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Sample records for breast optical contrast

  1. Breast cancer detection using phase contrast diffuse optical tomography

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    Liang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qizhi; Li, Changqing; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Fajardo, Laurie L.; Jiang, Huabei

    2007-02-01

    In this report, a phase-contrast diffuse optical tomography system, which can measure the refractive indices of human breast masses in vivo, is described. To investigate the utility of phase-contrast diffuse optical tomography (PCDOT) for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses in humans, and to compare PCDOT with conventional diffuse optical tomography (DOT) for analysis of breast masses in humans. 35 breast masses were imaged in 33 patients (mean age = 51 years; range 22-80 years) using PCDOT. Images characterizing the tissue refractive index, absorption and scattering of breast masses were obtained with a finite element-based reconstruction algorithm. The accuracies of absorption and scattering images were compared with images of refractive index in light of the pathology results. Absorption and scattering images were unable to accurately discriminate benign from malignant lesions. Malignant lesions tended to have decreased refractive index allowing them to discriminate from benign lesions in most cases. The sensitivity, specificity, false positive value, and overall accuracy for refractive index were 81.8%, 70.8%, 29.2%, and 74.3%, respectively. Overall we show that benign and malignant breast masses in humans demonstrate different refractive index and differences in refractive index properties can be used to discriminate benign from malignant masses in patients with high accuracy. This opens up a new avenue for improved breast cancer detection using NIR diffusing light.

  2. Optically measured microvascular blood flow contrast of malignant breast tumors.

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    Regine Choe

    Full Text Available Microvascular blood flow contrast is an important hemodynamic and metabolic parameter with potential to enhance in vivo breast cancer detection and therapy monitoring. Here we report on non-invasive line-scan measurements of malignant breast tumors with a hand-held optical probe in the remission geometry. The probe employs diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS, a near-infrared optical method that quantifies deep tissue microvascular blood flow. Tumor-to-normal perfusion ratios are derived from thirty-two human subjects. Mean (95% confidence interval tumor-to-normal ratio using surrounding normal tissue was 2.25 (1.92-2.63; tumor-to-normal ratio using normal tissues at the corresponding tumor location in the contralateral breast was 2.27 (1.94-2.66, and using normal tissue in the contralateral breast was 2.27 (1.90-2.70. Thus, the mean tumor-to-normal ratios were significantly different from unity irrespective of the normal tissue chosen, implying that tumors have significantly higher blood flow than normal tissues. Therefore, the study demonstrates existence of breast cancer contrast in blood flow measured by DCS. The new, optically accessible cancer contrast holds potential for cancer detection and therapy monitoring applications, and it is likely to be especially useful when combined with diffuse optical spectroscopy/tomography.

  3. Optical contrast agents to visualize molecular expression in breast cancer

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    Langsner, Robert James

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death of women in the United States. Improvements in screening technology have increased the breast cancer incidence rate, as smaller lesions are being detected. Due to the small size of lesions, patients can choose to receive breast conservation therapy (BCT) rather than a modified radical mastectomy. Even though the breast retains cosmesis after BCT, there is an increased risk of the patient having residual microscopic disease, known as positive margins. Patients with positive margins receive increased radiation and have an increased chance of second surgery. Pathology with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) remains the gold standard for diagnosing margin status in patients. Intraoperative pathology has been shown to reduce the rate of positive margins in BCT. However, a minority of surgery centers have intraoperative pathology centers, limiting the number of patients that receive this standard of care. The expression profiles of surface receptors such as ErbB2 (HER2-positive) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) provide information about the aggressiveness of a particular tumor. Recent research has shown that there was elevated EGFR expression in patients with a local recurrence even though the biopsies were assessed to be disease free using standard H&E. If the physicians had known the molecular expression of these biopsies, a different treatment regimen or excision of more tissue might have prevented the recurrence. This thesis investigates targeted molecular contrast agents that enhance the visualization of molecular markers such as glucose transporters (GLUTs) and growth factor receptors in tissue specimens. First, application of 2-NBDG, a fluorescent deoxyglucose, enhances signal in cancerous tissue with a 20-minute incubation. Then, antibody functionalized silica-gold nanoshells enhance the visualization of ErbB2 overexpression in specimens with a 5-minute incubation. To image these contrast agents in cancerous

  4. Developments Toward Diagnostic Breast Cancer Imaging Using Near-Infrared Optical Measurements and Fluorescent Contrast Agents1

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    Daniel J. Hawrysz

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of near-infrared (NIR light to interrogate deep tissues has enormous potential for molecular-based imaging when coupled with NIR excitable dyes. More than a decade has now passed since the initial proposals for NIR optical tomography for breast cancer screening using time-dependent measurements of light propagation in the breast. Much accomplishment in the development of optical mammography has been demonstrated, most recently in the application of time-domain, frequency-domain, and continuous-wave measurements that depend on endogenous contrast owing to angiogenesis and increased hemoglobin absorbance for contrast. Although exciting and promising, the necessity of angiogenesis-mediated absorption contrast for diagnostic optical mammography minimizes the potential for using NIR techniques to assess sentinel lymph node staging, metastatic spread, and multifocality of breast disease, among other applications. In this review, we summarize the progress made in the development of optical mammography, and focus on the emerging work underway in the use of diagnostic contrast agents for the molecular-based, diagnostic imaging of breast.

  5. Anisotropic Contrast Optical Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Peev, D; Kananizadeh, N; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M

    2016-01-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by mea...

  6. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, D.; Hofmann, T.; Kananizadeh, N.; Beeram, S.; Rodriguez, E.; Wimer, S.; Rodenhausen, K. B.; Herzinger, C. M.; Kasputis, T.; Pfaunmiller, E.; Nguyen, A.; Korlacki, R.; Pannier, A.; Li, Y.; Schubert, E.; Hage, D.; Schubert, M.

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  7. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening

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    Godavarty A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anuradha Godavarty,1 Suset Rodriguez,1 Young-Jin Jung,2 Stephanie Gonzalez1 1Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Radiological Science, Dongseo University, Busan, South Korea Abstract: Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE or self-breast examinations (SBEs. Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach. Keywords: diffuse optical imaging, near-infrared, hand-held devices, breast cancer, prescreening, early detection 

  8. Review of optical breast imaging and spectroscopy

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    Grosenick, Dirk; Rinneberg, Herbert; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Taroni, Paola

    2016-09-01

    Diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy of the female breast is an area of active research. We review the present status of this field and discuss the broad range of methodologies and applications. Starting with a brief overview on breast physiology, the remodeling of vasculature and extracellular matrix caused by solid tumors is highlighted that is relevant for contrast in optical imaging. Then, the various instrumental techniques and the related methods of data analysis and image generation are described and compared including multimodality instrumentation, fluorescence mammography, broadband spectroscopy, and diffuse correlation spectroscopy. We review the clinical results on functional properties of malignant and benign breast lesions compared to host tissue and discuss the various methods to improve contrast between healthy and diseased tissue, such as enhanced spectroscopic information, dynamic variations of functional properties, pharmacokinetics of extrinsic contrast agents, including the enhanced permeability and retention effect. We discuss research on monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy and on breast cancer risk assessment as potential clinical applications of optical breast imaging and spectroscopy. Moreover, we consider new experimental approaches, such as photoacoustic imaging and long-wavelength tissue spectroscopy.

  9. Contrast-enhanced dedicated breast CT detection of invasive breast cancer preceding mammographic diagnosis

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    Nicolas D. Prionas, MD, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT generates high-resolution, three-dimensional images of the pendent uncompressed breast. Intravenous iodinated contrast during bCT provides additional physiologic information. In this case, a 10.0-mm invasive ductal carcinoma was visualized using contrast-enhanced breast CT one year before mammographic detection. Mammography four months before bCT was negative. The bCT contrast enhancement pattern closely matched the dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI obtained after diagnosis. Lesion enhancement at contrast-enhanced breast CT matched previously published enhancement values of breast cancer. Contrast-enhanced dedicated bCT provided high-resolution tomographic images and physiologic contrast enhancement data that facilitated the detection of an early breast cancer.

  10. Motion contrast using optical coherence tomography

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    Fingler, Jeffrey Paul

    Diagnosis of ophthalmic diseases like age-related macular degeneration is very important for treatment of the disease as well as the development of future treatments. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical interference technique which can measure the three-dimensional structural information of the reflecting layers within a sample. In retinal imaging, OCT is used as the primary diagnostic tool for structural abnormalities such as retinal holes and detachments. The contrast within the images of this technique is based upon reflectivity changes from different regions of the retina. This thesis demonstrates the developments of methods used to produce additional contrast to the structural OCT images based on the tiny fluctuations of motion experienced by the mobile scatterers within a sample. Motion contrast was observed for motions smaller than 50 nm in images of a variety of samples. Initial contrast method demonstrations used Brownian motion differences to separate regions of a mobile Intralipid solution from a static agarose gel, chosen in concentration to minimize reflectivity contrast. Zebrafish embryos in the range of 3-4 days post fertilization were imaged using several motion contrast methods to determine the capabilities of identifying regions of vascular flow. Vasculature identification was demonstrated in zebrafish for blood vessels of all orientations as small as 10 microns in diameter. Mouse retinal imaging utilized the same motion contrast methods to determine the contrast capabilities for motions associated with vasculature within the retina. Improved contrast imaging techniques demonstrated comparable images to fluorescein angiography, the gold standard of retinal vascular imaging. Future studies can improve the demonstrated contrast analysis techniques and apply them towards human retinal motion contrast imaging for ophthalmic diagnostic purposes.

  11. Temporal subtraction contrast-enhanced dedicated breast CT

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    Gazi, Peymon M.; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi; Yang, Kai; Boone, John M.

    2016-09-01

    The development of a framework of deformable image registration and segmentation for the purpose of temporal subtraction contrast-enhanced breast CT is described. An iterative histogram-based two-means clustering method was used for the segmentation. Dedicated breast CT images were segmented into background (air), adipose, fibroglandular and skin components. Fibroglandular tissue was classified as either normal or contrast-enhanced then divided into tiers for the purpose of categorizing degrees of contrast enhancement. A variant of the Demons deformable registration algorithm, intensity difference adaptive Demons (IDAD), was developed to correct for the large deformation forces that stemmed from contrast enhancement. In this application, the accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated in both mathematically-simulated and physically-acquired phantom images. Clinical usage and accuracy of the temporal subtraction framework was demonstrated using contrast-enhanced breast CT datasets from five patients. Registration performance was quantified using normalized cross correlation (NCC), symmetric uncertainty coefficient, normalized mutual information (NMI), mean square error (MSE) and target registration error (TRE). The proposed method outperformed conventional affine and other Demons variations in contrast enhanced breast CT image registration. In simulation studies, IDAD exhibited improvement in MSE (0-16%), NCC (0-6%), NMI (0-13%) and TRE (0-34%) compared to the conventional Demons approaches, depending on the size and intensity of the enhancing lesion. As lesion size and contrast enhancement levels increased, so did the improvement. The drop in the correlation between the pre- and post-contrast images for the largest enhancement levels in phantom studies is less than 1.2% (150 Hounsfield units). Registration error, measured by TRE, shows only submillimeter mismatches between the concordant anatomical target points in all patient studies. The algorithm was

  12. Seeing the unseen with localized optical contrast

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    Suran, Swathi; Bharadwaj, Krishna; Raghavan, Srinivasan; Varma, Manoj M.

    2016-03-01

    Optical wide-field imaging of sub-diffraction limit nanostructures is of interest in a wide array of applications. In applications where the nanostructures to be visualized are well isolated, a high enough optical contrast is sufficient to detect these. Here we demonstrate a technique to visualize nanoscale features, such as grain boundaries in Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) single layer graphene, which are just a few atom length defects, using regular bright field optical microscopy. This remarkably low lateral length scale was imaged using of a special thin film structure consisting of a water-soluble thin film layer deposited on a metal substrate, which produces a strong color change as a function of the film thickness. Small local water transport differences in the graphene layer result in thickness variation of the underlying thin film due to its solubility in water and produces color contrast readily observable under a normal brightfield optical microscope with the naked eye. We demonstrate the use of this technique for direct optical visualization of grain boundaries in graphene as wide as 2-5 nm and sub-100 nm photoresist lines. By using super-resolution image processing algorithms, we may be able to detect structure even smaller in size than currently achieved. We believe that this technique can be extended to single molecule detection.

  13. Miniature and Molecularly Specific Optical Screening Technologies for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    and molecular contrast in breast cancer V. Millon SR, Provenzano PP, Elicieri, KW, Brown, JQ, Keely, PJ, Ramanujam, N. "Imaging of ALA-induced PpIX...calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms. Appl Opt, 2006. 45(5): p. 1062-71. 4. Baumann, M., C

  14. Dual energy contrast enhanced breast imaging optimization using contrast to noise ratio

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    Arvanitis, C. D.; Royle, G.; Speller, R.

    2007-03-01

    The properties of dual energy contrast enhanced breast imaging have been analyzed by imaging a 4 cm breast equivalent phantom consisting of adipose and glandular equivalent plastics. This phantom had superimposed another thin plastic which incorporated a 2 mm deep cylinder filled with iodinated contrast media. The iodine projected thicknesses used for this study was 3 mg/cm2. Low and high energy spectra that straddle the iodine K-edge were used. Critical parameters such as the energy spectra and exposure are discussed, along with post processing by means of nonlinear energy dependent function. The dual energy image was evaluated using the relative contrast to noise ratio of a 2.5 mm x 2.5 mm region of the image at the different iodine concentrations incorporating different breast composition with respect to the noniodinated areas. Optimum results were achieved when the low and high-energy images were used in such a way that relative contrast to noise ratio of the iodine with respect to the background tissue was maximum. A figure of merit suggests that higher noise levels can be tolerated at the benefit of lower exposure. Contrast media kinetics of a phantom incorporating a water flow of 20.4 ml/min through the plastic cylinder suggests that time domain imaging could be performed with this approach. The results suggest that optimization of dual energy contrast enhanced mammography has the potential to lead to the development of perfusion digital mammography.

  15. Phase contrast imaging of breast tumours with synchrotron radiation

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    Olivo, A. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aolivo@medphys.ucl.ac.uk; Rigon, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Area Science Park, Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: rigon@ts.infn.it; Vinnicombe, S.J. [Department of Radiology, St. Bartholomews Hospital, Barts and the London NHS Trust, West Smithfield, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.j.vinnicombe@qmul.ac.uk; Cheung, K.C. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: k.c.cheung@dl.ac.uk; Ibison, M. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.ibison@dl.ac.uk; Speller, R.D. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rspeller@medphys.ucl.ac.uk

    2009-06-15

    Even though the potential of phase contrast (PC) imaging has been demonstrated in a number of biological tissue samples, the availability of free-space propagation phase contrast images of real breast tumours is still limited. The aim of this study was to obtain phase contrast images of two different pathological breast specimens containing tumours of differing morphological type at two synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities, and to assess any qualitative improvements in the evaluation and characterisation of the masses through the use of phase contrast imaging. A second aim was to assess the effects of parameters such as detector resolution, beam energy and sample-to-detector distance on image quality using the same breast specimens, as to date these effects have been modelled and discussed only for geometric phantoms. At each synchrotron radiation facility a range of images was acquired with different detectors and by varying the above parameters. Images of the same samples were also acquired with the absorption-based approach to allow a direct comparison and estimation of the advantages specifically ascribable to the PC technique.

  16. Segmentation methods for breast vasculature in dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital breast tomosynthesis

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    Lau, Kristen C.; Lee, Hyo Min; Singh, Tanushriya; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2015-03-01

    Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital breast tomosynthesis (DE CE-DBT) uses an iodinated contrast agent to image the three-dimensional breast vasculature. The University of Pennsylvania has an ongoing DE CE-DBT clinical study in patients with known breast cancers. The breast is compressed continuously and imaged at four time points (1 pre-contrast; 3 post-contrast). DE images are obtained by a weighted logarithmic subtraction of the high-energy (HE) and low-energy (LE) image pairs. Temporal subtraction of the post-contrast DE images from the pre-contrast DE image is performed to analyze iodine uptake. Our previous work investigated image registration methods to correct for patient motion, enhancing the evaluation of vascular kinetics. In this project we investigate a segmentation algorithm which identifies blood vessels in the breast from our temporal DE subtraction images. Anisotropic diffusion filtering, Gabor filtering, and morphological filtering are used for the enhancement of vessel features. Vessel labeling methods are then used to distinguish vessel and background features successfully. Statistical and clinical evaluations of segmentation accuracy in DE-CBT images are ongoing.

  17. Appropriate Contrast Enhancement Measures for Brain and Breast Cancer Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneet Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging systems often produce images that require enhancement, such as improving the image contrast as they are poor in contrast. Therefore, they must be enhanced before they are examined by medical professionals. This is necessary for proper diagnosis and subsequent treatment. We do have various enhancement algorithms which enhance the medical images to different extents. We also have various quantitative metrics or measures which evaluate the quality of an image. This paper suggests the most appropriate measures for two of the medical images, namely, brain cancer images and breast cancer images.

  18. Optical Fourier techniques for medical image processing and phase contrast imaging.

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    Yelleswarapu, Chandra S; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajasekhar; Rao, D V G L N

    2008-04-01

    This paper briefly reviews the basics of optical Fourier techniques (OFT) and applications for medical image processing as well as phase contrast imaging of live biological specimens. Enhancement of microcalcifications in a mammogram for early diagnosis of breast cancer is the main focus. Various spatial filtering techniques such as conventional 4f filtering using a spatial mask, photoinduced polarization rotation in photosensitive materials, Fourier holography, and nonlinear transmission characteristics of optical materials are discussed for processing mammograms. We also reviewed how the intensity dependent refractive index can be exploited as a phase filter for phase contrast imaging with a coherent source. This novel approach represents a significant advance in phase contrast microscopy.

  19. Quantitative contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winetraub, Yonatan; SoRelle, Elliott D. [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bio-X Program, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Biophysics Program, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Liba, Orly [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bio-X Program, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zerda, Adam de la [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bio-X Program, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Biophysics Program, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-01-11

    We have developed a model to accurately quantify the signals produced by exogenous scattering agents used for contrast-enhanced Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). This model predicts distinct concentration-dependent signal trends that arise from the underlying physics of OCT detection. Accordingly, we show that real scattering particles can be described as simplified ideal scatterers with modified scattering intensity and concentration. The relation between OCT signal and particle concentration is approximately linear at concentrations lower than 0.8 particle per imaging voxel. However, at higher concentrations, interference effects cause signal to increase with a square root dependence on the number of particles within a voxel. Finally, high particle concentrations cause enough light attenuation to saturate the detected signal. Predictions were validated by comparison with measured OCT signals from gold nanorods (GNRs) prepared in water at concentrations ranging over five orders of magnitude (50 fM to 5 nM). In addition, we validated that our model accurately predicts the signal responses of GNRs in highly heterogeneous scattering environments including whole blood and living animals. By enabling particle quantification, this work provides a valuable tool for current and future contrast-enhanced in vivo OCT studies. More generally, the model described herein may inform the interpretation of detected signals in modalities that rely on coherence-based detection or are susceptible to interference effects.

  20. Iodine contrast cone beam CT imaging of breast cancer

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    Partain, Larry; Prionas, Stavros; Seppi, Edward; Virshup, Gary; Roos, Gerhard; Sutherland, Robert; Boone, John

    2007-03-01

    An iodine contrast agent, in conjunction with an X-ray cone beam CT imaging system, was used to clearly image three, biopsy verified, cancer lesions in two patients. The lesions were approximately in the 10 mm to 6 mm diameter range. Additional regions were also enhanced with approximate dimensions down to 1 mm or less in diameter. A flat panel detector, with 194 μm pixels in 2 x 2 binning mode, was used to obtain 500 projection images at 30 fps with an 80 kVp X-ray system operating at 112 mAs, for an 8-9 mGy dose - equivalent to two view mammography for these women. The patients were positioned prone, while the gantry rotated in the horizontal plane around the uncompressed, pendant breasts. This gantry rotated 360 degrees during the patient's 16.6 sec breath hold. A volume of 100 cc of 320 mg/ml iodine-contrast was power injected at 4 cc/sec, via catheter into the arm vein of the patient. The resulting 512 x 512 x 300 cone beam CT data set of Feldkamp reconstructed ~(0.3 mm) 3 voxels were analyzed. An interval of voxel contrast values, characteristic of the regions with iodine contrast enhancement, were used with surface rendering to clearly identify up to a total of 13 highlighted volumes. This included the three largest lesions, that were previously biopsied and confirmed to be malignant. The other ten highlighted regions, of smaller diameters, are likely areas of increased contrast trapping unrelated to cancer angiogenesis. However the technique itself is capable of resolving lesions that small.

  1. Optical mammography: bilateral breast symmetry in hemoglobin saturation maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Pamela G.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Kalli, Sirishma; Makim, Shital S.; Graham, Roger A.; Fantini, Sergio

    2016-10-01

    We present a study of the bilateral symmetry of human breast hemoglobin saturation maps measured with a broadband optical mammography instrument. We have imaged 21 patients with unilateral breast cancer, 32 patients with unilateral benign lesions, and 27 healthy patients. An image registration process was applied to the bilateral hemoglobin saturation (SO2) images by assigning each pixel to the low, middle, or high range of SO2 values, where the thresholds for the categories were the 15th and 85th percentiles of the individual saturation range. The Dice coefficient, which is a measure of similarity, was calculated for each patient's pair of right and left breast SO2 images. The invasive cancer patients were found to have an average Dice coefficient value of 0.55±0.07, which was significantly lower than the benign and healthy groups (0.61±0.11 and 0.62±0.12, respectively). Although differences were seen in a group analysis, the healthy patient Dice coefficients spanned a wide range, limiting the diagnostic capabilities of this SO2 symmetry analysis on an individual basis. Our results suggest that for assessing the SO2 contrast of breast lesions, it may be better to select a reference tissue in the ipsilateral rather than the contralateral breast.

  2. Comparative evaluation of methylene blue and demeclocycline for enhancing optical contrast of gliomas in optical images

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    Wirth, Dennis; Snuderl, Matija; Curry, William; Yaroslavsky, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Contrast agents have shown to be useful in the detection of cancers. The goal of this study was to compare enhancement of brain cancer contrast using reflectance and fluorescence confocal imaging of two fluorophores, methylene blue (MB) and demeclocycline (DMN). MB absorbs light in the red spectral range and fluoresces in the near-infrared. It is safe for in vivo staining of human skin and breast tissue. However, its safety for staining human brain is questionable. Thus, DMN, which absorbs light in the violet spectral range and fluoresces between 470 and 570 nm, could provide a safer alternative to MB. Fresh human gliomas, obtained from surgeries, were cut in half and stained with aqueous solutions of MB and DMN, respectively. Stained tissues were imaged using multimodal confocal microscopy. Resulting reflectance and fluorescence optical images were compared with hematoxylin and eosin histopathology, processed from each imaged tissue. Results indicate that images of tissues stained with either stain exhibit comparable contrast and resolution of morphological detail. Further studies are required to establish the safety and efficacy of these contrast agents for use in human brain.

  3. Contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography : a promising new imaging tool in breast cancer detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalji, Ulrich; Lobbes, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography (CEDM) is a promising new breast imaging tool for breast cancer detection. In CEDM, an iodine-based contrast agent is intravenously administered and subsequently, dual-energy mammography is performed. This results in a set of images containing both a regular

  4. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for monitoring response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Loo, C E

    2016-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis is to investigate the role of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in monitoring response of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The role of MRI with respect to achieving personalized breast cancer treatment by improving response monitoring is examined. Our findings demonstrate the potential clinical relevance of contrast-enhanced MRI for monitoring response of breast cancer during and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We defined MRI criteria ( reduction < 25%...

  5. Mammography combined with breast dynamic contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of early breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yakun He; Guohui Xu; Jin Ren; Bin Feng; Xiaolei Dong; Hao Lu; Changjiu He

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the application of mammography combined with breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for the diagnosis of early breast cancer. Methods Mammography and DCE-MRI were performed for 120 patients with breast cancer (malignant, 102; benign; 18). Results The sensitivity of mammography for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 66.67%, specificity was 77.78%, and accuracy was 68.33%. The sensitivity of MRI for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 94.12%, specificity was 88.89%, and accuracy was 93.33%. However, the sensitivity of mammography combined with DCE-MRI volume imaging with enhanced water signal (VIEWS) scanning for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 97.06%, specificity was 94.44%, and accuracy was 96.67%. Conclusion Mammography combined with DCE-MRI increased the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of diagnosing early breast cancer.

  6. Do shorter wavelengths improve contrast in optical mammography?

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    Taroni, P.; Pifferi, A.; Torricelli, A.; Spinelli, L.; Danesini, G. M.; Cubeddu, R.

    2004-04-01

    The detection of tumours with time-resolved transmittance imaging relies essentially on blood absorption. Previous theoretical and phantom studies have shown that both contrast and spatial resolution of optical images are affected by the optical properties of the background medium, and high absorption and scattering are generally beneficial. Based on these observations, wavelengths shorter than presently used (680-780 nm) could be profitable for optical mammography. A study was thus performed analysing time-resolved transmittance images at 637, 656, 683 and 785 nm obtained from 26 patients bearing 16 tumours and 15 cysts. The optical contrast proved to increase upon decreasing wavelengths for the detection of cancers in late-gated intensity images, with higher gain in contrast for lesions of smaller size (decrease in contrast with wavelength was observed in scattering images.

  7. Surface impedance based microwave imaging method for breast cancer screening: contrast-enhanced scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güren, Onan; Çayören, Mehmet; Ergene, Lale Tükenmez; Akduman, Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    A new microwave imaging method that uses microwave contrast agents is presented for the detection and localization of breast tumours. The method is based on the reconstruction of breast surface impedance through a measured scattered field. The surface impedance modelling allows for representing the electrical properties of the breasts in terms of impedance boundary conditions, which enable us to map the inner structure of the breasts into surface impedance functions. Later a simple quantitative method is proposed to screen breasts against malignant tumours where the detection procedure is based on weighted cross correlations among impedance functions. Numerical results demonstrate that the method is capable of detecting small malignancies and provides reasonable localization.

  8. Feasibility study of the optical imaging of a breast cancer lesion labeled with upconversion nanoparticle biocomplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenik, Ekaterina A; Nadort, Annemarie; Generalova, Alla N; Nechaev, Andrei V; Sreenivasan, Varun K A; Khaydukov, Evgeny V; Semchishen, Vladimir A; Popov, Alexey P; Sokolov, Viktor I; Akhmanov, Aleksandr S; Zubov, Vitali P; Klinov, Dmitry V; Panchenko, Vladislav Y; Deyev, Sergey M; Zvyagin, Andrei V

    2013-07-01

    Innovative luminescent nanomaterials, termed upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), have demonstrated considerable promise as molecular probes for high-contrast optical imaging in cells and small animals. The feasibility study of optical diagnostics in humans is reported here based on experimental and theoretical modeling of optical imaging of an UCNP-labeled breast cancer lesion. UCNPs synthesized in-house were surface-capped with an amphiphilic polymer to achieve good colloidal stability in aqueous buffer solutions. The scFv4D5 mini-antibodies were grafted onto the UCNPs via a high-affinity molecular linker barstar:barnase (Bs:Bn) to allow their specific binding to the human epidermal growth factor receptor HER2/neu, which is overexpressed in human breast adenocarcinoma cells SK-BR-3. UCNP-Bs:Bn-scFv4D5 biocomplexes exhibited high-specific immobilization on the SK-BR-3 cells with the optical contrast as high as 10:1 benchmarked against a negative control cell line. Breast cancer optical diagnostics was experimentally modeled by means of epi-luminescence imaging of a monolayer of the UCNP-labeled SK-BR-3 cells buried under a breast tissue mimicking optical phantom. The experimental results were analyzed theoretically and projected to in vivo detection of early-stage breast cancer. The model predicts that the UCNP-assisted cancer detection is feasible up to 4 mm in tissue depth, showing considerable potential for diagnostic and image-guided surgery applications.

  9. CT guided diffuse optical tomography for breast cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikejiang, Reheman; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Dianwen; Li, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has attracted attentions in the last two decades due to its intrinsic sensitivity in imaging chromophores of tissues such as blood, water, and lipid. However, DOT has not been clinically accepted yet due to its low spatial resolution caused by strong optical scattering in tissues. Structural guidance provided by an anatomical imaging modality enhances the DOT imaging substantially. Here, we propose a computed tomography (CT) guided multispectral DOT imaging system for breast cancer detection. To validate its feasibility, we have built a prototype DOT imaging system which consists of a laser at wavelengths of 650 and an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera. We have validated the CT guided DOT reconstruction algorithms with numerical simulations and phantom experiments, in which different imaging setup parameters, such as projection number of measurements, the width of measurement patch, have been investigated. Our results indicate that an EMCCD camera with air cooling is good enough for the transmission mode DOT imaging. We have also found that measurements at six projections are sufficient for DOT to reconstruct the optical targets with 4 times absorption contrast when the CT guidance is applied. Finally, we report our effort and progress on the integration of the multispectral DOT imaging system into a breast CT scanner.

  10. Contrast enhanced digital mammography: Is it useful in detecting lesions in edematous breast?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Abd ElShafy ElSaid

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital mammography is a useful technique in identification of lesions in mammographically dense edematous breasts and proved to be a useful tool in the follow-up of cases presenting by edema after conservative breast surgery and chemotherapy.

  11. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for monitoring response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo, C.E.

    2016-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis is to investigate the role of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in monitoring response of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The role of MRI with respect to achieving personalized breast cancer treatment by improving response monitoring is examined. Our finding

  12. Diagnositc value of 3D-gradient echo dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Hai Jung; Lee, Yul; Chung, Bong Wha; Shim, Jeong Won [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-10-01

    To assess the usefulness of 3D-gradient echo dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (3D-DMRI) in the diagnosis of breast cancer and to determine the most useful parameter for this diagnosis. Using a 1.0T MR unit, (Magnetom, Siemens, Erlaugen, Germany), 3D-DMRI (TR/TE=3D30/12) with Gd-DTPA was performed in 38 cases of breast cancer, 22 of fibroadenoma, and in three normal volunteers. We retrospectively evaluated the findings according to the speed on dynamic study and maximal amount of contrast enhancement during the delayed phase;we calculated the contrast index and morphology of the cancers and compared diagnostic accuracy among these three diagnostic parameters. On conventional spin-echo T1-and T2-weighted images, there was no significant difference of signal intensity between benign fibroadenoma and breast carcinoma. Rapid contrast enhancement (within one minute) was noted in 35 breast cancer lesions (92.1%), but relatively low and slow contrast enhancement (after five minutes) was noted in three such lesions (7.9%). Gradual contrast enhancement was noted in 21 lesions of fibroadenoma(95.5%), but a moderate degree of rapid contrast enhancement (from three to five minutes) was noted in the other case (7.9%). of On the delayed enhanced phase of 3D-DMRI, the maximal amount of contrast enhancement showed no significant difference between fibroadenoma and cancer. On 3D-DMRI, an irregular, spiculated border, with high contrast enhancement was noted in all cases of breast cancer, in particular, irregular thick peripheral contrast enhancement with central necrosis was noted 11cases(28.9%). For the diagnosis of breast cancer, 3D-DMRI is a useful technique. Among the diagnostic criteria of speed, maximal amount of contrast enhancement and morphology, morphologic change after contrast enhancement study was the most useful diagnostic parameter.=20.

  13. Multimodal optical imaging for detecting breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rakesh; Khan, Ashraf; Wirth, Dennis; Kamionek, Michal; Kandil, Dina; Quinlan, Robert; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2012-06-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate wide-field and high-resolution multimodal optical imaging, including polarization, reflectance, and fluorescence for the intraoperative detection of breast cancer. Lumpectomy specimens were stained with 0.05 mg/ml aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB) and imaged. Wide-field reflectance images were acquired between 390 and 750 nm. Wide-field fluorescence images were excited at 640 nm and registered between 660 and 750 nm. High resolution confocal reflectance and fluorescence images were excited at 642 nm. Confocal fluorescence images were acquired between 670 nm and 710 nm. After imaging, the specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology. Histological slides were compared with wide-field and high-resolution optical images to evaluate correlation of tumor boundaries and cellular morphology, respectively. Fluorescence polarization imaging identified the location, size, and shape of the tumor in all the cases investigated. Averaged fluorescence polarization values of tumor were higher as compared to normal tissue. Statistical analysis confirmed the significance of these differences. Fluorescence confocal imaging enabled cellular-level resolution. Evaluation and statistical analysis of MB fluorescence polarization values registered from single tumor and normal cells demonstrated higher fluorescence polarization from cancer. Wide-field high-resolution fluorescence and fluorescence polarization imaging shows promise for intraoperative delineation of breast cancers.

  14. Experimental results of fiber optic contrast-sensitive dislocation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Szustakowski, M.; Palka, N.

    2005-05-01

    The dislocation sensor based on the contrast phenomenon in an unbalanced fiber optic Michelson interferometer with a 3 x 3 coupler and a semiconductor multimode laser. Periodic contrast oscillations, which depend on a laser spectrum, occur if a measuring arm of the interferometer is elongated. A conception of the elongation sensor that based on linearization of contrast oscillations is shown. Next, a setup of the sensor and signal processing scheme of the sensor is presented. During measurements, for 1-m long sensor we obtained 5-mm measuring range with +/-28-μm uncertainty. Explanation of these differences and conclusion to further research are formulated.

  15. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Laboratory for Micro and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Philips Technologie GmbH, Roentgenstrasse 24, 22335 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Pathology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Department of Radiology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Institute of Pathology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Interdisciplinary Breast Center Baden, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland and Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-07-31

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  16. Toward contrast-enhanced, optically-detected NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriles, Carlos; Pagliero, Daniela

    2011-03-01

    Optical detection of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) takes place via a two-step process that relies on the interaction between optical photons and electrons on the one hand, and the hyperfine coupling between electrons and nuclear spins on the other. The latter depends on the material system under consideration while the former is dominated by the difference between the illumination and optical transition wavelengths. Here we use optical Faraday rotation to monitor nuclear spins in real time after resonant radio-frequency excitation at high-magnetic field. Comparison between inductively and optically detected NMR spectra in model sample fluids indicates that each of these mechanisms can lead to alternate forms of spectral contrast. Extension of these findings may find application in solvent suppression protocols, sensitivity-enhanced NMR of metalloproteins, or the characterization of molecular orbitals in diamagnetic systems. We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation.

  17. LHRH-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for breast cancer targeting and contrast enhancement in MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, J.; Fan, J. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials and the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Galiana, G. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Branca, R.T. [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0354 (United States); Clasen, P.L.; Ma, S. [Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Zhou, J. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials and the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Leuschner, C. [Pennington Biomedical Research Center, 6400 Perkins Road, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 (United States); Kumar, C.S.S.R.; Hormes, J. [Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State University, 6980 Jefferson Hwy, Baton Rouge, LA 70806 (United States); Otiti, T. [Department of Physics, Makerere University, Kampala (Uganda); Beye, A.C. [Department of Physics, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar (Senegal); Harmer, M.P.; Kiely, C.J. [Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Warren, W. [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0354 (United States); Haataja, M.P. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials and the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Soboyejo, W.O., E-mail: soboyejo@princeton.edu [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials and the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2009-05-05

    This paper shows that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) conjugated to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) (LHRH-SPIONs), can be used to target breast cancer cells. They also act as contrast enhancement agents during the magnetic resonance imaging of breast cancer xenografts. A combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectrophotometric analysis was used in our experiments, to investigate the specific accumulation of the functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in cancer cells. The contrast enhancement of conventional T2 images obtained from the tumor tissue and of breast cancer xenograft bearing mice is shown to be much greater than that in saline controls, when the tissues were injected with LHRH-SPIONs. Magnetic anisotropy multi-CRAZED images of tissues extracted from mice injected with SPIONs were also found to have enhanced MRI contrast in breast cancer xenografts and metastases in the lungs.

  18. High-resolution breast tomography at high energy: a feasibility study of phase contrast imaging on a whole breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztrókay, A.; Diemoz, P. C.; Schlossbauer, T.; Brun, E.; Bamberg, F.; Mayr, D.; Reiser, M. F.; Bravin, A.; Coan, P.

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies on phase contrast imaging (PCI) mammography have demonstrated an enhancement of breast morphology and cancerous tissue visualization compared to conventional imaging. We show here the first results of the PCI analyser-based imaging (ABI) in computed tomography (CT) mode on whole and large (>12 cm) tumour-bearing breast tissues. We demonstrate in this work the capability of the technique of working at high x-ray energies and producing high-contrast images of large and complex specimens. One entire breast of an 80-year-old woman with invasive ductal cancer was imaged using ABI-CT with monochromatic 70 keV x-rays and an area detector of 92×92 µm2 pixel size. Sagittal slices were reconstructed from the acquired data, and compared to corresponding histological sections. Comparison with conventional absorption-based CT was also performed. Five blinded radiologists quantitatively evaluated the visual aspects of the ABI-CT images with respect to sharpness, soft tissue contrast, tissue boundaries and the discrimination of different structures/tissues. ABI-CT excellently depicted the entire 3D architecture of the breast volume by providing high-resolution and high-contrast images of the normal and cancerous breast tissues. These results are an important step in the evolution of PCI-CT towards its clinical implementation.

  19. Dynamic characterization for tumor- and deformation-induced thermal contrasts on breast surface: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Zhan, Wang; Loew, Murray H.

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the complex relationship between the thermal contrasts on the breast surface and the underlying physiological and pathological factors is important for thermogram-based breast cancer detection. Our previous work introduced a combined thermal-elastic modeling method with improved ability to simultaneously characterize both elastic-deformation-induced and tumor-induced thermal contrasts on the breast. In this paper, the technique is further extended to investigate the dynamic behaviors of the breast thermal contrasts during cold stress and thermal recovery procedures in the practice of dynamic thermal imaging. A finite-element method (FEM) has been developed for dynamic thermal and elastic modeling. It is combined with a technique to address the nonlinear elasticity of breast tissues, as would arise in the large deformations caused by gravity. Our simulation results indicate that different sources of the thermal contrasts, such as the presence of a tumor, and elastic deformation, have different transient time courses in dynamic thermal imaging with cold-stress and thermal-recovery. Using appropriate quantifications of the thermal contrasts, we find that the tumor- and deformation-induced thermal contrasts show opposite changes in the initial period of the dynamic courses, whereas the global maxima of the contrast curves are reached at different time points during a cold-stress or thermal-recovery procedure. Moreover, deeper tumors generally lead to smaller peaks but have larger lags in the thermal contrast time course. These findings suggest that dynamic thermal imaging could be useful to differentiate the sources of the thermal contrast on breast surface and hence to enhance tumor detectability.

  20. Optical spectra analysis for breast cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkov, S. A.; Kochemasov, G. G.; Lyubynskaya, T. E.; Maslov, N. V.; Nuzhny, A. S.; da Silva, L. B.; Rubenchik, A.

    2011-11-01

    Minimally invasive probe and optical biopsy system based on optical spectra recording and analysis seem to be a promising tool for early diagnostics of breast cancer. Light scattering and absorption spectra are generated continuously as far as the needle-like probe with one emitting and several collecting optical fibers penetrates through the tissues toward to the suspicious area. That allows analyzing not only the state of local site, but also the structure of tissues along the needle trace. The suggested method has the advantages of automated on-line diagnosing and minimal tissue destruction and in parallel with the conventional diagnostic procedures provides the ground for decision-making. 165 medical trials were completed in Nizhny Novgorod Regional Oncology Centre, Russia. Independent diagnoses were the results of fine biopsy and histology. Application of wavelet expansion and clasterization techniques for spectra analysis revealed several main spectral types for malignant and benign tumors. Automatic classification algorithm demonstrated specificity ˜90% and sensitivity ˜91%. Large amount of information, fuzziness in criteria and data noisiness make neural networks to be an attractive analytic tool. The model based on three-layer perceptron was tested over the sample of 29 `cancer' and 29 `non-cancer' cases and demonstrated total separation.

  1. Application of image processing techniques for contrast enhancement in dense breast digital mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Fatima d. L. d. S.; Schiabel, Homero; Benatti, Rodrigo H.

    1999-05-01

    Dense breasts, that usually are characteristic of women less than 40 years old, difficult many times early detection of breast cancer. In this work we present the application of some image processing techniques intended to enhance the contrast in dense breast images, regarding the detection of clustered microcalcifications. The procedure was, firstly, determining in the literature the main techniques used for mammographic images contrast enhancement. The results indicate that, in general: (1) as expected, the overall performance of the CAD scheme for clusters detection decreased when applied exclusively to dense breast images, compared to the application to a set of images without this characteristic; (2) most of the techniques for contrast enhancement used successfully in generic mammography images databases are not able to enhance structures of athirst in databases formed only by dense breasts images, due to the very poor contrast between microcalcifications, for example, and other tissues. These features should stress, therefore, the need of developing a methodology specifically for this type of images in order to provide better conditions to the detection of breast suspicious structures in these group of women.

  2. Axial Phase-Darkfield-Contrast (APDC), a new technique for variable optical contrasting in light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, T; Piper, J

    2012-09-01

    Axial phase-darkfield-contrast (APDC) has been developed as an illumination technique in light microscopy which promises significant improvements and a higher variability in imaging of several transparent 'problem specimens'. With this method, a phase contrast image is optically superimposed on an axial darkfield image so that a partial image based on the principal zeroth order maximum (phase contrast) interferes with an image, which is based on the secondary maxima (axial darkfield). The background brightness and character of the resulting image can be continuously modulated from a phase contrast-dominated to a darkfield-dominated character. In order to achieve this illumination mode, normal objectives for phase contrast have to be fitted with an additional central light stopper needed for axial (central) darkfield illumination. In corresponding condenser light masks, a small perforation has to be added in the centre of the phase contrast providing light annulus. These light modulating elements are properly aligned when the central perforation is congruent with the objective's light stop and the light annulus is conjugate with the phase ring. The breadth of the condenser light annulus and thus the intensity of the phase contrast partial image can be regulated with the aperture diaphragm. Additional contrast effects can be achieved when both illuminating light components are filtered at different colours. In this technique, the axial resolution (depth of field) is significantly enhanced and the specimen's three-dimensional appearance is accentuated with improved clarity as well as fine details at the given resolution limit. Typical artefacts associated with phase contrast and darkfield illumination are reduced in our methods.

  3. Differentiation of breast cancer from fibroadenoma with dual-echo dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Wang

    Full Text Available Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI of the breast is a routinely used imaging method which is highly sensitive for detecting breast malignancy. Specificity, though, remains suboptimal. Dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC MRI, an alternative dynamic contrast imaging technique, evaluates perfusion-related parameters unique from DCE MRI. Previous work has shown that the combination of DSC MRI with DCE MRI can improve diagnostic specificity, though an additional administration of intravenous contrast is required. Dual-echo MRI can measure both T1W DCE MRI and T2*W DSC MRI parameters with a single contrast bolus, but has not been previously implemented in breast imaging. We have developed a dual-echo gradient-echo sequence to perform such simultaneous measurements in the breast, and use it to calculate the semi-quantitative T1W and T2*W related parameters such as peak enhancement ratio, time of maximal enhancement, regional blood flow, and regional blood volume in 20 malignant lesions and 10 benign fibroadenomas in 38 patients. Imaging parameters were compared to surgical or biopsy obtained tissue samples. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and area under the ROC curves were calculated for each parameter and combination of parameters. The time of maximal enhancement derived from DCE MRI had a 90% sensitivity and 69% specificity for predicting malignancy. When combined with DSC MRI derived regional blood flow and volume parameters, sensitivity remained unchanged at 90% but specificity increased to 80%. In conclusion, we show that dual-echo MRI with a single administration of contrast agent can simultaneously measure both T1W and T2*W related perfusion and kinetic parameters in the breast and the combination of DCE MRI and DSC MRI parameters improves the diagnostic performance of breast MRI to differentiate breast cancer from benign fibroadenomas.

  4. Optical coherent control in semiconductors: Fringe contrast and inhomogeneous broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2001-01-01

    Optical coherent control experiments in semiconductors reveal how inhomogeneous broadening must be taken into account in contrast to previous coherent control experiments in atomic and molecular systems. With spectral resolution elf the coherent control signal, the optical phases involved...... is observed in the four-wave mixing spectra as a function of phase-delay representing coherent control in the spectral domain. The spectral phase change of this modulation provides a spectroscopic tool to analyze contributions of inhomogeneous broadening to electronic resonances in semiconductor structures....

  5. Quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, M.; Herzen, J.; Grandl, S.; Auweter, S.; Mayr, D.; Hipp, A.; Chabior, M.; Sarapata, A.; Achterhold, K.; Zanette, I.; Weitkamp, T.; Sztrókay, A.; Hellerhoff, K.; Reiser, M.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-04-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has received growing interest in recent years due to its high capability in visualizing soft tissue. Breast imaging became the focus of particular attention as it is considered the most promising candidate for a first clinical application of this contrast modality. In this study, we investigate quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) at conventional polychromatic x-ray sources. Different breast specimens have been scanned at a laboratory phase-contrast imaging setup and were correlated to histopathology. Ascertained tumor types include phylloides tumor, fibroadenoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Identified tissue types comprising adipose, fibroglandular and tumor tissue have been analyzed in terms of phase-contrast Hounsfield units and are compared to high-quality, high-resolution data obtained with monochromatic synchrotron radiation, as well as calculated values based on tabulated tissue properties. The results give a good impression of the method’s prospects and limitations for potential tumor detection and the associated demands on such a phase-contrast breast CT system. Furthermore, the evaluated quantitative tissue values serve as a reference for simulations and the design of dedicated phantoms for phase-contrast mammography.

  6. Interactive cell segmentation based on phase contrast optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hang; Su, Zhou; Zheng, Shibao; Yang, Hua; Wei, Sha

    2014-01-01

    Cell segmentation in phase contrast microscopy images lays a crucial foundation for numerous subsequent computer-aided cell image analysis, but it encounters many unsolved challenges due to image qualities and artifacts caused by phase contrast optics. Addressing the unsolved challenges, the authors propose an interactive cell segmentation scheme over phase retardation features. After partitioning the images into phase homogeneous atoms, human annotations are propagated to unlabeled atoms over an affinity graph that is learned based on discrimination analysis. Then, an active query strategy is proposed for which the most informative unlabeled atom is selected for annotation, which is also propagated to the other unlabeled atoms. Cell segmentation converges to quality results after several rounds of interactions involving both the user's intentions and characteristics of image features. Experimental results demonstrate that cells with different optical properties are well segmented via the proposed approach.

  7. Optimal Analysis Method for Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Diffuse Optical Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ghijsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT is an optical imaging modality that has various clinical applications. However, the spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy of DOT is poor due to strong photon scatting in biological tissue. Structural a priori information from another high spatial resolution imaging modality such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI has been demonstrated to significantly improve DOT accuracy. In addition, a contrast agent can be used to obtain differential absorption images of the lesion by using dynamic contrast enhanced DOT (DCE-DOT. This produces a relative absorption map that consists of subtracting a reconstructed baseline image from reconstructed images in which optical contrast is included. In this study, we investigated and compared different reconstruction methods and analysis approaches for regular endogenous DOT and DCE-DOT with and without MR anatomical a priori information for arbitrarily-shaped objects. Our phantom and animal studies have shown that superior image quality and higher accuracy can be achieved using DCE-DOT together with MR structural a priori information. Hence, implementation of a combined MRI-DOT system to image ICG enhancement can potentially be a promising tool for breast cancer imaging.

  8. Quantitative contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the optic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.H. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Rubinstein, D. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Brown, M. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Yuh, W. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Birch-Iensen, M. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Szumowski, J. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Stears, J. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    During the acute stages of optic neuritis damage to the blood-optic nerve barrier can be detected using i.v. paramagnetic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Quantification of the enhancement pattern of the optic nerve, intraorbital fat and muscle was determined in 15 normal subjects using 3 fat-suppression MR imaging methods: T1-weighted spin-echo and spoiled gradient-echo sequences preceded by a flat-frequency selective pulse (FATSAT+SE and FATSAT+SPGR, respectively) and a pulse sequence combining CHOPPER fat suppression with a fat-frequency selective preparation pulse (HYBRID). Pre- and postcontrast-enhanced studies were acquired for FATSAT+SE and FATSAT+SPGR. There was no significant enhancement of the optic nerve by either method (mean increase of 0.96% and 5.3%, respectively), while there was significant enhancement in muscle (mean 118.2% and 108.2%, respectively; p<0.005) and fat (mean increase of 13% and 37%, respectively; p<0.05). Postcontrast optic nerve/muscle signal intensity ratios (mean, SD) were 0.51 (0.07), 0.58 (0.05) and 0.75 (0.05) for FATSAT+SE, FATSAT+SPGR and HYBRID, respectively. These results suggest a practical methodology and range of values for normal signal intensity increases and ratios of tissue signal that can be used as objective measures of optic neuritis for natural history studies and treatment trials. (orig.).

  9. Advances in Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Breast Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S; Vogel, A J; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2006-01-03

    A review is presented of recent advances in optical imaging and spectroscopy and the use of light for addressing breast cancer issues. Spectroscopic techniques offer the means to characterize tissue components and obtain functional information in real time. Three-dimensional optical imaging of the breast using various illumination and signal collection schemes in combination with image reconstruction algorithms may provide a new tool for cancer detection and monitoring of treatment.

  10. Microvascular contrast enhancement in optical coherence tomography using microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Homa; Demidov, Valentin; Karshafian, Raffi; Douplik, Alexandre; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2016-07-01

    Gas microbubbles (MBs) are investigated as intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) contrast agents. Agar + intralipid scattering tissue phantoms with two embedded microtubes were fabricated to model vascular blood flow. One was filled with human blood, and the other with a mixture of human blood + MB. Swept-source structural and speckle variance (sv) OCT images, as well as speckle decorrelation times, were evaluated under both no-flow and varying flow conditions. Faster decorrelation times and higher structural and svOCT image contrasts were detected in the presence of MB in all experiments. The effects were largest in the svOCT imaging mode, and uniformly diminished with increasing flow velocity. These findings suggest the feasibility of utilizing MB for tissue hemodynamic investigations and for microvasculature contrast enhancement in OCT angiography.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Breast at 3T: Pre- and Post-Contrast Evaluation for Breast Lesion Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kousi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3T can provide accurate breast lesion characterization, and to determine the effect of gadolinium on the resonance of tCho. Methods. Twenty-four positive-mammogram patients were examined on a 3T MR scanner. 1H-MRS was performed before and after gadolinium administration. tCho peak was qualitatively evaluated before and after contrast injection. Results. Fourteen out of 27 lesions proved to be malignant after histopathological diagnosis. Using 1H-MRS, before contrast injection, 6/14 confirmed malignancies and 11/13 benign lesions were correctly classified; while, after contrast injection, 11/14 confirmed malignancies and 12/13 benign processes were correctly classified. Post gadolinium 1H-MRS proved useful in picking up tCho signal, improving the overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity by 35%, 83%, and 9%, respectively. Conclusion. 1H-MRS overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in detecting breast lesion’s malignancy were increased after gadolinium administration. It is prudent to perform 1H-MRS before contrast injection in large breast lesions to avoid choline underestimation. In cases of small or non-mass lesions, it is recommended to perform 1H-MRS after contrast injection for better voxel prescription to enable a reliable preoperative diagnosis.

  12. Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexman, Molly L; Khalil, Michael A; Al Abdi, Rabah; Kim, Hyun K; Fong, Christopher J; Desperito, Elise; Hershman, Dawn L; Barbour, Randall L; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2011-07-01

    Diffuse optical tomography has shown promising results as a tool for breast cancer screening and monitoring response to chemotherapy. Dynamic imaging of the transient response of the breast to an external stimulus, such as pressure or a respiratory maneuver, can provide additional information that can be used to detect tumors. We present a new digital continuous-wave optical tomography system designed to simultaneously image both breasts at fast frame rates and with a large number of sources and detectors. The system uses a master-slave digital signal processor-based detection architecture to achieve a dynamic range of 160 dB and a frame rate of 1.7 Hz with 32 sources, 64 detectors, and 4 wavelengths per breast. Included is a preliminary study of one healthy patient and two breast cancer patients showing the ability to identify an invasive carcinoma based on the hemodynamic response to a breath hold.

  13. Statistical analysis of motion contrast in optical coherence tomography angiography

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Yuxuan; Pan, Cong; Lu, Tongtong; Hong, Tianyu; Ding, Zhihua; Li, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (Angio-OCT), mainly based on the temporal dynamics of OCT scattering signals, has found a range of potential applications in clinical and scientific researches. In this work, based on the model of random phasor sums, temporal statistics of the complex-valued OCT signals are mathematically described. Statistical distributions of the amplitude differential (AD) and complex differential (CD) Angio-OCT signals are derived. The theories are validated through the flow phantom and live animal experiments. Using the model developed in this work, the origin of the motion contrast in Angio-OCT is mathematically explained, and the implications in the improvement of motion contrast are further discussed, including threshold determination and its residual classification error, averaging method, and scanning protocol. The proposed mathematical model of Angio-OCT signals can aid in the optimal design of the system and associated algorithms.

  14. High-contrast self-imaging with ordered optical elements

    CERN Document Server

    Naqavi, Ali; Rossi, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Creating arbitrary light patterns finds applications in various domains including lithography, beam shaping, metrology, sensing and imaging. We study the formation of high-contrast light patterns that are obtained by transmission through an ordered optical element based on self-imaging.By applying the phase-space method, we explain phenomena such as the Talbot and the angular Talbot effects. We show that the image contrast is maximum when the source is either a plane wave or a point source, and it has a minimum for a source with finite spatial extent. We compare these regimes and address some of their fundamental differences. Specifically, we prove that increasing the source divergence reduces the contrast for the plane wave illumination but increases it for the point source. Also, we show that to achieve high contrast with a point source, tuning the source size and its distance to the element is crucial.We furthermore indicate and explore the possibility of realizing highly complex light patterns by using a ...

  15. Topology optimized low-contrast all-dielectric optical cloak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    A systematic methodology for designing low-contrast all-dielectric cloaks operating in the optical range is presented. Topology optimization is used to find the layout of standard dielectric material that minimizes the norm of the scattered field in the surroundings of the cloak. Rotational...... symmetries are exploited to optimize for multiple angles based on the solution for a single angle of incidence. For a few discrete angles of incidences (1-4) the cloaking is shown to be nearly perfect in a limited frequency range, and even for a rotational symmetric design, cloak and object appear smaller...

  16. Breast Lesions: Correlation of Dynamic Contrast Enhancement Patterns on MR images with Tumor Angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeifangLiu; RunxianBao; YunNiu; YongYu

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI features of the early -phase enhancement rate, enhancement amplitude, and signal-intensity (SI) time course are associated with the microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression of malignant and benign breast lesions. METHODS Sixty patients with breast lesions, detected with physical examination or conventional mammography, were examined pre-operatively with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI from December 1998 to June 2000. Of these 60 patients, histopathological correlation was available in 38. These 38 patients(aged 29-73 years) formed the basis of this study. SI changes during dynamic scanning were assessed quantitatively. Early-phase enhancement rate and enhancement amplitude were calculated. Time-Sl curves of the lesions were obtained and classified according to their shapes as type I (which was steady enhancement to the end of the dynamic data acquisition at 7.5rain.), type Ⅱ (plateau of SI after avid initial contrast enhancement), or type Ⅲ (washout of SI after avid initial contrast enhancement). The mean MVD and VEGF expression of the lesions were measured with immunohistochemical staining methods in all the pathologic specimens by a pathologist without knowledge of the results of the MR examination. Care was taken to ensure identical location in the plane of the MR image and pathologic specimens. The relationships among dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI features, MVD, and VEGF expression of benign and malignant breast lesions were analyzed. RESULTS Histology revealed 21 malignancies and 17 benign lesions. The mean MVD and VEGF expression for the 21 malignant lesions were significantly higher than the mean MVD and VEGF expression for the 17 benign lesions (P60%) MR early-phase enhancement rate and time-SI curve type Ⅱ or Ⅲ showed a significant association with MVD and VEGF expression. All the differences mentioned above showed statistical significance (P 0

  17. Study on Compression Induced Contrast in X-ray Mammograms Using Breast Mimicking Phantoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. M. Aowlad Hossain

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available X-ray mammography is commonly used to scan cancer or tumors in breast using low dose x-rays. But mammograms suffer from low contrast problem. The breast is compressed in mammography to reduce x-ray scattering effects. As tumors are stiffer than normal tissues, they undergo smaller deformation under compression. Therefore, image intensity at tumor region may change less than the background tissues. In this study, we try to find out compression induced contrast from multiple mammographic images of tumorous breast phantoms taken with different compressions. This is an extended work of our previous simulation study with experiment and more analysis. We have used FEM models for synthetic phantom and constructed a phantom using agar and n-propanol for simulation and experiment. The x-ray images of deformed phantoms have been obtained under three compression steps and a non-rigid registration technique has been applied to register these images. It is noticeably observed that the image intensity changes at tumor are less than those at surrounding which induce a detectable contrast. Addition of this compression induced contrast to the simulated and experimental images has improved their original contrast by a factor of about 1.4

  18. Investigation of optimal parameters for penalized maximum-likelihood reconstruction applied to iodinated contrast-enhanced breast CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeev, Andrey; Ikejimba, Lynda; Lo, Joseph Y.; Glick, Stephen J.

    2016-03-01

    Although digital mammography has reduced breast cancer mortality by approximately 30%, sensitivity and specificity are still far from perfect. In particular, the performance of mammography is especially limited for women with dense breast tissue. Two out of every three biopsies performed in the U.S. are unnecessary, thereby resulting in increased patient anxiety, pain, and possible complications. One promising tomographic breast imaging method that has recently been approved by the FDA is dedicated breast computed tomography (BCT). However, visualizing lesions with BCT can still be challenging for women with dense breast tissue due to the minimal contrast for lesions surrounded by fibroglandular tissue. In recent years there has been renewed interest in improving lesion conspicuity in x-ray breast imaging by administration of an iodinated contrast agent. Due to the fully 3-D imaging nature of BCT, as well as sub-optimal contrast enhancement while the breast is under compression with mammography and breast tomosynthesis, dedicated BCT of the uncompressed breast is likely to offer the best solution for injected contrast-enhanced x-ray breast imaging. It is well known that use of statistically-based iterative reconstruction in CT results in improved image quality at lower radiation dose. Here we investigate possible improvements in image reconstruction for BCT, by optimizing free regularization parameter in method of maximum likelihood and comparing its performance with clinical cone-beam filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm.

