDA-MB-231 tumors, inhibited EMT, and delayed tumor growth in vivo, resulting in significant reduction in tumor uptake of 64Cu-anti-hAXL as clearly visualized by microPET/CT. Our data indicate that 64Cu-anti-hAXL can be useful for monitoring anti-AXL therapies and for assessing inhibition of HSP90 molecular chaperone using AXL as a molecular surrogate.

  19. N-(n-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)-2-[18f]fluorobenzamide: a potential ligand for PET imaging of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiue, Chyng-Yann; Shiue, Grace G.; Benard, Francois; Visonneau, Sophie; Santoli, Daniela; Alavi, Abass A.

    2000-01-01

    N-(N-Benzylpiperidin-4-yl)-2-[ 18 F]fluorobenzamide (2), a potential ligand for PET imaging of sigma receptor, has been found to be a potential agent for detection of breast cancer. In vivo studies in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice bearing MDA-MB231 tumors showed that the uptake of compound 2 in these tumors was high (3.8%/g); the ratios of tumor/muscle and tumor/blood were 6.2 and 7.0, respectively, at 1 h postinjection. Pretreatment of SCID mice with haldol increased the uptake of compound 2 in blood, muscle, and other well-perfused organs while decreasing its uptake in tumors. The ratios of tumor/muscle and tumor/blood decreased from 6.2 and 7.0 to 1.3 and 1.1, respectively, at 1 h postinjection. At 2 h postinjection, the ratios of tumor/muscle and tumor/blood decreased from 4.9 and 7.8 to 1.4 and 1.4, respectively. The tumor uptake of compound 2 in SCID mice bearing primary tumor explants from a human breast cancer patient was lower than that in MDA-MB231 tumors (1.66%/g versus 3.78%/g), and the ratios of tumor/muscle and tumor/blood were 3.5 and 3.7, respectively, at 1 h postinjection. These results suggest that compound 2 may be a potential ligand for PET imaging of breast cancer

  20. Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of axillary lymph node metastases in early breast cancer: systematic review and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, K L; Meng, Y; Harnan, S; Ward, S E; Fitzgerald, P; Papaioannou, D; Wyld, L; Ingram, C; Wilkinson, I D; Lorenz, E

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Evaluation of axillary lymph node metastases is important for breast cancer staging and treatment planning. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy, cost-effectiveness and effect on patient outcomes of positron emission tomography (PET), with or without computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of axillary lymph node metastases in patients with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer. A systematic review of literature and an economic evaluation were carried out. Key databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE and nine others) plus research registers and conference proceedings were searched for relevant studies up to April 2009. A decision-analytical model was developed to determine cost-effectiveness in the UK. One reviewer assessed titles and abstracts of studies identified by the search strategy, obtained the full text of relevant papers and screened them against inclusion criteria. Data from included studies were extracted by one reviewer using a standardised data extraction form and checked by a second reviewer. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion. Quality of included studies was assessed using the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS) checklist, applied by one reviewer and checked by a second. Forty-five citations relating to 35 studies were included in the clinical effectiveness review: 26 studies of PET and nine studies of MRI. Two studies were included in the cost-effectiveness review: one of PET and one of MRI. Of the seven studies evaluating PET/CT (n = 862), the mean sensitivity was 56% [95% confidence interval (CI) 44% to 67%] and mean specificity 96% (95% CI 90% to 99%). Of the 19 studies evaluating PET only (n = 1729), the mean sensitivity was 66% (95% CI 50% to 79%) and mean specificity 93% (95% CI 89% to 96%). PET performed less well for small metastases; the mean sensitivity was 11% (95% CI 5% to 22%) for micrometastases (≤ 2 mm

  1. PET imaging for brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    Described are the principle of PET and its characteristics, imaging of human brain function, mapping of detailed human cerebral functions and PET imaging of nerve transmission. Following compounds labeled by positron emitters are used for PET imaging of brain functions: for blood flow and oxygen metabolism, 15 O-O 2 gas, water and carbon dioxide; for energy metabolism, 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose; and for nerve transmission functions in receptor binding, transporter, transmitter synthesis and enzyme, 11 C- or 18 F-dopamine, serotonin and their analogues, and acetylcholine analogues. For brain mapping, examples of cognition tasks, results and their statistics are presented with images for blood flow. Nerve transmissions in schizophrenia and Alzheimer disease are imaged with labeled analogues of dopamine and acetylcholine, respectively. PET is becoming more and more important in the field of psychiatric science particularly in the coming society of increasing aged people. (N.I.)

  2. FDG-PET/CT in the diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Ryusuke; Kumita, Shin-ichiro; Yoshida, Tamiko; Ishihara, Keiichi; Kiriyama, Tomonari; Hakozaki, Kenta; Yanagihara, Keiko; Lida, Shinya; Tsuchiya, Shin-ichi

    2012-01-01

    Background. An advantage of PET/CT has been demonstrated for diagnosis of several tumor entities. In patients with breast cancer, early diagnosis and accurate restaging of recurrence after surgery is important for selection of the most appropriate therapeutic strategy. Purpose. To evaluate the accuracy of integrated positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), for follow-up of patients with suspected recurrent breast cancer. Material and Methods. Forty-seven patients with suspected recurrent breast cancer underwent PET/CT. The PET and PET/CT images were interpreted without knowledge of the results of other diagnostic modalities, and compared with each other with reference to the final diagnosis. Results. Twenty-five (53%) patients suffered tumor recurrence. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of PET/CT were 96%, 91%, 92%, 95%, and 94%, respectively. In comparison with PET, PET/CT had a higher sensitivity and accuracy (96% vs. 80% and 94% vs. 81%, respectively). The difference in diagnostic accuracy between PET/CT and PET was significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The present findings indicate that PET/CT is an accurate, sensitive and reliable modality for screening and detection of breast cancer recurrence. PET/CT appears to be an effective surveillance tool, as it is able to cover the whole body in a single procedure and shows good performance

  3. PET imaging in pediatric oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulkin, B.L.

    2004-01-01

    High-quality PET imaging of pediatric patients is challenging and requires attention to issues commonly encountered in the practice of pediatric nuclear medicine, but uncommon to the imaging of adult patients. These include intravenous access, fasting, sedation, consent, and clearance of activity from the urinary tract. This paper discusses some technical differences involved in pediatric PET to enhance the quality of scans and assure the safety and comfort of pediatric patients. (orig.)

  4. Discordant Findings of Skeletal Metastasis Between Tc99m MDP Bone Scans and F18 FDG PET/CT Imaging for Advanced Breast and Lung Cancers—Two Case Reports and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, Tc99m methyl diphosphate (MDP bone scintigraphy provides high-sensitivity detection of skeletal metastasis from breast and lung cancers in regular follow-up. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT, based on the glucose metabolism of malignant cells, plays a role in describing rumor growth, proliferation of neoplasm and the extent of metastasis. In general, concordant findings of skeletal metastasis are seen on both types of image, especially in cases of breast and lung cancer. However, there were extremely discordant findings of skeletal metastasis between bone scans and F18 FDG PET/CT imaging in two cases among 300 consecutive F18 FDG PET/CT follow-up exams of patients with malignancies, during the past year, in our center. Both cases, one of breast cancer and one of lung cancer, had negative bone scintigraphic findings, but a diffusely high grade of F18 FDG avid marrow infiltration in the axial spine, leading to the diagnosis of stage IV disease in both cases. Owing to variant genetic aberrance of malignance, F18 FDG PET/CT reveals direct evidence of diffuse, rapid neoplasm metabolism in the bone marrow of the spine, but not of secondary osteoblastic reactions in vivo. F18 FDG PET/CT should always be employed in the follow-up of patients with malignancies.

  5. The Use of Novel PET Tracers to Image Breast Cancer Biologic Processes Such as Proliferation, DNA Damage and Repair, and Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Laura

    2016-02-01

    The balance between proliferation and cell death is pivotal to breast tumor growth. Because of a combination of environmental and genetic factors leading to activation of oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, these processes become deregulated in cancer. PET imaging of proliferation, angiogenesis, and DNA damage and repair offers the opportunity to monitor therapeutic efficacy to detect changes in tumor biology that may precede physical size reduction and simultaneously allows the study of intratumoral and intertumoral heterogeneity.This review examines recent developments in breast cancer imaging using novel probes. The probes discussed here are not licensed for routine use and are at various stages of development ranging from preclinical development (e.g., the DNA repair marker γH2AX) to clinical validation in larger studies (such as the proliferation probe 3'-deoxy-3'-(18)F-fluorothymidine [(18)F-FLT]). In breast cancer, most studies have focused on proliferation imaging mainly based on (18)F-labeled thymidine analogs. Initial studies have been promising; however, the results of larger validation studies are necessary before being incorporated into routine clinical use. Although there are distinct advantages in using process-specific probes, properties such as metabolism need careful consideration, because high background uptake in the liver due to glucuronidation in the case of (18)F-FLT may limit utility for imaging of liver metastases.Targeting angiogenesis has had some success in tumors such as renal cell carcinoma; however, angiogenesis inhibitors have not been particularly successful in the clinical treatment of breast cancer. This could be potentially attributed to patient selection due to the lack of validated predictive and responsive biomarkers; the quest for a successful noninvasive biomarker for angiogenesis could solve this challenge. Finally, we look at cell death including apoptosis and DNA damage and repair probes, the most well

  6. Initial experience with FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Cohade, Christian; Mourtzikos, Karen A.; Wahl, Richard L.; Fishman, Elliot K.

    2006-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed FDG-PET/CT images in patients with breast cancer to determine whether PET/CT improved the level of diagnostic confidence as compared with PET and to compare PET/CT and CT findings at the location of suspected malignancies. The study included 75 patients with known breast cancer. The initial PET/CT study for each patient was retrospectively reviewed to determine whether improved diagnostic confidence (IDC) regarding lesion localization and characterization was observed with PET/CT as compared with PET alone. PET/CT and CT findings were compared regarding lesion characterization and staging in 69 of the 75 patients, and in the case of discordant findings, comparison with histological or informative follow-up results was also performed. Fifty of the 75 patients exhibited increased FDG uptake in a total of 95 regions. In the comparison of PET/CT and PET, PET/CT resulted in IDC in 30 (60%) of these 50 patients and in 52 (55%) of the 95 regions. In the comparison between PET/CT and CT in 69 patients, PET/CT demonstrated a significantly better accuracy than CT (P<0.05). PET/CT showed definitely positive findings in 60 regions with malignancies, among which CT exhibited positive findings in 43 (72%). PET/CT and CT accurately staged 59 (86%) and 53 (77%) of the 69 patients, respectively. (orig.)

  7. PET scan for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  8. The value of delayed {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging for differentiating axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Young Sik; Son, Ju Cheol [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Cheol Woo [Dept. of Radiological Technology Dong-Eui Institute of Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) have been used as a powerful fusion modality in nuclear medicine not only for detecting cancer but also for staging and therapy monitoring. Nevertheless, there are various causes of FDG uptake in normal and/or benign tissues. The purpose of present study was to investigate whether additional delayed imaging can improve the diagnosis to differentiate the rates of FDG uptake at axillary lymph nodes (ALN) between malignant and benign in breast cancer patients. 180 PET/CT images were obtained for 27 patients with ALN uptake. The patients who had radiotherapy and chemotherapy were excluded from the study. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan at 50 min (early phase) and 90 min (delayed phase) after {sup 18}F-FDG injection were included in this retrospective study. The staging of cancers was confirmed by final clinical according to radiologic follow-up and pathologic findings. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of ALN was measured at the Syngo Acquisition Workplace by Siemens. The 27 patients included 18 malignant and 9 ALN benign groups and the 18 malignant groups were classified into the 3 groups according to number of metastatic ALN in each patient. ALNs were categorized less than or equal 3 as N1, between 4 to 9 as N2 and more than 10 as N3 group. Results are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation (S.D.) and statistically analyzed by SPSS. As a result, Retention index (RI-SUV max) in metastasis was significantly higher than that in non-metastasis about 5 fold increased. On the other hand, RI-SUV max in N group tended to decrease gradually from N1 to N3. However, we could not prove significance statistically in malignant group with ANOVA. As a consequence, RI-SUV max was good indicator for differentiating ALN positive group from node negative group in breast cancer patients. These results show that dual-time-point scan appears to be useful in distinguishing malignant from benign.

  9. Oncological applications of 18F-FDG PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lin

    2000-01-01

    Considering normal distribution of 18 F-FDG in human body, 18 F-FDG imaging using PET can be applied to brain tumors, colorectal cancer, lymphoma, melanoma, lung cancer and head and neck cancer. The author briefly focuses on application of 18 F-FDG PET imaging to breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, musculoskeletal neoplasms, endocrine neoplasms, genitourinary neoplasms, esophageal and gastric carcinomas

  10. FDG-PET/CT detection of very early breast cancer in women with breast microcalcification lesions found in mammography screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Nang-Jing; Chou, Chen-Pin; Pan, Huay-Ben; Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Hu, Chin; Chiu, Yu-Li; Fu, Ting-Ying; Chang, Hong-Tai

    2015-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of positron emission tomography/computed tomography with the glucose analogue 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET/CT) in Taiwanese women with early breast cancer detected by mammography screening. Dual-time-point imaging of whole-body supine and breast prone scans using FDG-PET/CT were performed sequentially in the pre-operative stage. A total of 11,849 patients underwent screening mammography, of whom 1,209 (10.2%) displayed positive results. After further investigation, 54 patients underwent FDG-PET/CT. Post-operative pathology examinations revealed malignancies in 26 lesions, including invasive breast cancer in 11 cases and non-invasive breast cancer in 15 cases, as well as benign disease in 30 lesions. The FDG-PET/CT findings from the whole-body scans were positive for 9 of 11 invasive breast cancers (81.8%) and 3 of 15 non-invasive cancers (20%), and they were negative for all benign lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of FDG-PET/CT with whole-body supine imaging were 46.2%, 100%, 100% and 68.2%, respectively. Breast prone imaging revealed another patient with ductal carcinoma in situ, increasing the sensitivity to 50%. Importantly, positive PET findings were significantly correlated with tumour histology (P = 0.006), tumour size (P = 0.039) and Ki-67 expression (P = 0.011). FDG-PET/CT with whole-body scanning demonstrated high sensitivity to invasive breast cancer, limited sensitivity to non-invasive breast cancer, and high specificity for breast cancer. FDG-PET/CT might be useful for differentiating tumour invasiveness. However, the good PPV but poor NPV do not allow the physician to discard the biopsy.

  11. Clinical Significance of Focal Breast Lesions Incidentally Identified by 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Seok; Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Su Jin; Hyun, Seung Hyup; Lee, Ji Young; Choi, Yong; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the incidence and malignant risk of focal breast lesions incidentally detected by 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Various PET/CT findings of the breast lesions were also analyzed to improve the differentiation between benign from malignant focal breast lesions. The subjects were 3,768 consecutive 18 F-FDG PET/CT exams performed in adult females without a history of breast cancer. A focal breast lesion was defined as a focal 18 F-FDG uptake or a focal nodular lesion on CT image irrespective of 18 F-FDG uptake in the breasts. The maximum SUV and CT pattern of focal breast lesions were evaluated, and were compared with final diagnosis. The incidence of focal breast lesions on PET/CT in adult female subjects was 1.4% (58 lesions in 53 subjects). In finally confirmed 53 lesions of 48 subjects, 11 lesions of 8 subjects (20.8%) were proven to be malignant. When the PET/CT patterns suggesting benignancy (maximum attenuation value > 75 HU or 20) were added as diagnostic criteria of PET/CT to differentiate benign from malignant breast lesions along with maximum SUV, the area under ROC curve of PET/CT was significantly increased compared with maximum SUV alone (0.680±0.093 vs. 0.786±0.076, p 18 F-FDG PET/CT is not low, deserving further diagnostic confirmation. Image interpretation considering both 18 F-FDG uptake and PET/CT pattern may be helpful to improve the differentiation from malignant and benign focal breast lesion

  12. The value of imaging examinations in diagnosis and curative effect evaluation of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Xiaotian; Zhang Yongxue

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a serious impact on women's physical and mental health and a life-threatening common disease. Imaging examinations have great significances in diagnosing and evaluating curative effect on breast cancer. This article aims to introduce and comprehensive the value of diagnosis and curative effect evaluation of breast cancer in the context of imaging examinations (ultrasonography, mammography, breast CT, breast MRI, breast 99 Tc m -MIBI imaging, PET, PET-CT, etc). (authors)

  13. Design and evaluation of the MAMMI dedicated breast PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moliner, L.; González, A. J.; Soriano, A.; Sánchez, F.; Correcher, C.; Orero, A.; Carles, M.; Vidal, L. F.; Barberá, J.; Caballero, L.; Seimetz, M.; Vázquez, C.; Benlloch, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A breast dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) scanner has been developed based on monolithic LYSO crystals coupled to position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs). In this study, we describe the design of the PET system and report on its performance evaluation. Methods: MAMMI is a breast PET scanner based on monolithic LYSO crystals. It consists of 12 compact modules with a transaxial field of view (FOV) of 170 mm in diameter and 40 mm axial FOV that translates to cover up to 170 mm. The patient lies down in a prone position that facilitates maximum breast elongation. Quantitative performance analysis of the calculated method for the attenuation correction specifically developed for MAMMI, and based on PET image segmentation, has also been conducted in this evaluation. In order to fully determine the MAMMI prototype's performance, we have adapted the measurements suggested for National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 2-2007 and NU 4-2008 protocol tests, as they are defined for whole-body and small animal PET scanners, respectively. Results: Spatial resolutions of 1.6, 1.8, and 1.9 mm were measured in the axial, radial, and tangential directions, respectively. A scatter fraction of 20.8% was obtained and the maximum NEC was determined to be 25 kcps at 44 MBq. The average sensitivity of the system was observed to be 1% for an energy window of (250 keV–750 keV) and a maximum absolute sensitivity of 1.8% was measured at the FOV center. Conclusions: The overall performance of the MAMMI reported on this evaluation quantifies its ability to produce high quality PET images. Spatial resolution values below 3 mm were measured in most of the FOV. Only the radial component of spatial resolution exceeds the 3 mm at radial positions larger than 60 mm. This study emphasizes the need for standardized testing methodologies for dedicated breast PET systems similar to NEMA standards for whole-body and small animal PET scanners.

  14. Direct Comparison of Radiolabeled Probes FMAU, FHBG, and FHPG as PET Imaging Agents for HSV1-tk Expression in a Human Breast Cancer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian M. Alauddin

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available 2′-Deoxy-2′-fluoro-5-methyl-1-β-d-arabinofuranosyluracil (FMAU, 9-(4-fluoro-3-hydroxy-methyl-butylguanine (FHBG and 9-[(3-fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxymethyl]-guanine (FHPG have been evaluated in a human breast cancer model as potential radiotracers for PET imaging of HSV1-tk gene expression. In vitro accumulation of [14C]FMAU, [18F]FHBG, and [18F]FHPG in HSV1-tk-expressing cells was 14- to 16-fold (p < .001, 9- to 13-fold (p < .001, and 2- to 3-fold (p < .05 higher than tk-negative control cells, respectively, between 30 and 240 min. Accumulation of FMAU and FHBG in vector-transduced cells was 10- to 14-fold and 6- to 10-fold higher than wild-type cells, respectively. At 2 hr, uptake of [14C]FMAU in tk-positive cells was 6.3-fold and 60-fold higher than [18F]FHBG and [18F]FHPG, respectively. In vivo, tumor uptake of [14C]FMAU in HSV1-tk-expressing cells was 3.7-fold and 5.5-fold (p < .001 higher than tk-negative control cells at 1 and 2 hr, respectively. Tumor uptake of [18F]FHBG was 4.2-fold and 12.6-fold higher (p < .001 than tk-negative cells at the same time points. Incorporation of [14C]FMAU in tk-positive tumor was 18-fold and 24-fold higher (p < .001 than [18F]FHBG at 1 and 2 hr, respectively. Micro-PET images support the biodistribution results and indicate that both [18F]FMAU and [18F]FHBG are useful for imaging HSV1-tk expression in breast cancer. Although FMAU demonstrates higher total incorporation (%dose/g in tumor tissue compared with the other tracers, FHBG is superior in terms of specific accumulation in transfected cells at later time points.

  15. PET-CT in the evaluation of metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, A.M.; Fulham, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman underwent two PET-CT scans for the evaluation of metastatic breast cancer. A radical left mastectomy with axillary dissection (1 of 43 nodes positive) followed by chemotherapy, was performed in 1998. She represented in October 2003 with a left supraclavicular fossa mass. This was confirmed to be recurrent breast cancer on FNAB. She was considered for a radical neck dissection and the surgeon requested a PET scan. Other imaging at this time included a normal bone scan and CT brain. CT neck/chest/abdomen/pelvis showed soft tissue thickening in the left lower neck. The PET-CT scan showed multiple glucose avid lesions in the sternum, mediastinum and neck lymph nodes as well as a small lesion in the proximal left femur consistent with extensive metastatic disease. Surgery was cancelled and Femara chemotherapy commenced. Femara was stopped in March 2004 and the patient began alternative therapies. In October 2004 she presented to her surgeon with new back and chest pain. CT of the neck/chest/abdomen/pelvis showed a soft tissue mass in the upper sternum and a lymph node at the base of the neck highly suspicious for metastatic disease. There were also 2 suspicious lung nodules and a lesion in the proximal left femur reported as an osteoid osteoma. Wholebody PET-CT scans were performed on a Siemens LSO Biograph, 60mins after the injection of 350Mbq of Fl 8-Fag, with arms at the patient's side and head in the field-of-view. On both occasions the patient had to pay for the scan. On the 2004 PET-CT scan, the CT brain revealed multiple hyperdense lesions consistent with hemorrhagic metastases. In addition, there were innumerable glucose avid foci involving viscera, nodes and skeleton consistent with disseminated disease. Our case illustrates: (i) the value of PET in the management of metastatic breast cancer; (ii) the improved accuracy of PET-CT in delineating sites of disease; (iii) the issues of head movement in PET-CT and. (iv) the problem with lack of

  16. Breast cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, M.; Villena, C.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in female breast imaging have substantially influenced the diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of breast cancer in the past few years. Mammography using conventional or digital technique is considered the gold standard for the early detection of breast cancer. Other modalities such as breast ultrasound and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast play an important role in diagnostic imaging, staging, and follow-up of breast cancer. Percutaneous needle biopsy is a faster, less invasive, and more cost-effective method than surgical biopsy for verifying the histological diagnosis. New methods such as breast tomosynthesis, contrast-enhanced mammography, and positron emission tomography promise to further improve breast imaging. Further studies are mandatory to adapt these new methods to clinical needs and to evaluate their performance in clinical practice. (orig.) [de

  17. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudgar, Amy V; Mankoff, David A

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine, basing treatment approaches on patient traits and specific molecular features of disease processes, has an important role in the management of patients with breast cancer as targeted therapies continue to improve. PET imaging offers noninvasive information that is complementary to traditional tissue biomarkers, including information about tumor burden, tumor metabolism, receptor status, and proliferation. Several PET agents that image breast cancer receptors can visually demonstrate the extent and heterogeneity of receptor-positive disease and help predict which tumors are likely to respond to targeted treatments. This review presents applications of PET imaging in the targeted treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnostic imaging of exotic pets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, S.

    1993-01-01

    Radiographic, ultrasonographic, and computed tomographic (CT) imaging are important diagnostic modalities in exotic pets. The use of appropriate radiographic equipment, film-screen combinations, and radiographic projections enhances the information obtained from radiographs. Both normal findings and common radiographic abnormalities are discussed. The use of ultrasonography and CT scanning for exotic small mammals and reptiles is described

  19. Neurotransmission imaging by PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Akihiro; Suhara, Tetsuya [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    PET studies on neurotransmission in psychological disorders to evaluate abnormal neurotransmission and therapeutic effects are thoroughly reviewed by type of major neurotransmitters. Studies on dopaminergic neurotransmission have focused on the function of dopamine D{sub 2} receptors, receptor subtypes, such as the D{sub 1} receptor, and ligands, such as transporters. PET studies of dopamine D{sub 2} receptor, which began in the early 1980s, have predominantly been performed in schizophrenia, and most have failed to detect any statistically significant differences between schizophrenia patients and controls. The studies in the early 1980s were performed by using [{sup 11}C]N-methyl-spiperone (NMSP) and [{sup 11}C]raclopride, ligands for striatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptors. [{sup 11}C]FLB457, which has much higher affinity for D{sub 2} receptors than raclopride, began to be used in the 1990s. Dopamine D{sub 2} occupancy after drug ingestion has also been investigated to clarify the mechanisms and effects of antipsychotic drugs, and there have also been studies on the effect of aging and personality traits on dopamine D{sub 2} receptor levels in healthy subjects. In studies on dopamine receptor subtypes other than D{sub 2}, dopamine D{sub 1} receptors have been studied in connection with assessments of cognitive functions. Most studies on dopamine transporters have been related to drug dependence. Serotonin 5-HT{sub 2A} receptors have been studied with [{sup 11}C]NMSP in schizophrenia patients, while studies of another serotonin receptor subtype, 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors, have been mainly conducted in patients with depression. [{sup 11}C]NMSP PET showed no difference between schizophrenia patients who had not undergone phamacotherapy and normal subjects. Because serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) affect serotonin transporters, and abnormalities in serotonin transporters detected in mood disorders, PET ligands for serotonin transporters have increasingly

  20. Neurotransmission imaging by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Akihiro; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2001-01-01

    PET studies on neurotransmission in psychological disorders to evaluate abnormal neurotransmission and therapeutic effects are thoroughly reviewed by type of major neurotransmitters. Studies on dopaminergic neurotransmission have focused on the function of dopamine D 2 receptors, receptor subtypes, such as the D 1 receptor, and ligands, such as transporters. PET studies of dopamine D 2 receptor, which began in the early 1980s, have predominantly been performed in schizophrenia, and most have failed to detect any statistically significant differences between schizophrenia patients and controls. The studies in the early 1980s were performed by using [ 11 C]N-methyl-spiperone (NMSP) and [ 11 C]raclopride, ligands for striatal dopamine D 2 receptors. [ 11 C]FLB457, which has much higher affinity for D 2 receptors than raclopride, began to be used in the 1990s. Dopamine D 2 occupancy after drug ingestion has also been investigated to clarify the mechanisms and effects of antipsychotic drugs, and there have also been studies on the effect of aging and personality traits on dopamine D 2 receptor levels in healthy subjects. In studies on dopamine receptor subtypes other than D 2 , dopamine D 1 receptors have been studied in connection with assessments of cognitive functions. Most studies on dopamine transporters have been related to drug dependence. Serotonin 5-HT 2A receptors have been studied with [ 11 C]NMSP in schizophrenia patients, while studies of another serotonin receptor subtype, 5-HT 1A receptors, have been mainly conducted in patients with depression. [ 11 C]NMSP PET showed no difference between schizophrenia patients who had not undergone phamacotherapy and normal subjects. Because serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) affect serotonin transporters, and abnormalities in serotonin transporters detected in mood disorders, PET ligands for serotonin transporters have increasingly been developed, and serotonin transporters have recently begun to be

  1. PET/MR Imaging in Gynecologic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohliger, Michael A; Hope, Thomas A; Chapman, Jocelyn S; Chen, Lee-May; Behr, Spencer C; Poder, Liina

    2017-08-01

    MR imaging and PET using 2-Deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoroglucose (FDG) are both useful in the evaluation of gynecologic malignancies. MR imaging is superior for local staging of disease whereas fludeoxyglucose FDG PET is superior for detecting distant metastases. Integrated PET/MR imaging scanners have great promise for gynecologic malignancies by combining the advantages of each modality into a single scan. This article reviews the technology behind PET/MR imaging acquisitions and technical challenges relevant to imaging the pelvis. A dedicated PET/MR imaging protocol; the roles of PET and MR imaging in cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers; and future directions for PET/MR imaging are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. FDG PET imaging dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Kyungpook National University Medical School and Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Dementia is a major burden for many countries including South Korea, where life expectancy is continuously growing and the proportion of aged people is rapidly growing. Neurodegenerative disorders, such as, Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia. Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Huntington disease, can cause dementia, and cerebrovascular disease also can cause dementia. Depression or hypothyroidism also can cause cognitive deficits, but they are reversible by management of underlying cause unlike the forementioned dementias. Therefore these are called pseudodementia. We are entering an era of dementia care that will be based upon the identification of potentially modifiable risk factors and early disease markers, and the application of new drugs postpone progression of dementias or target specific proteins that cause dementia. Efficient pharmacologic treatment of dementia needs not only to distinguish underlying causes of dementia but also to be installed as soon as possible. Therefore, differential diagnosis and early diagnosis of dementia are utmost importance. F-18 FDG PET is useful for clarifying dementing diseases and is also useful for early detection of the disease. Purpose of this article is to review the current value of FDG PET for dementing diseases including differential diagnosis of dementia and prediction of evolving dementia.

  3. FDG PET imaging dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol

    2007-01-01

    Dementia is a major burden for many countries including South Korea, where life expectancy is continuously growing and the proportion of aged people is rapidly growing. Neurodegenerative disorders, such as, Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia. Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Huntington disease, can cause dementia, and cerebrovascular disease also can cause dementia. Depression or hypothyroidism also can cause cognitive deficits, but they are reversible by management of underlying cause unlike the forementioned dementias. Therefore these are called pseudodementia. We are entering an era of dementia care that will be based upon the identification of potentially modifiable risk factors and early disease markers, and the application of new drugs postpone progression of dementias or target specific proteins that cause dementia. Efficient pharmacologic treatment of dementia needs not only to distinguish underlying causes of dementia but also to be installed as soon as possible. Therefore, differential diagnosis and early diagnosis of dementia are utmost importance. F-18 FDG PET is useful for clarifying dementing diseases and is also useful for early detection of the disease. Purpose of this article is to review the current value of FDG PET for dementing diseases including differential diagnosis of dementia and prediction of evolving dementia

  4. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...... various requirements to be fulfilled in the design of an imaging system for breast cancer detection and some strategies to overcome these limitations....

  5. Optical Imaging of the Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2011-01-01

    As the increased prevalence of breast cancer and the advances in breast evaluation awareness have resulted in an increased number of breast examinations and benign breast biopsies, several investigations have been performed to improve the diagnostic accuracy for breast lesions. Optical imaging of the breast that uses nearinfrared light to assess the optical properties of breast tissue is a novel non-invasive imaging technique to characterize breast lesions in clinical practice. This review provides a summary of the current state of optical breast imaging and it describes the basic concepts of optical imaging, the potential clinical applications for breast cancer imaging and its potential incorporation with other imaging modalities

  6. Breast hemangioma mimicking metastasis at PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Sabas Carlos [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina; Silva, Jucelia Saraiva e [MedImagem, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Clinica Medica; Madeira, Eveline Brandao; Franca, Julio Cesar Queiroz de; Martins Filho, Sebastiao Nunes [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Breast hemangioma is a rare benign tumor that presents either absent or low {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake at positron emission tomography (PET). The authors report the case of a breast nodule pathologically compatible with hemangioma in a woman whose PET-scan has demonstrated increased FDG uptake (simulating a malignant tumor). A brief review of factors leading to false positive and false negative PET results is also undertaken. (author)

  7. Performance of FDG PET/CT in the clinical management of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groheux, David; Espié, Marc; Giacchetti, Sylvie; Hindié, Elif

    2013-02-01

    In this analysis, the role of metabolic imaging with fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in breast cancer is reviewed. The analysis was limited to recent works by using state-of-the-art positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) technology. The strengths and limitations of FDG PET/CT are examined in various clinical settings, and the following questions are answered: Is FDG PET/CT useful to differentiate malignant from benign breast lesions? Can FDG PET/CT replace sentinel node biopsy for axillary staging? What is the role of FDG PET/CT in initial staging of inflammatory or locally advanced breast cancer? What is the role of FDG PET/CT in initial staging of clinical stage IIA and IIB and primary operable stage IIIA breast cancer? How does FDG PET/CT compare with conventional techniques in the restaging of cancer in patients who are suspected of having disease recurrence? What is the role of FDG PET/CT in the assessment of early response to neoadjuvant therapy and of response to therapy for metastatic disease? Some recommendations for clinical practice are given.

  8. Clinical and diagnostic value of preoperative MR mammography and FDG-PET in suspicious breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, C.; Scheidhauer, K.; Theissen, P.; Scharl, A.; Goering, U.J.; Kugel, H.; Krahe, T.; Pietrzyk, U.

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) mammography and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) of the breast were directly compared preoperatively in suspicious breast lesions. Forty-two breast lesions in 40 patients were examined with a three-dimensional dynamic MR imaging series and FDG-PET. The MR and PET examinations were evaluated separately and the results were compared with the histological findings. The sensitivity and specificity of each method were calculated. The diagnostic value of both modalities as single diagnostic tool and in combination was investigated. Nineteen malignant and 23 benign breast lesions were proven histologically. Magnetic resonance mammography and FDG-PET showed a sensitivity of 89 and 63%, respectively. The specificity was 74 and 91%, respectively. The combination of both imaging methods decreased the not-required biopsies from 55 to 17%. Only one false-negative finding - a patient pre-treated with chemotherapy - was observed in both methods. The combination of MR mammography and FDG-PET can help to decrease biopsies of benign breast lesions. Because of their high cost, these modalities should only be used in problematic cases to either rule out or to demonstrate malignancy. The best diagnostic strategy is achieved using MR mammography first. If the diagnosis is still questionable, FDG-PET can be performed. (orig.)

  9. Alpha-V Integrin Targeted PET Imagining of Breast Cancer Angiogenesis and Lose-Dose Metronomic Anti-Angiogenic Chemotherapy Efficacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2005-01-01

    ...) To demonstrate the feasibility of PET/18F-RGD to image breast tumor growth, spread, and angiogenesis as well as quantifying av-integrin expression level during breast tumor neovascularization overtime. (3...

  10. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semah, F.

    2007-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging are very useful for the management of patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy. Presurgical evaluation of patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy often included PET imaging using FDG. The use of SPECT in these patients adds some more information and gives the clinicians the possibility of having ictal imaging. Furthermore, PET and SPECT imaging are performed to better understand the pathophysiology of epilepsy. (authors)

  11. A Virtual Clinical Trial of FDG-PET Imaging of Breast Cancer: Effect of Variability on Response Assessment1

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Robert L; Elston, Brian F; Doot, Robert K; Lewellen, Thomas K; Mankoff, David A; Kinahan, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is growing interest in using positron emission tomography (PET) standardized uptake values (SUVs) to assess tumor response to therapy. However, many error sources compromise the ability to detect SUV changes. We explore relationships between these errors and overall SUV variability. METHODS: We used simulations in a virtual clinical trial framework to study impacts of error sources from scanning and analysis effects on assessment of SUV changes. We varied tumor diameter, s...

  12. Breast Fibroadenoma With Increased Activity on 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Millo, Corina; Sadowski, Samira M; Karantanas, Apostolos H; Bagci, Ulas; Patronas, Nicholas J

    2017-02-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common benign breast tumor in women of reproductive age, carrying little to no risk of breast cancer development. We report on a case of a woman with history of neuroendocrine tumor who on follow-up imaging tests underwent whole-body PET/CT study using Ga DOTATATE. The scan showed increased focal activity in the right breast, which was biopsied revealing a fibroadenoma. The presented data suggests cell surface overexpression of somatostatin receptors by this benign breast tumor. Moreover, this finding emphasizes the need for cautious interpretation of Ga DOTATATE-avid breast lesions that could mimic malignancy in neuroendocrine tumor patients.

  13. Standardized uptake value and quantification of metabolism for breast cancer imaging with FDG and L-[1-C-11]tyrosine PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, AC; Nieweg, OE; Pruim, J; Paans, AMJ; Plukker, JTM; Hoekstra, HJ; Vaalburg, W; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    The aims of the study were to compare the value of L-[1-C-11]tyrosine (TYR) and [F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) as tumor tracers in patients with breast cancer, to investigate the correlation between quantitative values and standardized uptake values (SUVs) and to estimate the value of SUVs for

  14. Molecular Imaging Challenges With PET

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2010-01-01

    The future trends in molecular imaging and associated challenges for in-vivo functional imaging are illustrated on the basis of a few examples, such as atherosclerosis vulnerable plaques imaging or stem cells tracking. A set of parameters are derived to define the specifications of a new generation of in-vivo imaging devices in terms of sensitivity, spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. The limitations of strategies used in present PET scanners are discussed and new approaches are proposed taking advantage of recent progress on materials, photodetectors and readout electronics. A special focus is put on metamaterials, as a new approach to bring more functionality to detection devices. It is shown that the route is now open towards a fully digital detector head with very high photon counting capability over a large energy range, excellent timing precision and possibility of imaging the energy deposition process.

  15. PET/MR Imaging in Vascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Pedersen, Sune Folke; Kjær, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    For imaging of atherosclerotic disease, lumenography using computed tomography, ultrasonography, or invasive angiography is still the backbone of evaluation. However, these methods are less effective to predict the likelihood of future thromboembolic events caused by vulnerability of plaques. PET...... through data and arguments that support increased use of PET/MR imaging in atherosclerotic imaging....

  16. Hybrid 18F-FDG PET/MRI might improve locoregional staging of breast cancer patients prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goorts, Briete; Nijnatten, Thiemo J.A. van; Voeoe, Stefan; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Lobbes, Marc B.I.; Kooreman, Loes F.S.; Boer, Maaike de; Keymeulen, Kristien B.M.I.; Aarnoutse, Romy; Smidt, Marjolein L.; Mottaghy, Felix M.

    2017-01-01

    Our purpose in this study was to assess the added clinical value of hybrid 18 F-FDG-PET/MRI compared to conventional imaging for locoregional staging in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). In this prospective study, primary invasive cT2-4 N0 or cT1-4 N+ breast cancer patients undergoing NAC were included. A PET/MRI breast protocol was performed before treatment. MR images were evaluated by a breast radiologist, blinded for PET images. PET images were evaluated by a nuclear physician. Afterwards, a combined PET/MRI report was written. PET/MRI staging was compared to conventional imaging, i.e., mammography, ultrasound and MRI. The proportion of patients with a modified treatment plan based on PET/MRI findings was analyzed. A total of 40 patients was included. PET/MRI was of added clinical value in 20.0% (8/40) of patients, changing the treatment plan in 10% and confirming the malignancy of suspicious lesions on MRI in another 10%. In seven (17.5%) patients radiotherapy fields were extended because of additional or affirmative PET/MRI findings being lymph node metastases (n = 5) and sternal bone metastases (n = 2). In one (2.5%) patient radiotherapy fields were reduced because of fewer lymph node metastases on PET/MRI compared to conventional imaging. Interestingly, all treatment changes were based on differences in number of lymph nodes suspicious for metastasis or number of distant metastasis, whereas differences in intramammary tumor extent were not observed. Prior to NAC, PET/MRI shows promising results for locoregional staging compared to conventional imaging, changing the treatment plan in 10% of patients and potentially replacing PET/CT or tissue sampling in another 10% of patients. (orig.)

  17. Diagnostic evaluation of the breast using PET: optimization of data acquisition and postprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, G.; Lucht, R.; Henze, M.; Doll, J.; Zaers, J.; Trojan, H.; Knopp, M.V.; Haberkorn, U.; Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Development and evaluation of an optimized protocol for PET examinations of the female breast with 2-F-18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (F-18-FDG). Methods: All PET measurements were performed with a whole-body PET system (ECAT EXACT HR + ). In order to examine the women with the breasts freely pendant, a special extension for the patient table made of carbon layer composite was designed. After data acquisition in the 3D modus, emission data were sorted into 2D sinograms using the Fourier rebinning algorithm and reconstructed by means of an ultra-fast iterative 2D algorithm (HOSP). The reconstructed emission scans were superimposed onto the corresponding transmission images. The protocol presented was evaluated in examinations on 6 women with breast lesions after the administration of 150-220 MBq F-18-FDG. From two adjacent bed positions, emission and transmission data were acquired over periods of 20 min and 10 min, respectively. For comparison, dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) image series were acquired with a whole-body MR system (MAGNETOM SP 4000) using a double-breast coil. Results and Conclusion: Using the designed extension of the patient table, it was possible to examine corpulent women despite the limited patient part of the PET system in the prone position with the breasts freely pendant. Alongside a reduction in motion artifacts, this positioning also offers the possibility of making a direct comparison between PET and MR images. Despite the fact that the amount of F-18-FDG applied to the patient was markedly reduced, the combination of 3D data acquisition and iterative image reconstruction resulted in excellent quality of the emission scans. By superpositioning of iteratively reconstructed emission and transmission scans, anatomical localization of breast lesions visualized on the emission scans could be improved. The postprocessing of the PET data described was completed in 60 min, this meaning that the presented concept can readily be employed in

  18. Quantitative simultaneous PET-MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jinsong; Petibon, Yoann; Huang, Chuan; Reese, Timothy G.; Kolnick, Aleksandra L.; El Fakhri, Georges

    2014-06-01

    Whole-body PET is currently limited by the degradation due to patient motion. Respiratory motion degrades imaging studies of the abdomen. Similarly, both respiratory and cardiac motions significantly hamper the assessment of myocardial ischemia and/or metabolism in perfusion and viability cardiac PET studies. Based on simultaneous PET-MR, we have developed robust and accurate MRI methods allowing the tracking and measurement of both respiratory and cardiac motions during abdominal or cardiac studies. Our list-mode iterative PET reconstruction framework incorporates the measured motion fields into PET emission system matrix as well as the time-dependent PET attenuation map and the position dependent point spread function. Our method significantly enhances the PET image quality as compared to conventional methods.

  19. PET-MRI and multimodal cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Taisong; Zhao Jinhua; Song Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Multimodality imaging, specifically PET-CT, brought a new perspective into the fields of clinical imaging. Clinical cases have shown that PET-CT has great value in clinical diagnosis and experimental research. But PET-CT still bears some limitations. A major drawback is that CT provides only limited soft tissue contrast and exposes the patient to a significant radiation dose. MRI overcome these limitations, it has excellent soft tissue contrast, high temporal and spatial resolution and no radiation damage. Additionally, since MRI provides also functional information, PET-MRI will show a new direction of multimodality imaging in the future. (authors)

  20. Investigation progress of PET reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yumei; Huang Gang

    2006-01-01

    Molecular imaging for gene therapy and gene expression has been more and more attractive, while the use of gene therapy has been widely investigated and intense research have allowed it to the clinical setting in the last two-decade years. In vivo imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) by combination of appropriate PET reporter gene and PET reporter probe could provide qualitative and quantitative information for gene therapy. PET imaging could also obtain some valuable parameters not available by other techniques. This technology is useful to understand the process and development of gene therapy and how to apply it into clinical practice in the future. (authors)

  1. A dedicated breast-PET/CT scanner: Evaluation of basic performance characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raylman, Raymond R; Van Kampen, Will; Stolin, Alexander V; Gong, Wenbo; Jaliparthi, Gangadhar; Martone, Peter F; Smith, Mark F; Sarment, David; Clinthorne, Neal H; Perna, Mark

    2018-04-01

    Application of advanced imaging techniques, such as PET and x ray CT, can potentially improve detection of breast cancer. Unfortunately, both modalities have challenges in the detection of some lesions. The combination of the two techniques, however, could potentially lead to an overall improvement in diagnostic breast imaging. The purpose of this investigation is to test the basic performance of a new dedicated breast-PET/CT. The PET component consists of a rotating pair of detectors. Its performance was evaluated using the NEMA NU4-2008 protocols. The CT component utilizes a pulsed x ray source and flat panel detector mounted on the same gantry as the PET scanner. Its performance was assessed using specialized phantoms. The radiation dose to a breast during CT imaging was explored by the measurement of free-in-air kerma and air kerma measured at the center of a 16 cm-diameter PMMA cylinder. Finally, the combined capabilities of the system were demonstrated by imaging of a micro-hot-rod phantom. Overall, performance of the PET component is comparable to many pre-clinical and other dedicated breast-PET scanners. Its spatial resolution is 2.2 mm, 5 mm from the center of the scanner using images created with the single-sliced-filtered-backprojection algorithm. Peak NECR is 24.6 kcps; peak sensitivity is 1.36%; the scatter fraction is 27%. Spatial resolution of the CT scanner is 1.1 lp/mm at 10% MTF. The free-in-air kerma is 2.33 mGy, while the PMMA-air kerma is 1.24 mGy. Finally, combined imaging of a micro-hot-rod phantom illustrated the potential utility of the dual-modality images produced by the system. The basic performance characteristics of a new dedicated breast-PET/CT scanner are good, demonstrating that its performance is similar to current dedicated PET and CT scanners. The potential value of this system is the capability to produce combined duality-modality images that could improve detection of breast disease. The next stage in development of this system

  2. PET and Hormone Receptor Ligands in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gemignani, Mary

    2006-01-01

    .... To investigate this further, this project's objectives are: To evaluate the use of estrogen-like ligands labeled with positron emitters in preoperatively determining the ER status of breast cancer using PET...

  3. FDG-PET in monitoring therapy of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H J; Bender, H; Palmedo, H [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127, Bonn (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been used successfully for the staging and re-staging of breast cancer. Another significant indication is the evaluation of therapy response. Only limited data are available on the use of FDG-PET in breast cancer after radiation therapy. The same holds true for chemotherapy. Only the therapy response in locally advanced breast cancer after chemotherapy has been investigated thoroughly. Histopathological response could be predicted with an accuracy of 88-91% after the first and second courses of therapy. A quantitative evaluation is, of course, a prerequisite when FDG-PET is used for therapy monitoring. Only a small number of studies have focussed on hormone therapy. In this context, a flare phenomenon with increasing standardised uptake values after initiation of tamoxifen therapy has been observed. More prospective multicentre trials will be needed to make FDG-PET a powerful tool in monitoring chemotherapy in breast cancer. (orig.)

  4. FDG-PET in monitoring therapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Bender, H.; Palmedo, H.

    2004-01-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been used successfully for the staging and re-staging of breast cancer. Another significant indication is the evaluation of therapy response. Only limited data are available on the use of FDG-PET in breast cancer after radiation therapy. The same holds true for chemotherapy. Only the therapy response in locally advanced breast cancer after chemotherapy has been investigated thoroughly. Histopathological response could be predicted with an accuracy of 88-91% after the first and second courses of therapy. A quantitative evaluation is, of course, a prerequisite when FDG-PET is used for therapy monitoring. Only a small number of studies have focussed on hormone therapy. In this context, a flare phenomenon with increasing standardised uptake values after initiation of tamoxifen therapy has been observed. More prospective multicentre trials will be needed to make FDG-PET a powerful tool in monitoring chemotherapy in breast cancer. (orig.)

  5. A meta-analysis of 18F-FDG PET or PET/CT for the evaluation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Yun; Zhang Min; Guo Rui; Zhang Miao; Hu Jiajia; Li Biao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the accuracy and predictive value of 18 F-FDG PET or PET/CT in the assessment of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer by meta-analysis. Methods: Relevant studies were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane and Wanfang, in English or Chinese. To ensure the homogeneity of all included studies, selection criteria were established and all the studies were scored according to a quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS) table. The combined Se, Sp, LR, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and AUC of PET and other conventional imaging techniques were compared. The assessment standard of neoadjuvant chemotherapy by conventional imaging techniques is tumor size change. Funnel plot and analysis with meta-regression were performed to explore the source of heterogeneity. Results: Sixteen eligible studies were included with a total of 662 subjects. The combined results were: (1) PET: Se PET 86.1% (247/287), Sp PET 69.6% (261/375), LR + PET 3.18, LR - PET 0.23, DOR PET 17.26; (2) Other imaging techniques: Se d 57.2% (91/159), Sp d 48.5% (50/103), LR + d 1.07, LR - d 0.87, DOR d 1.30. ROC analysis showed that Q * values of PET (Q PET * ) and other imaging techniques (Q d * ) were 0.8058 and 0.5328, respectively. Funnel plot showed that publication bias was not the main source of heterogeneity. Meta-regression results suggested that the year of publication might be one of the sources of heterogeneity (P=0.05). Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that, in the assessment of treatment response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer, FDG PET or PET/CT in monitoring the changes in glucose metabolism is more accurate than conventional imaging techniques in monitoring tumor size. (authors)

  6. Kinetic modeling in PET imaging of hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fan; Jørgensen, Jesper Tranekjær; Hansen, Anders E

    2014-01-01

    be used for non-invasive mapping of tissue oxygenation in vivo and several hypoxia specific PET tracers have been developed. Evaluation of PET data in the clinic is commonly based on visual assessment together with semiquantitative measurements e.g. standard uptake value (SUV). However, dynamic PET......Tumor hypoxia is associated with increased therapeutic resistance leading to poor treatment outcome. Therefore the ability to detect and quantify intratumoral oxygenation could play an important role in future individual personalized treatment strategies. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) can...... analysis for PET imaging of hypoxia....

  7. Preoperative PET/CT in early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, M; Berthelsen, A K; Timmermans-Wielenga, Vera

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer.......The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer....