  19. Optimization of propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast tomography for breast cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, P.; Pacile, S.; Nesterets, Y. I.; Mayo, S. C.; Dullin, C.; Dreossi, D.; Arfelli, F.; Thompson, D.; Lockie, D.; McCormack, M.; Taba, S. T.; Brun, F.; Pinamonti, M.; Nickson, C.; Hall, C.; Dimmock, M.; Zanconati, F.; Cholewa, M.; Quiney, H.; Brennan, P. C.; Tromba, G.; Gureyev, T. E.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to optimise the experimental protocol and data analysis for in-vivo breast cancer x-ray imaging. Results are presented of the experiment at the SYRMEP beamline of Elettra Synchrotron using the propagation-based phase-contrast mammographic tomography method, which incorporates not only absorption, but also x-ray phase information. In this study the images of breast tissue samples, of a size corresponding to a full human breast, with radiologically acceptable x-ray doses were obtained, and the degree of improvement of the image quality (from the diagnostic point of view) achievable using propagation-based phase-contrast image acquisition protocols with proper incorporation of x-ray phase retrieval into the reconstruction pipeline was investigated. Parameters such as the x-ray energy, sample-to-detector distance and data processing methods were tested, evaluated and optimized with respect to the estimated diagnostic value using a mastectomy sample with a malignant lesion. The results of quantitative evaluation of images were obtained by means of radiological assessment carried out by 13 experienced specialists. A comparative analysis was performed between the x-ray and the histological images of the specimen. The results of the analysis indicate that, within the investigated range of parameters, both the objective image quality characteristics and the subjective radiological scores of propagation-based phase-contrast images of breast tissues monotonically increase with the strength of phase contrast which in turn is directly proportional to the product of the radiation wavelength and the sample-to-detector distance. The outcomes of this study serve to define the practical imaging conditions and the CT reconstruction procedures appropriate for low-dose phase-contrast mammographic imaging of live patients at specially designed synchrotron beamlines.

  20. Volumetric texture analysis of breast lesions on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijie; Giger, Maryellen L; Li, Hui; Bick, Ulrich; Newstead, Gillian M

    2007-09-01

    Automated image analysis aims to extract relevant information from contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images (CE-MRI) of the breast and improve the accuracy and consistency of image interpretation. In this work, we extend the traditional 2D gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method to investigate a volumetric texture analysis approach and apply it for the characterization of breast MR lesions. Our database of breast MR images was obtained using a T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient echo sequence and consists of 121 biopsy-proven lesions (77 malignant and 44 benign). A fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM) based method is employed to automatically segment 3D breast lesions on CE-MR images. For each 3D lesion, a nondirectional GLCM is then computed on the first postcontrast frame by summing 13 directional GLCMs. Texture features are extracted from the nondirectional GLCMs and the performance of each texture feature in the task of distinguishing between malignant and benign breast lesions is assessed by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Our results show that the classification performance of volumetric texture features is significantly better than that based on 2D analysis. Our investigations of the effects of various of parameters on the diagnostic accuracy provided means for the optimal use of the approach.

  1. Novel nano-sized MR contrast agent mediates strong tumor contrast enhancement in an oncogene-driven breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per-Olof Eriksson

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to test the potential of a new nanomaterial (Spago Pix as a macromolecular magnetic MR contrast agent for tumor detection and to verify the presence of nanomaterial in tumor tissue. Spago Pix, synthesized by Spago Nanomedical AB, is a nanomaterial with a globular shape, an average hydrodynamic diameter of 5 nm, and a relaxivity (r1 of approximately 30 (mM Mn-1 s-1 (60 MHz. The material consists of an organophosphosilane hydrogel with strongly chelated manganese (II ions and a covalently attached PEG surface layer. In vivo MRI of the MMTV-PyMT breast cancer model was performed on a 3 T clinical scanner. Tissues were thereafter analyzed for manganese and silicon content using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. The presence of nanomaterial in tumor and muscle tissue was assessed using an anti-PEG monoclonal antibody. MR imaging of tumor-bearing mice (n = 7 showed a contrast enhancement factor of 1.8 (tumor versus muscle at 30 minutes post-administration. Contrast was retained and further increased 2-4 hours after administration. ICP-AES and immunohistochemistry confirmed selective accumulation of nanomaterial in tumor tissue. A blood pharmacokinetics analysis showed that the concentration of Spago Pix gradually decreased over the first hour, which was in good agreement with the time frame in which the accumulation in tumor occurred. In summary, we demonstrate that Spago Pix selectively enhances MR tumor contrast in a clinically relevant animal model. Based on the generally higher vascular leakiness in malignant compared to benign tissue lesions, Spago Pix has the potential to significantly improve cancer diagnosis and characterization by MRI.

  2. Detection of low-contrast signals in low optical density. Effects of film contrast and noise on signal detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondoh, Yasufumi; Hamada, Tomohiro; Mochizuki, Yuji; Yoshida, Yukito; Murakami, Yasunori [Oita Medical Univ., Hasama (Japan). Hospital; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    1998-04-01

    Observer performance tests were conducted to establish the effects of the noise and film contrast of screen-film systems on the detection of low-contrast signals. Three screen-film systems with different noise levels and film contrast were used in the experiments. The observer performance tests were carried out by the contrast-detail (C-D) diagram method and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The results of observer performance tests with the C-D diagram method and ROC analysis indicated that the screen-film system with low noise level and high film contrast provided higher detectability than the system with low noise and low contrast. The screen-film system with high contrast showed greater improvement in detectability than the system with low contrast and low noise at low optical densities, despite the increase in noise. (author)

  3. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is helpful in the differentiation of malignant and benign breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Hongjia; Xu Rong; Ouyang Qiufang [Department of Ultrasound, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou (China); Chen Lidian [Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou (China)], E-mail: lidianchen87@yahoo.com; Dong Baowei [Department of Ultrasound, PLA 301 General Hospital, Beijing (China); Huihua Ye [Department of Ultrasound, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou (China)

    2010-02-15

    Objective: To evaluate the significance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) examination in differential diagnosis of malignant and benign breast lesions. Methods: Seventy-one patients with seventy-six breast tumors are selected randomly. CEUS examinations were performed before and after bolus injection of the contrast agent SonoVue (Bracco, Milan, Italy). Specific sonographic quantification software, Qontrast, was adopted to determine the morphology of vessels. Wash-in and wash-out parameters of each lesion were assessed for both procedures. Results: The final histopathological findings distinguished 45 malignant and 31 benign from all of the lesions. Following SonoVue administration different perfusion phases could be identified: early (0-1 min), mid (1-4 min) and late (4-6 min) phases. In the early phase, CEUS identified 91.1% of malignant tumors characterized by a claw-shaped enhancement, while 83.9% of benign tumors had a homogeneous enhancement, with a statistically significant difference between the two enhancement patterns ({chi}{sup 2} = 43.16, P < 0.01). Moreover, contrast medium persistence in the late phase was helpful in the identification of benign and malignant tumors ({chi}{sup 2} = 46.88, P < 0.01): contrast medium was present in 88.9% of malignant tumors, while in only 9.7% of the benign tumors. The study showed that various parametric imaging color maps for peak intensity and time to peak were mostly suggestive of malignancy, while quite uniform peak intensity and time to peak of color maps were the characteristic of benign tumors. The study also found that malignant lesions presented with a higher maximum intensity signal than benign ones (P < 0.05) on the time-intensity curves. Conclusions: CEUS cooperating with conventional US shows improved accuracy in differentiating between malignant and benign breast tumors. It could be a reliable diagnostic method of breast lesions.

  4. Magnetic protein microspheres as dynamic contrast agents for magnetomotive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Freddy T.; Dibbern, Elizabeth M.; Chaney, Eric J.; Oldenburg, Amy L.; Suslick, Kenneth S.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2008-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging biomedical imaging modality that has been developed over the last 15 years. More recently, OCT has been used for the intraoperative imaging of tumor margins in breast cancer and axillary lymph nodes providing a real time in-vivo assessment of the tissue morphology. Traditional OCT images are limited by only being able to observe morphological structures. As diagnostic medicine continues to push for earlier detection, one must develop functional imaging modalities that would detect molecular information in-vivo allowing a real-time microscopic analysis of the tissue specimen. A novel modality of OCT called magnetomotive-OCT (MMOCT) has been developed by our group, employing an induced modulated magnetic field with a magnetic contrast agent to create the added contrast to structural OCT images. Modified protein microspheres with a BSA protein shell functionalized with RGD peptide sequences for targeting and an oil core have been designed and synthesized. Magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) and Nile Red dye have been encapsulated into its oil core. These microspheres have previously been demonstrated to target cancer cells by functionalizing them with a layer of RGD peptides and could be functionalized with monoclonal antibodies. Preliminary results show that these magnetic microspheres, which are 2.0- 5.0 microns in size, are readily detectable under MM-OCT when embedded in a 5% agarose gel, in a 3-D scaffold of macrophage cells previously incubated with the microspheres, and when injected in-vivo into a tumor from an NMUcarcinogen rat animal model for breast cancer.

  5. Breast Cancer Detection Using Optical Vascular Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    to Action: Seeking Solutions, the 2005 California Breast Cancer Research Symposium, Sacramento , CA, September 9-11, 2005. • Kenneth T. Kotz, Khalid...Biophys. Acta 933, pp. 184-192, 1988. 152 Proc. of SPIE Vol. 4955 43. B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza , T. Pham, L

  6. Parametric imaging using subharmonic signals from ultrasound contrast agents in patients with breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrey, John R; Dave, Jaydev K; Merton, Daniel A; Palazzo, Juan P; Hall, Anne L; Forsberg, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Parametric maps showing perfusion of contrast media can be useful tools for characterizing lesions in breast tissue. In this study we show the feasibility of parametric subharmonic imaging (SHI), which allows imaging of a vascular marker (the ultrasound contrast agent) while providing near complete tissue suppression. Digital SHI clips of 16 breast lesions from 14 women were acquired. Patients were scanned using a modified LOGIQ 9 scanner (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) transmitting/receiving at 4.4/2.2 MHz. Using motion-compensated cumulative maximum intensity (CMI) sequences, parametric maps were generated for each lesion showing the time to peak (TTP), estimated perfusion (EP), and area under the time-intensity curve (AUC). Findings were grouped and compared according to biopsy results as benign lesions (n = 12, including 5 fibroadenomas and 3 cysts) and carcinomas (n = 4). For each lesion CMI, TTP, EP, and AUC parametric images were generated. No significant variations were detected with CMI (P = .80), TTP (P = .35), or AUC (P = .65). A statistically significant variation was detected for the average pixel EP (P = .002). Especially, differences were seen between carcinoma and benign lesions (mean ± SD, 0.10 ± 0.03 versus 0.05 ± 0.02 intensity units [IU]/s; P = .0014) and between carcinoma and fibroadenoma (0.10 ± 0.03 versus 0.04 ± 0.01 IU/s; P = .0044), whereas differences between carcinomas and cysts were found to be nonsignificant. In conclusion, a parametric imaging method for characterization of breast lesions using the high contrast to tissue signal provided by SHI has been developed. While the preliminary sample size was limited, results show potential for breast lesion characterization based on perfusion flow parameters.

  7. Prostate cancer characterization by optical contrast enhanced photoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Qin, Ming; Mukundan, Ananya; Siddiqui, Javed; Takada, Marilia; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo; Tomlins, Scott A.; Kopelman, Raoul; Wang, Xueding

    2016-03-01

    During the past decades, prostate cancer (PCa), with an annual incident rate much higher than any other cancer, is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American men. PCa has a relatively low progression rate yet the survival percentage decreases dramatically once the cancer has metastasized. Identifying aggressive from indolent PCa to prevent metastasis and death is critical to improving outcomes for patients with PCa. Standard procedure for assessing the aggressiveness of PCa involves the removal of tumor tissues by transrectal (TR) ultrasound (US) guided needle biopsy. The microscopic architecture of the biopsied tissue is visualized by histological or immunohistochemical staining procedures. The heterogeneity of the microscopic architecture is characterized by a Gleason score, a quantitative description of the aggressiveness of PCa. Due to the inability to identify the cancer cells, most noninvasive imaging modalities can only provide diagnosis of PCa at limited accuracy. This study investigates the feasibility of identifying PCa tumors and characterizing the aggressiveness of PCa by photoacoustic imaging assisted by cancer targeting polyacrylamide (PAA) nanoparticles (NPs). PAA is a biocompatible material used in clinics for the past 20 years. PAA NPs can protect capsulated optical contrast agents from interference by enzymes and enable prolonged systematic circulation in the living biological environment. The cancer targeting mechanism is achieved by conjugating the NPs to F3 peptides, which trace nucleolin overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells. Preliminary studies have shown that the NPs are capable of staining the PCa cells in vivo.

  8. Comparative evaluation of methylene blue and demeclocycline for enhancing optical contrast of brain neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Dennis J.

    Brain tumors cause significant morbidity and mortality even when benign. Completeness of resection of brain tumors has been associated with better quality of life. However, that is often difficult to accomplish. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using contrast enhanced multimodal confocal imaging for intraoperative detection of brain neoplasms. Different types of benign and malignant, primary and metastatic brain tumors, stained with Methylene Blue (MB) as a contrast agent, were imaged. MB is a traditional histopathologic stain that absorbs light in the red spectral range and fluoresces in the near infrared. It is FDA-approved for in vivo staining of human skin and breast tissue. Optical images showed good correlation with histopathology, demonstrating the potential of contrast enhanced multimodal confocal imaging for intraoperative detection of brain neoplasms ex vivo. However, the safety of MB for staining human brain in vivo is questionable. Demeclocycline (DMN), an antibiotic of the tetracycline family, has shown to be effective in differentiating normal from cancerous tissue in various organs. DMN is a fluorophore, which absorbs light in the violet spectral range and has a broad emission band covering green and yellow wavelengths. It is commonly used to treat infection and inflammatory disorders, and could provide a safer alternative to MB. To test this hypothesis, fresh excess human brain tissues were bisected and stained with aqueous solutions of either MB or DMN and then imaged. Reflectance and fluorescence images acquired from tissues stained with the two dyes were compared, and correlated with processed H&E histopathology. Comparison showed similar staining patterns and contrast of diagnostic features in glioblastomas, stained using either MB or DMN. The results show potential of both MB and DMN for the intraoperative detection of microscopic nests of brain neoplasms. Further studies will establish safety and efficacy of these

  9. Optical imaging of breast tumors and of gastrointestinal cancer by laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Bernd; Grosenick, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Optical imaging offers a high potential for noninvasive detection of cancer in humans. Recent advances in instrumentation for diffuse optical imaging have led to new capabilities for the detection of cancer in highly scattering tissue such as the female breast. We review recent developments in the detection of breast cancer in humans by fluorescent contrast agents. So far, the unspecific contrast agents indocyanine green (ICG) and omocyanine have been applied, whereas molecular probes for direct targeted imaging of this disease are still in preclinical research. We discuss recent improvements in the differentiation of malignant and benign lesions with ICG based on its enhanced extravasation in breast cancer. Whereas fluorescence imaging in thick tissue layers is hampered by strong light scattering, tissue surfaces can be investigated with high spatial resolution. As an example for superficial tumors, lesions of the gastrointestinal tract (GI) are discussed. In these investigations, protoporphyrin IX is used as a tumor-specific (due to its strong enhancement in tumor cells) target for spectroscopic identification and imaging. We present a time-gated method for fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy with strong suppression of tissue autofluorescence and show results on patients with Barrett's esophagus and with colitis ulcerosa.

  10. Early detection of breast cancer: a molecular optical imaging approach using novel estrogen conjugate fluorescent dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shubhadeep; Jose, Iven

    2011-02-01

    Estrogen induced proliferation of mutant cells is widely understood to be the one of major risk determining factor in the development of breast cancer. Hence determination of the Estrogen Receptor[ER] status is of paramount importance if cancer pathogenesis is to be detected and rectified at an early stage. Near Infrared Fluorescence [NIRf] Molecular Optical Imaging is emerging as a powerful tool to monitor bio-molecular changes in living subjects. We discuss pre-clinical results in our efforts to develop an optical imaging diagnostic modality for the early detection of breast cancer. We have successfully carried out the synthesis and characterization of a novel target-specific NIRf dye conjugate aimed at measuring Estrogen Receptor[ER] status. The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-β estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of Indocyanine Green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1,1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5-carboxylic acid, sodium salt. In-vitro studies regarding specific binding and endocytocis of the dye performed on ER+ve [MCF-7] and control [MDA-MB-231] adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell lines clearly indicated nuclear localization of the dye for MCF-7 as compared to plasma level staining for MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells showed ~4.5-fold increase in fluorescence signal intensity compared to MDA-MB-231. A 3-D mesh model mimicking the human breast placed in a parallel-plate DOT Scanner is created to examine the in-vivo efficacy of the dye before proceeding with clinical trials. Photon migration and florescence flux intensity is modeled using the finite-element method with the coefficients (quantum yield, molar extinction co-efficient etc.) pertaining to the dye as obtained from photo-physical and in-vitro studies. We conclude by stating that this lipophilic dye can be potentially used as a target specific exogenous contrast agent in molecular optical imaging for early detection of breast cancer.

  11. X-ray phase-contrast tomosynthesis for improved breast tissue discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleede, Simone, E-mail: Schleede@tum.de [Department of Physics and Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Bech, Martin, E-mail: martin.bech@tum.de [Department of Physics and Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, 22185 Lund (Sweden); Grandl, Susanne, E-mail: Susanne.Grandl@med.uni-muenchen.de [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 München (Germany); Sztrókay, Aniko, E-mail: Aniko.Sztrokay@med.uni-muenchen.de [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 München (Germany); Herzen, Julia, E-mail: julia.herzen@hzg.de [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Mayr, Doris, E-mail: doris.mayr@med.uni-muenchen.de [Institute of Pathology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Thalkirchner Str. 36, 80337 Munich (Germany); Stockmar, Marco, E-mail: marco.stockmar@ph.tum.de [Department of Physics and Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Potdevin, Guillaume, E-mail: potdevinguillaume@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Attenuation-based tomosynthesis has proven to successfully resolve the glandular tissue overlap present in mammography. However, the ability of tomosynthesis to differentiate tumorous and glandular tissue remains limited, due to the small differences in X-ray attenuation in breast tissue. One possibility to overcome this limitation and to further increase the diagnostic value of tomosynthesis exams, is the application of recently developed grating-based phase-contrast methods, which provide complementary information on the phase shift and the local scattering power of the sample. In this study, we report on first phase-contrast breast tomosynthesis results of a mastectomy sample slice with an invasive ductal carcinoma. Material and methods: A slice of a mastectomy sample with histologically proven invasive ductal cancer was imaged at the synchrotron radiation source ESRF (Grenoble, France). We used a two-grating interferometer setup at the ninth fractional Talbot distance and with an X-ray energy of 23 keV. In grating interferometry absorption, differential phase, and scattering images are recorded simultaneously. The tomosynthesis scan comprises 61 projections. Multimodal tomosynthesis results were reconstructed using a standard filtered back-projection approach. Our findings are supported by a comparison of tomographic views to histopathology. Results: Phase-contrast tomosynthesis combines the advantage of improved soft-tissue discrimination in phase-contrast imaging with the ability of tomosynthesis to provide a third dimension so that improved feature visibility is not hampered by superposition artifacts. Our results indicate superior diagnostic value due to the depth resolution supplied in tomosynthesis imaging; a region of necrotic tissue that is obscured in a projection image can clearly be depicted in one single tomosynthesis slice. Compared to absorption tomosynthesis alone, soft tissue contrast is significantly enhanced in phase-contrast

  12. X-ray phase contrast imaging of the breast: Analysis of tissue simulating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Karellas, Andrew [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Phase contrast imaging, particularly of the breast, is being actively investigated. The purpose of this work is to investigate the x-ray phase contrast properties of breast tissues and commonly used breast tissue substitutes or phantom materials with an aim of determining the phantom materials best representative of breast tissues. Methods: Elemental compositions of breast tissues including adipose, fibroglandular, and skin were used to determine the refractive index, n= 1 -{delta}+i {beta}. The real part of the refractive index, specifically the refractive index decrement ({delta}), over the energy range of 5-50 keV were determined using XOP software (version 2.3, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France). Calcium oxalate and calcium hydroxyapatite were considered to represent the material compositions of microcalcifications in vivo. Nineteen tissue substitutes were considered as possible candidates to represent adipose tissue, fibroglandular tissue and skin, and four phantom materials were considered as possible candidates to represent microcalcifications. For each material, either the molecular formula, if available, or the elemental composition based on weight fraction, was used to determine {delta}. At each x-ray photon energy, the absolute percent difference in {delta} between the breast tissue and the substitute material was determined, from which three candidates were selected. From these candidate tissue substitutes, the material that minimized the absolute percent difference in linear attenuation coefficient {mu}, and hence {beta}, was considered to be best representative of that breast tissue. Results: Over the energy range of 5-50 keV, while the {delta} of CB3 and fibroglandular tissue-equivalent material were within 1% of that of fibroglandular tissue, the {mu} of fibroglandular tissue-equivalent material better approximated the fibroglandular tissue. While the {delta} of BR10 and adipose tissue-equivalent material were within 1% of

  13. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound improved performance of breast imaging reporting and data system evaluation of critical breast lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Luo; Ji-Dong Chen; Qing Chen; Lin-Xian Yue; Guo Zhou; Cheng Lan; Yi Li; Chi-Hua Wu; Jing-Qiao Lu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether contrast-enhanced ultrasound(CEUS) can improve the precision of breast imaging reporting and data system(BI-RADS) categorization. METHODS: A total of 230 patients with 235 solid breast lesions classified as BI-RADS 4 on conventional ultrasound were evaluated. CEUS was performed within one week before core needle biopsy or surgical resection and a revised BI-RADS classification was assigned based on 10 CEUS imaging characteristics. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was then conducted to evaluate the diagnostic performance of CEUS-based BI-RADS assignment with pathological examination as reference criteria. RESULTS: The CEUS-based BI-RADS evaluation classified 116/235(49.36%) lesions into category 3, 20(8.51%), 13(5.53%) and 12(5.11%) lesions into categories 4A, 4B and 4C, respectively, and 74(31.49%) into category 5. Selecting CEUS-based BI-RADS category 4A as an appropriate cut-off gave sensitivity and specificity values of 85.4% and 87.8%, respectively, for the diagnosisof malignant disease. The cancer-to-biopsy yield was 73.11% with CEUS-based BI-RADS 4A selected as the biopsy threshold compared with 40.85% otherwise, while the biopsy rate was only 42.13% compared with 100% otherwise. Overall, only 4.68% of invasive cancers were misdiagnosed.CONCLUSION: This pilot study suggests that evaluation of BI-RADS 4 breast lesions with CEUS results in reduced biopsy rates and increased cancer-to-biopsy yields.

  14. CONTRAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Krogsgaard

    2007-01-01

    Dette er en afrapportering fra den årlige CONTRAST workshop, der i 2007 blev afholdt i Yaoundé, Cameroon.......Dette er en afrapportering fra den årlige CONTRAST workshop, der i 2007 blev afholdt i Yaoundé, Cameroon....

  15. Molecular photoacoustic tomography of breast cancer using receptor targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Lei; Grobmyer, Stephen R; Zhou, Guangyin; Qian, Weiping; Yang, Lily; Jiang, Huabei

    2014-06-01

    In this report, we present a breast imaging technique combining high-resolution near-infrared (NIR) light induced photoacoustic tomography (PAT) with NIR dye-labeled amino-terminal fragments of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NIR830-ATF-IONP) for breast cancer imaging using an orthotopic mouse mammary tumor model. We show that accumulation of the targeted nanoparticles in the tumor led to photoacoustic contrast enhancement due to the high absorption of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP). NIR fluorescence images were used to validate specific delivery of NIR830-ATF-IONP to mouse mammary tumors. We found that systemic delivery of the targeted IONP produced 4- and 10-fold enhancement in photoacoustic signals in the tumor, compared to the tumor of the mice that received non-targeted IONP or control mice. The use of targeted nanoparticles allowed imaging of tumors located as deep as 3.1 cm beneath the normal tissues. Our study indicates the potential of the combination of photoacoustic tomography and receptor-targeted NIR830-ATF-IONP as a clinical tool that can provide improved specificity and sensitivity for breast cancer detection.

  16. Search for novel contrast materials in dual-energy x-ray breast imaging using theoretical modeling of contrast-to-noise ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamuni, R; Maidment, A D A

    2014-08-01

    Contrast-enhanced (CE) dual-energy (DE) x-ray breast imaging uses a low- and high-energy x-ray spectral pair to eliminate soft-tissue signal variation and thereby increase the detectability of exogenous imaging agents. Currently, CEDE breast imaging is performed with iodinated contrast agents. These compounds are limited by several deficiencies, including rapid clearance and poor tumor targeting ability. The purpose of this work is to identify novel contrast materials whose contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) is comparable or superior to that of iodine in the mammographic energy range. A monoenergetic DE subtraction framework was developed to calculate the DE signal intensity resulting from the logarithmic subtraction of the low- and high-energy signal intensities. A weighting factor is calculated to remove the dependence of the DE signal on the glandularity of the breast tissue. Using the DE signal intensity and weighting factor, the CNR for materials with atomic numbers (Z) ranging from 1 to 79 are computed for energy pairs between 10 and 50 keV. A group of materials with atomic numbers ranging from 42 to 63 were identified to exhibit the highest levels of CNR in the mammographic energy range. Several of these materials have been formulated as nanoparticles for various applications but none, apart from iodine, have been investigated as CEDE breast imaging agents. Within this group of materials, the necessary dose fraction to the LE image decreases as the atomic number increases. By reducing the dose to the LE image, the DE subtraction technique will not provide an anatomical image of sufficient quality to accompany the contrast information. Therefore, materials with Z from 42 to 52 provide nearly optimal values of CNR with energy pairs and dose fractions that provide good anatomical images. This work is intended to inspire further research into new materials for optimized CEDE breast functional imaging.

  17. High-speed optical observations of contrast agent destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouakaz, Ayache; Versluis, Michel; Jong, de Nico

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents are now available since a few years and used for diagnostic purposes. Improved diagnostic decisions have been made possible with new imaging methods that are mainly based on the nonlinear properties of gas microbubbles. Since it is well known that contrast agents are destr

  18. Contrast enhancement in dense breast images using the modulation transfer function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Fátima L S; Schiabel, Homero; Benatti, Rodrigo H

    2002-12-01

    This work proposes a method aimed at enhancing the contrast in dense breast images in mammography. It includes a new preprocessing technique, which uses information on the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the mammographic system in the whole radiation field. The method is applied to improve the efficiency of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme. Seventy-five regions of interest (ROIs) from dense mammograms were acquired in two pieces of equipment (a CGR Senographe 500t and a Philips Mammodiagnost) and were digitized in a Lumiscan 50 laser scanner. A computational procedure determines the effective focal spot size in each region of interest from the measured focal spot in the center for a given mammographic equipment. Using computational simulation the MTF is then calculated for each field region. A procedure that enlarges the high-frequency portion of this function is applied and a convolution between the resulting new function and the original image is performed. Both original and enhanced images were submitted to a processing procedure for detecting clustered microcalcifications in order to compare the performance for dense breast images. ROIs were divided into four groups, two for each piece of equipment-one with clustered microcalcifications and another without microcalcifications. Our results show that in about 10% of the enhanced images more signals were detected when compared to the results for the original dense breast images. This is important because the usual processing techniques used in CAD schemes present poor results when applied to dense breast images. Since the MTF method is a well-recognized tool in the evaluation of radiographic systems, this new technique could be used to associate quality assurance procedures with the processing schemes employed in CAD for mammography.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of Bombesin-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as a targeted contrast agent for imaging of breast cancer using MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Atefeh; Salouti, Mojtaba; Farjami Shayesteh, Saber; Heidari, Zahra; Bitarafan Rajabi, Ahmad; Boustani, Komail; Nahardani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The targeted delivery of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a contrast agent may facilitate their accumulation in cancer cells and enhance the sensitivity of MR imaging. In this study, SPIONs coated with dextran (DSPIONs) were conjugated with bombesin (BBN) to produce a targeting contrast agent for detection of breast cancer using MRI. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer analyses indicated the formation of dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with an average size of 6.0 ± 0.5 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the conjugation of the BBN with the DSPIONs. A stability study proved the high optical stability of DSPION-BBN in human blood serum. DSPION-BBN biocompatibility was confirmed by cytotoxicity evaluation. A binding study showed the targeting ability of DSPION-BBN to bind to T47D breast cancer cells overexpressing gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors. T2-weighted and T2*-weighted color map MR images were acquired. The MRI study indicated that the DSPION-BBN possessed good diagnostic ability as a GRP-specific contrast agent, with appropriate signal reduction in T2*-weighted color map MR images in mice with breast tumors.

  20. Nonlinear reconstruction of absorption and fluorescence contrast from measured diffuse transmittance and reflectance of a compressed-breast-simulating phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ronny; Nielsen, Tim; Koehler, Thomas; Grosenick, Dirk; Steinkellner, Oliver; Hagen, Axel; Macdonald, Rainer; Rinneberg, Herbert

    2009-08-20

    We report on the nonlinear reconstruction of local absorption and fluorescence contrast in tissuelike scattering media from measured time-domain diffuse reflectance and transmittance of laser as well as laser-excited fluorescence radiation. Measurements were taken at selected source-detector offsets using slablike diffusely scattering and fluorescent phantoms containing fluorescent heterogeneities. Such measurements simulate in vivo data that would be obtained employing a scanning, time-domain fluorescence mammograph, where the breast is gently compressed between two parallel glass plates, and source and detector optical fibers scan synchronously at various source-detector offsets, allowing the recording of laser and fluorescence mammograms. The diffusion equations modeling the propagation of the laser and fluorescence radiation were solved in frequency domain by the finite element method simultaneously for several modulation frequencies using Fourier transformation and preprocessed experimental data. To reconstruct the concentration of the fluorescent contrast agent, the Born approximation including higher-order reconstructed photon densities at the excitation wavelength was used. Axial resolution was determined that can be achieved by various detection schemes. We show that remission measurements increase the depth resolution significantly.

  1. Time-domain optical mammography Softscan: initial results on detection and characterization of breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intes, Xavier; Djeziri, Salim; Ichalalene, Zahia; Mincu, Niculae; Wang, Yong; St.-Jean, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric; Hall, David; Boas, David A.; Polyzos, Margaret

    2004-10-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) technology appears promising as a non-invasive clinical technique for breast cancer screening and diagnosis. The technology capitalizes on the relative transparency of human tissue in this spectral range and its sensitivity to the main components of the breast:; water, lipid and hemoglobin. In this work we present initial results obtained using the SoftScan® breast-imaging system developed by ART, Advanced Research Technologies inc., Montreal. This platform consists of a 4-wavelength time-resolved scanning system used to quantify non-invasively the local functional state of breast tissue. The different aspects of the system used to retrieve 3D optical contrast will be presented. Furthermore, preliminary data obtained from a prospective study conducted at The Royal Victoria Hospital of the McGill University Health Center in Montreal will be discussed. Analysis of the data gathered by SoftScan® demonstrated the potential of the technology in discriminating between healthy and diseased tissue.

  2. Time-gated optical imaging through turbid media using stimulated Raman scattering: Studies on image contrast

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Divakar Rao; H S Patel; B Jain; P K Gupta

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, we report the development of experimental set-up for timegated optical imaging through turbid media using stimulated Raman scattering. Our studies on the contrast of time-gated images show that for a given optical thickness, the image contrast is better for sample with lower scattering coefficient and higher physical thickness, and that the contrast improves with decreasing value of anisotropy parameters of the scatterers. These results are consistent with time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Reconstruction of Optical Thickness from Hoffman Modulation Contrast Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Holm; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads;

    2003-01-01

    Hoffman microscopy imaging systems are part of numerous fertility clinics world-wide. We discuss the physics of the Hoffman imaging system from optical thickness to image intensity, implement a simple, yet fast, reconstruction algorithm using Fast Fourier Transformation and discuss the usability...... of the method on a number of cells from a human embryo. Novelty is identifying the non-linearity of a typical Hoffman imaging system, and the application of Fourier Transformation to reconstruct the optical thickness....

  4. Innovation and fusion of x-ray and optical tomography for mouse studies of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ge; Cong, Wenxiang; Yang, Qingsong; Pian, Qi; Zhu, Shouping; Liang, Jimin; Barroso, Margarida; Intes, Xavier

    2016-10-01

    For early detection and targeted therapy, receptor expression profiling is instrumental to classifying breast cancer into sub-groups. In particular, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression has been shown to have both prognostic and predictive values. Recently, an increasingly more complex view of HER2 in breast cancer has emerged from genome sequencing that highlights the role of inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity in therapy resistance. Studies on such heterogeneity demand high-content, high-resolution functional and molecular imaging in vivo, which cannot be achieved using any single imaging tool. Clearly, there is a critical need to develop a multimodality approach for breast cancer imaging. Since 2006, grating-based x-ray imaging has been developed for much-improved x-ray images. In 2014, the demonstration of fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) guided by x-ray grating-based micro-CT was reported with encouraging results and major drawbacks. In this paper, we propose to integrate grating-based x-ray tomography (GXT) and high-dimensional optical tomography (HOT) into the first-of-its-kind truly-fused GXT-HOT (pronounced as "Get Hot") system for imaging of breast tumor heterogeneity, HER2 expression and dimerization, and therapeutic response. The primary innovation lies in developing a brand-new high-content, high-throughput x-ray optical imager based on several contemporary techniques to have MRI-type soft tissue contrast, PET-like sensitivity and specificity, and micro-CT-equivalent resolution. This system consists of two orthogonal x-ray Talbot-Lau interferometric imaging chains and a hyperspectral time-resolved single-pixel optical imager. Both the system design and pilot results will be reported in this paper, along with relevant issues under further investigation.

  5. The Added Diagnostic Value of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI at 3.0 T in Nonpalpable Breast Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckel, Laura G.; Verkooijen, Helena M.; Peters, Nicky H. G. M.; Mann, Ritse M.; Veldhuis, Wouter B.; Storm, Remmert K.; Weits, Teun; Duvivier, Katya M.; van Dalen, Thijs; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; van den Bosch, Maurice A. A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the added diagnostic value of 3.0 Tesla breast MRI over conventional breast imaging in the diagnosis of in situ and invasive breast cancer and to explore the role of routine versus expert reading. Materials and Methods We evaluated MRI scans of patients with nonpalpable BI-RADS 3–5 lesions who underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced 3.0 Tesla breast MRI. Initially, MRI scans were read by radiologists in a routine clinical setting. All histologically confirmed index lesions were re-evaluated by two dedicated breast radiologists. Sensitivity and specificity for the three MRI readings were determined, and the diagnostic value of breast MRI in addition to conventional imaging was assessed. Interobserver reliability between the three readings was evaluated. Results MRI examinations of 207 patients were analyzed. Seventy-eight of 207 (37.7%) patients had a malignant lesion, of which 33 (42.3%) patients had pure DCIS and 45 (57.7%) invasive breast cancer. Sensitivity of breast MRI was 66.7% during routine, and 89.3% and 94.7% during expert reading. Specificity was 77.5% in the routine setting, and 61.0% and 33.3% during expert reading. In the routine setting, MRI provided additional diagnostic information over clinical information and conventional imaging, as the Area Under the ROC Curve increased from 0.76 to 0.81. Expert MRI reading was associated with a stronger improvement of the AUC to 0.87. Interobserver reliability between the three MRI readings was fair and moderate. Conclusions 3.0 T breast MRI of nonpalpable breast lesions is of added diagnostic value for the diagnosis of in situ and invasive breast cancer. PMID:24713637

  6. The added diagnostic value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI at 3.0 T in nonpalpable breast lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura G Merckel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the added diagnostic value of 3.0 Tesla breast MRI over conventional breast imaging in the diagnosis of in situ and invasive breast cancer and to explore the role of routine versus expert reading. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated MRI scans of patients with nonpalpable BI-RADS 3-5 lesions who underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced 3.0 Tesla breast MRI. Initially, MRI scans were read by radiologists in a routine clinical setting. All histologically confirmed index lesions were re-evaluated by two dedicated breast radiologists. Sensitivity and specificity for the three MRI readings were determined, and the diagnostic value of breast MRI in addition to conventional imaging was assessed. Interobserver reliability between the three readings was evaluated. RESULTS: MRI examinations of 207 patients were analyzed. Seventy-eight of 207 (37.7% patients had a malignant lesion, of which 33 (42.3% patients had pure DCIS and 45 (57.7% invasive breast cancer. Sensitivity of breast MRI was 66.7% during routine, and 89.3% and 94.7% during expert reading. Specificity was 77.5% in the routine setting, and 61.0% and 33.3% during expert reading. In the routine setting, MRI provided additional diagnostic information over clinical information and conventional imaging, as the Area Under the ROC Curve increased from 0.76 to 0.81. Expert MRI reading was associated with a stronger improvement of the AUC to 0.87. Interobserver reliability between the three MRI readings was fair and moderate. CONCLUSIONS: 3.0 T breast MRI of nonpalpable breast lesions is of added diagnostic value for the diagnosis of in situ and invasive breast cancer.

  7. Contrast ultrasound-guided photothermal therapy using gold nanoshelled microcapsules in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shumin [Department of Ultrasonography, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100083 (China); Ordos Center Hospital, Ordos, Inner Mongolia 017000 (China); Dai, Zhifei [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ke, Hengte [Nanomedicine and Biosensor Laboratory, School of Life Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Qu, Enze [Department of Ultrasonography, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100083 (China); Qi, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Kuo [Department of Laboratory Animal Science, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100019 (China); Wang, Jinrui, E-mail: jinrui_wang@sina.com [Department of Ultrasonography, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test whether dual functional gold nano-shelled microcapsules (GNS-MCs) can be used as an ultrasound imaging enhancer and as an optical absorber for photothermal therapy (PTT) in a rodent model of breast cancer. Methods: GNS-MCs were fabricated with an inner air and outer gold nanoshell spherical structure. Photothermal cytotoxicity of GNS-MCs was tested with BT474 cancer cells in vitro and non-obese diabetes-SCID (NOD/SCID) mice with breast cancer. GNS-MCs were injected into the tumor under ultrasound guidance and treated with near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. The photothermal ablative effectiveness of GNS-MCs was evaluated by measuring the surface and internal temperature of the tumor as well as the size of the tumor using histological confirmation. Results: NIR laser irradiation resulted in significant tumor cell death in GNS-MCs-treated BT474 cells in vitro. GNS-MCs were able to serve as an ultrasound enhancer to guide the intratumoral injection of GNS-MCs and ensure their uniform distribution. In vivo studies revealed that NIR laser irradiation increased the intratumoral temperature to nearly 70 °C for 8 min in GNS-MCs-treated mice. Tumor volumes decreased gradually and tumors were completely ablated in 6 out of 7 mice treated with GNS-MCs and laser irradiation by 17 days after treatment. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that ultrasound-guided PTT with theranostic GNS-MCs is a promising technique for in situ treatment of breast cancer.

  8. Fusion of contrast-enhanced breast MR and mammographic imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrenbruch, Christian P; Marias, Kostas; Armitage, Paul A; Yam, Margaret; Moore, Niall; English, Ruth E; Clarke, Jane; Brady, Michael

    2003-09-01

    Increasing use is being made of Gd-DTPA contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer assessment since it provides 3D functional information via pharmacokinetic interaction between contrast agent and tumour vascularity, and because it is applicable to women of all ages as well as patients with post-operative scarring. Contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) is complementary to conventional X-ray mammography, since it is a relatively low-resolution functional counterpart of a comparatively high-resolution 2D structural representation. However, despite the additional information provided by MRI, mammography is still an extremely important diagnostic imaging modality, particularly for several common conditions such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) where it has been shown that there is a strong correlation between microcalcification clusters and malignancy. Pathological indicators such as calcifications and fine spiculations are not visible in CE-MRI and therefore there is clinical and diagnostic value in fusing the high-resolution structural information available from mammography with the functional data acquired from MRI imaging. This paper presents a novel data fusion technique whereby medial-lateral oblique (MLO) and cranial-caudal (CC) mammograms (2D data) are registered to 3D contrast-enhanced MRI volumes. We utilise a combination of pharmacokinetic modelling, projection geometry, wavelet-based landmark detection and thin-plate spline non-rigid 'warping' to transform the coordinates of regions of interest (ROIs) from the 2D mammograms to the spatial reference frame of the contrast-enhanced MRI volume. Of key importance is the use of a flexible wavelet-based feature extraction technique that enables feature correspondences to be robustly determined between the very different image characteristics of X-ray mammography and MRI. An evaluation of the fusion framework is demonstrated with a series of clinical cases and a total of 14 patient examples.

  9. MRI-Guided Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy of Malignant and Benign Breast Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Ntziachristos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the clinical implementation of a novel hybrid system that combines magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and near-infrared (NIR optical measurements for the noninvasive study of breast cancer in vivo. Fourteen patients were studied with a MR-NIR prototype imager and spectrometer. A diffuse optical tomographic scheme employed the MR images as a priori information to implement an image-guided NIR localized spectroscopic scheme. All patients who entered the study also underwent gadolinium-enhanced MRI and biopsy so that the optical findings were crossvalidated with MR readings and histopathology. The technique quantified the oxy-and deoxyhemoglobin of five malignant and nine benign breast lesions in vivo. Breast cancers were found with decreased oxygen saturation and higher blood concentration than most benign lesions. The average hemoglobin concentration ([H] of cancers was 0.130±0.100 mM, and the average hemoglobin saturation (Y was 60±9% compared to [H]=0.018±0.005 mM and Y=69±6% of background tissue. Fibroadenomas exhibited high hemoglobin concentration [H]=0.060±0.010 mM and mild decrease in oxygen saturation Y=67±2%. Cysts and other normal lesions were easily differentiated based on intrinsic contrast information. This novel optical technology can be a significant add-on in MR examinations and can be used to characterize functional parameters of cancers with diagnostic and treatment prognosis potential. It is foreseen that the technique can play a major role in functional activation studies of brain and muscle as well.

  10. Noninvasive assessment of breast cancer risk using time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Paola; Pifferi, Antonio; Quarto, Giovanna; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Abbate, Francesca; Villa, Anna; Balestreri, Nicola; Menna, Simona; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2010-11-01

    Breast density is a recognized strong and independent risk factor for breast cancer. We propose the use of time-resolved transmittance spectroscopy to estimate breast tissue density and potentially provide even more direct information on breast cancer risk. Time-resolved optical mammography at seven wavelengths (635 to 1060 nm) is performed on 49 subjects. Average information on breast tissue of each subject is obtained on oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, water, lipids, and collagen content, as well as scattering amplitude and power. All parameters, except for blood volume and oxygenation, correlate with mammographic breast density, even if not to the same extent. A synthetic optical index proves to be quite effective in separating different breast density categories. Finally, the estimate of collagen content as a more direct means for the assessment of breast cancer risk is discussed.

  11. Aptamer-conjugated Magnetic Nanoparticles as Targeted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkar, Mohammad; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Khoshfetrat, Seyyed Mehdi; Mehrgardi, Masoud A.; Aghaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of breast cancer is the most effective way to improve the survival rate in women. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers high spatial resolution and good anatomic details, and its lower sensitivity can be improved by using targeted molecular imaging. In this study, AS1411 aptamer was conjugated to Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles for specific targeting of mouse mammary carcinoma (4T1) cells that overexpress nucleolin. In vitro cytotoxicity of aptamer-conjugated nanoparticles was assessed on 4T1 and HFFF-PI6 (control) cells. The ability of the synthesized nanoprobe to target specifically the nucleolin overexpressed cells was assessed with the MRI technique. Results show that the synthesized nanoprobe produced strongly darkened T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images with 4T1 cells, whereas the MR images of HFFF-PI6 cells incubated with the nanoprobe are brighter, showing small changes compared to water. The results demonstrate that in a Fe concentration of 45 μg/mL, the nanoprobe reduced by 90% MR image intensity in 4T1 cells compared with the 27% reduction in HFFF-PI6 cells. Analysis of MR signal intensity showed statistically significant signal intensity difference between 4T1 and HFFF-PI6 cells treated with the nanoprobe. MRI experiments demonstrate the high potential of the synthesized nanoprobe as a specific MRI contrast agent for detection of nucleolin-expressing breast cancer cells. PMID:28028501

  12. Fourier domain image fusion for differential X-ray phase-contrast breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, Eduardo; Sperl, Jonathan I; Bequé, Dirk; Benz, Tobias; Scherer, Kai; Herzen, Julia; Sztrókay-Gaul, Anikó; Hellerhoff, Karin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Cozzini, Cristina; Grandl, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    X-Ray Phase-Contrast (XPC) imaging is a novel technology with a great potential for applications in clinical practice, with breast imaging being of special interest. This work introduces an intuitive methodology to combine and visualize relevant diagnostic features, present in the X-ray attenuation, phase shift and scattering information retrieved in XPC imaging, using a Fourier domain fusion algorithm. The method allows to present complementary information from the three acquired signals in one single image, minimizing the noise component and maintaining visual similarity to a conventional X-ray image, but with noticeable enhancement in diagnostic features, details and resolution. Radiologists experienced in mammography applied the image fusion method to XPC measurements of mastectomy samples and evaluated the feature content of each input and the fused image. This assessment validated that the combination of all the relevant diagnostic features, contained in the XPC images, was present in the fused image as well.

  13. Towards intraoperative assessment of tumor margins in breast surgery using optical coherence elastography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Brendan F.; Wijesinghe, Philip; Allen, Wes M.; Chin, Lixin; Latham, Bruce; Saunders, Christobel M.; Sampson, David D.

    2016-03-01

    Surgical excision of tumor is a critical factor in the management of breast cancer. The most common surgical procedure is breast-conserving surgery. The surgeon's goal is to remove the tumor and a rim of healthy tissue surrounding the tumor: the surgical margin. A major issue in breast-conserving surgery is the absence of a reliable tool to guide the surgeon in intraoperatively assessing the margin. A number of techniques have been proposed; however, the re-excision rate remains high and has been reported to be in the range 30-60%. New tools are needed to address this issue. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) shows promise as a tool for intraoperative tumor margin assessment in breast-conserving surgery. Further advances towards clinical translation are limited by long scan times and small fields of view. In particular, scanning over sufficient areas to assess the entire margin in an intraoperative timeframe has not been shown to be feasible. Here, we present a protocol allowing ~75% of the surgical margins to be assessed within 30 minutes. To achieve this, we have incorporated a 65 mm-diameter (internal), wide-aperture annular piezoelectric transducer, allowing the entire surface of the excised tumor mass to be automatically imaged in an OCT mosaic comprised of 10 × 10 mm tiles. As OCT is effective in identifying adipose tissue, our protocol uses the wide-field OCT to selectively guide subsequent local OCE scanning to regions of solid tissue which often present low contrast in OCT images. We present promising examples from freshly excised human breast tissue.

  14. Modeling Graphene Contrast on Copper Surfaces Using Optical Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Determining whether graphene has been successfully synthesized often requires transfer to a support substrate such as glass or SiO2 . During the transfer... SiO2 thickness from Blake et al.23 In comparison, Fig. 6b shows the same graphene contrast calculations using an in-house Matlab model. 7... graphene : interference colors of ultrathin graphite on SiO2 . Nano Letters. 2007;7(9):2707–2710. 11 26. Jung I, Pelton M, Piner R, Dikin DA

  15. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for prediction of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Juzhong; Fan, Ming; Zheng, Bin; Shao, Guoliang; Zhang, Juan; Li, Lihua

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of women death in the United States. Currently, Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy (NAC) has become standard treatment paradigms for breast cancer patients. Therefore, it is important to find a reliable non-invasive assessment and prediction method which can evaluate and predict the response of NAC on breast cancer. The Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) approach can reflect dynamic distribution of contrast agent in tumor vessels, providing important basis for clinical diagnosis. In this study, the efficacy of DCE-MRI on evaluation and prediction of response to NAC in breast cancer was investigated. To this end, fifty-seven cases of malignant breast cancers with MRI examination both before and after two cycle of NAC were analyzed. After pre-processing approach for segmenting breast lesions and background regions, 126-dimensional imaging features were extracted from DCE-MRI. Statistical analyses were then performed to evaluate the associations between the extracted DCE-MRI features and the response to NAC. Specifically, pairwise t test was used to calculate differences of imaging features between MRI examinations before-and-after NAC. Moreover, the associations of these image features with response to NAC were assessed using logistic regression. Significant association are found between response to NAC and the features of lesion morphology and background parenchymal enhancement, especially the feature of background enhancement in normal side of breast (P=0.011). Our study indicate that DCE-MRI features can provide candidate imaging markers to predict response of NAC in breast cancer.

  16. Optimal contrast function in the unbalanced fiber optic Michelson interferometer for dislocation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szustakowski, Mieczyslaw; Palka, Norbert; Ciurapinski, Wieslaw M.

    2004-09-01

    Theoretical description of a contrast in an unbalanced fiber optic Michelson's interferometer with a multimode laser was shown. Periodic contrast oscillations, which depend on a laser spectrum, occur if a measuring arm of the interferometer is elongated. Required characteristic features of the contrast for an elongation sensor were determined. Influences of laser spectrum parameters (wavelength, halfwidth and mode spacing) as well as laser mode amplitudes on the contrast were simulated. Optimal spectrum for the dislocation sensor was determined theoretically. A laser which parameters fulfilled the requirements was found and its spectrum was measured. The measured contrast function was very similar to the optimal theoretical plot what proves correctness of the calculations.

  17. Polarization contrast in fluorescence scanning near-field optical microscopy in reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalocha, A.; Hulst, van N.F.

    1995-01-01

    Polarization contrast is presented in fluorescence images of a Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer obtained with a scanning near-field optical microscope operated in reflection. A tapered optical fiber is used both to excite and to collect the fluorescence. The lateral resolution in the reflection fluoresce

  18. Tandem-pulsed acousto-optics: an analytical framework of modulated high-contrast speckle patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resink, S.G.; Steenbergen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Recently we presented acousto-optic (AO) probing of scattering media using addition or subtraction of speckle patterns due to tandem nanosecond pulses. Here we present a theoretical framework for ideal (polarized, noise-free) speckle patterns with unity contrast that links ultrasound-induced optical

  19. Radiogenomic analysis of breast cancer: dynamic contrast enhanced - magnetic resonance imaging based features are associated with molecular subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijian; Fan, Ming; Zhang, Juan; Zheng, Bin; Wang, Xiaojia; Li, Lihua

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumor with upgrading incidence in females. The key to decrease the mortality is early diagnosis and reasonable treatment. Molecular classification could provide better insights into patient-directed therapy and prognosis prediction of breast cancer. It is known that different molecular subtypes have different characteristics in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. Therefore, we assumed that imaging features can reflect molecular information in breast cancer. In this study, we investigated associations between dynamic contrasts enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) features and molecular subtypes in breast cancer. Sixty patients with breast cancer were enrolled and the MR images were pre-processed for noise reduction, registration and segmentation. Sixty-five dimensional imaging features including statistical characteristics, morphology, texture and dynamic enhancement in breast lesion and background regions were semiautomatically extracted. The associations between imaging features and molecular subtypes were assessed by using statistical analyses, including univariate logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression. The results of multivariate regression showed that imaging features are significantly associated with molecular subtypes of Luminal A (p=0.00473), HER2-enriched (p=0.00277) and Basal like (p=0.0117), respectively. The results indicated that three molecular subtypes are correlated with DCE-MRI features in breast cancer. Specifically, patients with a higher level of compactness or lower level of skewness in breast lesion are more likely to be Luminal A subtype. Besides, the higher value of the dynamic enhancement at T1 time in normal side reflect higher possibility of HER2-enriched subtype in breast cancer.

  20. Parallel optical sorting of biological cells using the generalized phase contrast method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Lars; Bu, Minqiang; Glückstad, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    of biological cells in microfluidic systems exclusively using light. We demonstrate an optical cell sorter that uses simultaneous manipulation by multiple laser beams using the Generalized Phase Contrast method (GPC). The basic principle in an optical sorter is that the radiation force of the optical beam can...... push the biological cell from one microfluidic sheath flow to another. By incorporating a spatial light modulator the manipulation can be made parallel with multiple laser beams. We claim advantages over the serial optical sorters with only a single laser beam that has been demonstrated by others.......Optical forces are used to fixate biological cells with optical tweezers where numerous biological parameters and phenomena can be studied. Optical beams carry a small momentum which generates a weak optical force, but on a cellular level this force is strong enough to allow for manipulation...

  1. Optically tunable nanoparticle contrast agents for early cancer detection: model-based analysis of gold nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alex W H; Lewinski, Nastassja A; West, Jennifer L; Halas, Naomi J; Drezek, Rebekah A

    2005-01-01

    Many optical diagnostic approaches rely on changes in scattering and absorption properties to generate optical contrast between normal and diseased tissue. Recently, there has been increasing interest in using exogenous agents to enhance this intrinsic contrast with particular emphasis on the development for targeting specific molecular features of disease. Gold nanoshells are a class of core-shell nanoparticles with an extremely tunable peak optical resonance ranging from the near-UV to the mid-IR wavelengths. Using current chemistries, nanoshells of a wide variety of core and shell sizes can easily be fabricated to scatter and/or absorb light with optical cross sections often several times larger than the geometric cross section. Using gold nanoshells of different size and optical parameters, we employ Monte Carlo models to predict the effect of varying concentrations of nanoshells on tissue reflectance. The models demonstrate the importance of absorption from the nanoshells on remitted signals even when the optical extinction is dominated by scattering. Furthermore, because of the strong optical response of nanoshells, a considerable change in reflectance is observed with only a very small concentration of nanoshells. Characterizing the optical behavior of gold nanoshells in tissue will aid in developing nanoshells as contrast agents for optical diagnostics.

  2. Correlation between dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and histopathology in the measurement of tumor and breast volume and their ratio in breast cancer patients: a prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qian; YE Jing-ming; XU Ling; DUAN Xue-ning; ZHAO Jian-xin; LIU Yin-hua

    2012-01-01

    Background Earlier studies have examined the association between the diameter of primary tumors measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathology in breast cancer patients.However,the diameter does not completely describe the dimensions of the breast tumor or its volumetric proportion relative to the whole breast.The association between breast tumor volume/breast volume ratios measured by these two techniques has not been reported.Methods Seventy-three patients were recruited from female patients with primary breast tumors admitted to our center between January and December 2010.They were divided into two groups.Group A (n=46) underwent modified radical mastectomy (MRM),and Group B (n=27) underwent preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy before MRM.They were examined by dynamic-contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) to measure breast volumes (BVs),tumor volumes (TVs),and tumor volume/breast volume ratios (TV/BV).These measurements were compared with histopathology results after MRM,and the associations between MRI and pathology were analyzed by linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis.Results For Group A,the correlation coefficients for BVs,TVs,and TV/BV ratios measured by the two techniques were 0.938,0.921,and 0.897 (all P <0.001),respectively.For Group B,the correlation coefficients for BVs,TVs,and TV/BV ratios were 0.936,0.902,and 0.869 (all P<0.01),respectively.The results suggest statistically significant correlations between these parameters measured by the two techniques for both groups.Conclusion For these patients,BVs,TVs,and TV/BV ratios measured by DCE-MRI significantly correlated with those determined by histopathology.

  3. Three-dimensional contrast enhanced ultrasound score and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging score in evaluating breast tumor angiogenesis: Correlation with biological factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Wan-Ru, E-mail: jiawanru@126.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chai, Wei-Min, E-mail: chai_weimin@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Tang, Lei, E-mail: jessietang1003@163.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Yi, E-mail: xiatian.0602@163.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Fei, Xiao-Chun, E-mail: xcf0222@163.com [Department of Pathology, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Han, Bao-San, E-mail: hanbaosan@126.com [Department of Comprehensive Breast Health Center, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen, Man, E-mail: lucyjia1370@126.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 197 Rui Jin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of three-dimensional contrast enhanced ultrasound (3D-CEUS) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) score systems in evaluating breast tumor angiogenesis by comparing their diagnostic efficacy and correlation with biological factors. Methods: 3D-CEUS was performed in 183 patients with breast tumors by Esaote Mylab90 with SonoVue (Bracco, Italy), DCE-MRI was performed on a dedicated breast magnetic resonance imaging (DBMRI) system (Aurora Dedicated Breast MRI Systems, USA) with a dedicated breast coil. 3D-CEUS and DCE-MRI score systems were created based on tumor perfusion and vascular characteristics. Microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) expression were measured by immunohistochemistry. Results: Pathological results showed 35 benign and 148 malignant breast tumors. MVD (P = 0.000, r = 0.76), VEGF (P = 0.000, r = 0.55), MMP-2 (P = 0.000, r = 0.39) and MMP-9 (P = 0.000, r = 0.41) expression were all significantly different between benignity and malignancy. Regarding 3D-CEUS 4 points as cutoff value, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 85.1%, 94.3% and 86.9%, respectively, and correlated well with MVD (P = 0.000, r = 0.50), VEGF (P = 0.000, r = 0.50), MMP-2 (P = 0.000, r = 0.50) and MMP-9 (P = 0.000, r = 0.66). Taking DCE-MRI 5 points as cutoff value, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 86.5%, 94.3% and 88.0%, respectively and also correlated well with MVD (P = 0.000, r = 0.52), VEGF (P = 0.000, r = 0.44), MMP-2 (P = 0.000, r = 0.42) and MMP-9 (P = 0.000, r = 0.35). Conclusions: 3D-CEUS score system displays inspiring diagnostic performance and good agreement with DCE-MRI scoring. Moreover, both score systems correlate well with MVD, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression, and thus have great potentials in tumor angiogenesis evaluation.

  4. Comparison of diffuse optical tomography of human breast with whole-body and breast-only positron emission tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Konecky, Soren D.; Choe, Regine; Corlu, Alper; Lee, Kijoon; Wiener, Rony; Srinivas, Shyam M.; Saffer, Janet R.; FREIFELDER, RICHARD; Karp, Joel S.; Hajjioui, Nassim; Azar, Fred; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2008-01-01

    We acquire and compare three-dimensional tomographic breast images of three females with suspicious masses using diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Co-registration of DOT and PET images was facilitated by a mutual information maximization algorithm. We also compared DOT and whole-body PET images of 14 patients with breast abnormalities. Positive correlations were found between total hemoglobin concentration and tissue scattering measured by DOT, and fluor...

  5. MO-A-BRD-01: An Investigation of the Dynamic Response of a Novel Acousto-Optic Liquid Crystal Detector for Full-Field Transmission Ultrasound Breast Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfield, J.R.; La Riviere, P.J. [The University of Chicago, Department of Radiology (United States); Sandhu, J.S. [Santec Systems Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To characterize the dynamic response of a novel acousto-optic (AO) liquid crystal detector for high-resolution transmission ultrasound breast imaging. Transient and steady-state lesion contrast were investigated to identify optimal transducer settings for our prototype imaging system consistent with the FDA limits of 1 W/cm{sup 2} and 50 J/cm{sup 2} on the incident acoustic intensity and the transmitted acoustic energy flux density. Methods: We have developed a full-field transmission ultrasound breast imaging system that uses monochromatic plane-wave illumination to acquire projection images of the compressed breast. The acoustic intensity transmitted through the breast is converted into a visual image by a proprietary liquid crystal detector operating on the basis of the AO effect. The dynamic response of the AO detector in the absence of an imaged breast was recorded by a CCD camera as a function of the acoustic field intensity and the detector exposure time. Additionally, a stereotactic needle biopsy breast phantom was used to investigate the change in opaque lesion contrast with increasing exposure time for a range of incident acoustic field intensities. Results: Using transducer voltages between 0.3 V and 0.8 V and exposure times of 3 minutes, a unique one-to-one mapping of incident acoustic intensity to steady-state optical brightness in the AO detector was observed. A transfer curve mapping acoustic intensity to steady-state optical brightness shows a high-contrast region analogous to the linear portion of the Hurter-Driffield curves of radiography. Using transducer voltages between 1 V and 1.75 V and exposure times of 90 s, the lesion contrast study demonstrated increasing lesion contrast with increasing breast exposure time and acoustic field intensity. Lesion-to-background contrast on the order of 0.80 was observed. Conclusion: Maximal lesion contrast in our prototype system can be obtained using the highest acoustic field intensity and the

  6. A cross-stacked plasmonic nanowire network for high-contrast femtosecond optical switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuanhai; Zhang, Xinping; Fang, Xiaohui; Liang, Shuyan

    2016-01-01

    We report an ultrafast optical switching device constructed by stacking two layers of gold nanowires into a perpendicularly crossed network, which works at a speed faster than 280 fs with an on/off modulation depth of about 22.4%. The two stacks play different roles in enhancing consistently the optical switching performance due to their different dependence on the polarization of optical electric fields. The cross-plasmon resonance based on the interaction between the perpendicularly stacked gold nanowires and its Fano-coupling with Rayleigh anomaly is the dominant mechanism for such a high-contrast optical switching device.

  7. Polarization contrast in reflection near-field optical microscopy with uncoated fibre tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    Using cross-hatched, patterned semiconductor surfaces and round 20-nm-thick gold pads on semiconductor wafers, we investigate the imaging characteristics of a reflection near-field optical microscope with an uncoated fibre tip for different polarization configurations and light wavelengths....... Is is shown that cross-polarized detection allows one to effectively suppress far-field components in the detected signal and to realise imaging of optical contrast on the sub-wavelength scale. The sensitivity window of our microscope, i.e. the scale on which near-field optical images represent mainly optical...

  8. Radial scars of the breast: contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance mammography appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediconi, Federica; Occhiato, Rossella; Venditti, Fiammetta; Fraioli, Francesco; Napoli, Alessandro; Votta, Vito; Laghi, Andrea; Catalano, Carlo; Passariello, R

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the appearance of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance mammography (CE-MRM) in patients with suspected radial scar on mammography. Thirty women with radial opacities or black star findings at mammography, preoperatively underwent CE-MRM. Examinations were performed with a 1.5 T magnet with a bilateral surface coil using a FS T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) and three-dimensional (3D) dynamic T1-weighted fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequences. Criteria for lesion evaluation included morphologic patterns and signal intensity curves. Mammography and CE-MRM findings were compared with pathologic findings. CE-MRM suggested the presence of radial scar in 18 of 30 cases and the presence of malignancy in 11 of 30 cases; 1 lesion was classified as borderline. At surgery 22 radial scars (including 4 with associated ductal carcinoma in situ) and 8 carcinomas were detected. CE-MRM provided a specificity of 89%, sensitivity of 83%, and accuracy of 87%. Differently from breast cancer, radial scars are nonenhancing at CE-MRM. Nevertheless, the possibility of nonenhancing carcinomatous foci existing within radial scars implies that surgical excision should be performed in all cases.

  9. Impact of physiological noise correction on detecting blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast in the breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Tess E.; Manavaki, Roido; Graves, Martin J.; Patterson, Andrew J.; Gilbert, Fiona J.

    2017-01-01

    Physiological fluctuations are expected to be a dominant source of noise in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments to assess tumour oxygenation and angiogenesis. This work investigates the impact of various physiological noise regressors: retrospective image correction (RETROICOR), heart rate (HR) and respiratory volume per unit time (RVT), on signal variance and the detection of BOLD contrast in the breast in response to a modulated respiratory stimulus. BOLD MRI was performed at 3 T in ten volunteers at rest and during cycles of oxygen and carbogen gas breathing. RETROICOR was optimized using F-tests to determine which cardiac and respiratory phase terms accounted for a significant amount of signal variance. A nested regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of RETROICOR, HR and RVT on the model fit residuals, temporal signal-to-noise ratio, and BOLD activation parameters. The optimized RETROICOR model accounted for the largest amount of signal variance ( Δ R\\text{adj}2   =  3.3  ±  2.1%) and improved the detection of BOLD activation (P  =  0.002). Inclusion of HR and RVT regressors explained additional signal variance, but had a negative impact on activation parameter estimation (P  <  0.001). Fluctuations in HR and RVT appeared to be correlated with the stimulus and may contribute to apparent BOLD signal reactivity.

  10. Comparison of diffuse optical tomography of human breast with whole-body and breast-only positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecky, Soren D; Choe, Regine; Corlu, Alper; Lee, Kijoon; Wiener, Rony; Srinivas, Shyam M; Saffer, Janet R; Freifelder, Richard; Karp, Joel S; Hajjioui, Nassim; Azar, Fred; Yodh, Arjun G

    2008-02-01

    We acquire and compare three-dimensional tomographic breast images of three females with suspicious masses using diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Co-registration of DOT and PET images was facilitated by a mutual information maximization algorithm. We also compared DOT and whole-body PET images of 14 patients with breast abnormalities. Positive correlations were found between total hemoglobin concentration and tissue scattering measured by DOT, and fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake. In light of these observations, we suggest potential benefits of combining both PET and DOT for characterization of breast lesions.

  11. Estrogen receptor-targeted optical imaging of breast cancer cells with near-infrared fluorescent dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Iven; Deodhar, Kodand; Chiplunkar, Shuba V.; Patkar, Meena

    2010-02-01

    Molecular imaging provides the in vivo characterization of cellular molecular events involved in normal and pathologic processes. With the advent of optical molecular imaging, specific molecules, proteins and genes may be tagged with a luminescent reporter and visualized in small animals. This powerful new tool has pushed in vivo optical imaging to the forefront as it allows for direct determination of drug bio-distribution and uptake kinetics as well as an indicator of biochemical activity and drug efficacy. Although optical imaging encompasses diverse techniques and makes use of various wavelengths of light, a great deal of excitement in molecular research lies in the use of tomographic and fluorescence techniques to image living tissues with near-infrared (NIR) light. Nonionizing, noninvasive near-infrared optical imaging has great potential to become promising alternative for breast cancer detection. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies of human tissue suggest that a variety of lesions show distinct fluorescence spectra compared to those of normal tissue. It has also been shown that exogenous dyes exhibit selective uptake in neoplastic lesions and may offer the best contrast for optical imaging. Use of exogenous agents would provide fluorescent markers, which could serve to detect embedded tumors in the breast. In particular, the ability to monitor the fluorescent yield and lifetime may also enable biochemical specificity if the fluorophore is sensitive to a specific metabolite, such as oxygen. As a first step, we have synthesized and characterized one such NIR fluorescent dye conjugate, which could potentially be used to detect estrogen receptors (ER)[2] . The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-β estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of indocyanine green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1, 1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5- carboxylic acid, sodium salt. The ester formed was found to have an extra binding ability with the receptor cites as

  12. Contrast kinetics of the malignant breast tumour - border versus centre enhancement on dynamic midfield MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marklund, M.; Torp-Pedersen, S.; Bentzon, N.;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To quantify the border versus centre enhancement of malignant breast tumours on dynamic magnetic resonance mammography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two women diagnosed with primary breast cancer underwent dynamic magnetic resonance mammography (Omniscan 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight...... receptor negative tumours. CONCLUSION: The border/centre enhancement difference in malignant breast tumours is easily visualized on midfield dynamic magnetic resonance mammography. The dynamic behaviour is significantly correlated to histological features and receptor status of the tumours Udgivelsesdato...

  13. Dynamic optical breast imaging: A novel technique to detect and characterize tumor vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Laure S. [Universite Paris Descartes, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Radiology Department, 20 rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris (France); University Paris Descartes, Faculte de Medecine, EA4062, Laboratoire de Recherche en Imagerie, site Necker, 156 rue de Vaugirard, 75015 Paris (France)], E-mail: laure.fournier@gmail.com; Vanel, Daniel; Athanasiou, Alexandra [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Radiology Department, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Gatzemeier, Wolfgang [Division of Breast Surgery, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Pavia (Italy); Masuykov, I.V. [DOBI Medical International Inc, Mahwah, NJ (United States); Padhani, Anwar R. [Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (United Kingdom); Dromain, Clarisse [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Radiology Department, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Galetti, Ken [Division of Breast Surgery, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Pavia (Italy); Sigal, Robert [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Radiology Department, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Costa, Alberto [Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (United Kingdom); Balleyguier, Corinne [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Radiology Department, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France)

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: To prospectively determine the diagnostic accuracy of optical absorption imaging in patients with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 3-5 breast lesions. Materials and methods: Forty-six patients with BI-RADS classification 3 (11%), 4 (44%) or 5 (44%) lesions, underwent a novel optical imaging examination using red light to illuminate the breast. Pressure was applied on the breast, and time-dependent curves of light absorption were recorded. Curves that consistently increased or decreased over time were classified as suspicious for malignancy. All patients underwent a core or surgical biopsy. Results: Optical mammography showed a statistical difference in numbers of suspect pixels between benign (N = 12) and malignant (N = 35) lesions (respectively 1325 vs. 3170, P = 0.002). In this population, optical imaging had a sensitivity of 74%, specificity of 92%, and diagnostic accuracy of 79%. The optical signal did not vary according to any other parameter including breast size or density, age, hormonal status or histological type of lesions. Conclusion: Optical imaging is a low-cost, non-invasive technique, yielding physiological information dependent on breast blood volume and oxygenation. It appears to have a good potential for discriminating benign from malignant lesions. Further studies are warranted to define its potential role in breast cancer imaging.

  14. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography: Impact of the qualitative morphology descriptors on the diagnosis of breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed Kamal, Rasha [Radiology Department (Women' s Imaging unit), Kasr ElAiny Hospital, Cairo University (Egypt); Hussien Helal, Maha [Radiology Department (Breast Imaging unit), National Cancer Institute, Cairo University (Egypt); Wessam, Rasha [Radiology Department (Women' s Imaging unit), Kasr ElAiny Hospital, Cairo University (Egypt); Mahmoud Mansour, Sahar, E-mail: sahar_mnsr@yahoo.com [Radiology Department (Breast Imaging unit), National Cancer Institute, Cairo University (Egypt); Godda, Iman [Pathology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University (Egypt); Alieldin, Nelly [Statistics Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University (Egypt)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We studied interpretation criteria for enhancing lesions on CESM. • We evaluated the enhancement patterns of 211 breast lesions. • Our results proved that CESM minimized positive and negative falsies in DM. • The proposed CESM lexicon helped in characterization and categorization. - Abstract: Objective: To analyze the morphology and enhancement characteristics of breast lesions on contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) and to assess their impact on the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. Materials and method: This ethics committee approved study included 168 consecutive patients with 211 breast lesions over 18 months. Lesions classified as non-enhancing and enhancing and then the latter group was subdivided into mass and non-mass. Mass lesions descriptors included: shape, margins, pattern and degree of internal enhancement. Non-mass lesions descriptors included: distribution, pattern and degree of internal enhancement. The impact of each descriptor on diagnosis individually assessed using Chi test and the validity compared in both benign and malignant lesions. The overall performance of CESM were also calculated. Results: The study included 102 benign (48.3%) and 109 malignant (51.7%) lesions. Enhancement was encountered in 145/211 (68.7%) lesions. They further classified into enhancing mass (99/145, 68.3%) and non-mass lesions (46/145, 31.7%). Contrast uptake was significantly more frequent in malignant breast lesions (p value ≤0.001). Irregular mass lesions with intense and heterogeneous enhancement patterns correlated with a malignant pathology (p value ≤0.001). CESM showed an overall sensitivity of 88.99% and specificity of 83.33%. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 5.34 and 0.13 respectively. Conclusion: The assessment of the morphology and enhancement characteristics of breast lesions on CESM enhances the performance of digital mammography in the differentiation between benign and malignant

  15. A Compressive Sensing Approach for 3D Breast Cancer Microwave Imaging With Magnetic Nanoparticles as Contrast Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, Martina T; Scapaticci, Rosa

    2016-02-01

    In microwave breast cancer imaging magnetic nanoparticles have been recently proposed as contrast agent. Due to the non-magnetic nature of human tissues, magnetic nanoparticles make possible the overcoming of some limitations of conventional microwave imaging techniques, thus providing reliable and specific diagnosis of breast cancer. In this paper, a Compressive Sensing inspired inversion technique is introduced for the reconstruction of the magnetic contrast induced within the tumor. The applicability of Compressive Sensing theory is guaranteed by the fact that the underlying inverse scattering problem is linear and the searched magnetic perturbation is sparse. From the numerical analysis, performed in realistic conditions in 3D geometry, it has been pointed out that the adoption of this new tool allows improving resolution and accuracy of the reconstructions, as well as reducing the number of required measurements.

  16. High contrast all-optical diode based on direction-dependent optical bistability within asymmetric ring cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiu-Wen; Zhang, Xin-Qin; Xu, Jing-Ping; Yang, Ya-Ping

    2016-08-01

    We propose a simple all-optical diode which is comprised of an asymmetric ring cavity containing a two-level atomic ensemble. Attributed to spatial symmetry breaking of the ring cavity, direction-dependent optical bistability is obtained in a classical bistable system. Therefore, a giant optical non-reciprocity is generated, which guarantees an all-optical diode with a high contrast up to 22 dB. Furthermore, its application as an all-optical logic AND gate is also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274242, 11474221, and 11574229), the Joint Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. U1330203), and the National Key Basic Research Special Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB922203 and 2013CB632701).

  17. Intra-observer agreement in single and joint double readings of contrast-enhanced breast MRI screening for women with high genetic breast cancer risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine intra-observer reliability (IR for lesion detection on contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance images (MRI for screening women at high risk of breast cancer in single and joint double readings, without case selection. Methods: Contrast-enhanced breast MRIs were interpreted twice by the same independent reader and twice in joint readings. IR was assessed for lesion detection, normal MRI identification, mass, non-mass like enhancements (NMLE and focus characterisation, and BI-RADS assessment. Results: MRI examinations for 124 breasts, 65 women (mean age 43.4y were retrospectively reviewed with 110 lesions identified. Abnormal BIRADS (3-5 classifications were found for 52.3% in single readings and 58.5% in joint readings. Seven biopsies were performed for 4 histologically confirmed cancers. IR for BI-RADS classifications was good for single (0.63, 95% CI: 0.49-0.77, and joint readings (0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.93. IR for background parenchymal enhancement (BPE was moderate across single (0.53, 95% CI: 0.40-0.65 and joint readings (0.44, 95% CI: 0.33-0.56. IR for BI-RADS category according to each enhancement was poor for single (0.27, 95% CI: 0.10-0.44, and higher for joint readings, (0.58, 95% CI: 0.43-0.72. Conclusions: IR in BI-RADS breast assessments or BI-RADS lesion assessments are better with joint reading in screening for women with high genetic risks, in particular for abnormal MRI (BI-RADS 3, 4 and 5.

  18. Identifying metastatic breast tumors using textural kinetic features of a contrast based habitat in DCE-MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Baishali; Zhou, Mu; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Gatenby, Robert A.; Gillies, Robert J.; Drukteinis, Jennifer S.

    2015-03-01

    The ability to identify aggressive tumors from indolent tumors using quantitative analysis on dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) would dramatically change the breast cancer treatment paradigm. With this prognostic information, patients with aggressive tumors that have the ability to spread to distant sites outside of the breast could be selected for more aggressive treatment and surveillance regimens. Conversely, patients with tumors that do not have the propensity to metastasize could be treated less aggressively, avoiding some of the morbidity associated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. We propose a computer aided detection framework to determine which breast cancers will metastasize to the loco-regional lymph nodes as well as which tumors will eventually go on to develop distant metastses using quantitative image analysis and radiomics. We defined a new contrast based tumor habitat and analyzed textural kinetic features from this habitat for classification purposes. The proposed tumor habitat, which we call combined-habitat, is derived from the intersection of two individual tumor sub-regions: one that exhibits rapid initial contrast uptake and the other that exhibits rapid delayed contrast washout. Hence the combined-habitat represents the tumor sub-region within which the pixels undergo both rapid initial uptake and rapid delayed washout. We analyzed a dataset of twenty-seven representative two dimensional (2D) images from volumetric DCE-MRI of breast tumors, for classification of tumors with no lymph nodes from tumors with positive number of axillary lymph nodes. For this classification an accuracy of 88.9% was achieved. Twenty of the twenty-seven patients were analyzed for classification of distant metastatic tumors from indolent cancers (tumors with no lymph nodes), for which the accuracy was 84.3%.

  19. Estimating breast thickness for dual-energy subtraction in contrast-enhanced digital mammography using calibration phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kristen C.; Kwon, Young Joon; Aziz, Moez Karim; Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2016-04-01

    Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital mammography (DE CE-DM) uses an iodinated contrast agent to image the perfusion and vasculature of the breast. DE images are obtained by a weighted logarithmic subtraction of the high-energy (HE) and low-energy (LE) image pairs. We hypothesized that the optimal DE subtraction weighting factor is thickness-dependent, and developed a method for determining breast tissue composition and thickness in DE CE-DM. Phantoms were constructed using uniform blocks of 100% glandular-equivalent and 100% adipose-equivalent material. The thickness of the phantoms ranged from 3 to 8 cm, in 1 cm increments. For a given thickness, the glandular-adipose composition of the phantom was varied using different combinations of blocks. The logarithmic LE and logarithmic HE signal intensities were measured; they decrease linearly with increasing glandularity for a given thickness. The signals decrease with increasing phantom thickness and the x-ray signal decreases linearly with thickness for a given glandularity. As the thickness increases, the attenuation difference per additional glandular block decreases, indicating beam hardening. From the calibration mapping, we have demonstrated that we can predict percent glandular tissue and thickness when given two distinct signal intensities. Our results facilitate the subtraction of tissue at the boundaries of the breast, and aid in discriminating between contrast agent uptake in glandular tissue and subtraction artifacts.

  20. Dual-energy contrast-enhanced breast tomosynthesis: optimization of beam quality for dose and image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samei, Ehsan; Saunders, Robert S

    2011-10-07

    Dual-energy contrast-enhanced breast tomosynthesis is a promising technique to obtain three-dimensional functional information from the breast with high resolution and speed. To optimize this new method, this study searched for the beam quality that maximized image quality in terms of mass detection performance. A digital tomosynthesis system was modeled using a fast ray-tracing algorithm, which created simulated projection images by tracking photons through a voxelized anatomical breast phantom containing iodinated lesions. The single-energy images were combined into dual-energy images through a weighted log subtraction process. The weighting factor was optimized to minimize anatomical noise, while the dose distribution was chosen to minimize quantum noise. The dual-energy images were analyzed for the signal difference to noise ratio (SdNR) of iodinated masses. The fast ray-tracing explored 523 776 dual-energy combinations to identify which yields optimum mass SdNR. The ray-tracing results were verified using a Monte Carlo model for a breast tomosynthesis system with a selenium-based flat-panel detector. The projection images from our voxelized breast phantom were obtained at a constant total glandular dose. The projections were combined using weighted log subtraction and reconstructed using commercial reconstruction software. The lesion SdNR was measured in the central reconstructed slice. The SdNR performance varied markedly across the kVp and filtration space. Ray-tracing results indicated that the mass SdNR was maximized with a high-energy tungsten beam at 49 kVp with 92.5 µm of copper filtration and a low-energy tungsten beam at 49 kVp with 95 µm of tin filtration. This result was consistent with Monte Carlo findings. This mammographic technique led to a mass SdNR of 0.92 ± 0.03 in the projections and 3.68 ± 0.19 in the reconstructed slices. These values were markedly higher than those for non-optimized techniques. Our findings indicate that dual

  1. High-Contrast Imaging using Adaptive Optics for Extrasolar Planet Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Julia Wilhelmsen [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Direct imaging of extrasolar planets is an important, but challenging, next step in planetary science. Most planets identified to date have been detected indirectly--not by emitted or reflected light but through the effect of the planet on the parent star. For example, radial velocity techniques measure the doppler shift in the spectrum of the star produced by the presence of a planet. Indirect techniques only probe about 15% of the orbital parameter space of our solar system. Direct methods would probe new parameter space, and the detected light can be analyzed spectroscopically, providing new information about detected planets. High contrast adaptive optics systems, also known as Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO), will require contrasts of between 10-6 and 10-7 at angles of 4-24 λ/D on an 8-m class telescope to image young Jupiter-like planets still warm with the heat of formation. Contrast is defined as the intensity ratio of the dark wings of the image, where a planet might be, to the bright core of the star. Such instruments will be technically challenging, requiring high order adaptive optics with > 2000 actuators and improved diffraction suppression. Contrast is ultimately limited by residual static wavefront errors, so an extrasolar planet imager will require wavefront control with an accuracy of better than 1 nm rms within the low- to mid-spatial frequency range. Laboratory demonstrations are critical to instrument development. The ExAO testbed at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics was designed with low wavefront error and precision optical metrology, which is used to explore contrast limits and develop the technology needed for an extrasolar planet imager. A state-of-the-art, 1024-actuator micro-electrical-mechanical-systems (MEMS) deformable mirror was installed and characterized to provide active wavefront control and test this novel technology. I present 6.5 x 10-8 contrast measurements with a prolate shaped pupil and

  2. Optical imaging of breast tumor through temporal log-slope difference mappings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhixiong; Kan Wan, Siew; August, David A; Ying, Jinpin; Dunn, Stanley M; Semmlow, John L

    2006-02-01

    A novel optical temporal log-slope difference mapping approach is proposed for cancerous breast tumor detection. In this method, target tissues are illuminated by near-infrared (700-1000 nm) ultrashort laser pulses from various surface source points, and backscattered time-resolved light signals are collected at the same surface points. By analyzing the log-slopes of decaying signals over all points on the source-detection grid, a log-slope distribution on the surface is obtained. After administration of absorption contrast agents, the presence of cancerous tumors increases the decaying steepness of the transient signals. The mapping of log-slope difference between native tissue and absorption-enhanced cancerous tissue indicates the location and projection of tumors on the detection surface. In this paper, we examine this method in the detection of breast tumors in two model tissue phantoms through computer simulation. The first model has a spherical tumor of 6mm in diameter embedded at the tissue center. The second model is a large tissue phantom embedded with a non-centered spherical tumor 8mm in diameter. Monte Carlo methods were employed to simulate the light transport and signal measurement. It is shown that the tumor in both the tissue models will be accurately projected on the detection surface by the proposed log-slope difference mapping method. The image processing is very fast and does not require any inverse optimization in image reconstruction.

  3. OPTICAL COMPUTING: Analysis of the tomographic contrast during the immersion bleaching of layered biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, I. V.; Yarovenko, I. P.

    2010-01-01

    The control of optical properties of biological tissues irradiated by a cw laser source is considered. Within the framework of the stationary model of the radiation transfer, basic factors affecting the tomographic contrast of a layered medium are revealed theoretically and numerically, when immersion liquids, decreasing the radiation scattering level in a medium, are used.

  4. Quantitative analysis of vascular heterogeneity in breast lesions using contrast-enhanced 3-D harmonic and subharmonic ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Anush; Eisenbrey, John R; Machado, Priscilla; Ojeda-Fournier, Haydee; Wilkes, Annina; Sevrukov, Alexander; Mattrey, Robert F; Wallace, Kirk; Chalek, Carl L; Thomenius, Kai E; Forsberg, Flemming

    2015-03-01

    Ability to visualize breast lesion vascularity and quantify the vascular heterogeneity using contrast-enhanced 3-D harmonic (HI) and subharmonic (SHI) ultrasound imaging was investigated in a clinical population. Patients (n = 134) identified with breast lesions on mammography were scanned using power Doppler imaging, contrast-enhanced 3-D HI, and 3-D SHI on a modified Logiq 9 scanner (GE Healthcare). A region of interest corresponding to ultrasound contrast agent flow was identified in 4D View (GE Medical Systems) and mapped to raw slice data to generate a map of time-intensity curves for the lesion volume. Time points corresponding to baseline, peak intensity, and washout of ultrasound contrast agent were identified and used to generate and compare vascular heterogeneity plots for malignant and benign lesions. Vascularity was observed with power Doppler imaging in 84 lesions (63 benign and 21 malignant). The 3-D HI showed flow in 8 lesions (5 benign and 3 malignant), whereas 3-D SHI visualized flow in 68 lesions (49 benign and 19 malignant). Analysis of vascular heterogeneity in the 3-D SHI volumes found benign lesions having a significant difference in vascularity between central and peripheral sections (1.71 ± 0.96 vs. 1.13 ± 0.79 dB, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas malignant lesions showed no difference (1.66 ± 1.39 vs. 1.24 ± 1.14 dB, p = 0.24), indicative of more vascular coverage. These preliminary results suggest quantitative evaluation of vascular heterogeneity in breast lesions using contrast-enhanced 3-D SHI is feasible and able to detect variations in vascularity between central and peripheral sections for benign and malignant lesions.

  5. Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villiger, Martin; Lorenser, Dirk; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Quirk, Bryden C.; Kirk, Rodney W.; Bouma, Brett E.; Sampson, David D.

    2016-07-01

    Identifying tumour margins during breast-conserving surgeries is a persistent challenge. We have previously developed miniature needle probes that could enable intraoperative volume imaging with optical coherence tomography. In many situations, however, scattering contrast alone is insufficient to clearly identify and delineate malignant regions. Additional polarization-sensitive measurements provide the means to assess birefringence, which is elevated in oriented collagen fibres and may offer an intrinsic biomarker to differentiate tumour from benign tissue. Here, we performed polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography through miniature imaging needles and developed an algorithm to efficiently reconstruct images of the depth-resolved tissue birefringence free of artefacts. First ex vivo imaging of breast tumour samples revealed excellent contrast between lowly birefringent malignant regions, and stromal tissue, which is rich in oriented collagen and exhibits higher birefringence, as confirmed with co-located histology. The ability to clearly differentiate between tumour and uninvolved stroma based on intrinsic contrast could prove decisive for the intraoperative assessment of tumour margins.

  6. Method for determiantion of the frequency-contrast characteristics of electronic-optic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardirossian, Garo; Zhekov, Zhivko

    The frequency-contrast characteristics is an important criterion to judge the quality of electronic-optic systems, which boast an increasing application in space research, astronomy, martial art etc. The paper provides a brief description of the methods for determining the frequency-contrast characteristics of optic systems, developed at the Space Research Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Science. The suggested methods have been used to develop a couple of electronic-optic systems participated in the designed ground-based and aerospace scientific-research equipment. Based on the obtained practical results, the conclusion was made that the methods provide to obtain sufficiently precise data, which coincide well with the results, obtained when using other methods.

  7. Intraindividual, randomized comparison of the macrocyclic contrast agents gadobutrol and gadoterate meglumine in breast magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallenberg, Eva M.; Renz, Diane M.; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Karle, Bettina [Clinic of Radiation Therapy, Helios Clinics, Berlin (Germany); Schwenke, Carsten [SCOSSIS Statistical Consulting, Berlin (Germany); Ingod-Heppner, Barbara [Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Campus Charite Mitte, Institute of Pathology, Berlin (Germany); Reles, Angela [Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Charite-Partner-Practice, Interdisciplinary Breast Center, Berlin (Germany); Engelken, Florian J. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Charite Campus Mitte, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Huppertz, Alexander; Taupitz, Matthias [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-09-25

    To compare intraindividually two macrocyclic contrast agents - gadobutrol and gadoterate meglumine (Gd-DOTA) - for dynamic and quantitative assessment of relative enhancement (RE) in benign and malignant breast lesions. This was an ethically approved, prospective, single-centre, randomized, crossover study in 52 women with suspected breast lesions referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each patient underwent one examination with gadobutrol and one with Gd-DOTA (0.1 mmol/kg BW) on a 1.5 T system 1 - 7 days apart. Dynamic, T1-weighted, 3D gradient echo sequences were acquired under identical conditions. Quantitative evaluation with at least three regions of interest (ROI) per lesion was performed. Primary endpoint was RE during the initial postcontrast phase after the first and second dynamic acquisition, and peak RE. All lesions were histologically proven; differences between the examinations were evaluated. Forty-five patients with a total of 11 benign and 34 malignant lesions were assessed. Mean RE was significantly higher for gadobutrol than Gd-DOTA (p < 0.0001). Gadobutrol showed significantly less washout (64.4 %) than Gd-DOTA (75.4 %) in malignant lesions (p = 0.048) Gadobutrol has higher RE values compared with Gd-DOTA, whereas Gd-DOTA shows more marked washout in malignant lesions. This might improve the detection of breast lesions and influence the specificity of breast MRI-imaging. (orig.)

  8. Diffuse optical tomography with structured-light patterns to quantify breast density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Jessica; Nouizi, Farouk; Cho, Jaedu; Zheng, Jie; Li, Yifan; Chen, Jeon-hor; Su, Min-Ying; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2016-02-01

    Breast density is an independent risk factor for breast cancer, where women with denser breasts are more likely to develop cancer. By identifying women at higher risk, healthcare providers can suggest screening at a younger age to effectively diagnose and treat breast cancer in its earlier stages. Clinical risk assessment models currently do not incorporate breast density, despite its strong correlation with breast cancer. Current methods to measure breast density rely on mammography and MRI, both of which may be difficult to use as a routine risk assessment tool. We propose to use diffuse optical tomography with structured-light to measure the dense, fibroglandular (FGT) tissue volume, which has a different chromophore signature than the surrounding adipose tissue. To test the ability of this technique, we performed simulations by creating numerical breast phantoms from segmented breast MR images. We looked at two different cases, one with a centralized FGT distribution and one with a dispersed distribution. As expected, the water and lipid volumes segmented at half-maximum were overestimated for the dispersed case. However, it was noticed that the recovered water and lipid concentrations were lower and higher, respectively, than the centralized case. This information may provide insight into the morphological distribution of the FGT and can be a correction in estimating the breast density.

  9. Quality assurance in MRI breast screening: comparing signal-to-noise ratio in dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousi, Evanthia; Borri, Marco; Dean, Jamie; Panek, Rafal; Scurr, Erica; Leach, Martin O.; Schmidt, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    MRI has been extensively used in breast cancer staging, management and high risk screening. Detection sensitivity is paramount in breast screening, but variations of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a function of position are often overlooked. We propose and demonstrate practical methods to assess spatial SNR variations in dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) breast examinations and apply those methods to different protocols and systems. Four different protocols in three different MRI systems (1.5 and 3.0 T) with receiver coils of different design were employed on oil-filled test objects with and without uniformity filters. Twenty 3D datasets were acquired with each protocol; each dataset was acquired in under 60 s, thus complying with current breast DCE guidelines. In addition to the standard SNR calculated on a pixel-by-pixel basis, we propose other regional indices considering the mean and standard deviation of the signal over a small sub-region centred on each pixel. These regional indices include effects of the spatial variation of coil sensitivity and other structured artefacts. The proposed regional SNR indices demonstrate spatial variations in SNR as well as the presence of artefacts and sensitivity variations, which are otherwise difficult to quantify and might be overlooked in a clinical setting. Spatial variations in SNR depend on protocol choice and hardware characteristics. The use of uniformity filters was shown to lead to a rise of SNR values, altering the noise distribution. Correlation between noise in adjacent pixels was associated with data truncation along the phase encoding direction. Methods to characterise spatial SNR variations using regional information were demonstrated, with implications for quality assurance in breast screening and multi-centre trials.

  10. High-Index Contrast Silicon Rich Silicon Nitride Optical Waveguides and Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Hugh Taylor

    2004-01-01

    This research focused on the realization of high-density integrated optical devices made with high-index contrast waveguides. The material platform used for to develop these devices was modeled after standard silicon on silicon technology. The high-index waveguide core material was silicon rich...... silicon nitride. This provided a sharp contrast with silica and made low-loss waveguide bending radii less than 25mm possible. An immediate consequence of such small bending radii is the ability to make practical ring resonator based devices with a large free spectral range. Several ring resonator based...

  11. Optical design for excellent contrast ratio in a reflective horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung-Mi; Ji, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Gi-Dong [Department of Electronics Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joun-Ho [LG.Philips LCD, 642-3 Jinpyung-dong, Gumi-city, Kyungbuk 730-350 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hee [Research Center for Advanced Materials Development, School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Chonju, Chonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: gdlee@dau.ac.kr, E-mail: lsh1@chonbuk.ac.kr

    2008-06-07

    In this paper, we propose an optical configuration for a reflective liquid crystal (LC) cell with a single polarizer that can show an excellent contrast ratio by effectively eliminating phase dispersion. The proposed configuration consists of a half-wave retarder, two A-plates, a quarter-wave LC cell and a reflector; the configuration was designed on a Poincare sphere with the trigonometric method. From the calculation, we confirm that this configuration can show a high contrast ratio as compared with the conventional configuration due to the excellent dark state.

  12. Wavefront sensing based on phase contrast theory and coherent optical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Huang; Qi, Bian; Chenlu, Zhou; Tenghao, Li; Mali, Gong

    2016-07-01

    A novel wavefront sensing method based on phase contrast theory and coherent optical processing is proposed. The wavefront gradient field in the object plane is modulated into intensity distribution in a gang of patterns, making high-density detection available. By applying the method, we have also designed a wavefront sensor. It consists of a classical coherent optical processing system, a CCD detector array, two pieces of orthogonal composite sinusoidal gratings, and a mechanical structure that can perform real-time linear positioning. The simulation results prove and demonstrate the validity of the method and the sensor in high-precision measurement of the wavefront gradient field.

  13. Extracting optical scattering properties on the basis of phase contrast images for diagnosing stomach cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui; Zhang, Hui; Lin, Xiaona; Chen, Wei R.

    2013-04-01

    We combine morphological granulometry with Mie theory in order to analyze phase contrast images of biomedical tissue for cancer diagnosis. This method correlates microscopic phase distributions of the tissue image and macroscopic optical scattering properties of the tissue. Our results show that the particle size density distribution can be used to quantitatively identify morphological changes of cancerous stomach tissues. Our method can distinguish normal tissue from cancerous tissues, using the significant differences in scattering coefficient, reduced scattering coefficient and phase function. Therefore, this method can provide not only quantitative information for the diagnosis of cancer, but also accurate optical scattering parameters for photothermal therapy for cancer.

  14. Large temporal window contrast measurement using optical parametric amplification and low-sensitivity detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Rahul C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Randall P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shimada, Tsutomu [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hegelich, Bjorn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    To address few-shot pulse contrast measurement, we present a correlator coupling the high gain of an optical parametric amplification scheme with large pulse tilt. This combination enables a low sensitivity charge coupled device (CCD) to observe features in the pulse intensity within a 50 ps single-shot window with inter-window dynamic range > 10{sup 7} and < 0.5 mJ input energy. Partitioning of the single window with optical densities to boost the CCD dynamic range is considered.

  15. Diffractive generalized phase contrast for adaptive phase imaging and optical security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the properties of Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) when the input phase modulation is implemented using diffractive gratings. In GPC applications for patterned illumination, the use of a dynamic diffractive optical element for encoding the GPC input phase allows for onthe- fly...... optimization of the input aperture parameters according to desired output characteristics. For wavefront sensing, the achieved aperture control opens a new degree of freedom for improving the accuracy of quantitative phase imaging. Diffractive GPC input modulation also fits well with grating-based optical...

  16. EDITORIAL: Optical mammography: Imaging and characterization of breast lesions by pulsed near-infrared laser light (OPTIMAMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Rinneberg, Herbert

    2005-06-01

    mortality associated with it, within the EU and throughout the world. Although x-ray mammography is recognized as an effective tool for cancer screening in women over 35-40 years of age, it suffers from a significant number of false positives which often lead to unnecessary biopsy. X-ray mammography is also less effective for younger women with denser breasts, and involves the use of potentially harmful ionizing radiation. While other conventional diagnostic techniques such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are also widely used in the diagnosis and characterization of breast disease, their roles in the detection and staging of breast tumours have so far been limited. The development of optical methods of imaging the breast is attractive partly because they are safe, but chiefly because they can reveal contrast between normal and diseased tissues which are not evident using conventional methods. The principal mechanism for contrast at near-infrared wavelengths is the characteristic absorption by haemoglobin and other dominant tissue chromophores, such as fat and water. Furthermore, the differences between the absorption of oxy-haemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin provide a means of determining oxygenation, and therefore of studying tissue function. The OPTIMAMM project focused specifically on the diagnostic potential of time-resolved methods. Systems which measure the flight-times of photons transmitted across highly scattering breast tissue offer the potential to provide greater spatial resolution and contrast than systems based on intensity measurements alone, and facilitate better separation between the effects of scatter and those of absorption. A major component of the project was a series of clinical trials performed at four European sites, in particular in Berlin (Germany) and Milan (Italy) using similar scanning instrumentation, carried out under a harmonized clinical protocol where appropriate. The clinical trials were augmented by efforts to refine

  17. Stochastic parallel gradient descent based adaptive optics used for high contrast imaging coronagraph

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Bing; Zhang, Xi

    2011-01-01

    An adaptive optics (AO) system based on stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm is proposed to reduce the speckle noises in the optical system of stellar coronagraph in order to further improve the contrast. The principle of SPGD algorithm is described briefly and a metric suitable for point source imaging optimization is given. The feasibility and good performance of SPGD algorithm is demonstrated by experimental system featured with a 140-actuators deformable mirror (DM) and a Hartmann- Shark wavefront sensor. Then the SPGD based AO is applied to a liquid crystal array (LCA) based coronagraph. The LCA can modulate the incoming light to generate a pupil apodization mask in any pattern. A circular stepped pattern is used in our preliminary experiment and the image contrast shows improvement from 10^-3 to 10^-4.5 at angular distance of 2{\\lambda}/D after corrected by SPGD based AO.

  18. Phase contrast imaging of the breast. Basic principles and steps towards clinical implementation; Phasenkontrastbildgebung der Brust. Grundlagen und Schritte zur klinischen Implementierbarkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandl, S.; Sztrokay-Gaul, A.; Auweter, S.D.; Hellerhoff, K. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Mammography is the only imaging technique approved for nationwide breast cancer screening. Digital full field mammography has improved mammographic image quality. Nevertheless, mammography has a low positive predictive value and a low sensitivity especially in mammographically dense breasts. One of the major limitations is the inherently low contrast between healthy breast parenchyma and breast cancer. Phase contrast imaging is based on the phase shift that occurs when X-rays encounter a change in refractive index between different materials. The improved soft tissue contrast makes the technology particularly promising for breast diagnostics. The studies presented here suggest that phase contrast imaging provides additional diagnostic information both using phase contrast mammography and phase contrast computed tomography (CT). This paper provides an overview of the basic principles of the phase contrast imaging and describes recent developments towards in vivo and ex vivo phase contrast imaging of the breast. (orig.) [German] Brustkrebs ist weltweit die haeufigste Tumorerkrankung und die haeufigste Krebstodesursache der Frau. Die Mammographie ist die einzige zugelassene bildgebende Methode zur Brustkrebsfrueherkennung im Rahmen flaechendeckender Screeningprogramme. Trotz Verbesserung der Bildqualitaet und der Befundungsperformance durch die Einfuehrung der digitalen Vollfeldmammographie sind der positiv-praediktive Wert und die Sensitivitaet der Mammographie insbesondere bei mammographisch dichtem Druesenkoerper eingeschraenkt. Dies ist u. a. auf die geringen Dichteunterschiede zwischen gesundem Brustdruesengewebe und intramammaeren Malignomen zurueckzufuehren. Die Phasenkontrastbildgebung macht sich die Phasenverschiebung von Roentgenstrahlen zunutze, die an Materialgrenzen mit unterschiedlichen Brechungsindizes entsteht. Die Technik bietet einen potenziell

  19. Optical breast shape capture and finite-element mesh generation for electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, J; Borsic, A; Halter, R J; Hartov, A; Paulsen, K D

    2011-07-01

    X-ray mammography is the standard for breast cancer screening. The development of alternative imaging modalities is desirable because mammograms expose patients to ionizing radiation. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) may be used to determine tissue conductivity, a property which is an indicator of cancer presence. EIT is also a low-cost imaging solution and does not involve ionizing radiation. In breast EIT, impedance measurements are made using electrodes placed on the surface of the patient's breast. The complex conductivity of the volume of the breast is estimated by a reconstruction algorithm. EIT reconstruction is a severely ill-posed inverse problem. As a result, noisy instrumentation and incorrect modelling of the electrodes and domain shape produce significant image artefacts. In this paper, we propose a method that has the potential to reduce these errors by accurately modelling the patient breast shape. A 3D hand-held optical scanner is used to acquire the breast geometry and electrode positions. We develop methods for processing the data from the scanner and producing volume meshes accurately matching the breast surface and electrode locations, which can be used for image reconstruction. We demonstrate this method for a plaster breast phantom and a human subject. Using this approach will allow patient-specific finite-element meshes to be generated which has the potential to improve the clinical value of EIT for breast cancer diagnosis.

  20. Quantitative measurement of ultrasound pressure field by optical phase contrast method and acoustic holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Seiji; Yasuda, Jun; Hanayama, Hiroki; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    A fast and accurate measurement of an ultrasound field with various exposure sequences is necessary to ensure the efficacy and safety of various ultrasound applications in medicine. The most common method used to measure an ultrasound pressure field, that is, hydrophone scanning, requires a long scanning time and potentially disturbs the field. This may limit the efficiency of developing applications of ultrasound. In this study, an optical phase contrast method enabling fast and noninterfering measurements is proposed. In this method, the modulated phase of light caused by the focused ultrasound pressure field is measured. Then, a computed tomography (CT) algorithm used to quantitatively reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) pressure field is applied. For a high-intensity focused ultrasound field, a new approach that combines the optical phase contrast method and acoustic holography was attempted. First, the optical measurement of focused ultrasound was rapidly performed over the field near a transducer. Second, the nonlinear propagation of the measured ultrasound was simulated. The result of the new approach agreed well with that of the measurement using a hydrophone and was improved from that of the phase contrast method alone with phase unwrapping.

  1. Omnidirectional Photonic Band Gap Using Low Refractive Index Contrast Materials and its Application in Optical Waveguides

    KAUST Repository

    Vidal Faez, Angelo

    2012-07-01

    Researchers have argued for many years that one of the conditions for omnidirectional reflection in a one-dimensional photonic crystal is a strong refractive index contrast between the two constituent dielectric materials. Using numerical simulations and the theory of Anderson localization of light, in this work we demonstrate that an omnidirectional band gap can indeed be created utilizing low refractive index contrast materials when they are arranged in a disordered manner. Moreover, the size of the omnidirectional band gap becomes a controllable parameter, which now depends on the number of layers and not only on the refractive index contrast of the system, as it is widely accepted. This achievement constitutes a major breakthrough in the field since it allows for the development of cheaper and more efficient technologies. Of particular interest is the case of high index contrast one-dimensional photonic crystal fibers, where the propagation losses are mainly due to increased optical scattering from sidewall roughness at the interfaces of high index contrast materials. By using low index contrast materials these losses can be reduced dramatically, while maintaining the confinement capability of the waveguide. This is just one of many applications that could be proven useful for this discovery.

  2. Characterization of bacterial spore germination using integrated phase contrast microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingbo; Zhang, Pengfei; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-Qing

    2010-05-01

    We present a methodology that combines external phase contrast microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and optical tweezers to monitor a variety of changes during the germination of single Bacillus cereus spores in both nutrient (l-alanine) and non-nutrient (Ca-dipicolinic acid (DPA)) germinants with a temporal resolution of approximately 2 s. Phase contrast microscopy assesses changes in refractility of individual spores during germination, while Raman spectroscopy gives information on changes in spore-specific molecules. The results obtained include (1) the brightness of the phase contrast image of an individual dormant spore is proportional to the level of CaDPA in that spore; (2) the end of the first Stage of germination, revealed as the end of the rapid drop in spore refractility by phase contrast microscopy, precisely corresponds to the completion of the release of CaDPA as revealed by Raman spectroscopy; and (3) the correspondence between the rapid drop in spore refractility and complete CaDPA release was observed not only for spores germinating in the well-controlled environment of an optical trap but also for spores germinating when adhered on a microscope coverslip. Using this latter method, we also simultaneously characterized the distribution of the time-to-complete-CaDPA release (T(release)) of hundreds of individual B. cereus spores germinating with both saturating and subsaturating concentrations of l-alanine and with CaDPA.

  3. Programmable Colored Illumination Microscopy (PCIM): A practical and flexible optical staining approach for microscopic contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Chao; Sun, Jiasong; Feng, Shijie; Hu, Yan; Chen, Qian

    2016-03-01

    Programmable colored illumination microscopy (PCIM) has been proposed as a flexible optical staining technique for microscopic contrast enhancement. In this method, we replace the condenser diaphragm of a conventional microscope with a programmable thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD). By displaying different patterns on the LCD, numerous established imaging modalities can be realized, such as bright field, dark field, phase contrast, oblique illumination, and Rheinberg illuminations, which conventionally rely on intricate alterations in the respective microscope setups. Furthermore, the ease of modulating both the color and the intensity distribution at the aperture of the condenser opens the possibility to combine multiple microscopic techniques, or even realize completely new methods for optical color contrast staining, such as iridescent dark-field and iridescent phase-contrast imaging. The versatility and effectiveness of PCIM is demonstrated by imaging of several transparent colorless specimens, such as unstained lung cancer cells, diatom, textile fibers, and a cryosection of mouse kidney. Finally, the potentialities of PCIM for RGB-splitting imaging with stained samples are also explored by imaging stained red blood cells and a histological section.

  4. Imaging of human breast tissue using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Y.; Gautam, M.; Divakar Rao, K.; Swami, M. K.; Gupta, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    We report a study on the use of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) for discriminating malignant (invasive ductal carcinoma), benign (fibroadenoma) and normal (adipocytes) breast tissue sites. The results show that while conventional OCT, that utilizes only the intensity of light back-scattered from tissue microstructures, is able to discriminate breast tissues as normal (adipocytes) and abnormal (malignant and benign) tissues, PS-OCT helps in discriminating between malignant and benign tissue sites also. The estimated values of birefringence obtained from the PSOCT imaging show that benign breast tissue samples have significantly higher birefringence as compared to the malignant tissue samples.

  5. Joint estimation of shape and deformation for the detection of lesions in dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Byung-Woo

    2013-11-01

    We propose a mathematical framework for simultaneously delineating the boundary of object and estimating its temporal motion in the application of lesion detection in a dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) breast MRI sequence where both the appearance and the shape of region of interest is assumed to change in time. A unified energy functional for a joint segmentation and registration is proposed based on the assumption that the statistical properties of dynamic intensity curves within a region of interest are homogeneous. Our algorithm is designed to provide the morphological properties of the enhanced region and its dynamic intensity profiles, called kinetic signatures, in the analysis of DCE imagery since these features are considered as significant cues in understanding images. The proposed energy comprises a combination of a segmentation energy and a registration energy. The segmentation energy is developed based on a convex formulation being insensitive to the initialization. The registration energy is designed to compensate motion artifacts that are usually involved in the temporal imaging procedure. The major objective of this work is to provide a mathematical framework for a joint segmentation and registration on a dynamic sequence of images, and we demonstrate the mutual benefit of the estimation of temporal deformations for the registration step and the localization of regions of interest for the segmentation step. The effectiveness of the developed algorithm has been demonstrated on a number of clinical DCE breast MRI data in the application of breast lesion detection and the results show its potential to improve the accuracy and the efficiency in the diagnosis of breast cancer.

  6. Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nachabé, Rami; Evers, Daniel J.; Hendriks, Benno H.W.; Lucassen, Gerald W.; Voort, van der Marjolein; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Vrancken Peeters, Marie-Jeanne; Hage, van der Jos A.; Oldenburg, Hester S.; Wesseling, Jelle; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the use of diffuse optical spectroscopy analysis of breast spectra acquired in the wavelength range from 500 to 1600 nm with a fiber optic probe. A total of 102 ex vivo samples of five different breast tissue types, namely adipose, glandular, fibroadenoma, invasive carcinoma, and ductal

  7. Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: a comparison of classification methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nachabe, R.; Evers, D.; Hendriks, B.H.W.; Lucassen, G.W.; Van der Voort, M.; Wesseling, J.; Rutgers, E. J.; Vrancken Peeters, M.J.; Hage, J.A.van der; Oldenbeng, H.S.; Ruers, T.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the use of diffuse optical spectroscopy analysis of breast spectra acquired in the wavelength range from 500 to 1600 nm with a fiber optic probe. A total of 102 ex vivo samples of five different breast tissue types, namely adipose, glandular, fibroadenoma, invasive carcinoma and ductal

  8. High-resolution contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography in mice retinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Debasish; SoRelle, Elliott D.; Liba, Orly; Dalal, Roopa; Paulus, Yannis M.; Kim, Tae-Wan; Moshfeghi, Darius M.; de la Zerda, Adam

    2016-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive interferometric imaging modality providing anatomical information at depths of millimeters and a resolution of micrometers. Conventional OCT images limit our knowledge to anatomical structures alone, without any contrast enhancement. Therefore, here we have, for the first time, optimized an OCT-based contrast-enhanced imaging system for imaging single cells and blood vessels in vivo inside the living mouse retina at subnanomolar sensitivity. We used bioconjugated gold nanorods (GNRs) as exogenous OCT contrast agents. Specifically, we used anti-mouse CD45 coated GNRs to label mouse leukocytes and mPEG-coated GNRs to determine sensitivity of GNR detection in vivo inside mice retinae. We corroborated OCT observations with hyperspectral dark-field microscopy of formalin-fixed histological sections. Our results show that mouse leukocytes that otherwise do not produce OCT contrast can be labeled with GNRs leading to significant OCT intensity equivalent to a 0.5 nM GNR solution. Furthermore, GNRs injected intravenously can be detected inside retinal blood vessels at a sensitivity of ˜0.5 nM, and GNR-labeled cells injected intravenously can be detected inside retinal capillaries by enhanced OCT contrast. We envision the unprecedented resolution and sensitivity of functionalized GNRs coupled with OCT to be adopted for longitudinal studies of retinal disorders.

  9. Exploiting Optical Contrasts for Cervical Precancer Diagnosis via Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Vivide Tuan-Chyan

    Among women worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer with an incidence rate of 15.3 per 100,000 and a mortality rate of 7.8 per 100,000 women. This is largely attributed to the lack of infrastructure and resources in the developing countries to support the organized screening and diagnostic programs that are available to women in developed nations. Hence, there is a critical global need for a screening and diagnostic paradigm that is effective in low-resource settings. Various strategies are described to design an optical spectroscopic sensor capable of collecting reliable diffuse reflectance data to extract quantitative optical contrasts for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis. A scalable Monte Carlo based optical toolbox can be used to extract absorption and scattering contrasts from diffuse reflectance acquired in the cervix in vivo. [Total Hb] was shown to increase significantly in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+), clinically the most important tissue grade to identify, compared to normal and low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 1). Scattering was not significantly decreased in CIN 2+ versus normal and CIN 1, but was significantly decreased in CIN relative to normal cervical tissues. Immunohistochemistry via anti-CD34, which stains the endothelial cells that line blood vessels, was used to validate the observed absorption contrast. The concomitant increase in microvessel density and [total Hb] suggests that both are reactive to angiogenic forces from up-regulated expression of VEGF in CIN 2+. Masson's trichrome stain was used to assess collagen density changes associated with dysplastic transformation of the cervix, hypothesized as the dominant source of decreased scattering observed. Due to mismatch in optical and histological sampling, as well as the small sample size, collagen density and scattering did not change in a similar fashion with tissue grade. Dysplasia may also induce changes in cross-linking of

  10. Adaptive optics in spinning disk microscopy: improved contrast and brightness by a simple and fast method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraisier, V; Clouvel, G; Jasaitis, A; Dimitrov, A; Piolot, T; Salamero, J

    2015-09-01

    Multiconfocal microscopy gives a good compromise between fast imaging and reasonable resolution. However, the low intensity of live fluorescent emitters is a major limitation to this technique. Aberrations induced by the optical setup, especially the mismatch of the refractive index and the biological sample itself, distort the point spread function and further reduce the amount of detected photons. Altogether, this leads to impaired image quality, preventing accurate analysis of molecular processes in biological samples and imaging deep in the sample. The amount of detected fluorescence can be improved with adaptive optics. Here, we used a compact adaptive optics module (adaptive optics box for sectioning optical microscopy), which was specifically designed for spinning disk confocal microscopy. The module overcomes undesired anomalies by correcting for most of the aberrations in confocal imaging. Existing aberration detection methods require prior illumination, which bleaches the sample. To avoid multiple exposures of the sample, we established an experimental model describing the depth dependence of major aberrations. This model allows us to correct for those aberrations when performing a z-stack, gradually increasing the amplitude of the correction with depth. It does not require illumination of the sample for aberration detection, thus minimizing photobleaching and phototoxicity. With this model, we improved both signal-to-background ratio and image contrast. Here, we present comparative studies on a variety of biological samples.

  11. High-contrast fluorescence imaging in fixed and living cells using optimized optical switches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangxing Wu

    Full Text Available We present the design, synthesis and characterization of new functionalized fluorescent optical switches for rapid, all-visible light-mediated manipulation of fluorescence signals from labelled structures within living cells, and as probes for high-contrast optical lock-in detection (OLID imaging microscopy. A triazole-substituted BIPS (TzBIPS is identified from a rational synthetic design strategy that undergoes robust, rapid and reversible, visible light-driven transitions between a colorless spiro- (SP and a far-red absorbing merocyanine (MC state within living cells. The excited MC-state of TzBIPS may also decay to the MC-ground state emitting near infra-red fluorescence, which is used as a sensitive and quantitative read-out of the state of the optical switch in living cells. The SP to MC transition for a membrane-targeted TzBIPS probe (C₁₂-TzBIPS is triggered at 405 nm at an energy level compatible with studies in living cells, while the action spectrum of the reverse transition (MC to SP has a maximum at 650 nm. The SP to MC transition is complete within the 790 ns pixel dwell time of the confocal microscope, while a single cycle of optical switching between the SP and MC states in a region of interest is complete within 8 ms (125 Hz within living cells, the fastest rate attained for any optical switch probe in a biological sample. This property can be exploited for real-time correction of background signals in living cells. A reactive form of TzBIPS is linked to secondary antibodies and used, in conjunction with an enhanced scope-based analysis of the modulated MC-fluorescence in immuno-stained cells, for high-contrast immunofluorescence microscopic analysis of the actin cytoskeleton.

  12. Image Formation in High Contrast Optical Systems: The Role of Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckinridge, James B.

    2004-01-01

    To find evidence of life in the Universe outside our solar system is one of the most compelling and visionary adventures of the 21st century. The technologies to create the telescopes and instruments that will enable this discovery are now within the grasp of mankind. Direct imaging of a very faint planet around a neighboring bright star requires high contrast or a hypercontrast optical imaging system capable of controlling unwanted radiation within the system to one part in ten to the 11th. This paper identifies several physical phenomena that affect image quality in high contrast imaging systems. Polarization induced at curved metallic surfaces and by anisotropy in the deposition process (Smith-Purcell effect) along with beam shifts introduced by the Goos-Hachen effect are discussed. A typical configuration is analyzed, and technical risk mitigation concepts are discussed.

  13. Flow rate estimation by optical coherence tomography using contrast dilution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štohanzlová, Petra; Kolář, Radim

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes experiments and methodology for flow rate estimation using optical coherence tomography and dilution method in single fiber setup. The single fiber is created from custom made glass capillary and polypropylene hollow fiber. As a data source, measurements on single fiber phantom with continuous flow of carrier medium and bolus of Intralipid solution as a contrast agent were used using Thorlabs OCT OCS1300SS. The measured data were processed by methods of image processing, in order to precisely align the individual images in the sequence and extract dilution curves from the area inside the fiber. An experiment proved that optical coherence tomography can be used for flow rate estimation by the dilution method with precision around 7%.