  8. Staging performance of whole-body DWI, PET/CT and PET/MRI in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Onofrio Antonio; Daye, Dania; Signore, Alberto; Iannace, Carlo; Vangel, Mark; Luongo, Angelo; Catalano, Marco; Filomena, Mazzeo; Mansi, Luigi; Soricelli, Andrea; Salvatore, Marco; Fuin, Niccolo; Catana, Ciprian; Mahmood, Umar; Rosen, Bruce Robert

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (WB-DWI), whole-body positron emission tomography with computed tomography (WB-PET/CT), and whole-body positron emission tomography with magnetic resonance imaging (WB-PET/MRI) in staging patients with untreated invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Fifty-one women with newly diagnosed invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast underwent WB-DWI, WB-PET/CT and WB-PET/MRI before treatment. A radiologist and a nuclear medicine physician reviewed in consensus the images from the three modalities and searched for occurrence, number and location of metastases. Final staging, according to each technique, was compared. Pathology and imaging follow-up were used as the reference. WB-DWI, WB-PET/CT and WB-PET/MRI correctly and concordantly staged 33/51 patients: stage IIA in 7 patients, stage IIB in 8 patients, stage IIIC in 4 patients and stage IV in 14 patients. WB-DWI, WB-PET/CT and WB-PET/MRI incorrectly and concordantly staged 1/51 patient as stage IV instead of IIIA. Discordant staging was reported in 17/51 patients. WB-PET/MRI resulted in improved staging when compared to WB-PET/CT (50 correctly staged on WB-PET/MRI vs. 38 correctly staged on WB-PET/CT; McNemar's test; p<0.01). Comparing the performance of WB-PET/MRI and WB-DWI (43 correct) did not reveal a statistically significant difference (McNemar test, p=0.14). WB-PET/MRI is more accurate in the initial staging of breast cancer than WB-DWI and WB-PET/CT, however, the discrepancies between WB-PET/MRI and WB-DWI were not statistically significant. When available, WB-PET/MRI should be considered for staging patient with invasive ductal breast carcinoma.

  9. Predicting neo-adjuvant chemotherapy response and progression-free survival of locally advanced breast cancer using textural features of intratumoral heterogeneity on F-18 FDG PET/CT and diffusion-weighted MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hai-Jeon; Kim, Yemi; Chung, Jin; Kim, Bom Sahn

    2018-03-30

    Predicting response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and survival in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) is important. This study investigated the prognostic value of tumor heterogeneity evaluated with textural analysis through F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). We enrolled 83 patients with LABC who had completed NAC and curative surgery. Tumor texture indices from pretreatment FDG PET and DWI were extracted from histogram analysis and 7 different parent matrices: co-occurrence matrix, the voxel-alignment matrix, neighborhood intensity difference matrix, intensity size-zone matrix (ISZM), normalized gray-level co-occurrence matrix (NGLCM), neighboring gray-level dependence matrix (NGLDM), and texture spectrum matrix. The predictive values of textural features were tested regarding both pathologic NAC response and progression-free survival. Among 83 patients, 46 were pathologic responders, while 37 were nonresponders. The PET texture indices from 7 parent matrices, DWI texture indices from histogram, and 1 parent matrix (NGLCM) showed significant differences according to NAC response. On multivariable analysis, number nonuniformity of PET extracted from the NGLDM was an independent predictor of pathologic response (P = .009). During a median follow-up period of 17.3 months, 14 patients experienced recurrence. High-intensity zone emphasis (HIZE) and high-intensity short-zone emphasis (HISZE) from PET extracted from ISZM were significant textural predictors (P = .011 and P = .033). On Cox regression analysis, only HIZE was a significant predictor of recurrence (P = .027), while HISZE showed borderline significance (P = .107). Tumor texture indices are useful for NAC response prediction in LABC. Moreover, PET texture indices can help to predict disease recurrence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Clinical PET/MR Imaging in Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Andreas; Torigian, Drew A.

    2016-01-01

    . The question, therefore, arises regarding what the future clinical applications of PET/MR imaging will be. In this article, the authors discuss ways in which PET/MR imaging may be used in future applications that justify the added cost, predominantly focusing on oncologic applications. The authors suggest...

  11. Magnetic Resonance-based Motion Correction for Quantitative PET in Simultaneous PET-MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakvongthai, Yothin; El Fakhri, Georges

    2017-07-01

    Motion degrades image quality and quantitation of PET images, and is an obstacle to quantitative PET imaging. Simultaneous PET-MR offers a tool that can be used for correcting the motion in PET images by using anatomic information from MR imaging acquired concurrently. Motion correction can be performed by transforming a set of reconstructed PET images into the same frame or by incorporating the transformation into the system model and reconstructing the motion-corrected image. Several phantom and patient studies have validated that MR-based motion correction strategies have great promise for quantitative PET imaging in simultaneous PET-MR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fully automated deformable registration of breast DCE-MRI and PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, I. D.; Loo, C. E.; Vogel, W. V.; Pengel, K. E.; Gilhuijs, K. G. A.

    2013-02-01

    Accurate characterization of breast tumors is important for the appropriate selection of therapy and monitoring of the response. For this purpose breast imaging and tissue biopsy are important aspects. In this study, a fully automated method for deformable registration of DCE-MRI and PET/CT of the breast is presented. The registration is performed using the CT component of the PET/CT and the pre-contrast T1-weighted non-fat suppressed MRI. Comparable patient setup protocols were used during the MRI and PET examinations in order to avoid having to make assumptions of biomedical properties of the breast during and after the application of chemotherapy. The registration uses a multi-resolution approach to speed up the process and to minimize the probability of converging to local minima. The validation was performed on 140 breasts (70 patients). From a total number of registration cases, 94.2% of the breasts were aligned within 4.0 mm accuracy (1 PET voxel). Fused information may be beneficial to obtain representative biopsy samples, which in turn will benefit the treatment of the patient.

  13. PET tracer for imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    There is provided a radiolabelled peptide-based compound for diagnostic imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). The compound may thus be used for diagnosis of malignant diseases. The compound is particularly useful for imaging of somatostatin overexpression in tumors, wherein the compound...... is capable of being imaged by PET when administered with a target dose in the range of 150-350 MBq, such as 150-250 MBq, preferable in the range of 191-210 MBq....

  14. Progress of PET imaging in Schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Li; Gao Shuo

    2011-01-01

    PET is an important functional neuroimaging technique that can be used to assessment of cerebral metabolic activity and blood flow and identifies the distribution of important neurotransmitters in the human brain. Compared with other conventional imaging techniques, PET enables regional cerebral glucose metabolism, blood flow, dopaminergic and serotonergic receptor function to be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. In recent years, PET increasingly being used greatly to advance our understanding of the neurobiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This review focuses on the use of PET tracers in identifying regional brain abnormalities and regions associated with cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. (authors)

  15. Quantitative PET imaging with the 3T MR-BrainPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirich, C.; Scheins, J.; Lohmann, P.; Tellmann, L.; Byars, L.; Michel, C.; Rota Kops, E.; Brenner, D.; Herzog, H.; Shah, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    The new hybrid imaging technology of MR-PET allows for simultaneous acquisition of versatile MRI contrasts and the quantitative metabolic imaging with PET. In order to achieve the quantification of PET images with minimal residual error the application of several corrections is crucial. In this work we present our results on quantification with the 3T MR BrainPET scanner

  16. 18F-Fluoride PET/CT tumor burden quantification predicts survival in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Ana E; Santos, Allan; Sasse, André Deeke; Cabello, Cesar; Oliveira, Paulo; Mosci, Camila; Souza, Tiago; Amorim, Barbara; Lima, Mariana; Ramos, Celso D; Etchebehere, Elba

    2017-05-30

    In bone-metastatic breast cancer patients, there are no current imaging biomarkers to identify which patients have worst prognosis. The purpose of our study was to investigate if skeletal tumor burden determined by 18F-Fluoride PET/CT correlates with clinical outcomes and may help define prognosis throughout the course of the disease. Bone metastases were present in 49 patients. On multivariable analysis, skeletal tumor burden was significantly and independently associated with overall survival (p breast cancer patients (40 for primary staging and the remainder for restaging after therapy). Clinical parameters, primary tumor characteristics and skeletal tumor burden were correlated to overall survival, progression free-survival and time to bone event. The median follow-up time was 19.5 months. 18F-Fluoride PET/CT skeletal tumor burden is a strong independent prognostic imaging biomarker in breast cancer patients.

  17. Remote transfer of PET images by internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Chuantao; Lin Xiangtong; Guan Yihui; Zhao Jun

    2003-01-01

    The methodology of PET image remote transfer by Internet has been explored. The original images were got with ECAT EXACT HR + PET, and then converted to Dicom format by Mview software. The Dicom images were transferred via Internet. Thus the PET images were transferred via Internet successfully. The ideal images were obtained away from 8 km. The transfer time of brain and whole body image was (37±3)s and (245±10)s respectively, while the transfer rate was (34.7±2.8) kbyte/s and (34.4±1.5)kbyte/s, respectively. The results showed that the remote transfer via Internet was feasible and practical

  18. Kinetic modeling in PET imaging of hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Joergensen, Jesper T; Hansen, Anders E; Kjaer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia is associated with increased therapeutic resistance leading to poor treatment outcome. Therefore the ability to detect and quantify intratumoral oxygenation could play an important role in future individual personalized treatment strategies. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) can be used for non-invasive mapping of tissue oxygenation in vivo and several hypoxia specific PET tracers have been developed. Evaluation of PET data in the clinic is commonly based on visual assessment together with semiquantitative measurements e.g. standard uptake value (SUV). However, dynamic PET contains additional valuable information on the temporal changes in tracer distribution. Kinetic modeling can be used to extract relevant pharmacokinetic parameters of tracer behavior in vivo that reflects relevant physiological processes. In this paper, we review the potential contribution of kinetic analysis for PET imaging of hypoxia. PMID:25250200

  19. Detection of synchronous parathyroid adenoma and breast cancer with {sup 18}F-fluorocholine PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorselaars, Wessel MCM; Kluijfthout, Wiuter P.; Vriens, Menno R; Van der Pol, Carmen C.; Rinkes, Inne HM Borel; Valk, Gerlof D.; De Keizer, Bart [University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    A 71-year-old woman was referred to our tertiary care center for evaluation of asymptomatic recurrence of primary hyperparathyroidism. As per our protocol, the patient underwent neck/mediastinum {sup 18}F-fluorocholine (FCH) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) for localization. In our institution, FCH PET-CT is performed in patients with hyperparathyroidism and negative conventional imaging. FCH PET-CT is a promising new imaging modality for detection of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands. As can be seen in the case presented, high FCH uptake was seen in a small breast cancer. Due to its favorable half-life and wide availability by its use as a localization technique for patients with prostate cancer and complicated hyperparathyroidism, FCH PET-CT may be a new promising modality in the imaging of breast cancer.

  20. Quantitative assessment of dynamic PET imaging data in cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzi, Mark; O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Mankoff, David A; Doot, Robert K; Pierce, Larry A; Kurland, Brenda F; Linden, Hannah M; Kinahan, Paul E

    2012-11-01

    Clinical imaging in positron emission tomography (PET) is often performed using single-time-point estimates of tracer uptake or static imaging that provides a spatial map of regional tracer concentration. However, dynamic tracer imaging can provide considerably more information about in vivo biology by delineating both the temporal and spatial pattern of tracer uptake. In addition, several potential sources of error that occur in static imaging can be mitigated. This review focuses on the application of dynamic PET imaging to measuring regional cancer biologic features and especially in using dynamic PET imaging for quantitative therapeutic response monitoring for cancer clinical trials. Dynamic PET imaging output parameters, particularly transport (flow) and overall metabolic rate, have provided imaging end points for clinical trials at single-center institutions for years. However, dynamic imaging poses many challenges for multicenter clinical trial implementations from cross-center calibration to the inadequacy of a common informatics infrastructure. Underlying principles and methodology of PET dynamic imaging are first reviewed, followed by an examination of current approaches to dynamic PET image analysis with a specific case example of dynamic fluorothymidine imaging to illustrate the approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Breast fibroadenoma with increased activity on 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Millo, Corina; Sadowski, Samira M.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.; Bagci, Ulas; Patronas, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common benign breast tumor in women of reproductive age, carrying little to no risk of breast cancer development. We report on a case of a woman with history of neuroendocrine tumor (NET), who on follow-up imaging tests underwent whole-body PET/CT study using 68Ga-DOTATATE. The scan showed increased focal activity in the right breast, which was biopsied revealing a fibroadenoma. The presented data suggests cell surface over-expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) by this benign breast tumor. Moreover, this finding emphasizes the need for cautious interpretation of 68Ga-DOTATATE avid breast lesions which could mimic malignancy in NET patients. PMID:27879489

  2. Gamma-ray detectors for breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark B.; Goode, Allen R.; Majewski, Stan; Steinbach, Daniela; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Wojcik, Randolph F.; Farzanpay, Farzin

    1997-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer of American women and is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women aged 15 - 54; however recent years have shown that early detection using x-ray mammography can lead to a high probability of cure. However, because of mammography's low positive predictive value, surgical or core biopsy is typically required for diagnosis. In addition, the low radiographic contrast of many nonpalpable breast masses, particularly among women with radiographically dense breasts, results in an overall rate of 10% to 25% for missed tumors. Nuclear imaging of the breast using single gamma emitters (scintimammography) such as (superscript 99m)Tc, or positron emitters such as F-18- fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for positron emission tomography (PET), can provide information on functional or metabolic tumor activity that is complementary to the structural information of x-ray mammography, thereby potentially reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies and missed cancers. This paper summarizes recent data on the efficacy of scintimammography using conventional gamma cameras, and describes the development of dedicated detectors for gamma emission breast imaging. The detectors use new, high density crystal scintillators and large area position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs). Detector design, imaging requirements, and preliminary measured imaging performance are discussed.

  3. A False Positive {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT Scan Caused by Breast Silicone Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chao Jung; Lee, Bi Fang; Yao, Wei Jen; Wu, Pei Shan; Chen, Wen Chung; Peng, Shu Lin; Chiu, Nan Tsing [Cheng Kung University Medical College and Hospital, Tainan (Turkmenistan)

    2009-04-15

    We present here the case of a 40-year-old woman with a greater than 10 year prior history of bilateral breast silicone injection and saline bag implantation. Bilateral palpable breast nodules were observed, but the ultrasound scan was suboptimal and the magnetic resonance imaging showed no gadolinium enhanced tumor. The {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan showed a hypermetabolic nodule in the left breast with a 30% increase of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake on the delayed imaging, and this mimicked breast cancer. She underwent a left partial mastectomy and the pathology demonstrated a siliconoma.

  4. Modular strategies for PET imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, modular and simplified chemical and biological strategies have been developed for the synthesis and implementation of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers. New developments in bioconjugation and synthetic methodologies, in combination with advances in macromolecular delivery systems and gene-expression imaging, reflect a need to reduce radiosynthesis burden in order to accelerate imaging agent development. These new approaches, which are often mindful of existing infrastructure and available resources, are anticipated to provide a more approachable entry point for researchers interested in using PET to translate in vitro research to in vivo imaging.

  5. Evaluation of therapy response in breast and ovarian cancer patients by positron emission tomography (PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, R. P.; Przetak, C. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Center for PET, Bad Berka (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has the potential to contribute significantly to treatment planning and to the evaluation of response to therapy in patients with cancer. For disease recurrence PET imaging provides information non-invasively. The final goal is to biologically characterize an individual patients' tumor and to predict the response to treatment at the earliest possible time. Quantitative and/or semi-quantitative PET studies yield valuable information in breast cancer regarding prognosis and response to chemohormontherapy in a timely fashion. In ovarian cancer, up to now only few studies have been performed applying PET techniques for the evaluation of treatment response. These preliminary studies indicate that serial assessment of tumor metabolism by FDG-PET early during effective chemotherapy may predict subsequent response to such therapy. PET studies can be repeated without any side-effects and with low radiation exposure and results can be directly correlated with clinical laboratory data and histology. Therapy monitoring by PET could help to optimize neoadjuvant therapy protocols and to avoid ineffective preoperative therapy in non-responders, but this has to be proven in a larger number of patients and in different neoadjuvant settings such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy or a combination of these.

  6. Evaluation of therapy response in breast and ovarian cancer patients by positron emission tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R. P.; Przetak, C.

    2001-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has the potential to contribute significantly to treatment planning and to the evaluation of response to therapy in patients with cancer. For disease recurrence PET imaging provides information non-invasively. The final goal is to biologically characterize an individual patients' tumor and to predict the response to treatment at the earliest possible time. Quantitative and/or semi-quantitative PET studies yield valuable information in breast cancer regarding prognosis and response to chemohormontherapy in a timely fashion. In ovarian cancer, up to now only few studies have been performed applying PET techniques for the evaluation of treatment response. These preliminary studies indicate that serial assessment of tumor metabolism by FDG-PET early during effective chemotherapy may predict subsequent response to such therapy. PET studies can be repeated without any side-effects and with low radiation exposure and results can be directly correlated with clinical laboratory data and histology. Therapy monitoring by PET could help to optimize neoadjuvant therapy protocols and to avoid ineffective preoperative therapy in non-responders, but this has to be proven in a larger number of patients and in different neoadjuvant settings such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy or a combination of these

  7. MRI fused with prone FDG PET/CT improves the primary tumour staging of patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Velloso, Maria J.; Ribelles, Maria J.; Rodriguez, Macarena; Sancho, Lidia; Prieto, Elena [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pamplona (Spain); Fernandez-Montero, Alejandro [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Occupational Medicine, Pamplona (Spain); Santisteban, Marta [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Oncology, Pamplona (Spain); Rodriguez-Spiteri, Natalia; Martinez-Regueira, Fernando [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Surgery, Pamplona (Spain); Idoate, Miguel A. [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Pathology, Pamplona (Spain); Elizalde, Arlette; Pina, Luis J. [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Radiology, Pamplona (Spain)

    2017-08-15

    Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fused with prone 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in primary tumour staging of patients with breast cancer. This retrospective study evaluated 45 women with 49 pathologically proven breast carcinomas. MRI and prone PET-CT scans with time-of-flight and point-spread-function reconstruction were performed with the same dedicated breast coil. The studies were assessed by a radiologist and a nuclear medicine physician, and evaluation of fused images was made by consensus. The final diagnosis was based on pathology (90 lesions) or follow-up ≥ 24 months (17 lesions). The study assessed 72 malignant and 35 benign lesions with a median size of 1.8 cm (range 0.3-8.4 cm): 31 focal, nine multifocal and nine multicentric cases. In lesion-by-lesion analysis, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 97%, 80%, 91% and 93% for MRI, 96%, 71%, 87%, and 89% for prone PET, and 97%. 94%, 97% and 94% for MRI fused with PET. Areas under the curve (AUC) were 0.953, 0.850, and 0.983, respectively (p < 0.01). MRI fused with FDG-PET is more accurate than FDG-PET in primary tumour staging of breast cancer patients and increases the specificity of MRI. (orig.)

  8. Technology challenges in small animal PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a non-invasive nuclear imaging modality allowing biochemical processes to be investigated in vivo with sensitivity in the picomolar range. For this reason, PET has the potential to play a major role in the emerging field of molecular imaging by enabling the study of molecular pathways and genetic processes in living animals non-invasively. The challenge is to obtain a spatial resolution that is appropriate for rat and mouse imaging, the preferred animal models for research in biology, while achieving a sensitivity adequate for real-time measurement of rapid dynamic processes in vivo without violating tracer kinetic principles. An overview of the current state of development of dedicated small animal PET scanners is given, and selected applications are reported and discussed with respect to performance and significance to research in biology

  9. MRI and PET/CT of patients with bone metastases from breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grankvist, J.; Fisker, R.; Iyer, V.; Fründ, E.T.; Simonsen, C.; Christensen, T.; Stenbygaard, L.; Ewertz, M.; Larsson, E.-M.

    2012-01-01

    3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was compared with combined 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with suspected bone metastases from breast cancer. A prospective clinical study was performed in 13 female breast cancer patients (mean age 61years; range 45–85 years). The spine was imaged in the sagittal plane with T1-weighted (T1), short tau inversion recovery (STIR), and T2-weighted fat-saturated (T2) sequences. The pelvis was imaged similarly in the coronal plane. Axial DWI was performed from the skull base to the mid-thigh. MRI and PET/CT were performed in all patients at a maximum interval of 10 working days and at least 14 days after chemotherapy. MRI was reviewed by two radiologists, and their consensus on potential metastases in 27 predefined locations was recorded. The predefined locations were the vertebral bodies (24), the left (1) and right (1) pelvic bones, and the sacral bone (1). The PET/CT was reviewed by a radiologists and a nuclear medicine physician. MRI detected 59 of the 60 active metastases found with our gold standard modality PET/CT. T1 had the highest sensitivity (98%) but rather low specificity (77%), but with the addition of STIR and DWI, the specificity increased to 95%. The additional metastases detected with MRI most likely represented postherapeutic residual scars without active tumour. In conclusion, 3.0 Tesla MRI with T1, STIR, and DWI is useful for the clinical evaluation of bone metastases from breast cancer and compares well to PET/CT.

  10. Disseminated osteomyelitis or bone metastases of breast cancer. 18F-FDG-PET/CT helps unravel an unusual presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandegaran, Ramin; Wagner, Thomas; Debard, Alexa; Alvarez, Muriel; Marchou, Bruno; Massip, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    We present a case wherein striking 18 F-FDG-PET/CT findings initially considered consistent with recurrent disseminated skeletal metastases of breast cancer were later identified as an unusual presentation of disseminated chronic pyogenic osteomyelitis with Staphylococcus aureus and warneri identified on microbiological culture. A 76-year-old female with previous history of breast cancer presented with a 6-month history of pyrexia, myalgia and weight loss. Besides neutrophilia and elevated C-reactive protein, other blood indices, cultures and conventional imaging failed to identify the cause of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO). 18 F-FDG-PET/CT demonstrated multiple widespread foci of intense FDG uptake in lytic lesions throughout the skeleton. Coupled with previous history of malignancy, findings were strongly suggestive of disseminated metastases of breast cancer. Through targeting an FDG avid lesion, 18 F-FDG-PET/CT aided CT-guided biopsy, which instead identified the lesions as chronic pyogenic osteomyelitis. Following prolonged antibiotic therapy, repeat 18 F-FDG-PET/CT demonstrated significant resolution of lesions. This case demonstrated an unusual presentation of disseminated osteomyelitis on 18 F-FDG-PET/CT and highlighted the use of 18 F-FDG-PET/CT as a trouble shooter in PUO but demonstrated that unusual presentations of benign or malignant pathologies cannot always reliably be differentiated on imaging alone without aid of tissue sampling. Furthermore, this case highlights the potential role 18 F-FDG-PET/CT could provide in assessing response to antibiotic therapy. (author)

  11. Hybrid {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI might improve locoregional staging of breast cancer patients prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goorts, Briete; Nijnatten, Thiemo J.A. van [Maastricht University Medical Center, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Surgery, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Voeoe, Stefan; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Lobbes, Marc B.I. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Kooreman, Loes F.S. [Maastricht University Medical Center, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Boer, Maaike de [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Medical Oncology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Keymeulen, Kristien B.M.I. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Surgery, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Aarnoutse, Romy; Smidt, Marjolein L. [Maastricht University Medical Center, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Surgery, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix M. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    Our purpose in this study was to assess the added clinical value of hybrid {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/MRI compared to conventional imaging for locoregional staging in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). In this prospective study, primary invasive cT2-4 N0 or cT1-4 N+ breast cancer patients undergoing NAC were included. A PET/MRI breast protocol was performed before treatment. MR images were evaluated by a breast radiologist, blinded for PET images. PET images were evaluated by a nuclear physician. Afterwards, a combined PET/MRI report was written. PET/MRI staging was compared to conventional imaging, i.e., mammography, ultrasound and MRI. The proportion of patients with a modified treatment plan based on PET/MRI findings was analyzed. A total of 40 patients was included. PET/MRI was of added clinical value in 20.0% (8/40) of patients, changing the treatment plan in 10% and confirming the malignancy of suspicious lesions on MRI in another 10%. In seven (17.5%) patients radiotherapy fields were extended because of additional or affirmative PET/MRI findings being lymph node metastases (n = 5) and sternal bone metastases (n = 2). In one (2.5%) patient radiotherapy fields were reduced because of fewer lymph node metastases on PET/MRI compared to conventional imaging. Interestingly, all treatment changes were based on differences in number of lymph nodes suspicious for metastasis or number of distant metastasis, whereas differences in intramammary tumor extent were not observed. Prior to NAC, PET/MRI shows promising results for locoregional staging compared to conventional imaging, changing the treatment plan in 10% of patients and potentially replacing PET/CT or tissue sampling in another 10% of patients. (orig.)

  12. Do carotid MR surface coils affect PET quantification in PET/MR imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemink, Martin J; Eldib, Mootaz; Leiner, Tim; Fayad, Zahi A; Mani, Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of surface coils for carotid MR imaging on PET quantification in a clinical simultaneous whole-body PET/MR scanner. A cylindrical phantom was filled with a homogeneous 2L water-FDG mixture at a starting dose of 301.2MBq. Clinical PET/MR and PET/CT systems were used to acquire PET-data without a coil (reference standard) and with two carotid MRI coils (Siemens Special Purpose 8-Channel and Machnet 4-Channel Phased Array). PET-signal attenuation was evaluated with Osirix using 51 (PET/MR) and 37 (PET/CT) circular ROIs. Mean and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVs) were quantified for each ROI. Furthermore, SUVs of PET/MR and PET/CT were compared. For validation, a patient was scanned with an injected dose of 407.7MBq on both a PET/CT and a PET/MR system without a coil and with both coils. PET/MR underestimations were -2.2% (Siemens) and -7.8% (Machnet) for SUVmean, and -1.2% (Siemens) and -3.3% (Machnet) for SUVmax, respectively. For PET/CT, underestimations were -1.3% (Siemens) and -1.4% (Machnet) for SUVmean and -0.5% (both Siemens and Machnet) for SUVmax, respectively using no coil data as reference. Except for PET/CT SUVmax values all differences were significant. SUVs differed significantly between PET/MR and PET/CT with SUVmean values of 0.51-0.55 for PET/MR and 0.68-0.69 for PET/CT, respectively. The patient examination showed that median SUVmean values measured in the carotid arteries decreased from 0.97 without a coil to 0.96 (Siemens) and 0.88 (Machnet). Carotid surface coils do affect attenuation correction in both PET/MR and PET/CT imaging. Furthermore, SUVs differed significantly between PET/MR and PET/CT.

  13. Imaging of the Adolescent Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katie N.

    2013-01-01

    The mainstay of breast imaging in the adolescent is ultrasonography. There is occasionally a need for additional imaging, particularly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Imaging of the adolescent breast differs substantially from the adult in both the imaging modalities utilized and the relative likelihood of pathologies encountered. The majority of lesions in the adolescent are benign, but the presence of a breast lesion may cause anxiety to patients and their families due to the wide awareness of breast malignancy in the adult population. It is important to be aware of the imaging modalities available to image the adolescent breast to prevent unnecessary radiation exposure while answering the clinical question. The current recommendations for adolescent diagnostic and screening breast imaging will be reviewed. Benign breast lesions such as fibroadenomas, fibrocystic change, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, gynecomastia, and posttraumatic or infectious lesions with their associated imaging findings and management will be outlined. Additionally, review of breast malignancies that can affect adolescents will provide the reader with features to distinguish benign from malignant processes in the adolescent based on imaging findings and clinical presentation. PMID:24872737

  14. PET-based molecular imaging in neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, A.H.; Heiss, W.D.; Li, H.; Knoess, C.; Schaller, B.; Kracht, L.; Monfared, P.; Vollmar, S.; Bauer, B.; Wagner, R.; Graf, R.; Wienhard, K.; Winkeler, A.; Rueger, A.; Klein, M.; Hilker, R.; Galldiks, N.; Herholz, K.; Sobesky, J.

    2003-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows non-invasive assessment of physiological, metabolic and molecular processes in humans and animals in vivo. Advances in detector technology have led to a considerable improvement in the spatial resolution of PET (1-2 mm), enabling for the first time investigations in small experimental animals such as mice. With the developments in radiochemistry and tracer technology, a variety of endogenously expressed and exogenously introduced genes can be analysed by PET. This opens up the exciting and rapidly evolving field of molecular imaging, aiming at the non-invasive localisation of a biological process of interest in normal and diseased cells in animal models and humans in vivo. The main and most intriguing advantage of molecular imaging is the kinetic analysis of a given molecular event in the same experimental subject over time. This will allow non-invasive characterisation and ''phenotyping'' of animal models of human disease at various disease stages, under certain pathophysiological stimuli and after therapeutic intervention. The potential broad applications of imaging molecular events in vivo lie in the study of cell biology, biochemistry, gene/protein function and regulation, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation and characterisation of transgenic animals. Most importantly, molecular imaging will have great implications for the identification of potential molecular therapeutic targets, in the development of new treatment strategies, and in their successful implementation into clinical application. Here, the potential impact of molecular imaging by PET in applications in neuroscience research with a special focus on neurodegeneration and neuro-oncology is reviewed. (orig.)

  15. Imaging Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology with PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Porcello Schilling

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD has been reconceptualised as a dynamic pathophysiological process characterized by preclinical, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and dementia stages. Positron emission tomography (PET associated with various molecular imaging agents reveals numerous aspects of dementia pathophysiology, such as brain amyloidosis, tau accumulation, neuroreceptor changes, metabolism abnormalities and neuroinflammation in dementia patients. In the context of a growing shift toward presymptomatic early diagnosis and disease-modifying interventions, PET molecular imaging agents provide an unprecedented means of quantifying the AD pathophysiological process, monitoring disease progression, ascertaining whether therapies engage their respective brain molecular targets, as well as quantifying pharmacological responses. In the present study, we highlight the most important contributions of PET in describing brain molecular abnormalities in AD.

  16. Cardiac sympathetic neuronal imaging using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautamaeki, Riikka; Tipre, Dnyanesh; Bengel, Frank M.

    2007-01-01

    Balance of the autonomic nervous system is essential for adequate cardiac performance, and alterations seem to play a key role in the development and progression of various cardiac diseases. PET imaging of the cardiac autonomic nervous system has advanced extensively in recent years, and multiple pre- and postsynaptic tracers have been introduced. The high spatial and temporal resolution of PET enables noninvasive quantification of neurophysiologic processes at the tissue level. Ligands for catecholamine receptors, along with radiolabeled catecholamines and catecholamine analogs, have been applied to determine involvement of sympathetic dysinnervation at different stages of heart diseases such as ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmia. This review summarizes the recent findings in neurocardiological PET imaging. Experimental studies with several radioligands and clinical findings in cardiac dysautonomias are discussed. (orig.)

  17. PET imaging in patients with Modic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, H.B.; Manniche, C.; Petersen, H.; Hoeilund-Carlsen, P.F.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was via PET imaging to reveal if any highly metabolic processes were occurring in Modic changes type 1 and/or in the adjacent discs. Modic changes (MC) are signal changes in the vertebral endplate and body visualised by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MC are strongly associated with low back pain (LBP). MC type 1 appear to be inflammation on MRI, and histological and biochemical findings make it highly likely that an inflammation is present. Though MC is painful no known treatment is available, and it is unknown which entities affect the progress or regress of MC. The changes observed on MRI are slow and take months to develop, but faster changes in the metabolism might provide a platform for monitoring patients. Patients from The Back Centre Funen, with low back pain in the area of L1 to S1, MC type 1 in L1 to L5, and a previous herniated lumbar disc. All patients had a PET scan using FDG ( 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose) as tracer. Included in the study were 11 patients, 4 women and 7 men, mean age 48.1 year (range 20-65). All MC were situated in the vertebrae both above and below the previously herniated disc/discs. Ten patients had MC at 1 level, and 1 had MC at 2 levels. The affected levels were 1 at L2/L3, 6 at L4 /L5, and 5 at L5/S1. All had a previous disc herniation and MC larger than 4 mm in diameter. Technically satisfactory PET scans were obtained. However, PET imaging showed no increases in metabolism in any vertebra or disc of any patient. Modic type 1 changes do not reveal themselves by showing increased metabolism with ordinary FDG PET imaging. PET tracers illuminating inflammation are being developed and hopefully may become more successful. (orig.)

  18. Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 08: Constructing an Attenuation map for a PET/MR Breast coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, John C.; So, Aaron; Butler, John; Faul, David; Yartsev, Slav; Thompson, Terry; Prato, Frank S.; Gaede, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, around 23000 Canadian women and 200 Canadian men were diagnosed with breast cancer. An estimated 5100 women and 55 men died from the disease. Using the sensitivity of MRI with the selectivity of PET, PET/MRI combines anatomical and functional information within the same scan and could help with early detection in high-risk patients. MRI requires radiofrequency coils for transmitting energy and receiving signal but the breast coil attenuates PET signal. To correct for this PET attenuation, a 3-dimensional map of linear attenuation coefficients (μ-map) of the breast coil must be created and incorporated into the PET reconstruction process. Several approaches have been proposed for building hardware μ-maps, some of which include the use of conventional kVCT and Dual energy CT. These methods can produce high resolution images based on the electron densities of materials that can be converted into μ-maps. However, imaging hardware containing metal components with photons in the kV range is susceptible to metal artifacts. These artifacts can compromise the accuracy of the resulting μ-map and PET reconstruction; therefore high-Z components should be removed. We propose a method for calculating μ-maps without removing coil components, based on megavoltage (MV) imaging with a linear accelerator that has been detuned for imaging at 1.0MeV. Containers of known geometry with F18 were placed in the breast coil for imaging. A comparison between reconstructions based on the different μ-map construction methods was made. PET reconstructions with our method show a maximum of 6% difference over the existing kVCT-based reconstructions

  19. Utility of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose emission tomography/computed tomography fusion imaging (18F-FDG PET/CT) in combination with ultrasonography for axillary staging in primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Shigeto; Ishida, Jiro; Abe, Yoshiyuki; Mochizuki, Hidetaka; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Asakawa, Hideki; Omata, Jiro; Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Nobuo; Kondo, Tadaharu; Hama, Yukihiro; Tamura, Katsumi

    2008-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of axillary lymph node (ALN) involvement is mandatory before treatment of primary breast cancer. The aim of this study is to compare preoperative diagnostic accuracy between positron emission tomography/computed tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT) and axillary ultrasonography (AUS) for detecting ALN metastasis in patients having operable breast cancer, and to assess the clinical management of axillary 18 F-FDG PET/CT for therapeutic indication of sentinel node biopsy (SNB) and preoperative systemic chemotherapy (PSC). One hundred eighty-three patients with primary operable breast cancer were recruited. All patients underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT and AUS followed by SNB and/or ALN dissection (ALND). Using 18 F-FDG PET/CT, we studied both a visual assessment of 18 F-FDG uptake and standardized uptake value (SUV) for axillary staging. In a visual assessment of 18 F-FDG PET/CT, the diagnostic accuracy of ALN metastasis was 83% with 58% in sensitivity and 95% in specificity, and when cut-off point of SUV was set at 1.8, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 36, 100, and 79%, respectively. On the other hand, the diagnostic accuracy of AUS was 85% with 54% in sensitivity and 99% in specificity. By the combination of 18 F-FDG PET/CT and AUS to the axilla, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 64, 94, and 85%, respectively. If either 18 F-FDG PET uptake or AUS was positive in allixa, the probability of axillary metastasis was high; 50% (6 of 12) in 18 F-FDG PET uptake only, 80% (4 of 5) in AUS positive only, and 100% (28 of 28) in dual positive. By the combination of AUS and 18 F-FDG PET/CT, candidates of SNB were more appropriately selected. The axillary 18 F-FDG uptake was correlated with the maximum size and nuclear grade of metastatic foci (p = 0.006 and p = 0.03). The diagnostic accuracy of 18 F-FDG PET/CT was shown to be nearly equal to ultrasound, and considering their limited sensitivities, the high radiation

  20. Utility of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose emission tomography/computed tomography fusion imaging (18F-FDG PET/CT in combination with ultrasonography for axillary staging in primary breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamura Katsumi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate evaluation of axillary lymph node (ALN involvement is mandatory before treatment of primary breast cancer. The aim of this study is to compare preoperative diagnostic accuracy between positron emission tomography/computed tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET/CT and axillary ultrasonography (AUS for detecting ALN metastasis in patients having operable breast cancer, and to assess the clinical management of axillary 18F-FDG PET/CT for therapeutic indication of sentinel node biopsy (SNB and preoperative systemic chemotherapy (PSC. Methods One hundred eighty-three patients with primary operable breast cancer were recruited. All patients underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT and AUS followed by SNB and/or ALN dissection (ALND. Using 18F-FDG PET/CT, we studied both a visual assessment of 18F-FDG uptake and standardized uptake value (SUV for axillary staging. Results In a visual assessment of 18F-FDG PET/CT, the diagnostic accuracy of ALN metastasis was 83% with 58% in sensitivity and 95% in specificity, and when cut-off point of SUV was set at 1.8, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 36, 100, and 79%, respectively. On the other hand, the diagnostic accuracy of AUS was 85% with 54% in sensitivity and 99% in specificity. By the combination of 18F-FDG PET/CT and AUS to the axilla, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 64, 94, and 85%, respectively. If either 18F-FDG PET uptake or AUS was positive in allixa, the probability of axillary metastasis was high; 50% (6 of 12 in 18F-FDG PET uptake only, 80% (4 of 5 in AUS positive only, and 100% (28 of 28 in dual positive. By the combination of AUS and 18F-FDG PET/CT, candidates of SNB were more appropriately selected. The axillary 18F-FDG uptake was correlated with the maximum size and nuclear grade of metastatic foci (p = 0.006 and p = 0.03. Conclusion The diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT was shown to be nearly equal to ultrasound, and considering their

  1. Head and neck imaging with PET and PET/CT: artefacts from dental metallic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerres, Gerhard W.; Hany, Thomas F.; Kamel, Ehab; Schulthess von, Gustav K.; Buck, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    Germanium-68 based attenuation correction (PET Ge68 ) is performed in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for quantitative measurements. With the recent introduction of combined in-line PET/CT scanners, CT data can be used for attenuation correction. Since dental implants can cause artefacts in CT images, CT-based attenuation correction (PET CT ) may induce artefacts in PET images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of dental metallic artwork on the quality of PET images by comparing non-corrected images and images attenuation corrected by PET Ge68 and PET CT . Imaging was performed on a novel in-line PET/CT system using a 40-mAs scan for PET CT in 41 consecutive patients with high suspicion of malignant or inflammatory disease. In 17 patients, additional PET Ge68 images were acquired in the same imaging session. Visual analysis of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) distribution in several regions of the head and neck was scored on a 4-point scale in comparison with normal grey matter of the brain in the corresponding PET images. In addition, artefacts adjacent to dental metallic artwork were evaluated. A significant difference in image quality scoring was found only for the lips and the tip of the nose, which appeared darker on non-corrected than on corrected PET images. In 33 patients, artefacts were seen on CT, and in 28 of these patients, artefacts were also seen on PET imaging. In eight patients without implants, artefacts were seen neither on CT nor on PET images. Direct comparison of PET Ge68 and PET CT images showed a different appearance of artefacts in 3 of 17 patients. Malignant lesions were equally well visible using both transmission correction methods. Dental implants, non-removable bridgework etc. can cause artefacts in attenuation-corrected images using either a conventional 68 Ge transmission source or the CT scan obtained with a combined PET/CT camera. We recommend that the non-attenuation-corrected PET images also be

  2. Combined PET/MR imaging in neurology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming Littrup; Ladefoged, Claes Nøhr; Beyer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Combined PET/MR systems have now become available for clinical use. Given the lack of integrated standard transmission (TX) sources in these systems, attenuation and scatter correction (AC) must be performed using the available MR-images. Since bone tissue cannot easily be accounted for duri...

  3. Augmented reality for breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancati, Alberto; Angrigiani, Claudio; Nava, Maurizio B; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Rocco, Nicola; Ventrice, Fernando; Dorr, Julio

    2018-02-21

    Augmented reality (AR) enables the superimposition of virtual reality reconstructions onto clinical images of a real patient, in real time. This allows visualization of internal structures through overlying tissues, thereby providing a virtual transparency vision of surgical anatomy. AR has been applied to neurosurgery, which utilizes a relatively fixed space, frames, and bony references; the application of AR facilitates the relationship between virtual and real data. Augmented Breast imaging (ABI) is described. Breast MRI studies for breast implant patients with seroma were performed using a Siemens 3T system with a body coil and a four-channel bilateral phased-array breast coil as the transmitter and receiver, respectively. The contrast agent used was (CA) gadolinium (Gd) injection (0.1 mmol/kg at 2 ml/s) by a programmable power injector. Dicom formated images data from 10 MRI cases of breast implant seroma and 10 MRI cases with T1-2 N0 M0 breast cancer, were imported and transformed into Augmented reality images. Augmented breast imaging (ABI) demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence, 3D cursor use, and joystick fly-through. Augmented breast imaging (ABI) to the breast can improve clinical outcomes, giving an enhanced view of the structures to work on. It should be further studied to determine its utility in clinical practice.

  4. Longitudinal, intermodality registration of quantitative breast PET and MRI data acquired before and during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atuegwu, Nkiruka C.; Williams, Jason M.; Li, Xia; Arlinghaus, Lori R.; Abramson, Richard G.; Chakravarthy, A. Bapsi; Abramson, Vandana G.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors propose a method whereby serially acquired DCE-MRI, DW-MRI, and FDG-PET breast data sets can be spatially and temporally coregistered to enable the comparison of changes in parameter maps at the voxel level. Methods: First, the authors aligned the PET and MR images at each time point rigidly and nonrigidly. To register the MR images longitudinally, the authors extended a nonrigid registration algorithm by including a tumor volume-preserving constraint in the cost function. After the PET images were aligned to the MR images at each time point, the authors then used the transformation obtained from the longitudinal registration of the MRI volumes to register the PET images longitudinally. The authors tested this approach on ten breast cancer patients by calculating a modified Dice similarity of tumor size between the PET and MR images as well as the bending energy and changes in the tumor volume after the application of the registration algorithm. Results: The median of the modified Dice in the registered PET and DCE-MRI data was 0.92. For the longitudinal registration, the median tumor volume change was −0.03% for the constrained algorithm, compared to −32.16% for the unconstrained registration algorithms (p = 8 × 10 −6 ). The medians of the bending energy were 0.0092 and 0.0001 for the unconstrained and constrained algorithms, respectively (p = 2.84 × 10 −7 ). Conclusions: The results indicate that the proposed method can accurately spatially align DCE-MRI, DW-MRI, and FDG-PET breast images acquired at different time points during therapy while preventing the tumor from being substantially distorted or compressed

  5. Comparison of pharmacokinetic MRI and [{sup 18}F] fluorodeoxyglucose PET in the diagnosis of breast cancer: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brix, G. [Research Program ' ' Radiological Diagnostics and Therapy' ' , German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Dept. of Medical Radiation Hygiene, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Henze, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Knopp, M.V.; Doll, J.; Hawighorst, H. [Research Program ' ' Radiological Diagnostics and Therapy' ' , German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Lucht, R. [Dept. of Medical Radiation Hygiene, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Junkermann, H. [Dept. of Gynaecological Radiology, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Haberkorn, U. [Research Program ' ' Radiological Diagnostics and Therapy' ' , German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    It was the aim of this methodology-oriented clinical pilot study to compare the potential of dynamic MRI and 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for the detection and characterization of breast cancer. Fourteen women with suspicious breast lesions were examined. The MRI data were acquired with a turbo fast low-angle shot sequence and analyzed using a pharmacokinetic model. Emission data were detected in the sensitive 3D modus, iteratively reconstructed, and superimposed onto corresponding transmission images. In the 14 patients, 13 breast masses with a suspicious contrast enhancement and FDG uptake were detected. For these lesions, no statistically significant correlation between evaluated MR and PET parameters was found. Of the 9 histologically confirmed carcinomas, 8 were correctly characterized with MRI and PET. Two inflammatory lesions were concordantly classified as cancer. Moreover, dynamic MRI yielded another false-positive finding. In 6 patients, PET detected occult lymph node and/or distant metastases. Although both functional imaging techniques provide independent tissue information, the results concerning the diagnosis of primary breast lesions were almost identical. An advantage of PET, however, is its ability to localize lymph node involvement and distant metastases as an integral part of the examination. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of pharmacokinetic MRI and [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose PET in the diagnosis of breast cancer: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, G.; Henze, M.; Knopp, M.V.; Doll, J.; Hawighorst, H.; Lucht, R.; Junkermann, H.; Haberkorn, U.

    2001-01-01

    It was the aim of this methodology-oriented clinical pilot study to compare the potential of dynamic MRI and 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for the detection and characterization of breast cancer. Fourteen women with suspicious breast lesions were examined. The MRI data were acquired with a turbo fast low-angle shot sequence and analyzed using a pharmacokinetic model. Emission data were detected in the sensitive 3D modus, iteratively reconstructed, and superimposed onto corresponding transmission images. In the 14 patients, 13 breast masses with a suspicious contrast enhancement and FDG uptake were detected. For these lesions, no statistically significant correlation between evaluated MR and PET parameters was found. Of the 9 histologically confirmed carcinomas, 8 were correctly characterized with MRI and PET. Two inflammatory lesions were concordantly classified as cancer. Moreover, dynamic MRI yielded another false-positive finding. In 6 patients, PET detected occult lymph node and/or distant metastases. Although both functional imaging techniques provide independent tissue information, the results concerning the diagnosis of primary breast lesions were almost identical. An advantage of PET, however, is its ability to localize lymph node involvement and distant metastases as an integral part of the examination. (orig.)

  7. PET/MRI for Oncologic Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rausch, Ivo; Rischka, Lucas; Ladefoged, Claes N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare attenuation-correction (AC) approaches for PET/MRI in clinical neurooncology.Methods:Forty-nine PET/MRI brain scans were included: brain tumor studies using18F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine (18F-FET) (n= 31) and68Ga-DOTANOC (n= 7) and studies of healthy subjects using18...... by Siemens Healthcare). As a reference, AC maps were derived from patient-specific CT images (CTref). PET data were reconstructed using standard settings after AC with all 4 AC methods. We report changes in diagnosis for all brain tumor patients and the following relative differences values (RDs...... of the whole brain and 10 anatomic regions segmented on MR images.Results:For brain tumor imaging (A and B), the standard PET-based diagnosis was not affected by any of the 3 MR-AC methods. For A, the average RDs of SUVmeanwere -10%, -4%, and -3% and of the VOIs 1%, 2%, and 7% for DIXON, UTE, and BD...

  8. Molecular markers in breast cancer: new tools in imaging and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Although breast cancer is mainly diagnosed by mammography, other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET) are increasingly used. The most recent developments in the field of molecular imaging comprise the application of near-infrared

  9. PET imaging of the autonomic nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THACKERAY, James T.; BENGEL, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system is the primary extrinsic control of heart rate and contractility, and is subject to adaptive and maladaptive changes in cardiovascular disease. Consequently, noninvasive assessment of neuronal activity and function is an attractive target for molecular imaging. A myriad of targeted radiotracers have been developed over the last 25 years for imaging various components of the sympathetic and parasympathetic signal cascades. While routine clinical use remains somewhat limited, a number of larger scale studies in recent years have supplied momentum to molecular imaging of autonomic signaling. Specifically, the findings of the ADMIRE HF trial directly led to United States Food and Drug Administration approval of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) assessment of sympathetic neuronal innervation, and comparable results have been reported using the analogous PET agent 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED). Due to the inherent capacity for dynamic quantification and higher spatial resolution, regional analysis may be better served by PET. In addition, preliminary clinical and extensive preclinical experience has provided a broad foundation of cardiovascular applications for PET imaging of the autonomic nervous system. Recent years have witnessed the growth of novel quantification techniques, expansion of multiple tracer studies, and improved understanding of the uptake of different radiotracers, such that the transitional biology of dysfunctional subcellular catecholamine handling can be distinguished from complete denervation. As a result, sympathetic neuronal molecular imaging is poised to play a role in individualized patient care, by stratifying cardiovascular risk, visualizing underlying biology, and guiding and monitoring therapy.

  10. PET imaging in pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.M.; Krasin, M.J.; Kaste, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    Advances in diagnostic imaging technology, especially functional imaging modalities like positron emission tomography (PET), have significantly influenced the staging and treatment approaches used for pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma. Today, the majority of children and adolescents diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma will be cured following treatment with noncross-resistant combination chemotherapy alone or in combination with low-dose, involved-field radiation. This success produced a greater appreciation of long-term complications related to radiation, chemotherapy, and surgical staging that prompted significant changes in staging and treatment protocols for children and adolescents with Hodgkin's lymphoma. Contemporary treatment for pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma uses a risk-adapted approach that reduces the number of combination chemotherapy cycles and radiation treatment fields and doses for patients with localized favorable disease presentation. Advances in diagnostic imaging technology have played a critical role in the development of these risk-adapted treatment regimens. The introduction of computed tomography (CT) provided an accurate and non-invasive modality to define nodal involvement below the diaphragm that motivated the change from surgical to clinical staging. The introduction of functional imaging modalities, like positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, provided the means to correlate tumor activity with anatomic features generated by CT and modify treatment based on tumor response. For centers with access to this modality, PET imaging plays an important role in staging, evaluating tumor response, planning radiation treatment fields, and monitoring after completion of therapy for pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma. (orig.)

  11. PET CT imaging: the Philippine experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, Jonas Y.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the most discussed fusion imaging is PET CT. Fusion technology has tremendous potential in diagnostic imaging to detect numerous conditions such as tumors, Alzheimer's disease, dementia and neural disorders. The fusion of PET with CT helps in the localization of molecular abnormalities, thereby increasing diagnostic accuracy and differentiating benign or artefact lesions from malignant diseases. It uses a radiotracer called fluro deoxyglucose that gives a clear distinction between pathological and physiological uptake. Interest in this technology is increasing and additional clinical validation are likely to induce more health care providers to invest in combined scanners. It is hope that in time, a better appreciation of its advantages over conventional and traditional imaging modalities will be realized. The first PET CT facility in the country was established at the St. Luke's Medical Center in Quezon City in 2008 and has since then provided a state-of-the art imaging modality to its patients here and those from other countries. The paper will present the experiences so far gained from its operation, including the measures and steps currently taken by the facility to ensure optimum workers and patient safety. Plans and programs to further enhance the awareness of the Filipino public on this advanced imaging modality for an improved health care delivery system may also be discussed briefly. (author)

  12. Clinical PET/CT imaging. Promises and misconceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernin, J.; Auerbach, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    PET/CT is now established as the most important imaging tool in oncology. PET/CT stages and restages cancer with a higher accuracy than PET or CT alone. The sometimes irrational approach to combine state of the art PET with the highest end CT devices should give way to a more reasonable equipment design tailored towards the specific clinical indications in well-defined patient populations. The continuing success of molecular PET/CT now depends more upon advances in molecular imaging with the introduction of targeted imaging probes for individualized therapy approaches in cancer patients and less upon technological advances of imaging equipment. (orig.)