  14. Impedance matching vertical optical waveguide couplers for dense high index contrast circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rong; Beals, Mark; Pomerene, Andrew; Cheng, Jing; Hong, Ching-Yin; Kimerling, Lionel; Michel, Jurgen

    2008-08-04

    We designed and demonstrated a compact, high-index contrast (HIC) vertical waveguide coupler for TE single mode operation with the lowest coupling loss of 0.20 dB +/- 0.05 dB at 1550 nm. Our vertical coupler consists of a pair of vertically overlapping inverse taper structures made of SOI and amorphous silicon. The vertical coupler can suppress power oscillation observed in regular directional couplers and guarantees vertical optical impedance matching with great tolerance for fabrication and refractive index variations of the waveguide materials. The coupler furthermore shows excellent broadband coupling efficiencies between 1460 nm and 1570 nm.

  15. Light comfort zones of mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers in two contrasting optical environments

    KAUST Repository

    Røstad, Anders

    2016-03-31

    We make a comparison of the mesopelagic sound scattering layers (SLs) in two contrasting optical environments; the clear Red Sea and in murkier coastal waters of Norway (Masfjorden). The depth distributions of the SL in Masfjorden are shallower and narrower than those of the Red Sea. This difference in depth distribution is consistent with the hypothesis that the organisms of the SL distribute according to similar light comfort zones (LCZ) in the two environments. Our study suggest that surface and underwater light measurements ranging more than10 orders of magnitude is required to assess the controlling effects of light on SL structure and dynamics.

  16. Effects of sample preparation on the optical properties of breast tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Fay A.

    1996-04-01

    The optical properties of biological tissue should be determined in vivo whenever possible. However, for those instances when in vivo studies are impractical, too expensive or inappropriate, and when blood flow is not an issue, the ability to perform in vitro studies then becomes invaluable. Optical absorption spectroscopy shows that it may be possible to obtain meaningful information about the optical properties of human breast tissue from in vitro samples if strict preparation and measuring protocols are used. That a strict protocol for storing and handling tissue is critical can be seen from our observations of changes in the optical absorption spectra that occur in response to formalin fixation, the passage of time, application of stains and dyes, and storage in growth medium of the excised tissue. In vivo optical absorption spectroscopy measurements have been made on human breast cancer xenografts and compared with in vitro measurements on breast biopsies prepared according to precise collection and treatment protocols. There is a 'window of opportunity' before time dependent changes in the UV optical absorption spectra of the excised tissue specimens occur. This time window of opportunity widens at longer wavelengths with the least changes occurring in the optical spectra in the NIR.

  17. Effectiveness of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating clinical responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yin-hua; YE Jing-ming; XU Ling; HUANG Qing-yun; ZHAO Jian-xin; DUAN Xue-ning; QIN Nai-shan; WANG Xiao-ying

    2011-01-01

    Background Use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy necessitates assessment of response to cytotoxic drugs.The aim of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluating clinical responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.Methods We examined patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy for primary breast cancer between October 2007and September 2008.Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was used to examine breast tumors prior to and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.The MRI examination assessed tumors using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST).The Miller-Payne grading system was used as a histopathological examination to assess the effect of the treatment.We examined the relationship between the results of RECIST and histopathological criteria.In addition,we used time-signal intensity curves (MRI T-SI) to further evaluate the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on tumor response.Results MRI examination of patients completing four three-week anthracycline-taxanes chemotherapy treatment revealed that no patients had complete responses (CR),58 patients had partial responses (PR),29 patients had stable disease (SD),and four with progressive disease (PD).The effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CR + PR) was 63.7% (58/91).The postoperative histopathological evaluations revealed the following:seven G5 (pCR) cases (7.7%),39G4 cases (42.9%),16 G3 cases (17.6%),23 G2 cases (25.3%),and six G1 cases (6.6%).The effectiveness (G5 + G4 +G3) was 68.1% (62/91).MRI T-SI standards classified 53 responding cases,29 stable cases,and nine progressing cases.These results indicated that the treatment was 58.2% effective (53/91) overall.Conclusions Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and histopathological standards were highly correlated.Importantly,MRI T-SI evaluation was found to be useful in assessing the clinical effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  18. 超声造影对乳腺纤维腺瘤和乳腺癌的诊断价值%Analysis of ultrasonographic features and characteristics of acoustic contrast graphs of breast fibroadenoma and breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江泉; 张渊; 张新书

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究乳腺纤维腺瘤和乳腺癌的超声造影表现,初步探讨超声造影在乳腺良恶性肿瘤鉴别诊断中的应用价值.方法 回顾性分析18例乳腺纤维腺瘤和12例乳腺癌的超声造影表现,对比造影前后肿块的超声表现.结果 造影后,14例乳腺纤维腺瘤大小测值无明显变化,4例测值增大,5例乳腺癌大小测值无明显变化,7例乳腺癌者大小测值增大;造影后,纤维腺瘤肿块内血管数大部分无明显变化,血管形态较狭窄平直,沿肿块周边走行,乳腺癌肿块内血管数明显增多增粗、迂曲,并有血管进入肿块内.结论 超声造影对显示肿块实际大小优于普通超声,造影后肿块大小测值变大、血管数增多、血管不规则走行等以乳腺癌多见.超声造影有利于提高乳腺癌的正确诊断率.%Objective To study the ultrasonographic and acoustic contrast features of breast fibroadenoma and breast cancer and explore the value of contrast enhanced ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors. Method A retrospective analysis of 18 cases breast fibroadenoma and 12 cases breast cancer in the performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound was done. Results After contrast agent injection, tumor dimension increased in 4 cases with breast fibroadenoma and 7 cases with breast cancer. The ultrasonographic and acoustic contrast features of breast fibroadenoma showed no significant changes. They showed stenosis, perpendicular and circumambulates vascular shape. The breast cancers significantly increased the number of tumor blood vessels with the thicker,tortuous blood vessels into the tumor. Conclusions The contrast enhanced ultrasonography assessed more accurate size of tumors. The image displayed grown sizes, more vascularity and bending vascular shape in the breast cancer. It was more accurate than gray-scale ultrasound on diagnosing breast cancer.

  19. Diagnosis of breast masses from dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MR: a machine learning approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmin Cai

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI is increasingly used for breast cancer diagnosis as supplementary to conventional imaging techniques. Combining of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI of morphology and kinetic features from DCE-MRI to improve the discrimination power of malignant from benign breast masses is rarely reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised of 234 female patients with 85 benign and 149 malignant lesions. Four distinct groups of features, coupling with pathological tests, were estimated to comprehensively characterize the pictorial properties of each lesion, which was obtained by a semi-automated segmentation method. Classical machine learning scheme including feature subset selection and various classification schemes were employed to build prognostic model, which served as a foundation for evaluating the combined effects of the multi-sided features for predicting of the types of lesions. Various measurements including cross validation and receiver operating characteristics were used to quantify the diagnostic performances of each feature as well as their combination. RESULTS: Seven features were all found to be statistically different between the malignant and the benign groups and their combination has achieved the highest classification accuracy. The seven features include one pathological variable of age, one morphological variable of slope, three texture features of entropy, inverse difference and information correlation, one kinetic feature of SER and one DWI feature of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC. Together with the selected diagnostic features, various classical classification schemes were used to test their discrimination power through cross validation scheme. The averaged measurements of sensitivity, specificity, AUC and accuracy are 0.85, 0.89, 90.9% and 0.93, respectively. CONCLUSION: Multi-sided variables which characterize the morphological, kinetic, pathological

  20. High spatial resolution and high contrast optical speckle imaging with FASTCAM at the ORM

    CERN Document Server

    Labadie, L; Femenia, B; Villo, Isidro; Diaz-Sanchez, A; Oscoz, A; Lopez, R; Perez-Prieto, J; Perez-Garrido, A; Hildebrandt, S R; Bejar-Sanchez, V; Piqueras, J; Rodriguez, L F; 10.1117/12.857998

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present an original observational approach, which combines, for the first time, traditional speckle imaging with image post-processing to obtain in the optical domain diffraction-limited images with high contrast (1e-5) within 0.5 to 2 arcseconds around a bright star. The post-processing step is based on wavelet filtering an has analogy with edge enhancement and high-pass filtering. Our I-band on-sky results with the 2.5-m Nordic Telescope (NOT) and the lucky imaging instrument FASTCAM show that we are able to detect L-type brown dwarf companions around a solar-type star with a contrast DI~12 at 2" and with no use of any coronographic capability, which greatly simplifies the instrumental and hardware approach. This object has been detected from the ground in J and H bands so far only with AO-assisted 8-10 m class telescopes (Gemini, Keck), although more recently detected with small-class telescopes in the K band. Discussing the advantage and disadvantage of the optical regime for the detecti...

  1. Investigation into spiral phase plate contrast in optical and electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Juchtmans, Roeland; Lubk, Axel; Verbeeck, Jo

    2016-01-01

    The use of phase plates in the back focal plane of a microscope is a well established technique in optical microscopy to increase the contrast of weakly interacting samples and is gaining interest in electron microscopy as well. In this paper we study the spiral phase plate (SPP), also called helical, vortex, or two-dimensional Hilbert phase plate, that adds an angularly dependent phase of the form $e^{i\\ell\\phi}$ to the exit wave in Fourier space. In the limit of large collection angles, we analytically calculate that the average of a pair of $\\ell=\\pm1$ SPP images is directly proportional to the gradient squared of the exit wave, explaining the edge contrast previously seen in optical SPP work. The difference between a clockwise-anticlockwise pair of SPP images and conditions where this difference vanishes and the gradient of the exit wave can be seen from one single SPP image, are discussed. Finally, we demonstrate how with three images, one without and one with each of an $\\ell=\\pm1$ SPP, may give enough ...

  2. Optical clearing of skin enhanced with hyaluronic acid for increased contrast of optoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liopo, Anton; Su, Richard; Tsyboulski, Dmitri A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2016-08-01

    Enhanced delivery of optical clearing agents (OCA) through skin may improve sensitivity of optical and optoacoustic (OA) methods of imaging, sensing, and monitoring. This report describes a two-step method for enhancement of light penetration through skin. Here, we demonstrate that topical application of hyaluronic acid (HA) improves skin penetration of hydrophilic and lipophilic OCA and thus enhances their performance. We examined the OC effect of 100% polyethylene and polypropylene glycols (PPGs) and their mixture after pretreatment by HA, and demonstrated significant increase in efficiency of light penetration through skin. Increased light transmission resulted in a significant increase of OA image contrast in vitro. Topical pretreatment of skin for about 30 min with 0.5% HA in aqueous solution offers effective delivery of low molecular weight OCA such as a mixture of PPG-425 and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-400. The developed approach of pretreatment by HA prior to application of clearing agents (PEG and PPG) resulted in a ˜47-fold increase in transmission of red and near-infrared light and significantly enhanced contrast of OA images.

  3. SU-E-J-223: A BOLD Contrast Imaging Sequence to Evaluate Oxygenation Changes Due to Breath Holding for Breast Radiotherapy: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, J; Chang, Z; Cai, J; Palta, M; Horton, J; Yin, F; Blitzblau, R [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a robust MRI sequence to measure BOLD breath hold induced contrast in context of breast radiotherapy. Methods: Two sequences were selected from prior studies as candidates to measure BOLD contrast attributable to breath holding within the breast: (1) T2* based Gradient Echo EPI (TR/TE = 500/41ms, flip angle = 60°), and (2) T2 based Single Shot Fast Spin Echo (SSFSE) (TR/TE = 3000/60ms). We enrolled ten women post-lumpectomy for breast cancer who were undergoing treatment planning for whole breast radiotherapy. Each session utilized a 1.5T GE MRI and 4 channel breast coil with the subject immobilized prone on a custom board. For each sequence, 1–3 planes of the lumpectomy breast were imaged continuously during a background measurement (1min) and intermittent breath holds (20–40s per breath hold, 3–5 holds per sequence). BOLD contrast was quantified as correlation of changes in per-pixel intensity with the breath hold schedule convolved with a hemodynamic response function. Subtle motion was corrected using a deformable registration algorithm. Correlation with breath-holding was considered significant if p<0.001. Results: The percentage of the breast ROI with positive BOLD contrast measured by the two sequences were in agreement with a correlation coefficient of R=0.72 (p=0.02). While both sequences demonstrated areas with strong BOLD response, the response was more systematic throughout the breast for the SSFSE (T2) sequence (% breast with response in the same direction: 51.2%±0.7% for T2* vs. 68.1%±16% for T2). In addition, the T2 sequence was less prone to magnetic susceptibility artifacts, especially in presence of seroma, and provided a more robust image with little distortion or artifacts. Conclusion: A T2 SSFSE sequence shows promise for measuring BOLD contrast in the context of breast radiotherapy utilizing a breath hold technique. Further study in a larger patient cohort is warranted to better refine this novel technique.

  4. In-line phase-contrast breast tomosynthesis: a phantom feasibility study at a synchrotron radiation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliznakova, K.; Russo, P.; Kamarianakis, Z.; Mettivier, G.; Requardt, H.; Bravin, A.; Buliev, I.

    2016-08-01

    The major objective is to adopt, apply and test developed in-house algorithms for volumetric breast reconstructions from projection images, obtained in in-line phase-contrast mode. Four angular sets, each consisting of 17 projection images obtained from four physical phantoms, were acquired at beamline ID17, European Synchroton Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France. The tomosynthesis arc was  ±32°. The physical phantoms differed in complexity of texture and introduced features of interest. Three of the used phantoms were in-house developed, and made of epoxy resin, polymethyl-methacrylate and paraffin wax, while the fourth phantom was the CIRS BR3D. The projection images had a pixel size of 47 µm  ×  47 µm. Tomosynthesis images were reconstructed with standard shift-and-add (SAA) and filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithms. It was found that the edge enhancement observed in planar x-ray images is preserved in tomosynthesis images from both phantoms with homogeneous and highly heterogeneous backgrounds. In case of BR3D, it was found that features not visible in the planar case were well outlined in the tomosynthesis slices. In addition, the edge enhancement index calculated for features of interest was found to be much higher in tomosynthesis images reconstructed with FBP than in planar images and tomosynthesis images reconstructed with SAA. The comparison between images reconstructed by the two reconstruction algorithms shows an advantage for the FBP method in terms of better edge enhancement. Phase-contrast breast tomosynthesis realized in in-line mode benefits the detection of suspicious areas in mammography images by adding the edge enhancement effect to the reconstructed slices.

  5. Molecular MR Imaging of CD44 in Breast Cancer with Hyaluronan-Based Contrast Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    macromolecule as a contrast agent for MR angiography: preparation, properties, and animal studies. Radiology 1993;187(3):701- 706. 6. Frenzel T...Investigative radiology 2008;43(12):817-828. 7. Sieber MA, Lengsfeld P, Frenzel T, Golfier S, Schmitt-Willich H, Siegmund F, Walter J, Weinmann HJ

  6. Contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography with picomolar sensitivity for functional in vivo imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liba, Orly; Sorelle, Elliott D.; Sen, Debasish; de La Zerda, Adam

    2016-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) enables real-time imaging of living tissues at cell-scale resolution over millimeters in three dimensions. Despite these advantages, functional biological studies with OCT have been limited by a lack of exogenous contrast agents that can be distinguished from tissue. Here we report an approach to functional OCT imaging that implements custom algorithms to spectrally identify unique contrast agents: large gold nanorods (LGNRs). LGNRs exhibit 110-fold greater spectral signal per particle than conventional GNRs, which enables detection of individual LGNRs in water and concentrations as low as 250 pM in the circulation of living mice. This translates to ~40 particles per imaging voxel in vivo. Unlike previous implementations of OCT spectral detection, the methods described herein adaptively compensate for depth and processing artifacts on a per sample basis. Collectively, these methods enable high-quality noninvasive contrast-enhanced imaging of OCT in living subjects, including detection of tumor microvasculature at twice the depth achievable with conventional OCT. Additionally, multiplexed detection of spectrally-distinct LGNRs was demonstrated to observe discrete patterns of lymphatic drainage and identify individual lymphangions and lymphatic valve functional states. These capabilities provide a powerful platform for molecular imaging and characterization of tissue noninvasively at cellular resolution, called MOZART.

  7. Self-Assembled Polyelectrolyte Nanoparticles as Fluorophore-Free Contrast Agents for Multicolor Optical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Hye Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe the fabrication of self-assembled polyelectrolyte nanoparticles that provide a multicolor optical imaging modality. Poly(γ-glutamic acid(γ-PGA formed self-assembled nanoparticles through electrostatic interactions with two different cationic polymers: poly(L-lysine(PLL and chitosan. The self-assembled γ-PGA/PLL and γ-PGA/chitosan nanoparticles were crosslinked by glutaraldehyde. Crosslinking of the ionic self-assembled nanoparticles with glutaraldehyde not only stabilized the nanoparticles but also generated a strong autofluorescence signal. Fluorescent Schiff base bonds (C=N and double bonds (C=C were generated simultaneously by crosslinking of the amine moiety of the cationic polyelectrolytes with monomeric glutaraldehyde or with polymeric glutaraldehyde. The unique optical properties of the nanoparticles that resulted from the crosslinking by glutaraldehyde were analyzed using UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. We observed that the fluorescence intensity of the nanoparticles could be regulated by adjusting the crosslinker concentration and the reaction time. The nanoparticles also exhibited high performance in the labeling and monitoring of therapeutic immune cells (macrophages and dendritic cells. These self-assembled nanoparticles are expected to be a promising multicolor optical imaging contrast agent for the labeling, detection, and monitoring of cells.

  8. Combined Contrast-Enhanced MRI and Fluorescence Molecular Tomography for Breast Tumor Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    electromagnetic field and coil characteristics were per- formed from simulations using a commercially available EM program FEKO , which is based on the method of...are provided here. Repeatability measurements were made for two imaging modes , one records the intensity of the excitation source while the other...titanium dioxide, and India ink was used to measure the repeatability of transmission mode measurements using the spectroscopy system. Optical

  9. Differential diagnosis of breast masses in South Korean premenopausal women using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leproux, Anaïs; Kim, You Me; Min, Jun Won; McLaren, Christine E.; Chen, Wen-Pin; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Lee, Seung-ha; Chung, Phil-Sang; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-07-01

    Young patients with dense breasts have a relatively low-positive biopsy rate for breast cancer (˜1 in 7). South Korean women have higher breast density than Westerners. We investigated the benefit of using a functional and metabolic imaging technique, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI), to help the standard of care imaging tools to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in premenopausal Korean women. DOSI uses near-infrared light to measure breast tissue composition by quantifying tissue concentrations of water (ctH2O), bulk lipid (ctLipid), deoxygenated (ctHHb), and oxygenated (ctHbO2) hemoglobin. DOSI spectral signatures specific to abnormal tissue and absent in healthy tissue were also used to form a malignancy index. This study included 19 premenopausal subjects (average age 41±9), corresponding to 11 benign and 10 malignant lesions. Elevated lesion to normal ratio of ctH2O, ctHHb, ctHbO2, total hemoglobin (THb=ctHHb+ctHbO2), and tissue optical index (ctHHb×ctH2O/ctLipid) were observed in the malignant lesions compared to the benign lesions (p90% sensitivity and specificity. Malignant lesions showed significantly higher metabolism and perfusion than benign lesions. DOSI spectral features showed high discriminatory power for distinguishing malignant and benign lesions in dense breasts of the Korean population.

  10. Monitoring recovery after laser surgery of the breast with optical tomography: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Yates, Tara D.; Gibson, Adam; Everdell, Nicholas; Arridge, Simon R.; Chicken, Dennis W.; Douek, Michael; Keshtgar, Mohammed R. S.

    2005-04-01

    Results are presented of a study to monitor the changes in the optical properties of breast tissue over a 12-month period after interstitial laser photocoagulation treatment of a fibroadenoma. The study involved generating cross-sectional images of the breast with a multichannel time-resolved imaging system and a nonlinear image reconstruction algorithm. Images of the internal absorbing and scattering properties revealed the expected initial inflammatory response, followed by the development of low-scattering cysts consistent with corresponding ultrasound examinations. Although results indicate that purely qualitative images can potentially provide clinically valuable data, means of enhancing diagnostic information by overcoming present limitations of the approach are discussed.

  11. Incoherent structured illumination improves optical sectioning and contrast in multiphoton super-resolution microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Peter W; Chandris, Panagiotis; Fischer, Robert S; Wu, Yicong; Waterman, Clare M; Shroff, Hari

    2015-02-23

    Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging in thick, semi-transparent biological specimens is hindered by light scattering, which increases background and degrades both contrast and optical sectioning. We describe a simple method that mitigates these issues, improving image quality in our recently developed two-photon instant structured illumination microscope without requiring any hardware modifications to the instrument. By exciting the specimen with three laterally-structured, phase-shifted illumination patterns and post-processing the resulting images, we digitally remove both scattered and out-of-focus emissions that would otherwise contaminate our raw data. We demonstrate the improved performance of our approach in biological samples, including pollen grains, primary mouse aortic endothelial cells cultured in a three-dimensional collagen matrix and live tumor-like cell spheroids.

  12. Pupil remapping for high contrast astronomy: results from an optical testbed

    CERN Document Server

    Kotani, T; Perrin, G; Robertson, G; Tuthill, P

    2009-01-01

    The direct imaging and characterization of Earth-like planets is among the most sought-after prizes in contemporary astrophysics, however current optical instrumentation delivers insufficient dynamic range to overcome the vast contrast differential between the planet and its host star. New opportunities are offered by coherent single mode fibers, whose technological development has been motivated by the needs of the telecom industry in the near infrared. This paper presents a new vision for an instrument using coherent waveguides to remap the pupil geometry of the telescope. It would (i) inject the full pupil of the telescope into an array of single mode fibers, (ii) rearrange the pupil so fringes can be accurately measured, and (iii) permit image reconstruction so that atmospheric blurring can be totally removed. Here we present a laboratory experiment whose goal was to validate the theoretical concepts underpinning our proposed method. We successfully confirmed that we can retrieve the image of a simulated ...

  13. Measurement of depth-resolved thermal deformation distribution using phase-contrast spectral optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Dong, Bo; Bai, Yulei; Ye, Shuangli; Lei, Zhenkun; Zhou, Yanzhou

    2015-10-19

    An updated B-scan method is proposed for measuring the evolution of thermal deformation fields in polymers. In order to measure the distributions of out-of-plane deformation and normal strain field, phase-contrast spectral optical coherence tomography (PC-SOCT) was performed with the depth range and resolution of 4.3 mm and 10.7 μm, respectively, as thermal loads were applied to three different multilayer samples. The relation between temperature and material refractive index was predetermined before the measurement. After accounting for the refractive index, the thermal deformation fields in the polymer were obtained. The measured thermal expansion coefficient of silicone sealant was approximately equal to its reference value. This method allows correctly assessing the mechanical properties in semitransparent polymers.

  14. Detection of brain tumors using fluorescence diffuse optical tomography and nanoparticles as contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Pierre-Yves; Genevois, Coralie; Koenig, Anne; Heinrich, Emilie; Texier, Isabelle; Couillaud, Franck

    2012-12-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence-enhanced diffuse optical tomography (fDOT) is used to localize tumors in mice using fluorescent nanoparticles as a blood pool contrast agent. The infrared dye DiR is loaded in the lipid core of nontargeted nanoparticles (DiR-lipidots) and injected systemically via the tail vein in mice bearing U87 tumors. Distribution and time-course of DiR-lipidots are followed using in vivo fluorescence reflectance imaging and reveal enhanced fluorescent signal within the subcutaneous tumors up to seven days due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Tumor growth into the brain is followed using bioluminescent imaging, and tumor localization is further determined by magnetic resonance imaging. The fDOT provides three-dimensional fluorescent maps that allow for consistent localization for both subcutaneous and brain tumors.

  15. Segmentation and classification of breast tumor using dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Baloch, Sajjad; Englander, Sarah; Schnall, Mitchell D; Shen, Dinggang

    2007-01-01

    Accuracy of automatic cancer diagnosis is largely determined by two factors, namely, the precision of tumor segmentation, and the suitability of extracted features for discrimination between malignancy and benignancy. In this paper, we propose a new framework for accurate characterization of tumors in contrast enhanced MR images. First, a new graph cut based segmentation algorithm is developed for refining coarse manual segmentation, which allows precise identification of tumor regions. Second, by considering serial contrast-enhanced images as a single spatio-temporal image, a spatio-temporal model of segmented tumor is constructed to extract Spatio-Temporal Enhancement Patterns (STEPs). STEPs are designed to capture not only dynamic enhancement and architectural features, but also spatial variations of pixel-wise temporal enhancement of the tumor. While temporal enhancement features are extracted through Fourier transform, the resulting STEP framework captures spatial patterns of temporal enhancement features via moment invariants and rotation invariant Gabor textures. High accuracy of the proposed framework is a direct consequence of this two pronged approach, which is validated through experiments yielding, for instance, an area of 0.97 under the ROC curve.

  16. Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI in Patients With Advanced Breast or Pancreatic Cancer With Metastases to the Liver or Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Acinar Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Duct Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Liver Metastases; Lung Metastases; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  17. Optical coherence tomography: influence of contrast concentration on image quality and diagnostic confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachutzik, Florian; Achenbach, Stephan; Nef, Holger; Hamm, Christian; Dörr, Oliver; Boeder, Niklas; Marwan, Mohamed; Tröbs, Monique; Schneider, Reinhard; Röther, Jens; Schlundt, Christian

    2016-11-09

    OCT requires intracoronary injection of contrast agent to remove blood from the coronary lumen during data acquisition, which is a possible limitation of this method. Aim of this study was to analyze the influence of iodine concentration on image quality and diagnostic certainty of optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT sequences acquired using contrast agent with a reduced concentration of 150 mg iodine/ml and a standard concentration of 350 mg iodine/ml were analyzed. Cross-sectional images with a spacing of 10 mm were evaluated regarding image quality and diagnostic confidence. A total of 67 OCT sequences acquired in 24 patients were analyzed. 31 sequences were acquired using contrast agent with a concentration of 150 mg iodine/ml and 36 sequences with a concentration of 350 mg iodine/ml. The percentage of remaining blood streaks in the cross sections was significantly lower for 350 mg iodine/ml compared to 150 mg iodine/ml (19 ± 21 vs. 34 ± 26%, p = 0.013). Contrast with 350 mg iodine/ml showed a significantly higher percentage of completely flushed pullback length as compared to 150 mg iodine/ml (78 ± 24 vs. 58 ± 27%, p = 0.004). Diagnostic certainty was significantly higher for 350 mg iodine/ml than for 150 mg iodine/ml (Likert scale average 1.4 ± 0.7 vs. 2.1 ± 1.2, p < 0.001; Likert scale: 1 = absolutely confident, 2 = confident with slight doubts, 3 = doubtful/not confident, 4 = non-diagnostic). Regarding image quality and diagnostic certainty, contrast agent with a concentration of 350 mg iodine/ml is superior to 150 mg iodine/ml.

  18. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluorescence (QLF). In order for image-guided laser ablation to be feasible, chemical and physical modification of tooth surfaces due to laser irradiation cannot greatly reduce the contrast between sound and demineralized dental hard tissues. Sound and demineralized surfaces of 48 extracted human molar teeth with non-cavitated lesions were examined. Images were acquired before and after laser irradiation using visible and near-IR reflectance and QLF at several wavelengths. Polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography was used to confirm that lesions were present. The highest contrast was attained at 1460-nm and 1500-1700-nm, wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption. The reflectance did not decrease significantly after laser irradiation for those wavelengths.

  19. The added diagnostic value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI at 3.0 T in nonpalpable breast lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckel, L.G.; Verkooijen, H.M.; Peters, N.H.G.M.; Mann, R.M.; Veldhuis, W.B.; Storm, R.K.; Weits, T.; Duvivier, K.M.; Dalen, T. van; Mali, W.P.Th.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Bosch, Martijn van den

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the added diagnostic value of 3.0 Tesla breast MRI over conventional breast imaging in the diagnosis of in situ and invasive breast cancer and to explore the role of routine versus expert reading.We evaluated MRI scans of patients with nonpalpable BI-RADS 3-5 lesions who underwent dyn

  20. Triple-negative invasive breast cancer on dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MR imaging: comparison with other breast cancer subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Son, Eun Ju; Chung, Jin; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Eun-kyung [Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    To determine the MRI features of triple-negative invasive breast cancer (TNBC) on dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in comparison with ER-positive/HER2-negative (ER+) and HER2-positive cancer (HER2+). A total of 271 invasive cancers in 269 patients undergoing preoperative MRI and surgery were included. Two radiologists retrospectively assessed morphological and kinetic characteristics on DCE-MRI and tumour detectability on DWI. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of lesions were measured. Clinical and MRI features of the three subtypes were compared. Compared with ER+ (n = 119) and HER2+ (n = 94), larger size, round/oval mass shape, smooth mass margin, and rim enhancement on DCE-MRI were significantly associated with TNBC (n = 58; P < 0.0001). On DWI, mean ADC value (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) of TNBC (1.03) was higher than the mean ADC values for ER+ and HER2+ (0.89 and 0.84; P < 0.0001). There was no difference in tumour detectability (P = 0.099). Tumour size (P = 0.009), mass margin (smooth, P < 0.0001; irregular, P = 0.020), and ADC values (P = 0.002) on DCE-MRI and DWI were independent features of TNBC. In addition to the morphological features, higher ADC values on DWI were independently associated with TNBC and could be useful in differentiating TNBC from ER+ and HER2+. (orig.)

  1. Intravoxel incoherent motion MR imaging for breast lesions: comparison and correlation with pharmacokinetic evaluation from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chunling; Liu, Zaiyi; Zhang, Jine; He, Hui; Zhang, Shuixing; Liang, Changhong [Guangdong General Hospital/Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, GuangZhou (China); Wang, Kun [Guangdong General Hospital/Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Breast Cancer, Cancer Center, GuangZhou (China); Chan, Queenie [Philips Healthcare, 6/F, Core Building 1, 1 Science Park East Avenue, Hong Kong Science Park, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-11-15

    To compare diagnostic performance for breast lesions by quantitative parameters derived from intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to explore whether correlations exist between these parameters. IVIM and DCE MRI were performed on a 1.5-T MRI scanner in patients with suspicious breast lesions. Thirty-six breast cancers and 23 benign lesions were included in the study. Quantitative parameters from IVIM (D, f and D*) and DCE MRI (K{sup trans}, K{sub ep}, V{sub e} and V{sub p}) were calculated and compared between malignant and benign lesions. Spearman correlation test was used to evaluate correlations between them. D, f, D* from IVIM and K{sup trans}, K{sub ep}, V{sub p} from DCE MRI were statistically different between breast cancers and benign lesions (p < 0.05, respectively) and D demonstrated the largest area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.917) and had the highest specificity (83 %). The f value was moderately statistically correlated with V{sub p} (r = 0.692) and had a poor correlation with K{sup trans} (r = 0.456). IVIM MRI is useful in the differentiation of breast lesions. Significant correlations were found between perfusion-related parameters from IVIM and DCE MRI. IVIM may be a useful adjunctive tool to standard MRI in diagnosing breast cancer. (orig.)

  2. A suspicious breast lesion detected by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and pathologically confirmed as capillary hemangioma: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lian He; Li, Qing Chang; Xu, Hong Tao; Wang, Xin; Wang, En Hua [The First Affiliated Hospital and College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Ma, Shuang [Dept. of Neurology, Sheng Jing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China)

    2013-12-15

    Breast capillary hemangioma is a type of benign vascular tumor which is rarely seen. Little is known about its presentation on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Here, we describe a case of suspicious breast lesion detected by DCE-MRI and pathologically confirmed as capillary hemangioma. Our case indicates that a small mass with a superficial location, clear boundary, and homogeneous enhancement on DCE-MRI indicates the possible diagnosis of hemangioma, whereby even the lesion presents a washout type curve.

  3. The design and characterization of a digital optical breast cancer imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexman, Molly L; Li, Yang; Bur, Andres M; Fong, Christopher J; Masciotti, James M; Al Abdi, Rabah; Barbour, Randall L; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2008-01-01

    Optical imaging has the potential to play a major role in breast cancer screening and diagnosis due to its ability to image cancer characteristics such as angiogenesis and hypoxia. A promising approach to evaluate and quantify these characteristics is to perform dynamic imaging studies in which one monitors the hemodynamic response to an external stimulus, such as a valsalva maneuver. It has been shown that the response to such stimuli shows MARKED differences between cancerous and healthy tissues. The fast imaging rates and large dynamic range of digital devices makes them ideal for this type of imaging studies. Here we present a digital optical tomography system designed specifically for dynamic breast imaging. The instrument uses laser diodes at 4 different near-infrared wavelengths with 32 sources and 128 silicon photodiode detectors.

  4. Optical study on the dependence of breast tissue composition and structure on subject anamnesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Paola; Quarto, Giovanna; Pifferi, Antonio; Abbate, Francesca; Balestreri, Nicola; Menna, Simona; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2015-07-01

    Time domain multi-wavelength (635 to 1060 nm) optical mammography was performed on 200 subjects to estimate their average breast tissue composition in terms of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipid and collagen, and structural information, as provided by scattering parameters (amplitude and power). Significant (and often marked) dependence of tissue composition and structure on age, menopausal status, body mass index, and use of oral contraceptives was demonstrated.

  5. Optical contrast of 2D InSe on SiO2/Si and transparent substrates using bandpass filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons-Gisbert, M; Andres-Penares, D; Martínez-Pastor, J P; Cros, A; Sánchez-Royo, J F

    2017-03-17

    The particular optical and electronic properties recently reported for 2D InSe depict this 2D material as being very versatile for future electronic and optoelectronic devices with tunable and optimized functionalities. For its fundamental study and the development of practical applications, rapid and accurate identification methods of atomically thin InSe are essential. Here, we demonstrate an enhancement of the optical contrast between InSe nanosheets and the underlying SiO2/Si substrate by illuminating with a 40 nm wide bandpass filter centered at 500 nm. Moreover, we study the optical contrast of 2D InSe on transparent substrates. Our results suggest that a good optical contrast is achieved for transparent substrates with low real refractive indices such as LiF or a viscoelastic polydimethylsiloxane stamp. In this case, an optimum optical contrast would be achieved by using a bandpass filter centered at 450 nm. These results can be very useful for speeding up the continuously growing research on 2D InSe and its applications.

  6. Optical contrast of 2D InSe on SiO2/Si and transparent substrates using bandpass filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons-Gisbert, M.; Andres-Penares, D.; Martínez-Pastor, J. P.; Cros, A.; Sánchez-Royo, J. F.

    2017-03-01

    The particular optical and electronic properties recently reported for 2D InSe depict this 2D material as being very versatile for future electronic and optoelectronic devices with tunable and optimized functionalities. For its fundamental study and the development of practical applications, rapid and accurate identification methods of atomically thin InSe are essential. Here, we demonstrate an enhancement of the optical contrast between InSe nanosheets and the underlying SiO2/Si substrate by illuminating with a 40 nm wide bandpass filter centered at 500 nm. Moreover, we study the optical contrast of 2D InSe on transparent substrates. Our results suggest that a good optical contrast is achieved for transparent substrates with low real refractive indices such as LiF or a viscoelastic polydimethylsiloxane stamp. In this case, an optimum optical contrast would be achieved by using a bandpass filter centered at 450 nm. These results can be very useful for speeding up the continuously growing research on 2D InSe and its applications.

  7. Time-Domain Optical Mammography: Initial Clinical Results on Detection and Characterization of Breast Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosenick, Dirk; Moesta, K. Thomas; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Mucke, Jörg; Stroszczynski, Christian; MacDonald, Rainer; Schlag, Peter M.; Rinneberg, Herbert

    2003-06-01

    Mammograms of 35 patients suspected of breast cancer were taken along craniocaudal and mediolateral projections with a dual-wavelength scanning laser pulse mammograph measuring time-resolved transmittance. Among 26 tumors known from routine clinical diagnostics, 17 tumors were detected retrospectively in optical mammograms. Effective tumor optical properties derived from a homogeneous model were used to deduce physiological information. All tumors exhibited increased total hemoglobin concentration and decreased or unchanged blood oxygen saturation compared with surrounding healthy tissue. Scatter plots based on a pixelwise analysis of individual mammograms were introduced and applied to represent correlations between characteristic quantities derived from measured distributions of times of flight of photons.

  8. Large field, high resolution full-field optical coherence tomography: a pre-clinical study of human breast tissue and cancer assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assayag, Osnath; Antoine, Martine; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte; Riben, Michael; Harms, Fabrice; Burcheri, Adriano; Grieve, Kate; Dalimier, Eugénie; Le Conte de Poly, Bertrand; Boccara, Claude

    2014-10-01

    We present a benchmark pilot study in which high-resolution Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FF-OCT) was used to image human breast tissue and is evaluated to assess its ability to aid the pathologist's management of intra-operative diagnoses. FF-OCT imaging safety was investigated and agreement between FF-OCT and routinely prepared histopathological images was evaluated. The compact setup used for this study provides 1 mm3 resolution and 200 mm imaging depth, and a 2.25 cm2 specimen is scanned in about 7 minutes. 75 breast specimens were imaged from 22 patients (21 women, 1 man) with a mean age of 58 (range: 25-83). Pathologists blind diagnosed normal/benign or malignant tissue based on FF-OCT images alone, diagnosis from histopathology followed for comparison. The contrast in the FF-OCT images is generated by intrinsic tissue scattering properties, meaning that no tissue staining or preparation is required. Major architectural features and tissue structures of benign breast tissue, including adipocytes, fibrous stroma, lobules and ducts were characterized. Subsequently, features resulting from pathological modification were characterized and a diagnosis decision tree was developed. Using FF-OCT images, two breast pathologists were able to distinguish normal/benign tissue from lesional with a sensitivity of 94% and 90%, and specificity of 75% and 79% respectively.

  9. Clinical application of bilateral high temporal and spatial resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast at 7 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, K.; Baltzer, P.; Bernathova, M.; Weber, M.; Leithner, D.; Helbich, T.H. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Bogner, W.; Trattnig, S.; Gruber, S.; Zaric, O. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); Abeyakoon, O. [King' s College, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Dubsky, P. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Bago-Horvath, Z. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Pathology, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-04-15

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the clinical application of bilateral high spatial and temporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (HR DCE-MRI) of the breast at 7 T. Following institutional review board approval 23 patients with a breast lesion (BIRADS 0, 4-5) were included in our prospective study. All patients underwent bilateral HR DCE-MRI of the breast at 7 T (spatial resolution of 0.7 mm{sup 3} voxel size, temporal resolution of 14 s). Two experienced readers (r1, r2) and one less experienced reader (r3) independently assessed lesions according to BI-RADS registered. Image quality, lesion conspicuity and artefacts were graded from 1 to 5. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed using histopathology as the standard of reference. HR DCE-MRI at 7 T revealed 29 lesions in 23 patients (sensitivity 100 % (19/19); specificity of 90 % (9/10)) resulting in a diagnostic accuracy of 96.6 % (28/29) with an AUC of 0.95. Overall image quality was excellent in the majority of cases (27/29) and examinations were not hampered by artefacts. There was excellent inter-reader agreement for diagnosis and image quality parameters (κ = 0.89-1). Bilateral HR DCE-MRI of the breast at 7 T is feasible with excellent image quality in clinical practice and allows accurate breast cancer diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Large Field, High Resolution Full Field Optical Coherence Tomography: A Pre-clinical study of human breast tissue and cancer assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Assayag, Osnath; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte; Riben, Michael; Harms, Fabrice; Burcheri, Adriano; de Poly, Bertrand Le Conte; Boccara, Claude

    2012-01-01

    We present a benchmark pilot study in which high-resolution Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FF-OCT) is used to image human breast tissue and is evaluated to assess its ability to aid the pathologist's management of intra-operative diagnoses. Our aim included evaluating the safety of FF-OCT on human tissue and determining the concordance between the images obtained with routinely prepared histopathological material. The compact device used for this study provides a 2 {\\mu}m-lateral and a 1 {\\mu}m-axial resolution, and is able to scan a 1.5cm^2 specimen in about 7 minutes. 75 breast specimens obtained from 22 patients have been imaged. Because the contrast in the images is generated by endogenous tissue components, no biological, contrast agents or specimen preparation is required. We characterized the major architectural features and tissue structures of benign breast tissue, including adipocytes, fibrous stroma, lobules and ducts. We subsequently characterized features resulting from their pathologic...

  11. Aspectos técnicos da ressonância magnética de mama com meio de contraste: revisão da literatura Technical aspects of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Deus Leopoldino

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Com a difusão do uso de meios de contraste, avanços na tecnologia das bobinas de superfície e desenvolvimento de protocolos rápidos de aquisição de imagens, a ressonância magnética (RM de mama com meio de contraste tem-se mostrado importante modalidade na detecção, diagnóstico e estadiamento do câncer de mama. Apesar desses avanços, existem alguns pontos não consensuais no que diz respeito aos aspectos técnicos e critérios de interpretação de imagem da RM contrastada de mama. Neste artigo fazemos revisão bibliográfica dos parâmetros de interpretação de imagens e aspectos técnicos da RM de mama, incluindo considerações sobre a "performance" do equipamento, bobinas de radiofreqüência dedicadas, modo de utilização de contraste paramagnético, técnicas de supressão de gordura, planos de aquisição, seqüências de pulso e fontes de artefato.With the advances in surface coil technology and the development of new imaging protocols in addition to the increase of the use of contrast agents, contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has emerged as a promising modality for detection, diagnosis and staging of breast cancer. Despite these advances, there are some unresolved issues, including no defined standard technique for contrast-enhanced breast MRI and no standard criteria of interpretation for the evaluation of such studies. In this article, we review the literature and discuss the general requirements and recommendations for contrast agent-enhanced breast MRI, including image interpretation criteria, MR equipment, dedicated radiofrequency coils, use of paramagnetic contrast agents, fat-suppression techniques, planes of acquisition, pulse sequence specifications and artifact sources.

  12. 可调对比度目标源装置中对比度的标定%Calibration of contrast for adjustable contrast optical target equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素华; 沈湘衡; 叶露

    2012-01-01

    An adjustable contrast optical target equipment was constructed. After researching the rela-tionship between image contrast and optical contrast, a contrast calibration method by the improved Back Propagation(BP) neural network was proposed. Firstly, the BP neural network model was designed for calibrating the contrast. Then, by combining the Levenberg-Marquardt(LM) with Shrink-ing-Magnifying Approach, the BP neural network was improved to optimize the convergence speed and generalization ability. Finally, based on the experimental platform of the adjustable-contrast target, the image contrast was obtained by measured radiation data. Comparing with the traditional BP algorithm, the improved one has a better convergence speed and generalization ability. Its calibration accuracy has been improved by 100 times and by 10 times as compared with those of the traditional BP network and the steepest descent method, respectively. When the training times is to be only 2 876 times, the maximum error between calibration value and target calibration value for the contrast is 0.01%, the training mean square error converges is 0. 000 459 441, and the test error converges is 0. 000 467 003. These results demonstrate that the algorithm is feasible and can meet the demands for contrast calibration in the equipment.%搭建了可调对比度目标源装置,研究了图像对比度和光学对比度的关系,提出了用改进的BP神经网络标定对比度的方法.首先,设计了用于对比度标定的BP神经网络模型.然后,利用LM( Levenberg-Marquardt)算法结合缩放法改进神经网络以提高其收敛速度及泛化能力.最后,通过可调对比度目标源装置实验平台,由测量的辐照度得出了对应的图像对比度数据,使该装置可以通过调节辐照度实时获得规定的对比度.与传统BP神经网络方法相比,改进后的BP神经网络收敛速度快,泛化能力强.标定精度比经典BP算法提高了100

  13. Wearable near-infrared optical probe for continuous monitoring during breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy infusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fei; Cormier, Timothy; Sauer-Budge, Alexis; Chaudhury, Rachita; Pera, Vivian; Istfan, Raeef; Chargin, David; Brookfield, Samuel; Ko, Naomi Yu; Roblyer, Darren M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new continuous-wave wearable diffuse optical probe aimed at investigating the hemodynamic response of locally advanced breast cancer patients during neoadjuvant chemotherapy infusions. The system consists of a flexible printed circuit board that supports an array of six dual wavelength surface-mount LED and photodiode pairs. The probe is encased in a soft silicone housing that conforms to natural breast shape. Probe performance was evaluated using tissue-simulating phantoms and in vivo normal volunteer measurements. High SNR (71 dB), low source-detector crosstalk (-60 dB), high measurement precision (0.17%), and good thermal stability (0.22% Vrms/°C) were achieved in phantom studies. A cuff occlusion experiment was performed on the forearm of a healthy volunteer to demonstrate the ability to track rapid hemodynamic changes. Proof-of-principle normal volunteer measurements were taken to demonstrate the ability to collect continuous in vivo breast measurements. This wearable probe is a first of its kind tool to explore prognostic hemodynamic changes during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

  14. Contrast improvement of continuous wave diffuse optical tomography reconstruction by hybrid approach using least square and genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Rusha; Dutta, Pranab K

    2015-07-01

    Reconstruction of the absorption coefficient of tissue with good contrast is of key importance in functional diffuse optical imaging. A hybrid approach using model-based iterative image reconstruction and a genetic algorithm is proposed to enhance the contrast of the reconstructed image. The proposed method yields an observed contrast of 98.4%, mean square error of 0.638×10⁻³, and object centroid error of (0.001 to 0.22) mm. Experimental validation of the proposed method has also been provided with tissue-like phantoms which shows a significant improvement in image quality and thus establishes the potential of the method for functional diffuse optical tomography reconstruction with continuous wave setup. A case study of finger joint imaging is illustrated as well to show the prospect of the proposed method in clinical diagnosis. The method can also be applied to the concentration measurement of a region of interest in a turbid medium.

  15. Polaritonic-to-Plasmonic Transition in Optically Resonant Bismuth Nanospheres for High-Contrast Switchable Ultraviolet Meta-Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Cuadrado, Alexander; Serna, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    In the quest aimed at unveiling alternative plasmonic elements overcoming noble metals for selected applications in photonics, we investigate by numerical simulations the near ultraviolet-to-near infrared optical response of solid and liquid Bi nanospheres embedded in a dielectric matrix. We also determine the resulting transmission contrast upon reversible solid-liquid phase transition to evaluate their potential for switchable optical filtering. The optical response of the solid (liquid) Bi nanospheres is ruled by localized polaritonic (plasmonic) resonances tunable by controlling the diameter. For a selected diameter between 20 nm and 50 nm, both solid and liquid nanospheres present a dipolar resonance inducing a strong peak extinction in the near ultraviolet, however at different photon energies. This enables a high transmission contrast at selected near ultraviolet photon energies. It is estimated that a two-dimensional assembly of 20 nm solid Bi nanospheres with a surface coverage of 28% will totally ex...

  16. Basic system design of a broad-band real-time phase contrast wavefront sensor for adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemhof, E. E.; Wallace, J. K.

    2005-08-01

    The most common wavefront sensor for real-time use in high-order adaptive optics systems is the Shack-Hartmann, in part because it is sensitive to a broad optical band. An alternative possibility is based on Zernike's phase contrast technique. Though quite sensitive in principle, at least for monochromatic light, there had been no simple way to obtain the broadband performance needed for competitive sensitivity in an actual adaptive optics system. Recently, we proposed a general achromatization scheme that relies upon the innate π/2 phase shift between the transmitted and reflected beams in a beam splitter. Here, a more detailed study of this broad-band phase contrast wavefront sensor is presented, along with some practical issues concerning component tolerances. These results offer encouraging indications that broad-wavelength-band implementations will be feasible in practice.

  17. Assessment of early tumor response to cytotoxic chemotherapy with dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound in human breast cancer xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Wei Wang

    Full Text Available There is a strong need to assess early tumor response to chemotherapy in order to avoid adverse effects from unnecessary chemotherapy and allow early transition to second-line therapy. This study was to quantify tumor perfusion changes with dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS in the evaluation of early tumor response to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Sixty nude mice bearing with MCF-7 breast cancer were administrated with either adriamycin or sterile saline. CEUS was performed on days 0, 2, 4 and 6 of the treatment, in which time-signal intensity (SI curves were obtained from the intratumoral and depth-matched liver parenchyma. Four perfusion parameters including peak enhancement (PE, area under the curve of wash-in (WiAUC, wash-in rate (WiR and wash-in perfusion index (WiPI were calculated from perfusion curves and normalized with respect to perfusion of adjacent liver parenchyma. Histopathological analysis was conducted to evaluate tumor perfusion, tumor cell density, microvascular density (MVD and proliferating cell density. Significant decreases of tumor normalized perfusion parameters (i.e., nPE, nWiAUC, nWiR and nWiPI were noticed between adriamycin-treated and control groups (P0.05. Significant decreases of tumor perfusion, tumor cell density, MVD and proliferating cell density were seen in adrianycin-treated group 2 days after therapy when compared to control group (P<0.001. Dynamic CEUS for quantification of tumor perfusion could be used for early detection of cancer response to cytotoxic chemotherapy prior to notable tumor shrinkage.

  18. Analysis of breast lesions on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images using high-dimensional texture features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Huber, Markus B.; Schlossbauer, Thomas; Leinsinger, Gerda; Wismueller, Axel

    2010-03-01

    Haralick texture features derived from gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) were used to classify the character of suspicious breast lesions as benign or malignant on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI studies. Lesions were identified and annotated by an experienced radiologist on 54 MRI exams of female patients where histopathological reports were available prior to this investigation. GLCMs were then extracted from these 2D regions of interest (ROI) for four principal directions (0°, 45°, 90° & 135°) and used to compute Haralick texture features. A fuzzy k-nearest neighbor (k- NN) classifier was optimized in ten-fold cross-validation for each texture feature and the classification performance was calculated on an independent test set as a function of area under the ROC curve. The lesion ROIs were characterized by texture feature vectors containing the Haralick feature values computed from each directional-GLCM; and the classifier results obtained were compared to a previously used approach where the directional-GLCMs were summed to a nondirectional GLCM which could further yield a set of texture feature values. The impact of varying the inter-pixel distance while generating the GLCMs on the classifier's performance was also investigated. Classifier's AUC was found to significantly increase when the high-dimensional texture feature vector approach was pursued, and when features derived from GLCMs generated using different inter-pixel distances were incorporated into the classification task. These results indicate that lesion character classification accuracy could be improved by retaining the texture features derived from the different directional GLCMs rather than combining these to yield a set of scalar feature values instead.

  19. Optical properties of the breast during spontaneous and birth control pill-mediated menstrual cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahel, Michèle C; Wolf, Martin; Baños, Ana; Hornung, R

    2009-11-01

    Mastodynia is correlated with the menstrual cycle. Using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS), we investigated changes in breast perfusion in women who were or were not using hormonal contraception. Healthy volunteers, on or not on hormonal contraception, were examined. Optical properties were measured in all quadrants of both breasts, and physiological parameters were calculated. Measurements were repeated every other day during one complete menstrual cycle. Measurements were comparable in all quadrants. Data remained unchanged during the entire cycle in patients using hormonal contraception. However, a biphasic variation of deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, total hemoglobin (tHb), and water content (H(2)O) was observed in women not using contraception. tHb and H(2)O distinctly increased during the ovulation period and remained elevated throughout the luteal phase. It was concluded that FD-NIRS allows accurate measurement of optical properties of human breasts. As opposed to the menstrual cycles of persons using oral contraception, spontaneous menstrual cycles exhibit biphasic variations of tissue perfusion parameters. These findings are important for the investigation of mastodynia.

  20. OPTICAL TOMOGRAPHY: Nanoparticles as contrast-enhancing agents in optical coherence tomography imaging of the structural components of skin: Quantitative evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillin, M. Yu; Agrba, P. D.; Sirotkina, M. A.; Shiryamova, M. V.; Zagainova, E. V.; Kamenskii, V. A.

    2010-08-01

    This work examines the effect of gold nanoshells and titania nanoparticles on the imaging contrast of structural components of skin in optical coherence tomography (OCT). Experimental data are compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulation results. In experiments with pig skin in vivo, the epidermis — dermis contrast is improved from 0.78 ± 0.03 to 0.92 ± 0.04 by gold nanoshells applied to the skin surface and from 0.78 ± 0.03 to 0.86 ± 0.04 by titania nanoparticles. The contrast of glands is enhanced by titania from 0.68 ± 0.12 to 0.84 ± 0.07. The highest contrast is reached 120 — 150 min after applying gold nanoshells and 160 — 200 min after applying titania. According to the MC simulation results, the contrast of inclusions increases from zero to 0.85 and 0.65, respectively.

  1. Gold nanorods as a contrast agent for Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate gold nanorods (GNRs as a contrast agent to enhance Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging of the intrascleral aqueous humor outflow. METHODS: A serial dilution of GNRs was scanned with a spectral-domain OCT device (Bioptigen, Durham, NC to visualize Doppler signal. Doppler measurements using GNRs were validated using a controlled flow system. To demonstrate an application of GNR enhanced Doppler, porcine eyes were perfused at constant pressure with mock aqueous alone or 1.0×10(12 GNR/mL mixed with mock aqueous. Twelve Doppler and volumetric SD-OCT scans were obtained from the limbus in a radial fashion incremented by 30°, forming a circular scan pattern. Volumetric flow was computed by integrating flow inside non-connected vessels throughout all 12 scans around the limbus. RESULTS: At the GNR concentration of 0.7×10(12 GNRs/mL, Doppler signal was present through the entire depth of the testing tube without substantial attenuation. A well-defined laminar flow profile was observed for Doppler images of GNRs flowing through the glass capillary tube. The Doppler OCT measured flow profile was not statistically different from the expected flow profile based upon an autoregressive moving average model, with an error of -0.025 to 0.037 mm/s (p = 0.6435. Cross-sectional slices demonstrated the ability to view anterior chamber outflow ex-vivo using GNR-enhanced Doppler OCT. Doppler volumetric flow measurements were comparable to flow recorded by the perfusion system. CONCLUSIONS: GNRs created a measureable Doppler signal within otherwise silent flow fields in OCT Doppler scans. Practical application of this technique was confirmed in a constant pressure ex-vivo aqueous humor outflow model in porcine eyes.

  2. Three-dimensional phase-contrast X-ray microtomography with scanning-imaging X-ray microscope optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2013-09-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) X-ray tomographic micro-imaging system has been developed. The optical system is based on a scanning-imaging X-ray microscope (SIXM) optics, which is a hybrid system consisting of a scanning microscope optics with a one-dimensional (1D) focusing (line-focusing) device and an imaging microscope optics with a 1D objective. In the SIXM system, each 1D dataset of a two-dimensional (2D) image is recorded independently. An object is illuminated with a line-focused beam. Positional information of the region illuminated by the line-focused beam is recorded with the 1D imaging microscope optics as line-profile data. By scanning the object with the line focus, 2D image data are obtained. In the same manner as for a scanning microscope optics with a multi-pixel detector, imaging modes such as phase contrast and absorption contrast can be arbitrarily configured after the image data acquisition. By combining a tomographic scan method and the SIXM system, quantitative 3D imaging is performed. Results of a feasibility study of the SIXM for 3D imaging are shown.

  3. TU-CD-207-12: Impact of Anatomical Noise On Detection Performance of Microcalcifications in Multi-Contrast Breast Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, J; Ge, Y; Li, K; Chen, G [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The anatomical noise power spectra (NPS) for differential phase contrast (DPC) and dark field (DF) imaging have recently been characterized using a power-law model with two parameters, alpha and beta, an innovative extension to the methodology used in x-ray attenuation based breast imaging such as mammography, DBT, or cone-beam CT. Beta values of 3.6, 2.6, and 1.3 have been measured for absorption, DPC, and DF respectively for cadaver breasts imaged in the coronal plane; these dramatic differences should be reflected in their detection performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of anatomical noise on breast calcification detection and compare the detection performance of the three contrast mechanisms of a multi-contrast x-ray imaging system. Methods: In our studies, a calcification image object was segmented out of the multi-contrast images of a cadaver breast specimen. 50 measured total NPS were measured from breast cadavers directly. The ideal model observer detectability was calculated for a range of doses (5–100%) and a range of calcification sizes (diameter = 0.25–2.5 mm). Results: Overall we found the highest average detectability corresponded to DPC imaging (7.4 for 1 mm calc.), with DF the next highest (3.8 for 1 mm calc.), and absorption the lowest (3.2 for 1 mm calc.). However, absorption imaging also showed the slowest dependence on dose of the three modalities due to the significant anatomical noise. DPC showed a peak detectability for calcifications ∼1.25 mm in diameter, DF showed a peak for calcifications around 0.75 mm in diameter, and absorption imaging had no such peak in the range explored. Conclusion: Understanding imaging performance for DPC and DF is critical to transition these modalities to the clinic. The results presented here offer new insight into how these modalities complement absorption imaging to maximize the likelihood of detecting early breast cancers. J. Garrett, Y. Ge, K. Li: Nothing to

  4. Diagnostic Efficacy of All Series of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Breast MR Images Using Gradient Vector Flow (GVF Segmentation and Novel Border Feature Extraction for Differentiation Between Malignant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bahreini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: To discriminate between malignant and benign breast lesions;"nconventionally, the first series of Breast Subtraction Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic"nResonance Imaging (BS DCE-MRI images are used for quantitative analysis. In this study, we"ninvestigated whether using all series of these images could provide us with more diagnostic"ninformation."nPatients and Methods: This study included 60 histopathologically proven lesions. The steps of"nthis study were as follows: selecting the regions of interest (ROI, segmentation using Gradient"nVector Flow (GVF snake for the first time, defining new feature sets, using artificial neural network"n(ANN for optimal feature set selection, evaluation using receiver operating characteristic (ROC"nanalysis."nResults: The results showed GVF snake method correctly segmented 95.3% of breast lesion"nborders at the overlap threshold of 0.4. The first classifier which used the optimal feature set"nextracted only from the first series of BS DCE-MRI images achieved an area under the curve"n(AUC of 0.82, specificity of 60% at sensitivity of 81%. The second classifier which used the same"noptimal feature set but was extracted from all five series of these images achieved an AUC of"n0.90, specificity of 79% at sensitivity of 81%."nConclusion: The result of GVF snake segmentation showed that it could make an accurate"nsegmentation in the borders of breast lesions. According to this study, using all five series of BS"nDCE-MRI images could provide us with more diagnostic information about the breast lesion and"ncould improve the performance of breast lesion classifiers in comparison with using the first"nseries alone.