  13. PET imaging in pediatric neuroradiology: current and future applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sunhee; Salamon, Noriko; Jackson, Hollie A.; Blueml, Stefan; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    Molecular imaging with positron emitting tomography (PET) is widely accepted as an essential part of the diagnosis and evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic disease processes. PET has expanded its role from the research domain into clinical application for oncology, cardiology and neuropsychiatry. More recently, PET is being used as a clinical molecular imaging tool in pediatric neuroimaging. PET is considered an accurate and noninvasive method to study brain activity and to understand pediatric neurological disease processes. In this review, specific examples of the clinical use of PET are given with respect to pediatric neuroimaging. The current use of co-registration of PET with MR imaging is exemplified in regard to pediatric epilepsy. The current use of PET/CT in the evaluation of head and neck lymphoma and pediatric brain tumors is also reviewed. Emerging technologies including PET/MRI and neuroreceptor imaging are discussed. (orig.)

  14. PET imaging in pediatric neuroradiology: current and future applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sunhee [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Salamon, Noriko [UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiology, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Jackson, Hollie A.; Blueml, Stefan [Keck School of Medicine of USC, Department of Radiology, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Keck School of Medicine of USC, Department of Radiology, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Molecular imaging with positron emitting tomography (PET) is widely accepted as an essential part of the diagnosis and evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic disease processes. PET has expanded its role from the research domain into clinical application for oncology, cardiology and neuropsychiatry. More recently, PET is being used as a clinical molecular imaging tool in pediatric neuroimaging. PET is considered an accurate and noninvasive method to study brain activity and to understand pediatric neurological disease processes. In this review, specific examples of the clinical use of PET are given with respect to pediatric neuroimaging. The current use of co-registration of PET with MR imaging is exemplified in regard to pediatric epilepsy. The current use of PET/CT in the evaluation of head and neck lymphoma and pediatric brain tumors is also reviewed. Emerging technologies including PET/MRI and neuroreceptor imaging are discussed. (orig.)

  15. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF THERAPEUTIC RESPONSE BY FDG PET-CT IN METASTATIC BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothée eGOULON

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To assess the therapeutic response for metastatic breast cancer with 18F-FDG PET, this retrospective study aims to compare the performance of 6 different metabolic metrics with PERCIST, PERCIST with optimal thresholds and an image-based parametric approach.MethodsThirty six metastatic breast cancer patients underwent 128 PET scans and 123 lesions were identified. In a per-lesion and per-patient analysis, the performance of 6 metrics: SUVmax (maximum Standardized Uptake Value, SUVpeak, SAM (Standardized Added Metabolic activity, SUVmean, metabolic volume (MV, TLG (total lesion glycolysis and a parametric approach (SULTAN were determined and compared to the gold standard (defined by clinical assessment and biological and conventional imaging according RECIST 1.1. The evaluation was performed using PERCIST thresholds (for per-patient analysis only and optimal thresholds (determined by the Youden criterion from the Receiver Operating Characteristic curves.ResultsIn the per-lesion analysis, 210 pairs of lesion evolutions were studied. Using the optimal thresholds, SUVmax, SUVpeak, SUVmean, SAM and TLG were significantly correlated with the gold standard. SUVmax, SUVpeak and SUVmean reached the best sensitivity (91 %, 88 % and 83% respectively, specificity (93%, 95% and 97% respectively and negative predictive value (NPV, 90%, 88% and 83% respectively. For the per-patient analysis, 79 pairs of PET were studied. The optimal thresholds compared to the PERCIST threshold did not improve performance for SUVmax, SUVpeak and SUVmean. Only SUVmax, SUVpeak, SUVmean and TLG were correlated with the gold standard. SULTAN also performed equally: 83% sensitivity, 88% specificity and NPV 86%.ConclusionsThis study showed that SUVmax and SUVpeak were the best parameters for PET evaluation of metastatic breast cancer lesions. Parametric imaging is helpful in evaluating serial studies.

  16. Overdiagnosis in breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andy; Vinnicombe, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    The main harm of overdiagnosis is overtreatment. However a form of overdiagnosis also occurs when foci of cancer are found by imaging in addition to the symptomatic lesion when this leads to additional treatment which does not benefit the patient. Even if overtreatment is avoided, knowledge of the diagnosis can still cause psychological harm. Overdiagnosis is an inevitable effect of mammographic screening as the benefit comes from diagnosing breast cancer prior to clinical detectability. Estimates of the rate of overdiagnosis at screening are around 10%. DCIS represents 20% of cancers detected by screening and is the main focus in the overdiagnosis debate. Detection and treatment of low grade DCIS and invasive tubular cancer would appear to represent overdiagnosis in most cases. Supplementary screening with tomosynthesis or US are both likely to increase overdiagnosis as both modalities detect predominantly low grade invasive cancers. MRI causes overdiagnosis because it is so sensitive that it detects real tumour foci which after radiotherapy and systemic therapy do not, in many cases go on and cause local recurrence if the women had had no MRI and undergone breast conservation and adjuvant therapy with these small foci left in situ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Breast cancer with low FDG uptake: Characterization by means of dual-time point FDG-PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zytoon, Ashraf Anas; Murakami, Koji; El-Kholy, Mohamed Ramdan; El-Shorbagy, Emad; Ebied, Osama

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malignant breast lesions usually are differentiated by FDG-PET with a semiquantitative FDG standardized uptake value (SUV) of 2.5. However, the frequency of breast cancer with an SUV of less than or equal to 2.5 is noteworthy, and often present diagnostic challenges. This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of dual-time point FDG-PET/CT with FDG standardized uptake value (SUV) calculation in the characterization of such breast tumors. Methods: Forty-nine female patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer were found to have primary breast cancer with minimally increased FDG uptake and met the criteria for inclusion in this study by having borderline levels of increased FDG uptake (SUVmax less than or equal to 2.5) in the initial FDG-PET/CT images. Consequently, they underwent further delayed phase FDG-PET/CT scan for better evaluation of the disease. Results: Of the 49 cancer lesions; the majority were found to have rising or unvarying dual-time changes in SUVmax (75.5%). The median value of SUVmax increases by 25% between the early and delayed scan. The means ± S.D. of the SUVmax1, the SUVmax2, and the ΔSUVmax% were 1.2 ± 0.6%, 1.3 ± 0.9%, and 5.1 ± 22.4%, respectively. The receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis proved that the highest accuracy for characterization of malignant breast lesions was obtained when a ΔSUVmax% cut-off value 0.0% was used as criteria for malignant FDG uptake-change over time with sensitivity 75.5%, and false-positive rate 20.4%. Conclusion: These results suggested that dual-time FDG-PET/CT imaging with standardized uptake value (SUV) estimation can improve the accuracy of the test in the evaluation of breast cancer with low FDG uptake.

  18. Development of PET/MRI with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jin Ho; Choi, Yong; Jung, Jiwoong; Kim, Sangsu; Lim, Hyun Keong; Im, Ki Chun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyun-wook; Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Jong Guk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a dual-modality positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of the human brain. Methods: The PET detector block was composed of a 4 × 4 matrix of detector modules, each consisting of a 4 × 4 array LYSO coupled to a 4 × 4 Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GAPD) array. The PET insert consisted of 18 detector blocks, circularly mounted on a custom-made plastic base to form a ring with an inner diameter of 390 mm and axial length of 60 mm. The PET gantry was shielded with gold-plated conductive fabric tapes with a thickness of 0.1 mm. The charge signals of PET detector transferred via 4 m long flat cables were fed into the position decoder circuit. The flat cables were shielded with a mesh-type aluminum sheet with a thickness of 0.24 mm. The position decoder circuit and field programmable gate array-embedded DAQ modules were enclosed in an aluminum box with a thickness of 10 mm and located at the rear of the MR bore inside the MRI room. A 3-T human MRI system with a Larmor frequency of 123.7 MHz and inner bore diameter of 60 cm was used as the PET/MRI hybrid system. A custom-made radio frequency (RF) coil with an inner diameter of 25 cm was fabricated. The PET was positioned between gradient and the RF coils. PET performance was measured outside and inside the MRI scanner using echo planar imaging, spin echo, turbo spin echo, and gradient echo sequences. MRI performance was also evaluated with and without the PET insert. The stability of the newly developed PET insert was evaluated and simultaneous PET and MR images of a brain phantom were acquired. Results: No significant degradation of the PET performance caused by MR was observed when the PET was operated using various MR imaging sequences. The signal-to-noise ratio of MR images was slightly degraded due to the PET insert installed inside the MR bore while the homogeneity was

  19. Development of PET/MRI with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jin Ho; Choi, Yong, E-mail: ychoi.image@gmail.com; Jung, Jiwoong; Kim, Sangsu; Lim, Hyun Keong; Im, Ki Chun [Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyun-wook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Jong Guk [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-709 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a dual-modality positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of the human brain. Methods: The PET detector block was composed of a 4 × 4 matrix of detector modules, each consisting of a 4 × 4 array LYSO coupled to a 4 × 4 Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GAPD) array. The PET insert consisted of 18 detector blocks, circularly mounted on a custom-made plastic base to form a ring with an inner diameter of 390 mm and axial length of 60 mm. The PET gantry was shielded with gold-plated conductive fabric tapes with a thickness of 0.1 mm. The charge signals of PET detector transferred via 4 m long flat cables were fed into the position decoder circuit. The flat cables were shielded with a mesh-type aluminum sheet with a thickness of 0.24 mm. The position decoder circuit and field programmable gate array-embedded DAQ modules were enclosed in an aluminum box with a thickness of 10 mm and located at the rear of the MR bore inside the MRI room. A 3-T human MRI system with a Larmor frequency of 123.7 MHz and inner bore diameter of 60 cm was used as the PET/MRI hybrid system. A custom-made radio frequency (RF) coil with an inner diameter of 25 cm was fabricated. The PET was positioned between gradient and the RF coils. PET performance was measured outside and inside the MRI scanner using echo planar imaging, spin echo, turbo spin echo, and gradient echo sequences. MRI performance was also evaluated with and without the PET insert. The stability of the newly developed PET insert was evaluated and simultaneous PET and MR images of a brain phantom were acquired. Results: No significant degradation of the PET performance caused by MR was observed when the PET was operated using various MR imaging sequences. The signal-to-noise ratio of MR images was slightly degraded due to the PET insert installed inside the MR bore while the homogeneity was

  20. Importance of Attenuation Correction (AC) for Small Animal PET Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ali, Henrik H.; Bodholdt, Rasmus Poul; Jørgensen, Jesper Tranekjær

    2012-01-01

    was performed. Methods: Ten NMRI nude mice with subcutaneous implantation of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were scanned consecutively in small animal PET and CT scanners (MicroPETTM Focus 120 and ImTek’s MicroCATTM II). CT-based AC, PET-based AC and uniform AC methods were compared. Results: The activity...

  1. Principles of Simultaneous PET/MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Ciprian

    2017-05-01

    Combined PET/MR imaging scanners capable of acquiring simultaneously the complementary information provided by the 2 imaging modalities are now available for human use. After addressing the hardware challenges for integrating the 2 imaging modalities, most of the efforts in the field have focused on developing MR-based attenuation correction methods for neurologic and whole-body applications, implementing approaches for improving one modality by using the data provided by the other and exploring research and clinical applications that could benefit from the synergistic use of the multimodal data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. PET Probe-Guided Surgery in Patients with Breast Cancer: Proposal for a Methodological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ORSARIA, PAOLO; CHIARAVALLOTI, AGOSTINO; FIORENTINI, ALESSANDRO; PISTOLESE, CHIARA; VANNI, GIANLUCA; VITTORIA GRANAI, ALESSANDRA; VARVARAS, DIMITRIOS; DANIELI, ROBERTA; SCHILLACI, ORAZIO; PETRELLA, GIUSEPPE; CLAUDIO BUONOMO, ORESTE

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although it is valuable for detecting distant metastases, identifying recurrence, and evaluating responses to chemotherapy, the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in assessing locoregional nodal status for initial staging of breast cancer has not yet been well-defined in clinical practice. In the current report, we describe a new PET probe-based clinical approach, with evaluation of the technical performance of a handheld high-energy gamma probe for intraoperative localization of breast carcinomas, and evaluation of lymph node metastases during radio-guided oncological surgery. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent a PET/CT scan immediately prior to surgery following the standard clinical protocol. Intraoperatively, tumors were localized and resected with the assistance of a hand-held gamma probe. PET-guided assessment of the presence or absence of regional nodal spread of malignancy was compared with the reference standard of histopathological examination. Results: In all three cases, perioperative 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging and intraoperative gamma probe detection verified complete resection of the hypermetabolic lesions and demonstrated no additional suspicious occult disease. Conclusion: This innovative approach demonstrates great promise for providing real-time access to metabolic and morphological tumor information that may lead to an optimal disease-tailored approach. In carefully selected indications, a PET probe can be a useful adjunct in surgical practice, but further trials with a larger number of patients need to be performed to verify these findings. PMID:28064227

  3. Imaging of pancreatic tumors with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanzi, I.; Robeson, W.; Vinciquerra, V.; Chaly, T.; Kroop, S.; Dahl, R.; Schulman, P.; Goldman, S.; Margouleff, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper identifies pancreatic tumors with positron emission tomography (PET) using F-18 2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). PET studies were performed in 13 patients with pancreatic tumors (11 adenocarcinomas; two islet cell tumors) using FDG. Data were acquired for 1 hour and in 14 contiguous 7-mm sections after attenuation correction. Suspicious areas were evaluated using quantitative techniques. In seven of 11 patients with adenocarcinomas, focal increase in FDG uptake correlated with pancreatic tumor shown on CT scans or MR images. Of the remaining four, one had a previous Whipple procedure, another had completed chemotherapy, and in two the tumor was out of the limited region imaged; in these four patients, liver metastases were identified in three

  4. Simultaneous whole-body 18F-FDG PET-MRI in primary staging of breast cancer: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneja, Sangeeta; Jena, Amarnath; Goel, Reema; Sarin, Ramesh; Kaul, Sumaid

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Initial staging of breast cancer important in treatment planning and prognostication. • We assessed role of simultaneous 18 F-FDG PET-MRI in initial staging of breast cancer. • Primary, nodes and metastases on PET, MRI and PET-MRI for count and diagnostic confidence. • High diagnostic accuracy and confidence in detecting index and satellite lesions. • Comprehensive nodal and distant metastases staging with altered management (12 cases). - Abstract: Purpose: Accurate initial staging in breast carcinoma is important for treatment planning and for establishing the likely prognosis. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of whole body simultaneous 18 F-FDG PET-MRI in initial staging of breast carcinoma. Methods: 36 patients with histologically confirmed invasive ductal carcinoma underwent simultaneous whole body 18 F-FDG PET-MRI on integrated 3 T PET-MR scanner (Siemens Biograph mMR) for primary staging. Primary lesion, nodes and metastases were evaluated on PET, MRI and PET-MRI for lesion count and diagnostic confidence (DC). Kappa co relation analysis was done to assess agreement between the satellite, nodal and metastatic lesions detected by PET and MRI. Histopathology, clinical/imaging follow-up served as the reference standard. Results: 36 patients with 37 histopathologically proven index breast cancer were retrospectively studied. Of 36 patients, 25 patients underwent surgery and 11 patients received systemic therapy. All index cancers were seen on PET and MR. Fused PET-MRI showed highest diagnostic confidence score of 5 as compared to PET (median 4; range 3–5) and MRI (median 4; range 4–5) alone. 2/36 (5.5%) patients were detected to have unsuspected contralateral synchronous cancer. 47 satellite lesions were detected on DCE MRI of which 23 were FDG avid with multifocality and multicentricity in 21 (58%) patients. Kappa co relation analysis revealed fair agreement for satellite lesion detection by the two modalities (κ

  5. Clinical impact of [18F]FDG-PET in patients with suspected recurrent breast cancer based on asymptomatically elevated tumor marker serum levels. A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Kao, Chia-Hung; Yen, Ruoh-Fang

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the impact of [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) on the detection of recurrent breast cancer based on asymptomatically elevated tumor markers levels. Whole-body FDG-PET was performed in 30 patients with suspected recurrent breast cancer and asymptomatic tumor marker increase but negative or equivocal other imaging modality results. A blood sample was drawn in each case for marker assay (CA 15-3 and CEA) on the same day as the FDG-PET. All of these 30 asymptomatic patients had either CA 15-3>32 U/ml or CEA>5 ng/ml. The final diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer was established by operation/biopsy histopathological findings or clinical follow-up for >1 year by additional morphological imaging techniques. Among the 30 patients, the final diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer was established in 38 sites in 28 patients. FDG-PET accurately detected 35/38 sites in 25/28 patients with recurrence. The diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy of FDG-PET in patients with suspected recurrent breast cancer and asymptomatically elevated tumor markers were 96 and 90%, respectively. FDG-PET is a useful technique for detecting recurrent breast cancer suspected from asymptomatically elevated tumor markers levels and has an important clinical impact on the management of these patients. (author)

  6. Clinical impact of [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET in patients with suspected recurrent breast cancer based on asymptomatically elevated tumor marker serum levels. A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Kao, Chia-Hung [China Medical Coll., Taichung, Taiwan (China). Hospital; Shen, Yeh-You [Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yen, Ruoh-Fang [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China). Hospital

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the impact of [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) on the detection of recurrent breast cancer based on asymptomatically elevated tumor markers levels. Whole-body FDG-PET was performed in 30 patients with suspected recurrent breast cancer and asymptomatic tumor marker increase but negative or equivocal other imaging modality results. A blood sample was drawn in each case for marker assay (CA 15-3 and CEA) on the same day as the FDG-PET. All of these 30 asymptomatic patients had either CA 15-3>32 U/ml or CEA>5 ng/ml. The final diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer was established by operation/biopsy histopathological findings or clinical follow-up for >1 year by additional morphological imaging techniques. Among the 30 patients, the final diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer was established in 38 sites in 28 patients. FDG-PET accurately detected 35/38 sites in 25/28 patients with recurrence. The diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy of FDG-PET in patients with suspected recurrent breast cancer and asymptomatically elevated tumor markers were 96 and 90%, respectively. FDG-PET is a useful technique for detecting recurrent breast cancer suspected from asymptomatically elevated tumor markers levels and has an important clinical impact on the management of these patients. (author)

  7. Dual-time FDG-PET/CT in patients with potential breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Christina; Falch Braas, Kirsten; Gerke, Oke

    Dual-time FDG-PET/CT in patients with potential breast cancer recurrence: head-to-head comparison with CT and bonescintigraphy......Dual-time FDG-PET/CT in patients with potential breast cancer recurrence: head-to-head comparison with CT and bonescintigraphy...

  8. Tomosynthesis Breast Imaging Early Detection and Characterization of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamberg, Leena

    2000-01-01

    A digital tomosynthesis mammography method was developed with which to obtain tomographic images of the breast by acquiring a series of low radiation dose images as the x-ray tube moves in an arc above the breast...

  9. Development of PET insert for simultaneous PET/MR imaging of human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jiwoong; Choi, Yong; Jung, Jin Ho; Kim, Sangsu; Im, Ki Chun; Lim, Hyun Keong [Molecular Imaging Research & Education (MiRe) Laboratory, Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Changheun; Park, HyunWook; Cho, Gyuseong [Departments of Electrical Engineering and Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-29

    Recently, there has been great interest on the development of combined PET/MR, which is a useful tool for both functional and anatomic imaging. The purpose of this study was to develop a MR compatible PET insert for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of human brain and to evaluate the performance of the hybrid PET-MRI. The PET insert consisted of 18 detector blocks arranged in a ring of 390 mm diameter with 60 mm axial FOV. Each detector block was composed of 4 × 4 matrix of detector modules, each of which consisted of a 4 × 4 array LYSO coupled to a 4 × 4 GAPD array. The PET gantry was shielded with gold-plated conductive fabric tapes. The charge signals of PET detector transferred via 4 m long flat cables were fed into the position decoder circuits (PDCs) and then transferred to FPGA-embedded DAQ modules. The PDCs and DAQ modules were enclosed in an aluminum box and located at the rear of the MR bore inside MRI room. 3-T human MRIs of two different vendors were used to evaluate the MR compatibility of developed PET insert. No significant changes of the PET performance and the homogeneity of MR images caused by the non-compatibility of PET-MRI were observed with the 2 different MRIs. The signal intensities of MR images were slightly degraded (<3.6%) with the both MRI systems. The difference between independently and simultaneously acquired PET images of brain phantom was negligibly small (<4.3%). High quality simultaneous brain PET and MRI of 3 normal volunteers were successfully acquired. Experimental results indicate that the high performance compact and lightweight PET insert for hybrid PET/MRI, which could be utilized with the MRI from various manufactures, can be developed using GAPD arrays and charge signal transmission method proposed in this study.

  10. [¹⁸F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET imaging of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn Alexander; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2015-01-01

    [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET ((18)FDG PET) imaging has emerged as a promising tool for assessment of atherosclerosis. By targeting atherosclerotic plaque glycolysis, a marker for plaque inflammation and hypoxia, (18)FDG PET can assess plaque vulnerability and potentially predict risk...... of atherosclerosis-related disease, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. With excellent reproducibility, (18)FDG PET can be a surrogate end point in clinical drug trials, improving trial efficiency. This article summarizes key findings in the literature, discusses limitations of (18)FDG PET imaging...

  11. Comparisons of [{sup 18}F]-1-deoxy-1-fluoro-scyllo-inositol with [{sup 18}F]-FDG for PET imaging of inflammation, breast and brain cancer xenografts in athymic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLarty, Kristin; Moran, Matthew D. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Scollard, Deborah A.; Chan, Conrad [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada); Sabha, Nesrin; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Guha, Abhijit [Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8 (Canada); McLaurin, JoAnne [Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H2 (Canada); Nitz, Mark [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H6 (Canada); Houle, Sylvain; Wilson, Alan A. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Reilly, Raymond M., E-mail: raymond.reilly@utoronto.ca [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada); Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada); Vasdev, Neil, E-mail: neil.vasdev@utoronto.ca [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate the uptake of [{sup 18}F]-1-deoxy-1-fluoro-scyllo-inositol ([{sup 18}F]-scyllo-inositol) in human breast cancer (BC) and glioma xenografts, as well as in inflammatory tissue, in immunocompromised mice. Studies of [{sup 18}F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([{sup 18}F]-FDG) under the same conditions were also performed. Methods: Radiosynthesis of [{sup 18}F]-scyllo-inositol was automated using a commercial synthesis module. Tumour, inflammation and normal tissue uptakes were evaluated by biodistribution studies and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using [{sup 18}F]-scyllo-inositol and [{sup 18}F]-FDG in mice bearing subcutaneous MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-361 human BC xenografts, intracranial U-87 MG glioma xenografts and turpentine-induced inflammation. Results: The radiosynthesis of [{sup 18}F]-scyllo-inositol was automated with good radiochemical yields (24.6%{+-}3.3%, uncorrected for decay, 65{+-}2 min, n=5) and high specific activities ({>=}195 GBq/{mu}mol at end of synthesis). Uptake of [{sup 18}F]-scyllo-inositol was greatest in MDA-MB-231 BC tumours and was comparable to that of [{sup 18}F]-FDG (4.6{+-}0.5 vs. 5.5{+-}2.1 %ID/g, respectively; P=.40), but was marginally lower in MDA-MB-361 and MCF-7 xenografts. Uptake of [{sup 18}F]-scyllo-inositol in inflammation was lower than [{sup 18}F]-FDG. While uptake of [{sup 18}F]-scyllo-inositol in intracranial U-87 MG xenografts was significantly lower than [{sup 18}F]-FDG, the tumour-to-brain ratio was significantly higher (10.6{+-}2.5 vs. 2.1{+-}0.6; P=.001). Conclusions: Consistent with biodistribution studies, uptake of [{sup 18}F]-scyllo-inositol was successfully visualized by PET imaging in human BC and glioma xenografts, with lower accumulation in inflammatory tissue than [{sup 18}F]-FDG. The tumour-to-brain ratio of [{sup 18}F]-scyllo-inositol was also significantly higher than that of [{sup 18}F]-FDG for visualizing intracranial glioma xenografts in

  12. Comparisons of [18F]-1-deoxy-1-fluoro-scyllo-inositol with [18F]-FDG for PET imaging of inflammation, breast and brain cancer xenografts in athymic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLarty, Kristin; Moran, Matthew D.; Scollard, Deborah A.; Chan, Conrad; Sabha, Nesrin; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Guha, Abhijit; McLaurin, JoAnne; Nitz, Mark; Houle, Sylvain; Wilson, Alan A.; Reilly, Raymond M.; Vasdev, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate the uptake of [ 18 F]-1-deoxy-1-fluoro-scyllo-inositol ([ 18 F]-scyllo-inositol) in human breast cancer (BC) and glioma xenografts, as well as in inflammatory tissue, in immunocompromised mice. Studies of [ 18 F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([ 18 F]-FDG) under the same conditions were also performed. Methods: Radiosynthesis of [ 18 F]-scyllo-inositol was automated using a commercial synthesis module. Tumour, inflammation and normal tissue uptakes were evaluated by biodistribution studies and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using [ 18 F]-scyllo-inositol and [ 18 F]-FDG in mice bearing subcutaneous MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-361 human BC xenografts, intracranial U-87 MG glioma xenografts and turpentine-induced inflammation. Results: The radiosynthesis of [ 18 F]-scyllo-inositol was automated with good radiochemical yields (24.6%±3.3%, uncorrected for decay, 65±2 min, n=5) and high specific activities (≥195 GBq/μmol at end of synthesis). Uptake of [ 18 F]-scyllo-inositol was greatest in MDA-MB-231 BC tumours and was comparable to that of [ 18 F]-FDG (4.6±0.5 vs. 5.5±2.1 %ID/g, respectively; P=.40), but was marginally lower in MDA-MB-361 and MCF-7 xenografts. Uptake of [ 18 F]-scyllo-inositol in inflammation was lower than [ 18 F]-FDG. While uptake of [ 18 F]-scyllo-inositol in intracranial U-87 MG xenografts was significantly lower than [ 18 F]-FDG, the tumour-to-brain ratio was significantly higher (10.6±2.5 vs. 2.1±0.6; P=.001). Conclusions: Consistent with biodistribution studies, uptake of [ 18 F]-scyllo-inositol was successfully visualized by PET imaging in human BC and glioma xenografts, with lower accumulation in inflammatory tissue than [ 18 F]-FDG. The tumour-to-brain ratio of [ 18 F]-scyllo-inositol was also significantly higher than that of [ 18 F]-FDG for visualizing intracranial glioma xenografts in NOD SCID mice, giving a better contrast. -- Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted

  13. Development of a circular shape Si-PM-based detector ring for breast-dedicated PET system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Kouhei; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watabe, Hiroshi; Abe, Shinji; Fujita, Naotoshi; Kato, Katsuhiko

    2018-02-01

    In clinical situations, various breast-dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) systems have been used. However, clinical breast-dedicated PET systems have polygonal detector ring. Polygonal detector ring sometimes causes image artifact, so complicated reconstruction algorithm is needed to reduce artifact. Consequently, we developed a circular detector ring for breast-dedicated PET to obtain images without artifact using a simple reconstruction algorithm. We used Lu1.9Gd0.1SiO5 (LGSO) scintillator block which was made of 1.5 x 1.9 x 15 mm pixels that were arranged in an 8 x 24 matrix. As photodetectors, we used silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) arrays whose channel size was 3 x 3 mm. A detector unit was composed of four scintillator blocks, 16 Si-PM arrays and a light guide. The developed detector unit had angled configuration since the light guide was bending. A detector unit had three gaps with an angle of 5.625° between scintillator blocks. With these configurations, we could arrange 64 scintillator blocks in nearly circular shape (regular 64-sided polygon) using 16 detector units. The use of the smaller number of detector units could reduce the size of the front-end electronics circuits. The inner diameter of the developed detector ring was 260 mm. This size was similar to those of brain PET systems, so our breast-dedicated PET detector ring can measure not only breast but also brain. Measured radial, tangential and axial spatial resolution of the detector ring reconstructed by the filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm were 2.1 mm FWHM, 2.0 mm FWHM and 1.7 mm FWHM at center of field of view (FOV), respectively. The sensitivity was 2.0% at center of the axial FOV. With the developed detector ring, we could obtain high resolution image of the breast phantom and the brain phantom. We conclude that our developed Si-PM-based detector ring is promising for a high resolution breast-dedicated PET system that can also be used for brain PET system.

  14. Practical Considerations for Clinical PET/MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgano, Samuel; Viets, Zachary; Fowler, Kathryn; Gore, Lael; Thomas, John V; McNamara, Michelle; McConathy, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Clinical PET/MR imaging is currently performed at a number of centers around the world as part of routine standard of care. This article focuses on issues and considerations for a clinical PET/MR imaging program, focusing on routine standard-of-care studies. Although local factors influence how clinical PET/MR imaging is implemented, the approaches and considerations described here intend to apply to most clinical programs. PET/MR imaging provides many more options than PET/computed tomography with diagnostic advantages for certain clinical applications but with added complexity. A recurring theme is matching the PET/MR imaging protocol to the clinical application to balance diagnostic accuracy with efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/Computed Tomography (CT) in Suspected Recurrent Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Malene Grubbe; Gerke, Oke; Baun, Christina

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prospectively investigate the diagnostic accuracy of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with dual-time-point imaging, contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT), and bone scintigraphy (BS) in patients with suspected breast cancer recurrence....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred women with suspected recurrence of breast cancer underwent 1-hour and 3-hour FDG-PET/CT, ceCT, and BS within approximately 10 days. The study was powered to estimate the precision of the individual imaging tests. Images were visually interpreted using a four...

  16. Guidelines for 18F-FDG PET and PET-CT imaging in paediatric oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauss, J.; Franzius, C.; Pfluger, T.

    2008-01-01

    tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) in paediatric oncology. The Oncology Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) has published excellent procedure guidelines on tumour imaging with (18)F-FDG PET (Bombardieri et al., Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 30:BP115-24, 2003). These guidelines, published...

  17. Low-count PET image restoration using sparse representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Jiang, Changhui; Gao, Juan; Yang, Yongfeng; Liang, Dong; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong; Hu, Zhanli

    2018-04-01

    In the field of positron emission tomography (PET), reconstructed images are often blurry and contain noise. These problems are primarily caused by the low resolution of projection data. Solving this problem by improving hardware is an expensive solution, and therefore, we attempted to develop a solution based on optimizing several related algorithms in both the reconstruction and image post-processing domains. As sparse technology is widely used, sparse prediction is increasingly applied to solve this problem. In this paper, we propose a new sparse method to process low-resolution PET images. Two dictionaries (D1 for low-resolution PET images and D2 for high-resolution PET images) are learned from a group real PET image data sets. Among these two dictionaries, D1 is used to obtain a sparse representation for each patch of the input PET image. Then, a high-resolution PET image is generated from this sparse representation using D2. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method exhibits a stable and superior ability to enhance image resolution and recover image details. Quantitatively, this method achieves better performance than traditional methods. This proposed strategy is a new and efficient approach for improving the quality of PET images.

  18. Comparison of FDG-PET/CT and bone scintigraphy for detection of bone metastases in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Steffen; Heusner, Till; Forsting, Michael; Antoch, Gerald (Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Univ. Hospital Essen, Univ. Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)), email: steffen.hahn@uk-essen.de; Kuemmel, Sherko; Koeninger, Angelika (Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Univ. Hospital Essen, Univ. Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)); Nagarajah, James; Mueller, Stefan; Boy, Christian; Bockisch, Andreas; Stahl, Alexander (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Essen, Univ. Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany))

    2011-11-15

    Background Bone scintigraphy is the standard procedure for the detection of bone metastases in breast cancer patients. FDG-PET/CT has been reported to be a sensitive tool for tumor staging in different malignant diseases. However, its accuracy for the detection of bone metastases has not been compared to bone scintigraphy. Purpose To compare whole-body FDG-PET/CT and bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases on a lesion basis in breast cancer patients. Material and Methods Twenty-nine consecutive women (mean age 58 years, range 35-78 years) with histologically proven breast cancer were assessed with bone scintigraphy and whole-body FDG-PET/CT. Twenty-one patients (72%) were suffering from primary breast cancer and eight patients (28%) were in aftercare with a history of advanced breast cancer. Both imaging procedures were assessed for bone metastases by a radiologist and a nuclear medicine physician. Concordant readings between bone scintigraphy and FDG-PET/CT were taken as true. Discordant readings were verified with additional MRI imaging in all patients and follow-up studies in most patients. Results A total of 132 lesions were detected on bone scintigraphy, FDG-PET/CT or both. According to the reference standard, 70/132 lesions (53%) were bone metastases, 59/132 lesions (45%) were benign, and three lesions (2%) remained unclear. The sensitivity of bone scintigraphy was 76% (53/70) compared to 96% (67/70) for FDG-PET/CT. The specificity of bone scintigraphy and FDG-PET/CT was 95% (56/59) and 92% (54/59), respectively. According to the reference standard bone metastases were present in eight out of the 29 patients (28%), whereas 20 patients (69%) were free of bone metastases. One (3%) patient had inconclusive readings on both modalities as well as on MRI and follow-up studies. Bone scintigraphy and FDG-PET/CT correctly identified seven out of eight patients with bone metastases and 20 out of 20 patients free of metastases. Conclusion On a lesion

  19. PET imaging using parkinsonian primate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yuji

    2004-01-01

    Many animal models have been for studying neutrodegenerative diseases in humans. Among them, Parkinson's disease (PD) model in primates treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is expected to be valid and useful in the field of regenerative medicine. MPTP-treated monkeys demonstrate parkinsonian syndrome, such as tremor, dyskinesia, rigidity, immobility, caused by the degeneration of dopamine neurons at the nigrostriatal pathway. In this model, investigation of cognitive impairment that is one of the important aspects of PD could be possible. We evaluated the degeneration process of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons with positron emission tomography (PET) using unanesthetized MPTP-treated two cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The tracers used were [11C]PE2I, [11C]DOPA, [11C]raclopride for monitoring dopamine transporter (DAT) densities, dopamine (DA) turnover, dopamine D2-receptor (D2R) densities, respectively. The gross behavioral observation was also performed referring to the criteria of the PD symptoms. The motor dysfunction was not clearly observed up to the cumulative doses of 3 mg/kg MPTP. This period was called 'asymptomatic period'. As a result of PET scans in the asymptomatic period, DAT densities and DA turnover had already decreased greatly, but D2R densities had not changed clearly. These findings suggest that PET imaging can delineate the dopaminergic dysfunction in vivo even in the asymptomatic period. In human study of PD, it is reported that parkinsonism is shown after great loss of dopaminergic neutrons as well as pre-synaptic dysfunction. MPTP-treated monkeys demonstrate the parkinsonian syndrome with the similar mechanism as human PD. It can be expected that PET study with MPTP-monkeys would provide important clues relevant to the underlying cause of PD and be useful for preclinical study of regenerative medicine in this disease. (author)

  20. Unusual Horner's syndrome in recurrent breast cancer: Evaluating using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Hyun; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Seok Ki [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a widely used imaging modality in the initial diagnosis of cancer, treatment response evaluation and detection of recurrence. Herein, we present the case of a 39-year-old female who presented right ptosis on the follow-up of breast cancer after surgery. Clinicians suspected Horner's syndrome, and the patient underwent FDG PET/CT for the evaluation of recurrence that could cause Horner's syndrome. FDG PET/CT demonstrated a focal hypermetabolic lesion in the right cervicothoracic junction area, corresponding to the preganglionic cervical sympathetic trunk. A subsequent needle biopsy was done, and the lesion was confirmed as metastatic ductal carcinoma. In this case, we could detect the exact location of the recurring lesion that caused Horner's syndrome using FDG PET/CT.

  1. Dual-Modality PET/Ultrasound imaging of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Moses, William W.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I.C.

    2005-11-11

    Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)will detect malignant tumors in the prostate and/or prostate bed, as well as possibly help determine tumor ''aggressiveness''. However, the relative uptake in a prostate tumor can be so great that few other anatomical landmarks are visible in a PET image. Ultrasound imaging with a transrectal probe provides anatomical detail in the prostate region that can be co-registered with the sensitive functional information from the PET imaging. Imaging the prostate with both PET and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) will help determine the location of any cancer within the prostate region. This dual-modality imaging should help provide better detection and treatment of prostate cancer. LBNL has built a high performance positron emission tomograph optimized to image the prostate.Compared to a standard whole-body PET camera, our prostate-optimized PET camera has the same sensitivity and resolution, less backgrounds and lower cost. We plan to develop the hardware and software tools needed for a validated dual PET/TRUS prostate imaging system. We also plan to develop dual prostate imaging with PET and external transabdominal ultrasound, in case the TRUS system is too uncomfortable for some patients. We present the design and intended clinical uses for these dual imaging systems.

  2. Dual-Modality PET/Ultrasound imaging of the Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Moses, William W.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)will detect malignant tumors in the prostate and/or prostate bed, as well as possibly help determine tumor ''aggressiveness''. However, the relative uptake in a prostate tumor can be so great that few other anatomical landmarks are visible in a PET image. Ultrasound imaging with a transrectal probe provides anatomical detail in the prostate region that can be co-registered with the sensitive functional information from the PET imaging. Imaging the prostate with both PET and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) will help determine the location of any cancer within the prostate region. This dual-modality imaging should help provide better detection and treatment of prostate cancer. LBNL has built a high performance positron emission tomograph optimized to image the prostate.Compared to a standard whole-body PET camera, our prostate-optimized PET camera has the same sensitivity and resolution, less backgrounds and lower cost. We plan to develop the hardware and software tools needed for a validated dual PET/TRUS prostate imaging system. We also plan to develop dual prostate imaging with PET and external transabdominal ultrasound, in case the TRUS system is too uncomfortable for some patients. We present the design and intended clinical uses for these dual imaging systems

  3. PET imaging of human cardiac opioid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villemagne, Patricia S.R.; Dannals, Robert F. [Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 605 N Caroline St., Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ravert, Hayden T. [Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 605 N Caroline St., Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Frost, James J. [Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 605 N Caroline St., Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2002-10-01

    The presence of opioid peptides and receptors and their role in the regulation of cardiovascular function has been previously demonstrated in the mammalian heart. The aim of this study was to image {mu} and {delta} opioid receptors in the human heart using positron emission tomography (PET). Five subjects (three females, two males, 65{+-}8 years old) underwent PET scanning of the chest with [{sup 11}C]carfentanil ([{sup 11}C]CFN) and [{sup 11}C]-N-methyl-naltrindole ([{sup 11}C]MeNTI) and the images were analyzed for evidence of opioid receptor binding in the heart. Either [{sup 11}C]CFN or [{sup 11}C]MeNTI (20 mCi) was injected i.v. with subsequent dynamic acquisitions over 90 min. For the blocking studies, either 0.2 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg of naloxone was injected i.v. 5 min prior to the injection of [{sup 11}C]CFN and [{sup 11}C]MeNTI, respectively. Regions of interest were placed over the left ventricle, left ventricular chamber, lung and skeletal muscle. Graphical analysis demonstrated average baseline myocardial binding potentials (BP) of 4.37{+-}0.91 with [{sup 11}C]CFN and 3.86{+-}0.60 with [{sup 11}C]MeNTI. Administration of 0.2 mg/kg naloxone prior to [{sup 11}C]CFN produced a 25% reduction in BP in one subject in comparison with baseline values, and a 19% decrease in myocardial distribution volume (DV). Administration of 1 mg/kg of naloxone before [{sup 11}C]MeNTI in another subject produced a 14% decrease in BP and a 21% decrease in the myocardial DV. These results demonstrate the ability to image these receptors in vivo by PET. PET imaging of cardiac opioid receptors may help to better understand their role in cardiovascular pathophysiology and the effect of abuse of opioids and drugs on heart function. (orig.)

  4. Automated image registration for FDOPA PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang-Ping Lin; Sung-Cheng Huang, Dan-Chu Yu; Melega, W.; Barrio, J.R.; Phelps, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, various image registration methods are investigated for their suitability for registration of L-6-[18F]-fluoro-DOPA (FDOPA) PET images. Five different optimization criteria including sum of absolute difference (SAD), mean square difference (MSD), cross-correlation coefficient (CC), standard deviation of pixel ratio (SDPR), and stochastic sign change (SSC) were implemented and Powell's algorithm was used to optimize the criteria. The optimization criteria were calculated either unidirectionally (i.e. only evaluating the criteria for comparing the resliced image 1 with the original image 2) or bidirectionally (i.e. averaging the criteria for comparing the resliced image 1 with the original image 2 and those for the sliced image 2 with the original image 1). Monkey FDOPA images taken at various known orientations were used to evaluate the accuracy of different methods. A set of human FDOPA dynamic images was used to investigate the ability of the methods for correcting subject movement. It was found that a large improvement in performance resulted when bidirectional rather than unidirectional criteria were used. Overall, the SAD, MSD and SDPR methods were found to be comparable in performance and were suitable for registering FDOPA images. The MSD method gave more adequate results for frame-to-frame image registration for correcting subject movement during a dynamic FDOPA study. The utility of the registration method is further demonstrated by registering FDOPA images in monkeys before and after amphetamine injection to reveal more clearly the changes in spatial distribution of FDOPA due to the drug intervention. (author)

  5. First-in-human uPAR PET: Imaging of Cancer Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Morten; Skovgaard, Dorthe; Brandt-Larsen, Malene; Christensen, Camilla; Madsen, Jacob; Nielsen, Carsten H.; Thurison, Tine; Klausen, Thomas Levin; Holm, Søren; Loft, Annika; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Ploug, Michael; Pappot, Helle; Brasso, Klaus; Kroman, Niels; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjaer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A first-in-human clinical trial with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in patients with breast, prostate and bladder cancer, is described. uPAR is expressed in many types of human cancers and the expression is predictive of invasion, metastasis and indicates poor prognosis. uPAR PET imaging therefore holds promise to be a new and innovative method for improved cancer diagnosis, staging and individual risk stratification. The uPAR specific peptide AE105 was conjugated to the macrocyclic chelator DOTA and labeled with 64Cu for targeted molecular imaging with PET. The safety, pharmacokinetic, biodistribution profile and radiation dosimetry after a single intravenous dose of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105 were assessed by serial PET and computed tomography (CT) in 4 prostate, 3 breast and 3 bladder cancer patients. Safety assessment with laboratory blood screening tests was performed before and after PET ligand injection. In a subgroup of the patients, the in vivo stability of our targeted PET ligand was determined in collected blood and urine. No adverse or clinically detectable side effects in any of the 10 patients were found. The ligand exhibited good in vivo stability and fast clearance from plasma and tissue compartments by renal excretion. In addition, high uptake in both primary tumor lesions and lymph node metastases was seen and paralleled high uPAR expression in excised tumor tissue. Overall, this first-in-human study therefore provides promising evidence for safe use of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105 for uPAR PET imaging in cancer patients. PMID:26516369

  6. 18F-FDG-PET/CT in staging, restaging, and treatment response assessment of male breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groheux, David; Hindié, Elif; Marty, Michel; Espié, Marc; Rubello, Domenico; Vercellino, Laetitia; Bousquet, Guilhem; Ohnona, Jessica; Toubert, Marie-Elisabeth; Merlet, Pascal; Misset, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Male breast cancer (BC) is a rare disease, with patterns different from those found in women. Most tumors are detected at more advanced stages than in women. The aim of this study was to analyze the performance of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG-PET/CT) in staging, restaging, and therapy response assessment. Methods: We performed a systematic analysis in the database of Saint-Louis Hospital to identify male patients with BC referred for PET/CT. 18 F-FDG-PET/CT findings considered suspicious for malignancy were compared to biopsy results, further work-up and/or patient follow-up of at least 6 months. Performances of 18 F-FDG-PET/CT were compared to that of conventional imaging (CI) using the McNemar test. The impact of PET/CT on management was evaluated. Results: During 6 consecutive years, among 12,692 18 F-FDG-PET/CT oncology studies, 30 were performed in 15 men with BC: 7 examinations for initial staging, 11 for restaging, and 12 for response assessment. Tumors profile was ER+ and one had HER2 overexpression. PET/CT sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy to detect distant metastases were 100%, 67%, 86%, 100% and 89%, respectively. PET/CT was more informative than CI in 40% of studies (p = 0.03; 95% confidence interval: 3.26 – 40%). Findings from 18 F-FDG-PET/CT led to modification in the planned treatment in 13/30 cases (43%). Conclusion: Although all the tumors were ER+, primary lesions and metastases were diagnosed with high sensitivity. 18 F-FDG-PET/CT seems to be a powerful imaging method to perform staging, restaging and treatment response assessment in male patients with BC

  7. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT in staging, restaging, and treatment response assessment of male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groheux, David, E-mail: dgroheux@yahoo.fr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Doctoral School of Biology and Biotechnology, University Institute of Hematology, University of Paris VII, Paris (France); Hindié, Elif [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haut-Lévêque Hospital, CHU Bordeaux, University Bordeaux-Segalen, Bordeaux (France); Marty, Michel [Breast Diseases Unit and Department of Medical Oncology, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Centre for Therapeutic Innovation, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Espié, Marc [Breast Diseases Unit and Department of Medical Oncology, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Rubello, Domenico [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Santa Maria della Misericordia, Rovigo Hospital, Rovigo (Italy); Vercellino, Laetitia [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Doctoral School of Biology and Biotechnology, University Institute of Hematology, University of Paris VII, Paris (France); Bousquet, Guilhem [Breast Diseases Unit and Department of Medical Oncology, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris (France); INSERM U728, University Institute of Hematology, University of Paris VII, Paris (France); Ohnona, Jessica; Toubert, Marie-Elisabeth [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Merlet, Pascal [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Doctoral School of Biology and Biotechnology, University Institute of Hematology, University of Paris VII, Paris (France); Misset, Jean-Louis [Breast Diseases Unit and Department of Medical Oncology, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris (France)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Male breast cancer (BC) is a rare disease, with patterns different from those found in women. Most tumors are detected at more advanced stages than in women. The aim of this study was to analyze the performance of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT) in staging, restaging, and therapy response assessment. Methods: We performed a systematic analysis in the database of Saint-Louis Hospital to identify male patients with BC referred for PET/CT. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT findings considered suspicious for malignancy were compared to biopsy results, further work-up and/or patient follow-up of at least 6 months. Performances of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT were compared to that of conventional imaging (CI) using the McNemar test. The impact of PET/CT on management was evaluated. Results: During 6 consecutive years, among 12,692 {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT oncology studies, 30 were performed in 15 men with BC: 7 examinations for initial staging, 11 for restaging, and 12 for response assessment. Tumors profile was ER+ and one had HER2 overexpression. PET/CT sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy to detect distant metastases were 100%, 67%, 86%, 100% and 89%, respectively. PET/CT was more informative than CI in 40% of studies (p = 0.03; 95% confidence interval: 3.26 – 40%). Findings from {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT led to modification in the planned treatment in 13/30 cases (43%). Conclusion: Although all the tumors were ER+, primary lesions and metastases were diagnosed with high sensitivity. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT seems to be a powerful imaging method to perform staging, restaging and treatment response assessment in male patients with BC.

  8. PET imaging of adoptive progenitor cell therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelovani, Juri G.

    2008-01-01

    The overall objective of this application is to develop novel technologies for non-invasive imaging of adoptive stem cell-based therapies with positron emission tomography (PET) that would be applicable to human patients. To achieve this objective, stem cells will be genetically labeled with a PET-reporter gene and repetitively imaged to assess their distribution, migration, differentiation, and persistence using a radiolabeled reporter probe. This new imaging technology will be tested in adoptive progenitor cell-based therapy models in animals, including: delivery pro-apoptotic genes to tumors, and T-cell reconstitution for immunostimulatory therapy during allogeneic bone marrow progenitor cell transplantation. Technical and Scientific Merits. Non-invasive whole body imaging would significantly aid in the development and clinical implementation of various adoptive progenitor cell-based therapies by providing the means for non-invasive monitoring of the fate of injected progenitor cells over a long period of observation. The proposed imaging approaches could help to address several questions related to stem cell migration and homing, their long-term viability, and their subsequent differentiation. The ability to image these processes non-invasively in 3D and repetitively over a long period of time is very important and will help the development and clinical application of various strategies to control and direct stem cell migration and differentiation. Approach to accomplish the work. Stem cells will be genetically with a reporter gene which will allow for repetitive non-invasive 'tracking' of the migration and localization of genetically labeled stem cells and their progeny. This is a radically new approach that is being developed for future human applications and should allow for a long term (many years) repetitive imaging of the fate of tissues that develop from the transplanted stem cells. Why the approach is appropriate. The novel approach to stem cell imaging

  9. PET imaging of adoptive progenitor cell therapies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelovani, Juri G.

    2008-05-13

    Objectives. The overall objective of this application is to develop novel technologies for non-invasive imaging of adoptive stem cell-based therapies with positron emission tomography (PET) that would be applicable to human patients. To achieve this objective, stem cells will be genetically labeled with a PET-reporter gene and repetitively imaged to assess their distribution, migration, differentiation, and persistence using a radiolabeled reporter probe. This new imaging technology will be tested in adoptive progenitor cell-based therapy models in animals, including: delivery pro-apoptotic genes to tumors, and T-cell reconstitution for immunostimulatory therapy during allogeneic bone marrow progenitor cell transplantation. Technical and Scientific Merits. Non-invasive whole body imaging would significantly aid in the development and clinical implementation of various adoptive progenitor cell-based therapies by providing the means for non-invasive monitoring of the fate of injected progenitor cells over a long period of observation. The proposed imaging approaches could help to address several questions related to stem cell migration and homing, their long-term viability, and their subsequent differentiation. The ability to image these processes non-invasively in 3D and repetitively over a long period of time is very important and will help the development and clinical application of various strategies to control and direct stem cell migration and differentiation. Approach to accomplish the work. Stem cells will be genetically with a reporter gene which will allow for repetitive non-invasive “tracking” of the migration and localization of genetically labeled stem cells and their progeny. This is a radically new approach that is being developed for future human applications and should allow for a long term (many years) repetitive imaging of the fate of tissues that develop from the transplanted stem cells. Why the approach is appropriate. The novel approach to

  10. Choline-PET/CT for imaging prostate cancer; Cholin-PET/CT zur Bildgebung des Prostatakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Bernd Joachim [Klinik- und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Treiber, U.; Schwarzenboeck, S.; Souvatzoglou, M. [Klinik fuer Urologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives are increasingly being used for imaging of prostate cancer. The value of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer has been examined in many studies and demonstrates an increasing importance. Primary prostate cancer can be detected with moderate sensitivity using PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives - the differentiation between benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis or high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is not always possible. At the present time [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT is not recommended in the primary setting but may be utilized in clinically suspected prostate cancer with repeatedly negative prostate biopsies, in preparation of a focused re-biopsy. Promising results have been obtained for the use of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in patients with biochemical recurrence. The detection rate of choline PET and PET/CT for local, regional, and distant recurrence in patients with a biochemical recurrence shows a linear correlation with PSA values at the time of imaging and reaches about 75% in patients with PSA > 3 ng/mL. At PSA values below 1 ng/mL, the recurrence can be diagnosed with choline PET/CT in approximately 1/3 of the patients. PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]choline derivates can be helpful for choosing a therapeutic strategy in the sense of an individualized treatment: since an early diagnosis of recurrence is crucial to the choice of optimal treatment. The localization of the site of recurrence - local recurrence, lymph node metastasis or systemic dissemination - has important influence on the therapy regimen. (orig.)

  11. Time of flight measurements based on FPGA using a breast dedicated PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, A; García-Olcina, R; Martos, J; Soret, J; Torres, J; Benlloch, J M; González, A J; Sánchez, F

    2014-01-01

    In this work the implementation of a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) using a Nutt delay line FPGA-based and applied on a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) device is going to be presented in order to check the system's suitability for Time of Flight (TOF) measurements. In recent years, FPGAs have shown great advantages for precise time measurements in PET. The architecture employed for these measurements is described in detail. The system developed was tested on a dedicated breast PET prototype, composed of LYSO crystals and Positive Sensitive Photomultipliers (PSPMTs). Two distinct experiments were carried out for this purpose. In the first test, system linearity was evaluated in order to calibrate the time measurements, providing a linearity error of less than 2% and an average time resolution of 1.4 ns FWHM. The second set of measurements tested system resolution, resulting in a FWHM as good as 1.35 ns. The results suggest that the coincidence window for the current PET can be reduced in order to minimize the random events and thus, achieve better image quality

  12. Standardised uptake values from PET/CT images: comparison with conventional attenuation-corrected PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souvatzoglou, M.; Ziegler, S.I.; Martinez, M.J.; Dzewas, G.; Schwaiger, M.; Bengel, F.; Busch, R.

    2007-01-01

    In PET/CT, CT-derived attenuation factors may influence standardised uptake values (SUVs) in tumour lesions and organs when compared with stand-alone PET. Therefore, we compared PET/CT-derived SUVs intra-individually in various organs and tumour lesions with stand-alone PET-derived SUVs. Thirty-five patients with known or suspected cancer were prospectively included. Sixteen patients underwent FDG PET using an ECAT HR+scanner, and subsequently a second scan using a Biograph Sensation 16PET/CT scanner. Nineteen patients were scanned in the reverse order. All images were reconstructed with an iterative algorithm (OSEM). Suspected lesions were grouped as paradiaphragmatic versus distant from the diaphragm. Mean and maximum SUVs were also calculated for brain, lung, liver, spleen and vertebral bone. The attenuation coefficients (μ values) used for correction of emission data (bone, soft tissue, lung) in the two data sets were determined. A body phantom containing six hot spheres and one cold cylinder was measured using the same protocol as in patients. Forty-six lesions were identified. There was a significant correlation of maximum and mean SUVs derived from PET and PET/CT for 14 paradiaphragmatic lesions (r=0.97 respectively; p<0.001 respectively) and for 32 lesions located distant from the diaphragm (r=0.87 and r=0.89 respectively; p<0.001 respectively). No significant differences were observed in the SUVs calculated with PET and PET/CT in the lesions or in the organs. In the phantom, radioactivity concentration in spheres calculated from PET and from PET/CT correlated significantly (r=0.99; p<0.001). SUVs of cancer lesions and normal organs were comparable between PET and PET/CT, supporting the usefulness of PET/CT-derived SUVs for quantification of tumour metabolism. (orig.)

  13. PET/CT imaging in head and neck tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedel, R.; Palmedo, H.; Reichmann, K.; Reinhardt, M.J.; Biersack, H.J.; Straehler-Pohl, H.J.; Jaeger, U.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of combined PET/CT examinations for detection of malignant tumors and their metastases in head and neck oncology. 51 patients received whole body scans on a dual modality PET/CT system. CT was performed without i.v. contrast. The results were compared concerning the diagnostic impact of native CT scan on FDG-PET images and the additional value of fused imaging. From 153 lesions were 97 classified as malignant on CT and 136 on FDG/PET images, as suspicious for malignancy in 33 on CT and 7 on FDG-PET and as benign in 23 on CT and 10 on FDG-PET. With combined PET/CT all primary and recurrent tumors could be found, the detection rate in patients with unknown primary tumors was 45%. Compared to PET or CT alone the sensitivity, specifity and accuracy could be significantly improved by means of combined PET/CT. Fused PET/CT imaging with [F18]-FDG and native CT-scanning enables accurate diagnosis in 93% of lesions and 90% of patients with head and neck oncology. (orig.) [de

  14. Importance of PET/CT for imaging of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinel, F.G.; Schramm, N.; Graser, A.; Reiser, M.F.; Rist, C.; Haug, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) has emerged as a very useful imaging modality in the management of colorectal carcinoma. Data from the literature regarding the role of PET/CT in the initial diagnosis, staging, radiotherapy planning, response monitoring and surveillance of colorectal carcinoma is presented. Future directions and economic aspects are discussed. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FDG-PET for colorectal cancer and endorectal ultrasound for rectal cancer. Combined FDG-PET/CT. While other imaging modalities allow superior visualization of the extent and invasion depth of the primary tumor, PET/CT is most sensitive for the detection of distant metastases of colorectal cancer. We recommend a targeted use of PET/CT in cases of unclear M staging, prior to metastasectomy and in suspected cases of residual or recurrent colorectal carcinoma with equivocal conventional imaging. The role of PET/CT in radiotherapy planning and response monitoring needs to be determined. Currently there is no evidence to support the routine use of PET/CT for colorectal screening, staging or surveillance. To optimally exploit the synergy between morphologic and functional information, FDG-PET should generally be performed as an integrated FDG-PET/CT with a contrast-enhanced CT component in colorectal carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  15. Combined use of 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI for response monitoring of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengel, Kenneth E.; Loo, Claudette E.; Koolen, Bas B.; Vogel, Wouter V.; Valdes Olmos, Renato A.; Wesseling, Jelle; Lips, Esther H.; Rutgers, Emiel J.T.; Vrancken Peeters, Marie Jeanne T.F.D.; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G.A.

    2014-01-01

    To explore the potential complementary value of PET/CT and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in predicting pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) of breast cancer and the dependency on breast cancer subtype. We performed 18 F-FDG PET/CT and MRI examinations before and during NAC. The imaging features evaluated on both examinations included baseline and changes in 18 F-FDG maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on PET/CT, and tumour morphology and contrast uptake kinetics on MRI. The outcome measure was a (near) pathological complete response ((near-)pCR) after surgery. Receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the relationships between patient, tumour and imaging characteristics and tumour responses. Of 93 patients, 43 achieved a (near-)pCR. The responses varied among the different breast cancer subtypes. On univariate analysis the following variables were significantly associated with (near-)pCR: age (p = 0.033), breast cancer subtype (p < 0.001), relative change in SUVmax on PET/CT (p < 0.001) and relative change in largest tumour diameter on MRI (p < 0.001). The AUC for the relative reduction in SUVmax on PET/CT was 0.78 (95 % CI 0.68-0.88), and for the relative reduction in tumour diameter at late enhancement on MRI was 0.79 (95 % CI 0.70-0.89). The AUC increased to 0.90 (95 % CI 0.83-0.96) in the final multivariate model with PET/CT, MRI and breast cancer subtype combined (p = 0.012). PET/CT and MRI showed comparable value for monitoring response during NAC. Combined use of PET/CT and MRI had complementary potential. Research with more patients is required to further elucidate the dependency on breast cancer subtype. (orig.)

  16. Monte Carlo simulations in small animal PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, Susana [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Instituto de Biofisica e Engenharia Biomedica, Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: susana.silva@fc.ul.pt; Jan, Sebastien [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA/DSV/DRM, Orsay (France); Almeida, Pedro [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Instituto de Biofisica e Engenharia Biomedica, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-10-01

    This work is based on the use of an implemented Positron Emission Tomography (PET) simulation system dedicated for small animal PET imaging. Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE), a Monte Carlo simulation platform based on the Geant4 libraries, is well suited for modeling the microPET FOCUS system and to implement realistic phantoms, such as the MOBY phantom, and data maps from real examinations. The use of a microPET FOCUS simulation model with GATE has been validated for spatial resolution, counting rates performances, imaging contrast recovery and quantitative analysis. Results from realistic studies of the mouse body using {sup -}F and [{sup 18}F]FDG imaging protocols are presented. These simulations include the injection of realistic doses into the animal and realistic time framing. The results have shown that it is possible to simulate small animal PET acquisitions under realistic conditions, and are expected to be useful to improve the quantitative analysis in PET mouse body studies.

  17. Primary Rectal Adenocarcinoma Metastasizing to Bilateral Breast - a Rare Case Demonstrated by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soundararajan, Ramya; Arora, Saurabh; Das, Chandan Jyoti; Roy, Maitrayee; Kumar, Rakesh; Bal, Chandrasekhar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2016-06-15

    A 22-year-old female presented with multiple painless bilateral breast masses for the past 2 months. On Further questioning she had hematochezia and constipation for three months. On digital rectal examination, thickening of rectal mucosa at 5 cm from the anal verge was found. On physical examination, multiple firm, non-tender, nodular lesions were found in bilateral breasts. Metastatic breast disease from extra mammary primaries is uncommon and it constitutes 0.5 - 6% of all breast malignancies. melanomas, lymphomas, leukemias, ands sarcomas are the most common malignancies causing breast metastases. Infrequently, carcinomas of the lung, stomach, ovary, liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium, bladder, carcinoid tumors and renal cell carcinomas can cause metastatic breast disease. Metastatic breast disease from colorectal cancer is characterised by disseminated metastatic disease and a poor prognosis. In this case, It was essential to distinguish between metastatic breast disease primary breast carcinoma to plan appropriate management. Because of its rare incidence and high index of clinical suspicion, appropriate radiological investigations and histopathology is essential for accurate diagnosis. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, being a whole-body metabolic functional imaging modality, helped us determine the extent of the primary and metastatic disease. In view of disseminated metastases, the bilateral breast disease was also considered as metastatic involvement, Which was proven by histopathology.

  18. Imaging corn plants with PhytoPET, a modular PET system for plant biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Kross, B.; McKisson, J.; McKisson, J. E.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Xi, W.; Zorn, C.; Bonito, G.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Crowell, A.; Cumberbatch, L. C.; Topp, C.; Smith, M. F.

    2013-11-01

    PhytoPET is a modular positron emission tomography (PET) system designed specifically for plant imaging. The PhytoPET design allows flexible arrangements of PET detectors based on individual standalone detector modules built from single Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes and pixelated LYSO arrays. We have used the PhytoPET system to perform preliminary corn plant imaging studies at the Duke University Biology Department Phytotron. Initial evaluation of the PhytoPET system to image the biodistribution of the positron emitting tracer {sup 11}C in corn plants is presented. {sup 11}CO{sub 2} is loaded into corn seedlings by a leaf-labeling cuvette and translocation of {sup 11}C-sugars is imaged by a flexible arrangement of PhytoPET modules on each side. The PhytoPET system successfully images {sup 11}C within corn plants and allows for the dynamic measurement of {sup 11}C-sugar translocation from the leaf to the roots.

  19. Non-FDG PET imaging of brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zemin; GUAN Yihui; ZUO Chuantao; ZHANG Zhengwei; XUE Fangping; LIN Xiangtong

    2007-01-01

    Due to relatively high uptake of glucose in the brain cortex, the use of FDG PET imaging is greatly limited in brain tumor imaging, especially for low-grade gliomas and some metastatic tumours. More and more tracers with higher specificity were developed lately for brain tumor imaging. There are 3 main types of non-FDG PET tracers:amino acid tracers, choline tracers and nucleic acid tracers. These tracers are now widely applied in many aspects of brain tumor imaging. This article summarized the general use of non-FDG PET in different aspects of brain tumor imaging.

  20. Evaluation of PET and MR datasets in integrated 18F-FDG PET/MRI: A comparison of different MR sequences for whole-body restaging of breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grueneisen, Johannes, E-mail: Johannes.grueneisen@uk-essen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Sawicki, Lino Morris [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital, Dusseldorf, University of Dusseldorf, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Wetter, Axel [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Kirchner, Julian [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital, Dusseldorf, University of Dusseldorf, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Kinner, Sonja [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Aktas, Bahriye [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Forsting, Michael [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Ruhlmann, Verena [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Umutlu, Lale [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-45147 Essen (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Objectives: To investigate the diagnostic value of different MR sequences and 18F-FDG PET data for whole-body restaging of breast cancer patients utilizing PET/MRI. Methods: A total of 36 patients with suspected tumor recurrence of breast cancer based on clinical follow-up or abnormal findings in follow-up examinations (e.g. CT, MRI) were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients underwent a PET/CT and subsequently an additional PET/MR scan. Two readers were instructed to identify the occurrence of a tumor relapse in subsequent MR and PET/MR readings, utilizing different MR sequence constellations for each session. The diagnostic confidence for the determination of a malignant or benign lesion was qualitatively rated (3-point ordinal scale) for each lesion in the different reading sessions and the lesion conspicuity (4-point ordinal scale) for the three different MR sequences was additionally evaluated. Results: Tumor recurrence was present in 25/36 (69%) patients. All three PET/MRI readings showed a significantly higher accuracy as well as higher confidence levels for the detection of recurrent breast cancer lesions when compared to MRI alone (p < 0.05). Furthermore, all three PET/MR sequence constellations showed comparable diagnostic accuracy for the identification of a breast cancer recurrence (p > 0.05), yet the highest confidence levels were obtained, when all three MR sequences were used for image interpretation. Moreover, contrast-enhanced T1-weighted VIBE imaging showed significantly higher values for the delineation of malignant and benign lesions when compared to T2 w HASTE and diffusion-weighted imaging. Conclusion: Integrated PET/MRI provides superior restaging of breast cancer patients over MRI alone. Facing the need for appropriate and efficient whole-body PET/MR protocols, our results show the feasibility of fast and morphologically adequate PET/MR protocols. However, considering an equivalent accuracy for the detection of breast cancer

  1. Evaluation of PET and MR datasets in integrated 18F-FDG PET/MRI: A comparison of different MR sequences for whole-body restaging of breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueneisen, Johannes; Sawicki, Lino Morris; Wetter, Axel; Kirchner, Julian; Kinner, Sonja; Aktas, Bahriye; Forsting, Michael; Ruhlmann, Verena; Umutlu, Lale

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the diagnostic value of different MR sequences and 18F-FDG PET data for whole-body restaging of breast cancer patients utilizing PET/MRI. Methods: A total of 36 patients with suspected tumor recurrence of breast cancer based on clinical follow-up or abnormal findings in follow-up examinations (e.g. CT, MRI) were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients underwent a PET/CT and subsequently an additional PET/MR scan. Two readers were instructed to identify the occurrence of a tumor relapse in subsequent MR and PET/MR readings, utilizing different MR sequence constellations for each session. The diagnostic confidence for the determination of a malignant or benign lesion was qualitatively rated (3-point ordinal scale) for each lesion in the different reading sessions and the lesion conspicuity (4-point ordinal scale) for the three different MR sequences was additionally evaluated. Results: Tumor recurrence was present in 25/36 (69%) patients. All three PET/MRI readings showed a significantly higher accuracy as well as higher confidence levels for the detection of recurrent breast cancer lesions when compared to MRI alone (p < 0.05). Furthermore, all three PET/MR sequence constellations showed comparable diagnostic accuracy for the identification of a breast cancer recurrence (p > 0.05), yet the highest confidence levels were obtained, when all three MR sequences were used for image interpretation. Moreover, contrast-enhanced T1-weighted VIBE imaging showed significantly higher values for the delineation of malignant and benign lesions when compared to T2 w HASTE and diffusion-weighted imaging. Conclusion: Integrated PET/MRI provides superior restaging of breast cancer patients over MRI alone. Facing the need for appropriate and efficient whole-body PET/MR protocols, our results show the feasibility of fast and morphologically adequate PET/MR protocols. However, considering an equivalent accuracy for the detection of breast cancer

  2. PET/CT Atlas on Quality Control and Image Artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Combined positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging has become a routine procedure in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The clinical review of both PET and PET/CT images requires a thorough understanding of the basics of image formation as well as an appreciation of variations of inter-patient and intra-patient image appearance. Such variations may be caused by variations in tracer accumulation and metabolism, and, perhaps more importantly, by image artefacts related to methodological pitfalls of the two modalities. This atlas on quality control (QC) and PET/CT artefacts provides guidance on typical image distortions in clinical PET/CT usage scenarios. A number of cases are presented to provide nuclear medicine and radiology professionals with an assortment of examples of possible image distortions and errors in order to support the correct interpretation of images. About 70 typical PET and PET/CT cases, comprised of image sets and cases, have been collected in this book, and all have been catalogued and have explanations as to the causes of and solutions to each individual image problem. This atlas is intended to be used as a guide on how to take proper QC measures, on performing situation and problem analysis, and on problem prevention. This book will be especially useful to medical physicists, physicians, technologists and service engineers in the clinical field

  3. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT for systemic staging of newly diagnosed triple-negative breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulaner, Gary A.; Castillo, Raychel; Riedl, Christopher C.; Jochelson, Maxine S. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Goldman, Debra A.; Goenen, Mithat [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States); Wills, Jonathan [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Information Systems, New York, NY (United States); Pinker-Domenig, Katja [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-10-15

    National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT, in addition to standard staging procedures, for systemic staging of newly diagnosed stage III breast cancer patients. However, factors in addition to stage may influence PET/CT utility. As breast cancers that are negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor (triple-negative breast cancer, or TNBC) are more aggressive and metastasize earlier than other breast cancers, we hypothesized that receptor expression may be one such factor. This study assesses {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT for systemic staging of newly diagnosed TNBC. In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study, our Healthcare Information System was screened for patients with TNBC who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT in 2007-2013 prior to systemic or radiation therapy. Initial stage was determined from mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and/or surgery, if performed prior to {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT was evaluated to identify unsuspected extra-axillary regional nodal and distant metastases, as well as unsuspected synchronous malignancies. Kaplan Meier survival estimates were calculated for initial stage IIB patients stratified by whether or not stage 4 disease was detected by {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT. A total of 232 patients with TNBC met inclusion criteria. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT revealed unsuspected distant metastases in 30 (13 %): 0/23 initial stage I, 4/82 (5 %) stage IIA, 13/87 (15 %) stage IIB, 4/23 (17 %) stage IIIA, 8/14 (57 %) stage IIIB, and 1/3 (33 %) stage IIIC. Twenty-six of 30 patients upstaged to IV by {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT were confirmed by pathology, with the remaining four patients confirmed by follow-up imaging. In addition, seven unsuspected synchronous malignancies were identified in six patients. Initial stage 2B patients who were upstaged to 4 by {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT had significantly shorter survival compared to

  4. Evaluation and comparison of contrast to noise ratio and signal to noise ratio according to change of reconstruction on breast PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Jae [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eul Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Inje Paik University Hospital Jeo-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Dept. of Radiological Technology, The Baekseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Lyu, Kwang Yeul; Park, Hoon Hee; Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, The Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to measure contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) according to change of reconstruction from region of interest (ROI) in breast positron emission tomography- computed tomography (PET-CT), and to analyze the CNR and SNR statically. We examined images of breast PET-CT of 100 patients in a University-affiliated hospital, Seoul, Korea. Each patient's image of breast PET-CT were calculated by using Image J. Differences of CNR and SNR among four reconstruction algorithms were tested by SPSS Statistics21 ANOVA test for there was statistical significance (p<0.05). We have analysis socio-demographical variables, CNR and SNR according to reconstruction images, 95% confidence according to CNR and SNR of reconstruction and difference in a mean of CNR and SNR. SNR results, with the quality of distributions in the order of PSF{sub T}OF, Iterative and Iterative-TOF, FBP-TOF. CNR, with the quality of distributions in the order of PSF{sub T}OF, Iterative and Iterative-TOF, FBP-TOF. CNR and SNR of PET-CT reconstruction methods of the breast would be useful to evaluate breast diseases.

  5. Spatial resolution recovery utilizing multi-ray tracing and graphic processing unit in PET image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Yicheng; Peng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Depth-of-interaction (DOI) poses a major challenge for a PET system to achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view, particularly for small animal and organ-dedicated PET systems. In this work, we implemented an analytical method to model system matrix for resolution recovery, which was then incorporated in PET image reconstruction on a graphical processing unit platform, due to its parallel processing capacity. The method utilizes the concepts of virtual DOI layers and multi-ray tracing to calculate the coincidence detection response function for a given line-of-response. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated for a small-bore PET insert to be used for simultaneous PET/MR breast imaging. In addition, the performance comparisons were studied among the following three cases: 1) no physical DOI and no resolution modeling; 2) two physical DOI layers and no resolution modeling; and 3) no physical DOI design but with a different number of virtual DOI layers. The image quality was quantitatively evaluated in terms of spatial resolution (full-width-half-maximum and position offset), contrast recovery coefficient and noise. The results indicate that the proposed method has the potential to be used as an alternative to other physical DOI designs and achieve comparable imaging performances, while reducing detector/system design cost and complexity. (paper)

  6. Semiautomated Multimodal Breast Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Curtis

    2012-01-01

    However, due to the highly deformable nature of breast tissues, comparison of 3D and 2D modalities is a challenge. To enable this comparison, a registration technique was developed to map features from 2D mammograms to locations in the 3D image space. This technique was developed and tested using magnetic resonance (MR images as a reference 3D modality, as MR breast imaging is an established technique in clinical practice. The algorithm was validated using a numerical phantom then successfully tested on twenty-four image pairs. Dice's coefficient was used to measure the external goodness of fit, resulting in an excellent overall average of 0.94. Internal agreement was evaluated by examining internal features in consultation with a radiologist, and subjective assessment concludes that reasonable alignment was achieved.

  7. Noninvasive imaging of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medarova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    With the development of molecularly targeted cancer therapies, it is highly advantageous to be able to determine their efficacy, to improve overall patient survival. Non-invasive imaging techniques are currently available for visualizing different pathological conditions of the human body, but their use for cancer monitoring is limited due to the lack of tumor-specific imaging probes. This review will attempt to summarize the current clinical diagnostic approaches for breast cancer detection, staging, and therapy assessment. In addition, I will present some novel concepts from the field of molecular imaging that form the basis of some of our research. We believe that this general imaging strategy has the potential of significantly advancing our ability to diagnose breast cancer at the earliest stages of the pathology, before any overt clinical symptoms have developed, as well as to better direct the development of molecularly-targeted individualized therapy protocols.

  8. An attenuation correction method for PET/CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ue, Hidenori; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2006-01-01

    In PET/CT systems, accurate attenuation correction can be achieved by creating an attenuation map from an X-ray CT image. On the other hand, respiratory-gated PET acquisition is an effective method for avoiding motion blurring of the thoracic and abdominal organs caused by respiratory motion. In PET/CT systems employing respiratory-gated PET, using an X-ray CT image acquired during breath-holding for attenuation correction may have a large effect on the voxel values, especially in regions with substantial respiratory motion. In this report, we propose an attenuation correction method in which, as the first step, a set of respiratory-gated PET images is reconstructed without attenuation correction, as the second step, the motion of each phase PET image from the PET image in the same phase as the CT acquisition timing is estimated by the previously proposed method, as the third step, the CT image corresponding to each respiratory phase is generated from the original CT image by deformation according to the motion vector maps, and as the final step, attenuation correction using these CT images and reconstruction are performed. The effectiveness of the proposed method was evaluated using 4D-NCAT phantoms, and good stability of the voxel values near the diaphragm was observed. (author)

  9. Acquiring additional delayed PET images improves sensitivity and specificity in oncology cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamki, L.M.; Barron, B.J.; Mullani, N.; Joseph, U.; Ehert, E.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: This study looked into utility of acquiring PET images at 2-3 hours in addition to the standard whole body PET done at 1-hour after FDG injection in certain oncology cases. The objective is to evaluate whether the delayed additional images can decipher equivocal foci of FDG accumulation commonly seen in oncology patients. Typical example is the bowel activity that moves with time. Materials and Methods: PET protocol at our Institution in patients with colon Cancer, Pancreas Ca, Ovarian Ca and Breast Ca include a whole body PET (6-7 bed positions) done at 1-hour after 15 mCi F-18-FDG followed by select limited area PET scan (typically 2 bed stops over the area of interest) at 2-3 hours. Acquisition was undertaken on Siemens ECAT-EXACT Camera - 2-D acquisition and 8 mins. per bed position (5 mins. Emission and 3 mins. Transmission), 16.3 cm FOV and then Iterative Reconstruction. Results: Analysis of the first 115 patients who had additional delayed images resulted in 80% of patients where delayed images helped in interpretation. In 70% of these, delayed images helped in identifying physiological structures, e.g., ureters, bowel, blood vessels and muscles versus pathology. In 25%, they actually helped in identifying malignancy, e.g. more definite FDG accumulation. Almost all helped to boost the confidence of the reader. The contribution was mainly in differentiating bowel and ureter activity from cancer in the abdomen, as these change position with time. In case of pancreas and breast cancer, delayed images contributed in clarifying tumor metabolic activity as well. Inflammation and motion artifacts could also be better defined and so was muscle uptake. Conclusion: (1) Additional delayed PET imaging is very helpful in certain cancers in identifying more lesions and avoiding pitfalls. (2) They can yield higher sensitivity and specificity for colon, ovarian, breast and pancreas cancers. (3) Identification of physiologic structures and differentiation of these from

  10. The application value of PET-CT in the diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haitao

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in most of countries. During the past decades, the application of PET with 18 f-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glocuse ( 18 F-FDG) has remarkably improved the management of breast cancer. Nevertheless, due to anatomical localisation of 18 F-FDG uptake was difficult, the clinical interpretation of 18 F-FDG PET scan could not be exactly. A novel combined PET-CT system has largely improved the capacity of sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of breast cancer. In this artiacal we focus on the application value of PET-CT to breast cancer diagnosis, with respect to dissease re-staging, treatment monitoring, preoperative staging and radiotherapy planning. (authors)

  11. Evaluation of PET and MR datasets in integrated 18F-FDG PET/MRI: A comparison of different MR sequences for whole-body restaging of breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueneisen, Johannes; Sawicki, Lino Morris; Wetter, Axel; Kirchner, Julian; Kinner, Sonja; Aktas, Bahriye; Forsting, Michael; Ruhlmann, Verena; Umutlu, Lale

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of different MR sequences and 18F-FDG PET data for whole-body restaging of breast cancer patients utilizing PET/MRI. A total of 36 patients with suspected tumor recurrence of breast cancer based on clinical follow-up or abnormal findings in follow-up examinations (e.g. CT, MRI) were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients underwent a PET/CT and subsequently an additional PET/MR scan. Two readers were instructed to identify the occurrence of a tumor relapse in subsequent MR and PET/MR readings, utilizing different MR sequence constellations for each session. The diagnostic confidence for the determination of a malignant or benign lesion was qualitatively rated (3-point ordinal scale) for each lesion in the different reading sessions and the lesion conspicuity (4-point ordinal scale) for the three different MR sequences was additionally evaluated. Tumor recurrence was present in 25/36 (69%) patients. All three PET/MRI readings showed a significantly higher accuracy as well as higher confidence levels for the detection of recurrent breast cancer lesions when compared to MRI alone (psequence constellations showed comparable diagnostic accuracy for the identification of a breast cancer recurrence (p>0.05), yet the highest confidence levels were obtained, when all three MR sequences were used for image interpretation. Moreover, contrast-enhanced T1-weighted VIBE imaging showed significantly higher values for the delineation of malignant and benign lesions when compared to T2w HASTE and diffusion-weighted imaging. Integrated PET/MRI provides superior restaging of breast cancer patients over MRI alone. Facing the need for appropriate and efficient whole-body PET/MR protocols, our results show the feasibility of fast and morphologically adequate PET/MR protocols. However, considering an equivalent accuracy for the detection of breast cancer recurrences in the three PET/MR readings, the application of contrast-agent and the

  12. PET/MRI in Oncological Imaging: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Usman; Mallia, Andrew; Stirling, James; Joemon, John; MacKewn, Jane; Charles-Edwards, Geoff; Goh, Vicky; Cook, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a hybrid technology which has recently gained interest as a potential cancer imaging tool. Compared with CT, MRI is advantageous due to its lack of ionizing radiation, superior soft-tissue contrast resolution, and wider range of acquisition sequences. Several studies have shown PET/MRI to be equivalent to PET/CT in most oncological applications, possibly superior in certain body parts, e.g., head and neck, pelvis, and in certain situations, e.g., cancer recurrence. This review will update the readers on recent advances in PET/MRI technology and review key literature, while highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of PET/MRI in cancer imaging. PMID:26854157

  13. PET/MRI in Oncological Imaging: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Bashir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a hybrid technology which has recently gained interest as a potential cancer imaging tool. Compared with CT, MRI is advantageous due to its lack of ionizing radiation, superior soft-tissue contrast resolution, and wider range of acquisition sequences. Several studies have shown PET/MRI to be equivalent to PET/CT in most oncological applications, possibly superior in certain body parts, e.g., head and neck, pelvis, and in certain situations, e.g., cancer recurrence. This review will update the readers on recent advances in PET/MRI technology and review key literature, while highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of PET/MRI in cancer imaging.

  14. Quantitative imaging studies with PET VI. Project II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Yasillo, N.; Gatley, J.; Ortega, C.; DeJesus, O.; Friedman, A.

    1985-01-01

    This project is focused upon the development of hardware and software to improve PET image analysis and upon clinical applications of PET. In this report the laboratory's progress in various attenuation correction methods for brain imaging are described. The use of time-of-flight information for image reconstruction is evaluated. The location of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in brain was found to be largely in the basal ganghia. 1 tab. (DT)

  15. PET tracers for somatostatin receptor imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnbeck, Camilla Bardram; Knigge, Ulrich; Kjær, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors have shown rising incidence mainly due to higher clinical awareness and better diagnostic tools over the last 30 years. Functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumors with PET tracers is an evolving field that is continuously refining the affinity of new tracers in the search...... these PET tracers further....

  16. Contourlet-based active contour model for PET image segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdoli, M.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.; Zaidi, H.

    Purpose: PET-guided radiation therapy treatment planning, clinical diagnosis, assessment of tumor growth, and therapy response rely on the accurate delineation of the tumor volume and quantification of tracer uptake. Most PET image segmentation techniques proposed thus far are suboptimal in the

  17. Assessment of response to endocrine therapy using FDG PET/CT in metastatic breast cancer: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi-Jehanno, Nina; Giraudet, Anne-Laure; Champion, Laurence; Edeline, Veronique; Madar, Olivier; Pecking, Alain Paul; Lerebours, Florence; Stanc, Elise Le; Bellet, Dominique; Alberini, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess whether outcome in metastatic or recurrent breast cancer patients is related to metabolic response to endocrine therapy determined by 18 F-FDG PET/CT. The study group comprised 22 patients with breast cancer (age 58 ± 11 years, mean ± SD) who were scheduled to receive endocrine therapy. They were systematically assessed by PET/CT at baseline and after a mean of 10 ± 4 weeks for evaluation of response after induction. All patients demonstrated FDG-avid lesions on the baseline PET/CT scan. The metabolic response was assessed according to EORTC criteria and based on the mean difference in SUV max between the two PET/CT scans, and the patients were classified into four groups: complete or partial metabolic response, or stable or progressive metabolic disease (CMR, PMR, SMD and PMD, respectively). All patients were followed in our institution. Metastatic sites were localized in bone (n = 15), lymph nodes (n = 11), chest wall (n = 3), breast (n = 5), lung (n = 3), soft tissue (n = 1) and liver (n = 1). PMR was observed in 11 patients (50%), SMD in 5 (23%) and PMD in 6 (27%). The median progression-free survival (PFS) times were 20, 27 and 6 months in the PMR, SMD and PMD groups, respectively. PFS in the SMD group differed from that in the PMR and SMD groups (p < 0.0001). Metabolic response assessed by FDG PET/CT imaging in patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with endocrine therapy is predictive of the patients' PFS. (orig.)

  18. Assessment of response to endocrine therapy using FDG PET/CT in metastatic breast cancer: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortazavi-Jehanno, Nina; Giraudet, Anne-Laure; Champion, Laurence; Edeline, Veronique; Madar, Olivier; Pecking, Alain Paul [Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Saint-Cloud (France); Lerebours, Florence [Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Service d' Oncologie Medicale, Saint-Cloud (France); Stanc, Elise Le [Hopital Foch, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Suresnes (France); Bellet, Dominique [Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Saint-Cloud (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Pharmacologie Chimique et Genetique and Imagerie, Inserm U1022 CNRS UMR 8151, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques, Paris (France); Alberini, Jean-Louis [Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Saint-Cloud (France); Universite Versailles Saint-Quentin, Faculte de Medecine, Versailles (France)

    2012-03-15

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess whether outcome in metastatic or recurrent breast cancer patients is related to metabolic response to endocrine therapy determined by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. The study group comprised 22 patients with breast cancer (age 58 {+-} 11 years, mean {+-} SD) who were scheduled to receive endocrine therapy. They were systematically assessed by PET/CT at baseline and after a mean of 10 {+-} 4 weeks for evaluation of response after induction. All patients demonstrated FDG-avid lesions on the baseline PET/CT scan. The metabolic response was assessed according to EORTC criteria and based on the mean difference in SUV{sub max} between the two PET/CT scans, and the patients were classified into four groups: complete or partial metabolic response, or stable or progressive metabolic disease (CMR, PMR, SMD and PMD, respectively). All patients were followed in our institution. Metastatic sites were localized in bone (n = 15), lymph nodes (n = 11), chest wall (n = 3), breast (n = 5), lung (n = 3), soft tissue (n = 1) and liver (n = 1). PMR was observed in 11 patients (50%), SMD in 5 (23%) and PMD in 6 (27%). The median progression-free survival (PFS) times were 20, 27 and 6 months in the PMR, SMD and PMD groups, respectively. PFS in the SMD group differed from that in the PMR and SMD groups (p < 0.0001). Metabolic response assessed by FDG PET/CT imaging in patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with endocrine therapy is predictive of the patients' PFS. (orig.)

  19. Normal physiologic and Benign foci with F-18 FDG avidity on PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soon Ah; Lee, Kwang Man; Choi, Un Jong; Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hye Won; Song, Jeong Hoon [College of Medicine, Wonkwnag University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiologic and benign F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avid foci in patients with breast cancer. On 309 F-18 FDG PET/CT scans of 241 women with breast cancer, the hypermetabolic lesions compared with the surrounding normal region were evaluated retrospectively. Available reports of other relevant radiological imaging medical records, and follow-up PET/CT were reviewed for explanations of the abnormal uptake. Among the 70 physiologic foci, muscular uptake of the lower neck following the surgical and/or radiation therapy of ipsilateral breast (29%), hypermetabolic ovaries (16%) and uterine (10%) uptake during the ovulatory and menstrual phases during the normal menstrual cycle were identified, and also hypermetabolic brown fat in cold-induced thermogenesis (7%), non-specific bowel uptake (35%) were observed. Among the 147 benign lesions, sequelae of the chest wall and breasts following surgical and/or radiation therapy, were often observed (27%). Hypermetabolic thyroid glands were noted as adenomas and chronic thyroiditis (18%). Reactive hyperplasia of cervical or mediastinal lymph nodes (32%), degenerative osteoarthritis and healed fractures (15%), hypermetabolic benign lung lesions (6%) were observed. Altered physiologic and benign F-18 FDG uptake in the cervical muscle and chest wall following ipsilateral breast surgery or radiotherapy were common, and also normal physiologic uptake in ovary and uterus, brown fat, thyroid were considered as predominant findings in women patients with breast cancer. Knowledge of these findings might aid in the interpretation of FDG PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

  20. PET-MRI: the likely future of molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiang; Zhao Jinhua; Zhao Jun

    2008-01-01

    PET-CT is a successful combination of functional and morphologic information, and it has already been shown to have great value both in clinics and in scientific research. MRI is another kind of morphologic imaging method, in contrast to CT, MRI can yield images with higher soft-tissue contrast and better spatial resolution. The combination of PET and MRI for simultaneous data acquisition should have far- reaching consequences for molecular imaging. This review will talk about the problems met in the development of PET-MRI and describe the progress to date and look forward to its potential application. (authors)

  1. Metastatic Breast Lesion to the Falx Detected with PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Chester; Schuster, David M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Intracranial dural metastasis is increasingly encountered in imaging. Autopsies conducted on patients with advanced metastatic disease demonstrate dural involvement in 9% of cases, with breast and prostate cancer the most common primaries. Awareness of this entity and imaging appearances is especially important in evaluating malignancies prone to dural metastasis. A 57-year-old woman with a strong family history of breast cancer initially presented after self-detection of a right breast lump. Subsequent mammogram and biopsies yielded a diagnosis of right infiltrating ductal carcinoma with a positive lymph node as well as left invasive lobular carcinoma. Initial staging PET-CT (not shown) at the time of diagnosis demonstrated no abnormal FDG uptake remote from the breast. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was instituted, and a PET-CT was obtained to evaluate disease response, demonstrating an approximately 1.8 cm hypermetabolic intra-cranial mass, localized to the region of the anterior corpus callosum on axian PET (Fig. 1a), axial fused PET-CT (Fig. 1b), and sagittal fused PET-CT (Fig. 1c) with a maximum SUV of 15.9. There was associated bifrontal vasogenic edema (Fig. 1d) on the CT demonstrated on brain windows. Marked progression of disease was noted elsewhere, including hypermetabolic adenopathy and skeletal disease. A contrast-enhanced MRI of the brain was obtained demonstrating extensive T1 hypointensity, T2, and FLAIR (Fig. 2a) hyperintensity in the bilateral paramedian frontallobes representing vasogenic edema. Post-contrast imaging demonstrated three solidly enhancing masses in the areas of described vasogenic edema, one large extra-axial and two sub-centimeter parenchymal lesions. The large extra-axial and two sub-centimeter parenchymal lesions. The large extra-axial mass demonstrated homogeneous solid enhancement, in the midline anteriorly centered on the falx, just superior to the anterior corpus callosum. This measured 1.7cm transverse x 3.1cm AP x 2.4cm

  2. Clinical evaluation of PET image quality as a function of acquisition time in a new TOF-PET/MR compared to TOF-PET/CT - initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeimpekis, Konstantinos; Huellner, Martin; De Galiza Barbosa, Felipe; Ter Voert, Edwin; Davison, Helen; Delso, Gaspar; Veit-Haibach, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The recently available integrated PET/MR imaging can offer significant additional advances in clinical imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare the PET performance between a PET/CT scanner and an integrated TOF-PET/MR scanner concerning image quality parameters and quantification in terms of SUV as a function of acquisition time (a surrogate of dose). Five brain and five whole body patients were included in the study. The PET/CT scan was used as a reference and the PET/MR acquisition time was consecutively adjusted, taking into account the decay between the scans in order to expose both systems to the same amount of emitted signal. The acquisition times were then retrospectively reduced to assess the performance of the PET/MRI for lower count rates. Image quality, image sharpness, artifacts and noise were evaluated. SUV measurements were taken in the liver and in white matter to compare quantification. Quantitative evaluation showed good correlation between PET/CT and PET/MR brain SUVs. Liver correlation was lower, with uptake underestimation in PET/MR, partially justified by bio-redistribution. The clinical evaluation showed that PET/MR offers higher image quality and sharpness with lower levels of noise and artefacts compared to PET/CT with reduced acquisition times for whole body scans, while for brain scans there is no significant difference. The PET-component of the TOF-PET/MR showed higher image quality compared to PET/CT as tested with reduced imaging times. However, these results account mainly for body imaging, while no significant difference were found in brain imaging. This overall higher image quality suggests that the acquisition time or injected activity can be reduced by at least 37% on the PET/MR scanner.

  3. Clinical evaluation of PET image quality as a function of acquisition time in a new TOF-PET/MR compared to TOF-PET/CT - initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeimpekis, Konstantinos; Huellner, Martin; De Galiza Barbosa, Felipe; Ter Voert, Edwin; Davison, Helen; Delso, Gaspar; Veit-Haibach, Patrick [Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-05-18

    The recently available integrated PET/MR imaging can offer significant additional advances in clinical imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare the PET performance between a PET/CT scanner and an integrated TOF-PET/MR scanner concerning image quality parameters and quantification in terms of SUV as a function of acquisition time (a surrogate of dose). Five brain and five whole body patients were included in the study. The PET/CT scan was used as a reference and the PET/MR acquisition time was consecutively adjusted, taking into account the decay between the scans in order to expose both systems to the same amount of emitted signal. The acquisition times were then retrospectively reduced to assess the performance of the PET/MRI for lower count rates. Image quality, image sharpness, artifacts and noise were evaluated. SUV measurements were taken in the liver and in white matter to compare quantification. Quantitative evaluation showed good correlation between PET/CT and PET/MR brain SUVs. Liver correlation was lower, with uptake underestimation in PET/MR, partially justified by bio-redistribution. The clinical evaluation showed that PET/MR offers higher image quality and sharpness with lower levels of noise and artefacts compared to PET/CT with reduced acquisition times for whole body scans, while for brain scans there is no significant difference. The PET-component of the TOF-PET/MR showed higher image quality compared to PET/CT as tested with reduced imaging times. However, these results account mainly for body imaging, while no significant difference were found in brain imaging. This overall higher image quality suggests that the acquisition time or injected activity can be reduced by at least 37% on the PET/MR scanner.

  4. Correlation between PET/CT results and histological and immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Galvão Vieira Bitencourt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To correlate the results of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT performed with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts with histological/immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinoma patients. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional study with prospective data collection, where patients with biopsy-confirmed breast carcinomas were studied. The patients underwent PET/CT examination in prone position, with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts. PET/CT findings were compared with histological and immunohistochemical data. Results The authors identified 59 malignant breast lesions in 50 patients. The maximum diameter of the lesions ranged from 6 to 80 mm (mean: 32.2 mm. Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type (n = 47; 79.7%. At PET/CT, 53 (89.8% of the lesions demonstrated anomalous concentrations of 18F-FDG, with maximum SUV ranging from 0.8 to 23.1 (mean: 5.5. A statistically significant association was observed between higher values of maximum SUV and histological type, histological grade, molecular subtype, tumor diameter, mitotic index and Ki-67 expression. Conclusion PET/CT performed with specific protocol for assessment of breasts has demonstrated good sensitivity and was associated with relevant histological/immunohistochemical factors related to aggressiveness and prognosis of breast carcinomas.

  5. Correlation between PET/CT results and histological and immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Lima, Eduardo Nobrega Pereira; Chojniak, Rubens; Marques, Elvira Ferreira; Souza, Juliana Alves de; Graziano, Luciana; Andrade, Wesley Pereira; Osorio, Cynthia Aparecida Bueno de Toledo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to correlate the results of 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) performed with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts with histological/immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinoma patients. Materials and methods: cross-sectional study with prospective data collection, where patients with biopsy-confirmed breast carcinomas were studied. The patients underwent PET/CT examination in prone position, with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts. PET/CT findings were compared with histological and immunohistochemical data. Results: the authors identified 59 malignant breast lesions in 50 patients. The maximum diameter of the lesions ranged from 6 to 80 mm (mean: 32.2 mm). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type (n = 47; 79.7%). At PET/CT, 53 (89.8%) of the lesions demonstrated anomalous concentrations of 18 F-FDG, with maximum SUV ranging from 0.8 to 23.1 (mean: 5.5). A statistically significant association was observed between higher values of maximum SUV and histological type, histological grade, molecular subtype, tumor diameter, mitotic index and Ki-67 expression. Conclusion: PET/CT performed with specific protocol for assessment of breasts has demonstrated good sensitivity and was associated with relevant histological/immunohistochemical factors related to aggressiveness and prognosis of breast carcinomas. (author)

  6. Development of a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Hamamura, Fuka; Kato, Katsuhiko; Ogata, Yoshimune; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Hatazawa, Jun; Watabe, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Cerenkov-light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects visible photons from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. However, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging remains unclear. If a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system were developed, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging would be clarified by directly comparing these two imaging modalities. Methods: The authors developed and tested a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system that consists of a dual-head PET system, a reflection mirror located above the subject, and a high sensitivity charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The authors installed these systems inside a black box for imaging the Cerenkov-light. The dual-head PET system employed a 1.2 × 1.2 × 10 mm 3 GSO arranged in a 33 × 33 matrix that was optically coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube to form a GSO block detector. The authors arranged two GSO block detectors 10 cm apart and positioned the subject between them. The Cerenkov-light above the subject is reflected by the mirror and changes its direction to the side of the PET system and is imaged by the high sensitivity CCD camera. Results: The dual-head PET system had a spatial resolution of ∼1.2 mm FWHM and sensitivity of ∼0.31% at the center of the FOV. The Cerenkov-light imaging system's spatial resolution was ∼275μm for a 22 Na point source. Using the combined PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, the authors successfully obtained fused images from simultaneously acquired images. The image distributions are sometimes different due to the light transmission and absorption in the body of the subject in the Cerenkov-light images. In simultaneous imaging of rat, the authors found that 18 F-FDG accumulation was observed mainly in the Harderian gland on the PET image, while the distribution of Cerenkov-light was observed in the eyes. Conclusions: The authors conclude that their developed PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging

  7. A Pilot Study for the Feasibility of F-18 FLT-PET in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: Comparison with F-18 FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen; Kim, Euy Nyong; Hong, Il Ki

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of 3'-[F-18]fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine positron emission tomography(FLT-PET) for the detection of locally advanced breast cancer and to compare the degree of FLT and 2'-deoxy-2'-[F-18]fluoro-d-glucose(FDG) uptake in primary tumor, lymph nodes and other normal organs. The study subjects consisted of 22 female patients (mean age; 42±6 years) with biopsy-confirmed infiltrating ductal carcinoma between Aug 2005 and Nov 2006. We performed conventional imaging workup, FDG-PET and FLT PET/CT. Average tumor size measured by MRI was 7.2±3.4 cm. With visual analysis, Tumor and Lymph node uptakes of FLT and FDG were determined by calculation of standardized uptake value (SUV) and tumor to background (TB) ratio. We compared FLT tumor uptake with FDG tumor uptake. We also investigated the correlation between FLT tumor uptake and FDG tumor uptake and the concordant rate with lymph node uptakes of FLT and FDG. FLT and FDG uptakes of bone marrow and liver were measured to compare the biodistribution of each other. All tumor lesions were visually detected in both FLT-PET and FDG-PET. There was no significant correlation between maximal tumor size by MRI and SUVmax of FLT-PET or FDG-PET (p>0.05). SUVmax and SUV75 (average SUV within volume of interest using 75% isocontour) of FLT-PET were significantly lower than those of FDG-PET in primary tumor (SUVmax; 6.3±5.2 vs 8.3±4.9, p=0.02 / SUV75; 5.3±4.3 vs 6.9 4.2, p=0.02). There is significant moderate correlation between uptake of FLT and FDG in primary tumor (SUVmax; rho=0.450, p=0.04 / SUV75; rho=0.472, p=0.03). But, TB ratio of FLT-PET was higher than that of FDG-PET(11.7±7.7 vs 6.3±3.8, p=0.001). The concordant rate between FLT and FDG uptake of lymph node was reasonably good (33/34). The FLT SUVs of liver and bone marrow were 4.2±1.2 and 8.3±4.9. The FDG SUVs of liver and bone marrow were 1.8±0.4 and 1.6±0.4. The uptakes of FLT were lower than those of FDG, but all

  8. In vivo PET imaging of neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, Julien; Sarazin, Marie; Bottlaender, Michel

    2018-05-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that neuroinflammation contributes to the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD). Molecular imaging by PET may be a useful tool to assess neuroinflammation in vivo, thus helping to decipher the complex role of inflammatory processes in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases and providing a potential means of monitoring the effect of new therapeutic approaches. For this objective, the main target of PET studies is the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), as it is overexpressed by activated microglia. In the present review, we describe the most widely used PET tracers targeting the TSPO, the methodological issues in tracer quantification and summarize the results obtained by TSPO PET imaging in AD, as well as in neurodegenerative disorders associated with AD, in psychiatric disorders and ageing. We also briefly describe alternative PET targets and imaging modalities to study neuroinflammation. Lastly, we question the meaning of PET imaging data in the context of a highly complex and multifaceted role of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. This overview leads to the conclusion that PET imaging of neuroinflammation is a promising way of deciphering the enigma of the pathophysiology of AD and of monitoring the effect of new therapies.

  9. PET IMAGING STUDIES IN DRUG ABUSE RESEARCH.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Ding, Y.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J.