  5. Asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (ATOM) for ultrafast high-contrast cellular imaging in flow

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Terence T W; Ho, Kenneth K Y; Tang, Matthew Y H; Robles, Joseph D F; Wei, Xiaoming; Chan, Antony C S; Tang, Anson H L; Lam, Edmund Y; Wong, Kenneth K Y; Chan, Godfrey C F; Shum, Ho Cheung; Tsia, Kevin K

    2013-01-01

    Accelerating imaging speed in optical microscopy is often realized at the expense of image contrast, image resolution, and detection sensitivity- a common predicament for advancing high-speed and high-throughput cellular imaging. We here demonstrate a new imaging approach, called asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (ATOM), which can deliver ultrafast label-free high-contrast flow imaging with well delineated cellular morphological resolution and in-line optical image amplification to overcome the compromised imaging sensitivity at high speed. We show that ATOM can separately reveal the enhanced phase-gradient and absorption contrast in microfluidic live-cell imaging at a flow speed as high as ~10 m/s, corresponding to an imaging throughput of ~100,000 cells/sec. ATOM could thus be the enabling platform to meet the pressing need for intercalating optical microscopy in cellular assay, e.g. imaging flow cytometry- permitting high-throughput access to the morphological information of the individu...

  6. Correlation of breast tissue histology and optical signatures to improve margin assessment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephanie; Caldwell, Matthew; Bydlon, Torre; Mulvey, Christine; Mueller, Jenna; Wilke, Lee; Barry, William; Ramanujam, Nimmi; Geradts, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Optical spectroscopy is sensitive to morphological composition and has potential applications in intraoperative margin assessment. Here, we evaluate ex vivo breast tissue and corresponding quantified hematoxylin & eosin images to correlate optical scattering signatures to tissue composition stratified by patient characteristics. Adipose sites (213) were characterized by their cell area and density. All other benign and malignant sites (181) were quantified using a grid method to determine composition. The relationships between mean reduced scattering coefficient (), and % adipose, % collagen, % glands, adipocyte cell area, and adipocyte density were investigated. These relationships were further stratified by age, menopausal status, body mass index (BMI), and breast density. We identified a positive correlation between and % collagen and a negative correlation between and age and BMI. Increased collagen corresponded to increased variability. In postmenopausal women, was similar regardless of fibroglandular content. Contributions from collagen and glands to were independent and equivalent in benign sites; glands showed a stronger positive correlation than collagen to in malignant sites. Our data suggest that scattering could differentiate highly scattering malignant from benign tissues in postmenopausal women. The relationship between scattering and tissue composition will support improved scattering models and technologies to enhance intraoperative optical margin assessment.

  7. Highly stable polymer coated nano-clustered silver plates: a multimodal optical contrast agent for biomedical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Aniruddha; Mukundan, Ananya; Xie, Zhixing; Karamchand, Leshern; Wang, Xueding; Kopelman, Raoul

    2014-11-01

    Here, we present a new optical contrast agent based on silver nanoplate clusters embedded inside of a polymer nano matrix. Unlike nanosphere clusters, which have been well studied, nanoplate clusters have unique properties due to the different possible orientations of interaction between the individual plates, resulting in a significant broadening of the absorption spectra. These nanoclusters were immobilized inside of a polymer cladding so as to maintain their stability and optical properties under in vivo conditions. The polymer-coated silver nanoplate clusters show a lower toxicity compared to the uncoated nanoparticles. At high nanoparticle concentrations, cell death occurs mostly due to apoptosis. These nanoparticles were used for targeted fluorescence imaging in a rat glioma cell line by incorporating a fluorescent dye into the matrix, followed by conjugation of a tumor targeting an F3 peptide. We further used these nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agents in vivo to enhance the contrast of the vasculature structures in a rat ear model. We observed a contrast enhancement of over 90% following the nanoparticle injection. It is also shown that these NPs can serve as efficient contrast agents, with specific targeting abilities for broadband multimodal imaging that are usable for diagnostic applications and that extend into use as therapeutic agents as well.

  8. Optical detection of breast tumors: a comparison of diagnostic performance of autofluorescence, diffuse reflectance, and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Shovan K.; Keller, Matthew D.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2007-02-01

    We report the results of a comparative evaluation of the diagnostic capabilities of autofluorescence, diffuse reflectance, and Raman spectroscopic approaches in differentiating the various types of breast tumors from normal breast tissues. Optical spectra (n=293) were acquired ex-vivo from a total of 75 breast tissue samples belonging to six distinct histopathologic categories: invasive ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, ductal carcinoma in-situ, fibroadenoma, other benign tumors, and normal breast tissue. Autofluorescence, diffuse reflectance, and Raman spectra were measured from the same locations of a given tissue sample. A probability based multivariate statistical algorithm capable of direct multiclass classification was developed to analyze the diagnostic content of the optical spectra measured from the same set of breast tissue sites with these different techniques. The algorithm uses the theory of nonlinear Maximum Representation and Discrimination Feature (MRDF) for feature extraction, and the theory of Sparse Multinomial Logistic Regression (SMLR) for classification. The results of discrimination analyses reveal that the performance of Raman spectroscopy is superior to that of all others in classifying the breast tissues into respective histopathologic categories. The best classification accuracy was observed to be ~96%, 86%, 94%, 98%, 85%, and 100% for invasive ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, ductal carcinoma in-situ, fibroadenoma, benign tumors and normal breast tissues, respectively, on the basis of leave-one-out cross validation, with the overall accuracy being ~97%.

  9. Diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of experimental breast cancer bone metastases – A correlation study with histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, Maximilian [Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Seyler, Lisa; Bretschi, Maren; Semmler, Wolfhard [Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bäuerle, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.baeuerle@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute of Radiology, University Medical Center Erlangen, Palmsanlage 5, 90154 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To validate imaging parameters from diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI with immunohistology and to non-invasively assess microstructure of experimental breast cancer bone metastases. Materials and methods: Animals bearing breast cancer bone metastases were imaged in a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner. HASTE sequences were performed to calculate apparent diffusion coefficients. Saturation recovery turbo FLASH sequences were conducted while infusing 0.1 mmol/l Gd–DTPA for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to quantify parameters amplitude A and exchange rate constant k{sub ep}. After imaging, bone metastases were analyzed immunohistologically. Results: We found correlations of the apparent diffusion coefficients from diffusion-weighted imaging with tumor cellularity as assessed with cell nuclei staining. Histological vessel maturity was correlated negatively with parameters A and k{sub ep} from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Tumor size correlated inversely with cell density and vessel permeability as well as positively with mean vessel calibers. Parameters from the rim of bone metastases differed significantly from values of the center. Conclusion: In vivo diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in experimental bone metastases provide information about tumor cellularity and vascularity and correlate well with immunohistology.

  10. Contrast enhancement kinetics of normal breast parenchyma in dynamic MR mammography: effects of menopausal status, oral contraceptives, and postmenopausal hormone therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegenscheid, Katrin; Seipel, Rebecca; Laqua, Rene; Hosten, Norbert; Puls, Ralf [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Medical Center Greifswald, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Schmidt, Carsten O. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Medical Center Greifswald, Institute for Community Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); Ohlinger, Ralf [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Medical Center Greifswald, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Greifswald (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    To investigate effects of menopausal status, oral contraceptives (OC), and postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on normal breast parenchymal contrast enhancement (CE) and non-mass-like enhancing areas in magnetic resonance mammography (MRM). A total of 459 female volunteers (mean age 49.1 {+-} 12.5 years) underwent T1-weighted 3D MRM 1-5 min after bolus injection of gadobutrol. Quantitative analysis was performed in normal breast parenchyma by manually tracing regions of interest and calculating percentage CE. Semiquantitative analysis was performed in non-mass-like enhancing areas, and signal intensity changes were characterised by five predefined kinetic curve types. The influence of OC (n = 69) and HT (n = 24) on CE was studied using random effects models. Breast parenchymal enhancement was significantly higher in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women (P < 0.001). CE decreased significantly with the use of OC (P = 0.01), while HT had negligible effects (P = 0.52). Prevalence of kinetic curve types of non-mass-like enhancement differed strongly between pre- and postmenopausal women (P < 0.0001), but was similar in OC users and non-OC users (P = 0.61) as well as HT users and non-HT users (P = 0.77). Normal breast parenchymal enhancement and non-mass-like enhancing areas were strongly affected by menopausal status, while they were not affected by HT use and only moderately by OC use. (orig.)

  11. Dynamic full field optical coherence tomography: subcellular metabolic contrast revealed in tissues by temporal analysis of interferometric signals

    CERN Document Server

    Apelian, Clement; Thouvenin, Olivier; Boccara, A Claude

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new endogenous approach to reveal subcellular metabolic contrast in fresh ex vivo tissues taking advantage of the time dependence of the full field optical coherence tomography interferometric signals. This method reveals signals linked with local activity of the endogenous scattering elements which can reveal cells where other imaging techniques fail or need exogenous contrast agents. We benefit from the micrometric transverse resolution of full field OCT to image intracellular features. We used this time dependence to identify different dynamics at the millisecond scale on a wide range of organs in normal or pathological conditions.

  12. Optical Software to Calculate Terrestrial Planet Finder Contrast Including Polarization Effects Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — BRO will provide commercially available optics software that dependably calculates image plane irradiance to the precision required by TPF missions. Calculations...

  13. 乳腺纤维腺瘤超声造影特征表现及诊断%Contrast-enhanced Ultrasonography in Character and Diagnosis of Breast Fibroadenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小燕; 蓝春勇; 韦海明; 黄向红; 农美芬; 贺琰; 裴华洁

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨实时超声造影检查对乳腺纤维腺瘤病灶的诊断及鉴别价值.方法 选用SonoVue超声造影剂,对经手术及病理证实的47例乳腺纤维腺瘤患者进行彩色多普勒超声造影,对肿块的增强形态、强度及造影时间-强度曲线特征进行分型,并将其超声造影的特征与病理组织学特征进行对照分析.结果 纤维腺瘤组47例造影强度分别为高增强12例,等增强12例,低增强16例,极少至无增强7例,照影剂进入肿块的大小及范围常与二维超声图像一致,且边界常呈环状增强或半环状增强;内部可呈均匀及不均匀增强,当纤维腺瘤伴广泛玻璃变及钙盐沉积时,内常无造影剂进入;该组时间-强度曲线常呈“慢上快下及快上快下”型;超声造影诊断良性肿瘤的符合率为89.4% (42/47).结论 乳腺纤维腺瘤病灶在超声造影下可具有一定的造影特征,超声造影有助于提高乳腺肿瘤的诊断准确率.%Objective To observe the value of real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in character and diagnosis of breast fibroadenoma. Methods Totally 47 patients of breast fibroadenoma were observed by Color Doppler real-time contrast enhanced ultrasonography using SonoVue. The enhancement form, intensity and time-intensity curve were classified respectively, and characteristics of contrast-enhanced and pathological were analyzed. Results The contrast-enhanced intensity of 47 patients of breast fibroadenoma, 12 cases were high enhancement, 12 were equal enhancement, 16 were low enhancement and 7 were no enhancement, The size and scope of contrast agent into the lump' were similar to those of the two-dimensional ultrasound image, linear ring and half-ring enhancement were very common in lump's boundary . Inhomogeneous partial enhancement and entire enhancement appeared in most of lump's inside. The breast fibroadenoma with a wide range of glass transition and calcium deposition, often appeared

  14. Optical and electric properties of dynamic holographic gratings with arbitrary contrast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukhtarev, Nickolai; Buchhave, Preben; Lyuksyutov, Sergei

    1997-01-01

    An analytical solution of the photoconductive material equations for dynamic holographic gratings of arbitrary contrast has been obtained. A method of measuring high-contrast correlation functions has been suggested and tested experimentally. Good agreement with the analytical expression for the ...

  15. [Optic nerve swelling and gadolinium contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging in the subacute stage of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuki, Misako; Ohkubo, Takuya; Ota, Kiyobumi; Ishikawa, Kinya; Yokota, Takanori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old man with subacute onset of bilateral visual field loss and visual acuity loss. His visual acuity was 0.07 OD/0.09 OS and Goldmann perimetry showed central scotomas. The optic fundi were normal bilaterally. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hyperintensity in the right optic nerve on T(2) weighted imaging and swelling of the optic chiasm with slight enhancement of the bilateral optic nerves and the optic chiasm on gadolinium-enhanced imaging. Since sensory disturbance in the left hand and leg was noted in addition to the visual problem, multiple sclerosis (MS) was suspected initially. The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone (1,000 mg/day), plasma exchange therapy, and immunosuppressant therapy. However, his visual disturbance did not improve. He had a history of deafness and family history of visual disturbance, because of which we performed an analysis of mitochondrial DNA. G11778A point mutation was found, and a diagnosis of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) was made. Although gadolinium contrast enhancement and swelling of the optic nerve are rare, this case shows that these findings are not in conflict with LHON. The present case also suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction may trigger the onset of MS-like extraocular symptoms in patients with LHON.

  16. Quantifying activation of perfluorocarbon-based phase-change contrast agents using simultaneous acoustic and optical observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sinan; Lin, Shengtao; Cheng, Yi; Matsunaga, Terry O; Eckersley, Robert J; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2015-05-01

    Phase-change contrast agents in the form of nanoscale droplets can be activated into microbubbles by ultrasound, extending the contrast beyond the vasculature. This article describes simultaneous optical and acoustical measurements for quantifying the ultrasound activation of phase-change contrast agents over a range of concentrations. In experiments, decafluorobutane-based nanodroplets of different dilutions were sonicated with a high-pressure activation pulse and two low-pressure interrogation pulses immediately before and after the activation pulse. The differences between the pre- and post-interrogation signals were calculated to quantify the acoustic power scattered by the microbubbles activated over a range of droplet concentrations. Optical observation occurred simultaneously with the acoustic measurement, and the pre- and post-microscopy images were processed to generate an independent quantitative indicator of the activated microbubble concentration. Both optical and acoustic measurements revealed linear relationships to the droplet concentration at a low concentration range <10(8)/mL when measured at body temperature. Further increases in droplet concentration resulted in saturation of the acoustic interrogation signal. Compared with body temperature, room temperature was found to produce much fewer and larger bubbles after ultrasound droplet activation.

  17. Characterization of bacterial spore germination using phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingbo; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Guiwen; Yu, Jing; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-qing

    2011-05-01

    This protocol describes a method combining phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and optical tweezers to characterize the germination of single bacterial spores. The characterization consists of the following steps: (i) loading heat-activated dormant spores into a temperature-controlled microscope sample holder containing a germinant solution plus a nucleic acid stain; (ii) capturing a single spore with optical tweezers; (iii) simultaneously measuring phase-contrast images, Raman spectra and fluorescence images of the optically captured spore at 2- to 10-s intervals; and (iv) analyzing the acquired data for the loss of spore refractility, changes in spore-specific molecules (in particular, dipicolinic acid) and uptake of the nucleic acid stain. This information leads to precise correlations between various germination events, and takes 1-2 h to complete. The method can also be adapted to use multi-trap Raman spectroscopy or phase-contrast microscopy of spores adhered on a cover slip to simultaneously obtain germination parameters for multiple individual spores.

  18. Spatially-dense, multi-spectral, frequency-domain diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Han Yong

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) employs near-infrared light to image the concentration of chromophores and cell organelles in tissue and thereby providing access to functional parameters that can differentiate cancerous from normal tissues. This thesis describes research at the bench and in the clinic that explores and identifies the potential of DOT breast cancer imaging. The bench and clinic instrumentation differ but share important features: they utilize a very large, spatially dense, set of source-detector pairs (10 7) for imaging in the parallel-plate geometry. The bench experiments explored three-dimensional (3D) image resolution and fidelity as a function of numerous parameters and also ascertained the effects of a chest wall phantom. The chest wall is always present but is typically ignored in breast DOT. My experiments clarified chest wall influences and developed schemes to mitigate these effects. Mostly, these schemes involved selective data exclusion, but their efficacy also depended on reconstruction approach. Reconstruction algorithms based on analytic (fast) Fourier inversion and linear algebraic techniques were explored. The clinical experiments centered around a DOT instrument that I designed, constructed, and have begun to test (in-vitro and in-vivo). This instrumentation offers many features new to the field. Specifically, the imager employs spatially-dense, multi-spectral, frequency-domain data; it possesses the world's largest optical source-detector density yet reported, facilitated by highly-parallel CCD-based frequency-domain imaging based on gain-modulation heterodyne detection. The instrument thus measures both phase and amplitude of the diffusive light waves. Other features include both frontal and sagittal breast imaging capabilities, ancillary cameras for measurement of breast boundary profiles, real-time data normalization, and mechanical improvements for patient comfort. The instrument design and construction is my most significant

  19. Ultrasound Molecular Imaging of the Breast Cancer Neovasculature using Engineered Fibronectin Scaffold Ligands: A Novel Class of Targeted Contrast Ultrasound Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Wilson, Katheryne E; Johnson, Sadie M; Chowdhury, Sayan M; Bachawal, Sunitha; Hackel, Benjamin J; Tian, Lu; Willmann, Jürgen K

    2016-01-01

    Molecularly-targeted microbubbles (MBs) are increasingly being recognized as promising contrast agents for oncological molecular imaging with ultrasound. With the detection and validation of new molecular imaging targets, novel binding ligands are needed that bind to molecular imaging targets with high affinity and specificity. In this study we assessed a novel class of potentially clinically translatable MBs using an engineered 10(th) type III domain of human-fibronectin (MB-FN3VEGFR2) scaffold-ligand to image VEGFR2 on the neovasculature of cancer. The in vitro binding of MB-FN3VEGFR2 to a soluble VEGFR2 was assessed by flow-cytometry (FACS) and binding to VEGFR2-expressing cells was assessed by flow-chamber cell attachment studies under flow shear stress conditions. In vivo binding of MB-FN3VEGFR2 was tested in a transgenic mouse model (FVB/N Tg(MMTV/PyMT634Mul) of breast cancer and control litter mates with normal mammary glands. In vitro FACS and flow-chamber cell attachment studies showed significantly (P<0.01) higher binding to VEGFR2 using MB-FN3VEGFR2 than control agents. In vivo ultrasound molecular imaging (USMI) studies using MB-FN3VEGFR2 demonstrated specific binding to VEGFR2 and was significantly higher (P<0.01) in breast cancer compared to normal breast tissue. Ex vivo immunofluorescence-analysis showed significantly (P<0.01) increased VEGFR2-expression in breast cancer compared to normal mammary tissue. Our results suggest that MBs coupled to FN3-scaffolds can be designed and used for USMI of breast cancer neoangiogenesis. Due to their small size, stability, solubility, the lack of glycosylation and disulfide bonds, FN3-scaffolds can be recombinantly produced with the advantage of generating small, high affinity ligands in a cost efficient way for USMI.

  20. Blood flow contrast enhancement in optical coherence tomography using microbubbles: a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Homa; Demidov, Valentin; Karshafian, Raffi; Douplik, Alexandre; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2016-03-01

    In this study gas microbubbles are investigated as intravascular OCT contrast agents. Agar+Intralipid scattering tissue-like phantoms with two embedded microtubes were fabricated to model vascular blood flow. One was filled with human blood, and the other with a mixture of human blood and microbubbles. Swept-source structural and speckle variance OCT images, as well as speckle decorrelation times, were evaluated under both stationary and flow conditions. Faster decorrelation times and higher image contrast were detected in the presence of microbubbles in all experiments, and the effect was largest for speckle variance OCT ~2.3x greater contrast under flow conditions. The feasibility of utilizing microbubbles for tissue hemodynamic investigations and for microvasculature contrast enhancement in OCT angiography thus appears promising.

  1. Determinants of filled/empty optical illusion: Influence of luminance contrast and polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Subjective estimates of lengths or areas in the visual field depend on the visual contents of the estimated space (filled/empty or Oppel-Kundt illusion). We studied the dependence of this phenomenon on the presentation mode (white on black vs. black on white background), and on the figure/ground contrast. We found, as expected, overestimation of the filled part of the figure for both contrast polarities. The expansion effect was found to be an increasing function of the absolute luminance contrast, and was consistently higher for the negative (luminant figures on a dark background) than for the positive polarity. The contrast factor contributes from one-fifth to one-third of the total effect. Possible interpretations in terms of known sensory phenomena (irradiation, lateral interactions) or higher, integrative functions are discussed.

  2. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging in a Phase Ⅱ Study on Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Combining Rh-Endostatin with Docetaxel and Epirubicin for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianxin Jia, Junqing Xu, Weifeng Jiang, Minwen Zheng, Mengqi Wei, Jianghao Chen, Ling Wang, Yi Huan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-angiogenesis is a promising therapeutic strategy for locally advanced breast cancer. We performed this phase II trial to evaluate the anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor effect of rh-endostatin combined with docetaxel and epirubicin in patients with locally advanced breast cancer by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in 70 previously untreated locally advanced breast cancer patients.Methods: The study population was randomly assigned to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel and epirubicin (neoadjuvant chemotherapy group or neoadjuvant chemotherapy combining rh-endostatin with docetaxel and epirubicin (neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group. The anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects of both regimens were evaluated by serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and microvessel density measurements after final surgery.Results: The results suggested a higher clinical objective response (90.9% vs. 67.7%, P = 0.021 and greater reductions in tumor size (67.2% vs. 55.9%, P = 0.000, Ki-67 proliferation index (32.79% vs. 12.47%, P = 0.000, tumor signal enhanced ratio (64% vs. 48%, P = 0.018, and Ktrans (67% vs. 39%, P = 0.026 in neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group than those in neoadjuvant chemotherapy group. In addition, the microvessel density value in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group was significantly lower than in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group (18.67 ± 6.53 vs. 36.05 ± 9.64, P = 0.000. Moreover, the microvessel density value was significantly correlated with Ktrans after neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin treatment (r=0.88, P = 0.00.Conclusions: The neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin treatment significantly repressed angiogenesis in locally advanced breast cancer and synergistically enhanced the anti-tumor effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data including reductions in tumor size and Ktrans

  3. In vivo water state measurements in breast cancer using broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, S H; Cerussi, A E; Tromberg, B J [Beckman Laser Institute, University of California, Irvine, 1002 Health Sciences Road, Irvine 92612, CA (United States); Klifa, C [Magnetic Resonance Science Center, Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, Box 0628, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Baek, H M; Birgul, O; Gulsen, G [Tu and Yuen Center for Functional Onco Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, 108 Irvine Hall, Irvine, CA, 92697-5020 (United States); Merritt, S I [Masimo Corporation, 40 Parker, Irvine, CA 92618 (United States); Hsiang, D [Department of Surgery, Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Irvine, Healthcare, 101 The City Drive South, Orange, CA 92868 (United States)], E-mail: bjtrombe@uci.edu

    2008-12-07

    Structural changes in water molecules are related to physiological, anatomical and pathological properties of tissues. Near infrared (NIR) optical absorption methods are sensitive to water; however, detailed characterization of water in thick tissues is difficult to achieve because subtle spectral shifts can be obscured by multiple light scattering. In the NIR, a water absorption peak is observed around 975 nm. The precise NIR peak's shape and position are highly sensitive to water molecular disposition. We introduce a bound water index (BWI) that quantifies shifts observed in tissue water absorption spectra measured by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). DOS quantitatively measures light absorption and scattering spectra and therefore reveals bound water spectral shifts. BWI as a water state index was validated by comparing broadband DOS to magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion-weighted MRI and conductivity in bound water tissue phantoms. Non-invasive DOS measurements of malignant and normal breast tissues performed in 18 subjects showed a significantly higher fraction of free water in malignant tissues (p < 0.0001) compared to normal tissues. BWI of breast cancer tissues inversely correlated with Nottingham-Bloom-Richardson histopathology scores. These results highlight broadband DOS sensitivity to molecular disposition of water and demonstrate the potential of BWI as a non-invasive in vivo index that correlates with tissue pathology.

  4. In vivo water state measurements in breast cancer using broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S. H.; Cerussi, A. E.; Klifa, C.; Baek, H. M.; Birgul, O.; Gulsen, G.; Merritt, S. I.; Hsiang, D.; Tromberg, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    Structural changes in water molecules are related to physiological, anatomical and pathological properties of tissues. Near infrared (NIR) optical absorption methods are sensitive to water; however, detailed characterization of water in thick tissues is difficult to achieve because subtle spectral shifts can be obscured by multiple light scattering. In the NIR, a water absorption peak is observed around 975 nm. The precise NIR peak's shape and position are highly sensitive to water molecular disposition. We introduce a bound water index (BWI) that quantifies shifts observed in tissue water absorption spectra measured by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). DOS quantitatively measures light absorption and scattering spectra and therefore reveals bound water spectral shifts. BWI as a water state index was validated by comparing broadband DOS to magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion-weighted MRI and conductivity in bound water tissue phantoms. Non-invasive DOS measurements of malignant and normal breast tissues performed in 18 subjects showed a significantly higher fraction of free water in malignant tissues (p breast cancer tissues inversely correlated with Nottingham-Bloom-Richardson histopathology scores. These results highlight broadband DOS sensitivity to molecular disposition of water and demonstrate the potential of BWI as a non-invasive in vivo index that correlates with tissue pathology.

  5. Experimental, computational, and analytical techniques for diagnosing breast cancer using optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Gregory M.

    This dissertation presents the results of an investigation into experimental, computational, and analytical methodologies for diagnosing breast cancer using fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. First, the optimal experimental methodology for tissue biopsy studies was determined using an animal study. It was found that the use of freshly excised tissue samples preserved the original spectral line shape and magnitude of the fluorescence and diffuse reflectance. Having established the optimal experimental methodology, a clinical study investigating the use of fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer was undertaken. In addition, Monte Carlo-based models of diffuse reflectance and fluorescence were developed and validated to interpret these data. These models enable the extraction of physically meaningful information from the measured spectra, including absorber concentrations, and scattering and intrinsic fluorescence properties. The model was applied to the measured spectra, and using a support vector machine classification algorithm based on physical features extracted from the diffuse reflectance spectra, it was found that breast cancer could be diagnosed with a cross-validated sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 92%, respectively, which are substantially better than that obtained using a conventional, empirical algorithm. It was found that malignant tissues had lower hemoglobin oxygen saturation, were more scattering, and had lower beta-carotene concentration, relative to the non-malignant tissues. It was also found that the fluorescence model could successfully extract the intrinsic fluorescence line shape from tissue samples. One limitation of the previous study is that a priori knowledge of the tissue's absorbers and scatterers is required. To address this limitation, and to improve upon the method with which fiber optic probes are designed, an alternate approach was developed. This method used a

  6. Improved visualization of breast cancer features in multifocal carcinoma using phase-contrast and dark-field mammography: an ex vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandl, Susanne; Sztrokay-Gaul, Aniko; Auweter, Sigrid D.; Hellerhoff, Karin [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Scherer, Kai; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Willer, Konstantin; Chabior, Michael; Herzen, Julia; Pfeiffer, Franz [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Physics and Institute of Medical Engineering, Garching (Germany); Mayr, Doris [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institute of Pathology, Munich (Germany); Bamberg, Fabian [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Conventional X-ray attenuation-based contrast is inherently low for the soft-tissue components of the female breast. To overcome this limitation, we investigate the diagnostic merits arising from dark-field mammography by means of certain tumour structures enclosed within freshly dissected mastectomy samples. We performed grating-based absorption, absolute phase and dark-field mammography of three freshly dissected mastectomy samples containing bi- and multifocal carcinoma using a compact, laboratory Talbot-Lau interferometer. Preoperative in vivo imaging (digital mammography, ultrasound, MRI), postoperative histopathological analysis and ex vivo digital mammograms of all samples were acquired for the diagnostic verification of our results. In the diagnosis of multifocal tumour growth, dark-field mammography seems superior to standard breast imaging modalities, providing a better resolution of small, calcified tumour nodules, demarcation of tumour boundaries with desmoplastic stromal response and spiculated soft-tissue strands extending from an invasive ductal breast cancer. On the basis of selected cases, we demonstrate that dark-field mammography is capable of outperforming conventional mammographic imaging of tumour features in both calcified and non-calcified tumours. Presuming dose optimization, our results encourage further studies on larger patient cohorts to identify those patients that will benefit the most from this promising additional imaging modality. (orig.)

  7. Hand-held probe based optical imaging system towards breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jiajia; Jayachandran, Bhavani; Regalado, Steven; Zhu, Banghe; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2007-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging is an emerging noninvasive modality for breast cancer diagnosis. However, the currently available optical imaging systems towards tomography studies are limited either by instrument portability, patient comfort, or flexibility to image any given tissue volume. Herein, a hand-held based optical imaging system is developed such that it can possibly overcome some of the above limitations. The unique features of the hand-held optical probe are: (i) to perform simultaneous multiple point illumination and detection, thus decreasing the total imaging time and improving the overall signal strength; (ii) to adapt to the contour of tissue surface, thus decreasing the leakage of excitation and emission signal at contact surface; and (iii) to obtain trans-illumination measurements apart from reflectance measurements, thus improving the depth information. The increased detected signal strength as well as total interrogated tissue volume is demonstrated by simulation studies (i.e. forward model) over a 5×10×10 cc slab phantom. The appropriate number and layout of the source and detection points on the probe head is determined and the hand-held optical probe is developed. A frequency-domain ICCD (intensified charge coupled device) detection system, which allows simultaneous multiple points detection, is developed and coupled to the hand-held probe in order to perform fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging of tissue phantoms. In the future, imaging of homogenous liquid phantoms will be used for the assessment of this hand-held system, followed by extensive imaging studies on different phantoms types under various experimental conditions.

  8. High-Contrast Electro-Optic Modulation of a Photonic Crystal Nanocavity by Electrical Gating of Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, Xuetao; Gao, Yuanda; Mak, Kin Fai; Yao, Xinwen; Li, Luozhou; Szep, Attila; Walker, Dennis; Hone, James; Heinz, Tony F; Englund, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a high-contrast electro-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity integrated with an electrically gated monolayer graphene. A high quality (Q) factor air-slot nanocavity design is employed for high overlap between the optical field and graphene sheet. Tuning of graphene's Fermi level up to 0.8 eV enables efficient control of its complex dielectric constant, which allows modulation of the cavity reflection in excess of 10 dB for a swing voltage of only 1.5 V. We also observe a controllable resonance wavelength shift close to 2 nm around a wavelength of 1570 nm and a Q factor modulation in excess of three. These observations allow cavity-enhanced measurements of the graphene complex dielectric constant under different chemical potentials, in agreement with a theoretical model of the graphene dielectric constant under gating. This graphene-based nanocavity modulation demonstrates the feasibility of high-contrast, low-power frequency-selective electro-optic nanocavity modulators in graphene...

  9. Exploring the optical contrast effect in strong atomic lines for exoplanets transiting active stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, Paul W.; Redfield, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Transmission spectroscopy is a powerful tool for detecting and characterizing planetary atmospheres. Non-photospheric features on the stellar disk, however, can contaminate the planetary signal: during transit the observed spectrum is weighted towards the features not currently being occulted by the planet. This contrast effect can mimic absorption in the planetary atmosphere for strong atomic lines such as Na I, Ca II, and the hydrogen Balmer lines. While the contrast effect is negligible for quiet stars, contributions to the transmission signal from active stellar surfaces can produce ~1% changes in the line core. It is therefore critical that these contrast signals be differentiated from true absorption features in the planetary atmosphere. Here we present our work on simulating the contrast effect for an active stellar surface. We discuss the particular case of HD 189733 b, a well-studied hot Jupiter orbiting an active K-dwarf, due to the plethora of atomic absorption signals reported in its atmosphere.Specifically, we focus on Hα to address recent suggestions that the measured in-transit signals are a result of stellar activity. In the contrast model we include center-to-limb variations and calculate limb darkening parameters as a function of wavelength across the line of interest. The model includes contributions to the spectrum from spots, faculae and plages, filaments, and the bare stellar photosphere. Stellar rotation is also included. We find that it is very difficult to reproduce the measured in-transit Hα signals for reasonable active region parameters. In addition, it is difficult to create an in-transit contrast signature that lasts for the duration of the transit unless the planet is crossing an active latitudinal belt and is always obscuring active regions. This suggests that the Hα measurements arise predominantly in the planetary atmosphere. However, the contrast effect likely contributes to these signals. Furthermore, our results could be

  10. Improved Fluorescent Protein Contrast and Discrimination by Optically Controlling Dark State Lifetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Cheng; Dickson, Robert M

    2017-02-16

    Modulation and optical control of photoswitchable fluorescent protein (PS-FP) dark state lifetimes drastically improves sensitivity and selectivity in fluorescence imaging. The dark state population of PS-FPs generates an out-of-phase fluorescence component relative to the sinusoidally modulated 488 nm laser excitation. Because this apparent phase advanced emission results from slow recovery to the fluorescent manifold, we hasten recovery and, therefore, modulation frequency by varying coillumination intensity at 405 nm. As 405 nm illumination regenerates the fluorescent ground state more rapidly than via thermal recovery, we experimentally demonstrate that secondary illumination can control PS-FPs dark state lifetime to act as an additional dimension for discriminating spatially and spectrally overlapping emitters. This experimental combination of out of phase imaging after optical modulation (OPIOM) and synchronously amplified fluorescence image recovery (SAFIRe) optically controls the fluorescent protein dark state lifetimes for improved time resolution, with the resulting modulation-based selective signal recovery being quantitatively modeled. The combined experimental results and quantitative numerical simulations further demonstrate the potential of SAFIRe-OPIOM for wide-field biological imaging with improved speed, sensitivity, and optical resolution over other modulation-based fluorescence microscopies.

  11. Characterization of Polymer Blends: Optical Microscopy (*Polarized, Interference and Phase Contrast Microscopy*) and Confocal Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, Nathan Muruganathan [ORNL; Darling, Seth B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2015-01-01

    Chapter 15 surveys the characterization of macro, micro and meso morphologies of polymer blends by optical microscopy. Confocal Microscopy offers the ability to view the three dimensional morphology of polymer blends, popular in characterization of biological systems. Confocal microscopy uses point illumination and a spatial pinhole to eliminate out-of focus light in samples that are thicker than the focal plane.

  12. Signal intensity of normal breast tissue at MR mammography on midfield: applying a random coefficient model evaluating the effect of doubling the contrast dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marklund, Mette; Christensen, Robin; Torp-Pedersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prospectively investigate the effect on signal intensity (SI) of healthy breast parenchyma on magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) when doubling the contrast dose from 0.1 to 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Informed consent and institutional review board approval were...... and an axial dynamic T1W FFED, with a total of seven frames. At day 1, an i.v. gadolinium (Gd) bolus injection of 0.1 mmol/kg bodyweight (Omniscan) (low) was administered. On day 2, the contrast dose was increased to 0.2 mmol/kg (high). Injection rate was 2 mL/s (day 1) and 4 mL/s (day 2). Any use of estrogen...

  13. Two-photon luminescence contrast by tip-sample coupling in femtosecond near-field optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneber, Anke; Wackenhut, Frank; Braun, Kai; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Jiyong; Zhang, Dai; Meixner, Alfred J.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the role of tip-sample interaction in nonlinear optical scanning near-field microscopy. The experiment was performed by tightly focusing femtosecond laser pulses onto a sharp gold tip that was positioned in close proximity to the surface of a sample with gold nanostructures on a Si-substrate by shear force feedback. The nonlinear optical signal consists of two-photon photoluminescence and second harmonic signal from the gold tip and the gold nanostructures. These signals can be used to characterize different coupling parameters such as geometry, material and width of the tip-sample gap and enable to reveal the mechanism responsible for the image contrast. Under the excitation with 776-nm and 110-fs laser pulses nonlinear imaging is almost background free and yields super resolution showing features with dimensions significantly below the diffraction limit with a signal intensity following quadratic excitation power law.

  14. Bright-field Nanoscopy: Visualizing Nano-structures with Localized Optical Contrast Using a Conventional Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Suran, Swathi; Raghavan, Srinivasan; Varma, Manoj M

    2015-01-01

    Most methods for optical visualization beyond the diffraction limit rely on fluorescence emission by molecular tags. Here, we report a method for visualization of nanostructures down to a few nanometers using a conventional bright-field microscope without requiring additional molecular tags such as fluorophores. The technique, Bright-field Nanoscopy, is based on the strong thickness dependent color of ultra-thin germanium on an optically thick gold film. We demonstrate the visualization of grain boundaries in chemical vapour deposited single layer graphene and the detection of single 40 nm Ag nanoparticles. We estimate a size detection limit of about 2 nm using this technique. In addition to visualizing nano-structures, this technique can be used to probe fluid phenomena at the nanoscale, such as transport through 2D membranes. We estimated the water transport rate through a 1 nm thick polymer film using this technique, as an illustration. Further, the technique can also be extended to study the transport of ...

  15. Elastic scattering spectroscopy in vivo: optical biopsies of cancers of the breast and GI tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, David C. O.; Briggs, Gavin M.; Saunders, Christobel; Lakhani, Sunil; Ripley, Paul M.; Bigio, Irving J.; Bown, Stephen G.

    2000-04-01

    Elastic scattering or diffuse reflectance spectroscopy offers the possibility of distinguishing between normal and neoplastic tissue with a relatively simple optical measurement. The measurement of the reflection of light has previously been shown to be sensitive to the size and distribution of both intra and inter-cellular structures as well as absorption from chromatophores which are present in the tissue. By coupling a white light source and spectrometer to optic fibers it is possible to construct probes which can be inserted precutaneously or intra- operatively into breast tissue or which can pass down the channel of an endoscope and take in-vivo spectra of diseased and normal tissue in the Gastro-Intestinal tract. Spectra are reported from a large number of patients with a variety of benign, metaplastic, dysplastic and cancerous conditions. Some differences that have been observed in these spectra are discussed and the merits and disadvantages of 'optical biopsy' as an in-vivo diagnostic tool are examined. It is shown that to a relatively high degree of sensitivity and specificity it is possible to distinguish cancerous from normal tissue in a number of cases. The methods of distinguishing spectra and some possible modalities for their improvement are discussed.

  16. Systematic optimization of MRI guided near infrared diffuse optical spectroscopy in breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Mastanduno, Michael A.; Jiang, Shudong; El-Ghussein, Fadi; Xu, Junqing; Gui, Jiang; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2015-03-01

    A hybrid frequency domain (FD)-continuous wave (CW) MRI/NIRS system was validated in a clinical trial involving patients with at least ACR 4 radiologic findings in Xi'an, China. In this study, MRI guided nonlinear iterative reconstruction of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) images with limited phase data is investigated. In addition, a systematic optimization of the system hardware design has been conducted as well. We are able to get less than 3% variation in tumor contrast to the surrounding normal tissue, by reducing the number of FD detectors from 16 to 6, showing the potential of reducing the FD detectors. Furthermore, a lookup table of the scattering properties has been made by averaging four MRI-identified breast density groups. By using this look-up table for the patient with the noisy phase data, similar AUCs and p-values are achieved for differentiating the malignant from benign patients.

  17. Contrast and resolution analysis of angular domain imaging for iterative optical projection tomography reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Eldon; Vasefi, Fartash; Kaminska, Bozena; Chapman, Glenn H.; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2010-02-01

    Angular domain imaging (ADI) generates a projection image of an attenuating target within a turbid medium by employing a silicon micro-tunnel array to reject photons that have deviated from the initial propagation direction. In this imaging method, image contrast and resolution are position dependent. The objective of this work was to first characterize the contrast and resolution of the ADI system at a multitude of locations within the imaging plane. The second objective was to compare the reconstructions of different targets using filtered back projection and iterative reconstruction algorithms. The ADI system consisted of a diode laser laser (808nm, CW, ThorLabs) with a beam expander for illumination of the sample cuvette. At the opposite side of the cuvette, an Angular Filter Array (AFA) of 80 μm x 80 μm square-shaped tunnels 1 cm in length was used to reject the transmitted scattered light. Image-forming light exiting the AFA was detected by a linear CCD (16-bit, Mightex). Our approach was to translate two point attenuators (0.5 mm graphite rod, 0.368 mm drill bit) submerged in a 0.6% IntralipidTM dilution using a SCARA robot (Epson E2S351S) to cover a 37x37 and 45x45 matrix of grid points in the imaging plane within the 1 cm path length sample cuvette. At each grid point, a one-dimensional point-spread distribution was collected and system contrast and resolution were measured. Then, the robot was used to rotate the target to collect projection images at several projection angles of various objects, and reconstructed with a filtered back projection and an iterative reconstruction algorithm.

  18. Optical diagnostics of vascular reactions triggered by weak allergens using laser speckle-contrast imaging technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V [Department of Veterinary Resources, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel); Astaf' eva, N G [V.I.Razumovsky Saratov State Medical University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Meglinski, I V [N.G. Chernyshevsky Saratov State University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    The capability of using the laser speckle contrast imaging technique with a long exposure time for visualisation of primary acute skin vascular reactions caused by a topical application of a weak contact allergen is considered. The method is shown to provide efficient and accurate detection of irritant-induced primary acute vascular reactions of skin. The presented technique possesses a high potential in everyday diagnostic practice, preclinical studies, as well as in the prognosis of skin reactions to the interaction with potentially allergenic materials. (laser biophotonics)

  19. Optical diagnostics of vascular reactions triggered by weak allergens using laser speckle-contrast imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L.; Kalchenko, V. V.; Astaf'eva, N. G.; Meglinski, I. V.

    2014-08-01

    The capability of using the laser speckle contrast imaging technique with a long exposure time for visualisation of primary acute skin vascular reactions caused by a topical application of a weak contact allergen is considered. The method is shown to provide efficient and accurate detection of irritant-induced primary acute vascular reactions of skin. The presented technique possesses a high potential in everyday diagnostic practice, preclinical studies, as well as in the prognosis of skin reactions to the interaction with potentially allergenic materials.

  20. Effect of b value and pre-admission of contrast on diagnostic accuracy of 1.5-T breast DWI: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorrius, Monique D.; Dijkstra, Hildebrand [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen / University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, EB44, Groningen (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Sijens, Paul E. [University of Groningen / University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, EB44, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    To evaluate the effect of the choice of b values and prior use of contrast medium on apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of breast lesions derived from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and on the discrimination between benign and malignant lesions. A literature search of relevant DWI studies was performed. The accuracy of DWI to characterize lesions by using b value ≤600 s/mm{sup 2} and b value >600 s/mm{sup 2} was presented as pooled sensitivity and specificity, and the ADC was calculated for both groups. Lesions were pooled as pre- or post-contrast DWI. Of 198 articles, 26 met the inclusion criteria. Median ADCs were significantly higher (13.2-35.1 %, p < 0.001) for the group of b values ≤600 s/mm{sup 2} compared to >600 s/mm{sup 2}. The sensitivity in both groups was similar (91 % and 89 %, p = 0.495) as well as the specificity (75 % and 84 %, p = 0.237). Contrast medium had no significant effects on the ADCs (p ≥ 0.08). The differentiation between benign and malignant lesions was optimal (58.4 %) for the combination of b = 0 and 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}. The wide variety of b value combinations applied in different studies significantly affects the ADC of breast lesions and confounds quantitative DWI. If only a couple of b values are used, those of b = 0 and 1,000 s/mm{sup 2} are recommended for the best improvement of differentiating between benign and malignant lesions. (orig.)

  1. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics system: enabling high-contrast imaging on solar-system scales

    CERN Document Server

    Jovanovic, N; Guyon, O; Clergeon, C; Singh, G; Kudo, T; Garrel, V; Newman, K; Doughty, D; Lozi, J; Males, J; Minowa, Y; Hayano, Y; Takato, N; Morino, J; Kuhn, J; Serabyn, E; Norris, B; Tuthill, P; Schworer, G; Stewart, P; Close, L; Huby, E; Perrin, G; Lacour, S; Gauchet, L; Vievard, S; Murakami, N; Oshiyama, F; Baba, N; Matsuo, T; Nishikawa, J; Tamura, M; Lai, O; Marchis, F; Duchene, G; Kotani, T; Woillez, J

    2015-01-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument is a multipurpose high-contrast imaging platform designed for the discovery and detailed characterization of exoplanetary systems and serves as a testbed for high-contrast imaging technologies for ELTs. It is a multi-band instrument which makes use of light from 600 to 2500nm allowing for coronagraphic direct exoplanet imaging of the inner 3 lambda/D from the stellar host. Wavefront sensing and control are key to the operation of SCExAO. A partial correction of low-order modes is provided by Subaru's facility adaptive optics system with the final correction, including high-order modes, implemented downstream by a combination of a visible pyramid wavefront sensor and a 2000-element deformable mirror. The well corrected NIR (y-K bands) wavefronts can then be injected into any of the available coronagraphs, including but not limited to the phase induced amplitude apodization and the vector vortex coronagraphs, both of which offer an inner worki...

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT compared with that of contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magometschnigg, Heinrich F.; Baltzer, Pascal A.; Fueger, Barbara; Helbich, Thomas H.; Weber, Michael [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Karanikas, Georgios [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Dubsky, Peter [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Rudas, Margaretha [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pathology, Vienna (Austria); Pinker, Katja [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States)

    2015-10-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of prone {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT with that of contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) at 3 T in suspicious breast lesions. To evaluate the influence of tumour size on diagnostic accuracy and the use of maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub MAX}) thresholds to differentiate malignant from benign breast lesions. A total of 172 consecutive patients with an imaging abnormality were included in this IRB-approved prospective study. All patients underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and CE-MRI of the breast at 3 T in the prone position. Two reader teams independently evaluated the likelihood of malignancy as determined by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and CE-MRI independently. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT data were qualitatively evaluated by visual interpretation. Quantitative assessment was performed by calculation of SUV{sub MAX}. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, area under the curve and interreader agreement were calculated for all lesions and for lesions <10 mm. Histopathology was used as the standard of reference. There were 132 malignant and 40 benign lesions; 23 lesions (13.4 %) were <10 mm. Both {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and CE-MRI achieved an overall diagnostic accuracy of 93 %. There were no significant differences in sensitivity (p = 0.125), specificity (p = 0.344) or diagnostic accuracy (p = 1). For lesions <10 mm, diagnostic accuracy deteriorated to 91 % with both {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and CE-MRI. Although no significant difference was found for lesions <10 mm, CE-MRI at 3 T seemed to be more sensitive but less specific than {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Interreader agreement was excellent (κ = 0.85 and κ = 0.92). SUV{sub MAX} threshold was not helpful in differentiating benign from malignant lesions. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and CE-MRI at 3 T showed equal diagnostic accuracies in breast cancer diagnosis. For lesions <10 mm, diagnostic accuracy deteriorated, but was equal for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and CE-MRI at 3 T. For lesions <10 mm, CE-MRI at 3 T seemed

  3. Short term reproducibility of a high contrast 3-D isotropic optic nerve imaging sequence in healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Robert L.; Smith, Alex K.; Mawn, Louise A.; Smith, Seth A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-03-01

    The optic nerve (ON) plays a crucial role in human vision transporting all visual information from the retina to the brain for higher order processing. There are many diseases that affect the ON structure such as optic neuritis, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and multiple sclerosis. Because the ON is the sole pathway for visual information from the retina to areas of higher level processing, measures of ON damage have been shown to correlate well with visual deficits. Increased intracranial pressure has been shown to correlate with the size of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounding the ON. These measures are generally taken at an arbitrary point along the nerve and do not account for changes along the length of the ON. We propose a high contrast and high-resolution 3-D acquired isotropic imaging sequence optimized for ON imaging. We have acquired scan-rescan data using the optimized sequence and a current standard of care protocol for 10 subjects. We show that this sequence has superior contrast-to-noise ratio to the current standard of care while achieving a factor of 11 higher resolution. We apply a previously published automatic pipeline to segment the ON and CSF sheath and measure the size of each individually. We show that these measures of ON size have lower short- term reproducibility than the population variance and the variability along the length of the nerve. We find that the proposed imaging protocol is (1) useful in detecting population differences and local changes and (2) a promising tool for investigating biomarkers related to structural changes of the ON.

  4. High-contrast linear optical pulse compression using a temporal hologram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Fernández-Ruiz, Maria R; Lou, Shuqin; Azaña, José

    2015-03-01

    Temporal holograms can be realized by temporal amplitude-only modulation devices and used for generation and processing of complex (amplitude and phase) time-domain signals. Based on the temporal hologram concept, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate a novel design for linear optical pulse compression using temporal modulation of continuous-wave light combined with dispersion. The newly introduced scheme overcomes the undesired background problem that is intrinsic to designs based on temporal zone plates, while also offering an energy efficiency of ~25%. This pulse compression scheme can ideally provide an arbitrarily high time-bandwidth product using a low peak-power modulation driving signal, though in practice it is limited by the achievable modulation bandwidth and dispersion amount.

  5. Contrasting optical properties of surface waters across the Fram Strait and its potential biological implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2015-01-01

    Spitsbergen Current (WSC) differ with regards to temperature, salinity and optical properties. We present data on absorption properties of CDOM and particles across the Fram Strait (along 79° N), comparing Polar and Atlantic surface waters in September 2009 and 2010. CDOM absorption of Polar water in the EGC...... radiation (PAR, 400-700nm), but does result in notable differences in ultraviolet (UV) light penetration, with higher attenuation in the EGC. Future changes in the Arctic Ocean system will likely affect EGC through diminishing sea-ice cover and potentially increasing CDOM export due to increase in river...... runoff into the Arctic Ocean. Role of attenuation of light by CDOM in determining underwater light regime will become more important, with a potential for future increase in marine productivity in the area of EGC due to elevated PAR and lowered UV light exposures....

  6. In vivo imaging of melanoma-implanted magnetic nanoparticles using contrast-enhanced magneto-motive optical Doppler tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Park, Kibeom; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2016-06-01

    We conducted an initial feasibility study using real-time magneto-motive optical Doppler tomography (MM-ODT) with enhanced contrast to investigate the detection of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) magnetic nanoparticles implanted into in vivo melanoma tissue. The MM-ODT signals were detected owing to the phase shift of the implanted magnetic nanoparticles, which occurred due to the action of an applied magnetic field. An amplifier circuit-based solenoid was utilized for generating high-intensity oscillating magnetic fields. The MM-ODT system was confirmed as an effective in vivo imaging method for detecting melanoma tissue, with the performance comparable to those of conventional optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography methods. Moreover, the optimal values of the SPIO nanoparticles concentration and solenoid voltage for obtaining the uppermost Doppler velocity were derived as well. To improve the signal processing speed for real-time imaging, we adopted multithread programming techniques and optimized the signal path. The results suggest that this imaging modality can be used as a powerful tool to identify the intracellular and extracellular SPIO nanoparticles in melanoma tissues in vivo.

  7. Wide-field imaging of fluorescent deoxy-glucose in ex vivo malignant and normal breast tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsner, R. J.; Middleton, L. P.; Sun, J.; Meric-Bernstam, F.; Hunt, K. K.; Drezek, R. A.; Yu, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Rapid in situ determination of surgical resection margins during breast cancer surgery would reduce patient time under anesthesia. We present preliminary data supporting the use of a fluorescent glucose analog (2-NBDG) as an optical contrast agent to differentiate freshly excised breast tissue containing cancerous cells from normal breast tissue. Multi-spectral images of 14 breast cancer specimens acquired before and after incubation with 2-NBDG demonstrated increased fluorescent signal in all of the malignant tissue due to increased 2-NBDG consumption. We demonstrate that 2-NBDG has potential as an optical contrast agent to differentiate cancerous from non-cancerous tissue. PMID:21698015

  8. Comparison of Folate Receptor Targeted Optical Contrast Agents for Intraoperative Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth De Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intraoperative imaging can identify cancer cells in order to improve resection; thus fluorescent contrast agents have emerged. Our objective was to do a preclinical comparison of two fluorescent dyes, EC17 and OTL38, which both target folate receptor but have different fluorochromes. Materials. HeLa and KB cells lines were used for in vitro and in vivo comparisons of EC17 and OTL38 brightness, sensitivity, pharmacokinetics, and biodistribution. In vivo experiments were then performed in mice. Results. The peak excitation and emission wavelengths of EC17 and OTL38 were 470/520 nm and 774/794 nm, respectively. In vitro, OTL38 required increased incubation time compared to EC17 for maximum fluorescence; however, peak signal-to-background ratio (SBR was 1.4-fold higher compared to EC17 within 60 minutes (p<0.001. Additionally, the SBR for detecting smaller quantity of cells was improved with OTL38. In vivo, the mean improvement in SBR of tumors visualized using OTL38 compared to EC17 was 3.3 fold (range 1.48–5.43. Neither dye caused noticeable toxicity in animal studies. Conclusions. In preclinical testing, OTL38 appears to have superior sensitivity and brightness compared to EC17. This coincides with the accepted belief that near infrared (NIR dyes tend to have less autofluorescence and scattering issues than visible wavelength fluorochromes.

  9. Study of sensing properties and contrastive analysis of metal coating optical fiber grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Ning; Shi, Bin; Sui, Qingmei; Guan, Congsheng; Wei, Guangqing; Li, Shuhua

    2014-02-01

    Optical fiber grating (FBG) has been widely used in the measurement of parameters such as temperature and strain. However, FBG is too slim to broken, whose outside protective layer tends to shedding easily, and it is also hard to change the temperature and strain sensitivity. In order to overcome the above disadvantages and to further expand the application range of FBG, this paper improves the technology of fiber grating metal film plating process firstly. It adopts a compositive method including chemical plating and electroplating to gild FBG, copper FBG and galvanize FBG, which all get good metal coating. Then, the temperature and strain sensing properties of metalized FBG is studied in detail. Multiple metal coating FBGs were put in high-low temperature test-box together, and then the test-box worked continuously at the temperature range of 0°C~95°C. After several experiments, it concludes that metal plating enhances the temperature sensitivity of fiber grating, and the one with galvanization has the highest temperature sensitivity of 0.0235. At last, FBGs with various cladding were pasted on carbon fiber cantilever beam respectively and the pressure on the top of the cantilever increased gradually. The experimental results show that wavelength of fiber grating shift toward the long wavelength with the increase of the pressure, and the one with galvanization has the maximum strain sensitivity which has minimal impact on fiber properties.

  10. Classification of small lesions in dynamic breast MRI: Eliminating the need for precise lesion segmentation through spatio-temporal analysis of contrast enhancement over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Mahesh B; Huber, Markus B; Schlossbauer, Thomas; Leinsinger, Gerda; Krol, Andrzej; Wismüller, Axel

    2013-10-01

    Characterizing the dignity of breast lesions as benign or malignant is specifically difficult for small lesions; they don't exhibit typical characteristics of malignancy and are harder to segment since margins are harder to visualize. Previous attempts at using dynamic or morphologic criteria to classify small lesions (mean lesion diameter of about 1 cm) have not yielded satisfactory results. The goal of this work was to improve the classification performance in such small diagnostically challenging lesions while concurrently eliminating the need for precise lesion segmentation. To this end, we introduce a method for topological characterization of lesion enhancement patterns over time. Three Minkowski Functionals were extracted from all five post-contrast images of sixty annotated lesions on dynamic breast MRI exams. For each Minkowski Functional, topological features extracted from each post-contrast image of the lesions were combined into a high-dimensional texture feature vector. These feature vectors were classified in a machine learning task with support vector regression. For comparison, conventional Haralick texture features derived from gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) were also used. A new method for extracting thresholded GLCM features was also introduced and investigated here. The best classification performance was observed with Minkowski Functionals area and perimeter, thresholded GLCM features f8 and f9, and conventional GLCM features f4 and f6. However, both Minkowski Functionals and thresholded GLCM achieved such results without lesion segmentation while the performance of GLCM features significantly deteriorated when lesions were not segmented (p < 0.05). This suggests that such advanced spatio-temporal characterization can improve the classification performance achieved in such small lesions, while simultaneously eliminating the need for precise segmentation.

  11. Fat suppression techniques for obtaining high resolution dynamic contrast enhanced bilateral breast MR images at 7 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Velden, Tijl A; Schmitz, Alexander M Th; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G A

    2016-01-01

    was scored qualitatively on overall image quality, sharpness of anatomical details, presence of artefacts, inhomogeneous fat suppression and the presence of water-fat shift. A quantitative scoring was obtained from the signal to noise ratio and contrast to noise ratio. RESULTS: WSE scored significantly...

  12. Comprehensive Numerical Modelling of a Low-Gain Optical Parametric Amplifier as a Front-End Contrast Enhancement Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Sharba, A B; Zepf, M; Borghesi, M; Sarri, G

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive model for predicting the full performance of a second harmonic generationoptical parametric amplification system that aims at enhancing the temporal contrast of laser pulses. The model simultaneously takes into account all the main parameters at play in the system such as the group velocity mismatch, the beam divergence, the spectral content, the pump depletion, and the length of the nonlinear crystals. We monitor the influence of the initial parameters of the input pulse and the interdependence of the two related non-linear processes on the performance of the system and show its optimum configuration. The influence of the initial beam divergence on the spectral and the temporal characteristics of the generated pulse is discussed. In addition, we show that using a crystal slightly longer than the optimum length and introducing small delay between the seed and the pump ensures maximum efficiency and compensates for the spectral shift in the optical parametric amplification stage in c...

  13. Gadolinium(III-DOTA Complex Functionalized with BODIPY as a Potential Bimodal Contrast Agent for MRI and Optical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Ceulemans

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of a novel gadolinium(III DOTA complex functionalized with a boron-dipyrromethene derivative (BODIPY is described. The assembly of the complex relies on azide diazotransfer chemistry in a copper tube flow reactor. The azide thus formed is coupled directly with an alkyne via click chemistry, resulting into a paramagnetic and luminescent gadolinium(III complex. Luminescent data and relaxometric properties of the complex have been evaluated, suggesting the potential applicability of the complexes as a bimodal contrast agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. The complex displays a bright emission at 523 nm with an absorption maximum of 507 nm and high quantum yields of up to 83% in water. The proton relaxivity of the complex measured at 310 K and at frequencies of 20 and 60 MHz had the values of 3.9 and 3.6 s−1·mM−1, respectively.