    2001-01-29

    There is overwhelming evidence that addiction is a disease of the brain (Leshner, 1997). Yet public perception that addiction is a reflection of moral weakness or a lack of willpower persists. The insidious consequence of this perception is that we lose sight of the fact that there are enormous medical consequences of addiction including the fact that a large fraction of the total deaths from cancer and heart disease are caused by smoking addiction. Ironically the medical school that educates physicians in addiction medicine and the cancer hospital that has a smoking cessation clinic are vanishingly rare and efforts at harm reduction are frequently met with a public indignation. Meanwhile the number of people addicted to substances is enormous and increasing particularly the addictions to cigarettes and alcohol. It is particularly tragic that addiction usually begins in adolescence and becomes a chronic relapsing problem and there are basically no completely effective treatments. Clearly we need to understand how drugs of abuse affect the brain and we need to be creative in using this information to develop effective treatments. Imaging technologies have played a major role in the conceptualization of addiction as a disease of the brain (Fowler et al., 1998a; Fowler et al., 1999a). New knowledge has been driven by advances in radiotracer design and chemistry and positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation and the integration of these scientific tools with the tools of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. This topic cuts across the medical specialties of neurology, psychiatry, cancer and heart disease because of the high medical, social and economic toll that drugs of abuse, including and especially the legal drugs, cigarettes and alcohol, take on society. In this chapter we will begin by highlighting the important role that chemistry has played in making it possible to quantitatively image the movement of drugs as well as their effects on the human brain

  10. Comparison of CE-FDG-PET/CT with CE-FDG-PET/MR in the evaluation of osseous metastases in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Catalano, O A; Nicolai, E; Rosen, B R; Luongo, A; Catalano, M; Iannace, C; Guimaraes, A; Vangel, M G; Mahmood, U; Soricelli, A; Salvatore, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite improvements in treatments, metastatic breast cancer remains difficult to cure. Bones constitute the most common site of first-time recurrence, occurring in 40?75% of cases. Therefore, evaluation for possible osseous metastases is crucial. Technetium 99 (99Tc) bone scintigraphy and fluorodexossyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (PET-CT) are the most commonly used techniques to assess osseous metastasis. PET magnetic resonance (PET-MR) ima...

  11. PET/CT. Dose-escalated image fusion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, G.; Beyer, T.

    2005-01-01

    Clinical studies demonstrate a gain in diagnostic accuracy by employing combined PET/CT instead of separate CT and PET imaging. However, whole-body PET/CT examinations result in a comparatively high radiation burden to patients and thus require a proper justification and optimization to avoid repeated exposure or over-exposure of patients. This review article summarizes relevant data concerning radiation exposure of patients resulting from the different components of a combined PET/CT examination and presents different imaging strategies that can help to balance the diagnostic needs and the radiation protection requirements. In addition various dose reduction measures are discussed, some of which can be adopted from CT practice, while others mandate modifications to the existing hard- and software of PET/CT systems. (orig.)

  12. PET in cancer screening: a controversial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Minggang; Tan Tianzhi

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy has been one of the most dangerous threats to human health. Early diagnosis and treatment are key factors for improving prognosis. Cancer screening is an important way to detect early stage cancer and precancerous lesion. PET has been used increasingly in cancer screening in accordance with the requirement of the public. Though a great number of data show that PET can find some subclinical malignancy, yet as a cancer screening modality, PET is still controversial in contemporary medical practice. The aim of this article is to review the application status and existing problem of PET in cancer screening, and to offer some recognition and view about cancer srceening. (authors)

  13. PET-CT detection rate of primary breast cancer lesions. Correlation with the clinicopathological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Tomoko; Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Fukuma, Eisuke

    2008-01-01

    One hundred and forty lesions of primary breast cancer underwent positron emission tomography (PET)-CT between June 2006 and May 2007. The PET-CT detection rate of primary breast cancer lesions was 72.1%. The detection rate was 52.1% for invasive cancer ≤20 mm, 92.8% for invasive breast cancers >20 mm, and these results were significant. In the present study, no significant relationship was observed between tumor types, however, invasive lobular carcinoma showed a lower detection rate, 58.3%. The PET-CT results were not significantly affected by either estrogen and progesterone receptors or distant metastasis. A significant correlation regarding the detection rate of PET-CT was found with HER2 status, tumor grade, and axillary lymph node status. The detection rate was 100% for invasive cancer ≤20 mm when the interval between prior diagnostic Mammotome biopsies and PET-CT was less than 3 weeks, 18.8% for invasive cancer ≤20 mm when the interval was more than 3 weeks, and these results were significant. Mammotome biopsies may therefore affect the detection rate of PET-CT. Invasive cancers ≤20 mm showed a low detection rate, therefore, it is considered to be insufficient to use PET-CT for the detection of early breast cancer. (author)

  14. Utility of 18FDG-PET/CT in breast cancer diagnostics – a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warning, Karina; Hildebrandt, Malene; Christensen, Bent

    2011-01-01

    as a primary diagnostic procedure in breast cancer; but it has the potential to be useful for the detection of distant metastases and for monitoring response to chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. PET/CT should still be regarded as a supplement to conventional diagnostic procedures such as CT and MRI....

  15. {sup 18}F-FLT PET/CT as an imaging tool for early prediction of pathological response in patients with locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crippa, Flavio; Padovano, Barbara; Alessi, Alessandra; Bombardieri, Emilio; Pascali, Claudio; Bogni, Anna [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Agresti, Roberto; Maugeri, Ilaria; Rampa, Mario; Martelli, Gabriele [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy). Breast Surgery Unit; Sandri, Marco [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy). Molecular Targeting Unit; Mariani, Gabriella; Bianchi, Giulia; De Braud, Filippo [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy). Medical Oncology Unit; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy). Pathology Unit; Trecate, Giovanna [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy). Radiology-RMI Unit

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated whether {sup 18}F-3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine positron emission tomography (FLT PET) can predict the final postoperative histopathological response in primary breast cancer after the first cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT). In this prospective cohort study of 15 patients with locally advanced operable breast cancer, FLT PET evaluations were performed before NCT, after the first cycle of NCT, and at the end of NCT. All patients subsequently underwent surgery. Variables from FLT PET examinations were correlated with postoperative histopathological results. At baseline, median of maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) in the groups showing a complete pathological response (pCR) + residual cancer burden (RCB) I, RCB II or RCB III did not differ significantly for the primary tumour (5.0 vs. 2.9 vs. 8.9, p = 0.293) or for axillary nodes (7.9 vs. 1.6 vs. 7.0, p = 0.363), whereas the Spearman correlation between SUV{sub max} and Ki67 proliferation rate index was significant (r = 0.69, p < 0.001). Analysis of the relative percentage change of SUV{sub max}in the primary tumour (∇SUVT{sub max}(t{sub 1})) and axillary nodes (∇SUVN{sub max}(t{sub 1})) after the first NCT cycle showed that the power of ∇SUVT{sub max}(t{sub 1}) to predict pCR + RCB I responses (AUC = 0.91, p < 0.001) was statistically significant, whereas ∇SUVN{sub max}(t{sub 1}) had a moderate ability (AUC = 0.77, p = 0.119) to separate subjects with ΔSUVT{sub max}(t{sub 1}) > -52.9 % into two groups: RCB III patients and a heterogeneous group that included RCB I and RCB II patients. A predictive score μ based on ΔSUVT{sub max}(t{sub 1}) and ΔSUVN{sub max}(t{sub 1}) parameters is proposed. The preliminary findings of the present study suggest the potential utility of FLT PET scans for early monitoring of response to NCT and to formulate a therapeutic strategy consistent with the estimated efficacy of NCT. However, these results in a small patient population

  16. MR imaging of breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyca, D P

    1994-11-01

    MR imaging has proved to be an excellent imaging modality in locating free silicone and evaluating an implant for rupture, with a sensitivity of approximately 94% and specificity of 97%. Silicone has a unique MR resonance frequency and long T1 and T2 relaxation times, which allows several MR sequences to provide excellent diagnostic images. The most commonly used sequences include T2-weighted, STIR, and chemical shift imaging (Figs. 3, 13, and 14). The T2-weighted and STIR sequences are often used in conjunction with chemical water suppression. The most reliable findings on MR images for detection of implant rupture include identification of the collapsed implant shell (linguine sign) and free silicone within the breast parenchyma.

  17. A study of artefacts in simultaneous PET and MR imaging using a prototype MR compatible PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slates, R.B.; Farahani, K.; Marsden, P.K.; Taylor, J.; Summers, P.E.; Williams, S.; Beech, J.

    1999-01-01

    We have assessed the possibility of artefacts that can arise in attempting to perform simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a small prototype MR compatible PET scanner (McPET). In these experiments, we examine MR images for any major artefacts or loss in image quality due to inhomogeneities in the magnetic field, radiofrequency interference or susceptibility effects caused by operation of the PET system inside the MR scanner. In addition, possible artefacts in the PET images caused by the static and time-varying magnetic fields or radiofrequency interference from the MR system were investigated. Biological tissue and a T 2 -weighted spin echo sequence were used to examine susceptibility artefacts due to components of the McPET scanner (scintillator, optical fibres) situated in the MR field of view. A range of commonly used MR pulse sequences was studied while acquiring PET data to look for possible artefacts in either the PET or MR images. Other than a small loss in signal-to-noise using gradient echo sequences, there was no significant interaction between the two imaging systems. Simultaneous PET and MR imaging of simple phantoms was also carried out in different MR systems with field strengths ranging from 0.2 to 4.7 T. The results of these studies demonstrate that it is possible to acquire PET and MR images simultaneously, without any significant artefacts or loss in image quality, using our prototype MR compatible PET scanner. (author)

  18. Dual modality CT/PET imaging in lung cancer staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Gabriel A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic capability of PET-HCT image fusion and helical computed tomography (HCT) for nodal and distant metastases detection in patients with lung cancer. Material and methods: Between February, 2003 and March, 2004 sixty-six consecutive lung cancer patients (45 men and 21 women, mean ages: 63 years old, range: 38 to 96 years old) who underwent HCT and PET-HCT fusion imaging were evaluated retrospectively. All patients had histological confirmation of lung cancer and a definitive diagnosis established on the basis of pathology results and/or clinical follow-up. Results: For global nodal staging (hilar and mediastinal) HCT showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 72%, 47%, 62% and 58% respectively, versus 94%, 77%, 83% and 92% corresponding to PET-HCT examination. For assessment of advanced nodal stage (N3) PET-HCT showed values of 92%, 100%, 100% and 98% respectively. For detection of distant metastasis, HCT alone had values of 67%, 93%, 84% and 83% respectively versus 100%, 98%, 96% and 100% for the PET-HCT fusion imaging. In 20 (30%) patients under-staged or over-staged on the basis of HCT results, PET-HCT allowed accurate staging. Conclusions: PET-HCT fusion imaging was more effective than HCT alone for nodal and distant metastasis detection and oncology staging. (author)

  19. Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drubach, Laura A. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine/PET, Boston, MA (United States); Sapp, Mark.V. [School of Osteopathic Medicine, Child Abuse Research Education and Services (CARES) Institute University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey (United States); Laffin, Stephen [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine/PET, Boston, MA (United States); Kleinman, Paul K. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    We describe the use of {sup 18}F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution. (orig.)

  20. Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drubach, Laura A.; Sapp, Mark V.; Laffin, Stephen; Kleinman, Paul K.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the use of 18 F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution. (orig.)

  1. Usefulness of 18F fluoride PET/CT in breast cancer patients with osteosclerotic bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seok Ho; Kim, Ku Sang; Kang, Seok Yun; Song, Hee Sung; Jo, Kyung Sook; Lee, Su Jin; Yoon, Joon Kee; An, Young Sil; Choi, Bong Hoi

    2012-01-01

    Bone metastasis is an important factor for the treatment and prognosis of breast cancer patients. Whole body bone scintigraphy (WBBS) can evaluate skeletal metastases, and 18 F FDG PET/CT seems to exhibit high specificity and accuracy in detecting bone metastases. However, there is a limitation of 18 F FDG PET in assessing sclerotic bone metastases because some lesions may be undetectable. Recent studies showed that 18 F fluoride PET/CT is more sensitive than WBBS in detecting bone metastases. This study aims to evaluate the usefulness of 18 F fluoride PET/CT by comparing it with WBBS and 18 F FDG PET/CT in breast cancer patients with osteosclerotic skeletal metastases. Nine breast cancer patients with suspected bone metastases (9 females; mean age ± SD, 55.6±10.0 years) underwent 99m Tc MDP WBBS, 18 F FDG PET/CT and 18 F fluoride PET/CT. Lesion based analysis of five regions of the skeletons(skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage, pelvic bones and long bones of extremities) and patient based analysis were performed. 18 F fluoride PET/CT, 18 F FDG PET/CT and WBBS detected 49, 20 and 25 true metastases, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 18 F fluoride PET/CT were 94.2%, 46.3%, 57.7% and 91.2%, respectively. Most true metastatic lesions of 18 F fluoride PET/CT had osteosclerotic change (45/49, 91.8%), and only four lesions showed osteolytic change. Most lesions on 18 F FDG PET/CT also demonstrated osteosclerotic change (17/20, 85.0%) with three osteolytic lesions. All true metastatic lesions detected on WBBS and 18 F FDG PET/CT were identified on 18 F fluoride PET/CT. 18 F FDG PET/CT in detecting osteosclerotic metastatic lesions. 18 F fluoride PET/CT might be useful in evaluating osteosclerotic metastases in breast cancer patients

  2. Comparison of prone versus supine 18F-FDG-PET of locally advanced breast cancer: Phantom and preliminary clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jason M.; Rani, Sudheer D.; Li, Xia; Whisenant, Jennifer G.; Abramson, Richard G. [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 and Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Arlinghaus, Lori R. [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Lee, Tzu-Cheng [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Partridge, Savannah C. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Kang, Hakmook [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 and Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Linden, Hannah M. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Kinahan, Paul E. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Yankeelov, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.yankeelov@vanderbilt.edu [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated how imaging of the breast with patients lying prone using a supportive positioning device markedly facilitates longitudinal and/or multimodal image registration. In this contribution, the authors’ primary objective was to determine if there are differences in the standardized uptake value (SUV) derived from [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in breast tumors imaged in the standard supine position and in the prone position using a specialized positioning device. Methods: A custom positioning device was constructed to allow for breast scanning in the prone position. Rigid and nonrigid phantom studies evaluated differences in prone and supine PET. Clinical studies comprised 18F-FDG-PET of 34 patients with locally advanced breast cancer imaged in the prone position (with the custom support) followed by imaging in the supine position (without the support). Mean and maximum values (SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max}, respectively) were obtained from tumor regions-of-interest for both positions. Prone and supine SUV were linearly corrected to account for the differences in 18F-FDG uptake time. Correlation, Bland–Altman, and nonparametric analyses were performed on uptake time-corrected and uncorrected data. Results: SUV from the rigid PET breast phantom imaged in the prone position with the support device was 1.9% lower than without the support device. In the nonrigid PET breast phantom, prone SUV with the support device was 5.0% lower than supine SUV without the support device. In patients, the median (range) difference in uptake time between prone and supine scans was 16.4 min (13.4–30.9 min), which was significantly—but not completely—reduced by the linear correction method. SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max} from prone versus supine scans were highly correlated, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.91 and 0.90, respectively. Prone SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max} were

  3. Comparison of prone versus supine 18F-FDG-PET of locally advanced breast cancer: Phantom and preliminary clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Jason M.; Rani, Sudheer D.; Li, Xia; Whisenant, Jennifer G.; Abramson, Richard G.; Arlinghaus, Lori R.; Lee, Tzu-Cheng; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Partridge, Savannah C.; Kang, Hakmook; Linden, Hannah M.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated how imaging of the breast with patients lying prone using a supportive positioning device markedly facilitates longitudinal and/or multimodal image registration. In this contribution, the authors’ primary objective was to determine if there are differences in the standardized uptake value (SUV) derived from [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in breast tumors imaged in the standard supine position and in the prone position using a specialized positioning device. Methods: A custom positioning device was constructed to allow for breast scanning in the prone position. Rigid and nonrigid phantom studies evaluated differences in prone and supine PET. Clinical studies comprised 18F-FDG-PET of 34 patients with locally advanced breast cancer imaged in the prone position (with the custom support) followed by imaging in the supine position (without the support). Mean and maximum values (SUV peak and SUV max , respectively) were obtained from tumor regions-of-interest for both positions. Prone and supine SUV were linearly corrected to account for the differences in 18F-FDG uptake time. Correlation, Bland–Altman, and nonparametric analyses were performed on uptake time-corrected and uncorrected data. Results: SUV from the rigid PET breast phantom imaged in the prone position with the support device was 1.9% lower than without the support device. In the nonrigid PET breast phantom, prone SUV with the support device was 5.0% lower than supine SUV without the support device. In patients, the median (range) difference in uptake time between prone and supine scans was 16.4 min (13.4–30.9 min), which was significantly—but not completely—reduced by the linear correction method. SUV peak and SUV max from prone versus supine scans were highly correlated, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.91 and 0.90, respectively. Prone SUV peak and SUV max were significantly lower than supine in both

  4. First PET Center in Mexico: the power of molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila R, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique modality. It represents the forefront of medical images and was developed as a quantitative technique for imaging biochemical and physiological processes in the human body. PET is unique because it produces images of the body's basic biochemistry or function. Traditional diagnostic techniques such as x-rays, CT scans or MRI, produce images of the body's anatomy or structure. The premise with these techniques is that the change in anatomy or structure that occurs with disease can be seen. However, biochemical processes are also altered with disease and may occur before there is a change gross anatomy. PET is an imaging technique that is used to visualize some of these processes. The development of PET as we know it today began in 1974 with the development of a single ring detector system by Phelps et al. Today, over 350 PET scanners are in use in the world, mainly in the USA (over 140), Europe (particularly in the Anglo-Saxon countries and France) and Japan. Many of these facilities also have their own cyclotron to produce the positron emitters. In the Southern hemisphere, only Australia, Argentina. and recently Mexico, have a very small number of PET facilities. (Author)

  5. First PET Center in Mexico: the power of molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila R, M.A. [Unidad PET, Facultad de Medicina, UNAM (Mexico)

    2001-09-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique modality. It represents the forefront of medical images and was developed as a quantitative technique for imaging biochemical and physiological processes in the human body. PET is unique because it produces images of the body's basic biochemistry or function. Traditional diagnostic techniques such as x-rays, CT scans or MRI, produce images of the body's anatomy or structure. The premise with these techniques is that the change in anatomy or structure that occurs with disease can be seen. However, biochemical processes are also altered with disease and may occur before there is a change gross anatomy. PET is an imaging technique that is used to visualize some of these processes. The development of PET as we know it today began in 1974 with the development of a single ring detector system by Phelps et al. Today, over 350 PET scanners are in use in the world, mainly in the USA (over 140), Europe (particularly in the Anglo-Saxon countries and France) and Japan. Many of these facilities also have their own cyclotron to produce the positron emitters. In the Southern hemisphere, only Australia, Argentina. and recently Mexico, have a very small number of PET facilities. (Author)

  6. Molecular imaging of small animals with dedicated PET tomographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatziioannou, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Biological discovery has moved at an accelerated pace in recent years, with a considerable focus on the transition from in vitro to in vivo models. As a result, there has been a significant increase in the need to adapt clinical imaging methods, as well as for novel imaging technologies for biological research. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a clinical imaging modality that permits the use of positron-labeled molecular imaging probes for non-invasive assays of biochemical processes. The imaging procedure can be repeatedly performed before and after interventions, thereby allowing each animal to be used as its own control. Positron-labeled compounds that target a range of molecular targets have been and continue to be synthesized, with examples of biological processes ranging from receptors and synthesis of transmitters in cell communication, to metabolic processes and gene expression. In animal research, PET has been used extensively in the past for studies of non-human primates and other larger animals. New detector technology has improved spatial resolution, and has made possible PET scanning for the study of the most important modern molecular biology model, the laboratory mouse. This paper presents the challenges facing PET technology as applied to small animal imaging, provides a historical overview of the development of small animal PET systems, and discusses the current state of the art in small animal PET technology. (orig.)

  7. Clinical Evaluation of PET Image Quality as a Function of Acquisition Time in a New TOF-PET/MRI Compared to TOF-PET/CT--Initial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeimpekis, Konstantinos G; Barbosa, Felipe; Hüllner, Martin; ter Voert, Edwin; Davison, Helen; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Delso, Gaspar

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare only the performance of the PET component between a TOF-PET/CT (henceforth noted as PET/CT) scanner and an integrated TOF-PET/MRI (henceforth noted as PET/MRI) scanner concerning image quality parameters and quantification in terms of standardized uptake value (SUV) as a function of acquisition time (a surrogate of dose). The CT and MR image quality were not assessed, and that is beyond the scope of this study. Five brain and five whole-body patients were included in the study. The PET/CT scan was used as a reference and the PET/MRI acquisition time was consecutively adjusted, taking into account the decay between the scans in order to expose both systems to the same amount of the emitted signal. The acquisition times were then retrospectively reduced to assess the performance of the PET/MRI for lower count rates. Image quality, image sharpness, artifacts, and noise were evaluated. SUV measurements were taken in the liver and in the white matter to compare quantification. Quantitative evaluation showed strong correlation between PET/CT and PET/MRI brain SUVs. Liver correlation was good, however, with lower uptake estimation in PET/MRI, partially justified by bio-redistribution. The clinical evaluation showed that PET/MRI offers higher image quality and sharpness with lower levels of noise and artifacts compared to PET/CT with reduced acquisition times for whole-body scans while for brain scans there is no significant difference. The TOF-PET/MRI showed higher image quality compared to TOF-PET/CT as tested with reduced imaging times. However, this result accounts mainly for body imaging, while no significant differences were found in brain imaging.

  8. FDG PET/CT imaging as a biomarker in lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meignan, Michel; Itti, Emmanuel [Hopitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor, Paris-Est Creteil University, LYSA Imaging, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Creteil (France); Gallamini, Andrea [Nice University, Research, Innovation and Statistic Department, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice (France); Scientific Research Committee, S. Croce Hospital, Cuneo (Italy); Younes, Anas [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Lymphoma Service, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-04-01

    FDG PET/CT has changed the management of FDG-avid lymphoma and is now recommended as the imaging technique of choice for staging and restaging. The need for tailoring therapy to reduce toxicity in patients with a favourable outcome and for improving treatment in those with high-risk factors requires accurate diagnostic methods and a new prognostic algorithm to identify different risk categories. New drugs are used in relapsed/refractory patients. The role of FDG PET/CT as a biomarker in this context is summarized in this review. New trends in FDG metabolic imaging in lymphoma are addressed including metabolic tumour volume measurement at staging and integrative PET which combines PET data with clinical and molecular markers or other imaging techniques. The quantitative approach for response assessment which is under investigation and is used in large ongoing trials is compared with visual criteria. The place of FDG in the era of targeted therapy is discussed. (orig.)

  9. Dual PET and Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Probes as Tools for Imaging in Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fei-Fei; Chan, Mark; Kommidi, Harikrishna; Ting, Richard

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this article is to summarize advances in PET fluorescence resolution, agent design, and preclinical imaging that make a growing case for clinical PET fluorescence imaging. CONCLUSION Existing SPECT, PET, fluorescence, and MRI contrast imaging techniques are already deeply integrated into the management of cancer, from initial diagnosis to the observation and management of metastases. Combined positron-emitting fluorescent contrast agents can convey new or substantial benefits that improve on these proven clinical contrast agents. PMID:27223168

  10. Simultaneous MRI and PET imaging of a rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raylman, Raymond R; Majewski, Stan; Lemieux, Susan K; Velan, S Sendhil; Kross, Brian; Popov, Vladimir; Smith, Mark F; Weisenberger, Andrew G; Zorn, Carl; Marano, Gary D

    2006-01-01

    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode. Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements coupled through a long fibre optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The use of light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of a 3T MRI scanner where the magnetic field is relatively small. To test the device, simultaneous MRI and PET images of the brain of a male Sprague Dawley rat injected with FDG were successfully obtained. The images revealed no noticeable artefacts in either image set. Future work includes the construction of a full ring PET scanner, improved light guides and construction of a specialized MRI coil to permit higher quality MRI imaging

  11. Simultaneous MRI and PET imaging of a rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raylman, Raymond R [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, Box 9236, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Majewski, Stan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Lemieux, Susan K [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, Box 9236, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Velan, S Sendhil [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, Box 9236, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Kross, Brian [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Popov, Vladimir [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Smith, Mark F [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Weisenberger, Andrew G [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Zorn, Carl [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Marano, Gary D [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, Box 9236, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2006-12-21

    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode. Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements coupled through a long fibre optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The use of light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of a 3T MRI scanner where the magnetic field is relatively small. To test the device, simultaneous MRI and PET images of the brain of a male Sprague Dawley rat injected with FDG were successfully obtained. The images revealed no noticeable artefacts in either image set. Future work includes the construction of a full ring PET scanner, improved light guides and construction of a specialized MRI coil to permit higher quality MRI imaging.

  12. PET/CT imaging: The incremental value of assessing the glucose metabolic phenotype and the structure of cancers in a single examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernin, Johannes; Benz, Matthias R.; Allen-Auerbach, Martin S.

    2010-01-01

    PET/CT with the glucose analogue FDG is emerging as the most important diagnostic imaging tool in oncology. More than 2000 PET/CT scanners are operational worldwide and its unique role for diagnosing, staging, restaging and therapeutic monitoring in cancer is undisputed. Studies conducted in thousands of cancer patients have clearly indicated that the combination of molecular PET with anatomical CT imaging provides incremental diagnostic value over PET or CT alone. State of the art imaging protocols combine fully diagnostic CT scans with quality whole body PET surveys. The current review briefly describes the biological alterations of cancer cells that result in their switch to a strongly glycolytic phenotype. Different whole body imaging protocols are discussed. We summarize the evidence for the incremental value of PET/CT over CT and PET alone using imaging of sarcoma as an example. Following this section we discuss the performance of FDG-PET/CT imaging for staging, restaging and monitoring of head and neck cancer, solitary lung nodules and lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lymphoma and unknown primary tumors. Finally, the recently emerging evidence of a substantial impact of PET/CT imaging on patient management is presented.

  13. Development of compact DOI-measurable PET detectors for simultaneous PET/MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Lou, Kai [Rice University (United States)

    2015-05-18

    It is critically needed yet challenging to develop compact PET detectors with high sensitivity and uniform, high imaging resolution for improving the performance of simultaneous PET/MR imaging, particularly for an integrated/inserted small-bore system. Using the latest “edge-less” SiPM arrays for DOI measurement using the design of dual-ended-scintillator readout, we developed several compact PET detectors suited for PET/MR imaging. Each detector consists of one LYSO array with each end coupled to a SiPM array. Multiple detectors can be seamlessly tiled together along all sides to form a large detector panel. Detectors with 1.5x1.5 and 2.0x2.0 mm crystals at 20 or 30 mm lengths were studied. Readout of individual SiPM or capacitor-based signal multiplexing was used to transfer 3D interaction position-coded analog signals through flexible-print-circuit cables to dedicated ASIC frontend electronics to output digital timing pulses that encode interaction information. These digital pulses can be transferred to, through standard LVDS cables, and decoded by a FPGA-based data acquisition positioned outside the MRI scanner for coincidence event selection. Initial detector performance measurement shows excellent crystal identification even with 30 mm long crystals, ~18% and 2.8 ns energy and timing resolutions, and around 2-3 mm DOI resolution. A large size detector panel can be scaled up with these modular detectors and different PET systems can be flexibly configured with the scalable readout electronics and data acquisition, providing an important design advantage for different system and application requirements. It is expected that standard shielding of detectors, electronics and signal transfer lines can be applied for simultaneous PET/MR imaging applications, with desired DOI measurement capability to enhance the PET performance and image quality.

  14. Development of compact DOI-measurable PET detectors for simultaneous PET/MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan; Lou, Kai

    2015-01-01

    It is critically needed yet challenging to develop compact PET detectors with high sensitivity and uniform, high imaging resolution for improving the performance of simultaneous PET/MR imaging, particularly for an integrated/inserted small-bore system. Using the latest “edge-less” SiPM arrays for DOI measurement using the design of dual-ended-scintillator readout, we developed several compact PET detectors suited for PET/MR imaging. Each detector consists of one LYSO array with each end coupled to a SiPM array. Multiple detectors can be seamlessly tiled together along all sides to form a large detector panel. Detectors with 1.5x1.5 and 2.0x2.0 mm crystals at 20 or 30 mm lengths were studied. Readout of individual SiPM or capacitor-based signal multiplexing was used to transfer 3D interaction position-coded analog signals through flexible-print-circuit cables to dedicated ASIC frontend electronics to output digital timing pulses that encode interaction information. These digital pulses can be transferred to, through standard LVDS cables, and decoded by a FPGA-based data acquisition positioned outside the MRI scanner for coincidence event selection. Initial detector performance measurement shows excellent crystal identification even with 30 mm long crystals, ~18% and 2.8 ns energy and timing resolutions, and around 2-3 mm DOI resolution. A large size detector panel can be scaled up with these modular detectors and different PET systems can be flexibly configured with the scalable readout electronics and data acquisition, providing an important design advantage for different system and application requirements. It is expected that standard shielding of detectors, electronics and signal transfer lines can be applied for simultaneous PET/MR imaging applications, with desired DOI measurement capability to enhance the PET performance and image quality.

  15. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landvogt, C.

    2007-01-01

    In preoperative localisation of epileptogenic foci, nuclear medicine diagnostics plays a crucial role. FDG-PET is used as first line diagnostics. In case of inconsistent MRI, EEG and FDG-PET findings, 11 C-Flumazenil-PET or ictal and interictal perfusion-SPECT should be performed. Other than FDG, Flumazenil can help to identify the extend of the region, which should be resected. To enhance sensitivity and specificity, further data analysis using voxelbased statistical analyses or SISCOM (substraction ictal SPECT coregistered MRI) should be performed

  16. Implementation and analysis of list mode algorithm using tubes of response on a dedicated brain and breast PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner, L.; Correcher, C.; González, A. J.; Conde, P.; Hernández, L.; Orero, A.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, M. J.; Sánchez, F.; Soriano, A.; Vidal, L. F.; Benlloch, J. M.

    2013-02-01

    In this work we present an innovative algorithm for the reconstruction of PET images based on the List-Mode (LM) technique which improves their spatial resolution compared to results obtained with current MLEM algorithms. This study appears as a part of a large project with the aim of improving diagnosis in early Alzheimer disease stages by means of a newly developed hybrid PET-MR insert. At the present, Alzheimer is the most relevant neurodegenerative disease and the best way to apply an effective treatment is its early diagnosis. The PET device will consist of several monolithic LYSO crystals coupled to SiPM detectors. Monolithic crystals can reduce scanner costs with the advantage to enable implementation of very small virtual pixels in their geometry. This is especially useful for LM reconstruction algorithms, since they do not need a pre-calculated system matrix. We have developed an LM algorithm which has been initially tested with a large aperture (186 mm) breast PET system. Such an algorithm instead of using the common lines of response, incorporates a novel calculation of tubes of response. The new approach improves the volumetric spatial resolution about a factor 2 at the border of the field of view when compared with traditionally used MLEM algorithm. Moreover, it has also shown to decrease the image noise, thus increasing the image quality.

  17. Implementation and analysis of list mode algorithm using tubes of response on a dedicated brain and breast PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moliner, L.; Correcher, C.; González, A.J.; Conde, P.; Hernández, L.; Orero, A.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, M.J.; Sánchez, F.; Soriano, A.; Vidal, L.F.; Benlloch, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an innovative algorithm for the reconstruction of PET images based on the List-Mode (LM) technique which improves their spatial resolution compared to results obtained with current MLEM algorithms. This study appears as a part of a large project with the aim of improving diagnosis in early Alzheimer disease stages by means of a newly developed hybrid PET-MR insert. At the present, Alzheimer is the most relevant neurodegenerative disease and the best way to apply an effective treatment is its early diagnosis. The PET device will consist of several monolithic LYSO crystals coupled to SiPM detectors. Monolithic crystals can reduce scanner costs with the advantage to enable implementation of very small virtual pixels in their geometry. This is especially useful for LM reconstruction algorithms, since they do not need a pre-calculated system matrix. We have developed an LM algorithm which has been initially tested with a large aperture (186 mm) breast PET system. Such an algorithm instead of using the common lines of response, incorporates a novel calculation of tubes of response. The new approach improves the volumetric spatial resolution about a factor 2 at the border of the field of view when compared with traditionally used MLEM algorithm. Moreover, it has also shown to decrease the image noise, thus increasing the image quality

  18. Prediction of standard-dose brain PET image by using MRI and low-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jiayin [School of Electronics Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lianyungang, Jiangsu 222005, China and IDEA Laboratory, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Gao, Yaozong [IDEA Laboratory, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 and Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Shi, Feng [IDEA Laboratory, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Lalush, David S. [Joint UNC-NCSU Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Lin, Weili [MRI Laboratory, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Shen, Dinggang, E-mail: dgshen@med.unc.edu [IDEA Laboratory, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 and Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medical imaging technology that produces 3D images reflecting tissue metabolic activity in human body. PET has been widely used in various clinical applications, such as in diagnosis of brain disorders. High-quality PET images play an essential role in diagnosing brain diseases/disorders. In practice, in order to obtain high-quality PET images, a standard-dose radionuclide (tracer) needs to be used and injected into a living body. As a result, it will inevitably increase the patient’s exposure to radiation. One solution to solve this problem is predicting standard-dose PET images using low-dose PET images. As yet, no previous studies with this approach have been reported. Accordingly, in this paper, the authors propose a regression forest based framework for predicting a standard-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET image by using a low-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET image and its corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image. Methods: The authors employ a regression forest for predicting the standard-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET image by low-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET and MRI images. Specifically, the proposed method consists of two main steps. First, based on the segmented brain tissues (i.e., cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter, and white matter) in the MRI image, the authors extract features for each patch in the brain image from both low-dose PET and MRI images to build tissue-specific models that can be used to initially predict standard-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET images. Second, an iterative refinement strategy, via estimating the predicted image difference, is used to further improve the prediction accuracy. Results: The authors evaluated their algorithm on a brain dataset, consisting of 11 subjects with MRI, low-dose PET, and standard-dose PET images, using leave-one-out cross-validations. The proposed algorithm gives promising results with well-estimated standard-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET

  19. Towards real-time topical detection and characterization of FDG dose infiltration prior to PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Jason M.; Arlinghaus, Lori R.; Rani, Sudheer D.; Shone, Martha D.; Abramson, Vandana G.; Pendyala, Praveen; Chakravarthy, A.B.; Gorge, William J.; Knowland, Joshua G.; Lattanze, Ronald K.; Perrin, Steven R.; Scarantino, Charles W.; Townsend, David W.; Abramson, Richard G.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    To dynamically detect and characterize "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) dose infiltrations and evaluate their effects on positron emission tomography (PET) standardized uptake values (SUV) at the injection site and in control tissue. Investigational gamma scintillation sensors were topically applied to patients with locally advanced breast cancer scheduled to undergo limited whole-body FDG-PET as part of an ongoing clinical study. Relative to the affected breast, sensors were placed on the contralateral injection arm and ipsilateral control arm during the resting uptake phase prior to each patient's PET scan. Time-activity curves (TACs) from the sensors were integrated at varying intervals (0-10, 0-20, 0-30, 0-40, and 30-40 min) post-FDG and the resulting areas under the curve (AUCs) were compared to SUVs obtained from PET. In cases of infiltration, observed in three sensor recordings (30 %), the injection arm TAC shape varied depending on the extent and severity of infiltration. In two of these cases, TAC characteristics suggested the infiltration was partially resolving prior to image acquisition, although it was still apparent on subsequent PET. Areas under the TAC 0-10 and 0-20 min post-FDG were significantly different in infiltrated versus non-infiltrated cases (Mann-Whitney, p < 0.05). When normalized to control, all TAC integration intervals from the injection arm were significantly correlated with SUV_p_e_a_k and SUV_m_a_x measured over the infiltration site (Spearman ρ ≥ 0.77, p < 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, testing the ability of the first 10 min of post-FDG sensor data to predict infiltration visibility on the ensuing PET, yielded an area under the ROC curve of 0.92. Topical sensors applied near the injection site provide dynamic information from the time of FDG administration through the uptake period and may be useful in detecting infiltrations regardless of PET image field of view. This dynamic information may also

  20. Towards real-time topical detection and characterization of FDG dose infiltration prior to PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jason M.; Arlinghaus, Lori R. [Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Rani, Sudheer D. [Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Shone, Martha D. [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Abramson, Vandana G. [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Pendyala, Praveen [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nashville, TN (United States); Chakravarthy, A.B. [Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nashville, TN (United States); Gorge, William J.; Knowland, Joshua G.; Lattanze, Ronald K.; Perrin, Steven R. [Lucerno Dynamics, LLC, Morrisville, NC (United States); Scarantino, Charles W. [Lucerno Dynamics, LLC, Morrisville, NC (United States); University of North Carolina, Department of Radiation Oncology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Townsend, David W. [Lucerno Dynamics, LLC, Morrisville, NC (United States); Technology and Research-National University of Singapore, Clinical Imaging Research Centre, Agency for Science, Singapore (Singapore); Abramson, Richard G. [Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Yankeelov, Thomas E. [The University of Texas at Austin, Institute for Computational and Engineering Sciences, and Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Internal Medicine, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-12-15

    To dynamically detect and characterize {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) dose infiltrations and evaluate their effects on positron emission tomography (PET) standardized uptake values (SUV) at the injection site and in control tissue. Investigational gamma scintillation sensors were topically applied to patients with locally advanced breast cancer scheduled to undergo limited whole-body FDG-PET as part of an ongoing clinical study. Relative to the affected breast, sensors were placed on the contralateral injection arm and ipsilateral control arm during the resting uptake phase prior to each patient's PET scan. Time-activity curves (TACs) from the sensors were integrated at varying intervals (0-10, 0-20, 0-30, 0-40, and 30-40 min) post-FDG and the resulting areas under the curve (AUCs) were compared to SUVs obtained from PET. In cases of infiltration, observed in three sensor recordings (30 %), the injection arm TAC shape varied depending on the extent and severity of infiltration. In two of these cases, TAC characteristics suggested the infiltration was partially resolving prior to image acquisition, although it was still apparent on subsequent PET. Areas under the TAC 0-10 and 0-20 min post-FDG were significantly different in infiltrated versus non-infiltrated cases (Mann-Whitney, p < 0.05). When normalized to control, all TAC integration intervals from the injection arm were significantly correlated with SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max} measured over the infiltration site (Spearman ρ ≥ 0.77, p < 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, testing the ability of the first 10 min of post-FDG sensor data to predict infiltration visibility on the ensuing PET, yielded an area under the ROC curve of 0.92. Topical sensors applied near the injection site provide dynamic information from the time of FDG administration through the uptake period and may be useful in detecting infiltrations regardless of PET image field of view. This dynamic information

  1. Monitoring proton radiation therapy with in-room PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xuping; Ouyang Jinsong; El Fakhri, Georges; Espana, Samuel; Daartz, Juliane; Liebsch, Norbert; Paganetti, Harald; Bortfeld, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    We used a mobile positron emission tomography (PET) scanner positioned within the proton therapy treatment room to study the feasibility of proton range verification with an in-room, stand-alone PET system, and compared with off-line equivalent studies. Two subjects with adenoid cystic carcinoma were enrolled into a pilot study in which in-room PET scans were acquired in list-mode after a routine fractionated treatment session. The list-mode PET data were reconstructed with different time schemes to generate in-room short, in-room long and off-line equivalent (by skipping coincidences from the first 15 min during the list-mode reconstruction) PET images for comparison in activity distribution patterns. A phantom study was followed to evaluate the accuracy of range verification for different reconstruction time schemes quantitatively. The in-room PET has a higher sensitivity compared to the off-line modality so that the PET acquisition time can be greatly reduced from 30 to 15 O component and lower biological washout. For soft tissue-equivalent material, the distal fall-off edge of an in-room short acquisition is deeper compared to an off-line equivalent scan, indicating a better coverage of the high-dose end of the beam. In-room PET is a promising low cost, high sensitivity modality for the in vivo verification of proton therapy. Better accuracy in Monte Carlo predictions, especially for biological decay modeling, is necessary.

  2. Atlas of PET/MR imaging in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratib, Osman; Schwaiger, Markus; Beyer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Numerous illustrated clinical cases in different oncology domains. Includes digital interactive software matching the cases in the book. Interactive version based on the latest web standard, HTML5, ensuring the widest compatibility. Edited by three international opinion leaders/imaging experts in the field. This new project on PET/MR imaging in oncology includes digital interactive software matching the cases in the book. The interactive version of the atlas is based on the latest web standard, HTML5, ensuring compatibility with any computer operating system as well as a dedicated version for Apple iPad and iPhone. The book opens with an introduction to the principles of hybrid imaging that pays particular attention to PET/MR imaging and standard PET/MR acquisition protocols. A wide range of illustrated clinical case reports are then presented. Each case study includes a short clinical history, findings, and teaching points, followed by illustrations, legends, and comments. The multimedia version of the book includes dynamic movies that allow the reader to browse through series of rotating 3D images (MIP or volume rendered), display blending between PET and MR, and dynamic visualization of 3D image volumes. The movies can be played either continuously or sequentially for better exploration of sets of images. The editors of this state-of-the-art publication are key opinion leaders in the field of multimodality imaging. Professor Osman Ratib (Geneva) and Professor Markus Schwaiger (Munich) were the first in Europe to initiate the clinical adoption of PET/MR imaging. Professor Thomas Beyer (Zurich) is an internationally renowned pioneering physicist in the field of hybrid imaging. Individual clinical cases presented in this book are co-authored by leading international radiologists and nuclear physicians experts in the use of PET and MRI.

  3. Atlas of PET/MR imaging in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratib, Osman [University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland). Nuclear Medicine Division; Schwaiger, Markus [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik; Beyer, Thomas (eds.) [General Hospital Vienna (Austria). Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering

    2013-08-01

    Numerous illustrated clinical cases in different oncology domains. Includes digital interactive software matching the cases in the book. Interactive version based on the latest web standard, HTML5, ensuring the widest compatibility. Edited by three international opinion leaders/imaging experts in the field. This new project on PET/MR imaging in oncology includes digital interactive software matching the cases in the book. The interactive version of the atlas is based on the latest web standard, HTML5, ensuring compatibility with any computer operating system as well as a dedicated version for Apple iPad and iPhone. The book opens with an introduction to the principles of hybrid imaging that pays particular attention to PET/MR imaging and standard PET/MR acquisition protocols. A wide range of illustrated clinical case reports are then presented. Each case study includes a short clinical history, findings, and teaching points, followed by illustrations, legends, and comments. The multimedia version of the book includes dynamic movies that allow the reader to browse through series of rotating 3D images (MIP or volume rendered), display blending between PET and MR, and dynamic visualization of 3D image volumes. The movies can be played either continuously or sequentially for better exploration of sets of images. The editors of this state-of-the-art publication are key opinion leaders in the field of multimodality imaging. Professor Osman Ratib (Geneva) and Professor Markus Schwaiger (Munich) were the first in Europe to initiate the clinical adoption of PET/MR imaging. Professor Thomas Beyer (Zurich) is an internationally renowned pioneering physicist in the field of hybrid imaging. Individual clinical cases presented in this book are co-authored by leading international radiologists and nuclear physicians experts in the use of PET and MRI.

  4. Multi-technique hybrid imaging in PET/CT and PET/MR: what does the future hold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiza Barbosa, F. de; Delso, G.; Voert, E.E.G.W. ter; Huellner, M.W.; Herrmann, K.; Veit-Haibach, P.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) is one of the most important imaging techniques to have emerged in oncological practice in the last decade. Hybrid imaging, in general, remains a rapidly growing field, not only in developing countries, but also in western industrialised healthcare systems. A great deal of technological development and research is focused on improving hybrid imaging technology further and introducing new techniques, e.g., integrated PET and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI). Additionally, there are several new PET tracers on the horizon, which have the potential to broaden clinical applications in hybrid imaging for diagnosis as well as therapy. This article aims to highlight some of the major technical and clinical advances that are currently taking place in PET/CT and PET/MRI that will potentially maintain the position of hybrid techniques at the forefront of medical imaging technologies.

  5. The progress of PET based reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wei; Zhang Xiuli

    2005-01-01

    More than two decades of intense research have allowed gene therapy to move from the laboratory to the clinical setting, where its use for the treatment of human pathologies has been considerably increased in the last years. However, many crucial questions remain to be solved in this challenging field. In vivo imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) by combination of the appropriate PET reporter gene and PET reporter probe could provide invaluable qualitative and quantitative information to answer multiple unsolved questions about gene therapy. PET imaging could be used to define parameters not available by other techniques that are of substantial interest not only for the proper understanding of the gene therapy process, but also for its future development and clinical application in humans. (authors)

  6. Development and application of PET-MRI image fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Jianhua; Zhao Jinhua; Qiao Wenli

    2011-01-01

    The emerging and growing in popularity of PET-CT scanner brings us the convenience and cognizes the advantages such as diagnosis, staging, curative effect evaluation and prognosis for malignant tumor. And the PET-MRI installing maybe a new upsurge when the machine gradually mature, because of the MRI examination without the radiation exposure and with the higher soft tissue resolution. This paper summarized the developing course of image fusion technology and some researches of clinical application about PET-MRI at present, in order to help people to understand the functions and know its wide application of the upcoming new instrument, mainly focuses the application on the central nervous system and some soft tissue lesions. And before PET-MRI popularization, people can still carry out some researches of various image fusion and clinical application on the current equipment. (authors)

  7. Breast imaging: a surgeon's prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Anne M.; Comstock, Christopher; Hoh, Carl K.; Vera, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, gamma camera and intraoperative gamma detection, and computed tomography are employed in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. This paper summarizes the role of each modality from the perspective of the physician responsible for management of the patient's care. An understanding of an imaging modality's current role can provide insights into the design of new applications and diagnostic agents. Moreover, knowledge of the mechanism by which each modality provides clinical information can guide the design of new imaging methods that complement and add certainty to the patient's management. The reader should note the lack of molecular information provided by the current imaging methods. The perspective concludes with a request for an imaging technique that can measure the biologic aggressiveness of a woman's cancer. The surgeon notes that basing the formation of an image on a molecular process would be compatible with current medical practice, which utilizes molecular concepts to base medical decisions. In addition, molecular imaging will enable rapid translation between basic science and medical practice

  8. Bayesian PET image reconstruction incorporating anato-functional joint entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jing; Rahmim, Arman

    2009-01-01

    We developed a maximum a posterior (MAP) reconstruction method for positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction incorporating magnetic resonance (MR) image information, with the joint entropy between the PET and MR image features serving as the regularization constraint. A non-parametric method was used to estimate the joint probability density of the PET and MR images. Using realistically simulated PET and MR human brain phantoms, the quantitative performance of the proposed algorithm was investigated. Incorporation of the anatomic information via this technique, after parameter optimization, was seen to dramatically improve the noise versus bias tradeoff in every region of interest, compared to the result from using conventional MAP reconstruction. In particular, hot lesions in the FDG PET image, which had no anatomical correspondence in the MR image, also had improved contrast versus noise tradeoff. Corrections were made to figures 3, 4 and 6, and to the second paragraph of section 3.1 on 13 November 2009. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version.

  9. The Royal College of Radiologists Breast Group breast imaging classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, A.J.; Ridley, N.T.; Rubin, G.; Wallis, M.G.; Gilbert, F.J.; Michell, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Standardisation of the classification of breast imaging reports will improve communication between the referrer and the radiologist and avoid ambiguity, which may otherwise lead to mismanagement of patients. Following wide consultation, Royal College of Radiologists Breast Group has produced a scoring system for the classification of breast imaging. This will facilitate audit and the development of nationally agreed standards for the investigation of women with breast disease. This five-point system is as follows: 1, normal; 2, benign findings; 3, indeterminate/probably benign findings; 4, findings suspicious of malignancy; 5, findings highly suspicious of malignancy. It is recommended that this be used in the reporting of all breast imaging examinations in the UK.

  10. Monitoring tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy using MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT in breast cancer subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Alexander M. Th; Teixeira, Suzana C.; Pengel, Kenneth E.; Loo, Claudette E.; Vogel, Wouter V.; Wesseling, Jelle; Rutgers, Emiel J. Th; Valdés Olmos, Renato A.; Sonke, Gabe S.; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Vrancken Peeters, Marie Jeanne T. F. D.; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G. A.