  14. Development of HER2-targeted nanobodies for molecular optical imaging and therapy of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijanka, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease and the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide. It has been estimated that 1 in 8 women and 1 in 1,000 men will develop breast cancer. Surgical-, chemical- and radiation based therapies are available to breast cancer patients. Early detection of cancer is crucial

  15. Influence of adaptive-optics ocular aberration correction on visual acuity at different luminances and contrast polarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Susana; Sawides, Lucie; Gambra, Enrique; Dorronsoro, Carlos

    2008-10-06

    We evaluated the visual benefit of correcting astigmatism and high-order aberrations with adaptive optics (AO) on visual acuity (VA) measured at 7 different luminances (ranging from 0.8 to 50 cd/m(2)) and two contrast polarities (black letters on white background, BoW, and white letters on black background, WoB) on 7 subjects. For the BoW condition, VA increased with background luminance in both natural and AO-corrected conditions, and there was a benefit of AO correction at all luminances (by a factor of 1.29 on average across luminances). For WoB VA increased with foreground luminance but decreased for the highest luminances. In this reversed polarity condition AO correction increased VA by a factor of 1.13 on average and did not produce a visual benefit at high luminances. The improvement of VA (averaged across conditions) was significantly correlated (p = 0.04) with the amount of corrected aberrations (in terms of Strehl ratio). The improved performance with WoB targets with respect to BoW targets is decreased when correcting aberrations, suggesting a role of ocular aberrations in the differences in visual performance between contrast polarities.

  16. Non-invasive optical estimate of tissue composition to differentiate malignant from benign breast lesions: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Paola; Paganoni, Anna Maria; Ieva, Francesca; Pifferi, Antonio; Quarto, Giovanna; Abbate, Francesca; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2017-01-01

    Several techniques are being investigated as a complement to screening mammography, to reduce its false-positive rate, but results are still insufficient to draw conclusions. This initial study explores time domain diffuse optical imaging as an adjunct method to classify non-invasively malignant vs benign breast lesions. We estimated differences in tissue composition (oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, lipid, water, collagen) and absorption properties between lesion and average healthy tissue in the same breast applying a perturbative approach to optical images collected at 7 red-near infrared wavelengths (635–1060 nm) from subjects bearing breast lesions. The Discrete AdaBoost procedure, a machine-learning algorithm, was then exploited to classify lesions based on optically derived information (either tissue composition or absorption) and risk factors obtained from patient’s anamnesis (age, body mass index, familiarity, parity, use of oral contraceptives, and use of Tamoxifen). Collagen content, in particular, turned out to be the most important parameter for discrimination. Based on the initial results of this study the proposed method deserves further investigation.

  17. Non-invasive optical estimate of tissue composition to differentiate malignant from benign breast lesions: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Paola; Paganoni, Anna Maria; Ieva, Francesca; Pifferi, Antonio; Quarto, Giovanna; Abbate, Francesca; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2017-01-01

    Several techniques are being investigated as a complement to screening mammography, to reduce its false-positive rate, but results are still insufficient to draw conclusions. This initial study explores time domain diffuse optical imaging as an adjunct method to classify non-invasively malignant vs benign breast lesions. We estimated differences in tissue composition (oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, lipid, water, collagen) and absorption properties between lesion and average healthy tissue in the same breast applying a perturbative approach to optical images collected at 7 red-near infrared wavelengths (635–1060 nm) from subjects bearing breast lesions. The Discrete AdaBoost procedure, a machine-learning algorithm, was then exploited to classify lesions based on optically derived information (either tissue composition or absorption) and risk factors obtained from patient’s anamnesis (age, body mass index, familiarity, parity, use of oral contraceptives, and use of Tamoxifen). Collagen content, in particular, turned out to be the most important parameter for discrimination. Based on the initial results of this study the proposed method deserves further investigation. PMID:28091596

  18. Synergistic effect of hyperosmotic agents and sonophoresis on breast tissue optical properties and permeability studied with spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenguo; Wei, Huajiang; Wu, Guoyong; Yang, Hongqin; He, Yonghong; Xie, Shusen

    2012-08-01

    Hyperosmotic agents have shown great potential in tissue optical clearing. However, the low efficiency of the permeation in biological tissues seriously restricts its application in reality. The synergy of sonophoresis as a penetration enhancer and hyperosmotic agents, 20% glucose (G) and 20% mannitol (M), in optical clearing has been investigated by analyzing the variation of the attenuation coefficients and the permeability coefficients. In the sonophoresis experiments, ultrasound (US) was applied for 10 min before applying hyperosmotic agents. Along with the administration of hyperosmotic agents, the samples were monitored with optical coherence tomography (OCT) functional imaging for the next 2 h. The attenuation coefficients of each group were obtained from the 2-D OCT images based on Beer's Law. The original attenuation coefficient is 12.38±0.73 cm-1 in normal breast tissue. After 45 min treatment, it changes to be 5.91±0.82 cm-1 and 4.14±0.67 cm-1 for 20% G and 20% G/US, respectively. The attenuation coefficient of breast cancer tissue is 18.17±1.45 cm-1 at the beginning, and it becomes 8.70±0.87 cm-1 for 20% G and 6.80±0.92 cm-1 for 20% G/US after 30 min. Meanwhile, the permeability coefficients of hyperosmotic agents were much enlarged by the treatment of ultrasound in both breast normal tissue and breast cancer tissue. A significant difference in permeability coefficients between health tissue and tumor tissue was also observed in the experiment (p<0.01).

  19. The association between breast tissue optical content and mammographic density in pre- and post-menopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M Blackmore

    Full Text Available Mammographic density (MD, associated with higher water and lower fat content in the breast, is strongly related to breast cancer risk. Optical attenuation spectroscopy (OS is a non-imaging method of evaluating breast tissue composition by red and near-infrared light transmitted through the breast that, unlike mammography, does not involve radiation. OS provides information on wavelength dependent light scattering of tissue and on absorption by water, lipid, oxy-, deoxy-hemoglobin. We propose that OS could be an alternative marker of breast cancer risk and that OS breast tissue measures will be associated with MD. In the present analysis, we developed an algorithm to estimate breast tissue composition and light scattering parameters using a spectrally constrained global fitting procedure employing a diffuse light transport model. OS measurements were obtained from 202 pre- and post-menopausal women with normal mammograms. Percent density (PD and dense area (DA were measured using Cumulus. The association between OS tissue composition and PD and DA was analyzed using linear regression adjusted for body mass index. Among pre-menopausal women, lipid content was significantly inversely associated with square root transformed PD (β = -0.05, p = 0.0002 and DA (β = -0.05, p = 0.019; water content was significantly positively associated with PD (β = 0.06, p = 0.008. Tissue oxygen saturation was marginally inversely associated with PD (β = -0.03, p = 0.057 but significantly inversely associated with DA (β = -0.10, p = 0.002. Among post-menopausal women lipid and water content were significantly associated (negatively and positively, respectively with PD (β lipid = -0.08, β water = 0.14, both p<0.0001 and DA (β lipid = -0.10, p<0.0001; β water = 0.11, p = 0.001. The association between OS breast content and PD and DA is consistent with more proliferation in dense tissue of younger women, greater lipid content in low density tissue and higher water

  20. Predicting response before initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using new methods for the analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE MRI) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandchamp, Joseph B.; Whisenant, Jennifer G.; Arlinghaus, Lori R.; Abramson, V. G.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Julio

    2016-03-01

    The pharmacokinetic parameters derived from dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI have shown promise as biomarkers for tumor response to therapy. However, standard methods of analyzing DCE MRI data (Tofts model) require high temporal resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the Arterial Input Function (AIF). Such models produce reliable biomarkers of response only when a therapy has a large effect on the parameters. We recently reported a method that solves the limitations, the Linear Reference Region Model (LRRM). Similar to other reference region models, the LRRM needs no AIF. Additionally, the LRRM is more accurate and precise than standard methods at low SNR and slow temporal resolution, suggesting LRRM-derived biomarkers could be better predictors. Here, the LRRM, Non-linear Reference Region Model (NRRM), Linear Tofts model (LTM), and Non-linear Tofts Model (NLTM) were used to estimate the RKtrans between muscle and tumor (or the Ktrans for Tofts) and the tumor kep,TOI for 39 breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). These parameters and the receptor statuses of each patient were used to construct cross-validated predictive models to classify patients as complete pathological responders (pCR) or non-complete pathological responders (non-pCR) to NAC. Model performance was evaluated using area under the ROC curve (AUC). The AUC for receptor status alone was 0.62, while the best performance using predictors from the LRRM, NRRM, LTM, and NLTM were AUCs of 0.79, 0.55, 0.60, and 0.59 respectively. This suggests that the LRRM can be used to predict response to NAC in breast cancer.

  1. Identifying Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Using Background Parenchymal Enhancement Heterogeneity on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI: A Pilot Radiomics Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Wang

    Full Text Available To determine the added discriminative value of detailed quantitative characterization of background parenchymal enhancement in addition to the tumor itself on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE MRI at 3.0 Tesla in identifying "triple-negative" breast cancers.In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study, DCE-MRI of 84 women presenting 88 invasive carcinomas were evaluated by a radiologist and analyzed using quantitative computer-aided techniques. Each tumor and its surrounding parenchyma were segmented semi-automatically in 3-D. A total of 85 imaging features were extracted from the two regions, including morphologic, densitometric, and statistical texture measures of enhancement. A small subset of optimal features was selected using an efficient sequential forward floating search algorithm. To distinguish triple-negative cancers from other subtypes, we built predictive models based on support vector machines. Their classification performance was assessed with the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC using cross-validation.Imaging features based on the tumor region achieved an AUC of 0.782 in differentiating triple-negative cancers from others, in line with the current state of the art. When background parenchymal enhancement features were included, the AUC increased significantly to 0.878 (p<0.01. Similar improvements were seen in nearly all subtype classification tasks undertaken. Notably, amongst the most discriminating features for predicting triple-negative cancers were textures of background parenchymal enhancement.Considering the tumor as well as its surrounding parenchyma on DCE-MRI for radiomic image phenotyping provides useful information for identifying triple-negative breast cancers. Heterogeneity of background parenchymal enhancement, characterized by quantitative texture features on DCE-MRI, adds value to such differentiation models as they are strongly associated with the triple-negative subtype

  2. Functional imaging of the angiogenic switch in a transgenic mouse model of human breast cancer by dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolino, Lorena; Longo, Dario Livio; Dastrù, Walter; Cutrin, Juan Carlos; Dettori, Daniela; Lanzardo, Stefania; Oliviero, Salvatore; Cavallo, Federica; Aime, Silvio

    2016-07-15

    Tumour progression depends on several sequential events that include the microenvironment remodelling processes and the switch to the angiogenic phenotype, leading to new blood vessels recruitment. Non-invasive imaging techniques allow the monitoring of functional alterations in tumour vascularity and cellularity. The aim of this work was to detect functional changes in vascularisation and cellularity through Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) and Diffusion Weighted (DW) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) modalities during breast cancer initiation and progression of a transgenic mouse model (BALB-neuT mice). Histological examination showed that BALB-neuT mammary glands undergo a slow neoplastic progression from simple hyperplasia to invasive carcinoma, still preserving normal parts of mammary glands. DCE-MRI results highlighted marked functional changes in terms of vessel permeability (K(trans) , volume transfer constant) and vascularisation (vp , vascular volume fraction) in BALB-neuT hyperplastic mammary glands if compared to BALB/c ones. When breast tissue progressed from simple to atypical hyperplasia, a strong increase in DCE-MRI biomarkers was observed in BALB-neuT in comparison to BALB/c mice (K(trans)  = 5.3 ± 0.7E-4 and 3.1 ± 0.5E-4; vp  = 7.4 ± 0.8E-2 and 4.7 ± 0.6E-2 for BALB-neuT and BALB/c, respectively) that remained constant during the successive steps of the neoplastic transformation. Consistent with DCE-MRI observations, microvessel counting revealed a significant increase in tumour vessels. Our study showed that DCE-MRI estimates can accurately detect the angiogenic switch at early step of breast cancer carcinogenesis. These results support the view that this imaging approach is an excellent tool to characterize microvasculature changes, despite only small portions of the mammary glands developed neoplastic lesions in a transgenic mouse model.

  3. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging versus dynamic contrast-enhanced CT for staging and prognosis of inflammatory breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champion, Laurence; Edeline, Veronique; Giraudet, Anne-Laure; Wartski, Myriam [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Saint-Cloud (France); Lerebours, Florence [Service d' Oncologie Medicale, Saint-Cloud (France); Cherel, Pascal [Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Service de Radiologie, Saint-Cloud (France); Bellet, Dominique [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Saint-Cloud (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Pharmacologie Chimique et Genetique and Imagerie, Inserm U1022 CNRS UMR 8151, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques, Paris (France); Alberini, Jean-Louis [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Saint-Cloud (France); Universite Versailles Saint-Quentin, Faculte de medecine, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France)

    2013-08-15

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive type of breast cancer with a poor prognosis. Locoregional staging is based on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) CT or MRI. The aim of this study was to compare the performances of FDG PET/CT and DCE CT in locoregional staging of IBC and to assess their respective prognostic values. The study group comprised 50 women (median age: 51 {+-} 11 years) followed in our institution for IBC who underwent FDG PET/CT and DCE CT scans (median interval 5 {+-} 9 days). CT enhancement parameters were net maximal enhancement, net early enhancement and perfusion. The PET/CT scans showed intense FDG uptake in all primary tumours. Concordance rate between PET/CT and DCE CT for breast tumour localization was 92 %. No significant correlation was found between SUVmax and CT enhancement parameters in primary tumours (p > 0.6). PET/CT and DCE CT results were poorly correlated for skin infiltration (kappa = 0.19). Ipsilateral foci of increased axillary FDG uptake were found in 47 patients (median SUV: 7.9 {+-} 5.4), whereas enlarged axillary lymph nodes were observed on DCE CT in 43 patients. Results for axillary node involvement were fairly well correlated (kappa = 0.55). Nineteen patients (38 %) were found to be metastatic on PET/CT scan with a significant shorter progression-free survival than patients without distant lesions (p = 0.01). In the primary tumour, no statistically significant difference was observed between high and moderate tumour FDG uptake on survival, using an SUVmax cut-off of 5 (p = 0.7 and 0.9), or between high and low tumour enhancement on DCE CT (p > 0.8). FDG PET/CT imaging provided additional information concerning locoregional involvement to that provided by DCE CT on and allowed detection of distant metastases in the same whole-body procedure. Tumour FDG uptake or CT enhancement parameters were not correlated and were not found to have any prognostic value. (orig.)

  4. A novel high-contrast imaging technique based on optical tunneling to search for faint companions around bright stars at the limit of diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Derigs, Dominik; Ghosh, Dhriti Sundar; Abel-Tibérini, Laëtitia

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel application of optical tunneling in the context of high-angular resolution, high-contrast techniques with the aim of improving direct imaging capabilities of faint companions in the vicinity of bright stars. In contrast to existing techniques like coronagraphy, we apply well-established techniques from integrated optics to exclusively extinct a very narrow angular direction coming from the sky. This extinction is achieved in the pupil plane and does not suffer from diffraction pattern residuals. We give a comprehensive presentation of the underlying theory as well as first laboratory results.

  5. Cell tracking with gadophrin-2: a bifunctional contrast agent for MR imaging, optical imaging, and fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E. [Department of Radiology, UCSF Medical Center, University of California in San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Ave, CA 94143, San Francisco (United States); Rudelius, Martina; Piontek, Guido; Schlegel, Juergen [Institute of Pathology, Technical University, Munich (Germany); Metz, Stephan; Settles, Marcus; Rummeny, Ernst J. [Department of Radiology, Technical University, Munich (Germany); Pichler, Bernd [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Davis (United States); Heinzmann, Ulrich [National Research Center for Environment and Health, Technical University, Munich (Germany); Oostendorp, Robert A.J. [3. Clinic of Internal Medicine, Laboratory of Stem Cell Physiology, Technical University, Munich (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of use of gadophrin-2 to trace intravenously injected human hematopoietic cells in athymic mice, employing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, optical imaging (OI), and fluorescence microscopy. Mononuclear peripheral blood cells from GCSF-primed patients were labeled with gadophrin-2 (Schering AG, Berlin, Germany), a paramagnetic and fluorescent metalloporphyrin, using established transfection techniques with cationic liposomes. The labeled cells were evaluated in vitro with electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Then, 1 x 10{sup 6}-3 x 10{sup 8} labeled cells were injected into 14 nude Balb/c mice and the in vivo cell distribution was evaluated with MR imaging and OI before and 4, 24, and 48 h after intravenous injection (p.i.). Five additional mice served as controls: three mice were untreated controls and two mice were investigated after injection of unlabeled cells. The contrast agent effect was determined quantitatively for MR imaging by calculating signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) data. After completion of in vivo imaging studies, fluorescence microscopy of excised organs was performed. Intracellular cytoplasmatic uptake of gadophrin-2 was confirmed by electron microscopy. Spectrometry determined an uptake of 31.56 nmol Gd per 10{sup 6} cells. After intravenous injection, the distribution of gadophrin-2 labeled cells in nude mice could be visualized by MR, OI, and fluorescence microscopy. At 4 h p.i., the transplanted cells mainly distributed to lung, liver, and spleen, and 24 h p.i. they also distributed to the bone marrow. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed the distribution of gadophrin-2 labeled cells to these target organs. Gadophrin-2 is suited as a bifunctional contrast agent for MR imaging, OI, and fluorescence microscopy and may be used to combine the advantages of each individual imaging modality for in vivo tracking of intravenously injected hematopoietic cells

  6. A novel technique of contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography imaging in evaluation of clearance of lipids in human tears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Emanuele Napoli

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this work was to gather preliminary data in different conditions of healthy eyes, aqueous tear deficient dry eyes, obstructive meibomian gland disease (MGD and non-obvious obstructive MGD (NOMGD individuals, using a new, contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging method to evaluate the clearance of lipids in human tears. METHODS: Eighty-two adult patients presenting with complaints of ocular irritation were studied for abnormalities of the ocular surface and classified as healthy (n = 21, aqueous tear deficient dry eyes (n = 20, obstructive MGD (n = 15 and NOMGD (n = 26 individuals. A lipid-based tracer, containing an oil-in-water emulsion, was used to obtain an enhanced OCT imaging of the lower tear meniscus. After instillation, a dramatic initial increase of reflectivity of the lower tear meniscus was detected by OCT, followed by a decay back to baseline values over time. Based on this finding, the clearance of lipids was measured in real-time by Fourier-domain anterior segment OCT. RESULTS: The differences in the clearance of lipids among the four groups as well as the correlations between symptom questionnaire score, standardized visual scale test, fluorescein break-up time, ocular surface fluorescein staining score, Schirmer I test scores were found to be statistically significant. The individual areas under the curve of the clearance of lipids calculated by the receiver operating characteristic curve technique ranged from 0.66 to 0.98, suggesting reliable sensitivity and specificity of lipid-enhanced OCT imaging. CONCLUSIONS: This new technique of contrast-enhanced OCT imaging of the tear film following lipid-based tracer instillation provides a measure of the clearance of lipids. The quantitative values found are in agreement with other methods of evaluation of the lacrimal system. An improvement of the clinician's ability in the diagnosis and understanding of abnormalities of the ocular surface may be

  7. Dynamic contrast optical coherence tomography: quantitative measurement of microvascular transit-time distributions in vivo (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Conrad W.; Srinivasan, Vivek J.

    2016-03-01

    Transit time is a fundamental microcirculatory parameter that is critical in determining oxygen delivery from capillaries to surrounding tissue. Recently, it was demonstrated theoretically that capillary transit-time heterogeneity potentially leads to non-uniform oxygen extraction in micro-domains. However, in spite of its importance, capillary transit-time distribution has been challenging to quantify comprehensively and efficiently at the microscopic level. Here, we introduce a method, called Dynamic Contrast Optical Coherence Tomography (DyC-OCT), based on dynamic cross-sectional OCT imaging of the kinetics of an intravascular tracer during its passage through the field-of-view. DyC-OCT is used to quantitatively measure the transit-time distribution in microvascular networks in cross-section at the single-capillary level. Transit-time metrics are derived from analysis of the temporal characteristics of the dynamic scattering signal, related to tracer concentration, using indicator-dilution theory. Since DyC-OCT does not require calibration of the optical focus, quantitative accuracy is achieved even deep in highly scattering brain tissue where the focal spot degrades. After direct validation of DyC-OCT against the dilution curves measured using a fluorescent plasma label in the surface pial vessels of a mouse brain, imaged through a thinned-skull, glass coverslip-reinforced cranial window, the laminar transit-time distribution was investigated in microvasculature across the entire depth of the mouse somatosensory cortex. Laminar trends were identified, with the earliest transit times in the middle cortical layers, and the lowest heterogeneity in cortical layer 4. The new DyC-OCT technique affords a novel perspective of microvascular networks, with the unique capability of performing simultaneous measurements of transit-time distributions across cortical laminae.

  8. Relating Doses of Contrast Agent Administered to TIC and Semi-Quantitative Parameters on DCE-MRI: Based on a Murine Breast Tumor Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglin Wu

    Full Text Available To explore the changes in the time-signal intensity curve(TIC type and semi-quantitative parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced(DCEimaging in relation to variations in the contrast agent(CA dosage in the Walker 256 murine breast tumor model, and to determine the appropriate parameters for the evaluation ofneoadjuvantchemotherapy(NACresponse.Walker 256 breast tumor models were established in 21 rats, which were randomly divided into three groups of7rats each. Routine scanning and DCE-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the rats were performed using a 7T MR scanner. The three groups of rats were administered different dosages of the CA0.2mmol/kg, 0.3mmol/kg, and 0.5mmol/kg, respectively; and the corresponding TICs the semi-quantitative parameters were calculated and compared among the three groups.The TICs were not influenced by the CA dosage and presented a washout pattern in all of the tumors evaluated and weren't influenced by the CA dose. The values of the initial enhancement percentage(Efirst, initial enhancement velocity(Vfirst, maximum signal(Smax, maximum enhancement percentage(Emax, washout percentage(Ewash, and signal enhancement ratio(SER showed statistically significant differences among the three groups (F = 16.952, p = 0.001; F = 69.483, p<0.001; F = 54.838, p<0.001; F = 12.510, p = 0.003; F = 5.248, p = 0.031; F = 9.733, p = 0.006, respectively. However, the values of the time to peak(Tpeak, maximum enhancement velocity(Vmax, and washout velocity(Vwashdid not differ significantly among the three dosage groups (F = 0.065, p = 0.937; F = 1.505, p = 0.273; χ2 = 1.423, p = 0.319, respectively; the washout slope(Slopewash, too, was uninfluenced by the dosage(F = 1.654, p = 0.244.The CA dosage didn't affect the TIC type, Tpeak, Vmax, Vwash or Slopewash. These dose-independent parameters as well as the TIC type might be more useful for monitoring the NAC response because they allow the comparisons of the DCE data obtained using different

  9. 磁共振动态增强扫描血管图在乳腺癌诊断中的应用%Vascular maps with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for diagnosis of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹波; 刘莉; 施梦; 耿道颖; 李亚迪

    2009-01-01

    对52例乳腺病变患者进行MRI动态增强扫描.在MRI血管图上进行血管计数,计数评价分为0~3级.平均乳腺血管数目,乳腺恶性病变患侧为(3.8±2.0)条,良性病变患侧为(1.3±1.0)条,良恶性病变间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).采用0~1级诊断为良性病灶,2~3级诊断为恶性病灶标准,特异度为79%,敏感度为83%.乳腺癌患侧乳腺血管数目明显增多,可为MRI诊断乳腺癌提供更多的信息.%Total 52 patients with breast lesions underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI; and the breast vascularization was scored on the MRI vascular maps with a range of 0 to 3. The mean number of vessels per ipsilateral breast in malignant cases was higher than that of benign cases (3.8±2.0 vs. 1.3± 1.0; P=0.000). When the breast vascularity score 0-1 was defined as benign and 2-3 was defined as malignant, the sensitivity and specificity was 79% and 83%, respectively. Results indicate that dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI is of value in diagnosis of malignant breast lesions.

  10. Diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging as markers of clinical behavior in children with optic pathway glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, Sarah C. [Swedish Neuroscience Institute, Department of Neurosurgery, Seattle, WA (United States); Ackerman, Joseph W. [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 660 South Euclid Ave., Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Garbow, Joel R. [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 660 South Euclid Ave., Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); Manwaring, Linda P. [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, St. Louis, MO (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Genomic Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Gutmann, David H. [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); McKinstry, Robert C. [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 660 South Euclid Ave., Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) are common pediatric brain tumors that pose significant clinical challenges with regard to predicting which tumors are likely to become symptomatic and require treatment. These tumors can arise sporadically or in the context of the inherited cancer predisposition syndrome neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Few studies have suggested biological or imaging markers that predict the clinical course of this disease. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that the clinical behavior of OPGs in children can be differentiated by diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. A total of 27 children with OPG were studied using DW and DCE MRI protocols. Diffusivity and permeability were calculated and correlated with the clinical behavior the OPG. Mean diffusivity values of 1.39 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms and mean permeability values of 2.10 ml/min per 100 cm{sup 3} of tissue were measured. Clinically aggressive OPGs had significantly higher mean permeability values (P = 0.05) than clinically stable tumors. In addition, there was a strong correlation between clinical aggressiveness and the absence of NF1 (P < 0.01). These results suggest that DCE MRI might be a useful biomarker for clinically aggressive OPG, which should be confirmed in larger prospective longitudinal studies. (orig.)

  11. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast disease%动态增强MRI在乳腺良恶性疾病鉴别诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚建飞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast diseases. Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted on MRI data of 70 cases (78 breasts) with breast lesions confirmed pathologically during the period of January 2012 to June 2014, including 46 breasts of carcinoma and 32 breasts of benign diseases. MRI signs and enhanced parameters of benign and malignant breast lesions were observed, and specificity, sensitivity and accuracy were compared between dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI scan and MRI plain scan in diagnosis of breast cancer. Results The average age of patients with benign lesions was significantly lower (t=8. 225, P0. 05). Emax of malignant breast lesions was significantly higher than benign tumors, but Tmax and Slopemax were significantly lower than benign lesions ( t value was 10. 286, 11. 445 and 7. 236, all P0.05);②乳腺恶性病变峰值增强率(Emax)显著高于良性肿块,峰值时间(Tmax)、最大强化速率(Slopemax)显著低于良性病变(t值分别为10.286、11.445、7.236,均P<0.05);③乳腺恶性病变SI-Time曲线廓清型、平台型、渐进型分别为38例、6例、2例,良性病变分别为0例、5例、27例,两组比较SI-Time曲线类型分布差异有统计学意义(χ2=10.381,P<0.05);④MRI动态增强扫描检查乳腺恶性病变灵敏度、特异度及准确率分别为100%、96.88%、98.72%,均高于 MRI 平扫的78.26%、78.13%、78.20%,比较差异有统计学意义(χ2值分别为7.382、8.164、8.237,均P<0.05)。结论乳腺良恶性疾病动态增强MRI扫描具有特异性表现,具有较高的鉴别诊断参考价值。

  12. Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachabé, Rami; Evers, Daniel J.; Hendriks, Benno H. W.; Lucassen, Gerald W.; van der Voort, Marjolein; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Peeters, Marie-Jeanne Vrancken; van der Hage, Jos A.; Oldenburg, Hester S.; Wesseling, Jelle; Ruers, Theo J. M.

    2011-08-01

    We report on the use of diffuse optical spectroscopy analysis of breast spectra acquired in the wavelength range from 500 to 1600 nm with a fiber optic probe. A total of 102 ex vivo samples of five different breast tissue types, namely adipose, glandular, fibroadenoma, invasive carcinoma, and ductal carcinoma in situ from 52 patients were measured. A model deriving from the diffusion theory was applied to the measured spectra in order to extract clinically relevant parameters such as blood, water, lipid, and collagen volume fractions, β-carotene concentration, average vessels radius, reduced scattering amplitude, Mie slope, and Mie-to-total scattering fraction. Based on a classification and regression tree algorithm applied to the derived parameters, a sensitivity-specificity of 98%-99%, 84%-95%, 81%-98%, 91%-95%, and 83%-99% were obtained for discrimination of adipose, glandular, fibroadenoma, invasive carcinoma, and ductal carcinoma in situ, respectively; and a multiple classes overall diagnostic performance of 94%. Sensitivity-specificity values obtained for discriminating malignant from nonmalignant tissue were compared to existing reported studies by applying the different classification methods that were used in each of these studies. Furthermore, in these reported studies, either lipid or β-carotene was considered as adipose tissue precursors. We estimate both chromophore concentrations and demonstrate that lipid is a better discriminator for adipose tissue than β-carotene.

  13. Ultrasound-Guided Optical Tomographic Imaging of Malignant and Benign Breast Lesions: Initial Clinical Results of 19 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quing Zhu

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of solid benign and malignant tumors presents a unique challenge to all noninvasive imaging modalities. Ultrasound is used in conjunction with mammography to differentiate simple cysts from solid lesions. However, the overlapping appearances of benign and malignant lesions make ultrasound less useful in differentiating solid lesions, resulting in a large number of benign biopsies. Optical tomography using near-infrared diffused light has great potential for imaging functional parameters of 1 tumor hemoglobin concentration, 2 oxygen saturation, 3 metabolism, as well as other tumor distinguishing characteristics. These parameters can differentiate benign from malignant lesions. However, optical tomography, when used alone, suffers from low spatial resolution and target localization uncertainty due to intensive light scattering. Our aim is to combine diffused light imaging with ultrasound in a novel way for the detection and diagnosis of solid lesions. Initial findings of two earlystage invasive carcinomas, one combined fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change with scattered foci of lobular neoplasia/lobular carcinoma in situ, 16 benign lesions are reported in this paper. The invasive cancer cases reveal about two-fold greater total hemoglobin concentration (mean 119 μmol than benign cases (mean 67 μmol, suggest that the discrimination of benign and malignant breast lesions might be enhanced by this type of achievable optical quantification with ultrasound localization. Furthermore, the small invasive cancers are well localized and have wavelength-dependent appearance in optical absorption maps, whereas the benign lesions appear diffused and relatively wavelength-independent.

  14. Radiologic Findings of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Arising Within a Juvenile Fibroadenoma: Mammographic, Sonographic and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Breast MRI Features

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun Kyung; Cho, Kyu Ran; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Woo, Ok Hee; Lee, Jeong Hyeon; Song, Sung Eun; Bae, Jeong Won

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile fibroadenoma is an uncommon histologic variant of fibroadenoma that frequently shows a remarkable and rapid growth. The development of a carcinoma within a fibroadenoma, either in situ or invasive, is a rare condition. We encountered a 36-year-old woman with a palpable mass in the right breast. The radiologic findings were indicative of a fibroadenoma in the breast. Sonographic guided biopsy using a 14G core needle revealed the presence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) within the j...

  15. MRI结合数字化钼靶诊断乳腺癌的临床研究%Clinical study of digital mammography,contrast-enhanced MRI as well as their combination in the diagnosis of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Ye; Mengsu Zeng; Fuhua Yan; Wei Feng; Meiling Zhou; Renchen Li; Wenfang Chen

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effectiveness of digital mammography and MRI in the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer and to assess the value of these modalities as well as the combination of the two.Methods:Sixty-seven patients with surgery and pathology proved breast lesion (malignant,n=32; benign,n=46) underwent digital mammography and MRI,the pulse sequences included T1WI,T2Wl,diffuse weighted imaging (DWI),and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI before surgery.Of the results of these two modalities,all lesions were classified into 5 groups according to BI-RADS classification,and the imaging findings were correlated to histopathology.The sensitivity and specificity of each modality as well as the combination of the two were calculated.Results:Of these 78 breasts lesions,The sensitivity was 78.13%% (25/32) for digital mammography and 93.75% (30/32) for MRI (P>0.05).The specificity was 73.91%% (34/46) and 89.13% (41/46) accordingly (P<0.05),both of them showed statistical difference.The sensitivity and specificity was 98.63% and 97.16% respectively as these two modalities were used in combination.Conclusion:Digital mammography in combination with MRI is helpful in the diagnosis of breast cancer,the sensitivity and specificity was enhanced when compared to that of single modality.

  16. Application Observation on Ultrasound Contrast in Diagnosis of Early -onset Breast Cancer%超声造影在早发性乳腺癌诊断中应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗水浓; 曾月颜; 谢永林

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨超声造影在早发性乳腺癌诊断中的应用效果。方法整群选择2014年1月—2015年2月来该院治疗乳腺癌的患者72例,根据年龄随机将其分成两组,每组36例。A组患者年龄≤35岁,B组患者年龄>35岁。两组患者手术前均采用超声及超声造影检查,观察两组患者声像图特征。结果 A组患者在病灶大小、纵横比大小、高回声晕大小、内部回声、造影剂滞留等方面与B组有明显差异,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);两组患者在形态、边界、毛刺、钙化灶等方面差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论在早发性乳腺癌诊断中采用超声造影检查效果明显,能更准确的确诊乳腺癌疾病,为临床医生治疗乳腺癌提供最佳治疗机会。%Objective To observe the application effect of ultrasound contrast in diagnosis of early-onset breast cancer. Methods 72 cases of patients with breast cancer treated in our hospital from January 2014 to February 2015 were selected and randomly divided into two groups with 36 cases in each according to their ages. The age of group A ≤35 and group B>35. Before surgery , two groups of patients were examined by ultrasound and ultrasound contrast, sonographic features of the two groups were observed. Results Focus size, aspect ratio, high echo halo size, internal echo and contrast agent reten-tion in group A were significantly different from group B (P0.05). Conclusion The effect of contrast-enhanced ultrasound inspection in diagnosis of early-onset breast cancer is obvious, which can make a definite diagnosis of breast cancer more accurately and provide the best treatment opportunity for clinical doctors in the treatment of breast cancer.

  17. Chemically Induced Breast Tumors in Rats Are Detectable in Early Stages by Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging but Not by Changes in the Acute-Phase Reactants in Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onn Haji Hashim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to develop a rat model for monitoring the early development of breast cancer. Twelve female rats were divided into two groups of six rats that were either treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea to induce breast cancer or with bacterial lipopolysaccharide to induce inflammation. Serum samples taken from the rats prior to the treatment were used as controls. By the 14th week, presence of the tumor was detectable by contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed by histopathology. When the serum proteins of the rats were examined by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE, no difference could be detected in the profiles of all proteins before and 18 weeks after administration of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. However, higher expression of alpha-1B glycoprotein was detectable by 2-DE in serum samples of rats at the 18th week post-treatment with lipopolysaccharide.

  18. The application of surgical navigation system using optical molecular imaging technology in orthotopic breast cancer and metastasis studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chongwei; Zhang, Qian; Kou, Deqiang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Qiu, Jingdan; Wang, Jiandong; Yang, Xin; Du, Yang; Tian, Jie

    2014-02-01

    Currently, it has been an international focus on intraoperative precise positioning and accurate resection of tumor and metastases. The methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have played an important role in preoperative accurate diagnosis. However, most of them are inapplicable for intraoperative surgery. We have proposed a surgical navigation system based on optical molecular imaging technology for intraoperative detection of tumors and metastasis. This system collects images from two CCD cameras for real-time fluorescent and color imaging. For image processing, the template matching algorithm is used for multispectral image fusion. For the application of tumor detection, the mouse breast cancer cell line 4T1-luc, which shows highly metastasis, was used for tumor model establishment and a model of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expressing breast cancer. The tumor-bearing nude mice were given tail vein injection of MMP 750FAST (PerkinElmer, Inc. USA) probe and imaged with both bioluminescence and fluorescence to assess in vivo binding of the probe to the tumor and metastases sites. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed to confirm the presence of tumor and metastasis. As a result, one tumor can be observed visually in vivo. However liver metastasis has been detected under surgical navigation system and all were confirmed by histology. This approach helps surgeons to find orthotopic tumors and metastasis during intraoperative resection and visualize tumor borders for precise positioning. Further investigation is needed for future application in clinics.

  19. Comparison of Radiation Treatment Plans for Breast Cancer between 3D Conformal in Prone and Supine Positions in Contrast to VMAT and IMRT Supine Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano Buele, Ana Isabel

    The treatment regimen for breast cancer patients typically involves Whole Breast Irradiation (WBI). The coverage and extent of the radiation treatment is dictated by location of tumor mass, breast tissue distribution, involvement of lymph nodes, and other factors. The current standard treatment approach used at our institution is a 3D tangential beam geometry, which involves two fields irradiating the breast, or a four field beam arrangement covering the whole breast and involved nodes, while decreasing the dose to organs as risk (OARs) such as the lung and heart. The coverage of these targets can be difficult to achieve in patients with unfavorable thoracic geometries, especially in those cases in which the planning target volume (PTV) is extended to the chest wall. It is a well-known fact that exposure of the heart to ionizing radiation has been proved to increase the subsequent rate of ischemic heart disease. In these cases, inverse planned treatments have become a proven alternative to the 3D approach. The goal of this research project is to evaluate the factors that affect our current techniques as well as to adapt the development of inverse modulated techniques for our clinic, in which breast cancer patients are one of the largest populations treated. For this purpose, a dosimetric comparison along with the evaluation of immobilization devices was necessary. Radiation treatment plans were designed and dosimetrically compared for 5 patients in both, supine and prone positions. For 8 patients, VMAT and IMRT plans were created and evaluated in the supine position. Skin flash incorporation for inverse modulated plans required measurement of the surface dose as well as an evaluation of breast volume changes during a treatment course. It was found that prone 3D conformal plans as well as the VMAT and IMRT plans are generally superior in sparing OARs to supine plans with comparable PTV coverage. Prone setup leads to larger shifts in breast volume as well as in

  20. 超声造影对乳腺BI-RADS4B级肿块的诊断价值%Diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in BI-RADS4B breast lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左文思; 冷晓玲; 马富成

    2016-01-01

    目的 评价超声造影对乳腺BI-RADS4B级肿块的鉴别诊断价值.方法 对常规超声检查后诊断为BI-RADS4B级的60例女性患者(共65个肿块,其中恶性44个,良性21个)进行超声造影检查,术后均行病理证实,比较良恶性肿块的超声造影显像特征及其不同区域的血流灌注参数特征.结果 良性组和恶性组在增强顺序、造影模式、造影后范围有无显著增大方面比较差异均具有统计学意义(P0.05);恶性组边缘带的峰值强度明显高于良性组,恶性组边缘的峰值强度、曲线下面积、消除斜率高于其癌旁正常组织,而平均渡越时间、达峰时间低于其癌旁正常组织,差异均有统计学意义(P0.05);良性组边缘带峰值强度、曲线下面积、消除斜率、平均渡越时间、达峰时间与其内部及其癌旁正常组织相比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).超声造影对BI-RADS4B级恶、良性肿块诊断正确率分别为93.18%(41/44)和76.19%(16/21). 结论 使用超声造影对BI-RADS4B级肿块可以进一步良恶性鉴别,可以提高BI-RADS4B级肿块诊断准确率.%Objective To assess the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the differential diagnosis of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System BI-RADS4B breast lesions. Methods Sixty female patients with 65 breast lesions, including 21 benign lesions (benign group) and 44 malignant lesions (malignant group), were diagnosed as BI-RADS4B by conventional ultrasound examination. All the breast lesions underwent CEUS and postoperative path-ological examination. The imaging features and blood perfusion parameters in different regions of the benign and malig-nant breast tumors were compared. Results The benign group and malignant group showed statistically significant dif-ference in enhancement order, contrast model, and whether the lesion was significantly enlarged after CEUS (P0.05). In CEUS time-intensity curve analysis, the peak intensity (PI) of periphery

  1. Preliminary application of dymaic-contrast MRI in diagnosis of small breast cancer%MRI动态增强技术对小乳腺癌的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾培华; 蔡庆; 沈玉英; 雷海燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究小乳腺癌在磁共振成像(MRI)动态增强扫描图像上的影像表现及其动态增强扫描时间—信号曲线的特征,评价MRI动态增强扫描技术在小乳腺癌诊断中的临床应用价值。方法:将39例钼靶不能明确诊断的女性患者纳入研究(病理证实病灶≤2 cm)并行双侧乳腺动态高分辨对比增强MRI。利用MRI工作站功能软件描绘时间—信号强度曲线(TIC)。结果:39例患者中19例为乳腺癌,20例为良性乳腺肿瘤。19例小乳腺癌SI-Time曲线中15例呈I型,3例呈II型,1例呈III型,早期增强率11例≥60%。20例良性肿瘤TIC曲线中2例呈I型,2例呈II型,16例呈III型,早期增强率5例≥60%。将恶性病变形态特征、早期增强率≥60%、I型TIC曲线作为联合诊断标准,其中符合两项为确诊,诊断灵敏度为92%、特异度为90%、准确率为95%。结论:乳腺肿块的MRI形态学特征结合TIC曲线及早期强化率联合诊断提高了乳腺小肿块的定性诊断特异性及敏感性,可为小乳腺癌的诊断和鉴别提供重要的信息。%Objective: To study the imaging features and time- signal intensity curve of small breast lesions, and to evaluate the value of clinical application of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI scan technique in diagnosis of small breast cancers. Methods: Thirty nine female patients pathologically confirmed small breast lesions(≤2 cm)underwent bilateral breast dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Use MRI workstation function software to describe the time- signal intensity curve(TIC). Results: 19 cases were pathologically confirmed as small breast cancer, 20 cases were benign breast tumor. 15 cases of small breast cancer showed TIC typeI, 3 cases showed type II, 1 cases showed type III.Eleven among 19 cases of early enhancement rate ≥60%. Two among 20 cases of benign tumor TIC curve showed type I, 2 cases showed type II , 16 cases showedtype III, 5 cases of benign

  2. Contrastive clinical study of conservative and modified radical mastectomy for early breast cancer%保乳手术与改良根治术治疗早期乳腺癌的临床对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜稼苓; 路选; 王颖; 孙鹤庆

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较保乳手术与改良根治术对早期乳腺癌预后的影响.方法:回顾性分析我院1998年7月-2008年7月经保乳手术治疗的63例早期乳腺癌患者临床资料,并与同期行改良根治术63例早期乳腺癌患者进行对比.结果:保乳手术治疗没有增加患者的局部复发率、转移率、病死率,生存率与同期改良根治术相当,并且保持了患者良好的乳房外形.结论:对于早期乳腺癌,保乳手术是-种切实可行的手术方式.%Objective: To compare the prognostic influence of conservative mastectomy and modified radical mastectomy on patients with early breast cancer. Methods: Retrospectively analyzed 63 subjects for conservative Mastectomy in early breast cancer of our hospital between July 2005 to July 2008,and to contrastively investigated with 63 subjects for modified radical mastectomy in early breast cancer on the corresponding period. Results: Conservative mastectomy did not increase the recurrence rate, metastasis rate, and the death rate. The survival rate was similar to modified radical mastectomy on the corresponding period. Conservative mastectomy had kept the breast' s shape nicely. Conclusion: Conservative mastectomy is a viable surgical method for early breast cancer.

  3. Advanced demodulation technique for the extraction of tissue optical properties and structural orientation contrast in the spatial frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Kyle P.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2014-05-01

    We have developed a method for extracting spatial frequency information content from biological tissue, which is used to calculate tissue optical properties and determine tissue structural orientation. This demodulation method employs a two-dimensional Hilbert transform using a spiral phase function in Fourier space. The approach presented here allows for the determination of tissue optical properties using a single frame of data for each modulation frequency, increasing imaging speed by two to threefold versus conventional, three-phase spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI). This new single-phase Hilbert transform approach recovers optical property and scattering orientation index values within 1% and 10% of three-phase SFDI, respectively. These results suggest that, using the Hilbert demodulation technique, SFDI data acquisition speed can be increased significantly while preserving data quality, which will help us move forward toward the implementation of a real-time SFDI platform.

  4. Generation of anatomically realistic numerical phantoms for optoacoustic breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Mitsuhashi, Kenji; Appleton, Catherine M.; Oraevsky, Alexander; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    Because optoacoustic tomography (OAT) can provide functional information based on hemoglobin contrast, it is a promising imaging modality for breast cancer diagnosis. Developing an effective OAT breast imaging system requires balancing multiple design constraints, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, computer- simulation studies are often conducted to facilitate this task. However, most existing computer-simulation studies of OAT breast imaging employ simple phantoms such as spheres or cylinders that over-simplify the complex anatomical structures in breasts, thus limiting the value of these studies in guiding real-world system design. In this work, we propose a method to generate realistic numerical breast phantoms for OAT research based on clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The phantoms include a skin layer that defines breast-air boundary, major vessel branches that affect light absorption in the breast, and fatty tissue and fibroglandular tissue whose acoustical heterogeneity perturbs acoustic wave propagation. By assigning realistic optical and acoustic parameters to different tissue types, we establish both optic and acoustic breast phantoms, which will be exported into standard data formats for cross-platform usage.

  5. SU-E-J-134: An Augmented-Reality Optical Imaging System for Accurate Breast Positioning During Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazareth, D; Malhotra, H; French, S [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Hoffmann, K [Neurosurgery at SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Merrow, C [Bassett Healthcare, Oneonta, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Breast radiotherapy, particularly electronic compensation, may involve large dose gradients and difficult patient positioning problems. We have developed a simple self-calibrating augmented-reality system, which assists in accurately and reproducibly positioning the patient, by displaying her live image from a single camera superimposed on the correct perspective projection of her 3D CT data. Our method requires only a standard digital camera capable of live-view mode, installed in the treatment suite at an approximately-known orientation and position (rotation R; translation T). Methods: A 10-sphere calibration jig was constructed and CT imaged to provide a 3D model. The (R,T) relating the camera to the CT coordinate system were determined by acquiring a photograph of the jig and optimizing an objective function, which compares the true image points to points calculated with a given candidate R and T geometry. Using this geometric information, 3D CT patient data, viewed from the camera's perspective, is plotted using a Matlab routine. This image data is superimposed onto the real-time patient image, acquired by the camera, and displayed using standard live-view software. This enables the therapists to view both the patient's current and desired positions, and guide the patient into assuming the correct position. The method was evaluated using an in-house developed bolus-like breast phantom, mounted on a supporting platform, which could be tilted at various angles to simulate treatment-like geometries. Results: Our system allowed breast phantom alignment, with an accuracy of about 0.5 cm and 1 ± 0.5 degree. Better resolution could be possible using a camera with higher-zoom capabilities. Conclusion: We have developed an augmented-reality system, which combines a perspective projection of a CT image with a patient's real-time optical image. This system has the potential to improve patient setup accuracy during breast radiotherapy, and could

  6. Metabolomics of Breast Cancer Using High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Correlations with 18F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haesung Yoon

    Full Text Available Our goal in this study was to find correlations between breast cancer metabolites and conventional quantitative imaging parameters using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS and to find breast cancer subgroups that show high correlations between metabolites and imaging parameters.Between August 2010 and December 2013, we included 53 female patients (mean age 49.6 years; age range 32-75 years with a total of 53 breast lesions assessed by the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. They were enrolled under the following criteria: breast lesions larger than 1 cm in diameter which 1 were suspicious for malignancy on mammography or ultrasound (US, 2 were pathologically confirmed to be breast cancer with US-guided core-needle biopsy (CNB 3 underwent 3 Tesla MRI with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT, and 4 had an attainable immunohistochemistry profile from CNB. We acquired spectral data by HR-MAS MRS with CNB specimens and expressed the data as relative metabolite concentrations. We compared the metabolites with the signal enhancement ratio (SER, maximum standardized FDG uptake value (SUV max, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC, and histopathologic prognostic factors for correlation. We calculated Spearman correlations and performed a partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA to further classify patient groups into subgroups to find correlation differences between HR-MAS spectroscopic values and conventional imaging parameters.In a multivariate analysis, the PLS-DA models built with HR-MAS MRS metabolic profiles showed visible discrimination between high and low SER, SUV, and ADC. In luminal subtype breast cancer, compared to all cases, high SER, ADV, and SUV were more closely clustered by visual assessment. Multiple metabolites were correlated with SER and SUV in all cases. Multiple metabolites

  7. Salinity, Temperature, and Optical Characterization of a Tidally Choked Estuary Connected to Two Contrasting Intra-Coastal Waterways

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    performed better than salinity and temperature alone in distinguishing fine-scale, ocean structures in satellite imagery ( Palacios et al. 2012). By... Palacios , S. L., T. D. Peterson, and R. M. Kudela, 2012: Optical characterization of water masses within the Columbia River Plume. JGR, 117, C11020

  8. MRI动态增强在乳腺癌诊断中的价值%Diagnostic Value of Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MRI in Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚婷; 范光明; 沈金丹; 谢弘; 张飘尘; 阮志兵; 聂红昉

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析乳腺良、恶性病变磁共振动态增强( DCE-MRI)检查的影像学特征,探讨DCE-MRI对乳腺癌的诊断价值。方法:经病理组织活检确诊的30例乳腺良性病灶患者(对照组)和30例乳腺癌患者(乳腺癌组),均进行DCE-MRI检查,观察2组患者乳腺病灶形态特征、强化模式和时间-信号曲线( TIC)类型。结果:对照组病灶形态以类圆形为主、边缘多光滑、增强后多为均匀强化,乳腺癌组病灶形态以分叶状为主、边缘多有毛刺、强化后多为不均匀强化,2组患者的所占比例比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=42.44、52.86、41.99,P<0.05);对照组病灶T1 C曲线主要为Ⅰ型,乳腺癌组主要为Ⅲ型曲线,2组患者的所占比例比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=43.45,P<0.05)。结论:DCE-MRI检查可提高乳腺癌诊断的准确性。%Objective:To ahalyze dyhamic cohtrast-ehhahced MRI( DCE-MRI )features of behigh ahd malighaht breast lesiohs,ahd explore the diaghosis value of DCE-MRI ih breast cahcer. Methods:DCE-MRI were performed ih 30 patiehts with breast behigh lesiohs( cohtrol group )ahd 30 patiehts with malighaht breast lesiohs( breast cahcer group),diaghosis were made ih all the objects by patho-logical biopsy;Morphological characteristics,ehhahcemeht mode ahd time ihtehsity curve( TIC)were compared ih the two group. Results:Ih the cohtrol group,the lesiohs were mostly rouhd,smooth ahd homogeheous ehhahcemeht;ih breast cahcer group,breast lesiohs were mostly lobulated with edge burr ahd uheveh ehhahcemeht,differehces betweeh the two groups were statistically sighificaht(χ2 =42. 44, 52. 86,41. 99,P <0. 05);Breast lesiohs of cohtrol group were maihly typeⅠof TIC,ahd those of breast cahcer group were maihly type Ⅲ of TIC,differehces betweeh the two groups were statistically sighificaht(χ2 =43 . 45 ,P <0 . 05 ). Conclusion:DCE-MRI cah improve the diaghosis accuracy of breast cahcer.

  9. Topography, complex refractive index, and conductivity of graphene layers measured by correlation of optical interference contrast, atomic force, and back scattered electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaupel, Matthias, E-mail: Matthias.vaupel@zeiss.com; Dutschke, Anke [Training Application Support Center, Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH, Königsallee 9-21, 37081 Göttingen (Germany); Wurstbauer, Ulrich; Pasupathy, Abhay [Department of Physics, Columbia University New York, 538 West 120th Street, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Hitzel, Frank [DME Nanotechnologie GmbH, Geysostr. 13, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-11-14

    The optical phase shift by reflection on graphene is measured by interference contrast microscopy. The height profile across graphene layers on 300 nm thick SiO{sub 2} on silicon is derived from the phase profile. The complex refractive index and conductivity of graphene layers on silicon with 2 nm thin SiO{sub 2} are evaluated from a phase profile, while the height profile of the layers is measured by atomic force microscopy. It is observed that the conductivity measured on thin SiO{sub 2} is significantly greater than on thick SiO{sub 2}. Back scattered electron contrast of graphene layers is correlated to the height of graphene layers.

  10. Contrast in Terahertz Images of Archival Documents—Part I: Influence of the Optical Parameters from the Ink and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardon, Tiphaine; May, Robert K.; Jackson, J. Bianca; Beentjes, Gabriëlle; de Bruin, Gerrit; Taday, Philip F.; Strlič, Matija

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to objectively inform curators when terahertz time-domain (TD) imaging set in reflection mode is likely to give well-contrasted images of inscriptions in a complex archival document and is a useful non-invasive alternative to current digitisation processes. To this end, the dispersive refractive indices and absorption coefficients from various archival materials are assessed and their influence on contrast in terahertz images from historical documents is explored. Sepia ink and inks produced with bistre or verdigris mixed with a solution of Arabic gum or rabbit skin glue are unlikely to lead to well-contrasted images. However, dispersions of bone black, ivory black, iron gall ink, malachite, lapis lazuli, minium and vermilion are likely to lead to well-contrasted images. Inscriptions written with lamp black, carbon black and graphite give the best imaging results. The characteristic spectral signatures from iron gall ink, minium and vermilion pellets between 5 and 100 cm-1 relate to a ringing effect at late collection times in TD waveforms transmitted through these pellets. The same ringing effect can be probed in waveforms reflected from iron gall, minium and vermilion ink deposits at the surface of a document. Since TD waveforms collected for each scanning pixel can be Fourier-transformed into spectral information, terahertz TD imaging in reflection mode can serve as a hyperspectral imaging tool. However, chemical recognition and mapping of the ink is currently limited by the fact that the morphology of the document influences more the terahertz spectral response of the document than the resonant behaviour of the ink.

  11. Specific targeting of gliomas with multifunctional superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle optical and magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-xi MENG; Jia-qi WAN; Meng JING; Shi-guang ZHAO; Wei CAI; En-zhong LIU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether glioma cells can be specifically and efficiently tar- geted by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPIO)-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-chlorotoxin (SPIOFC) that is detectable by magnetic reso- nance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging. Methods: SPIOFC was synthesized by conjugating SPIO with FITC and chlorotoxin. Glioma cells (human U251-MG and rat C6) were cultured with SPIOFC and SPIOF (SPIO-FITC), respectively. Neural cells were treated with SPIOFC as the control for SPIOFC-targeted glioma cells. The internalization of SPIOFC by glioma cells was assessed by MRI and was quantified using inductively-coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. The optical imaging ability of SPIOFC was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results: Iron per cell of U251 (72.5±1.8 pg) and C6 (74.9±2.2 pg) cells cultured with SPIOFC were significantly more than those of U251 (6.6±1.0 pg) and C6 (7.1±0.8 pg) cells incubated with SPIOF. The T2 signal intensity of U251 and C6 cells cultured with SPIOFC (233.6±25.9 and 211.4±17.2, respectively) were substantially lower than those of U251 and C6 cells incubated with SPIOF (2275.3±268.6 and 2342.7±222.4, respectively). Moreover, there were significant differences in iron per cell and T2 signal intensity between SPIOFC-treated neural cells (1.3±0.3; 2533.6±199.2) and SPIOFC-treated glioma cells. SPIOFC internalized by glioma cells exhibited green fluorescence by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Conclusion: SPIOFC is suitable for the specific and efficient targeting of glioma cells. MRI and optical imaging in conjunction with SPIOFC can differentiate glioma cells from normal brain tissue cells.

  12. Wide-field optical coherence elastography for intraoperative assessment of tumour margins in breast cancer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Wes M.; Chin, Lixin; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2016-03-01

    Incomplete excision of tumour margins is a major issue in breast-conserving surgery. Currently 20 - 60% of cases require a second surgical procedure required as a result of cancer recurrence. A number of techniques have been proposed to assess margin status, including frozen section analysis and imprint cytology. However, the recurrence rate after using these techniques remains very high. Over the last several years, our group has been developing optical coherence elastography (OCE) as a tool for the intraoperative assessment of tumour margins in breast cancer. We have reported a feasibility study on 65 ex vivo samples from patients undergoing mastectomy or wide local excision demonstrates the potential of OCE in differentiating benign from malignant tissue. In this study, malignant tissue was readily distinguished from surrounding relative tissue by a distinctive heterogeneous pattern in micro-elastograms. To date the largest field of view for a micro-elastogram is 20 x 20mm, however, lumpectomy samples are typically ~50 x 50 x 30mm. For OCE to progress as a useful clinical tool, elastograms must be acquired over larger areas to allow a greater portion of the surface area of lumpectomies to be assessed. Here, we propose a wide-field OCE scanner that utilizes a piezoelectric transducer with an internal diameter of 65mm. In this approach partially overlapped elastograms are stitched together forming a mosaic with overall dimensions of 50 x 50mm in a total acquisition time of 15 - 30 minutes. We present results using this approach on both tissue-mimicking phantoms and tissue, and discuss prospects for shorter acquisitions times.

  13. MR-imaging of the breast at 0.5 Tesla: menstrual-cycle dependency of parenchymal contrast enhancement in healthy volunteers with oral contraceptive use?; MR-Mammographie bei 0,5 Tesla: Menstruationszyklusabhaengigkeit der Kontrastmittelanreicherung unter hormoneller Kontrazeption?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzen, J.; Welger, J.; Krupski, G.; Adam, G. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Lisboa, B.W. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    Introduction: To evaluate changes of contrast medium enhancement of the breast parenchyma due to menstrual cycle in healthy volunteers with oral contraceptive use in MR-imaging of the breast. Material and Methods: 15 healthy volunteers (age: 22 - 36, mean 28,2) without breast disease were examined two times during one menstrual cycle (days 7 - 14 and days 21 - 2). Two volunteers were examined only in the second part of the cycle (days 21 - 2). All volunteers used oral contraceptives for more than 6 month continuously. Examinations were performed with a 0,5 T magnet (dynamic 3D-gradient echo protocol with subtraction postprocessing). We evaluated the number of enhancing foci and the parenchymal contrast medium enhancement during the different phases of the cycle by region of interest. Results: Only a total of two enhancing foci were found in 2 of 17 volunteers. Time/signal intensity diagrams in these both cases were not suspicious (< 80% initial signal increase after of contrast medium injection, no wash-out phenomenon) and sonography of the breast in these two cases was inconspicuous. Contrast medium enhancement of breast parenchyma in cycle days 7 - 14 (mean enhancement: 0.12 - 0.26, minutes 1 - 9 p.i.) was not significantly different (p = 0.2209; Wilcoxon signed rank test) from cycle days 21 - 2 (mean: 0.13 - 0.32). Conclusion: Menstrual cycle dependency of parenchymal contrast medium enhancement seems to be of minor relevance for premenopausal women with use of oral contraceptives. (orig.) [German] Fragestellung: Untersuchung der Kontrastmittelaufnahme des Brustparenchyms in Abhaengigkeit vom Menstruationszyklus bei gesunden Probandinnen unter oraler Kontrazeption. Material und Methode: Bei 15 gesunden Probandinnen ohne Brusterkrankung in der Anamnese wurde eine MR-Mammographie zweimal waehrend eines Menstruationszyklus durchgefuehrt (Zyklustag: 7 - 14 und 21 - 2). Bei zwei weiteren Probandinnen erfolgte die MR-Mammographie nur in der zweiten Zyklushaelfte

  14. Effects of light intensity and pattern contrast on the ability of the land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi, to separate optic flow-field components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aaron P; Barnes, W Jon P; Macauley, Martin W S

    2004-01-01

    Using a novel suite of computer-generated visual stimuli that mimicked components of optic flow, the visual responses of the tropical land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi, were investigated. We show that crabs are normally successful in distinguishing the rotational and translational components of the optic flow field, showing strong optokinetic responses to the former but not the latter. This ability was not dependent on the orientation of the crab, occurring both in "forwards-walking" and "sideways-walking" configurations. However, under conditions of low overall light intensity and/or low object/background contrast, the separation mechanism shows partial failure causing the crab to generate compensatory eye movements to translation, particularly in response to low-frequency (low-velocity) stimuli. Using this discovery, we then tested the ability of crabs to separate rotational and translational components in a combined rotation/translation flow field under different conditions. We demonstrate that, while crabs can successfully separate such a combined flow field under normal circumstances, showing compensatory eye movements only to the rotational component, they are unable to make this separation under conditions of low overall light intensity and low object/background contrast. Here, the responses to both flow-field components show summation when they are in phase, but, surprisingly, there is little reduction in the amplitude of responses to rotation when the translational component is in antiphase. Our results demonstrate that the crab's visual system finds separation of flow-field components a harder task than detection of movement, since the former shows partial failure at light intensities and/or object/background contrasts at which movement of the world around the crab is still generating high-gain optokinetic responses.