    2017-01-01

    To explore guidelines on the use of MRI and PET/CT monitoring primary tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), taking breast cancer subtype into account. In this prospective cohort study, 188 women were included with stages II and III breast cancer. MRI and 18F-FDG-PET/CT were acquired

  11. Joint model of motion and anatomy for PET image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Feng; Pan Tinsu; Clark, John W. Jr.; Mawlawi, Osama

    2007-01-01

    Anatomy-based positron emission tomography (PET) image enhancement techniques have been shown to have the potential for improving PET image quality. However, these techniques assume an accurate alignment between the anatomical and the functional images, which is not always valid when imaging the chest due to respiratory motion. In this article, we present a joint model of both motion and anatomical information by integrating a motion-incorporated PET imaging system model with an anatomy-based maximum a posteriori image reconstruction algorithm. The mismatched anatomical information due to motion can thus be effectively utilized through this joint model. A computer simulation and a phantom study were conducted to assess the efficacy of the joint model, whereby motion and anatomical information were either modeled separately or combined. The reconstructed images in each case were compared to corresponding reference images obtained using a quadratic image prior based maximum a posteriori reconstruction algorithm for quantitative accuracy. Results of these studies indicated that while modeling anatomical information or motion alone improved the PET image quantitation accuracy, a larger improvement in accuracy was achieved when using the joint model. In the computer simulation study and using similar image noise levels, the improvement in quantitation accuracy compared to the reference images was 5.3% and 19.8% when using anatomical or motion information alone, respectively, and 35.5% when using the joint model. In the phantom study, these results were 5.6%, 5.8%, and 19.8%, respectively. These results suggest that motion compensation is important in order to effectively utilize anatomical information in chest imaging using PET. The joint motion-anatomy model presented in this paper provides a promising solution to this problem

  12. Imaging with 124I in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: is PET/MRI superior to PET/CT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binse, I.; Poeppel, T.D.; Ruhlmann, M.; Gomez, B.; Bockisch, A.; Rosenbaum-Krumme, S.J.; Umutlu, L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare integrated PET/CT and PET/MRI for their usefulness in detecting and categorizing cervical iodine-positive lesions in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer using 124 I as tracer. The study group comprised 65 patients at high risk of iodine-positive metastasis who underwent PET/CT (low-dose CT scan, PET acquisition time 2 min; PET/CT 2 ) followed by PET/MRI of the neck 24 h after 124 I administration. PET images from both modalities were analysed for the numbers of tracer-positive lesions. Two different acquisition times were used for the comparisons, one matching the PET/CT 2 acquisition time (2 min, PET/MRI 2 ) and the other covering the whole MRI scan time (30 min, PET/MRI 30 ). Iodine-positive lesions were categorized as metastasis, thyroid remnant or inconclusive according to their location on the PET/CT images. Morphological information provided by MRI was considered for evaluation of lesions on PET/MRI and for volume information. PET/MRI 2 detected significantly more iodine-positive metastases and thyroid remnants than PET/CT 2 (72 vs. 60, p = 0.002, and 100 vs. 80, p = 0.001, respectively), but the numbers of patients with at least one tumour lesion identified were not significantly different (21/65 vs. 17/65 patients). PET/MRI 30 tended to detect more PET-positive metastases than PET/MRI 2 (88 vs. 72), but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07). Of 21 lesions classified as inconclusive on PET/CT, 5 were assigned to metastasis or thyroid remnant when evaluated by PET/MRI. Volume information was available in 34 % of iodine-positive metastases and 2 % of thyroid remnants on PET/MRI. PET/MRI of the neck was found to be superior to PET/CT in detecting iodine-positive lesions. This was attributed to the higher sensitivity of the PET component, Although helpful in some cases, we found no substantial advantage of PET/MRI over PET/CT in categorizing iodine-positive lesions as either metastasis or thyroid remnant

  13. Imaging with {sup 124}I in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: is PET/MRI superior to PET/CT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binse, I.; Poeppel, T.D.; Ruhlmann, M.; Gomez, B.; Bockisch, A.; Rosenbaum-Krumme, S.J. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Umutlu, L. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Essen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to compare integrated PET/CT and PET/MRI for their usefulness in detecting and categorizing cervical iodine-positive lesions in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer using {sup 124}I as tracer. The study group comprised 65 patients at high risk of iodine-positive metastasis who underwent PET/CT (low-dose CT scan, PET acquisition time 2 min; PET/CT{sub 2}) followed by PET/MRI of the neck 24 h after {sup 124}I administration. PET images from both modalities were analysed for the numbers of tracer-positive lesions. Two different acquisition times were used for the comparisons, one matching the PET/CT{sub 2} acquisition time (2 min, PET/MRI{sub 2}) and the other covering the whole MRI scan time (30 min, PET/MRI{sub 30}). Iodine-positive lesions were categorized as metastasis, thyroid remnant or inconclusive according to their location on the PET/CT images. Morphological information provided by MRI was considered for evaluation of lesions on PET/MRI and for volume information. PET/MRI{sub 2} detected significantly more iodine-positive metastases and thyroid remnants than PET/CT{sub 2} (72 vs. 60, p = 0.002, and 100 vs. 80, p = 0.001, respectively), but the numbers of patients with at least one tumour lesion identified were not significantly different (21/65 vs. 17/65 patients). PET/MRI{sub 30} tended to detect more PET-positive metastases than PET/MRI{sub 2} (88 vs. 72), but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07). Of 21 lesions classified as inconclusive on PET/CT, 5 were assigned to metastasis or thyroid remnant when evaluated by PET/MRI. Volume information was available in 34 % of iodine-positive metastases and 2 % of thyroid remnants on PET/MRI. PET/MRI of the neck was found to be superior to PET/CT in detecting iodine-positive lesions. This was attributed to the higher sensitivity of the PET component, Although helpful in some cases, we found no substantial advantage of PET/MRI over PET/CT in categorizing iodine

  14. 4D PET iterative deconvolution with spatiotemporal regularization for quantitative dynamic PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilhac, Anthonin; Charil, Arnaud; Wimberley, Catriona; Angelis, Georgios; Hamze, Hasar; Callaghan, Paul; Garcia, Marie-Paule; Boisson, Frederic; Ryder, Will; Meikle, Steven R; Gregoire, Marie-Claude

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative measurements in dynamic PET imaging are usually limited by the poor counting statistics particularly in short dynamic frames and by the low spatial resolution of the detection system, resulting in partial volume effects (PVEs). In this work, we present a fast and easy to implement method for the restoration of dynamic PET images that have suffered from both PVE and noise degradation. It is based on a weighted least squares iterative deconvolution approach of the dynamic PET image with spatial and temporal regularization. Using simulated dynamic [(11)C] Raclopride PET data with controlled biological variations in the striata between scans, we showed that the restoration method provides images which exhibit less noise and better contrast between emitting structures than the original images. In addition, the method is able to recover the true time activity curve in the striata region with an error below 3% while it was underestimated by more than 20% without correction. As a result, the method improves the accuracy and reduces the variability of the kinetic parameter estimates calculated from the corrected images. More importantly it increases the accuracy (from less than 66% to more than 95%) of measured biological variations as well as their statistical detectivity. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fusion of PET and MRI for Hybrid Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Zang-Hee; Son, Young-Don; Kim, Young-Bo; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    Recently, the development of the fusion PET-MRI system has been actively studied to meet the increasing demand for integrated molecular and anatomical imaging. MRI can provide detailed anatomical information on the brain, such as the locations of gray and white matter, blood vessels, axonal tracts with high resolution, while PET can measure molecular and genetic information, such as glucose metabolism, neurotransmitter-neuroreceptor binding and affinity, protein-protein interactions, and gene trafficking among biological tissues. State-of-the-art MRI systems, such as the 7.0 T whole-body MRI, now can visualize super-fine structures including neuronal bundles in the pons, fine blood vessels (such as lenticulostriate arteries) without invasive contrast agents, in vivo hippocampal substructures, and substantia nigra with excellent image contrast. High-resolution PET, known as High-Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), is a brain-dedicated system capable of imaging minute changes of chemicals, such as neurotransmitters and -receptors, with high spatial resolution and sensitivity. The synergistic power of the two, i.e., ultra high-resolution anatomical information offered by a 7.0 T MRI system combined with the high-sensitivity molecular information offered by HRRT-PET, will significantly elevate the level of our current understanding of the human brain, one of the most delicate, complex, and mysterious biological organs. This chapter introduces MRI, PET, and PET-MRI fusion system, and its algorithms are discussed in detail.

  16. Model-based image reconstruction for four-dimensional PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianfang; Thorndyke, Brian; Schreibmann, Eduard; Yang Yong; Xing Lei

    2006-01-01

    Positron emission tonography (PET) is useful in diagnosis and radiation treatment planning for a variety of cancers. For patients with cancers in thoracic or upper abdominal region, the respiratory motion produces large distortions in the tumor shape and size, affecting the accuracy in both diagnosis and treatment. Four-dimensional (4D) (gated) PET aims to reduce the motion artifacts and to provide accurate measurement of the tumor volume and the tracer concentration. A major issue in 4D PET is the lack of statistics. Since the collected photons are divided into several frames in the 4D PET scan, the quality of each reconstructed frame degrades as the number of frames increases. The increased noise in each frame heavily degrades the quantitative accuracy of the PET imaging. In this work, we propose a method to enhance the performance of 4D PET by developing a new technique of 4D PET reconstruction with incorporation of an organ motion model derived from 4D-CT images. The method is based on the well-known maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (ML-EM) algorithm. During the processes of forward- and backward-projection in the ML-EM iterations, all projection data acquired at different phases are combined together to update the emission map with the aid of deformable model, the statistics is therefore greatly improved. The proposed algorithm was first evaluated with computer simulations using a mathematical dynamic phantom. Experiment with a moving physical phantom was then carried out to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method and the increase of signal-to-noise ratio over three-dimensional PET. Finally, the 4D PET reconstruction was applied to a patient case

  17. Lung PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  18. Non-local means denoising of dynamic PET images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyita Dutta

    Full Text Available Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET, which reveals information about both the spatial distribution and temporal kinetics of a radiotracer, enables quantitative interpretation of PET data. Model-based interpretation of dynamic PET images by means of parametric fitting, however, is often a challenging task due to high levels of noise, thus necessitating a denoising step. The objective of this paper is to develop and characterize a denoising framework for dynamic PET based on non-local means (NLM.NLM denoising computes weighted averages of voxel intensities assigning larger weights to voxels that are similar to a given voxel in terms of their local neighborhoods or patches. We introduce three key modifications to tailor the original NLM framework to dynamic PET. Firstly, we derive similarities from less noisy later time points in a typical PET acquisition to denoise the entire time series. Secondly, we use spatiotemporal patches for robust similarity computation. Finally, we use a spatially varying smoothing parameter based on a local variance approximation over each spatiotemporal patch.To assess the performance of our denoising technique, we performed a realistic simulation on a dynamic digital phantom based on the Digimouse atlas. For experimental validation, we denoised [Formula: see text] PET images from a mouse study and a hepatocellular carcinoma patient study. We compared the performance of NLM denoising with four other denoising approaches - Gaussian filtering, PCA, HYPR, and conventional NLM based on spatial patches.The simulation study revealed significant improvement in bias-variance performance achieved using our NLM technique relative to all the other methods. The experimental data analysis revealed that our technique leads to clear improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio in Patlak parametric images generated from denoised preclinical and clinical dynamic images, indicating its ability to preserve image contrast and high

  19. Non-local means denoising of dynamic PET images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Joyita; Leahy, Richard M; Li, Quanzheng

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET), which reveals information about both the spatial distribution and temporal kinetics of a radiotracer, enables quantitative interpretation of PET data. Model-based interpretation of dynamic PET images by means of parametric fitting, however, is often a challenging task due to high levels of noise, thus necessitating a denoising step. The objective of this paper is to develop and characterize a denoising framework for dynamic PET based on non-local means (NLM). NLM denoising computes weighted averages of voxel intensities assigning larger weights to voxels that are similar to a given voxel in terms of their local neighborhoods or patches. We introduce three key modifications to tailor the original NLM framework to dynamic PET. Firstly, we derive similarities from less noisy later time points in a typical PET acquisition to denoise the entire time series. Secondly, we use spatiotemporal patches for robust similarity computation. Finally, we use a spatially varying smoothing parameter based on a local variance approximation over each spatiotemporal patch. To assess the performance of our denoising technique, we performed a realistic simulation on a dynamic digital phantom based on the Digimouse atlas. For experimental validation, we denoised [Formula: see text] PET images from a mouse study and a hepatocellular carcinoma patient study. We compared the performance of NLM denoising with four other denoising approaches - Gaussian filtering, PCA, HYPR, and conventional NLM based on spatial patches. The simulation study revealed significant improvement in bias-variance performance achieved using our NLM technique relative to all the other methods. The experimental data analysis revealed that our technique leads to clear improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio in Patlak parametric images generated from denoised preclinical and clinical dynamic images, indicating its ability to preserve image contrast and high intensity details while

  20. PET/MR imaging of bone lesions - implications for PET quantification from imperfect attenuation correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarin, Andrei; Burger, Cyrill; Crook, David W.; Burger, Irene A.; Schmid, Daniel T.; Schulthess, Gustav K. von; Kuhn, Felix P.; Wollenweber, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate attenuation correction (AC) is essential for quantitative analysis of PET tracer distribution. In MR, the lack of cortical bone signal makes bone segmentation difficult and may require implementation of special sequences. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the need for accurate bone segmentation in MR-based AC for whole-body PET/MR imaging. In 22 patients undergoing sequential PET/CT and 3-T MR imaging, modified CT AC maps were produced by replacing pixels with values of >100 HU, representing mostly bone structures, by pixels with a constant value of 36 HU corresponding to soft tissue, thereby simulating current MR-derived AC maps. A total of 141 FDG-positive osseous lesions and 50 soft-tissue lesions adjacent to bones were evaluated. The mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) was measured in each lesion in PET images reconstructed once using the standard AC maps and once using the modified AC maps. Subsequently, the errors in lesion tracer uptake for the modified PET images were calculated using the standard PET image as a reference. Substitution of bone by soft tissue values in AC maps resulted in an underestimation of tracer uptake in osseous and soft tissue lesions adjacent to bones of 11.2 ± 5.4 % (range 1.5-30.8 %) and 3.2 ± 1.7 % (range 0.2-4 %), respectively. Analysis of the spine and pelvic osseous lesions revealed a substantial dependence of the error on lesion composition. For predominantly sclerotic spine lesions, the mean underestimation was 15.9 ± 3.4 % (range 9.9-23.5 %) and for osteolytic spine lesions, 7.2 ± 1.7 % (range 4.9-9.3 %), respectively. CT data simulating treating bone as soft tissue as is currently done in MR maps for PET AC leads to a substantial underestimation of tracer uptake in bone lesions and depends on lesion composition, the largest error being seen in sclerotic lesions. Therefore, depiction of cortical bone and other calcified areas in MR AC maps is necessary for accurate quantification of tracer uptake

  1. Impact of molecular imaging with PET on healthcare worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, Abbas

    2009-01-01

    Full text: FDG-PET imaging has substantially improved healthcare throughout the world. This technique has been applied to patients with some of the most serious diseases, including cancer, central nervous system disorders, cardiovascular disease and infections including infected prostheses. There is also enormous potential for further improvement in patient management using this technique, for example, in the detection of atherosclerosis and clots, and assessment of muscle function. Studies using FDG-PET methodology have led to the development of many novel radiotracers that have been designed to explore new diagnostic and therapeutic domains. We therefore expect that molecular imaging with PET will play an increasingly central role in research and in the optimal management of patients with many disorders. This will include diagnosing pathological processes at the molecular level and individualizing treatment for these patients. By utilizing PET and the appropriately labeled pharmaceuticals, one will be able to select the most suitable therapeutic drugs for a particular disease, instead of administering drugs to patients without a good idea of the chance of efficacy. Likewise, PET will increasingly play a major role in drug development by demonstrating the degree to which the intended pharmaceutical targets the diseased tissues in animal models and in human beings. PET will also assist in determining the rate of metabolism of the administered drugs by different tissues. PET imaging will also allow accurate staging of cancer and other serious diseases and will be adopted as the most accurate technique for monitoring response to treatment and detecting recurrence. The role of CT and/or MRI as independent modalities in medicine will decrease as the efficacy of PET is realized by scientists and clinicians alike. In particular, the use of contrast agents such as iodinated compounds and gadolinium based agents will be minimized. Similarly, imaging with single gamma

  2. A phantom study of tumor contouring on PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Song; Li Xuena; Li Yaming; Yin Yafu; Li Na; Han Chunqi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore an algorithm to define the threshold value for tumor contouring on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging. Methods: A National Electrical Manufacturing Association (NEMA)NU 2 1994 PET phantom with 5 spheres of different diameters were filled with 18 F-FDG. Seven different sphere-to-background ratios were obtained and the phantom was scanned by Discovery LS 4. For each sphere-to-background ratio, the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) of each sphere, the SUV of the border of each sphere (SUV border ), the mean SUV of a 1 cm region of background (SUV bg ) and the diameter (D) of each sphere were measured. SPSS 13.0 software was used for curve fitting and regression analysis to obtain the threshold algorithm. The calculated thresholds were applied to delineate 29 pathologically confirmed lung cancer lesions on PET images and the obtained volumes were compared with the volumes contoured on CT images in lung window. Results: The algorithm for defining contour threshold is TH% = 33.1% + 46.8% SUV bg /SUV max + 13.9%/D (r = 0.994) by phantom studies. For 29 lung cancer lesions, the average gross tumor volumes (GTV) delineated on PET and CT are (7.36±1.62) ml and (8.31±2.05) ml, respectively (t = -1.26, P>0.05). Conclusion: The proposed threshold algorithm for tumor contouring on PET image could provide comparable GTV with CT. (authors)

  3. Metastasis of the gastrointestinal tract. FDG-PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayasaka, Kazumasa; Nihashi, Takashi; Matsuura, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    We assess the usefulness of F-18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in the evaluation of gastrointestinal metastases. Four cases (five lesions) in which metastases from three lung cancers and one malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the femur were found in the gastrointestinal tract were reviewed (men/women 3:1, age 63-78 years, mean 72 years). The five lesions were duodenal, jejunal metastasis, and two stomach metastases from lung carcinoma, and rectal metastasis from MFH of the femur. FDG-PET was unable to detect small masses, but it was able to detect unforeseen lesions such as gastrointestinal metastases because FDG-PET is a whole-body scan in a single-operation examination. FDG-PET imaging provided valuable information for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal metastasis. (author)

  4. The role of PET quantification in cardiovascular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomka, Piotr; Berman, Daniel S; Alexanderson, Erick; Germano, Guido

    2014-08-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has several clinical and research applications in cardiovascular imaging. Myocardial perfusion imaging with PET allows accurate global and regional measurements of myocardial perfusion, myocardial blood flow and function at stress and rest in one exam. Simultaneous assessment of function and perfusion by PET with quantitative software is currently the routine practice. Combination of ejection fraction reserve with perfusion information may improve the identification of severe disease. The myocardial viability can be estimated by quantitative comparison of fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) and rest perfusion imaging. The myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve measurements are becoming routinely included in the clinical assessment due to enhanced dynamic imaging capabilities of the latest PET/CT scanners. Absolute flow measurements allow evaluation of the coronary microvascular dysfunction and provide additional prognostic and diagnostic information for coronary disease. Standard quantitative approaches to compute myocardial blood flow from kinetic PET data in automated and rapid fashion have been developed for 13 N-ammonia, 15 O-water and 82 Rb radiotracers. The agreement between software methods available for such analysis is excellent. Relative quantification of 82 Rb PET myocardial perfusion, based on comparisons to normal databases, demonstrates high performance for the detection of obstructive coronary disease. New tracers, such as 18 F-flurpiridaz may allow further improvements in the disease detection. Computerized analysis of perfusion at stress and rest reduces the variability of the assessment as compared to visual analysis. PET quantification can be enhanced by precise coregistration with CT angiography. In emerging clinical applications, the potential to identify vulnerable plaques by quantification of atherosclerotic plaque uptake of 18 FDG and 18 F-sodium fluoride tracers in carotids, aorta and coronary arteries

  5. Advances in fusion of PET, SPET, CT und MRT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzyk, U.

    2003-01-01

    Image fusion as part of the correlative analysis for medical images has gained ever more interest and the fact that combined systems for PET and CT are commercially available demonstrates the importance for medical diagnostics, therapy and research oriented applications. In this work the basics of image registration, its different strategies and the mathematical and physical background are described. A successful image registration is an essential prerequisite for the next steps, namely correlative medical image analysis. Means to verify image registration and the different modes for integrated display are presented and its usefulness is discussed. Possible limitations in applying image fusion in order to avoid misinterpretation will be pointed out. (orig.) [de

  6. The Diagnostic Value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Association with Serum Tumor Marker Assays in Breast Cancer Recurrence and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. After initial treatment of breast cancer (BC, monitoring locoregional recurrence and distant metastases is a great clinical challenge. Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of PET/CT in association with serum tumor makers in BC follow-up. Methods. Twenty-six women with a history of modified radical mastectomy were evaluated by 18F-FDG PET/CT. The results of PET/CT were compared with those of conventional imaging techniques (CITs (including mammography, chest radiography, CT, MRI, ultrasound, and bone scintigraphy. Serum tumor markers of CEA, CA 125, and CA 15-3 in the BC patients were also analyzed in association with the results of PET/CT. Results. Compared with CITs, PET/CT was more sensitive to detect the malignant foci and had better patient-based sensitivity and specificity. The mean CA 15-3 serum level was significantly higher in the confirmed positive patients of PET/CT results than in the confirmed negative ones, while there were no significant differences in the serum levels of CEA and CA 125 of both groups. Conclusion. PET/CT is a highly efficient tool for BC follow-up compared with CITs. The high serum levels of CA 15-3 in confirmed positive PET/CT patients indicated the clinical value of CA 15-3 in BC follow-up.

  7. [F-18]FDG imaging of head and neck tumors: comparison of hybrid PET, dedicated PET and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, S.; Brinkbaeumer, K.; Schmid, R.; Poepperl, G.; Hahn, K.; Szeimies, U.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: Aim of the study was to evaluate [F-18]FDG imaging of head and neck tumors using a Hybrid-PET device of the 2nd or 3rd generation. Examinations were compared to dedicated PET and Spiral-CT. Methods: 54 patients suffering from head and neck tumors were examined using dedicated PET and Hybrid-PET after injection of 185-350 MBq [F-18]FDG. Examinations were carried out on the dedicated PET first followed by a scan on the Hybrid-PET. Dedicated PET was acquired in 3D mode, Hybrid-PET was performed in list mode using an axial filter. Reconstruction of data was performed iteratively on both, dedicated PET and Hybrid-PET. All patients received a CT scan in multislice technique. All finding have been verified by the goldstandard histology or in case of negative histology by follow up. Results: Using dedicated PET the primary or recurrent lesion was correctly diagnosed in 47/48 patients, using Hybrid-PET in 46/48 patients and using CT in 25/48 patients. Metastatic disease in cervical lymph nodes was diagnosed in 17/18 patients with dedicated PET, in 16/18 patients with Hybrid-PET and in 15/18 with CT. False positive results with regard to lymph node metastasis were seen with one patient for dedicated PET and Hybrid-PET, respectively, and with 18 patients for CT. In a total of 11 patients unknown metastastic lesions were seen with dedicated PET and with Hybrid-PET elsewhere in the body. Additional malignant disease other than the head and neck tumor was found in 4 patients. Conclusion: Using Hybrid-PET for [F-18]FDG imaging reveals a loss of sensitivity and specificity of about 1-5% as compared to dedicated PET in head and neck tumors. [F-18]FDG PET with both, dedicated PET and Hybrid-PET is superior to CT in the diagnosis of primary or recurrent lesions as well as in the assessment of lymph node involvement. (orig.) [de

  8. Simultaneous maximum a posteriori longitudinal PET image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Sam; Reader, Andrew J.

    2017-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is frequently used to monitor functional changes that occur over extended time scales, for example in longitudinal oncology PET protocols that include routine clinical follow-up scans to assess the efficacy of a course of treatment. In these contexts PET datasets are currently reconstructed into images using single-dataset reconstruction methods. Inspired by recently proposed joint PET-MR reconstruction methods, we propose to reconstruct longitudinal datasets simultaneously by using a joint penalty term in order to exploit the high degree of similarity between longitudinal images. We achieved this by penalising voxel-wise differences between pairs of longitudinal PET images in a one-step-late maximum a posteriori (MAP) fashion, resulting in the MAP simultaneous longitudinal reconstruction (SLR) method. The proposed method reduced reconstruction errors and visually improved images relative to standard maximum likelihood expectation-maximisation (ML-EM) in simulated 2D longitudinal brain tumour scans. In reconstructions of split real 3D data with inserted simulated tumours, noise across images reconstructed with MAP-SLR was reduced to levels equivalent to doubling the number of detected counts when using ML-EM. Furthermore, quantification of tumour activities was largely preserved over a variety of longitudinal tumour changes, including changes in size and activity, with larger changes inducing larger biases relative to standard ML-EM reconstructions. Similar improvements were observed for a range of counts levels, demonstrating the robustness of the method when used with a single penalty strength. The results suggest that longitudinal regularisation is a simple but effective method of improving reconstructed PET images without using resolution degrading priors.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT compared with that of contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magometschnigg, Heinrich F.; Baltzer, Pascal A.; Fueger, Barbara; Helbich, Thomas H.; Weber, Michael [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Karanikas, Georgios [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Dubsky, Peter [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Rudas, Margaretha [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pathology, Vienna (Austria); Pinker, Katja [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States)

    2015-10-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of prone {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT with that of contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) at 3 T in suspicious breast lesions. To evaluate the influence of tumour size on diagnostic accuracy and the use of maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub MAX}) thresholds to differentiate malignant from benign breast lesions. A total of 172 consecutive patients with an imaging abnormality were included in this IRB-approved prospective study. All patients underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and CE-MRI of the breast at 3 T in the prone position. Two reader teams independently evaluated the likelihood of malignancy as determined by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and CE-MRI independently. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT data were qualitatively evaluated by visual interpretation. Quantitative assessment was performed by calculation of SUV{sub MAX}. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, area under the curve and interreader agreement were calculated for all lesions and for lesions <10 mm. Histopathology was used as the standard of reference. There were 132 malignant and 40 benign lesions; 23 lesions (13.4 %) were <10 mm. Both {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and CE-MRI achieved an overall diagnostic accuracy of 93 %. There were no significant differences in sensitivity (p = 0.125), specificity (p = 0.344) or diagnostic accuracy (p = 1). For lesions <10 mm, diagnostic accuracy deteriorated to 91 % with both {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and CE-MRI. Although no significant difference was found for lesions <10 mm, CE-MRI at 3 T seemed to be more sensitive but less specific than {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Interreader agreement was excellent (κ = 0.85 and κ = 0.92). SUV{sub MAX} threshold was not helpful in differentiating benign from malignant lesions. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and CE-MRI at 3 T showed equal diagnostic accuracies in breast cancer diagnosis. For lesions <10 mm, diagnostic accuracy deteriorated, but was equal for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and CE-MRI at 3 T. For lesions <10 mm, CE-MRI at 3 T seemed

  10. Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Local Tumor Staging in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer: A Comparison With Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueneisen, Johannes; Nagarajah, James; Buchbender, Christian; Hoffmann, Oliver; Schaarschmidt, Benedikt Michael; Poeppel, Thorsten; Forsting, Michael; Quick, Harald H; Umutlu, Lale; Kinner, Sonja

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of integrated positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast for lesion detection and local tumor staging of patients with primary breast cancer in comparison to PET/computed tomography (CT) and MRI. The study was approved by the local institutional review board. Forty-nine patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer were prospectively enrolled in our study. All patients underwent a PET/CT, and subsequently, a contrast-enhanced PET/MRI of the breast after written informed consent was obtained before each examination. Two radiologists independently evaluated the corresponding data sets (PET/CT, PET/MRI, and MRI) and were instructed to identify primary tumors lesions as well as multifocal/multicentric and bilateral disease. Furthermore, the occurrence of lymph node metastases was assessed, and the T-stage for each patient was determined. Histopathological verification of the local tumor extent and the axillary lymph node status was available for 30 of 49 and 48 of 49 patients, respectively. For the remaining patients, a consensus characterization was performed for the determination of the T-stage and nodal status, taking into account the results of clinical staging, PET/CT, and PET/MRI examinations. Statistical analysis was performed to test for differences in diagnostic performance between the different imaging procedures. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Positron emission tomography/MRI and MRI correctly identified 47 (96%) of the 49 patients with primary breast cancer, whereas PET/CT enabled detection of 46 (94%) of 49 breast cancer patients and missed a synchronous carcinoma in the contralateral breast in 1 patient. In a lesion-by-lesion analysis, no significant differences could be obtained between the 3 imaging procedures for the identification of primary breast cancer lesions (P > 0.05). Positron emission tomography/MRI and

  11. Digital Breast Imaging Warehouse for Research and Clinical Decision Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Hong

    2001-01-01

    Breast imaging is used intensively for breast cancer detection. As routine screening examination becomes more popular for women over 40, tremendous amount of breast imaging data has been accumulated...

  12. [Diagnostic imaging of breast cancer : An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, M

    2016-10-01

    Advances in imaging of the female breast have substantially influenced the diagnosis and probably also the therapy and prognosis of breast cancer in the past few years. This article gives an overview of the most important imaging modalities in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Digital mammography is considered to be the gold standard for the early detection of breast cancer. Digital breast tomosynthesis can increase the diagnostic accuracy of mammography and is used for the assessment of equivocal or suspicious mammography findings. Other modalities, such as ultrasound and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play an important role in the diagnostics, staging and follow-up of breast cancer. Percutaneous needle biopsy is a rapid and minimally invasive method for the histological verification of breast cancer. New breast imaging modalities, such as contrast-enhanced spectral mammography, diffusion-weighted MRI and MR spectroscopy can possibly further improve breast cancer diagnostics; however, further studies are necessary to prove the advantages of these methods so that they cannot yet be recommended for routine clinical use.

  13. Imaging Breast Density: Established and Emerging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon-Hor Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammographic density has been proven as an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Women with dense breast tissue visible on a mammogram have a much higher cancer risk than women with little density. A great research effort has been devoted to incorporate breast density into risk prediction models to better estimate each individual’s cancer risk. In recent years, the passage of breast density notification legislation in many states in USA requires that every mammography report should provide information regarding the patient’s breast density. Accurate definition and measurement of breast density are thus important, which may allow all the potential clinical applications of breast density to be implemented. Because the two-dimensional mammography-based measurement is subject to tissue overlapping and thus not able to provide volumetric information, there is an urgent need to develop reliable quantitative measurements of breast density. Various new imaging technologies are being developed. Among these new modalities, volumetric mammographic density methods and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging are the most well studied. Besides, emerging modalities, including different x-ray–based, optical imaging, and ultrasound-based methods, have also been investigated. All these modalities may either overcome some fundamental problems related to mammographic density or provide additional density and/or compositional information. The present review article aimed to summarize the current established and emerging imaging techniques for the measurement of breast density and the evidence of the clinical use of these density methods from the literature.

  14. The Assessment of Estrogen Receptor Status and Its Intratumoral Heterogeneity in Patients With Breast Cancer by Using 18F-Fluoroestradiol PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongyi; Sun, Yifei; Xu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yongping; Zhang, Jianping; Xue, Jing; Wang, Mingwei; Yuan, Huiyu; Hu, Silong; Shi, Wei; Zhu, Beiling; Zhang, Yingjian

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical value of F-fluoroestradiol (F-FES) PET/CT in the assessment of the estrogen receptor (ER) and its intratumoral heterogeneity in breast cancer patients. Forty-six female patients (50 lesions) with histologically confirmed invasive breast cancer who underwent both F-FES and F-FDG PET/CT in our center were retrospectively included. All the patients enrolled were scheduled to undergo biopsy. The F-FES and FDG uptakes were compared with pathological features (tumor size, ER, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and Ki67%). The optimal threshold to discriminate ER-positive and ER-negative lesions was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Furthermore, we observed the intratumoral heterogeneity by a heterogeneity index (SUVmax/SUVmean) and compared the results with the Chang-Gung Image Texture Analysis. There was good agreement between F-FES uptake and ER, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression (P heterogeneity index-FES can easily observe ER heterogeneity. In addition, our results suggested that recurrent/metastatic patients and lesions located other than breast might have greater heterogeneity. F-FES PET/CT is a feasible, noninvasive method for assessing ER expression in breast cancer patients. Because intratumoral heterogeneity exists, F-FES PET/CT might better reflect the ER expression, especially in metastatic patients after treatment, thus assisting in making individualized treatment decisions.

  15. A pilot study of FDG PET/CT detects a link between brown adipose tissue and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Qi; Jones, Laundette; Hersl, Jerome; La, Hongloan; Smith, Mark; Jenkins, Jason; Goloubeva, Olga; Dilsizian, Vasken; Tkaczuk, Katherine; Chen, Wengen

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most lethal cancer in women. Understanding biological mechanisms that cause progression of this disease could yield new targets for prevention and treatment. Recent experimental studies suggest that brown adipose tissue (BAT) may play a key role in breast cancer progression. The primary objective for this pilot study was to determine if the prevalence of active BAT in patients with breast cancer is increased compared to cancer patients with other malignancies. We retrospectively analyzed data from 96 breast cancer patients who had FDG PET/CT scan for routine staging at the University of Maryland and 96 age- and weight-matched control female patients with other malignancies (predominantly colon cancer) who had undergone FDG PET/CT imaging on the same day. Data on the distribution (bilateral upper neck, supraclavicular and paraspinal regions) and intensity (SUVmax) of active BAT were evaluated by 2 Nuclear Medicine physicians, blinded to the clinical history. We found sufficient evidence to conclude that based on our sample data the prevalence of active BAT in breast cancer patients’ group is significantly different from that in the control group. The estimated frequency of BAT activity was 3 fold higher in breast cancer patients as compared to controls with other cancers, (16.7% vs. 5.2%, respectively, p = 0.019). When patients were stratified by age in order to determine the possible impact of age related hormonal changes on active BAT among the younger women (≤ 55 years of age), 25.6% breast cancer patients exhibited BAT activity compared to only 2.8% in control women (p = 0.007). In contrast, among the older women (> 55 years of age), the prevalence of active BAT was similar among breast cancer and control women (10.7% vs 6.7%). In breast cancer patients prevalence of BAT activity on FDGPET/CT is 3-fold greater than in age- and body weight-matched patients with other solid tumor malignancies; this difference is particularly

  16. Image Registration for PET/CT and CT Images with Particle Swarm Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak Jae; Kim, Yong Kwon; Lee, Ki Sung; Choi, Jong Hak; Kim, Chang Kyun; Moon, Guk Hyun; Joo, Sung Kwan; Kim, Kyeong Min; Cheon, Gi Jeong

    2009-01-01

    Image registration is a fundamental task in image processing used to match two or more images. It gives new information to the radiologists by matching images from different modalities. The objective of this study is to develop 2D image registration algorithm for PET/CT and CT images acquired by different systems at different times. We matched two CT images first (one from standalone CT and the other from PET/CT) that contain affluent anatomical information. Then, we geometrically transformed PET image according to the results of transformation parameters calculated by the previous step. We have used Affine transform to match the target and reference images. For the similarity measure, mutual information was explored. Use of particle swarm algorithm optimized the performance by finding the best matched parameter set within a reasonable amount of time. The results show good agreements of the images between PET/CT and CT. We expect the proposed algorithm can be used not only for PET/CT and CT image registration but also for different multi-modality imaging systems such as SPECT/CT, MRI/PET and so on.

  17. Feasibility of breathing-adapted PET/CT imaging for radiation therapy of Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, M C; Andersen, Flemming; Berthelsen, A K

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Respiration can induce artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) images leading to uncertainties in tumour volume, location and uptake quantification. Respiratory gating for PET images is now established but is not directly translatable to a radiotherapy setup....... in PET/CT images. These results suggest that advanced therapies (such as SUV-based dose painting) will likely require breathing-adapted PET images and that the relevant SUV thresholds are yet to be investigated....

  18. Feasibility of breathing-adapted PET/CT imaging for radiation therapy of Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, M C; Andersen, Flemming; Berthelsen, A K

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Respiration can induce artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) images leading to uncertainties in tumour volume, location and uptake quantification. Respiratory gating for PET images is now established but is not directly translatable to a radiotherapy setup....... uptake in PET/CT images. These results suggest that advanced therapies (such as SUV-based dose painting) will likely require breathing-adapted PET images and that the relevant SUV thresholds are yet to be investigated....

  19. Targeting MT1-MMP as an ImmunoPET-Based Strategy for Imaging Gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G de Lucas

    Full Text Available A critical challenge in the management of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM tumors is the accurate diagnosis and assessment of tumor progression in a noninvasive manner. We have identified Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP as an attractive biomarker for GBM imaging since this protein is actively involved in tumor growth and progression, correlates with tumor grade and is closely associated with poor prognosis in GBM patients. Here, we report the development of an immunoPET tracer for effective detection of MT1-MMP in GBM models.An anti-human MT1-MMP monoclonal antibody (mAb, LEM2/15, was conjugated to p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-desferrioxamine (DFO-NCS for 89Zr labeling. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed in xenograft mice bearing human GBM cells (U251 expressing MT1-MMP and non-expressing breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7 as negative control. Two orthotopic brain GBM models, patient-derived neurospheres (TS543 and U251 cells, with different degrees of blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption were also used for PET imaging experiments.89Zr labeling of DFO-LEM2/15 was achieved with high yield (>90% and specific activity (78.5 MBq/mg. Biodistribution experiments indicated that 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 showed excellent potential as a radiotracer for detection of MT1-MMP positive GBM tumors. PET imaging also indicated a specific and prominent 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 uptake in MT1-MMP+ U251 GBM tumors compared to MT1-MMP- MCF-7 breast tumors. Results obtained in orthotopic brain GBM models revealed a high dependence of a disrupted BBB for tracer penetrance into tumors. 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 showed much higher accumulation in TS543 tumors with a highly disrupted BBB than in U251 orthotopic model in which the BBB permeability was only partially increased. Histological analysis confirmed the specificity of the immunoconjugate in all GBM models.A new anti MT1-MMP-mAb tracer, 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15, was synthesized efficiently. In vivo validation showed high

  20. [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/Computed Tomography (CT) in Suspected Recurrent Breast Cancer: A Prospective Comparative Study of Dual-Time-Point FDG-PET/CT, Contrast-Enhanced CT, and Bone Scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Malene Grubbe; Gerke, Oke; Baun, Christina; Falch, Kirsten; Hansen, Jeanette Ansholm; Farahani, Ziba Ahangarani; Petersen, Henrik; Larsen, Lisbet Brønsro; Duvnjak, Sandra; Buskevica, Inguna; Bektas, Selma; Søe, Katrine; Jylling, Anne Marie Bak; Ewertz, Marianne; Alavi, Abass; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2016-06-01

    To prospectively investigate the diagnostic accuracy of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with dual-time-point imaging, contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT), and bone scintigraphy (BS) in patients with suspected breast cancer recurrence. One hundred women with suspected recurrence of breast cancer underwent 1-hour and 3-hour FDG-PET/CT, ceCT, and BS within approximately 10 days. The study was powered to estimate the precision of the individual imaging tests. Images were visually interpreted using a four-point assessment scale, and readers were blinded to other test results. The reference standard was biopsy along with treatment decisions and clinical follow-up (median, 17 months). FDG-PET/CT resulted in no false negatives and fewer false positives than the other imaging techniques. Accuracy of results were similar for 1-hour and 3-hour FDG-PET/CT. For distant recurrence, the area under the receiver operating curve was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1) for FDG-PET/CT, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.73 to 0.94) for ceCT, and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.77 to 0.94) for the combined ceCT+BS. Of 100 patients, 22 (22%) were verified with distant recurrence, and 18 of these had bone involvement. Nineteen patients (19%) had local recurrence only. In exploratory analyses, diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET/CT was better than ceCT alone or ceCT combined with BS in diagnosing distant, bone, and local recurrence, shown by a greater area under the receiver operating curve and higher sensitivity, specificity, and superior likelihood ratios. FDG-PET/CT was accurate in diagnosing recurrence in breast cancer patients. It allowed for distant recurrence to be correctly ruled out and resulted in only a small number of false-positive cases. Exploratory findings suggest that FDG-PET/CT has greater accuracy than conventional imaging technologies in this patient group. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  1. Spatio-temporal diffusion of dynamic PET images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, C; Chalon, S; Guilloteau, D; Stute, S; Buvat, I; Chau, M; Spiteri, P

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) images are corrupted by noise. This is especially true in dynamic PET imaging where short frames are required to capture the peak of activity concentration after the radiotracer injection. High noise results in a possible bias in quantification, as the compartmental models used to estimate the kinetic parameters are sensitive to noise. This paper describes a new post-reconstruction filter to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in dynamic PET imaging. It consists in a spatio-temporal robust diffusion of the 4D image based on the time activity curve (TAC) in each voxel. It reduces the noise in homogeneous areas while preserving the distinct kinetics in regions of interest corresponding to different underlying physiological processes. Neither anatomical priors nor the kinetic model are required. We propose an automatic selection of the scale parameter involved in the diffusion process based on a robust statistical analysis of the distances between TACs. The method is evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations of brain activity distributions. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method and its superior performance over two other post-reconstruction spatial and temporal filters. Our simulations suggest that the proposed method can be used to significantly increase the signal-to-noise ratio in dynamic PET imaging.

  2. PET imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semah, F.

    2006-01-01

    The research projects on epilepsy addressed two main issues: the pathophysiology of the inter-ictal hypo-metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy and the role of the basal ganglia in the control of seizure. Our research projects focused primarily on temporal lobe epilepsy: The pathophysiology of inter-ictal hypo-metabolism and its correlation with the epileptogenic network was investigated in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Inter-ictal hypo-metabolism is commonly found in mesio-temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) but its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. We hypothesized that metabolic changes reflect the preferential networks involved in ictal discharges. We analyzed the topography of inter-ictal hypo-metabolism according to electro-clinical patterns in 50 patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and consistent features of MTLE. Based on electro-clinical correlations we identified 4 groups:1) mesial group characterized by mesial seizure onset without evidence of early spread beyond the temporal lobe; 2) anterior mesio-lateral group (AML) with early anterior spread, involving the anterior lateral temporal cortex and insulo-fronto-opercular areas; 3) widespread mesio-lateral group (WML) with widespread spread, involving both anterior and posterior lateral temporal and peri-sylvian areas; 4) bi-temporal group (BT) with early contralateral temporal spread. Results of FDG-PET imaging in each group were compared to control subjects using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM99). MRI data and surgical outcome in each group were compared to metabolic findings. Hypo-metabolism was limited to the hippocampal gyrus, the temporal pole and the insula in the mesial group. Gradual involvement of the lateral temporal cortex, the insula and the peri-sylvian areas was observed in the AML and WML groups. The BT group differed from the others by mild bi-temporal involvement, bilateral insular hypo-metabolism and longer epilepsy duration. MRI

  3. PET imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semah, F. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DSV-CEA, 91 Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    The research projects on epilepsy addressed two main issues: the pathophysiology of the inter-ictal hypo-metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy and the role of the basal ganglia in the control of seizure. Our research projects focused primarily on temporal lobe epilepsy: The pathophysiology of inter-ictal hypo-metabolism and its correlation with the epileptogenic network was investigated in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Inter-ictal hypo-metabolism is commonly found in mesio-temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) but its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. We hypothesized that metabolic changes reflect the preferential networks involved in ictal discharges. We analyzed the topography of inter-ictal hypo-metabolism according to electro-clinical patterns in 50 patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and consistent features of MTLE. Based on electro-clinical correlations we identified 4 groups:1) mesial group characterized by mesial seizure onset without evidence of early spread beyond the temporal lobe; 2) anterior mesio-lateral group (AML) with early anterior spread, involving the anterior lateral temporal cortex and insulo-fronto-opercular areas; 3) widespread mesio-lateral group (WML) with widespread spread, involving both anterior and posterior lateral temporal and peri-sylvian areas; 4) bi-temporal group (BT) with early contralateral temporal spread. Results of FDG-PET imaging in each group were compared to control subjects using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM99). MRI data and surgical outcome in each group were compared to metabolic findings. Hypo-metabolism was limited to the hippocampal gyrus, the temporal pole and the insula in the mesial group. Gradual involvement of the lateral temporal cortex, the insula and the peri-sylvian areas was observed in the AML and WML groups. The BT group differed from the others by mild bi-temporal involvement, bilateral insular hypo-metabolism and longer epilepsy duration. MRI

  4. Image artifacts from MR-based attenuation correction in clinical, whole-body PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune H; Holm, Søren; Hansen, Adam E

    2013-01-01

    Integrated whole-body PET/MRI tomographs have become available. PET/MR imaging has the potential to supplement, or even replace combined PET/CT imaging in selected clinical indications. However, this is true only if methodological pitfalls and image artifacts arising from novel MR-based attenuation...

  5. Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Fhager, Andreas; Jensen, Peter Damsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Still more research groups are promoting microwave imaging as a viable supplement or substitution to more conventional imaging modalities. A widespread approach for microwave imaging of the breast is tomographic imaging in which one seeks to reconstruct the distributions of permittivity and condu......Still more research groups are promoting microwave imaging as a viable supplement or substitution to more conventional imaging modalities. A widespread approach for microwave imaging of the breast is tomographic imaging in which one seeks to reconstruct the distributions of permittivity...... and conductivity in the breast. In this paper two nonlinear tomographic algorithms are compared – one is a single-frequency algorithm and the other is a time-domain algorithm....

  6. PET/CT Imaging and Radioimmunotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Tagawa, Scott T; Goldsmith, Stanley J

    2011-01-01

    disease (ideal for antigen access and antibody delivery). Furthermore, prostate cancer is also radiation sensitive. Prostate-specific membrane antigen is expressed by virtually all prostate cancers, and represents an attractive target for RIT. Antiprostate-specific membrane antigen RIT demonstrates......Prostate cancer is a common cancer in men and continues to be a major health problem. Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of patients with prostate cancer. An important goal for prostate cancer imaging is more accurate disease characterization through the synthesis...... of anatomic, functional, and molecular imaging information. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in oncology is emerging as an important imaging tool. The most common radiotracer for PET/CT in oncology, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), is not very useful in the imaging of prostate cancer...

  7. Story of rubidium-82 and advantages for myocardial perfusion PET imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois eChatal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubidium-82 has a long story, starting in 1954. After preclinical studies in dogs showing that myocardial uptake of this radionuclide was directly proportional to myocardial blood flow, clinical studies were performed in the 80s leading to an approval in the USA in 1989. From that time thousands of patients have been tested and their results have been reported in 3 meta-analyses. Pooled patient-based sensitivity and specificity were respectively 0.91 and 0.90. By comparison with 99mTc-SPECT, 82Rb-PET had a much better diagnostic accuracy, especially in obese patients with BMI (Body Mass Index ≥30 kg/m2 (85% versus 67% with SPECT and in women with large breasts. A great advantage of 82Rb-PET is its capacity to accurately quantify myocardial blood flow. Quite importantly it has been recently shown that coronary flow reserve is associated with adverse cardiovascular events independently of luminal angiographic severity. Moreover coronary flow reserve is a functional parameter particularly useful in the estimate of microvascular dysfunction such as in diabetes mellitus. Due to the very short half-life of rubidium-82, the effective dose calculated for a rest/stress test is roughly equivalent to the annual natural exposure and even less when stress-only is performed with a low activity compatible with a good image quality with the last generation 3D PET scanners.There is still some debate on the relative advantages of 82Rb-PET with regard to 99mTc-SPECT. For the last ten years, great technological advances substantially improved performances of SPECT with its accuracy getting closer to this of 82Rb/PET. Currently the main advantages of PET are its capacity to accurately quantify myocardial blood flow and to deliver a low radiation exposure.

  8. Integrated 18F-FDG PET/MRI in breast cancer. Early prediction of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nariya; Im, Seock-Ah; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Tae-Yong; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Park, In-Ae; Kim, Young Seon; Kwon, Bo Ra; Lee, Jung Min; Suh, Hoon Young; Suh, Koung Jin

    2018-01-01

    To explore whether integrated 18 F-FDG PET/MRI can be used to predict pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with breast cancer. Between November 2014 and April 2016, 26 patients with breast cancer who had received NAC and subsequent surgery were prospectively enrolled. Each patient underwent 18 F-FDG PET/MRI examination before and after the first cycle of NAC. Qualitative MRI parameters, including morphological descriptors and the presence of peritumoral oedema were assessed. Quantitatively, PET parameters, including maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and MRI parameters, including washout proportion and signal enhancement ratio (SER), were measured. The performance of the imaging parameters singly and in combination in predicting a pathological incomplete response (non-pCR) was assessed. Of the 26 patients, 7 (26.9%) exhibited a pathological complete response (pCR), and 19 (73.1%) exhibited a non-pCR. No significant differences were found between the pCR and non-pCR groups in the qualitative MRI parameters. The mean percentage reductions in TLG 30% on PET and SER on MRI were significantly greater in the pCR group than in the non-pCR group (TLG 30% -64.8 ± 15.5% vs. -25.4 ± 48.7%, P = 0.005; SER -34.6 ± 19.7% vs. -8.7 ± 29.0%, P = 0.040). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the percentage change in TLG 30% (0.789, 95% CI 0.614 to 0.965) was similar to that for the percentage change in SER (0.789, 95% CI 0.552 to 1.000; P = 1.000). The specificity of TLG 30% in predicting pCR was 100% (7/7) and that of SER was 71.4% (5/7). The sensitivity of TLG 30% in predicting non-pCR was 63.2% (12/19) and that of SER was 84.2% (16/19). When the combined TLG 30% and SER criterion was applied, sensitivity was 100% (19/19), and specificity was 71.4% (5/7). 18 F-FDG PET/MRI can be used to predict non-pCR after the first cycle of NAC in patients with breast cancer

  9. Integrated {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI in breast cancer. Early prediction of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nariya [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Seock-Ah; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Tae-Yong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Gi Jeong [Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Ae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Seon [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yeungnam University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Bo Ra [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Min; Suh, Hoon Young [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Koung Jin [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-03-15

    To explore whether integrated {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI can be used to predict pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with breast cancer. Between November 2014 and April 2016, 26 patients with breast cancer who had received NAC and subsequent surgery were prospectively enrolled. Each patient underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI examination before and after the first cycle of NAC. Qualitative MRI parameters, including morphological descriptors and the presence of peritumoral oedema were assessed. Quantitatively, PET parameters, including maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and MRI parameters, including washout proportion and signal enhancement ratio (SER), were measured. The performance of the imaging parameters singly and in combination in predicting a pathological incomplete response (non-pCR) was assessed. Of the 26 patients, 7 (26.9%) exhibited a pathological complete response (pCR), and 19 (73.1%) exhibited a non-pCR. No significant differences were found between the pCR and non-pCR groups in the qualitative MRI parameters. The mean percentage reductions in TLG{sub 30%} on PET and SER on MRI were significantly greater in the pCR group than in the non-pCR group (TLG{sub 30%} -64.8 ± 15.5% vs. -25.4 ± 48.7%, P = 0.005; SER -34.6 ± 19.7% vs. -8.7 ± 29.0%, P = 0.040). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the percentage change in TLG{sub 30%} (0.789, 95% CI 0.614 to 0.965) was similar to that for the percentage change in SER (0.789, 95% CI 0.552 to 1.000; P = 1.000). The specificity of TLG{sub 30%} in predicting pCR was 100% (7/7) and that of SER was 71.4% (5/7). The sensitivity of TLG{sub 30%} in predicting non-pCR was 63.2% (12/19) and that of SER was 84.2% (16/19). When the combined TLG{sub 30%} and SER criterion was applied, sensitivity was 100% (19/19), and specificity was 71.4% (5/7). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI can be used to predict non-pCR after the first

  10. Advanced Imaging and Receipt of Guideline Concordant Care in Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Trice Loggers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. It is unknown whether advanced imaging (AI is associated with higher quality breast cancer (BC care. Materials and Methods. Claims and Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data were linked for women diagnosed with incident stage I-III BC between 2002 and 2008 in western Washington State. We examined receipt of preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or AI (defined as computed tomography [CT]/positron emission tomography [PET]/PET/CT versus mammogram and/or ultrasound (M-US alone and receipt of guideline concordant care (GCC using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Of 5247 women, 67% received M-US, 23% MRI, 8% CT, and 3% PET/PET-CT. In 2002, 5% received MRI and 5% AI compared to 45% and 12%, respectively, in 2008. 79% received GCC, but GCC declined over time and was associated with younger age, urban residence, less comorbidity, shorter time from diagnosis to surgery, and earlier year of diagnosis. Breast MRI was associated with GCC for lumpectomy plus radiation therapy (RT (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.08–2.26, and p=0.02 and AI was associated with GCC for adjuvant chemotherapy for estrogen-receptor positive (ER+ BC (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.59, and p=0.01. Conclusion. GCC was associated with prior receipt of breast MRI and AI for lumpectomy plus RT and adjuvant chemotherapy for ER+ BC, respectively.

  11. Causes of breast lumps (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast lumps are benign (non-cancerous), as in fibroadenoma, a condition that mostly affects women under age ... with the menstrual cycle, whereas a lump from fibroadenoma does not. While most breast lumps are benign, ...

  12. Simultaneous ECG-gated PET imaging of multiple mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Jurgen; Bernardo, Marcelino L.; Wong, Karen J.; Xu, Biying; Williams, Mark R.; Kuo, Frank; Jagoda, Elaine M.; Basuli, Falguni; Li, Changhui; Griffiths, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We describe and illustrate a method for creating ECG-gated PET images of the heart for each of several mice imaged at the same time. The method is intended to increase “throughput” in PET research studies of cardiac dynamics or to obtain information derived from such studies, e.g. tracer concentration in end-diastolic left ventricular blood. Methods: An imaging bed with provisions for warming, anesthetic delivery, etc., was fabricated by 3D printing to allow simultaneous PET imaging of two side-by-side mice. After electrode attachment, tracer injection and placement of the animals in the scanner field of view, ECG signals from each animal were continuously analyzed and independent trigger markers generated whenever an R-wave was detected in each signal. PET image data were acquired in “list” mode and these trigger markers were inserted into this list along with the image data. Since each mouse is in a different spatial location in the FOV, sorting of these data using trigger markers first from one animal and then the other yields two independent and correctly formed ECG-gated image sequences that reflect the dynamical properties of the heart during an “average” cardiac cycle. Results: The described method yields two independent ECG-gated image sequences that exhibit the expected properties in each animal, e.g. variation of the ventricular cavity volumes from maximum to minimum and back during the cardiac cycle in the processed animal with little or no variation in these volumes during the cardiac cycle in the unprocessed animal. Conclusion: ECG-gated image sequences for each of several animals can be created from a single list mode data collection using the described method. In principle, this method can be extended to more than two mice (or other animals) and to other forms of physiological gating, e.g. respiratory gating, when several subjects are imaged at the same time

  13. Improving PET spatial resolution and detectability for prostate cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, H; Guerin, L; Casey, M E; Conti, M; Eriksson, L; Michel, C; Fanti, S; Pettinato, C; Adler, S; Choyke, P

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer, one of the most common forms of cancer among men, can benefit from recent improvements in positron emission tomography (PET) technology. In particular, better spatial resolution, lower noise and higher detectability of small lesions could be greatly beneficial for early diagnosis and could provide a strong support for guiding biopsy and surgery. In this article, the impact of improved PET instrumentation with superior spatial resolution and high sensitivity are discussed, together with the latest development in PET technology: resolution recovery and time-of-flight reconstruction. Using simulated cancer lesions, inserted in clinical PET images obtained with conventional protocols, we show that visual identification of the lesions and detectability via numerical observers can already be improved using state of the art PET reconstruction methods. This was achieved using both resolution recovery and time-of-flight reconstruction, and a high resolution image with 2 mm pixel size. Channelized Hotelling numerical observers showed an increase in the area under the LROC curve from 0.52 to 0.58. In addition, a relationship between the simulated input activity and the area under the LROC curve showed that the minimum detectable activity was reduced by more than 23%. (paper)

  14. Software-based PET-MR image coregistration: combined PET-MRI for the rest of us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Matthew S.; Liu, Xinyang; Vyas, Pranav K.; Safdar, Nabile M.; Plishker, William; Zaki, George F.; Shekhar, Raj

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction of hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI), a new imaging option to acquire multimodality images with complementary anatomical and functional information has become available. Compared with hybrid PET/computed tomography (CT), hybrid PET/MRI is capable of providing superior anatomical detail while removing the radiation exposure associated with CT. The early adoption of hybrid PET/MRI, however, has been limited. To provide a viable alternative to the hybrid PET/MRI hardware by validating a software-based solution for PET-MR image coregistration. A fully automated, graphics processing unit-accelerated 3-D deformable image registration technique was used to align PET (acquired as PET/CT) and MR image pairs of 17 patients (age range: 10 months-21 years, mean: 10 years) who underwent PET/CT and body MRI (chest, abdomen or pelvis), which were performed within a 28-day (mean: 10.5 days) interval. MRI data for most of these cases included single-station post-contrast axial T1-weighted images. Following registration, maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) values observed in coregistered PET (cPET) and the original PET were compared for 82 volumes of interest. In addition, we calculated the target registration error as a measure of the quality of image coregistration, and evaluated the algorithm's performance in the context of interexpert variability. The coregistration execution time averaged 97±45 s. The overall relative SUV max difference was 7% between cPET-MRI and PET/CT. The average target registration error was 10.7±6.6 mm, which compared favorably with the typical voxel size (diagonal distance) of 8.0 mm (typical resolution: 0.66 mm x 0.66 mm x 8 mm) for MRI and 6.1 mm (typical resolution: 3.65 mm x 3.65 mm x 3.27 mm) for PET. The variability in landmark identification did not show statistically significant differences between the algorithm and a typical expert. We have presented a software

  15. Software-based PET-MR image coregistration: combined PET-MRI for the rest of us

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Matthew S.; Liu, Xinyang; Vyas, Pranav K.; Safdar, Nabile M. [Children' s National Health System, Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Washington, DC (United States); Plishker, William; Zaki, George F. [IGI Technologies, Inc., College Park, MD (United States); Shekhar, Raj [Children' s National Health System, Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Washington, DC (United States); IGI Technologies, Inc., College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-10-15

    With the introduction of hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI), a new imaging option to acquire multimodality images with complementary anatomical and functional information has become available. Compared with hybrid PET/computed tomography (CT), hybrid PET/MRI is capable of providing superior anatomical detail while removing the radiation exposure associated with CT. The early adoption of hybrid PET/MRI, however, has been limited. To provide a viable alternative to the hybrid PET/MRI hardware by validating a software-based solution for PET-MR image coregistration. A fully automated, graphics processing unit-accelerated 3-D deformable image registration technique was used to align PET (acquired as PET/CT) and MR image pairs of 17 patients (age range: 10 months-21 years, mean: 10 years) who underwent PET/CT and body MRI (chest, abdomen or pelvis), which were performed within a 28-day (mean: 10.5 days) interval. MRI data for most of these cases included single-station post-contrast axial T1-weighted images. Following registration, maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) values observed in coregistered PET (cPET) and the original PET were compared for 82 volumes of interest. In addition, we calculated the target registration error as a measure of the quality of image coregistration, and evaluated the algorithm's performance in the context of interexpert variability. The coregistration execution time averaged 97±45 s. The overall relative SUV{sub max} difference was 7% between cPET-MRI and PET/CT. The average target registration error was 10.7±6.6 mm, which compared favorably with the typical voxel size (diagonal distance) of 8.0 mm (typical resolution: 0.66 mm x 0.66 mm x 8 mm) for MRI and 6.1 mm (typical resolution: 3.65 mm x 3.65 mm x 3.27 mm) for PET. The variability in landmark identification did not show statistically significant differences between the algorithm and a typical expert. We have presented a software

  16. Initial tests of a prototype MRI-compatible PET imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Majewski, Stan; Lemieux, Susan; Velan, S. Sendhil; Kross, Brain; Popov, Vladimir; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Wojcik, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI, will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group (a collaboration of West Virginia University and Jefferson Lab) is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode with an active FOV of 5x5x4 cm 3 . Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements (2.5x2.5x15 mm 3 ) coupled through a long fiber optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel PSPMT. The fiber optic light guide is made of a glued assembly of 2 mm diameter acrylic fibers with a total length of 2.5 m. The use of a light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of the 3 T General Electric MRI scanner used in the tests. Photon attenuation in the light guides resulted in an energy resolution of ∼60% FWHM, interaction of the magnetic field with PSPMT further reduced energy resolution to ∼85% FWHM. Despite this effect, excellent multi-plane PET and MRI images of a simple disk phantom were acquired simultaneously. Future work includes improved light guides, optimized magnetic shielding for the PSPMTs, construction of specialized coils to permit high-resolution MRI imaging, and use of the system to perform simultaneous PET and MRI or MR-spectroscopy

  17. Initial tests of a prototype MRI-compatible PET imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raylman, Raymond R. [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, HSB Box 9236, Morgantown, WV (United States)]. E-mail: rraylman@wvu.edu; Majewski, Stan [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Lemieux, Susan [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, HSB Box 9236, Morgantown, WV (United States); Velan, S. Sendhil [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, HSB Box 9236, Morgantown, WV (United States); Kross, Brain [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Popov, Vladimir [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Smith, Mark F. [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Weisenberger, Andrew G. [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Wojcik, Randy [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2006-12-20

    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI, will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group (a collaboration of West Virginia University and Jefferson Lab) is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode with an active FOV of 5x5x4 cm{sup 3}. Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements (2.5x2.5x15 mm{sup 3}) coupled through a long fiber optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel PSPMT. The fiber optic light guide is made of a glued assembly of 2 mm diameter acrylic fibers with a total length of 2.5 m. The use of a light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of the 3 T General Electric MRI scanner used in the tests. Photon attenuation in the light guides resulted in an energy resolution of {approx}60% FWHM, interaction of the magnetic field with PSPMT further reduced energy resolution to {approx}85% FWHM. Despite this effect, excellent multi-plane PET and MRI images of a simple disk phantom were acquired simultaneously. Future work includes improved light guides, optimized magnetic shielding for the PSPMTs, construction of specialized coils to permit high-resolution MRI imaging, and use of the system to perform simultaneous PET and MRI or MR-spectroscopy.

  18. PET/CT and dedicated PET in breast cancer: Implications for classification, staging, and response monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, B.B.

    2013-01-01

    De PET-CT, een scan die gebruik maakt van radioactiviteit om tumoren in beeld te brengen, is een zinvol instrument voor beeldvorming van patiënten met borstkanker, met name van patiënten met een tumor groter dan drie centimeter of tumor-positieve lymfeklieren. De PET-CT is vooral van waarde voor de

  19. Automatic delineation of brain regions on MRI and PET images from the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jonas; Hansen, Hanne D; Jørgensen, Louise M

    2018-01-01

    : Manual inter-modality spatial normalization to a MRI atlas is operator-dependent, time-consuming, and can be inaccurate with lack of cortical radiotracer binding or skull uptake. NEW METHOD: A parcellated PET template that allows for automatic spatial normalization to PET images of any radiotracer....... RESULTS: MRI and [11C]Cimbi-36 PET scans obtained in sixteen pigs made the basis for the atlas. The high resolution MRI scans allowed for creation of an accurately averaged MRI template. By aligning the within-subject PET scans to their MRI counterparts, an averaged PET template was created in the same...... the MRI template with individual MRI images and 0.92±0.26mm using the PET template with individual [11C]Cimbi-36 PET images. We tested the automatic procedure by assessing eleven PET radiotracers with different kinetics and spatial distributions by using perfusion-weighted images of early PET time frames...

  20. PET imaging of adenosine A2A receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Xiaoyun

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and evaluation of [11C]preladenant as a novel radioligand for in vivo imaging of adenosine A2A receptors in the brain with positron-emission tomography (PET). The 11C-labeled drug [11C]preladenant was produced with high radiochemical yield and specific activity.

  1. FDG PET/CT imaging in canine cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Elias; McEvoy, Fintan; Engelholm, Svend Aage

    2011-01-01

    2-Deoxy-2-[¹⁸F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) is becoming increasingly available as an imaging modality in veterinary medicine. The purpose of this study was to report semiquantitative standard uptake values (SUV) of malignant and nonmalignant tissues...

  2. Image-based Modeling of PSF Deformation with Application to Limited Angle PET Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matej, Samuel; Li, Yusheng; Panetta, Joseph; Karp, Joel S.; Surti, Suleman

    2016-01-01

    The point-spread-functions (PSFs) of reconstructed images can be deformed due to detector effects such as resolution blurring and parallax error, data acquisition geometry such as insufficient sampling or limited angular coverage in dual-panel PET systems, or reconstruction imperfections/simplifications. PSF deformation decreases quantitative accuracy and its spatial variation lowers consistency of lesion uptake measurement across the imaging field-of-view (FOV). This can be a significant problem with dual panel PET systems even when using TOF data and image reconstruction models of the detector and data acquisition process. To correct for the spatially variant reconstructed PSF distortions we propose to use an image-based resolution model (IRM) that includes such image PSF deformation effects. Originally the IRM was mostly used for approximating data resolution effects of standard PET systems with full angular coverage in a computationally efficient way, but recently it was also used to mitigate effects of simplified geometric projectors. Our work goes beyond this by including into the IRM reconstruction imperfections caused by combination of the limited angle, parallax errors, and any other (residual) deformation effects and testing it for challenging dual panel data with strongly asymmetric and variable PSF deformations. We applied and tested these concepts using simulated data based on our design for a dedicated breast imaging geometry (B-PET) consisting of dual-panel, time-of-flight (TOF) detectors. We compared two image-based resolution models; i) a simple spatially invariant approximation to PSF deformation, which captures only the general PSF shape through an elongated 3D Gaussian function, and ii) a spatially variant model using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to more accurately capture the asymmetric PSF shape in images reconstructed from data acquired with the B-PET scanner geometry. Results demonstrate that while both IRMs decrease the overall uptake

  3. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT for systemic staging of patients with newly diagnosed ER-positive and HER2-positive breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulaner, Gary A.; Castillo, Raychel [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Wills, Jonathan [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Information Systems, New York, NY (United States); Goenen, Mithat; Goldman, Debra A. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States)

    2017-08-15

    This study assesses {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT for patients with newly diagnosed estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor-negative (ER+/HER2-) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-positive (HER2+) breast cancer. In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study, our Healthcare Information System was screened for patients with ER+/HER2- and HER2+ breast cancer who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT prior to systemic or radiation therapy. The initial stage was determined from mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and/or surgery.{sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT was evaluated to identify unsuspected extra-axillary regional nodal and distant metastases. The proportion of patients upstaged overall and stratified by stage and receptor phenotypes was calculated along with confidence intervals (CI). A total of 238 patients with ER+/HER2- and 245 patients with HER2+ who met inclusion criteria were evaluated. For patients with ER+/HER2-breast cancer, {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT revealed unsuspected distant metastases in 3/71 (4%) initial stage IIA, 13/95 (14%) stage IIB, and 15/57 (26%) stage III. For patients with HER2+ breast cancer, {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT revealed unsuspected distant metastases in 3/72 (4%) initial stage IIA, 13/93 (14%) stage IIB, and 13/59 (22%) stage III. The overall upstaging rate for IIB was 14% (95% confidence interval (CI): 9-20%). {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT revealed distant metastases in 14% (95% CI: 9-20%) of patients with stage IIB ER+/HER2- and HER2+ breast cancer, which is similar to upstaging rates previously seen in patients with stage IIB triple-negative breast cancer (15%, 95% CI: 9-24%). The detection of unsuspected distant metastases in these patients alters treatment and prognosis. NCCN guidelines should consider adding patients with stage IIB breast cancer for consideration of systemic staging with {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT at the time of initial diagnosis. (orig.)

  4. PET/CT in the complex estimation of the patient after breast cancer therapy - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziolkowska, E.; Lozynska-Podhrebelna, D.; Zarzycka, M.; Malkowski, B.

    2007-01-01

    The connection of positron emission tomography (PET) and computer tomography (CT) with the use of FDG is finding wider application to the diagnostics, monitoring and treatment of breast cancer. The use of PET/CT improves the effectiveness of recurrence, metastases to the bones and distant internal organs diagnostics, and in some patients outdistances the presence of lesions which in conventional diagnostic examinations are described considerably later. This work presents the case of a 50-year-old woman with diagnosed breast cancer, after surgery treatment and complementary chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There was a suspicion of local recurrence in postoperative scar (in 18 th month after finished radiotherapy) and the absence of oncocytes in cytological examination in this patient and PET/CT was performed. The recurrence in postoperative scar and signs of dissemination to the bones and the liver was shown in this examination despite the negative tumour marker profile. CT and scintigraphy were performed additionally and they confirmed only the existence of metastatic changes in S1 vertebra and VI rib on the left side. Thanks to PET/CT examination both palliative radiotherapy and chemotherapy were applied immediately. After 5 months the control PET/CT examination was performed which showed a partial response to the applied treatment. The result of the examination and further growth of CA 15-3 marker were reasons for the inclusion of the next two series of chemotherapy. Bone scintigraphy, which was performed after completion of chemotherapy, showed the progression of metastatic changes. The patient was referred for radioisotopic treatment. The introduced case confirms the suitability of PET/CT in the complex assessment of a patient with diagnosed breast cancer. The use of PET/CT is a valuable element of recurrence and dissemination in neoplasmic disease quick diagnostics and directs the ways of the optimum antineoplasmic treatment. (authors)

  5. Simultaneous PET/MRI with 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (hyperPET): phantom-based evaluation of PET quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Adam E.; Andersen, Flemming L.; Henriksen, Sarah T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Integrated PET/MRI with hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (13C-MRSI) offers simultaneous, dual-modality metabolic imaging. A prerequisite for the use of simultaneous imaging is the absence of interference between the two modalities. This has been documented...... for a clinical whole-body system using simultaneous 1 H-MRI and PET but never for 13C-MRSI and PET. Here, the feasibility of simultaneous PET and 13C-MRSI as well as hyperpolarized 13C-MRSI in an integrated whole-body PET/MRI hybrid scanner is evaluated using phantom experiments. Methods: Combined PET and 13C......-MRSI phantoms including a NEMA [18F]-FDG phantom, 13C-acetate and 13C-urea sources, and hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate were imaged repeatedly with PET and/or 13C-MRSI. Measurements evaluated for interference effects included PET activity values in the largest sphere and a background region; total number of PET...

  6. Molecular Imaging with Small Animal PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, T.; El-Ali, H.H.; Skovgaard, D.

    2011-01-01

    is also described. In addition, the non-invasive nature of molecular imaging and the targets of these promising new tracers are attractive for other research areas as well, although these fields are much less explored. We present an example of an interesting research field with the application of small......Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) and computer tomography (CT) is an emerging field in pre-clinical imaging. High quality, state-of-the-art instruments are required for full optimization of the translational value of the small animal studies with PET and CT. However...... in this field of small animal molecular imaging with special emphasis on the targets for tissue characterization in tumor biology such as hypoxia, proliferation and cancer specific over-expression of receptors. The added value of applying CT imaging for anatomical localization and tumor volume measurements...

  7. [Microdose clinical trial--impact of PET molecular imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Tsuneo; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2010-10-01

    Microdose (MD) clinical trial and exploratory IND study including sub-therapeutic dose and therapeutic dose which are higher than microdoses are expected to bring about innovations in drug development. The outlines of guidances for microdose clinical trial and ICH-M3 (R2) issued by the MHLW in June, 2008, and February, 2010, are first explained, respectively, and some examples of their application to clinical developments of therapeutic drugs in the infection and cancer fields are introduced. Especially, thanks to the progress of molecular imaging research, a new field of drug development is explored by using imaging biomarkers for efficacy or safety evaluation which visualize biomarkers by PET imaging agents. Finally, the roadmap for drug development in infection and cancer fields utilizing PET molecular imaging is discussed.

  8. Images to visualize the brain. PET: Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Diagnosis instrument and research tool, Positron Emission Tomography permits advanced technological developments on positron camera, on molecule labelling and principally on very complex 3D image processing. Cyceron Centre in Caen-France works on brain diseases and try to understand the mechanism of observed troubles and to assess the treatment efficiency with PET. Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot of CEA-France establishes a mapping of cognitive functions in PET as vision areas, anxiety regions, brain organization of language, different attention forms, voluntary actions and motor functions

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of breast imaging for 47200 women. Breast cancer was detected in 862 (1.9% patients, fibroadenoma in 1267 (2.7% patients and isolated breast cysts in 1162 (2.4% patients. Different types of fibrocystic breast disease (adenosis, diffuse fibrocystic changes, local fibrosis and others were observed in 60.1% of women. Problems of breast cancer visualization during mammography, characterized by the appearance of fibrocystic mastopathy (sclerosing adenosis, fibrous bands along the ducts have been analyzed. Data on the development of diagnostic algorithms including the modern techniques for ultrasound and interventional radiology aimed at detecting early breast cancer have been presented.  

  10. Simultaneous acquisition of multislice PET and MR images: initial results with a MR-compatible PET scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Ciprian; Wu, Yibao; Judenhofer, Martin S; Qi, Jinyi; Pichler, Bernd J; Cherry, Simon R

    2006-12-01

    PET and MRI are powerful imaging techniques that are largely complementary in the information they provide. We have designed and built a MR-compatible PET scanner based on avalanche photodiode technology that allows simultaneous acquisition of PET and MR images in small animals. The PET scanner insert uses magnetic field-insensitive, position-sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) detectors coupled, via short lengths of optical fibers, to arrays of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator crystals. The optical fibers are used to minimize electromagnetic interference between the radiofrequency and gradient coils and the PET detector system. The PET detector module components and the complete PET insert assembly are described. PET data were acquired with and without MR sequences running, and detector flood histograms were compared with the ones generated from the data acquired outside the magnet. A uniform MR phantom was also imaged to assess the effect of the PET detector on the MR data acquisition. Simultaneous PET and MRI studies of a mouse were performed ex vivo. PSAPDs can be successfully used to read out large numbers of scintillator crystals coupled through optical fibers with acceptable performance in terms of energy and timing resolution and crystal identification. The PSAPD-LSO detector performs well in the 7-T magnet, and no visible artifacts are detected in the MR images using standard pulse sequences. The first images from the complete system have been successfully acquired and reconstructed, demonstrating that simultaneous PET and MRI studies are feasible and opening up interesting possibilities for dual-modality molecular imaging studies.

  11. Development of [⁶⁴Cu]-DOTA-PR81 radioimmunoconjugate for MUC-1 positive PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alirezapour, Behrouz; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Rajabifar, Saeed; Mohammadnejad, Javad; Paknejad, Malihe; Maadi, Ehsan; Moradkhani, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer radioimmunoscintigraphy targeting MUC1 expression is a growing field of work in nuclear medicine research. PR81 is a monoclonal antibody that binds with high affinity to MUC1, which is over expressed on breast tumors. In this study, we report production, quality control and preclinical qualifications of a copper-64 labeled PR81 for PET imaging of breast cancer. PR81 was conjugated with DOTA-NHS-ester and purified by molecular filtration followed by chelate:mAb ratio determination by spectrophotometric method. DOTA-PR81 was labeled with (64)Cu followed by radiochemical purity, in vitro stability, in vitro internalization and immunoreactivity determination. The tissue biodistribution of the (64)Cu-DOTA-PR81 and (64)Cu-DOTA-hIgG was evaluated in BALB/c mice with breast carcinoma tumors using tissue counting and imaging. The radiochemical purity of radioimmunoconjugate was >95±1.9% (ITLC) (specific activity; 4.6 μCi/μg). The average number of chelators per antibody was 3.4±0.3:1. The (64)Cu-DOTA-PR81 showed immunoreactivity towards MUC1 antigen and MCF7 cell line with significant in vitro stability (>89% in PBS and 78±0.5% in human serum) over 48 h. Maximum internalized activity of radiolabeled PR81 in 4-8 h was 81.5%. The biodistribution and scintigraphy studies showed the accumulation of the complex at the site of tumors with high sensitivity and specificity compared to control probes. The results showed that (64)Cu-DOTA-PR81 may be considered as a potential PET tracer for diagnosis and follow-up of MUC1 expression in oncology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Requirements for effective functional breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, I.N.; Zawarzin, V.; Adler, L.P.; Pani, R.; DeVincentis, G.; Khalkhali, I.; Vargas, H.; Venegas, R.; Kim, S.C.; Bakale, G.; Levine, E.; Perrier, N.; Freimanis, R.I.; Lesko, N.M.; Newman, D.P.; Geisinger, K.R.; Berg, W.A.; Masood, S.

    2003-01-01

    Most nuclear medicine physicists were trained on devices aimed at functional neuroimaging. The clinical goals of brain-centered devices differ dramatically from the parameters needed to be useful in the breast clinic. We will discuss similarities and differences that impact on design considerations, and describe our latest generation of positron emission mammography and intraoperative products. - Source of physiologic contrast: Clinical neuroimaging depends on flow agents to detect the presence of breaks in the blood-brain barrier. Breast flow agents are nonspecific, and may miss preinvasive lesions. - Resolution: Brain cancers are generally diagnosed at late stages, so resolution is not so critical. Detecting early breast cancers, and specifying margins for surgery requires 3 mm spatial resolution or better. - Prevalence: Primary brain cancer is uncommon, and lesions mimicking brain cancer are rare. Primary breast cancer is common, and benign lesions are even more common, so specificity and biopsy capability are very important. - Anatomic references: Brain structure is standard, while breast structure is highly variable, requiring immobilization/compression for physiologic imaging and biopsy. - Surgery: Complete cancer resections for brain are very rare, but are possible for breast with appropriate imaging guidance, implying the need for rapid and reliable imaging. To summarize, the breast clinic needs a rapid and highly sensitive method of assessing breast physiology, compatible with biopsy and surgery. Positron emission mammography devices, in handheld and X-ray platform based configurations, are ideal for this mission

  13. Comparison of the diagnostic value of FDG-PET/CT and axillary ultrasound for the detection of lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riegger, Carolin; Heusner, Till A.; Koeninger, Angela; Kimmig, Rainer; Hartung, Verena; Bockisch, Andreas; Otterbach, Friedrich; Forsting, Michael; Antoch, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Background. FDG-PET/CT is increasingly being used for breast cancer staging. Its diagnostic accuracy in comparison to ultrasound as the standard non-invasive imaging modality for the evaluation of axillary lymph nodes has yet not been evaluated. Purpose. To retrospectively compare the diagnostic value of full-dose, intravenously contrast-enhanced FDG-PET/CT and ultrasound for the detection of lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients. Material and Methods. Ninety patients (one patient with a bilateral carcinoma) (89 women, one man; mean age, 55.5 ± 16.6 years) suffering from primary breast cancer underwent whole-body FDG-PET/CT and axillary ultrasound. The ipsilateral axillary fossa (n = 91) was evaluated for metastatic spread. The sensitivity, specificity, the positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of both methods were calculated. The sensitivity and accuracy were statistically compared using the McNemar Test (P <0.05). Analyses were made on a patient basis. The number of patients with extra-axillary locoregional lymph node metastases exclusively detected by FDG-PET/CT was evaluated. For axillary lymph node metastases histopathology served as the reference standard. Results. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of FDG-PET/CT for the detection of axillary lymph node metastases were 54%, 89%, 77%, 74%, and 75%, respectively. For ultrasound it was 38%, 78%, 54%, 65%, and 62%, respectively. FDG-PET/CT was significantly more accurate than ultrasound for the detection of axillary lymph node metastases (P = 0.019). There was no statistically significant difference between the sensitivity of both modalities (P = 0.0578). FDG-PET/CT detected extra-axillary locoregional lymph node metastases in seven patients (8%) that had not been detected by another imaging modality. Conclusion. Though more accurate compared to ultrasound for evaluating the axillary lymph node status FDG-PET/CT is only as sensitive as

  14. Predicting standard-dose PET image from low-dose PET and multimodal MR images using mapping-based sparse representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan; Zhou, Jiliu; Zhang, Pei; An, Le; Ma, Guangkai; Kang, Jiayin; Shi, Feng; Shen, Dinggang; Wu, Xi; Lalush, David S; Lin, Weili

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been widely used in clinical diagnosis for diseases and disorders. To obtain high-quality PET images requires a standard-dose radionuclide (tracer) injection into the human body, which inevitably increases risk of radiation exposure. One possible solution to this problem is to predict the standard-dose PET image from its low-dose counterpart and its corresponding multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) images. Inspired by the success of patch-based sparse representation (SR) in super-resolution image reconstruction, we propose a mapping-based SR (m-SR) framework for standard-dose PET image prediction. Compared with the conventional patch-based SR, our method uses a mapping strategy to ensure that the sparse coefficients, estimated from the multimodal MR images and low-dose PET image, can be applied directly to the prediction of standard-dose PET image. As the mapping between multimodal MR images (or low-dose PET image) and standard-dose PET images can be particularly complex, one step of mapping is often insufficient. To this end, an incremental refinement framework is therefore proposed. Specifically, the predicted standard-dose PET image is further mapped to the target standard-dose PET image, and then the SR is performed again to predict a new standard-dose PET image. This procedure can be repeated for prediction refinement of the iterations. Also, a patch selection based dictionary construction method is further used to speed up the prediction process. The proposed method is validated on a human brain dataset. The experimental results show that our method can outperform benchmark methods in both qualitative and quantitative measures. (paper)

  15. Imaging of sigma receptors in tumors by PET with [C-11]SA4503

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Oda, K.; Ishiwata, K.; Kubota, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Sigma receptors are implicated in some diseases in the central nervous system (CNS), such as schizophrenia, depression, dementia and ischemia, and are also expressed in a variety of human tumors, such as melanoma, carcinoma of the breast, lung and prostate, and the brain tumor. Therefore, several radioligands have been proposed for imaging of sigma receptors by positron emission tomography (PET) and by single photon emission computed tomography. Recently, we have applied [C-11]labeled 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine ([C-11]SA4503) to mapping sigma1 receptors in the brain of monkeys and human. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of the [C-11]SA4503 PET for imaging of sigma receptors using the AH109A bearing rats, and the VX-2 carcinoma bearing rabbits. Materials and Methods: [C-11]SA4503 was injected i.v. into AH109A bearing rats, and the tissue distribution was measured by tissue dissection. To determine the receptor-specific uptake, cold SA4503 or haloperidol was co-injected into the other group of rats. The PET scanning were performed in the rats in the baseline condition and after pretreatment with haloperidol. In the VX-2 carcinoma bearing rabbits, PET scanning was also performed in the baseline and blockade conditions. The sigma receptors in the AH109A and VX-2 were measured in vitro by the standard membrane binding assays. Results: The sigma receptors were found in AH109A and VX-2. The density was much higher in VX-2 than in AH109A. In the tissue dissection study, the AH109A uptake of [C-11]SA4503 increased for 60 min after injection. By the co-injection of SA4503 or haloperidol, the AH109A uptake was enhanced. The PET study also confirmed that the radioactivity level in the AH109A was enhanced by the pretreatment with haloperidol. On the other hand, In the VX-2 carcinoma bearing rabbits, the radioactivity level of in VX-2 remained constant after initial uptake in the baseline PET measurement, but the VX-2 uptake was

  16. Optimization for PET imaging based on phantom study and NECdensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Shimada, Naoki; Shinohara, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    In consideration of the requirement for global standardization and quality control of PET imaging, the present studies gave an outline of phantom study to decide both scan and reconstruction parameters based on FDG-PET/CT procedure guideline in Japan, and optimization of scan duration based on NEC density was performed continuously. In the phantom study, scan and reconstruction parameters were decided by visual assessment and physical indexes (N 10mm , NEC phantom , Q H,10mm /N 10mm ) to visualize hot spot of 10 mm diameter with standardized uptake value (SUV)=4 explicitly. Simultaneously, Recovery Coefficient (RC) was evaluated to recognize that PET images had enough quantifiably. Scan durations were optimized by Body Mass Index (BMI) based on retrospective analysis of NEC density . Correlation between visual score in clinical FDG-PET images and NEC density fell after the optimization of scan duration. Both Inter-institution and inter-patient variability were decreased by performing the phantom study based on the procedure guideline and the optimization of scan duration based on NEC density which seem finally useful to practice highly precise examination and promote high-quality controlled study. (author)

  17. Dynamic comparison of PET imaging performance between state-of-the-art ToF-PET/CT and ToF-PET/MR scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delso, Gaspar; Deller, Tim; Khalighi, Mehdi; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Schulthess, Gustav von

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present work was to determine the potential for dose reduction in a new clinical ToF-PET/MR scanner. This was achieved by means of long dynamic phantom acquisitions designed to provide a fair comparison of image quality and lesion detectability, as a function of activity, between the new PET/MR system and a state-of-the art PET/CT.

  18. New SPECT and PET Radiopharmaceuticals for Imaging Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyebola O. Sogbein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear cardiology has experienced exponential growth within the past four decades with converging capacity to diagnose and influence management of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI with technetium-99m radiotracers or thallium-201 has dominated the field; however new hardware and software designs that optimize image quality with reduced radiation exposure are fuelling a resurgence of interest at the preclinical and clinical levels to expand beyond MPI. Other imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI continue to emerge as powerful players with an expanded capacity to diagnose a variety of cardiac conditions. At the forefront of this resurgence is the development of novel target vectors based on an enhanced understanding of the underlying pathophysiological process in the subcellular domain. Molecular imaging with novel radiopharmaceuticals engineered to target a specific subcellular process has the capacity to improve diagnostic accuracy and deliver enhanced prognostic information to alter management. This paper, while not comprehensive, will review the recent advancements in radiotracer development for SPECT and PET MPI, autonomic dysfunction, apoptosis, atherosclerotic plaques, metabolism, and viability. The relevant radiochemistry and preclinical and clinical development in addition to molecular imaging with emerging modalities such as cardiac MRI and PET-MR will be discussed.

  19. Dynamic PET Image reconstruction for parametric imaging using the HYPR kernel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Benjamin; Qi, Jinyi; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Wang, Guobao

    2017-03-01

    Dynamic PET image reconstruction is a challenging problem because of the ill-conditioned nature of PET and the lowcounting statistics resulted from short time-frames in dynamic imaging. The kernel method for image reconstruction has been developed to improve image reconstruction of low-count PET data by incorporating prior information derived from high-count composite data. In contrast to most of the existing regularization-based methods, the kernel method embeds image prior information in the forward projection model and does not require an explicit regularization term in the reconstruction formula. Inspired by the existing highly constrained back-projection (HYPR) algorithm for dynamic PET image denoising, we propose in this work a new type of kernel that is simpler to implement and further improves the kernel-based dynamic PET image reconstruction. Our evaluation study using a physical phantom scan with synthetic FDG tracer kinetics has demonstrated that the new HYPR kernel-based reconstruction can achieve a better region-of-interest (ROI) bias versus standard deviation trade-off for dynamic PET parametric imaging than the post-reconstruction HYPR denoising method and the previously used nonlocal-means kernel.

  20. Reproducibility of Quantitative Brain Imaging Using a PET-Only and a Combined PET/MR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L. Lassen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of migrating a quantitative brain imaging protocol from a positron emission tomography (PET-only system to an integrated PET/MR system. Potential differences in both absolute radiotracer concentration as well as in the derived kinetic parameters as a function of PET system choice have been investigated. Five healthy volunteers underwent dynamic (R-[11C]verapamil imaging on the same day using a GE-Advance (PET-only and a Siemens Biograph mMR system (PET/MR. PET-emission data were reconstructed using a transmission-based attenuation correction (AC map (PET-only, whereas a standard MR-DIXON as well as a low-dose CT AC map was applied to PET/MR emission data. Kinetic modeling based on arterial blood sampling was performed using a 1-tissue-2-rate constant compartment model, yielding kinetic parameters (K1 and k2 and distribution volume (VT. Differences for parametric values obtained in the PET-only and the PET/MR systems were analyzed using a 2-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Comparison of DIXON-based AC (PET/MR with emission data derived from the PET-only system revealed average inter-system differences of −33 ± 14% (p < 0.05 for the K1 parameter and −19 ± 9% (p < 0.05 for k2. Using a CT-based AC for PET/MR resulted in slightly lower systematic differences of −16 ± 18% for K1 and −9 ± 10% for k2. The average differences in VT were −18 ± 10% (p < 0.05 for DIXON- and −8 ± 13% for CT-based AC. Significant systematic differences were observed for kinetic parameters derived from emission data obtained from PET/MR and PET-only imaging due to different standard AC methods employed. Therefore, a transfer of imaging protocols from PET-only to PET/MR systems is not straightforward without application of proper correction methods.Clinical Trial Registration:www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu, identifier 2013-001724-19

  1. From 2D PET to 3D PET. Issues of data representation and image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundlich, B.; Musmann, P.; Weber, S.; Nix, O.; Semmler, W.

    2006-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET), intrinsically a 3D imaging technique, was for a long time exclusively operated in 2D mode, using septa to shield the detectors from photons emitted obliquely to the detector planes. However, the use of septa results in a considerable loss of sensitivity. From the late 1980s, significant efforts have been made to develop a methodology for the acquisition and reconstruction of 3D PET data. This paper focuses on the differences between data acquisition in 2D and 3D mode, especially in terms of data set sizes and representation. Although the real time data acquisition aspect in 3D has been mostly solved in modern PET scanner systems, there still remain questions on how to represent and how to make best use of the information contained in the acquired data sets. Data representation methods, such as list-mode and matrix-based methods, possibly with additional compression, will be discussed. Moving from 2D to 3D PET has major implications on the way these data are reconstructed to images. Two fundamentally different approaches exist, the analytical one and the iterative one. Both, at different expenses, can be extended to directly handle 3D data sets. Either way the computational burden increases heavily compared to 2D reconstruction. One possibility to benefit from the increased sensitivity in 3D PET while sticking to high-performance 2D reconstruction algorithms is to rebin 3D into 2D data sets. The value of data rebinning will be explored. An ever increasing computing power and the concept of distributed or parallel computing have made direct 3D reconstruction feasible. Following a short review of reconstruction methods and their extensions to 3D, we focus on numerical aspects that improve reconstruction performance, which is especially important in solving large equation systems in 3D iterative reconstruction. Finally exemplary results are shown to review the properties of the discussed algorithms. (orig.)

  2. Lung tumor segmentation in PET images using graph cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballangan, Cherry; Wang, Xiuying; Fulham, Michael; Eberl, Stefan; Feng, David Dagan

    2013-03-01

    The aim of segmentation of tumor regions in positron emission tomography (PET) is to provide more accurate measurements of tumor size and extension into adjacent structures, than is possible with visual assessment alone and hence improve patient management decisions. We propose a segmentation energy function for the graph cuts technique to improve lung tumor segmentation with PET. Our segmentation energy is based on an analysis of the tumor voxels in PET images combined with a standardized uptake value (SUV) cost function and a monotonic downhill SUV feature. The monotonic downhill feature avoids segmentation leakage into surrounding tissues with similar or higher PET tracer uptake than the tumor and the SUV cost function improves the boundary definition and also addresses situations where the lung tumor is heterogeneous. We evaluated the method in 42 clinical PET volumes from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our method improves segmentation and performs better than region growing approaches, the watershed technique, fuzzy-c-means, region-based active contour and tumor customized downhill. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Imaging results and TOF studies with axial PET detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joram, Christian

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a fully operational PET demonstrator setup which allows true 3D reconstruction of the 511 keV photons and therefore leads to practically parallax free images. The AX-PET concept is based on thin 100 mm long scintillation crystals (LYSO), axially oriented and arranged in layers around the field of view. Layers of wavelength shifting plastic strips mounted in between the crystal layers give the axial coordinate. Both crystals and WLS strips are individually read out by G-APD (SiPM) photodetectors. The fully scalable concept overcomes the dilemma of sensitivity versus spatial resolution which is inherent to classical PET designs. A demonstrator set-up based on two axial modules was exhaustively characterized using point-like sources, phantoms filled with radiotracer and finally rats and a mouse. The results entirely meet the performance expectations (PET concept making use of the novel digital SiPM detectors by Philips. After reproducing comparable energy and spatial resolution on a small digital AX-PET set-up with 100 mm long crystals, we demonstrated a coincidence resolving time of about 210 ps FWHM.

  4. Metastatic Brachial Plexopathy in a Case of Recurrent Breast Carcinoma Demonstrated on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Das, Chandan J.; Srivastava, Anurag; Bal, ChandraSekhar; Malhotra, Arun [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2014-03-15

    This case highlights the importance of recognition of the pattern of metastatic brachialplexopathy in breast cancer patients undergoing {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for evaluation of recurrent disease.This pattern can be appreciated on maximum intensity projection (MIP) and coronal {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images as a linear extension of tracer activity from superomedial aspect(supra/infraclavicular) to lateral aspect of the axilla closely related to the subclavian/axillary vessels). A 35-year-old woman diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast had undergone six cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by wide local incision and radiotherapy. She had local recurrence, for which she was operated upon and given chemotherapy. She presented to her oncologist with pain and swelling in the right breast, nodules in the right axilla and restriction of movement of the right upper limb. The patient was referred for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT to evaluate the extent of recurrent/metastatic disease. Whole-body PET/CT was acquired 1 h following the intravenous injection of 296 MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG on a Biograph mCT scanner (Siemens). Evaluation of the MIP image revealed abnormal FDG accumulation at multiple sites in the thorax, along with a linear pattern of FDG uptake in the right lateral aspect of the upper chest (Fig. 1a, arrow). The coronal fused PET/CT image revealed a linear pattern of FDG uptake corresponding to an ill-defined mass extending from just behind the right clavicle into the right axilla (arrow). In addition, abnormal FDG accumulation was seen in a soft tissue density mass in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast, skin of the right breast laterally, both pectoral muscles (discrete foci) and in a few subpectoral nodes. Soft tissue nodular opacities in both lungs showed FDG accumulation suggestive of pulmonary metastasis (Fig. 1b, thick arrow). The patient was

  5. Metastatic Brachial Plexopathy in a Case of Recurrent Breast Carcinoma Demonstrated on 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Das, Chandan J.; Srivastava, Anurag; Bal, ChandraSekhar; Malhotra, Arun

    2014-01-01

    This case highlights the importance of recognition of the pattern of metastatic brachialplexopathy in breast cancer patients undergoing 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for evaluation of recurrent disease.This pattern can be appreciated on maximum intensity projection (MIP) and coronal 18 F-FDG PET/CT images as a linear extension of tracer activity from superomedial aspect(supra/infraclavicular) to lateral aspect of the axilla closely related to the subclavian/axillary vessels). A 35-year-old woman diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast had undergone six cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by wide local incision and radiotherapy. She had local recurrence, for which she was operated upon and given chemotherapy. She presented to her oncologist with pain and swelling in the right breast, nodules in the right axilla and restriction of movement of the right upper limb. The patient was referred for 18 F-FDG PET/CT to evaluate the extent of recurrent/metastatic disease. Whole-body PET/CT was acquired 1 h following the intravenous injection of 296 MBq of 18 F-FDG on a Biograph mCT scanner (Siemens). Evaluation of the MIP image revealed abnormal FDG accumulation at multiple sites in the thorax, along with a linear pattern of FDG uptake in the right lateral aspect of the upper chest (Fig. 1a, arrow). The coronal fused PET/CT image revealed a linear pattern of FDG uptake corresponding to an ill-defined mass extending from just behind the right clavicle into the right axilla (arrow). In addition, abnormal FDG accumulation was seen in a soft tissue density mass in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast, skin of the right breast laterally, both pectoral muscles (discrete foci) and in a few subpectoral nodes. Soft tissue nodular opacities in both lungs showed FDG accumulation suggestive of pulmonary metastasis (Fig. 1b, thick arrow). The patient was referred for magnetic

  6. A phantom design for assessment of detectability in PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenweber, Scott D.; Alessio, Adam M.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The primary clinical role of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is the detection of anomalous regions of 18 F-FDG uptake, which are often indicative of malignant lesions. The goal of this work was to create a task-configurable fillable phantom for realistic measurements of detectability in PET imaging. Design goals included simplicity, adjustable feature size, realistic size and contrast levels, and inclusion of a lumpy (i.e., heterogeneous) background. Methods: The detection targets were hollow 3D-printed dodecahedral nylon features. The exostructure sphere-like features created voids in a background of small, solid non-porous plastic (acrylic) spheres inside a fillable tank. The features filled at full concentration while the background concentration was reduced due to filling only between the solid spheres. Results: Multiple iterations of feature size and phantom construction were used to determine a configuration at the limit of detectability for a PET/CT system. A full-scale design used a 20 cm uniform cylinder (head-size) filled with a fixed pattern of features at a contrast of approximately 3:1. Known signal-present and signal-absent PET sub-images were extracted from multiple scans of the same phantom and with detectability in a challenging (i.e., useful) range. These images enabled calculation and comparison of the quantitative observer detectability metrics between scanner designs and image reconstruction methods. The phantom design has several advantages including filling simplicity, wall-less contrast features, the control of the detectability range via feature size, and a clinically realistic lumpy background. Conclusions: This phantom provides a practical method for testing and comparison of lesion detectability as a function of imaging system, acquisition parameters, and image reconstruction methods and parameters.

  7. The effect, identification and correction of misalignment between PET transmission and emission scans on brain PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangsong; He Zuoxiang; Tang Anwu; Qiao Suixian

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of misalignment between PET transmission and emission scans of brain on brain PET imaging, and the Methods to identify and correct it. Methods: 18F-FDG PET imaging was performed on 8 volunteers. The emission images were reconstructed with attenuation correction after some translations and rotations in the x-axis and transverse plane were given, 1 mm and 1 degree each step, respectively. The 3-D volume fusion of PET emission and transmission scans was used to identify the suspected misalignment on 10 18F-FDG PET brain imaging. Three Methods were used to correct the misalignment. First, to quantitate the amount of the misalignment by 3-D volume registration of PET emission and transmission scans, the emission images were reconstructed with corrected translations and rotations in x-direction and transverse plane. Second, the emission images were reconstructed with mathematic calculation of brain attenuation. Third, 18F-FDG PET brain imaging was redone with careful application of laser alignment. Results: The translations greater than 3 mm in x-direction and the rotations greater than 8 degrees in transverse plane could lead to visible artifacts, which were presented with decreasing radioactivity uptake in the cortex of half cerebrum and in the frontal cortex at the side in the translating or rotating direction, respectively. The 3-D volume fusion of PET emission and transmission scans could identify and quantitate the amount of misalignment between PET emission and transmission scans of brain. The PET emission images reconstructed with corrected misalignment and mathematic calculation of brain attenuation were consistent with redone PET brain imaging. Conclusions: The misalignment between PET transmission and emission scans of brain can lead to visible artifacts. The 3-D volume fusion of PET emission and transmission scans can identify and quantitate the amount of the misalignment. The visible artifacts caused by the misalignment can be

  8. Design study of a high-resolution breast-dedicated PET system built from cadmium zinc telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Hao; Levin, Craig S

    2010-01-01

    We studied the performance of a dual-panel positron emission tomography (PET) camera dedicated to breast cancer imaging using Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed system consists of two 4 cm thick 12 x 15 cm 2 area cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) panels with adjustable separation, which can be put in close proximity to the breast and/or axillary nodes. Unique characteristics distinguishing the proposed system from previous efforts in breast-dedicated PET instrumentation are the deployment of CZT detectors with superior spatial and energy resolution, using a cross-strip electrode readout scheme to enable 3D positioning of individual photon interaction coordinates in the CZT, which includes directly measured photon depth-of-interaction (DOI), and arranging the detector slabs edge-on with respect to incoming 511 keV photons for high photon sensitivity. The simulation results show that the proposed CZT dual-panel PET system is able to achieve superior performance in terms of photon sensitivity, noise equivalent count rate, spatial resolution and lesion visualization. The proposed system is expected to achieve ∼32% photon sensitivity for a point source at the center and a 4 cm panel separation. For a simplified breast phantom adjacent to heart and torso compartments, the peak noise equivalent count (NEC) rate is predicted to be ∼94.2 kcts s -1 (breast volume: 720 cm 3 and activity concentration: 3.7 kBq cm -3 ) for a ∼10% energy window around 511 keV and ∼8 ns coincidence time window. The system achieves 1 mm intrinsic spatial resolution anywhere between the two panels with a 4 cm panel separation if the detectors have DOI resolution less than 2 mm. For a 3 mm DOI resolution, the system exhibits excellent sphere resolution uniformity (σ rms /mean) ≤ 10%) across a 4 cm width FOV. Simulation results indicate that the system exhibits superior hot sphere visualization and is expected to visualize 2 mm diameter spheres with a 5:1 activity concentration ratio within

  9. Automated movement correction for dynamic PET/CT images: evaluation with phantom and patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hu; Wong, Koon-Pong; Wardak, Mirwais; Dahlbom, Magnus; Kepe, Vladimir; Barrio, Jorge R; Nelson, Linda D; Small, Gary W; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Head movement during a dynamic brain PET/CT imaging results in mismatch between CT and dynamic PET images. It can cause artifacts in CT-based attenuation corrected PET images, thus affecting both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the dynamic PET images and the derived parametric images. In this study, we developed an automated retrospective image-based movement correction (MC) procedure. The MC method first registered the CT image to each dynamic PET frames, then re-reconstructed the PET frames with CT-based attenuation correction, and finally re-aligned all the PET frames to the same position. We evaluated the MC method's performance on the Hoffman phantom and dynamic FDDNP and FDG PET/CT images of patients with neurodegenerative disease or with poor compliance. Dynamic FDDNP PET/CT images (65 min) were obtained from 12 patients and dynamic FDG PET/CT images (60 min) were obtained from 6 patients. Logan analysis with cerebellum as the reference region was used to generate regional distribution volume ratio (DVR) for FDDNP scan before and after MC. For FDG studies, the image derived input function was used to generate parametric image of FDG uptake constant (Ki) before and after MC. Phantom study showed high accuracy of registration between PET and CT and improved PET images after MC. In patient study, head movement was observed in all subjects, especially in late PET frames with an average displacement of 6.92 mm. The z-direction translation (average maximum = 5.32 mm) and x-axis rotation (average maximum = 5.19 degrees) occurred most frequently. Image artifacts were significantly diminished after MC. There were significant differences (Pdynamic brain FDDNP and FDG PET/CT scans could improve the qualitative and quantitative aspects of images of both tracers.