  15. Synergistic effects of UVR and simulated stratification on commensalistic algal-bacterial relationship in two optically contrasting oligotrophic Mediterranean lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, P.; Medina-Sánchez, J. M.; Durán, C.; Herrera, G.; Villafañe, V. E.; Helbling, E. W.

    2014-08-01

    An indirect effect of global warming is the shallowing epilimnion, causing organisms to be exposed to higher levels of ultraviolet (UVR, 280-400 nm) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm), which could affect primary and bacterial production as well as the commensalistic algal-bacterial relationship. The combined effects of UVR and reduction in the depth of the upper mixed layer (UML) were assessed on variables related to the metabolism of algae and bacteria, during in situ experiments performed with natural microplanktonic communities from two oligotrophic lakes with contrasting UVR-transparency (clear vs. opaque) of southern Spain. The negative UVR effects on epilimnetic primary production (PP) and on heterotrophic bacterial production (HBP), intensified by high mean irradiances, were higher in the UVR-opaque than in the UVR-clear lake, and stronger on the algae than on the heterotrophic bacterial communities. Under UVR and high mean irradiance, the algal-bacterial relationship was strengthened in the UVR-clear lake, where excreted organic carbon (EOC) rates exceeded the bacterial carbon demand (BCD). This did not occur in the UVR-opaque lake. The greater UVR damage to algae and bacteria and the weakening of their commensalistic interaction found in the UVR-opaque lake indicates that these ecosystems would be especially vulnerable to stressors related to global change. Thus, our findings may have important implications for the carbon cycle in oligotrophic lakes of the Mediterranean region.

  16. Synergistic effects of UVR and simulated stratification on commensalistic phytoplankton-bacteria relationship in two optically contrasting oligotrophic Mediterranean lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, P.; Medina-Sánchez, J. M.; Durán, C.; Herrera, G.; Villafañe, V. E.; Helbling, E. W.

    2015-02-01

    An indirect effect of global warming is a reduction in the depth of the upper mixed layer (UML) causing organisms to be exposed to higher levels of ultraviolet (UVR, 280-400 nm) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm). This can affect primary and bacterial production as well as the commensalistic phytoplankton-bacteria relationship. The combined effects of UVR and reduction in the depth of the UML were assessed on variables related to the metabolism of phytoplankton and bacteria, during in situ experiments performed with natural pico- and nanoplankton communities from two oligotrophic lakes with contrasting UVR transparency (high-UVR versus low-UVR waters) of southern Spain. The negative UVR effects on epilimnetic primary production (PP) and on heterotrophic bacterial production (HBP), intensified under increased stratification, were higher in the low-UVR than in the high-UVR lake, and stronger on the phytoplanktonic than on the heterotrophic bacterial communities. Under UVR and increased stratification, the commensalistic phytoplankton-bacteria relationship was strengthened in the high-UVR lake where excretion of organic carbon (EOC) rates exceeded the bacterial carbon demand (BCD; i.e., BCD : EOC(%) ratio 100). The greater UVR damage to phytoplankton and bacteria and the weakening of their commensalistic interaction found in the low-UVR lake indicates that these ecosystems would be especially vulnerable to UVR and increased stratification as stressors related to global climate change. Thus, our findings may have important implications for the carbon cycle in oligotrophic lakes of the Mediterranean region.

  17. Generalized phase contrast:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast...... (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than...... efficiency. Optimization can address practical issues, such as finding an optimal spatial filter for the chosen application, and can even enable a Reverse Phase Contrast mode where intensity patterns are converted into a phase modulation....

  18. Investigation of Metastatic Breast Tumor Heterogeneity and Progression Using Dual Optical/SPECT Imaging. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    an 18 gauge hypodermic needle was inserted. There are five different radial positions for the needle rang- ing from the center to just below the...surface, with step size of 2.54 mm. The light is emitted from the tapered end of the optical fiber 1 mm in size which was threaded through the needle ;41...light propagation in highly scattering tissues. I. Model predictions and comparison with diffusion theory ,” IEEE Trans. Biol. Eng. 36, 1162–1168 1989

  19. The enhancement modes of real time contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the breast lesions%乳腺实性病灶实时超声造影增强模式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利; 刘淑萍; 汪娜; 姚克纯; 吴迪

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察超声造影在乳腺实性病灶中的不同增强模式,探讨该技术对乳腺疾病的应用价值.方法:应用SonoVue观察乳腺实性病灶55例,各组别包括腺病25例,纤维腺瘤20例,乳腺癌10例.超声造影增强模式从以下方面评价:①ROI曲线的增强时相及强度;②病灶增强的目视特征;③病灶增强的边界特征.结果:53例病灶均有不同程度的增强,ROI曲线形态显示增强均为快速增强型,各组别增强起始时间及达峰时间无显著差异(P>0.05),腺病组与纤维腺瘤组的峰值强度与增强持续时间高于乳腺癌组(P>0.05).病灶增强的目视特征:80%腺病病灶和95%纤维腺瘤表现为均匀增强型,乳腺癌组均表现为周边增强或不均匀增强.病灶增强的边界特征:70%的纤维腺瘤和80%的乳腺癌病灶表现为边界清晰型,76%的腺病病灶表现为无边界型.结论:乳腺实性病灶的不同增强模式能为乳腺疾病的诊断提供重要的影像学信息.%Objective: To observe the different enhancement modes of breast nodules using real-time contrast enhanced ultrasound and assess its clinical value in the diagnosis of breast lesions. Methods:The nodules included 25 adenosis, 20 fibroadenoma and 10 breast cancer were observed by contrast enhanced sonography using SonoVue. The time-intensity curve, the enhancement patterns and the characteristic of lesion's border were evaluated. Results : 53 cases were enhanced in some degree and all the lesions were fast enhanced on ROI curves. There were no significant difference about the time of initial enhancemcnt and the peak enhancement on each group ( P>0. 05). The peak inrensity and the enhanced duration were higher in fibroadenoma or adenosis than breast cancer ( P <0. 05). About the enhancement vision appearance. 80%adenosis and 95% fibroadenoma were homogeneous and all the malignant lesions were inhomogeneous enhanced or radial enhancement-around lesion. About the lesion

  20. The prediction of the optical contrast of air-borne targets against the night-sky background for Photopic and NVG sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havemann, Stephan; Wong, Gerald

    2016-10-01

    The Havemann-Taylor Fast Radiative Transfer Code (HT-FRTC) represents transmittances, radiances and fluxes by principal components that cover the spectra at very high resolution, allowing fast highly-resolved pseudo line-by-line, hyperspectral and broadband simulations across the electromagnetic spectrum form the microwave to the ultraviolet for satellite-based, airborne and ground-based sensors. HT-FRTC models clear atmospheres and those containing clouds and aerosols, as well as any surface (land/sea/man-made). The HT-FRTC has been used operationally in the NEON Tactical Decision Aid (TDA) since 2008. The TDA combines the HT-FRTC with a thermal contrast model and an NWP model forecast data feed to predict the apparent thermal contrast between different surfaces and ground-based targets in the thermal and short-wave IR. The new objective here is to predict the optical contrast of air-borne targets under realistic night-time scenarios in the Photopic and NVG parts of the spectrum. This requires the inclusion of all the relevant radiation sources, which include twilight, moonlight, starlight, airglow and cultural light. A completely new exact scattering code has been developed which allows the straight-forward addition of any number of direct and diffuse sources anywhere in the atmosphere. The new code solves the radiative transfer equation iteratively and is faster than the previous solution. Simulations of scenarios with different light levels, from situations during a full moon to a moonless night with very low light levels and a situation with cultural light from a town are presented. The impact of surface reflectance and target reflectance is investigated.

  1. Linear classifier and textural analysis of optical scattering images for tumor classification during breast cancer extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguizabal, Alma; Laughney, Ashley M.; Garcia Allende, Pilar Beatriz; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Wells, Wendy A.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.; López-Higuera, José M.; Conde, Olga M.

    2013-02-01

    Texture analysis of light scattering in tissue is proposed to obtain diagnostic information from breast cancer specimens. Light scattering measurements are minimally invasive, and allow the estimation of tissue morphology to guide the surgeon in resection surgeries. The usability of scatter signatures acquired with a micro-sampling reflectance spectral imaging system was improved utilizing an empirical approximation to the Mie theory to estimate the scattering power on a per-pixel basis. Co-occurrence analysis is then applied to the scattering power images to extract the textural features. A statistical analysis of the features demonstrated the suitability of the autocorrelation for the classification of notmalignant (normal epithelia and stroma, benign epithelia and stroma, inflammation), malignant (DCIS, IDC, ILC) and adipose tissue, since it reveals morphological information of tissue. Non-malignant tissue shows higher autocorrelation values while adipose tissue presents a very low autocorrelation on its scatter texture, being malignant the middle ground. Consequently, a fast linear classifier based on the consideration of just one straightforward feature is enough for providing relevant diagnostic information. A leave-one-out validation of the linear classifier on 29 samples with 48 regions of interest showed classification accuracies of 98.74% on adipose tissue, 82.67% on non-malignant tissue and 72.37% on malignant tissue, in comparison with the biopsy H and E gold standard. This demonstrates that autocorrelation analysis of scatter signatures is a very computationally efficient and automated approach to provide pathological information in real-time to guide surgeon during tissue resection.

  2. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast MRI with high accuracy optical flow estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Baese, Anke; Barbu, Adrian; Lobbes, Marc; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Burgeth, Bernhard; Kleefeld, Andreas; Meyer-Bäse, Uwe

    2015-05-01

    Non-mass enhancing lesions represent a challenge for the radiological reading. They are not well-defined in both morphology (geometric shape) and kinetics (temporal enhancement) and pose a problem to lesion detection and classification. To enhance the discriminative properties of an automated radiological workflow, the correct preprocessing steps need to be taken. In an usual computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system, motion compensation plays an important role. To this end, we employ a new high accuracy optical flow based motion compensation algorithm with robustification variants. An automated computer-aided diagnosis system evaluates the atypical behavior of these lesions, and additionally considers the impact of non-rigid motion compensation on a correct diagnosis.

  3. Diagnostic Value of Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging in Distinguishing Benign and Malignant Breast Lesions%动态增强MRI对乳腺良恶性病变诊断价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志军; 赵艳蕊

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价动态增强MRI在乳腺良、恶性病变中的诊断价值。方法:收集我院2012年3月~2013年6月拟诊为乳腺疾病的患者53例,共62个乳腺病灶,所有患者术前均行MRI平扫和动态增强扫描。以病理结果为金标准,对比分析病灶MRI动态增强达峰时间、时间-信号强度曲线及病灶形态特点各项指标在鉴别乳腺病灶良恶性中的诊断价值。结果:62例乳腺病灶经病理证实良性者24例,恶性者38例。上述各项指标在乳腺良恶性病灶间均具有统计学差异(P<0.05)。以病灶MRI动态增强形态特征、达峰时间、时间-信号强度曲线类型分别作为乳腺癌诊断标准的敏感度、特异度、准确度分别为86.84%、87.50%、87.10%,97.37%、83.33%、91.94%与92.30%、77.80%、87.10%;联合应用病灶MRI动态增强形态特征、达峰时间以及时间-信号强度曲线类型作为乳腺癌诊断标准的敏感度、特异度、准确度分别为97.37%、100.00%、98.39%。结论:动态增强MRI对乳腺良恶性病变鉴别诊断具有重要应用价值;联合应用动态增强MRI多项诊断指标对乳腺恶性病变具有较高的诊断效能。%Objective:To evaluate the diagnostic value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging(DCE-MRI) in diagnosis of breast benign and malignant lesion.Methods:Between Mar. 2012 and Jun. 2013,53 patients with 62 cases of breast lesions underwent plain MRI and DCE-MRI.As the gold standard by pathological results,some indicators of DCE-MRI including morphology,time to peak (Tpeak) and time-signal intensity curve (TIC) were compared between the patients with benign lesions and those with malignant lesions.Results:The pathologic results revealed benign lesions in 24 cases and malignancy in 38 cases.All indicators mentioned above between the benign and malignant groups of breast showed significant difference.The diagnostic sensitivities, specificities,accuracies in morphology,Tpeak and TIC for breast

  4. Computerized Segmentation and Characterization of Breast Lesions in Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Images Using Fuzzy c-Means Clustering and Snake Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachun Pang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel two-step approach that incorporates fuzzy c-means (FCMs clustering and gradient vector flow (GVF snake algorithm for lesions contour segmentation on breast magnetic resonance imaging (BMRI. Manual delineation of the lesions by expert MR radiologists was taken as a reference standard in evaluating the computerized segmentation approach. The proposed algorithm was also compared with the FCMs clustering based method. With a database of 60 mass-like lesions (22 benign and 38 malignant cases, the proposed method demonstrated sufficiently good segmentation performance. The morphological and texture features were extracted and used to classify the benign and malignant lesions based on the proposed computerized segmentation contour and radiologists’ delineation, respectively. Features extracted by the computerized characterization method were employed to differentiate the lesions with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.968, in comparison with an AUC of 0.914 based on the features extracted from radiologists’ delineation. The proposed method in current study can assist radiologists to delineate and characterize BMRI lesion, such as quantifying morphological and texture features and improving the objectivity and efficiency of BMRI interpretation with a certain clinical value.

  5. Contrastive Lexicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, R. R. K.

    This paper deals with the relation between etymologically related words in different languages. A survey is made of seven stages in the development of contrastive lexicology. These are: prelinguistic word studies, semantics, lexicography, translation, foreign language learning, bilingualism, and finally contrastive analysis. Concerning contrastive…

  6. Diagnosis of breast tumors with 1H-MRS and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging%联合应用1H-MRS与MR动态增强成像诊断乳腺肿瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周欣; 张婷婷; 胡国清

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the value of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) alone and combined with 1 H-MRS in diagnosis of breast tumors. Methods ' H-MRS and DCE-MRI of 50 patients with breast tumors including 33 malignant lesions and 17 benign lesions were retrospectively analyzed. The diagnostic results of ' H-MRS and DCE-MRI were compared with pathological and clinical follow-up results. All patients underwent pre-enhanced conventional scanning, 1 H-MRS scanning and DCE-MR scanning after injection of contrast agent. The type of time-intensity curves (TIC) and display of choline (Cho) peak for all lesions were calculated. Results The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate for TIC alone was 100% (33/33), 58. 82% (10/17) and 66. 00% (33/50), respectively, while was 100% (33/33), 88.24% (15/17) and 96.00% (48/50) respectively for combined application of 1H-MRS and DCE-MRI. There was statistical difference in diagnostic specificity and accuracy rate between the two methods (both P<0. 02). Conclusion DCE-MRI has lower specificity and accuracy rate for diagnosis of breast tumors. Combination of ' H-MRS and DCE-MRI can improve the diagnostic accuracy rate of breast tumors.%目的 比较应用MR动态增强成像(DCE-MRI)与联合应用1H-MRS及DCE-MRI对乳腺肿瘤的诊断价值.方法 回顾性分析50例乳腺肿瘤患者的1H-MRS及DCE-MRI表现,包括恶性肿瘤33例,良性肿瘤17例,并与病理及临床随诊结果进行对比.对所有患者分别行常规扫描、1H-MRS扫描及注射对比剂后动态增强扫描,分析时间-信号曲线(TIC)类型和胆碱(Cho)峰的显示情况.结果 以TIC类型判断肿瘤的良恶性,诊断的敏感度为100%(33/33),特异度为58.82%(10/17),准确率为66.00%(33/50);应用1H-MRS联合DCE-MRI诊断的敏感度为100%(33/33),特异度为88.24%(15/17),准确率为96.00%(48/50),与单纯DCE-MRI诊断的特异度和准确率差异有统计学意义(P均<0.02).结论 DCE

  7. Monitoring hypoxia induced changes in cochlear blood flow and hemoglobin concentration using a combined dual-wavelength laser speckle contrast imaging and Doppler optical microangiography system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Reif

    Full Text Available A synchronized dual-wavelength laser speckle contrast imaging (DWLSCI system and a Doppler optical microangiography (DOMAG system was developed to determine several ischemic parameters in the cochlea due to a systemic hypoxic challenge. DWLSCI can obtain two-dimensional data, and was used to determine the relative changes in cochlear blood flow, and change in the concentrations of oxyhemoglobin (HbO, deoxyhemoglobin (Hb and total hemoglobin (HbT in mice. DOMAG can obtain three-dimensional data, and was used to determine the changes in cochlear blood flow with single vessel resolution. It was demonstrated that during a hypoxic challenge there was an increase in the concentrations of Hb, a decrease in the concentrations of HbO and cochlear blood flow, and a slight decrease in the concentration of HbT. Also, the rate of change in the concentrations of Hb and HbO was quantified during and after the hypoxic challenge. The ability to simultaneously measure these ischemic parameters with high spatio-temporal resolution will allow the detailed quantitative analysis of several hearing disorders, and will be useful for diagnosing and developing treatments.

  8. Preliminary study on sentinel lymph node detection by contrast-enhanced ultrasound in patients with breast cancer%乳腺癌前哨淋巴结超声造影的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娅; 常才; 张迅; 乐坚; 范亦武; 周世崇

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究超声造影技术是否可用于探测乳腺癌前哨淋巴结,是否比传统同位素联合亚甲蓝示踪探测技术有优势。方法对36例乳腺癌患者先后进行超声造影、同位素联合亚甲蓝示踪法两项检查探测乳腺癌患者腋下前哨淋巴结,对比病理结果,进行分析。结果超声造影技术发现前哨淋巴结的准确率为88.89%,同位素联合亚甲蓝示踪法发现前哨淋巴结的准确率为97.22%。结论超声造影可发现乳腺癌腋下前哨淋巴结,但其准确率略低于同位素联合亚甲蓝示踪法,临床价值还需进一步研究。%Objective To study the application feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection in patients with breast cancer, and to compare it with traditional methylene blue dye combined with radioisotope as tracer. Methods Thirty-six patients with breast cancer received axillary SLN detection by CEUS and methylene blue dye combined with radioisotope before surgery. The results were compared and analyzed. Results The accuracies of CEUS and methylene blue dye combined with radioisotope were 88.89% and 97.22%, respectively. Conclusion CEUS can detect SLNs, but not better than methylene blue dye in combined with radioisotope. The value of CEUS needs more research.

  9. 经皮注射淋巴结超声造影在乳腺癌患者前哨淋巴结中的诊断价值%The daignostic value of contrast-enhanced ultras ound with percutaneous injection of contrast agents for the sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽爱; 樊云清; 王兴田

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the diagnostic values of conventional ultrasound and contrast -enhanced ultra-sound with percutaneous injection of contrast agents in the lymph nodes for the sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer pa -tients.Methods A total of79 breast cancer patients who were admitted into our hospital from February 2013 to April 2015were enrolled into the current study .They were percutaneously injected with lyophilized powders for ultrasound ex -amination of the sentinel lymph nodes ,with methylene blue as a contrast agent .Meanwhile , they were subjected to con-ventional ultrasound .Results Among 42 patients performing contrast -enhanced ultrasound were 29 patients with the sentinel lymph nodes ( 38 lymph nodes ) , including 19 sentinel lymph nodes ( where 15 nodes were pathological diag-nosed), and 19 non-metastatic lymph nodes (where 17 nodes were pathological diagnosed ), achieving 83.3%sensitiv-ity, 92.3%specificity and 93.1% accuracy.Meanwhile, 21 lymph nodes were found in 37 patients after conventional ultrasound , including 13 sentinel lymph nodes ( where 10 nodes were pathological diagnosed ) , and 8 non-metastatic lymph nodes(where 6 nodes were pathological diagnosed ), achieving 37.5%sensitivity, 42.9%specificity and 53.8%accuracy.Compared with conventional ultrasound , contrast-enhanced ultrasound could produce significant improvement in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosis of the sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients ( P<0.05 ). Conclusion Contrast-enhanced ultrasound with percutaneous injection of contrast agents in the lymph nodes can well determine the sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients , with superior clinical values to conventional ultrasound .%目的:探讨经皮注射淋巴结超声造影与常规超声对乳腺癌前哨淋巴结显像及转移的诊断价值。方法对79例乳腺癌患者进行研究,以手术过程中的亚甲蓝染色作为对比,应用经皮注射冻干粉剂对这些患者

  10. Experimental and Other Breast Imaging Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... optical imaging with other tests like MRI or 3D mammography to help diagnose breast cancer. Molecular breast ... radioactive particle to detect cancer cells. The PEM scanner is approved by the Food and Drug Administration ( ...

  11. Towards Dynamic Contrast Specific Ultrasound Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demi, Libertario; van Sloun, Ruud J. G.; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    We report on the first study demonstrating the ability of a recently-developed, contrast-enhanced, ultrasound imaging method, referred to as cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI), to image and quantify ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) kinetics. Unlike standard ultrasound tomography, which exploits changes in speed of sound and attenuation, CPDI is based on a marker specific to UCAs, thus enabling dynamic contrast-specific ultrasound tomography (DCS-UST). For breast imaging, DCS-UST will lead to a more practical, faster, and less operator-dependent imaging procedure compared to standard echo-contrast, while preserving accurate imaging of contrast kinetics. Moreover, a linear relation between CPD values and ultrasound second-harmonic intensity was measured (coefficient of determination = 0.87). DCS-UST can find clinical applications as a diagnostic method for breast cancer localization, adding important features to multi-parametric ultrasound tomography of the breast.

  12. Signal enhancement ratio (SER) quantified from breast DCE-MRI and breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shandong; Kurland, Brenda F.; Berg, Wendie A.; Zuley, Margarita L.; Jankowitz, Rachel C.; Sumkin, Jules; Gur, David

    2015-03-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended as an adjunct to mammography for women who are considered at elevated risk of developing breast cancer. As a key component of breast MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) uses a contrast agent to provide high intensity contrast between breast tissues, making it sensitive to tissue composition and vascularity. Breast DCE-MRI characterizes certain physiologic properties of breast tissue that are potentially related to breast cancer risk. Studies have shown that increased background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), which is the contrast enhancement occurring in normal cancer-unaffected breast tissues in post-contrast sequences, predicts increased breast cancer risk. Signal enhancement ratio (SER) computed from pre-contrast and post-contrast sequences in DCE-MRI measures change in signal intensity due to contrast uptake over time and is a measure of contrast enhancement kinetics. SER quantified in breast tumor has been shown potential as a biomarker for characterizing tumor response to treatments. In this work we investigated the relationship between quantitative measures of SER and breast cancer risk. A pilot retrospective case-control study was performed using a cohort of 102 women, consisting of 51 women who had diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer and 51 matched controls (by age and MRI date) with a unilateral biopsy-proven benign lesion. SER was quantified using fully-automated computerized algorithms and three SER-derived quantitative volume measures were compared between the cancer cases and controls using logistic regression analysis. Our preliminary results showed that SER is associated with breast cancer risk, after adjustment for the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS)-based mammographic breast density measures. This pilot study indicated that SER has potential for use as a risk factor for breast cancer risk assessment in women at elevated risk of developing breast cancer.

  13. Evaluation of higher-order time-domain perturbation theory of photon diffusion on breast-equivalent phantoms and optical mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosenick, D; Kummrow, A; Macdonald, R; Schlag, P M; Rinneberg, H

    2007-12-01

    Time-domain perturbation theory of photon diffusion up to third order was evaluated for its accuracy in deducing optical properties of breast tumors using simulated and physical phantoms and by analyzing 141 projection mammograms of 87 patients with histology-validated tumors that had been recorded by scanning time-domain optical mammography. The slightly compressed breast was modeled as (partially) homogeneous diffusely scattering infinite slab containing a scattering and absorbing spherical heterogeneity representing the tumor. Photon flux densities were calculated from densities of transmitted photons, assuming extended boundary conditions. Explicit formulas are provided for second-order changes in transmitted photon density due to the presence of absorbers or scatterers. The results on phantoms obtained by perturbation theory carried up to third order were compared with measured temporal point spread functions, with numerical finite-element method (FEM) simulations of transmitted photon flux density, with results obtained from the diffraction of diffuse photon density waves, and from Padé approximants. The breakdown of first-, second-, and third-order perturbation theory is discussed for absorbers and a general expression was derived for the convergence of the Born series in this case. Taking tumor optical properties derived by the diffraction model as reference we conclude that estimates of tumor absorption coefficients by perturbation theory agree with reference values within +/-25% in only 65% (first order), 66% (second order), and 77% (third order) of all mammograms analyzed. In the remaining cases tumor absorption is generally underestimated due to the breakdown of perturbation theory. On average the empirical Padé approximants yield tumor absorption coefficients similar to third-order perturbation theory, yet at noticeable lower computational efforts.

  14. Ultrasound - Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Breast Ultrasound imaging of the breast uses sound waves ... the Breast? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Breast? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...

  15. Breast pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain - breast; Mastalgia; Mastodynia; Breast tenderness ... There are many possible causes for breast pain. For example, hormone level changes from menstruation or pregnancy often cause breast tenderness. Some swelling and tenderness just before your period ...

  16. Combined photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging of human breast in vivo in the mammographic geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhixing; Lee, Won-Mean; Hooi, Fong Ming; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Pinsky, Renee W.; Mueller, Dean; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L.

    2013-03-01

    This photoacoustic volume imaging (PAVI) system is designed to study breast cancer detection and diagnosis in the mammographic geometry in combination with automated 3D ultrasound (AUS). The good penetration of near-infrared (NIR) light and high receiving sensitivity of a broad bandwidth, 572 element, 2D PVDF array at a low center-frequency of 1MHz were utilized with 20 channel simultaneous acquisition. The feasibility of this system in imaging optically absorbing objects in deep breast tissues was assessed first through experiments on ex vivo whole breasts. The blood filled pseudo lesions were imaged at depths up to 49 mm in the specimens. In vivo imaging of human breasts has been conducted. 3D PAVI image stacks of human breasts were coregistered and compared with 3D ultrasound image stacks of the same breasts. Using the designed system, PAVI shows satisfactory imaging depth and sensitivity for coverage of the entire breast when imaged from both sides with mild compression in the mammographic geometry. With its unique soft tissue contrast and excellent sensitivity to the tissue hemodynamic properties of fractional blood volume and blood oxygenation, PAVI, as a complement to 3D ultrasound and digital tomosynthesis mammography, might well contribute to detection, diagnosis and prognosis for breast cancer.

  17. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  18. Imaging breast lesions using the Twente photoacoustic mammoscope: ongoing clinical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijblom, M.; Piras, D.; Xia, W.; van Hespen, J. C. G.; van den Engh, F. M.; Klaase, J. M.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.; Manohar, S.

    2012-02-01

    Current imaging modalities are often not able to detect early stages of breast cancer with high imaging contrast. Visualizing malignancy-associated increased hemoglobin concentrations might improve breast cancer diagnosis. Photoacoustic imaging can visualize hemoglobin in tissue with optical contrast and ultrasound resolution, which makes it potentially ideal for breast imaging. The Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope (PAM) has been designed specifically for this purpose. Based on a successful pilot study in 2007, a large clinical study using PAM has been started in December 2010. PAM uses a pulsed Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm to illuminate a region of interest on the breast. Photoacoustic signals are detected with a 1MHz, unfocused ultrasound detector array. Three dimensional data are reconstructed using an acoustic backprojection algorithm. Those reconstructed images are compared with conventional imaging and histopathology. In the first phase of the study, the goal was to optimize the visualization of malignancies. We performed sixteen technically acceptable measurements on confined breast malignancies. In the reconstructed volumes of all malignancies, a confined high contrast region could be identified at the expected lesion depth. After ten successful measurements, the illumination area was increased and the fluence was substantially decreased. This caused a further significant increase in PAM lesion contrast.

  19. Towards improved image reconstruction in breast diffuse optical tomography using compressed sensing: a comparative study among Lp (0<=p<=2) sparsity regularizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingyuan; Wang, Yihan; Zhang, Yanqi; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

    2016-03-01

    The underdeterminedness of the inverse problems encountered in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) becomes especially severe when detecting breast cancers, because much more variables are needed to be reconstructed due to the big-size. With the addition of ill-condition caused by the diffusive nature of light propagation, the ill-posedness makes it very difficult to improve the image reconstruction. Fortunately, from the anatomy viewpoint, we have known that the cancer is distributed locally and only amounts to a small percentage of the whole breast. This makes it possible to employ the compressive sensing theory to mitigate the ill-posedness, based on the prior knowledge about the sparsity of the signal to be reconstructed. Specifically speaking, sparsity regularizations can be used in DOT to improve the image reconstruction under the premise that un-increase the number of measurements required in the reconstruction. In this paper, we primarily focus on comparing the performances of different kinds of Lp-norm-based regularizations in terms of theory and real effects, respectively. The numerical and phantom experiments have proven that the sparsity regularizations can dramatically improve the image reconstruction. Furthermore, as the p in the Lp-norm decreasing to zero, the solutions become sparser and the corresponding image quality gets higher, with smooth L0-norm-based regularization providing the highest image quality.

  20. Ultrasound-guided diffuse optical tomography (DOT) of invasive breast carcinoma: Does tumour total haemoglobin concentration contribute to the prediction of axillary lymph node status?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Qingli, E-mail: qinglizhu@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Xiao, Mengsu, E-mail: xiaomengsu_2000@sina.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); You, Shanshan, E-mail: shanshan_0531@sina.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhang, Jing, E-mail: zhang.jing1029@163.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Jiang, Yuxin, E-mail: yuxinjiangxh@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Lai, Xingjian, E-mail: lxjpumch@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Dai, Qing, E-mail: qingdai_2000@yahoo.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: To prospectively study the ultrasound-guided near-infrared diffuse optical tomography (DOT) findings of the total haemoglobin concentration (THC) detected in invasive breast carcinomas and its contribution to the prediction of axillary lymph node (LN) status. Methods: A total of 195 invasive breast carcinomas were prospectively studied with DOT before surgery. Lumpectomy or mastectomy with full axillary nodal dissection was performed. Tumour size and THC level were correlated with LN status by a logistic regression analysis. Results: One hundred twenty-four patients (63.59%) was LN(-) and 71 (36.41%) was LN(+). The average THC was significantly higher in the LN(+) group than in the LN(-) group (252.94 {+-} 69.19 {mu}mol/L versus 203.86 {+-} 83.13 {mu}mol/L, P = 0.01). A multivariate analysis showed an independent relationship between the probability of axillary metastasis, elevated THC level (P = 0.01), and tumour size (P = 0.001). The odds ratio with THC {>=} 140 {mu}mol/L was 13.651 (1.781-104.560), whereas that of tumour size with a 1 cm increment was only 1.777 (1.283-2.246). Conclusions: The THC level and the tumour size are independent and preoperative predictors of axillary nodal status; these variables may improve the diagnosis of patients with lymph node metastasis.

  1. Contrast enhancement in light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst Keller, H; Watkins, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The optical microscope is a fundamental component of an image cytometry system. This unit covers the basic concepts of light microscopy, including Köhler illumination, resolution, contrast, and numerical aperture, and reviews the many types of instruments and techniques for contrast enhancement.

  2. New architectures for integrated optics: low-loss tight bends and on-chip high-index-contrast potassium double Tungstate waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sefünç, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis concentrates on improving the performance of low-index-contrast waveguides in terms of reducing the bend losses and increasing the index contrast of waveguides by heterogeneous adhesive bonding and thinning. In the first part of this thesis, we have demonstrated that introducing a thin m

  3. MRI evaluation of the contralateral breast in patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Taneja; Amarnath Jena; Syed. Mohd. Shuaib Zaidi; Anuj Khurana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Contralateral breast cancer can be synchronous and/or metachronous in patients with cancer of one breast. Detection of a synchronous breast cancer may affect patient management. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast (DCE-MRI) is a sensitive technique for detecting contralateral lesions occult on the other imaging modalities in women already diagnosed with cancer of one breast. Aim: The aim was to assess the incidence of mammographically occult synchronous contralateral bre...

  4. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  5. 超声造影及弹性成像技术在乳腺肿瘤诊断的现状与进展%Application and development of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and ultrasonic elastography for the diagnosis of breast tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜睿

    2013-01-01

    乳腺癌是女性最常见的恶性肿瘤之一,如能早期诊断,将有助于患者的预后.超声造影(contrast-enhanced ultrasound,CEUS)及超声弹性成像(ultrasonic elastography,UE)作为近年来超声的新技术,可以提高对乳腺良恶性肿瘤的早期诊断和鉴别诊断.文中着重以超声造影及超声弹性成像技术在乳腺肿瘤早期诊断中的应用价值及进展作一综述.%Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in women. The early detection is crucial for the prognosis. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound and ultrasonic elastography, as a new ultrasound technique in recent years, can differentiate breast' s benign tumor from malignant tumor, and make diagnosis earlier and more exactly. This review focuses on application and development of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and ultrasound elastography in the early diagnosis of breast tumor.

  6. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    two papers accepted to Medical Physics ), we spent considerable time and effort to understand the implications of these changes. The details of...Acquisition Geometry and Reconstruction Parameters in Tomosynthesis. Submitted to Medical Physics for peer-review, June 2013 Brian C. Lee BS, Susan...Kao YH, Albert M, et al. Validation of MTF measurement for digital mammography quality control. Medical Physics . 2005;32(6):1684-95. 6. Kao Y-H

  7. High resolution microendoscopy with structured illumination and Lugol's iodine staining for evaluation of breast cancer architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Jessica; Kyrish, Matthew; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Grant, Benjamin; Kuerer, Henry; Yang, Wei; Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    Intraoperative margin assessment to evaluate resected tissue margins for neoplastic tissue is performed to prevent reoperations following breast-conserving surgery. High resolution microendoscopy (HRME) can rapidly acquire images of fresh tissue specimens, but is limited by low image contrast in tissues with high optical scattering. In this study we evaluated two techniques to reduce out-of-focus light: HRME image acquisition with structured illumination (SI-HRME) and topical application of Lugol's Iodine. Fresh breast tissue specimens from 19 patients were stained with proflavine alone or Lugol's Iodine and proflavine. Images of tissue specimens were acquired using a confocal microscope and an HRME system with and without structured illumination. Images were evaluated based on visual and quantitative assessment of image contrast. The highest mean contrast was measured in confocal images stained with proflavine. Contrast was significantly lower in HRME images stained with proflavine; however, incorporation of structured illumination significantly increased contrast in HRME images to levels comparable to that in confocal images. The addition of Lugol's Iodine did not increase mean contrast significantly for HRME or SI-HRME images. These findings suggest that structured illumination could potentially be used to increase contrast in HRME images of breast tissue for rapid image acquisition.

  8. Fibroadenoma - breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast lump - fibroadenoma; Breast lump - noncancerous; Breast lump - benign ... The cause of fibroadenomas is not known. There may be a connection to a problem with genes. Fibroadenoma is the most common benign ...

  9. Breast Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Breast Implants Breast Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Breast implants are medical devices that are implanted under the ...

  10. Frequency-domain optical mammography: edge effect corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, S; Franceschini, M A; Gaida, G; Gratton, E; Jess, H; Mantulin, W W; Moesta, K T; Schlag, P M; Kaschke, M

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the problem of edge effects in laser-beam transillumination scanning of the human breast. Edge effects arise from tissue thickness variability along the scanned area, and from lateral photon losses through the sides of the breast. Edge effects can be effectively corrected in frequency-domain measurements by employing a two-step procedure: (1) use of the phase information to calculate an effective tissue thickness for each pixel location; (2) application of the knowledge of tissue thickness to calculate an edge-corrected optical image from the ac signal image. The measurements were conducted with a light mammography apparatus (LIMA) designed for feasibility tests in the clinical environment. Operating in the frequency-domain (110 MHz), this instrument performs a transillumination optical scan at two wavelengths (685 and 825 nm). We applied the proposed two-step procedure to data from breast phantoms and from human breasts. The processed images provide higher contrast and detectability in optical mammography with respect to raw data breast images.

  11. What Is Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... spread, see our section on Cancer Basics . Where breast cancer starts Breast cancers can start from different parts ...

  12. Numerical investigation of high-contrast ultrafast all-optical switching in low-refractive-index polymeric photonic crystal nanobeam microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zi-Ming; Zhong, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Chen; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2012-06-01

    With the development of micro- or nano-fabrication technologies, great interest has been aroused in exploiting photonic crystal nanobeam structures. In this article the design of high-quality-factor (Q) polymeric photonic crystal nanobeam microcavities suitable for realizing ultrafast all-optical switching is presented based on the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method. Adopting the pump-probe technique, the ultrafast dynamic response of the all-optical switching in a nanobeam microcavity with a quality factor of 1000 and modal volume of 1.22 (λ/n)3 is numerically studied and a switching time as fast as 3.6 picoseconds is obtained. Our results indicate the great promise of applying photonic crystal nanobeam microcavities to construct integrated ultrafast tunable photonic devices or circuits incorporating polymer materials with large Kerr nonlinearity and ultrafast response speed.

  13. Enhancement characterization of breast masses of contrast-enhanced ultrasound: comparison with MRI%乳腺病变超声造影与磁共振增强方式的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小康; 朱鹰; 刘佩芳; 徐熠琳; 邵真真

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨乳腺病变超声造影与磁共振(MRI)增强方式的表现特点及异同.方法 搜集自2011年8月至2013年3月期间同时行超声造影与MRI检查的72例患者资料,选取72个病灶,所有病例均经手术或超声引导下穿刺活检病理证实.对比分析时选取与超声造影图像增强形态、大小相似的MRI切面,图像分析包括:增强均匀性(均匀、不均匀)、增强后病变面积、灌注缺损面积、时间-强度曲线类型.对二者评估的相关性、差异及一致性进行统计学分析.结果 72个乳腺病灶中,组织病理学结果为恶性病变56个(77.8%),良性病变16个(22.2%).超声造影与MRI对72例乳腺病变增强后面积的评估具有良好的一致性(P=0.000),经配对t检验二者差异无统计学意义(P=0.886).超声造影与MRI对乳腺病变增强均匀性的评价不完全一致(Kappa=-0.153,P=0.061),超声造影较MRI更多表现为不均匀增强(分别为34例和23例),且超声造影灌注缺损面积[(0.837±0.827)cm2]大于MRI同切面灌注缺损面积[(0.576±0.524)cm2],经配对t检验二者差异有统计学意义(P=0.01).二者时间-强度曲线类型无明显相关性.结论 尽管超声造影与增强MRI在乳腺病变的增强方式上部分存在相同的表现,但二者增强方式之间缺乏直接联系,对比增强原理的区别使其在基础研究及临床应用中各具特点.%Objective To assess the enhancement characteristic of breast lesions of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in comparison with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Methods Between August 2011 and March 2013,72 women with 72 lesions were enrolled.All patients underwent ultrasound,CEUS and MRI.The histopathologic results obtained from ultrasound-guided core biopsy or operation excisions were used as the reference standard.CEUS section evaluations were made similar with MRI regarding the size and shape of lesions.Different contrast enhancement patterns including

  14. Breast Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bumps, and discharges (fluids that are not breast milk). If you have a breast lump, pain, discharge or skin irritation, see your health care provider. Minor and serious breast problems have similar symptoms. Although many women fear cancer, most breast problems are not cancer. Some common ...

  15. Generalised phase contrast: microscopy, manipulation and more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Generalised phase contrast (GPC) not only leads to more accurate phase imaging beyond thin biological samples, but serves as an enabling framework in developing tools over a wide spectrum of contemporary applications in optics and photonics, including optical trapping and micromanipulation, optic...... phase cryptography, light-efficient image projection and parallel laser beam shaping for optical landscapes. In this review, we discuss the fundamental ideas behind generalised phase contrast and present a survey of its exciting applications.......Generalised phase contrast (GPC) not only leads to more accurate phase imaging beyond thin biological samples, but serves as an enabling framework in developing tools over a wide spectrum of contemporary applications in optics and photonics, including optical trapping and micromanipulation, optical...

  16. Magneto-optical resonance of electromagnetically induced absorption with high contrast and narrow width in a vapour cell with buffer gas

    CERN Document Server

    Brazhnikov, D V; Yudin, V I

    2014-01-01

    The method for observing the high-contrast and narrow-width resonances of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in the Hanle configuration under counterpropagating light waves is proposed. We theoretically analyze the absorption of a probe light wave in presence of counterpropagating one with the same frequency as the function of a static magnetic field applied along the vectors of light waves, propagating in a vapour cell. Here, as an example, we study a "dark" type of atomic dipole transition Fg=1-->Fe=1 in D1 line of 87Rb, where usually the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) can be observed. To obtain the EIA signal one should proper chose the polarizations of light waves and intensities. In contrast of regular schemes for observing EIA signals (in a single travelling light wave in the Hanle configuration or in a bichromatic light field consisted of two travelling waves), the proposed scheme allows one to use buffer gas to significantly enhance properties of the resonance. Also the drama...

  17. Breast phantom for mammary tissue characterization by near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, D. A.; Cristiano, K. L.; Gutiérrez, J. C.

    2013-11-01

    Breast cancer is a disease associated to a high morbidity and mortality in the entire world. In the study of early detection of breast cancer the development of phantom is so important. In this research we fabricate a breast phantom using a ballistic gel with special modifications to simulate a normal and abnormal human breast. Optical properties of woman breast in the near infrared region were modelled with the phantom we developed. The developed phantom was evaluated with near infrared spectroscopy in order to study its relation with breast tissue. A good optical behaviour was achieved with the model fabricated.

  18. Radiographic, MR or ultrasound contrast media in pregnant or breast-feeding women. What are the key issues?; Roentgen-, MR- oder Ultraschallkontrastmittel waehrend der Schwangerschaft oder Stillzeit. Was ist zu beachten?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, J.M. [Guerbet AG, Zurich (Switzerland); Kubik-Huch, Rahel A. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Baden (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2013-01-15

    The use and the safety of radiographic, MR- or ultrasound contrast media in the diagnostic work-up of pregnant or lactating patients is a frequently discussed question. As only sparse clinical data is available, a careful benefit-risk assessment must contain physico-chemical properties, preclinical data including teratogeneity and embryotoxicity, as well as maternal and foetal exposure. With consideration to the individual risks, iodinated contrast media, macrocyclic MR contrast media with increased stability or sulphur hexafluoride ultrasound contrast media may, if clinically justified, be administered in the smallest possible doses throughout pregnancy. After parental administration of an iodinated contrast medium after the 12th week of pregnancy, the neonate's thyroidal function should be checked during the first week after birth. After parental administration of iodinated, stable macrocyclic, gadolinium or ultrasound contrast media, lactation can be continued normally. In any case, contrast media should be used with caution and only if the benefits outweigh the risk. (orig.)

  19. Breast cancer screening controversies: who, when, why, and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetlen, Alison; Mack, Julie; Chan, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic screening is effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The issue is not whether mammography is effective, but whether the false positive rate and false negative rates can be reduced. This review will discuss controversies including the reduction in breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, the ideal screening candidate, and the optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. The article will compare and contrast screening mammography, tomosynthesis, whole-breast screening ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular breast imaging. Though supplemental imaging modalities are being utilized to improve breast cancer diagnosis, mammography still remains the gold standard for breast cancer screening.

  20. 年轻女性乳腺癌保乳术前动态增强磁共振成像检查的必要性%The essentiality of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging examination before breast-conserving surgery in breast cancer patients with young women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明; 钮亚珍; 邢亮; 冯娜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the essentiality of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) examination before breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in breast cancer patients with young women.Methods The data of DCE-MRI and mammography X-ray in 30 breast cancer patients with young women (< 40 years old) who received surgery with pathology-proven were retrospectively analyzed.The detection rate of breast lesion,number,size,extent of invasive and lymph node metastasis of preoperative were observed.The DCE-MRI was assessed accuracy of BCS in accordance with indications for BCS and histopathology results.Results The breast cancer detection rate of DCE-MRI was significantly higher than mammography X-ray [100.00%(30/30) vs.73.33%(22/30),P =0.002].The maximum tumor diameter of DCE-MRI was (3.55 ± 1.50) cm,mammography X-ray was (3.38 ± 1.70) cm,postoperative pathology was (3.51 ± 1.20) cm,and DCE-MRI was closer to postoperative pathology than mammography X-ray.The discovery of additional lesions of DCE-MRI was more than mammography X-ray (P < 0.05).The surrounding tissue invasion of DCE-MRI was detected in 22 cases,mammography X-ray was in 9 cases,postoperative pathology was in 19 cases,there was no significant difference between DCE-MRI and postoperative pathology (P =0.598),there was significant difference between mammography X-ray and postoperative pathology (P =0.010).The number of axillary fossa lymph node metastasis of DCE-MRI was in 127,mammography X-ray was in 48,compared with postoperative pathology (91),there was significant difference (P =0.026,0.034).The detection of microcalcification of mammography X-ray was better than DCE-MRI (7 cases vs.0 case,P =0.001).The number of BCS of postoperative pathology was in 12 cases,DCE-MRI was in 11 cases,mammography X-ray was in 8 cases,DCE-MRI was higher than mammography X-ray,but there was no significant difference (P=0.132).Conclusion DCE-MRI provides comprehensive and accurate information for breast

  1. Breast imaging using the Twente photoacoustic mammoscope (PAM): new clinical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijblom, Michelle; Piras, Daniele; Ten Tije, Ellen; Xia, Wenfeng; van Hespen, Johan; Klaase, Joost; van den Engh, Frank; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-07-01

    Worldwide, yearly about 450,000 women die from the consequences of breast cancer. Current imaging modalities are not optimal in discriminating benign from malignant tissue. Visualizing the malignancy-associated increased hemoglobin concentration might significantly improve early diagnosis of breast cancer. Since photoacoustic imaging can visualize hemoglobin in tissue with optical contrast and ultrasound-like resolution, it is potentially an ideal method for early breast cancer imaging. The Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope (PAM) has been developed specifically for breast imaging. Recently, a large clinical study has been started in the Medisch Spectrum Twente in Oldenzaal using PAM. In PAM, the breast is slightly compressed between a window for laser light illumination and a flat array ultrasound detector. The measurements are performed using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, pulsed at 1064 nm and a 1 MHz unfocused ultrasound detector array. Three-dimensional data are reconstructed using a delay and sum reconstruction algorithm. Those reconstructed images are compared with conventional imaging and histopathology. In the first phase of the study 12 patients with a malignant lesion and 2 patients with a benign cyst have been measured. The results are used to guide developments in photoacoustic mammography in order to pave the way towards an optimal technique for early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  2. Analysis of contrast and absorbed doses in mammography; Analise de contraste e doses absorvidas em mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, F.M. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica]. E-mail: fernando@fmrp.usp.br; Dias, T.S.K. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ghilardi Netto, T.; Subtil, L.J.; Silva, R. da [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2001-07-01

    One of the great causes of mortality between women in the world is the breast cancer. The mammograms are the method most efficient to detect some cases of cancer of breast before this to be clinically concrete. The quality of a picture system must be determined by the ability to detect tissue soft masses, cyst or tumors, but also calcifications. This detection is directly connected with the contrast obtained in these pictures. This work has for objective to develop a method for the analysis of this contrast in mammograms verifying the doses referred to these mammograms and comparing them with national and international levels of reference. (author)

  3. Noninvasive Optical Tracking of Red Fluorescent Protein-Expressing Cancer Cells in a Model of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Winnard, Jr.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated the use of the Xenogen IVIS 200 imaging system for real-time fluorescence protein- based optical imaging of metastatic progression in live animals. We found that green fluorescent protein- expressing cells (100 × 106 were not detectable in a mouse cadaver phantom experiment. However, a 10-fold lower number of tdTomato-expressing cells were easily detected. Mammary fat pad xenografts of stable MDA-MB-231-tdTomato cells were generated for the imaging of metastatic progression. At 2 weeks postinjection, barely palpable tumor burdens were easily detected at the sites of injection. At 8 weeks, a small contralateral mammary fat pad metastasis was imaged and, by 13 weeks, metastases to lymph nodes were detectable. Metastases with nodular composition were detectable within the rib cage region at 15 weeks. 3-D image reconstructions indicated that the detection of fluorescence extended to approximately 1 cm below the surface. A combination of intense tdTomato fluorescence, imaging at ≥ 620 nm (where autofluorescence is minimized, the sensitivity of the Xenogen imager made this possible. This study demonstrates the utility of the noninvasive optical tracking of cancer cells during metastatic progression with endogenously expressed fluorescence protein reporters using detection wavelengths of ≥ 620 nm.

  4. Comparison of two direct-reading instruments (FM-7400 and Fibrecheck FC-2) with phase contrast optical microscopy to measure the airborne fibre number concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffer, E; Martin, P; Grzebyk, M; Villa, M; Vigneron, J C

    2003-07-01

    The use of direct-reading instruments to measure the airborne fibre number concentration is on the increase. The response of two of these instruments (FM-7400 and Fibrecheck FC-2) was compared with the conventional method of sampling on filters and counting by phase contrast microscopy. Four types of fibres were studied at different concentrations and relative humidity levels. The FM-7400 can be calibrated by the manufacturer for two different levels of sensitivity (standard and high). For the tests where it was set to the sensitivity level with which it had been calibrated, the ratio of the concentration measured by the instrument to the concentration obtained by the conventional method varied in the range 0.5-1 for the different types of fibres studied (chrysotile, glass wool and ceramic fibres). The Fibrecheck FC-2 is a much less versatile instrument. On the basis of a calibration allowing correct detection of asbestos fibres, it greatly overestimated the concentration of man-made mineral fibres. In its normal calibration state a fine chrysotile aerosol was poorly detected. For man-made mineral fibres, the response was highly dependent on the nature of the fibres. These instruments require calibration with the type of fibres to be studied. Unfortunately, this operation is not always accessible to the user and may require the services of a specialized laboratory, as the manufacturer is not always in a position to carry this out.

  5. Arterial input function of an optical tracer for dynamic contrast enhanced imaging can be determined from pulse oximetry oxygen saturation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jonathan T.; Wright, Eric A.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Diop, Mamadou; Morrison, Laura B.; Pogue, Brian W.; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2012-12-01

    In many cases, kinetic modeling requires that the arterial input function (AIF)—the time-dependent arterial concentration of a tracer—be characterized. A straightforward method to measure the AIF of red and near-infrared optical dyes (e.g., indocyanine green) using a pulse oximeter is presented. The method is motivated by the ubiquity of pulse oximeters used in both preclinical and clinical applications, as well as the gap in currently available technologies to measure AIFs in small animals. The method is based on quantifying the interference that is observed in the derived arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) following a bolus injection of a light-absorbing dye. In other words, the change in SaO2 can be converted into dye concentration knowing the chromophore-specific extinction coefficients, the true arterial oxygen saturation, and total hemoglobin concentration. A simple error analysis was performed to highlight potential limitations of the approach, and a validation of the method was conducted in rabbits by comparing the pulse oximetry method with the AIF acquired using a pulse dye densitometer. Considering that determining the AIF is required for performing quantitative tracer kinetics, this method provides a flexible tool for measuring the arterial dye concentration that could be used in a variety of applications.

  6. Acid/Base and H2PO4(-) Controllable High-Contrast Optical Molecular Switches with a Novel BODIPY Functionalized [2]Rotaxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugaperumal, Reguram; Srinivasadesikan, Venkatesan; Ramakrishnam Raju, Mandapati V; Lin, Ming-Chang; Shukla, Tarun; Singh, Ravinder; Lin, Hong-Cheu

    2015-12-09

    A novel multifunctional mechanically interlocked switchable [2]rotaxane R4 containing two molecular stations and rotaxane arms terminated with boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) fluorophores and its derivatives were synthesized for the first time by CuAAC click reaction. The shuttling motion of macrocycle between the dibenzylammonium and triazolium recognition sites and the distance dependent photoinduced electron transfer process of R4 is demonstrated by utilizing external chemical stimuli (acid/base). Interestingly, the reversible self-assembly process of R4 was recognized by the acid-base molecular switch strategy. Notably, two symmetrical triazolium groups acted as molecular stations, H2PO4(-) receptors, and H-bonded donors. Both [2]rotaxane R4 and thread R2 demonstrated excellent optical responses and high selectivity toward H2PO4(-) ion. The specific motion and guest-host interactions of mechanically interlocked machines (MIMs) were also further explored by quantum mechanical calculations. The thread R2 also demonstrated to enable the detection of H2PO4(-) in RAW 264.7 cells successfully.

  7. Breast Gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husasin Irfan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast gangrene is rare in surgical practice. Gangrene of breast can be idiopathic or secondary to some causative factor. Antibiotics and debridement are used for management. Acute inflammatory infiltrate, severe necrosis of breast tissue, necrotizing arteritis, and venous thrombosis is observed on histopathology. The aim of was to study patients who had breast gangrene. Methods A prospective study of 10 patients who had breast gangrene over a period of 6 years were analyzed Results All the patients in the study group were female. Total of 10 patients were encountered who had breast gangrene. Six patients presented with breast gangrene on the right breast whereas four had on left breast. Out of 10 patients, three had breast abscess after teeth bite followed by gangrene, one had iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of erythematous area of breast under septic conditions. Four had history of application of belladonna on cutaneous breast abscess and had then gangrene. All were lactating female. Amongst the rest two were elderly, one of which was a diabetic who had gangrene of breast and had no application of belladonna. All except one had debridement under cover of broad spectrum antibiotics. Three patients had grafting to cover the raw area. Conclusion Breast gangrene occurs rarely. Etiology is variable and mutifactorial. Teeth bite while lactation and the iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of breast abscess under unsterlised conditions could be causative. Uncontrolled diabetes can be one more causative factor for the breast gangrene. Belladonna application as a topical agent could be inciting factor. Sometimes gangrene of breast can be idiopathic. Treatment is antibiotics and debridement.

  8. Contrast discrimination at high contrasts reveals the influence of local light adaptation on contrast processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdom, F A; Whittle, P

    1996-03-01

    Previous measurements of contrast discrimination threshold, delta C, as a function of pedestal contrast, C, for sine-wave gratings have shown a power law relationship between delta C and C at suprathreshold levels of C. However, these studies have rarely used contrasts greater than 50%. Whittle (1986), using incremental and decremental patches, found that delta C increased with C only up to about 50%. At higher contrasts it decreased. Since a periodic stimulus can be considered to be composed of increments and decrements, we thought we might find such an inverse U-shaped function for gratings if we used contrasts up to 100%. We tested this for both sine-wave and square-wave stimuli at spatial frequencies from 0.0625 to 8.0 c/deg. We found that for frequencies up to 0.5 c/deg, delta C in nearly all cases 'dipped down' after about C = 50% contrast. At 4.0 and 8.0 c/deg, however, no dip-down occurred. Additional experiments showed that the dip-down was unlikely to be due to cortical long-term adaptation and most likely an effect of localized light adaptation to the dark bars. We argue that the absence of dip-down at high spatial frequencies was mainly due to the attenuation of contrast by the optics of the eye. As for the results of Whittle (1986), a Weber's Law in W = (Lmax-Lmin)/Lmin describes the inverse U-shaped contrast discrimination function well. Two other contrast expressions also linearize the data on log-log plots. We show how some familiar notions about the physiological operation of localized light adaptation can easily account for the form of the contrast discrimination function. Finally we estimate the number of discriminable steps in contrast from detection threshold to maximum contrast for the various spatial frequencies tested.

  9. In vivo photoacoustic molecular imaging of breast carcinoma with folate receptor-targeted indocyanine green nanoprobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huina; Liu, Chengbo; Gong, Xiaojing; Hu, Dehong; Lin, Riqiang; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Yan, Meng; Chen, Jingqin; Cai, Lintao; Song, Liang

    2014-11-01

    As an optical-acoustic hybrid imaging technology, photoacoustic imaging uniquely combines the advantages of rich optical contrast with high ultrasonic resolution in depth, opening up many new possibilities not attainable with conventional pure optical imaging technologies. To perform photoacoustic molecular imaging, optically absorbing exogenous contrast agents are needed to enhance the signals from specifically targeted disease activity. In this work, we designed and developed folate receptor targeted, indocyanine green dye doped poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) lipid nanoparticles (FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs) for molecular photoacoustic imaging of tumor. The fabricated FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs exhibited good aqueous stability, a high folate-receptor targeting efficiency, and remarkable optical absorption in near-infrared wavelengths, providing excellent photoacoustic signals in vitro. Furthermore, after intravenous administration of FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, mice bearing MCF-7 breast carcinomas showed significantly enhanced photoacoustic signals in vivo in the tumor regions, compared with those using non-targeted ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs. Given the existing wide clinical use of ICG and PLGA, the developed FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, in conjunction with photoacoustic imaging technology, offer a great potential to be translated into the clinic for non-ionizing molecular imaging of breast cancer in vivo.