  10. Simultaneous PET/MR imaging in a human brain PET/MR system in 50 patients—Current state of image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenzer, N.F.; Stegger, L.; Bisdas, S.; Schraml, C.; Kolb, A.; Boss, A.; Müller, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present work illustrates the current state of image quality and diagnostic accuracy in a new hybrid BrainPET/MR. Materials and methods: 50 patients with intracranial masses, head and upper neck tumors or neurodegenerative diseases were examined with a hybrid BrainPET/MR consisting of a conventional 3T MR system and an MR-compatible PET insert. Directly before PET/MR, all patients underwent a PET/CT examination with either [ 18 F]-FDG, [ 11 C]-methionine or [ 68 Ga]-DOTATOC. In addition to anatomical MR scans, functional sequences were performed including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), arterial spin labeling (ASL) and proton-spectroscopy. Image quality score of MR imaging was evaluated using a 4-point-scale. PET data quality was assessed by evaluating FDG-uptake and tumor delineation with [ 11 C]-methionine and [ 68 Ga]-DOTATOC. FDG uptake quantification accuracy was evaluated by means of ROI analysis (right and left frontal and temporo-occipital lobes). The asymmetry indices and ratios between frontal and occipital ROIs were compared. Results: In 45/50 patients, PET/MR examination was successful. Visual analysis revealed a diagnostic image quality of anatomical MR imaging (mean quality score T2 FSE: 1.27 ± 0.54; FLAIR: 1.38 ± 0.61). ASL and proton-spectroscopy was possible in all cases. In DTI, dental artifacts lead to one non-diagnostic dataset (mean quality score DTI: 1.32 ± 0.69; ASL: 1.10 ± 0.31). PET datasets of PET/MR and PET/CT offered comparable tumor delineation with [ 11 C]-methionine; additional lesions were found in 2/8 [ 68 Ga]-DOTATOC-PET in the PET/MR. Mean asymmetry index revealed a high accordance between PET/MR and PET/CT (1.5 ± 2.2% vs. 0.9 ± 3.6%; mean ratio (frontal/parieto-occipital) 0.93 ± 0.08 vs. 0.96 ± 0.05), respectively. Conclusions: The hybrid BrainPET/MR allows for molecular, anatomical and functional imaging with uncompromised MR image quality and a high accordance of PET results between PET/MR and PET

  11. Simultaneous PET/MR imaging in a human brain PET/MR system in 50 patients-Current state of image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenzer, N.F., E-mail: nina.schwenzer@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Stegger, L., E-mail: stegger@gmx.net [Department of Nuclear Medicine and European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Bisdas, S., E-mail: sbisdas@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Schraml, C., E-mail: christina.schraml@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Kolb, A., E-mail: armin.kolb@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Laboratory for Preclinical Imaging and Imaging Technology of the Werner Siemens-Foundation, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Boss, A., E-mail: Andreas.Boss@usz.ch [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Mueller, M., E-mail: mark.mueller@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); and others

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: The present work illustrates the current state of image quality and diagnostic accuracy in a new hybrid BrainPET/MR. Materials and methods: 50 patients with intracranial masses, head and upper neck tumors or neurodegenerative diseases were examined with a hybrid BrainPET/MR consisting of a conventional 3T MR system and an MR-compatible PET insert. Directly before PET/MR, all patients underwent a PET/CT examination with either [{sup 18}F]-FDG, [{sup 11}C]-methionine or [{sup 68}Ga]-DOTATOC. In addition to anatomical MR scans, functional sequences were performed including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), arterial spin labeling (ASL) and proton-spectroscopy. Image quality score of MR imaging was evaluated using a 4-point-scale. PET data quality was assessed by evaluating FDG-uptake and tumor delineation with [{sup 11}C]-methionine and [{sup 68}Ga]-DOTATOC. FDG uptake quantification accuracy was evaluated by means of ROI analysis (right and left frontal and temporo-occipital lobes). The asymmetry indices and ratios between frontal and occipital ROIs were compared. Results: In 45/50 patients, PET/MR examination was successful. Visual analysis revealed a diagnostic image quality of anatomical MR imaging (mean quality score T2 FSE: 1.27 {+-} 0.54; FLAIR: 1.38 {+-} 0.61). ASL and proton-spectroscopy was possible in all cases. In DTI, dental artifacts lead to one non-diagnostic dataset (mean quality score DTI: 1.32 {+-} 0.69; ASL: 1.10 {+-} 0.31). PET datasets of PET/MR and PET/CT offered comparable tumor delineation with [{sup 11}C]-methionine; additional lesions were found in 2/8 [{sup 68}Ga]-DOTATOC-PET in the PET/MR. Mean asymmetry index revealed a high accordance between PET/MR and PET/CT (1.5 {+-} 2.2% vs. 0.9 {+-} 3.6%; mean ratio (frontal/parieto-occipital) 0.93 {+-} 0.08 vs. 0.96 {+-} 0.05), respectively. Conclusions: The hybrid BrainPET/MR allows for molecular, anatomical and functional imaging with uncompromised MR image quality and a high accordance

  12. CT, PET and MR-Imaging in experimental baromedical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper

    Pa pressurisation, and repeatedly after 500 kPa/min decompression. After MRI, venous bubble development was monitored using ultrasound. Second, preclinical μCT, PET/MRI, and high-field 9.4 T MR-Imaging systems evaluated changes in cerebral standard uptake value (SUV) of F-FDG, changes in cerebral blood flow (delta...... it is intrinsically difficult to study humans or animals inside a pressure chamber. We have developed a preclinical pressure chamber system compatible with CT, PET and MR-imaging during pressurisation up to 1.013 mPa, which allows for anatomical visualisations and measurements of certain physiological processes...... in vivo during pressurisation. Material and methods: Anaesthetised rats (simulated diving and control groups) underwent the following imaging protocols: First, a 3T clinical MRI-system was employed to evaluate in vivo cerebral relaxation parameters (T1, T2 and T2*). MRI was performed before, during 709 k...

  13. PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiachuan; Zhang, Hong [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang University, Medical PET Center, Hangzhou (China); Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou (China); Tian, Mei [University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Human neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis are caused by loss of different types of neurons and glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. At present, there are no effective therapies against these disorders. Discovery of the therapeutic potential of stem cells offers new strategies for the treatment of neurological diseases. Direct assessment of stem cells' survival, interaction with the host and impact on neuronal functions after transplantation requires advanced in vivo imaging techniques. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a potential molecular imaging modality to evaluate the viability and function of transplanted tissue or stem cells in the nervous system. This review focuses on PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases. (orig.)

  14. PET imaging biomarkers in head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Differding, Sarah; Gregoire, Vincent [Universite Catholique de Louvain, St-Luc University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, and Center for Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology (MIRO), Institut de Recherche Experimentale et Clinique (IREC), Brussels (Belgium); Hanin, Francois-Xavier [Universite Catholique de Louvain, St-Luc University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, and Center for Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology (MIRO), Institut de Recherche Experimentale et Clinique (IREC), Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-04-01

    In locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the role of imaging becomes more and more critical in the management process. In this framework, molecular imaging techniques such as PET allow noninvasive assessment of a range of tumour biomarkers such as metabolism, hypoxia and proliferation, which can serve different purposes. First, in a pretreatment setting they can influence therapy selection strategies and target delineation for radiation therapy. Second, their predictive and/or prognostic value could help enhance the therapeutic ratio in the management of HNSCC. Third, treatment modification can be performed through the generation of a molecular-based heterogeneous dose distribution with dose escalation to the most resistant parts of the tumour, a concept known as dose painting. Fourth, they are increasingly becoming a tool for monitoring response to therapy. In this review, PET imaging biomarkers used in the routine management of HNSCC or under investigation are discussed. (orig.)

  15. PET-CMR in heart failure - synergistic or redundant imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quail, Michael A; Sinusas, Albert J

    2017-07-01

    Imaging in heart failure (HF) provides data for diagnosis, prognosis and disease monitoring. Both MRI and nuclear imaging techniques have been successfully used for this purpose in HF. Positron Emission Tomography-Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (PET-CMR) is an example of a new multimodality diagnostic imaging technique with potential applications in HF. The threshold for adopting a new diagnostic tool to clinical practice must necessarily be high, lest they exacerbate costs without improving care. New modalities must demonstrate clinical superiority, or at least equivalence, combined with another important advantage, such as lower cost or improved patient safety. The purpose of this review is to outline the current status of multimodality PET-CMR with regard to HF applications, and determine whether the clinical utility of this new technology justifies the cost.

  16. Comparative analysis of PET/CT and PET/MR image characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma%对比分析头颈部鳞状细胞癌PET/CT与PET/MR特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白乐; 程勇; 唐勇进; 凌雪英

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate PET/CT and PET/MR characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).Methods Totally 40 patients with HNSCC underwent whole body 18F-FDG PET/CT and MR scans of head and neck before anti-tumor treatment.PET positive lesions of HNSCC,including primary lesions and lymph nodes were evaluated by 2 radiologists independently.Then the imaging quality,fusion quality,lesion conspicuity and lesion characteristics were assessed based on PET/CT,PET/MR T1WI and PET/MR T2WI.Results Ninety PET positive lesions in all 40patients were evaluated,including 40 primary lesions and 50 lymph nodes.Similar imaging quality and fusion quality of PET/CT,PET/MR T1WI and PET/MR T2WI were obtained without statistical difference (both P>0.05).For the lesion conspicuity,PET/MR T1WI and PET/MR T2WI demonstrated significantly better than PET/CT in positive primary lesions and lymph nodes (all P<0.05).For the characteristics of positive primary lesions,PET/MR T2WI provided more information than PET/CT in 29 lesions,equal to PET/CT in 4 lesions,and less than PET/CT in 7 lesions.Conclusion The application of PET/MR in HNSCC is feasible,being superior to PET/CT in indication of lesions in head and neck area.%目的 探讨头颈部鳞状细胞癌(HNSCC)的PET/CT及PET/MR特征.方法 纳入未经抗肿瘤治疗的头颈部鳞状细胞癌患者40例,所有患者均接受PET/CT及头颈部MR检查.由2名观察者独立观察PET阳性病灶,包括阳性原发灶及阳性淋巴结;并对PET/CT、PET/MR T1WI及PET/MR T2WI的图像质量、融合准确度、病灶清晰度、病灶特征等进行评分.分析2名观察者间的一致性.结果 40例患者共90个PET阳性病灶,包括阳性原发灶40个、阳性淋巴结50个.PET/CT、PET/MR T1WI及PET/MR T2WI在图像质量及融合准确度方面差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05);在显示阳性原发灶及阳性淋巴结的清晰度方面,PET/MR T1WI及PET/MR T2WI均优于PET/CT(P均<0.05).40个阳性原发灶中,PET

  17. Breast cancer staging with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smathers, R.L.; D'Amelio, F.; Stockdale, F.

    1989-01-01

    Forty-three patients with biopsy-proved breast cancer underwent MR staging of the cervicothoracic spine, lumbosacral spine, liver, and thorax. In all cases, these findings have been compared with the results of clinical staging, laboratory tests, chest radiography, and radionuclide bone scanning. MR imaging was a valuable staging tool for patients with more than minimal breast cancer and indications for radionuclide bone scanning. MR imaging had the greatest clinical importance when it identified thoracic soft-tissue abnormalities, including axillary., lateral thoracic, supraclavicular, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. The coronal and sagittal views were very valuable for detection of chest wall invasion, sternal involvement, and internal mammary adenopathy. Negative MR staging clinically reassured patients that aggressive local therapy bad curative potential. Positive MR staging avoided inappropriate aggressive local therapy and mastectomy. MR imaging can be recommended for improved breast cancer staging in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer who have more than minimal disease

  18. Real-Time Imaging System for the OpenPET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yoshida, Eiji; Kinouchi, Shoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo; Suga, Mikio; Haneishi, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2012-02-01

    The OpenPET and its real-time imaging capability have great potential for real-time tumor tracking in medical procedures such as biopsy and radiation therapy. For the real-time imaging system, we intend to use the one-pass list-mode dynamic row-action maximum likelihood algorithm (DRAMA) and implement it using general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) techniques. However, it is difficult to make consistent reconstructions in real-time because the amount of list-mode data acquired in PET scans may be large depending on the level of radioactivity, and the reconstruction speed depends on the amount of the list-mode data. In this study, we developed a system to control the data used in the reconstruction step while retaining quantitative performance. In the proposed system, the data transfer control system limits the event counts to be used in the reconstruction step according to the reconstruction speed, and the reconstructed images are properly intensified by using the ratio of the used counts to the total counts. We implemented the system on a small OpenPET prototype system and evaluated the performance in terms of the real-time tracking ability by displaying reconstructed images in which the intensity was compensated. The intensity of the displayed images correlated properly with the original count rate and a frame rate of 2 frames per second was achieved with average delay time of 2.1 s.

  19. PET image reconstruction: mean, variance, and optimal minimax criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huafeng; Guo, Min; Gao, Fei; Shi, Pengcheng; Xue, Liying; Nie, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Given the noise nature of positron emission tomography (PET) measurements, it is critical to know the image quality and reliability as well as expected radioactivity map (mean image) for both qualitative interpretation and quantitative analysis. While existing efforts have often been devoted to providing only the reconstructed mean image, we present a unified framework for joint estimation of the mean and corresponding variance of the radioactivity map based on an efficient optimal min–max criterion. The proposed framework formulates the PET image reconstruction problem to be a transformation from system uncertainties to estimation errors, where the minimax criterion is adopted to minimize the estimation errors with possibly maximized system uncertainties. The estimation errors, in the form of a covariance matrix, express the measurement uncertainties in a complete way. The framework is then optimized by ∞-norm optimization and solved with the corresponding H ∞ filter. Unlike conventional statistical reconstruction algorithms, that rely on the statistical modeling methods of the measurement data or noise, the proposed joint estimation stands from the point of view of signal energies and can handle from imperfect statistical assumptions to even no a priori statistical assumptions. The performance and accuracy of reconstructed mean and variance images are validated using Monte Carlo simulations. Experiments on phantom scans with a small animal PET scanner and real patient scans are also conducted for assessment of clinical potential. (paper)

  20. New perspective in high tech radiotherapy planning using PET/CT images (Radiation oncologist's view on PET/CT usage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjieva, T.; Bildirev, N.; Koleva, I.; Zahariev, Z.; Vasileva, V.; Encheva, E.; Sultanov, B.

    2010-01-01

    Biological images provided by 18F-FDG PET in combination with structural X ray picture currently offer the most accurate available information on tumour staging, curative antitumour effect for prognosis, impairment of organ function after treatment, as well as primary tumour detection in unknown primary metastatic disease. The authors as radiation oncologists critically have analyzed numerous clinical trials and two guidelines to prove PET/ CT benefit in radiotherapy practice. At present they found lack of scientific evidence to confirm that patient outcomes are superior as a result of the use of PET in RT planning. PET/CT offers a best image for tumour delineation only in some cases of lung cancer, mediastinal lymph nodes and malignant lymphomas. 11C methionin PET adds additional information on postoperative MRI image for brain tumours. Inflammation as postradiation phenomenon, as well as physiological organ movements leads to false-positive PET signal. High tech radiotherapy methods require delineation on precise images given after multidisciplinary team expertise - a practice that is possible only in clinical trials, These unsolved problems have raised many ethical challenges in medical, scientific and social aspect, if wide and routine use of FDG-PET u PET/CT is advocated. (authors)

  1. Reproducibility of Quantitative Brain Imaging Using a PET-Only and a Combined PET/MR System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Martin L; Muzik, Otto; Beyer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of migrating a quantitative brain imaging protocol from a positron emission tomography (PET)-only system to an integrated PET/MR system. Potential differences in both absolute radiotracer concentration as well as in the derived kinetic paramet...

  2. A small animal PET based on GAPDs and charge signal transmission approach for hybrid PET-MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jihoon; Choi, Yong; Hong, Key Jo; Hu, Wei; Jung, Jin Ho; Huh, Yoonsuk [Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Tae, E-mail: ychoi.image@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) employing Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GAPDs) and charge signal transmission approach was developed for small animal imaging. Animal PET contained 16 LYSO and GAPD detector modules that were arranged in a 70 mm diameter ring with an axial field of view of 13 mm. The GAPDs charge output signals were transmitted to a preamplifier located remotely using 300 cm flexible flat cables. The position decoder circuits (PDCs) were used to multiplex the PET signals from 256 to 4 channels. The outputs of the PDCs were digitized and further-processed in the data acquisition unit. The cross-compatibilities of the PET detectors and MRI were assessed outside and inside the MRI. Experimental studies of the developed full ring PET were performed to examine the spatial resolution and sensitivity. Phantom and mouse images were acquired to examine the imaging performance. The mean energy and time resolution of the PET detector were 17.6% and 1.5 ns, respectively. No obvious degradation on PET and MRI was observed during simultaneous PET-MRI data acquisition. The measured spatial resolution and sensitivity at the CFOV were 2.8 mm and 0.7%, respectively. In addition, a 3 mm diameter line source was clearly resolved in the hot-sphere phantom images. The reconstructed transaxial PET images of the mouse brain and tumor displaying the glucose metabolism patterns were imaged well. These results demonstrate GAPD and the charge signal transmission approach can allow the development of high performance small animal PET with improved MR compatibility.

  3. Positron Emission Tomography imaging with the SmartPET system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: cooperrj@ornl.gov; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Grint, A.N.; Harkness, L.J.; Nolan, P.J.; Oxley, D.C.; Scraggs, D.P.; Mather, A.R. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-21

    The Small Animal Reconstruction Tomograph for Positron Emission Tomography (SmartPET) project is the development of a small animal Positron Emission Tomography (PET) demonstrator based on the use of High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors and state of the art digital electronics. The experimental results presented demonstrate the current performance of this unique system. By performing high precision measurements of one of the SmartPET HPGe detectors with a range of finely collimated gamma-ray beams the response of the detector as a function of gamma-ray interaction position has been quantified, facilitating the development of parametric Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) techniques and algorithms for the correction of imperfections in detector performance. These algorithms have then been applied to data from PET imaging measurements using two such detectors in conjunction with a specially designed rotating gantry. In this paper we show how the use of parametric PSA approaches allows over 60% of coincident events to be processed and how the nature and complexity of an event has direct implications for the quality of the resulting image.

  4. Quantitative PET Imaging in Drug Development: Estimation of Target Occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, Mika; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Rossano, Samantha; Carson, Richard E

    2017-12-11

    Positron emission tomography, an imaging tool using radiolabeled tracers in humans and preclinical species, has been widely used in recent years in drug development, particularly in the central nervous system. One important goal of PET in drug development is assessing the occupancy of various molecular targets (e.g., receptors, transporters, enzymes) by exogenous drugs. The current linear mathematical approaches used to determine occupancy using PET imaging experiments are presented. These algorithms use results from multiple regions with different target content in two scans, a baseline (pre-drug) scan and a post-drug scan. New mathematical estimation approaches to determine target occupancy, using maximum likelihood, are presented. A major challenge in these methods is the proper definition of the covariance matrix of the regional binding measures, accounting for different variance of the individual regional measures and their nonzero covariance, factors that have been ignored by conventional methods. The novel methods are compared to standard methods using simulation and real human occupancy data. The simulation data showed the expected reduction in variance and bias using the proper maximum likelihood methods, when the assumptions of the estimation method matched those in simulation. Between-method differences for data from human occupancy studies were less obvious, in part due to small dataset sizes. These maximum likelihood methods form the basis for development of improved PET covariance models, in order to minimize bias and variance in PET occupancy studies.

  5. MR Imaging-Guided Attenuation Correction of PET Data in PET/MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Catana, Ciprian

    2016-04-01

    Attenuation correction (AC) is one of the most important challenges in the recently introduced combined PET/magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. PET/MR AC (MR-AC) approaches aim to develop methods that allow accurate estimation of the linear attenuation coefficients of the tissues and other components located in the PET field of view. MR-AC methods can be divided into 3 categories: segmentation, atlas, and PET based. This review provides a comprehensive list of the state-of-the-art MR-AC approaches and their pros and cons. The main sources of artifacts are presented. Finally, this review discusses the current status of MR-AC approaches for clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PET Imaging Stability Measurements During Simultaneous Pulsing of Aggressive MR Sequences on the SIGNA PET/MR System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deller, Timothy W; Khalighi, Mohammad Mehdi; Jansen, Floris P; Glover, Gary H

    2018-01-01

    The recent introduction of simultaneous whole-body PET/MR scanners has enabled new research taking advantage of the complementary information obtainable with PET and MRI. One such application is kinetic modeling, which requires high levels of PET quantitative stability. To accomplish the required PET stability levels, the PET subsystem must be sufficiently isolated from the effects of MR activity. Performance measurements have previously been published, demonstrating sufficient PET stability in the presence of MR pulsing for typical clinical use; however, PET stability during radiofrequency (RF)-intensive and gradient-intensive sequences has not previously been evaluated for a clinical whole-body scanner. In this work, PET stability of the GE SIGNA PET/MR was examined during simultaneous scanning of aggressive MR pulse sequences. Methods: PET performance tests were acquired with MR idle and during simultaneous MR pulsing. Recent system improvements mitigating RF interference and gain variation were used. A fast recovery fast spin echo MR sequence was selected for high RF power, and an echo planar imaging sequence was selected for its high heat-inducing gradients. Measurements were performed to determine PET stability under varying MR conditions using the following metrics: sensitivity, scatter fraction, contrast recovery, uniformity, count rate performance, and image quantitation. A final PET quantitative stability assessment for simultaneous PET scanning during functional MRI studies was performed with a spiral in-and-out gradient echo sequence. Results: Quantitation stability of a 68 Ge flood phantom was demonstrated within 0.34%. Normalized sensitivity was stable during simultaneous scanning within 0.3%. Scatter fraction measured with a 68 Ge line source in the scatter phantom was stable within the range of 40.4%-40.6%. Contrast recovery and uniformity were comparable for PET images acquired simultaneously with multiple MR conditions. Peak noise equivalent count

  7. High-Speed Data Acquisition and Digital Signal Processing System for PET Imaging Techniques Applied to Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. D.; Benlloch, J. M.; Cerda, J.; Lerche, Ch. W.; Pavon, N.; Sebastia, A.

    2004-06-01

    This paper is framed into the Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) project, whose aim is to develop an innovative gamma ray sensor for early breast cancer diagnosis. Currently, breast cancer is detected using low-energy X-ray screening. However, functional imaging techniques such as PET/FDG could be employed to detect breast cancer and track disease changes with greater sensitivity. Furthermore, a small and less expensive PET camera can be utilized minimizing main problems of whole body PET. To accomplish these objectives, we are developing a new gamma ray sensor based on a newly released photodetector. However, a dedicated PEM detector requires an adequate data acquisition (DAQ) and processing system. The characterization of gamma events needs a free-running analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with sampling rates of more than 50 Ms/s and must achieve event count rates up to 10 MHz. Moreover, comprehensive data processing must be carried out to obtain event parameters necessary for performing the image reconstruction. A new generation digital signal processor (DSP) has been used to comply with these requirements. This device enables us to manage the DAQ system at up to 80 Ms/s and to execute intensive calculi over the detector signals. This paper describes our designed DAQ and processing architecture whose main features are: very high-speed data conversion, multichannel synchronized acquisition with zero dead time, a digital triggering scheme, and high throughput of data with an extensive optimization of the signal processing algorithms.

  8. Strategies of statistical windows in PET image reconstruction to improve the user’s real time experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner, L.; Correcher, C.; Gimenez-Alventosa, V.; Ilisie, V.; Alvarez, J.; Sanchez, S.; Rodríguez-Alvarez, M. J.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, with the increase of the computational power of modern computers together with the state-of-the-art reconstruction algorithms, it is possible to obtain Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images in practically real time. These facts open the door to new applications such as radio-pharmaceuticals tracking inside the body or the use of PET for image-guided procedures, such as biopsy interventions, among others. This work is a proof of concept that aims to improve the user experience with real time PET images. Fixed, incremental, overlapping, sliding and hybrid windows are the different statistical combinations of data blocks used to generate intermediate images in order to follow the path of the activity in the Field Of View (FOV). To evaluate these different combinations, a point source is placed in a dedicated breast PET device and moved along the FOV. These acquisitions are reconstructed according to the different statistical windows, resulting in a smoother transition of positions for the image reconstructions that use the sliding and hybrid window.

  9. A meta-analysis of {sup 18}FDG-PET, MRI and bone scintigraphy for diagnosis of bone metastases in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tao; Yang, Hui-Lin [The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Suzhou (China); Cheng, Tao [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China); Xu, Wen [Public Health School of Soochow University, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Suzhou (China); Yan, Wei-Li [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Departments of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Renji Hospital, Shanghai (China); Liu, Jia [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Departments of Radiology, Shanghai Renji Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2011-05-15

    To perform a meta-analysis comparing the diagnostic value of {sup 18}FDG-PET, MRI, and bone scintigraphy (BS) in detecting bone metastases in patients with breast cancer. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, Web of Knowledge, EBSCO, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Review databases were searched for relevant original articles published from January 1995 to January 2010. Inclusion criteria was as follows: {sup 18}FDG-PET, MRI or {sup 99m}Tc-MDP BS was performed to detect bone metastases (the number of published CT studies was inadequate for meta-analysis and therefore could not be included in this study); sufficient data were presented to construct a 2 x 2 contingency table; histopathological analysis and/or close clinical and imaging follow-up for at least 6 months were used as the reference standard. Two reviewers independently assessed potentially eligible studies and extracted relevant data. A software program called ''META-DiSc'' was used to obtain the pooled estimates for sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves, and the *Q index for each modality. Thirteen articles consisting of 23 studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria. On a per-patient basis, the pooled sensitivity estimates for MRI (97.1%) were significantly higher than those for PET (83.3%) and BS (87.0%; P <0.05). There was no significant difference between PET and BS (P <0.05). The pooled specificity estimates for PET (94.5%) and MRI (97.0%) were both significantly higher than those for BS (88.1%; P <0.05). There was no significant difference between PET and MRI (P >0.05). The pooled DOR estimates for MRI (298.5) were significantly higher than those for PET (82.1%) and BS (49.3%; P <0.05). There was no significant difference between PET and BS (P >0.05). The SROC curve for MRI showed better diagnostic accuracy than those for PET and BS. The SROC curve for PET was better than that for BS

  10. Evaluation of lymph node status after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients: comparison of diagnostic performance of ultrasound, MRI and ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, S; Kang, D K; Jung, Y S; An, Y-S; Jeon, G S; Kim, T H

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of ultrasound, MRI and fluorine-18 fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (¹⁸F-FDG PET)/CT for the diagnosis of metastatic axillary lymph node (ALN) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and to find out histopathological factors affecting the diagnostic performance of these imaging modalities. From January 2012 to November 2014, 191 consecutive patients with breast cancer who underwent NAC before surgery were retrospectively reviewed. We included 139 patients with ALN metastasis that was confirmed on fine needle aspiration or core needle biopsy at initial diagnosis. After NAC, 39 (28%) patients showed negative conversion of ALN on surgical specimens of sentinel lymph node (LN) or ALN. The sensitivity of ultrasound, MRI and PET/CT was 50% (48/96), 72% (70/97) and 22% (16/73), respectively. The specificity of ultrasound, MRI and PET/CT was 77% (30/39), 54% (21/39) and 85% (22/26), respectively. The Az value of combination of ultrasound and PET/CT was the highest (0.634) followed by ultrasound (0.626) and combination of ultrasound, MRI and PET/CT (0.617). The size of tumour deposit in LN and oestrogen receptor was significantly associated with the diagnostic performance of ultrasound (p performance of PET/CT (p = 0.023, p = 0.002, p = 0.036, p = 0.044 and p = 0.008, respectively). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, size of tumour deposit within LN was identified as being independently associated with diagnostic performance of ultrasound [odds ratio, 13.07; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.95-57.96] and PET/CT (odds ratio, 6.47; 95% CI, 1.407-29.737). Combination of three imaging modalities showed the highest sensitivity, and PET/CT showed the highest specificity for the evaluation of ALN metastasis after NAC. Ultrasound alone or combination of ultrasound and PET/CT showed the highest positive-predictive value. The size of tumour deposit within ALN was significantly associated with

  11. Imaging diagnosis of breast tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of breast tuberculosis. The authors evaluated the radiologic findings of five cases of surgically confirmed tuberculosis of the breast. Patients were examined with mammography (n=5), ultrasonography (n=3), and MRI (n=2). All patients were female. Four patients had unilateral lesion and the remaining one patient had bilateral breast tuberculosis. Mammographic findings were mainly radiopaque mass density without secondary signs. Two patients showed secondary signs such as skin thickening, parenchymal distortion, and nipple retraction. Ultrasonographic findings were variable but helpful in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesion, MRI findings were more helpful in differentiating abscess from malignant lesions. Radiologic findings were useful to diagnose tuberculosis of the breast, but fine needle aspiration biopsy and culture were needed for suspicious radiologic findings.

  12. Imaging diagnosis of breast tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Oh, Ki Keun

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of breast tuberculosis. The authors evaluated the radiologic findings of five cases of surgically confirmed tuberculosis of the breast. Patients were examined with mammography (n=5), ultrasonography (n=3), and MRI (n=2). All patients were female. Four patients had unilateral lesion and the remaining one patient had bilateral breast tuberculosis. Mammographic findings were mainly radiopaque mass density without secondary signs. Two patients showed secondary signs such as skin thickening, parenchymal distortion, and nipple retraction. Ultrasonographic findings were variable but helpful in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesion, MRI findings were more helpful in differentiating abscess from malignant lesions. Radiologic findings were useful to diagnose tuberculosis of the breast, but fine needle aspiration biopsy and culture were needed for suspicious radiologic findings

  13. Current applications of PET imaging of sex hormone receptors with a fluorinated analogue of estradiol or of testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J-N.; Montravers, F.; Huchet, V.; Michaud, L.; Ohnona, J.; Balogova, S.; Kerrou, K.; Gligorov, V.; Lotz, P.; Nataf, V.; Cussenot, O.; Darai, E.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the most frequent approach in the oncologic applications of positron emission tomography (PET) is detecting the hypermetabolic activity of the cancer tissue. A more specific approach, which may be complementary, is detecting the overexpression of receptors. In this review article, we aim to evaluate the results that are currently available for PET imaging of the sex hormone receptors in clinical oncology. The indication of PET and now PET/CT has been more disputed in breast carcinoma than in many other primary cancers (e.g., lung, head and neck, colorectal, lymphoma). 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), the glucose analogue for PET imaging, has a limited sensitivity to detect the primary breast tumors in case of lobular or in situ forms or small sized tumors localised on systematic mammography, and to identify minimal node invasion in the axilla. Using 16α-( 18 F]fluoro-17β-estradiol (FES), a fluorinated estradiol analogue, PET is able to detect the over-expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER) in lesions, at a whole-body level. FES and FDG appear complementary for a better diagnostic performance in staging locally advanced breast cancer or restaging recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. Another potential indication is predicting the response to starting or resuming hormone therapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer, in relation with the ER status of all lesions revealed by FES PET. In two retrospective studies, FDG PET was also able to predict the response to hormone therapy, on basis of a metabolic flare, observed either after 7-10 days of treatment or during an estradiol challenge. A prospective comparison of those approaches is warranted. One study reported predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy thanks to a low value of FES SUV m ax or FES/FDG SUV max ratio. The presence of ER in uterine tumors, including the benign ones, in ovarian cancers or even in meningiomas, may have therapeutic consequences and FES PET could have a clinical

  14. Biodistribution and PET imaging of [18F]-fluoroadenosine derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alauddin, Mian M.; Shahinian, Antranik; Park, Ryan; Tohme, Michael; Fissekis, John D.; Conti, Peter S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Many fluorinated analogues of adenosine nucleoside have been synthesized and studied as potential antitumor and antiviral agents. Earlier, we reported radiosynthesis of 2'-deoxy-2'-[ 18 F]fluoro-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-adenine ([ 18 F]-FAA) and 3'-deoxy-3'-[ 18 F]fluoro-1-β-D-xylofuranosyl-adenine ([ 18 F]FXA). Now, we report their in vivo studies including blood clearance, biodistribution and micro-PET imaging in tumor-bearing nude mice. Methods: Tumors were grown in 6-week-old athymic nude mice (Harlan, Indianapolis, IN, USA) by inoculation of HT-29 cells, wild-type cells in the left flank and transduced cells with HSV-tk on the right flank. When the tumor was about 1 cm in size, animals were injected with these radiotracers for in vivo studies, including blood clearance, micro-PET imaging and biodistribution. Results: Uptake of [ 18 F]FAA in tumor was 3.3-fold higher than blood, with highest uptake in the spleen. Maximum uptake of [ 18 F]FXA was observed in the heart compared to other organs. There was no tumor uptake of [ 18 F]FXA. Biodistribution results were supported by micro-PET images, which also showed very high uptake of [ 18 F]FAA in spleen and visualization of tumors, and high uptake of [ 18 F]FXA in the heart. Conclusion: These results suggest that [ 18 F]FAA may be useful for tumor imaging, while [ 18 F]FXA may have potential as a heart imaging agent with PET

  15. LOR-interleaving image reconstruction for PET imaging with fractional-crystal collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yusheng; Matej, Samuel; Karp, Joel S; Metzler, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become an important modality in medical and molecular imaging. However, in most PET applications, the resolution is still mainly limited by the physical crystal sizes or the detector’s intrinsic spatial resolution. To achieve images with better spatial resolution in a central region of interest (ROI), we have previously proposed using collimation in PET scanners. The collimator is designed to partially mask detector crystals to detect lines of response (LORs) within fractional crystals. A sequence of collimator-encoded LORs is measured with different collimation configurations. This novel collimated scanner geometry makes the reconstruction problem challenging, as both detector and collimator effects need to be modeled to reconstruct high-resolution images from collimated LORs. In this paper, we present a LOR-interleaving (LORI) algorithm, which incorporates these effects and has the advantage of reusing existing reconstruction software, to reconstruct high-resolution images for PET with fractional-crystal collimation. We also develop a 3D ray-tracing model incorporating both the collimator and crystal penetration for simulations and reconstructions of the collimated PET. By registering the collimator-encoded LORs with the collimator configurations, high-resolution LORs are restored based on the modeled transfer matrices using the non-negative least-squares method and EM algorithm. The resolution-enhanced images are then reconstructed from the high-resolution LORs using the MLEM or OSEM algorithm. For validation, we applied the LORI method to a small-animal PET scanner, A-PET, with a specially designed collimator. We demonstrate through simulated reconstructions with a hot-rod phantom and MOBY phantom that the LORI reconstructions can substantially improve spatial resolution and quantification compared to the uncollimated reconstructions. The LORI algorithm is crucial to improve overall image quality of collimated PET, which

  16. Effect of glucose level on brain FDG-PET images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Young; Lee, Yong Ki; Ahn, Sung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In addition to tumors, normal tissues, such as the brain and myocardium can intake {sup 18}F-FDG, and the amount of {sup 18}F-FDG intake by normal tissues can be altered by the surrounding environment. Therefore, a process is necessary during which the contrasts of the tumor and normal tissues can be enhanced. Thus, this study examines the effects of glucose levels on FDG PET images of brain tissues, which features high glucose activity at all times, in small animals. Micro PET scan was performed on fourteen mice after injecting {sup 18}F-FDG. The images were compared in relation to fasting. The findings showed that the mean SUV value w as 0 .84 higher in fasted mice than in non-fasted mice. During observation, the images from non-fasted mice showed high accumulation in organs other than the brain with increased surrounding noise. In addition, compared to the non-fasted mice, the fasted mice showed higher early intake and curve increase. The findings of this study suggest that fasting is important in assessing brain functions in brain PET using {sup 18}F-FDG. Additional studies to investigate whether caffeine levels and other preprocessing items have an impact on the acquired images would contribute to reducing radiation exposure in patients.

  17. Effect of glucose level on brain FDG-PET images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Young; Lee, Yong Ki; Ahn, Sung Min

    2017-01-01

    In addition to tumors, normal tissues, such as the brain and myocardium can intake 18 F-FDG, and the amount of 18 F-FDG intake by normal tissues can be altered by the surrounding environment. Therefore, a process is necessary during which the contrasts of the tumor and normal tissues can be enhanced. Thus, this study examines the effects of glucose levels on FDG PET images of brain tissues, which features high glucose activity at all times, in small animals. Micro PET scan was performed on fourteen mice after injecting 18 F-FDG. The images were compared in relation to fasting. The findings showed that the mean SUV value w as 0 .84 higher in fasted mice than in non-fasted mice. During observation, the images from non-fasted mice showed high accumulation in organs other than the brain with increased surrounding noise. In addition, compared to the non-fasted mice, the fasted mice showed higher early intake and curve increase. The findings of this study suggest that fasting is important in assessing brain functions in brain PET using 18 F-FDG. Additional studies to investigate whether caffeine levels and other preprocessing items have an impact on the acquired images would contribute to reducing radiation exposure in patients

  18. Breast Hypertrophy, Reduction Mammaplasty, and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Cristiane Costa; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Garcia, Edgard da Silva; Cabral, Isaías Vieira; de Carvalho, Monique Maçais; de Brito, Maria José Azevedo; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2018-02-07

    Body image dissatisfaction is one of the major factors that motivate patients to undergo plastic surgery. However, few studies have associated body satisfaction with reduction mammaplasty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of breast hypertrophy and reduction mammaplasty on body image. Breast hypertrophy patients, with reduction mammaplasty already scheduled between June 2013 and December 2015 (mammaplasty group, MG), were prospectively evaluated through the body dysmorphic disorder examination (BDDE), body investment scale (BIS), and breast evaluation questionnaire (BEQ55) tools. Women with normal-sized breasts were also evaluated as study controls (normal-sized breast group, NSBG). All the participants were interviewed at the initial assessment and after six months. Data were analyzed before and after six months. Each group consisted of 103 women. The MG group had a significant improvement in BDDE, BIS, and BEQ55 scores six months postoperatively (P ≤ 0.001 for the three instruments), whereas the NSBG group showed no alteration in results over time (P = 0.876; P = 0.442; and P = 0.184, respectively). In the intergroup comparison it was observed that the MG group began to invest more in the body, similarly to the NSBG group, and surpassed the level of satisfaction and body image that the women of the NSBG group had after the surgery. Reduction mammaplasty promoted improvement in body image of women with breast hypertrophy. © 2018 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Potential Applications of PET/MR Imaging in Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratib, Osman; Nkoulou, René

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in hybrid PET/MR imaging have opened new perspectives for cardiovascular applications. Although cardiac MR imaging has gained wider adoption for routine clinical applications, PET images remain the reference in many applications for which objective analysis of metabolic and physiologic parameters is needed. In particular, in cardiovascular diseases-more specifically, coronary artery disease-the use of quantitative and measurable parameters in a reproducible way is essential for the management of therapeutic decisions and patient follow-up. Functional MR images and dynamic assessment of myocardial perfusion from transit of intravascular contrast medium can provide useful criteria for identifying areas of decreased myocardial perfusion or for assessing tissue viability from late contrast enhancement of scar tissue. PET images, however, will provide more quantitative data on true tissue perfusion and metabolism. Quantitative myocardial flow can also lead to accurate assessment of coronary flow reserve. The combination of both modalities will therefore provide complementary data that can be expected to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of diagnostic procedures. But the true potential of hybrid PET/MR imaging may reside in applications beyond the domain of coronary artery disease. The combination of both modalities in assessment of other cardiac diseases such as inflammation and of other systemic diseases can also be envisioned. It is also predicted that the 2 modalities combined could help characterize atherosclerotic plaques and differentiate plaques with a high risk of rupture from stable plaques. In the future, the development of new tracers will also open new perspectives in evaluating myocardial remodeling and in assessing the kinetics of stem cell therapy in myocardial infarction. New tracers will also provide new means for evaluating alterations in cardiac innervation, angiogenesis, and even the assessment of reporter gene technologies

  20. Association of pharmacokinetic and metabolic parameters derived using simultaneous PET/MRI: Initial findings and impact on response evaluation in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Amarnath; Taneja, Sangeeta; Singh, Aru; Negi, Pradeep; Mehta, Shashi Bhushan; Ahuja, Aashim; Singhal, Manish; Sarin, Ramesh

    2017-07-01

    To study relationships among pharmacokinetic and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) PET parameters obtained through simultaneous PET/MRI in breast cancer patients and evaluate their combined potential for response evaluation. The study included 41 breast cancer patients for correlation study and 9 patients (pre and post therapy) for response evaluation. All patients underwent simultaneous PET/MRI with dedicated breast imaging. Pharmacokinetic parameters and PET parameters for tumor were derived using an in- house developed and vendor provided softwares respectively. Relationships between SUV and pharmacokinetic parameters and clinical as well as histopathologic parameters were evaluated using Spearman correlation analysis. Response to chemotherapy was derived as percentage reduction in size and in parameters post therapy. Significant correlations were observed between SUVmean, max, peak, TLG with K trans (ρ=0.446, 0.417, 0.491, 0.430; p≤0.01); with Kep(ρ=0.303, ρ=0.315, ρ=0.319; p≤0.05); and with iAUC(ρ=0.401, ρ=0.410, ρ=0.379; p≤0.05, p≤0.01). The ratio of ve/iAUC showed significant negative correlation to SUVmean, max, peak and TLG (ρ=0.420, 0.446, 0.443, 0.426; p≤0.01). Ability of SUV as well as pharmacokinetic parameters to predict response to therapy matched the RECIST criteria in 9 out of 11 lesions in 9 patients. Maximum post therapy quantitative reduction was observed in SUVpeak, TLG and K trans . Simultaneous PET/MRI enables illustration of close interactions between glucose metabolism and pharmacokinetic parameters in breast cancer patients and potential of their simultaneity in response assessment to therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 11C-Choline PET/pathology image coregistration in primary localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Prokic, Vesna; Weirich, Gregor; Wendl, Christina; Geinitz, Hans; Molls, Michael; Kirste, Simon; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Schwaiger, Markus; Gschwend, Juergen E.; Treiber, Uwe; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Krause, Bernd Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for the comparison of pathology specimens after prostatectomy (post-S) with PET images obtained before surgery (pre-S). This method was used to evaluate the merit of 11 C-choline PET/CT for delineation of gross tumour volume (GTV) in prostate cancer (PC). In 28 PC patients, 11 C-choline PET/CT was performed before surgery. PET/CT data were coregistered with the pathology specimens. GTV on PET images (GTV-PET) was outlined automatically and corrected manually. Tumour volume in the prostate (TVP) was delineated manually on the pathology specimens. Based on the coregistered PET/pathology images, the following parameters were assessed: SUVmax and SUVmean in the tumoral and nontumoral prostate (NP), GTV-PET (millilitres) and TVP (millilitres). PET/pathology image coregistration was satisfactory. Mean SUVmax in the TVP was lower than in the NP: 5.0 and 5.5, respectively (p = 0.093). Considering the entire prostate, SUVmax was located in the TVP in two patients, in the TVP and NP in 12 patients and exclusively in NP in 14 patients. Partial overlap the TVP and GTV-PET was seen in 71 % of patients, and complete overlap in 4 %. PET/pathology image coregistration can be used for evaluation of different imaging modalities. 11 C-Choline PET failed to distinguish tumour from nontumour tissue. (orig.)

  2. Prediction of standard-dose brain PET image by using MRI and low-dose brain ["1"8F]FDG PET images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jiayin; Gao, Yaozong; Shi, Feng; Lalush, David S.; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medical imaging technology that produces 3D images reflecting tissue metabolic activity in human body. PET has been widely used in various clinical applications, such as in diagnosis of brain disorders. High-quality PET images play an essential role in diagnosing brain diseases/disorders. In practice, in order to obtain high-quality PET images, a standard-dose radionuclide (tracer) needs to be used and injected into a living body. As a result, it will inevitably increase the patient’s exposure to radiation. One solution to solve this problem is predicting standard-dose PET images using low-dose PET images. As yet, no previous studies with this approach have been reported. Accordingly, in this paper, the authors propose a regression forest based framework for predicting a standard-dose brain ["1"8F]FDG PET image by using a low-dose brain ["1"8F]FDG PET image and its corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image. Methods: The authors employ a regression forest for predicting the standard-dose brain ["1"8F]FDG PET image by low-dose brain ["1"8F]FDG PET and MRI images. Specifically, the proposed method consists of two main steps. First, based on the segmented brain tissues (i.e., cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter, and white matter) in the MRI image, the authors extract features for each patch in the brain image from both low-dose PET and MRI images to build tissue-specific models that can be used to initially predict standard-dose brain ["1"8F]FDG PET images. Second, an iterative refinement strategy, via estimating the predicted image difference, is used to further improve the prediction accuracy. Results: The authors evaluated their algorithm on a brain dataset, consisting of 11 subjects with MRI, low-dose PET, and standard-dose PET images, using leave-one-out cross-validations. The proposed algorithm gives promising results with well-estimated standard-dose brain ["1"8F]FDG PET image and substantially

  3. PET imaging in patients with Modic changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Hanne; Pedersen, Henrik; Manniche, Claus

    2009-01-01

    associated with low back pain (LBP). MC type 1 appear to be inflammation on MRI, and histological and biochemical findings make it highly likely that an inflammation is present. Though MC is painful no known treatment is available, and it is unknown which entities affect the progress or regress of MC....... The changes observed on MRI are slow and take months to develop, but faster changes in the metabolism might provide a platform for monitoring patients. PATIENTS, METHODS: Patients from The Back Centre Funen, with low back pain in the area of L1 to S1, MC type 1 in L1 to L5, and a previous herniated lumbar...... disc. All patients had a PET scan using FDG (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose) as tracer. RESULTS: Included in the study were 11 patients, 4 women and 7 men, mean age 48.1 year (range 20-65). All MC were situated in the vertebrae both above and below the previously herniated disc/discs. Ten patients had MC at 1...

  4. [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT features for the molecular characterization of primary breast tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunovic, Lidija [Humanitas Research Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Milan (Italy); Gallivanone, Francesca; Castiglioni, Isabella [National Research Council, Laboratory of Innovation and Integration in Molecular Medicine, Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, Milan (Italy); Sollini, Martina; Kirienko, Margarita [Humanitas University, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Milan (Italy); Sagona, Andrea; Tinterri, Corrado [Humanitas Research Hospital, Breast Unit, Milan (Italy); Invento, Alessandra [Integrated University Hospital, Breast Unit, Verona (Italy); Manfrinato, Giulia [University of Milan, Residency Program in Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Research Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Milan (Italy); Humanitas University, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Milan (Italy)

    2017-11-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of imaging features derived from [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET/CT to provide in vivo characterization of breast cancer (BC). Images from 43 patients with a first diagnosis of BC were reviewed. Images were acquired before any treatment. Histological data were derived from pretreatment biopsy or surgical histological specimen; these included tumor type, grade, ER and PgR receptor status, lymphovascular invasion, Ki67 index, HER2 status, and molecular subtype. Standard parameters (SUV{sub mean}, TLG, MTV) and advanced imaging features (histogram-based and shape and size features) were evaluated. Univariate analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis, and exact Fisher's test were used for statistical analysis of data. Imaging-derived metrics were reduced evaluating the mutual correlation within group of features as well as the mutual correlation between groups of features to form a signature. A significant correlation was found between some advanced imaging features and the histological type. Different molecular subtypes were characterized by different values of two histogram-based features (median and energy). A significant association was observed between the imaging signature and luminal A and luminal B HER2 negative molecular subtype and also when considering luminal A, luminal B HER2-negative and HER2-positive groups. Similar results were found between the signature and all five molecular subtypes and also when considering the histological types of BC. Our results suggest a complementary role of standard PET imaging parameters and advanced imaging features for the in vivo biological characterization of BC lesions. (orig.)

  5. Quantitative myocardial blood flow imaging with integrated time-of-flight PET-MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kero, Tanja; Nordström, Jonny; Harms, Hendrik J; Sörensen, Jens; Ahlström, Håkan; Lubberink, Mark

    2017-12-01

    The use of integrated PET-MR offers new opportunities for comprehensive assessment of cardiac morphology and function. However, little is known on the quantitative accuracy of cardiac PET imaging with integrated time-of-flight PET-MR. The aim of the present work was to validate the GE Signa PET-MR scanner for quantitative cardiac PE