  10. In vivo photoacoustic molecular imaging of breast carcinoma with folate receptor-targeted indocyanine green nanoprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huina; Liu, Chengbo; Gong, Xiaojing; Hu, Dehong; Lin, Riqiang; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Yan, Meng; Chen, Jingqin; Cai, Lintao; Song, Liang

    2014-11-06

    As an optical-acoustic hybrid imaging technology, photoacoustic imaging uniquely combines the advantages of rich optical contrast with high ultrasonic resolution in depth, opening up many new possibilities not attainable with conventional pure optical imaging technologies. To perform photoacoustic molecular imaging, optically absorbing exogenous contrast agents are needed to enhance the signals from specifically targeted disease activity. In this work, we designed and developed folate receptor targeted, indocyanine green dye doped poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) lipid nanoparticles (FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs) for molecular photoacoustic imaging of tumor. The fabricated FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs exhibited good aqueous stability, a high folate-receptor targeting efficiency, and remarkable optical absorption in near-infrared wavelengths, providing excellent photoacoustic signals in vitro. Furthermore, after intravenous administration of FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, mice bearing MCF-7 breast carcinomas showed significantly enhanced photoacoustic signals in vivo in the tumor regions, compared with those using non-targeted ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs. Given the existing wide clinical use of ICG and PLGA, the developed FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, in conjunction with photoacoustic imaging technology, offer a great potential to be translated into the clinic for non-ionizing molecular imaging of breast cancer in vivo.

  11. Breast lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Planning to have more children Talk with a plastic surgeon if you are considering cosmetic breast surgery. Discuss ... before surgery: You may need a mammogram . Your plastic surgeon will do a routine breast exam. You may ...

  12. Breast; Sein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgier, C.; Garbay, J.R.; Pichenot, C.; Uzan, C.; Delaloge, S.; Andre, F.; Spielmann, M.; Arriagada, R.; Lefkopoulos, D.; Marsigli, H.; Bondiau, P.Y.; Courdi, A.; Lallemand, M.; Peyrotte, I.; Chapellier, C.; Ferrero, J.M.; Chiovati, P.; Baldissera, A.; Frezza, G.; Vicenzi, L.; Palombarini, M.; Martelli, O.; Degli Esposti, C.; Donini, E.; Romagna CDR, E.; Romagna CDF, E.; Benmensour, M.; Bouchbika, Z.; Benchakroun, N.; Jouhadi, H.; Tawfiq, N.; Sahraoui, S.; Benider, A.; Gilliot, O.; Achard, J.L.; Auvray, H.; Toledano, I.; Bourry, N.; Kwiatkowski, F.; Verrelle, P.; Lapeyre, M.; Tebra Mrad, S.; Braham, I.; Chaouache, K.; Bouaouin, N.; Ghorbel, L.; Siala, W.; Sallemi, T.; Guermazi, M.; Frikha, M.; Daou, J.; El Omrani, A.; Chekrine, T.; Mangoni, M.; Castaing, M.; Folino, E.; Livi, L.; Dunant, A.; Mathieu, M.C.; Bitib, G.P.; Arriagada, R.; Marsigli, H

    2007-11-15

    Nine articles treat the question of breast cancer. Three-dimensional conformal accelerated partial breast irradiation: dosimetric feasibility study; test of dose escalation neo-adjuvant radiotherapy focused by Cyberknife in breast cancer; Three dimensional conformal partial irradiation with the technique by the Irma protocol ( dummy run multi centers of the Emilie Romagne area Italy); Contribution of the neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of locally evolved cancers of the uterine cervix; Post operative radiotherapy of breast cancers (N0, pN) after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Radiotherapy of one or two mammary glands and ganglions areas,The breast cancer at man; breast conservative treatment; breast cancers without histological ganglions invasion; the breast cancer at 70 years old and more women; borderline mammary phyllod tumors and malignant. (N.C.)

  13. MRI动态增强扫描与扩散加权成像对乳腺癌诊断价值的对比分析%Comparative Study the Diagnostic Value of Breast Cancer in Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MRI and Diffusion-weighted Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰庆茂; 吕亚萍; 马雪梅; 孙嗣麒; 毛勤香; 黄可祥

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the diagnostic value and insufficient of brest cacere in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging( MRI )scan and diffusion weighted imaging( DWI )by the SPINE matrix coil with simple bracker. Methods 37 pathological proven cases of breast cancer were examined by MRI in dynamic contrast-enhanced scanning and DWI,and the diagnostic value and deficiency were analyzed. Results In dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging ,irregular shape ,spiculated margin , rim enhancement , signal intensity time curve( type Ⅱor Ⅲ )were taken as diagnostic criteria for breast cancer, the diagnostic sensitivities were 78. 4%,70. 3% ,94. 6% and 89. 2% , respectively.The lesions appeared as marked hypher-intensity on DWI( b value =0 ). The higher the b value,the lower the signal intensity on DWI. Conclusion The dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI has important value in the diagnosis of breast cancer diagnosis,and DWI has important auxiliary diagnostic value.%目的 探讨简易乳腺支架配合SPINE matrix线圈MRI动态增强减影扫描及扩散加权成像(DWI)对乳腺癌的诊断价值.方法 37例经手术病理证实的乳腺癌分别采用MRI动态增强扫描、DWI,对比分析其诊断乳腺癌的价值及存在的不足.结果 MRI动态增强减影扫描以形状不规则、毛刺征、环形强化和Ⅱ型或Ⅲ型曲线作为诊断乳腺癌标准,其敏感度分别为78.4%、70.3%、94.6%和89.2%.DWI中b=0时病灶呈明显高信号,随b值增加病灶信号强度依次降低.结论 MRI动态增强扫描对乳腺癌具有特征性的诊断价值;DWI具有重要辅助性的诊断价值.

  14. [Therapeutic advances in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozzi, B C

    2006-04-01

    The treatment of breast cancer has made significant improvements during the past ten years. For early breast cancer with a clinically negative axilla sentinel node biopsy has become the preferred approach. For endocrine therapy of postmenopausal patients the selective aromatase inhibitors have become standard in metastatic as well as in early breast cancer. Trastuzumab (Herceptin) plays an important role in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer in the metastatic and since 2005 also in the adjuvant setting. When chemotherapy is used to treat metastatic breast cancer drug combinations are superior to monotherapy only in terms of response rates. By contrast, in the adjuvant setting combination drug therapy is the standard. New methods of tissue analysis including expression patterns of mRNA and proteins are promising research strategies to further advance the field.

  15. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  16. Application of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in showing sentinel lymphatic channels and sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer%超声造影技术在评估乳腺癌前哨淋巴通道及前哨淋巴结多样性中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 巩海燕; 杜丽雯; 李春莲; 栗翠英

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨超声造影技术在显示乳腺癌前哨淋巴通道(SLC)及前哨淋巴结(SLN)多样性中的应用价值。方法女性乳腺癌患者26例,术前均接受乳晕及深层腺体内注射超声造影剂行超声造影探查SLC和SLN。术中于乳晕及深层腺体内注射亚甲蓝,术后解剖蓝染的SLC和SLN ,并进一步将超声造影探及的SLN及蓝染的SLN送病理检查。结果用超声造影技术,26例患者探及至少1条SLC及1个SLN。探及到3种类型的SLC ,分别为浅层前哨淋巴通道(SSLC)、穿支前哨淋巴通道(PSLC )和深层前哨淋巴通道(DSLC )。探及到5种淋巴引流模式(LDP ),分别为 SSLC、PSLC、SSLC+PSLC、SSLC+DSLC和SSLC+ PSLC+DSLC。超声造影探及的LDP与手术LDP相一致的患者为24例(92.31%)。6例患者探及到分叉的SLC ;3例患者探及到中断的SLC ,且相对应的SLN没有强化;术后病理证实该3例患者腋窝淋巴结均有癌转移。结论超声造影在术前评估乳腺癌SLC和SLN多样性中具有一定的可行性,并且对进一步SLN活检具有指导意义。%Objective To assess the application of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in showing the variation of sentinel lymphatic channels (SLC) and sentinel lymph nodes(SLN) of breast cancer .Methods The SLC and SLN of 26 women with breast cancer were examined with intradermal and peritumoral injection of contrast microbubbles for ultrasonography before operation .The methylene blue was injected subareolarly and peritumorally during surgery .The SLC and SLN coloured with blue dye were anatomized after operation .The SLN detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and coloured with blue dye were all sent for pathology examination .Results With contrast-enhanced ultrasonography ,at least one SLC and one SLN were detected in all 26 cases .Three types of SLC were detected ,which included superficial sentinel lymphatic channel (SSLC) ,penetrating

  17. 经皮下注射超声造影剂在乳腺肿块前哨淋巴结检测中的应用价值%Proto-explore of ultrasound contrast agents injected subcutaneously for enhancement in sentinel lymph nodes of breast masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米成嵘; 何雁; 王文

    2010-01-01

    Objective To discuss application value for detecting sentinel lymphatic node(SLN) in patients with breast mass by subcutaneous injection SonoVue. Methods Forty-two cases with breast masses who were detected by conventional techniques were injected subcutaneously with 1.25 ml Sono Vue to the borderline of breast tumor at each 3,6,9, 12 points. The changes of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) of the ipsilateral axillary SLN were observed and the start time of enhancement of lymphatic channel and lymph nodes, the position and numbers of enhancement of the lymph nodes, the time of regression were recorded. Compared with Methylene blue and surgicalbiopsy, the accuracy of detection of SLN by CEUS were evaluated. Results SLN were successfully detected in 30 of 42 patients, the detection rate was 71.4%. The total number of detected SLN was 40.Five nodes were detected in 5 of 10 (50%)patients with benign masses. Thirty-five nodes were detected in 25 of 32 (78.1%) patients with breast cancer. Fifty-seven SLN were successfully detected in 39 of 42 patients with Methylene blue, the accurate rate was 92.9%. Seven of 10 patients with benign masses and all 32 patients with breast cancer were Methylene blue positive. There were total 64 SLN found, including 11 with benign masses and 53 with lymph nodes metastasis of breast cancer cells. Conclusions The subcutaneous injection SonoVue is effective to detect SLN in patients with breast mass and apply clinical value for forecasting whether the lymph node metastases in patients with breast cancer.%目的 探讨经皮下注射超声造影剂(SonoVue)在检测乳腺癌患者前哨淋巴结(SLN)中的应用价值.方法 对常规超声检出的42例乳腺肿块患者经皮下肿块边缘3、6、9、12点各注射1.25 m1SonoVue,观察同侧腋窝SLN的造影增强情况,记录淋巴管开始增强时间、增强淋巴结个数、部位、淋巴结开始增强时间、消退时间.并与美兰染色及病理对照,比较造

  18. Alcohol consumption before and after breast cancer diagnosis: associations with survival from breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other causes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcomb, P.A.; Kampman, E.; Trentham-Dietz, A.; Egan, K.M.; Titus, L.J.; Baron, J.A.; Hampton, J.M.; Passarelli, M.N.; Willett, W.C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Alcohol intake is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. In contrast, the relation between alcohol consumption and breast cancer survival is less clear. Patients and Methods We assessed pre- and postdiagnostic alcohol intake in a cohort of 22,890 women with incident invasive breast

  19. The Shape of Breasts Suspended in Liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kleijn, S.C.; Rensen, W.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Philips has designed an optical mammography machine. In this machine the breast is suspended into a cup in which the measurements take place. A special fluid is inserted into the cup to prevent the light from going around the breast instead of going through it but this fluid also weakens the signal.

  20. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer During Pregnancy Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery for Breast Cancer Surgery is a common treatment ... removed (breast reconstruction) Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main ...

  1. Breast Reconstruction Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Reconstruction Surgery Breast Cancer Breast Reconstruction Surgery Breast Reconstruction Alternatives Some women who have had a ... chest. What if I choose not to get breast reconstruction? Some women decide not to have any ...

  2. Breast augmentation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the underside of your breast, in the natural skin fold. The surgeon places the implant through this ... lift Breast pain Breast reconstruction - implants Breast reconstruction - natural tissue Breast ... wound care - open Review Date 2/10/2015 Updated by: ...

  3. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  4. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer > Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  5. The combination of FDG PET and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI improves the prediction of disease-free survival in patients with advanced breast cancer after the first cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ilhan; Kim, Byung II; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, 75 Nowongil, Nowon Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Molecular Imaging Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Woo Chul; Kim, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Eun-Kyu [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Department of Surgery, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jihyun; Byun, Byung Hyun [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, 75 Nowongil, Nowon Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Ae; Kim, Kyeong Min [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Molecular Imaging Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ko Woon [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Department of Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Department of Pathology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); You, Eun Young [Gachon University School of Medicine and Science, Department of Radiology, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of FDG PET/CT and MRI in predicting disease-free survival (DFS) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and surgery in patients with advanced breast cancer. The analysis included 54 women with advanced breast cancer. All patients received three cycles of NAC, underwent curative surgery, and then received three cycles of additional chemotherapy. Before and after the first cycle of NAC, all patients underwent sequential PET/CT and MRI. All patients were analysed using a diverse range of parameters. including maximal standardized uptake value (SUV), percent change in SUV (ΔSUV), initial slope of the enhancement curve (MRslope), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), tumour size, change in MRslope (ΔMRslope), change in ADC (ΔADC), change in tumour size (Δsize) and other clinicopathological parameters. The relationships between covariates and DFS after surgery were analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal cut-off values of imaging parameters for DFS. Of the 54 patients, 13 (24 %) experienced recurrence at a median follow-up of 38 months (range 25 - 45 months). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that a lesser decline in SUV, a lesser decline in MRslope, a lesser increase in ADC, and ER negativity were significantly associated with a poorer DFS (P = 0.0006, ΔSUV threshold -41 %; P = 0.0016, ΔMRslope threshold -6 %; P = 0.011, ΔADC threshold 11 %; and P = 0.0086, ER status, respectively). Patients with a combination of ΔSUV >-41 % and ΔMRslope >-6 % showed a significantly higher recurrence rate (77.8 %) than the remaining of patients (13.3 %, P < 0.0001). Functional parameters of both FDG PET and MRI after the first cycle of NAC are useful for predicting DFS in patients with advanced breast cancer. This approach could lead to an improvement in patient care because

  6. Nonspherical Oscillations of Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dollet, Benjamin; Meer, van der Sander M.; Garbin, Valeria; Jong, de Nico; Lohse, Detlef; Versluis, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of nonspherical oscillations (or surface modes) of coated microbubbles, used as ultrasound contrast agents in medical imaging, is investigated using ultra–high-speed optical imaging. Optical tweezers designed to micromanipulate single bubbles in 3-D are used to trap the bubbles far fr

  7. X-ray tube-based diffraction enhanced imaging prototype images of full-thickness breast specimens: reader study evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulconer, L. S.; Parham, C.; Connor, D. J.; Koomen, M.; Kuzmiak, C.; Pavic, D.; Livasy, C. A.; Kim, E.; Zeng, D.; Cole, E. B.; Zhong, Z.; Pisano, E. D.

    2009-02-01

    Conventional mammographic image contrast is derived from x-ray absorption, resulting in breast structure visualization due to density gradients that attenuate radiation without distinction between transmitted and scattered or refracted x-rays. This leads to image blurring and contrast reduction, hindering the early detection of small or otherwise occult cancers. Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) allows for dramatically increased contrast with decreased radiation dose compared to conventional mammographic imaging due to monochromatic x-rays, its unique refraction-based contrast mechanism and excellent scatter rejection. However, a lingering drawback to the clinical translation of DEI has been the requirement for synchrotron radiation. Our laboratory developed a DEI prototype (DEI-PR) utilizing a readily available Tungsten xray tube source and traditional DEI crystal optics, providing soft tissue images at 60keV. To demonstrate the clinical utility of our DEI-PR, we acquired images of full-thickness human breast tissue specimens on synchrotron-based DEI, DEI-PR and digital mammography systems. A reader study was designed to allow unbiased assessment of system performance when analyzing three systems with dissimilar imaging parameters and requiring analysis of images unfamiliar to radiologists. A panel of expert radiologists evaluated lesion feature visibility and histopathology correlation after receiving training on the interpretation of refraction contrast mammographic images. Preliminary data analysis suggests that our DEI system performed roughly equivalently with the traditional DEI system, demonstrating a significant step toward clinical translation of this modality for breast cancer applications.

  8. 基于光学三角形法与图像处理的立木胸径测量方法%Measuring Algorithm for Tree's Diameter at Breast Height Based on Optical Triangular Method and Image Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建利; 李婷; 王典; 刘晋浩

    2013-01-01

    为提高林木胸径测量精度,减少劳动负荷,结合光学三角形法、图像处理及最小二乘拟合法,研究一种新的立木胸径测量方法.通过理论分析制定算法,搭建测量系统,对5株不同径级的立木进行测量计算,实验结果表明,采用光学三角形法的测量算法计算的直径精度较高,误差一般小于22 mm,相对误差率小于5.5%.%In order to improve the measuring accuracy of tree' s diameter at breast height (DBH) and decrease the working load,an algorithm for measuring tree' s DBH was proposed by combining the optical triangular method,image processing and least square fitting.The algorithm was proposed based on a series of theory analysis,and the measuring system was built up.Five trees with different diameters at breast height were measured and calculated.The testing result showed that the optical triangular method had higher accuracy,the error was less than 22 mm,and the relative error was less than 5.5%.

  9. Estimation of volumetric breast density for breast cancer risk prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Yaffe, Martin J.; Boyd, Norman F.; Jong, Roberta A.

    2000-04-01

    Mammographic density (MD) has been shown to be a strong risk predictor for breast cancer. Compared to subjective assessment by a radiologist, computer-aided analysis of digitized mammograms provides a quantitative and more reproducible method for assessing breast density. However, the current methods of estimating breast density based on the area of bright signal in a mammogram do not reflect the true, volumetric quantity of dense tissue in the breast. A computerized method to estimate the amount of radiographically dense tissue in the overall volume of the breast has been developed to provide an automatic, user-independent tool for breast cancer risk assessment. The procedure for volumetric density estimation consists of first correcting the image for inhomogeneity, then performing a volume density calculation. First, optical sensitometry is used to convert all images to the logarithm of relative exposure (LRE), in order to simplify the image correction operations. The field non-uniformity correction, which takes into account heel effect, inverse square law, path obliquity and intrinsic field and grid non- uniformity is obtained by imaging a spherical section PMMA phantom. The processed LRE image of the phantom is then used as a correction offset for actual mammograms. From information about the thickness and placement of the breast, as well as the parameters of a breast-like calibration step wedge placed in the mammogram, MD of the breast is calculated. Post processing and a simple calibration phantom enable user- independent, reliable and repeatable volumetric estimation of density in breast-equivalent phantoms. Initial results obtained on known density phantoms show the estimation to vary less than 5% in MD from the actual value. This can be compared to estimated mammographic density differences of 30% between the true and non-corrected values. Since a more simplistic breast density measurement based on the projected area has been shown to be a strong indicator

  10. High-contrast process using a positive-tone resist with antistatic coating and high-energy (100-keV) e-beam lithography for fabricating diffractive optical elements (DOE) on quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Louis C.; Kondek, Christine A.; Shoop, Barry L.; McLane, George F.

    1995-06-01

    Diffractive optical elements (DOE) are becoming important as optical signal processing elements in increasingly diverse applications. These elements, fabricated on quartz, may be used as phase shift type masks or as embedded components that implement a transfer function within a processing network. A process is under development for the fabrication of a DOE implementing a Jervis error diffusion kernel for research in half tone image processing. Dry etching is performed after lithography and pattern transfer through a nickel mask. This results in etched areal features on the substrate. An optical diffraction medium is thus created. Lithographic patterning is done by e-beam lithography (EBL) to realize small features, but also offers the important advantage of a large depth of field which relaxes the problem of complex surface topology. The recent availability of high energy (100 KeV) lithography tools provides a capability for precision overlay, small feature resolution, and enhanced image contrast through a lower induced proximity effect. Patterning by EBL on insulating substrates is complicated by the necessity of providing a vehicle for the avoidance of charge buildup on the surface. In a previously presented paper a methodology was shown for the use of TQV-501 (Nitto Chemical) antistatic compound as a final spin on film for use with PMMA and SAL-601 (Shipley). In this current work, a process is described using EBL and a high performance positive resist working with a final film layer of antistatic TQV-501 on a nickel coated wafer. The process may then be reapplied to realize additional lithographic levels in registration, for multilevel DOE components. High energy (100 KeV) EBL is used to provide high quality pattern definition. The e-beam sensitive resist, ZEP-320-37 (Nagase Chemical) in dilution, together with a top film layer of TQV-501 serves as a bilevel resist system and is used for patterning the desired image before definition of the nickel mask through

  11. Combination of low and high resolution T{sub 1}-weighted sequences for improved evaluation of morphologic criteria in dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of the breast; Eine Kombination niedrig und hochaufloesender dynamischer T{sub 1}-gewichteter Sequenzen zur besseren Beurteilung der Morphologie Kontrastmittel aufnehmender Laesionen in der MRT der weiblichen Brust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vomweg, T.W.; Teifke, A.; Schreiber, W.G.; Thelen, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Schmidt, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Geburtshilfe und Frauenkrankheiten, Klinikum der Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2002-11-01

    Purpose: Presentation of a new protocol for simultaneous acquisition of both low and high resolution T{sub 1}-weighted images of breast lesions for dynamic contrast-enhanced MR mammography. Demonstration of possible diagnostic improvement with representative measurements in patients with suspected breast cancer by adding morphologic parameters from high resolution sequences to the analysis of the signal-time curve. Materials and Methods: Dynamic MR imaging was performed with a 1.5 T system (Magnetom SONATA, Siemens Medical Systems, Germany) and the manufacturer's double-breast coil. Coronal T{sub 1}-weighted 3D FLASH sequences (spatial resolution 1.25 x 1.25mm{sup 2}; slice thickness 1.7 mm) were acquired once before and five times after administration of contrast medium (Gd-DTPA, 0.15 mmol/kg) injection. In addition, a high resolution T{sub 1}-weighted 3D-FLASH sequence (spatial resolution, 0.63 x 0.63 mm{sup 2}) was obtained before administration of contrast medium and after the third post-contrast low-resolution sequence. Except for the acquisition matrix, all imaging parameters were identical for both 3D pulse sequences. To assure comparison of the measured signal intensities for both T{sub 1}-weighted sequences, calibrating phantom measurements were performed using a dilution series of Gd-DTPA. Results: Phantom measurements demonstrated similar signal intensities and enhancement pattern for both sequences. A combined protocol consisting of both pulse sequences can be employed and does not interfere with the signal-time curve analysis. By measuring one high resolution sequence 3:18 minutes after administration of contrast medium, morphologic features can be evaluated without interference from barely enhancing surrounding tissue. The overall study time is not increased. The improved spatial resolution slightly increases the severity of motion artifacts. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Vorstellung eines neuen Protokolls zur gleichzeitigen Messung von niedrig und

  12. 乳腺肿块腋窝淋巴结超声造影与人乳腺珠蛋白基因检测对比研究%A Research on Contrast- enhanced Ultrasound and Detection of Human Mammaglobin Gene in Axilla Lymph Node of Breast Masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩; 米成嵘; 王文

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过分析乳腺肿块患者皮下注射超声造影剂(SonoVue)后腋窝淋巴结(ALN)的增强情况并检测前哨淋巴结(SLN)中人乳腺珠蛋白基因(hMAMmRNA)的表达,探讨超声造影与hMAMmRNA检测在诊断乳腺癌SLN的应用前景.方法 21例乳腺肿块患者的肿物周围相同部位皮下先后分别注射造影剂和美蓝,观察同侧ALN的增强情况,术前对SLN标记,术后离体标本行病理及hMAMmRNA的逆转录-聚合酶链式反应(RT-PCR)检测.结果 21例患者造影后15例检出SLN,检出率71.4%(15/21),美蓝染色后检出SLN 19例,检出率90.5%(19/21),两组诊断准确率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).恶性者共检出SLN 38个,病理显示15个转移,RT-PCR有26个阳性;良性患者11个SLN,且病理与RT-PCR均为阴性;两者检测的阳性率分别为75.5%(37/49)、97.9%(48/49),差异有统计学意义.结论 皮下注射SonoVue超声造影可较好地检测出SLN并可判断其良恶性.%Objective To evaluate the clinical value of SonoVue in sentinel lymphatic node (SLN) in patients with breast masses by analyzing the enhanced phase of axillary lymph node (ALN) after subcutaneous injection SonoVue and detecting the expression of human mammaglobin (hMAM) in ALN of human breast masses.Methods 21 cases with breast masses were injected subcutaneously with contrast agent and Methylene blue successively to the same position of borderline of breast tumor.The enhanced phases of ipsilateral ALN were observed.The all SLNs were marked preoperatively and were examined with routine pathological and hMAM of reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR)test postoperatively.Results 15 patients were detected SLN after angiography, the success rate was 71.4% (15/21).19 cases detected SLN after methylene blue, the detection rate was 90.5% ( 19/21 ).No significant difference of detection between the two methods was found; 49 SLNs were detected ( benign 11; malignant 38 ), pathology showed that 26 of

  13. The value of magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in the diagnosis of benign and malignant breast lesions%磁共振扩散加权成像及动态增强MRI在乳腺病变中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓棠; 杨继虎; 杜笑松; 张建新

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the menstrual cycle and apparent diffusion coefficient(ADC) values of MR diffusion weighted imaging(DWI).To investigate the evaluation of DWI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI(DCE-MRI) in distinguishing benign from malignant breast lesions.Methods Thirty-four healthy, premenopausal female volunteers who had regular menstrual cycles and 96breast disease patients who proved by surgery or Needle aspiration pathology were included in the study.Of the 96 patients, there were 36 cases with 44 benign breast lesions and 60 cases with 70 malignant breast lesions.The healthy volunteers were scanned by conventional T1 weighted MRI, T2 weighted MRI and DWI once a week for 4 weeks with Siemens Sonata 1.5T MRI(b=1000s/mm2).The patients were examined by conventional MRI, DCE-MRI and DWI.DWI using Echo planar imaging technique and frequency selection suppression technology were used in DWI(b=1000 s/mm2)and fast low angle shot sequence was used in DCE-MRI.The data of DWI and DCE-MRI were sent to Leonardo workstation.Results ①ADC values of normal breast in the second week of the menstrual cycle reduced to minimum and then slowly increased, a comparison between the mean was not significant (F=1.029, P>0.05).② In DCE-MRI, type Ⅲ curve is the typical type of breast cancer, type Ⅰ and Ⅳ curve are the typical type of breast benign lesions.③When b=1000 s/mam2, the diagnostic threshold of ADC values between the benign breast lesions and malignant lesions was 1.25×10-3 mm2/s.Conclusions ADC values were less influenced by the menstrual cycle in normal breasts.The specificity and accuracy in the diagnosis of benign and maglinant breast lesions were improved with the combination of DCE-MRI and DWI.%目的 探讨月经周期对正常乳腺实质磁共振扩散加权成像(DWI)表观扩散系数(ADC)值的影响,并评价动态增强MRI(DCE-MRI)及DWI在乳腺病变鉴别诊断中的价值。方法 选取健康女性志愿者34

  14. MRI与乳腺钼靶应用于乳腺癌诊断的临床对照研究%The clinical contrast research for MRI and mammography applied in the diagnosis of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁超; 朱轶珍; 宋海岩

    2012-01-01

      目的探讨MRI与乳腺钼靶对乳腺癌诊断的临床应用价值.方法选取老年乳腺癌患者75例,均行钼靶、MRI、病理学检查.对其不同检查结果进行统计和比较.结果数字钼靶诊断符合率最低,平扫MRI、增强MRI以及钼靶联合MRI诊断符合率依次升高,不同影像学检查方法之间比较差异明显,有统计学意义(P0.05);钙化灶钼靶显示率明显高于MRI(P0.05). The calcification mammography display was significantly higher than MRI(P<0.05). The lumps or nodules, pectoralis major violation of axillary lymph nodes MRI showed significantly higher than that of mammography(P<0.05). Conclusion The diagnosis of breast cancer, mammography and MRI has advantages and disadvantages, two checks in combination can improve the detection rate, but the costs are relatively high. The clinical work should master flexibly depending on the circumstances.

  15. Blind breast tissue diagnosis using independent component analysis of localized backscattering response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguizabal, Alma; Laughney, Ashley M.; García Allende, Pilar Beatriz; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Wells, Wendy A.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.; Lopez-Higuera, Jose M.; Conde, Olga M.

    2012-03-01

    A blind separation technique based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is proposed for breast tumor delineation and pathologic diagnosis. Tissue morphology is determined by fitting local measures of tissue reflectance to a Mie theory approximation, parameterizing the scattering power, scattering amplitude and average scattering irradiance. ICA is applied on the scattering parameters by spatial analysis using the Fast ICA method to extract more determinant features for an accurate diagnostic. Neither training, nor comparisons with reference parameters are required. Tissue diagnosis is provided directly following ICA application to the scattering parameter images. Surgically resected breast tissues were imaged and identified by a pathologist. Three different tissue pathologies were identified in 29 samples and classified as not-malignant, malignant and adipose. Scatter plot analysis of both ICA results and optical parameters where obtained. ICA subtle ameliorates those cases where optical parameter's scatter plots were not linearly separable. Furthermore, observing the mixing matrix of the ICA, it can be decided when the optical parameters themselves are diagnostically powerful. Moreover, contrast maps provided by ICA correlate with the pathologic diagnosis. The time response of the diagnostic strategy is therefore enhanced comparing with complex classifiers, enabling near real-time assessment of pathology during breast-conserving surgery.

  16. Imaging Proteolysis by Living Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Sameni

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant progression is accompanied by degradation of extracellular matrix proteins. Here we describe a novel confocal assay in which we can observe proteolysis by living human breast cancer cells (BT20 and BT549 through the use of quenchedfluorescent protein substrates. Degradation thus was imaged, by confocal optical sectioning, as an accumulation of fluorescent products. With the BT20 cells, fluorescence was localized to pericellular focal areas that coincide with pits in the underlying matrix. In contrast, fluorescence was localized to intracellular vesicles in the BT549 cells, vesicles that also label for lysosomal markers. Neither intracellular nor pericellular fluorescence was observed in the BT549 cells in the presence of cytochalasin B, suggesting that degradation occurred intracellularly and was dependent on endocytic uptake of substrate. In the presence of a cathepsin 13-selective cysteine protease inhibitor, intracellular fluorescence was decreased ~90% and pericellular fluorescence decreased 67% to 96%, depending on the protein substrate. Matrix metallo protease inhibitors reduced pericellular fluorescence ~50%, i.e., comparably to a serine and a broad spectrum cysteine protease inhibitor. Our results suggest that: 1 a proteolytic cascade participates in pericellular digestion of matrix proteins by living human breast cancer cells, and 2 the cysteine protease cathepsin B participates in both pericellular and intracellular digestion of matrix proteins by living human breast cancer cells.

  17. An introduction to microwave imaging for breast cancer detection

    CERN Document Server

    Conceição, Raquel Cruz; O'Halloran, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book collates past and current research on one of the most promising emerging modalities for breast cancer detection. Readers will discover how, as a standalone technology or in conjunction with another modality, microwave imaging has the potential to provide reliable, safe and comfortable breast exams at low cost. Current breast imaging modalities include X- ray, Ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Positron Emission Tomography. Each of these methods suffers from limitations, including poor sensitivity or specificity, high cost, patient discomfort, and exposure to potentially harmful ionising radiation. Microwave breast imaging is based on a contrast in the dielectric properties of breast tissue that exists at microwave frequencies. The book begins by considering the anatomy and dielectric properties of the breast, contrasting historical and recent studies. Next, radar-based breast imaging algorithms are discussed, encompassing both early-stage artefact removal, and data independent and adaptive ...

  18. 超声光散射断层成像与乳腺癌微血管密度的相关性研究%Correlation between Diffused Optical Tomography with Ultrasonography and Microvessel Density in Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红磊; 武力; 阙燕

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the correlation between synthesis diagnostic index (SDI) of diffused optical tomography (DOT) with ultrasonography (US) localization and microvessel density (MVD) based on CD 105, as well as their relationship with clinic pathological characteristics of breast cancer. [Method] A new machine of diffused optical tomography (DOT) with ultrasonography (US) was used in diagnosis of 273 cases with breast cancer, in which 131 cases were benign and 142 cases were malignant. The machine generates a synthesis diagnostic index (SDI) as a quantitative measure of the likelihood of a lesion being malignant. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to estimate the optimal diagnostic threshold of breast cancer. The microvessel density (MVD) based on CD105 was detected by immunohistochemistry on all the 142 cases of breast cancer. [Results] The mean SDI values were 109 ± 48 for benign cases and 191 ± 60 for malignant cases. There was significant difference between them (P 0.05). [Conclusion] SDI of diffused optical tomography with ultrasonography is closely related to microvessel density in breast cancer, which can indirectly reflect the angiogenic activity. It also might play a great role of early diagnosis and in distinguishing benign and malignant tumors.%[目的]探讨乳腺癌超声光散射断层成像综合诊断指数(SDI)与微血管密度(MVD)的关系以及它们与临床病理特征的关系.[方法]采用超声光散射断层成像系统,研究131例乳腺良性肿块及142例乳腺癌患者,测量超声光散射断层成像综合诊断指数通过受试者工作特征曲线(ROC)确定乳腺癌的最佳诊断阈值.使用免疫组化法检测乳腺癌CD105标记的微血管密度.[结果]乳腺良性疾病与乳腺癌的SDI值分别:109±48、191±60.两者之间的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).经ROC曲线分析可得:SDI值的ROC曲线下面积为0.889,确定SDI值>141.2作为乳腺癌的最佳诊断阈

  19. Contrast-induced nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. García Hernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-induced nephropathy is an important complication associated with the use of contrast media. Favoring factors for the development of contrast-induced nephronpathy have been widely described, being diabetes mellitus and previous renal disease the greatest risk. The pathophysiology is a complex process where the medullary hypoxia represents the trigger element. Previous hydration and the use of low osmolality contrast are the most recommended measures to prevent its development.

  20. Fluorescence-enhanced optical spectroscopy using early arriving photons in transmission mode: a finite element approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piron, Vianney; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Optical imaging of turbid media is a challenging problem mainly due to the scattering process that reduces image contrast and degrades spatial resolution. The development of fluorescent probes has recently improved the noninvasive optical technique. In this paper, we are interested in the time gating fluorescence signals. The diffusion approximation is used in order to describe the light propagation of a laser pulse in a turbid media that mimics breast like biological tissue. A numerical model based on a finite element method is proposed. Fluorescence time dependent numerical simulations are performed in order to compute time-gated intensities resulting from line scans across partially absorbing and scattering slab configurations. Optical properties of embedded objects are chosen to be the same as optical properties of breast tumor. Tacking into account two hidden objects, we investigate the lateral resolution aimed by fluorescence modality, and we also compared the results to thus obtained by photon propagation. Different widths of the time gate are computed and it is demonstrated that both lateral localization of one inclusion, and resolution of two inclusions, are enhanced when the time-gate width (▵t) is decreased. The overall computations confirm that fluorescent time-gating technique is very sensitive to local variations in optical properties that are due to breast-like tumors in turbid media.

  1. A Wearable Goggle Navigation System for Dual-Mode Optical and Ultrasound Localization of Suspicious Lesions: Validation Studies Using Tissue-Simulating Phantoms and an Ex Vivo Human Breast Tissue Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zeshu; Pei, Jing; Wang, Dong; Gan, Qi; Ye, Jian; Yue, Jian; Wang, Benzhong; Povoski, Stephen P; Martin, Edward W; Hitchcock, Charles L; Yilmaz, Alper; Tweedle, Michael F; Shao, Pengfei; Xu, Ronald X

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection remains the primary curative treatment for many early-stage cancers, including breast cancer. The development of intraoperative guidance systems for identifying all sites of disease and improving the likelihood of complete surgical resection is an area of active ongoing research, as this can lead to a decrease in the need of subsequent additional surgical procedures. We develop a wearable goggle navigation system for dual-mode optical and ultrasound imaging of suspicious lesions. The system consists of a light source module, a monochromatic CCD camera, an ultrasound system, a Google Glass, and a host computer. It is tested in tissue-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo human breast tissue model. Our experiments demonstrate that the surgical navigation system provides useful guidance for localization and core needle biopsy of simulated tumor within the tissue-simulating phantom, as well as a core needle biopsy and subsequent excision of Indocyanine Green (ICG)-fluorescing sentinel lymph nodes. Our experiments support the contention that this wearable goggle navigation system can be potentially very useful and fully integrated by the surgeon for optimizing many aspects of oncologic surgery. Further engineering optimization and additional in vivo clinical validation work is necessary before such a surgical navigation system can be fully realized in the everyday clinical setting.

  2. A Wearable Goggle Navigation System for Dual-Mode Optical and Ultrasound Localization of Suspicious Lesions: Validation Studies Using Tissue-Simulating Phantoms and an Ex Vivo Human Breast Tissue Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeshu Zhang

    Full Text Available Surgical resection remains the primary curative treatment for many early-stage cancers, including breast cancer. The development of intraoperative guidance systems for identifying all sites of disease and improving the likelihood of complete surgical resection is an area of active ongoing research, as this can lead to a decrease in the need of subsequent additional surgical procedures. We develop a wearable goggle navigation system for dual-mode optical and ultrasound imaging of suspicious lesions. The system consists of a light source module, a monochromatic CCD camera, an ultrasound system, a Google Glass, and a host computer. It is tested in tissue-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo human breast tissue model. Our experiments demonstrate that the surgical navigation system provides useful guidance for localization and core needle biopsy of simulated tumor within the tissue-simulating phantom, as well as a core needle biopsy and subsequent excision of Indocyanine Green (ICG-fluorescing sentinel lymph nodes. Our experiments support the contention that this wearable goggle navigation system can be potentially very useful and fully integrated by the surgeon for optimizing many aspects of oncologic surgery. Further engineering optimization and additional in vivo clinical validation work is necessary before such a surgical navigation system can be fully realized in the everyday clinical setting.

  3. 亚甲蓝法与超声造影法检测乳腺癌前哨淋巴结的对比研究%Comparison of methylene blue dye injection and contrast enhanced ultrasonography in detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付明刚; 刘莎; 郭丽英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the feasibility of contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS)in detecting sentinel lymph node (SLN)in patients with breast cancer during operation and its clinical significance. Methods 21 patients who underwent radical resection of a primary breast cancer were enrolled.During op-eration,1% methylene blue was injected around the tumor,and SLN mapping was performed.Then the SonoVue was injected at the same sites,then CEUS was performed to observe changes of SLN in real time, and marked them.The SLN detection rate and accuracy of CEUS were compared to those of conventional dye guided method.Results SLN were successfully imaged by SonoVue,the detection rate of CEUS for SLN was 80.95%,and the accuracy was 93.55%.The detection rate of dye guided method for SLN was 85.71%,and the accuracy was 93.75%,there was no statistically significant difference between CEUS and dye guided method (P >0.05).Conclusion Peritumoral injection is a good method for evaluating and pre-dicting sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer.When injected SonoVue in peritumoral,the good mapping of SLN in patients with breast cancer can be obtained,and it will play an important role in clinical application to map SLN in patients with breast cancer.%目的:探讨超声造影法在乳腺癌术中检测前哨淋巴结(SLN)的可行性及临床应用价值。方法选择21例乳腺癌根治术患者,术中于肿瘤周围注射1%亚甲蓝,寻找被蓝染的 SLN;于相同注射部位注射超声造影剂声诺维(SonoVue),动态观察并标记显像 SLN。对比超声造影法和亚甲蓝法对 SLN 的检出率和准确率。结果注射 SonoVue 后能够获得清晰的传人淋巴管和 SLN 图像。超声造影法对乳腺癌患者 SLN 的检出率为85.71%,准确率为89.29%;亚甲蓝法对其检出率为80.95%,准确率为93.33%,2种方法检出率和准确率比较差异均无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论超

  4. MRI evaluation of the contralateral breast in patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Taneja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contralateral breast cancer can be synchronous and/or metachronous in patients with cancer of one breast. Detection of a synchronous breast cancer may affect patient management. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast (DCE-MRI is a sensitive technique for detecting contralateral lesions occult on the other imaging modalities in women already diagnosed with cancer of one breast. Aim: The aim was to assess the incidence of mammographically occult synchronous contralateral breast cancer in patients undergoing MRI mammography for the evaluation of a malignant breast lesion. Materials and Methods: A total of 294 patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer who underwent MRI of the breast were evaluated for lesions in the opposite breast. Results: The incidence of synchronous contralateral malignancy detected by preoperative MRI mammography done for evaluation of extent of disease was 4.1%. Conclusion: Preoperative breast MRI may detect clinically and mammographically occult synchronous contralateral cancer, and can help the patient avoid an additional second surgery or a second course of chemotherapy later; also, as theoretically these lesions are smaller, there may be a survival benefit as well.

  5. The Generalised Phase Contrast Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    An analytic framework and a complete description for the design and optimisation of on-axis centred spatially filtering common path systems are presented. The Generalised Phase Contrast method is derived and introduced as the common denominator for these systems basically extending Zernike....... Optimal conditions for visibility, peak irradiance and accuracy are derived and shown to be perfectly in line with empirical results from the literature. New graphic methods for advanced analysis purposes are demonstrated supporting these conclusions as well as providing new tools for innovative filter...... designs and parameter settings. Finally, a number of original applications facilitated by the parallel light-beam encoding of the Generalised Phase Contrast method are briefly outlined. These include among others, wavefront sensing and generation, advanced usercontrolled optical micro...

  6. Tumor Microvasculature: Endothelial Leakiness and Endothelial Pore Size Distribution in a Breast Cancer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Uzgiris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor endothelial leakiness is quantified in a rat mammary adenocarcinoma model using dynamic contrast enhancement MRI and contrast agents of widely varying sizes. The contrast agents were constructed to be of globular configuration and have their uptake rate into tumor interstitium be driven by the same diffusion process and limited only by the availability of endothelial pores of passable size. It was observed that the endothelial pore distribution has a steep power law dependence on size, r−β, with an exponent of −4.1. The model of large pore dominance in tumor leakiness as reported in some earlier investigation with fluorescent probes and optical chamber methods is rejected for this tumor model and a number of other tumor types including chemically induced tumors. This steep power law dependence on size is also consistent with observations on human breast cancer.

  7. Premenstrual breast changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premenstrual tenderness and swelling of the breasts; Breast tenderness - premenstrual; Breast swelling - premenstrual ... Symptoms of premenstrual breast tenderness may range from mild to ... most severe just before each menstrual period Improve during ...

  8. Breast MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    MRI - breast; Magnetic resonance imaging - breast; Breast cancer - MRI; Breast cancer screening - MRI ... radiologist) see some areas more clearly. During the MRI, the person who operates the machine will watch ...

  9. Fibrocystic breast disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibrocystic breast disease; Mammary dysplasia; Diffuse cystic mastopathy; Benign breast disease; Glandular breast changes ... made in the ovaries may make a woman's breasts feel swollen, lumpy, or painful before or during ...

  10. Breast Cancer Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Table of Contents National Cancer Institute ... Addressing Breast Cancer's Unequal Burden / Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Issue: Volume 11 Number 4 Page ...

  11. Types of Breast Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Breast Pumps Types of Breast Pumps Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... used for feeding a baby. Types of Breast Pumps There are three basic types of breast pumps: ...

  12. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  13. 超声光散射诊断乳腺癌及其与VEGF表达的相关性研究%Diffused optical tomography with ultrasonography in diagnosis of breast cancer and correlation with vascular endothelial growth factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红磊; 阙燕; 武力; 马大昌; 吴多明; 纪彩玉

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between synthesis diagnostic index (SDI) of diffused optical tomography(DOT) with ultrasonography(US) location detected preoperative and Vascular endothelial growth factor expression detected postoperative in breast cancer as well as their relationship with clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer. Methods: Conventional DOT with US were performed on 131 cases of breast benign mass and 142 cases of breast cancer. SDI was measured. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to estimate the optimal diagnostic threshold of breast cancer. The expression levels of VEGF was detected by SP immunohistochemistry. Analysis the correlation between SDI and the expression levels of VEGF. Analysis the correlation between SDI as well as the expression of HIF-1 α and clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer. Results: The mean value of SDI was 109.35 ± 48.03 in the breast benign mass and 190.87 ±60.33 in the breast cancer. There were significant difference between them (P<0.01). According to ROC curve analysis, the areas under ROC curve of SDI was 0.889, the SDI value greater than 141.2 was an optimal diagnostic threshold of breast cancer. The SDI was significantly higher in VEGF-positive breast cancer than in VEGF- negative breast cancer(P<0.01).The mean value of SDI and the expression levels of VEGF were significantly correlated with the tumor size, lymph node status ,clinical TNM stage and the expression levels of cerbB-2 (P<0.01), while had no correlation with the expression levels of ER and PR(P>0.05). Conclusion: As a new technology of functional imaging, DOT with US location might play a great role of early diagnosis and distinguishing benign from malignant tumor.%目的:探讨乳腺癌超声光散射断层成像综合诊断指数(SDI)与血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)的关系以及它们与乳腺癌临床病理特征的关系.方法:采用超声光散射

  14. Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis If you’ve been diagnosed with breast cancer, ... Prevention Early Detection and Diagnosis Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis Treatment Breast Reconstruction Surgery Living as a Breast ...

  15. Spiral phase contrast imaging in microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürhapter, Severin; Jesacher, Alexander; Bernet, Stefan; Ritsch-Marte, Monika

    2005-02-07

    We demonstrate an optical method for edge contrast enhancement in light microscopy. The method is based on holographic Fourier plane filtering of the microscopic image with a spiral phase element (also called vortex phase or helical phase filter) displayed as an off-axis hologram at a computer controlled high resolution spatial light modulator (SLM) in the optical imaging pathway. The phase hologram imprints a helical phase term of the form exp(i phi) on the diffracted light field in its Fourier plane. In the image plane, this results in a strong and isotropic edge contrast enhancement for both amplitude and phase objects.

  16. Dense Breasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also appear white on mammography, they can be hidden by or within dense breast tissue. Other imaging ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  17. Breast lump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a woman are often caused by fibrocystic changes, fibroadenomas, and cysts. Fibrocystic changes are painful, lumpy breasts. ... period, and then improve after your period starts. Fibroadenomas are noncancerous lumps that feel rubbery. They move ...

  18. Breast Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... senos Preguntas Para el Médico Datos Para la Vida Komen El cuidado de sus senos:Consejos útiles ... that can help . Federal law requires most insurance plans cover the cost of breast reconstruction. Learn more ...

  19. Is there any correlation between model-based perfusion parameters and model-free parameters of time-signal intensity curve on dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in breast cancer patients?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Boram; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Kim, Tae Hee [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dukyong [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Informatics, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Yong Sik; Kim, Ku Sang [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Hyunee [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    To find out any correlation between dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) model-based parameters and model-free parameters, and evaluate correlations between perfusion parameters with histologic prognostic factors. Model-based parameters (Ktrans, Kep and Ve) of 102 invasive ductal carcinomas were obtained using DCE-MRI and post-processing software. Correlations between model-based and model-free parameters and between perfusion parameters and histologic prognostic factors were analysed. Mean Kep was significantly higher in cancers showing initial rapid enhancement (P = 0.002) and a delayed washout pattern (P = 0.001). Ve was significantly lower in cancers showing a delayed washout pattern (P = 0.015). Kep significantly correlated with time to peak enhancement (TTP) (ρ = -0.33, P < 0.001) and washout slope (ρ = 0.39, P = 0.002). Ve was significantly correlated with TTP (ρ = 0.33, P = 0.002). Mean Kep was higher in tumours with high nuclear grade (P = 0.017). Mean Ve was lower in tumours with high histologic grade (P = 0.005) and in tumours with negative oestrogen receptor status (P = 0.047). TTP was shorter in tumours with negative oestrogen receptor status (P = 0.037). We could acquire general information about the tumour vascular physiology, interstitial space volume and pathologic prognostic factors by analyzing time-signal intensity curve without a complicated acquisition process for the model-based parameters. (orig.)

  20. Application value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in evaluating the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer%超声造影对评估乳腺癌原发灶新辅助化疗疗效的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莉; 郝轶; 张银华; 李维芝; 柳莉莎

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the application value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in evaluating the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.Methods From Dec 2013 to March 2015,54 patients with breast cancer treated in the affiliated tumor hospital of Xinjiang medical university were detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasound and pathology,before and after chemotherapy.The ultrasonography and pa-thology examination results,the tumor blood perfusion area (ROI)parameters,which obtained by ultra-sonography,before and after chemotherapy,and the relevance between the level of blood perfusion and curative effect,and the ROC curve for evaluating the curative effect of pathology examination were com-pared and analyzed.Results The sensitivity,specificity,accuracy,positive predictive value and negative predictive value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound were 89.47 %,87.50 %,88.89 %,94.44%,77.78%,re-spectively.Compared with the results of pathological examination,the Kappa of contrast-enhanced ultra-sonography was 0.743,and it had a higher consistency.The levels of (area under curve)AUC and (peak intensity)PI after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer patients were significantly lower than those before treatment,the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05).The relative enhancement time of effective group was obviously higher than that of invalid group (P <0.05).The area of the ROC curves was 0.955,and the forecast value was the highest when the truncated value was 0.904.Conclusion Con-trast enhanced ultrasound has good value in evaluating the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for prima-ry foci of breast cancer and deserved attention of clinician.%目的:探讨超声造影对评估乳腺癌原发灶新辅助化疗疗效的价值。方法选择2013年12月-2015年3月在新疆医科大学附属肿瘤医院接受治疗的乳腺癌患者54例,分别于化疗前、后使用超声造影以及病理学检查对患者的病情进行判断,对比超声造

  1. Phase contrast image synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new method is presented for synthesizing arbitrary intensity patterns based on phase contrast imaging. The concept is grounded on an extension of the Zernike phase contrast method into the domain of full range [0; 2 pi] phase modulation. By controlling the average value of the input phase...... function and by choosing appropriate phase retardation at the phase contrast filter, a pure phase to intensity imaging is accomplished. The method presented is also directly applicable in dark field image synthesis....

  2. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    measures used to reduce the incidence of CIN, and the management of patients receiving metformin. Key Points • Definition, risk factors and prevention of contrast medium induced nephropathy are reviewed. • CIN risk is lower with intravenous than intra-arterial iodinated contrast medium. • eGFR of 45 ml....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  3. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    measures used to reduce the incidence of CIN, and the management of patients receiving metformin. Key Points • Definition, risk factors and prevention of contrast medium induced nephropathy are reviewed. • CIN risk is lower with intravenous than intra-arterial iodinated contrast medium. • eGFR of 45 ml....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR = 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  4. 乳腺肿瘤高频彩超及超声造影与微血管密度的相关性%Correlation of High Frequency Color Doppler Ultrasound, Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound and Microvessel Density for Breast Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良西; 朱向明; 李国杰; 容尚勤; 张伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析乳腺良恶性肿瘤高频彩超、超声造影(CEUS)与微血管密度(MVD)的相关性,探讨超声造影对乳腺肿瘤的诊断价值.资料与方法 82例原发性乳腺肿瘤患者于术前行常规高频彩超检查,观察病灶灰阶图像特征及血流特征;启动造影模式行实时灰阶谐波超声造影检查,应用时间-信号强度曲线分析软件分析病灶增强达峰时间(TTP)、峰值强度(PI)、曲线下面积(AUC);采用免疫组化测定肿瘤内MVD,分析超声造影定量参数与MVD的相关性.结果 恶性组肿瘤血流Adler分级低于良性组(P<0.05);超声造影显像特点:恶性组血管数量多且粗细不等,良性组血流束细窄、平直;恶性组TTP低于良性组,PI及AUC高于良性组(P<0.05),MVD显著高于良性组(P<0.001);肿瘤MVD计数随血流Adler分级升高而升高,CDF1血流丰富程度与MVD呈正相关(r=0.456,P< 0.01); PI与MVD呈显著正相关(r=0.783,P<0.01).结论 超声造影能客观评价乳腺肿瘤血供,术前应用CDFI结合超声造影在体检查肿瘤血管,可为早期诊断乳腺肿瘤提供信息.%Purpose To investigate the correlation of high-frequency ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with the microvessel density (MVD) in breast tumors, and evaluate the value of CEUS in the diagnosis of breast tumors. Materials and Methods Eighty-two female patients with primary breast neoplasm underwent conventional high-frequency sonography before operation for examining the features of the gray scale image for the lesions and blood flow. Real time grayscale contrast tuned imaging (CnTI) was performed and a software for time-intensity curve analysis was used to analyze the CEUS patterns and quantitative parameters, including the time to peak (TTP), peak intensity (PI), area under the curve (AUC). Immunohistochemical method was used to detect the MVD at the lesions for examining the correlation between CEUS quantitative parameters and

  5. Imaging Breast Density: Established and Emerging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon-Hor Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammographic density has been proven as an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Women with dense breast tissue visible on a mammogram have a much higher cancer risk than women with little density. A great research effort has been devoted to incorporate breast density into risk prediction models to better estimate each individual’s cancer risk. In recent years, the passage of breast density notification legislation in many states in USA requires that every mammography report should provide information regarding the patient’s breast density. Accurate definition and measurement of breast density are thus important, which may allow all the potential clinical applications of breast density to be implemented. Because the two-dimensional mammography-based measurement is subject to tissue overlapping and thus not able to provide volumetric information, there is an urgent need to develop reliable quantitative measurements of breast density. Various new imaging technologies are being developed. Among these new modalities, volumetric mammographic density methods and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging are the most well studied. Besides, emerging modalities, including different x-ray–based, optical imaging, and ultrasound-based methods, have also been investigated. All these modalities may either overcome some fundamental problems related to mammographic density or provide additional density and/or compositional information. The present review article aimed to summarize the current established and emerging imaging techniques for the measurement of breast density and the evidence of the clinical use of these density methods from the literature.

  6. Contrasting properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles and titanium dioxide nanoparticles for optical coherence tomography imaging of human normal endometrium tissues and uterine leiomyoma tissues in ex vivo study combined with microneedle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, P. C.; Ye, M.; Wei, H. J.; Wu, G. Y.; Guo, Z. Y.; Yang, H. Q.; He, Y. H.; Xie, S. S.; Zhou, L. P.

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study were to monitor and contrast the diffusion of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles’ (NPs) penetration and accumulation in human normal endometrium (NE) tissues and uterine leiomyoma (UL) tissues combined with microneedles (MN) in vitro using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and diffuse reflectance (DR) spectral. Continuous OCT and DR spectra monitoring showed that, after application of ZnO or TiO2 NPs, the OCT signal intensities of NE and UL both increase with time, and the TiO2 NPs tend to produce a greater signal enhancement than ZnO NPs in the same type of tissue. And for the same type of NPs, they penetrate faster in NE tissue compared with UL tissue. In addition, the use of MN can significantly enhance the penetration of topically applied ZnO or TiO2 NPs in the tissue. The attenuation coefficients of NE tissue are about 5.01  ±  0.35 mm-1 for ZnO NPs treatment at 195 min and 4.62  ±  0.29 mm-1 for ZnO NPs/MN at 179 min, 4.73  ±  0.30 mm-1 for TiO2 NPs at 183 min, 4.05  ±  0.25 mm-1 for TiO2 NPs/MN at 147 min when the penetration process reached the stable state. And the attenuation coefficients of UL tissue are about 5.0  ±  0.34 mm-1 for ZnO NP treatment at 191 min and 4.20  ±  0.26 mm-1 for ZnO NPs/MN at 169 min, 4.33  ±  0.27 mm-1 for TiO2 NPs at 176 min, 3.53  ±  0.20 mm-1 for TiO2 NPs/MN at 141 min when the penetration process reached the stable state. This suggests that TiO2 NPs penetrate faster and reach the maximum amount of penetration earlier than ZnO NPs with the same condition. The results of attenuation coefficients and reflectance intensity of NE and UL tissue suggests that the accumulation of the TiO2 or ZnO NPs in both NE and UL tissue greatly influenced the tissue optical properties.

  7. Dynamic MRI of breast fibroadenoma: pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ki Keun; Hahm, Jin kyeung; Yoon, Pyong Ho; Jeong, Eun Kee [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    To analyze the dynamic MR imaging of breast fibroadenoma according to the histologic type for differentiation from breast carcinoma. Dynamic MR images of 26 lesions from 22 breasts in 19 patients showing atypical clinical features or film mammogram and ultrasound manifestations were performed. We analyzed the speed and the maximal amount of contrast enhancement and the patterns, such as shape, border, and internal signal intensity, among the histologic types during five minutes after contrast injection. The speed and maximal amount of contrast enhancement of fibroadenoma were in descending order of myxoid, sclerotic, glandular, and calcified types. Among these, the value of maximal amount of contrast enhancement of myxoid and sclerotic type were more than 700 NU, but only myxoid type was enhanced more than 700 NU within the first 1 minute after contrast injection, similar to the findings of carcinoma. In general, fibroadenoma showed the tendency of smooth surface(69%), well-defined border(88%) with safety rim, and internal homogeneous signal intensity(65%). However, sclerotic type of fibroadenoma had relatively high incidence of heterogeneous internal signal intensity(78%) after Gd-DTPA injection. Dynamic MR imaging of atypical breast fibroadenoma mimicking breast malignancy was very useful in differentiation it from carcinoma and had the benefit of classifying fibroadenoma according to its histologic types.

  8. Breast conserving therapy and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Tsuneaki; Masuda, Yu; Hachiya, Junichi; Nitatori, Toshiaki; Fukushima, Hisayoshi; Uchigasaki, Shinya [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-12-01

    Recently, breast conserving therapy has been widely accepted in our country. The extensive intraductal component (EIC) is a serious problem in breast conserving therapy, because it is well-known that EIC frequently causes locoregional recurrence in preserved breast parenchyma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful method for detecting breast masses due to its excellent contrast resolution. We studied the application of MRI to detection of intraductal spread in twenty-two patients. All cases were revealed invasive cancer with intraductal spread by histopathological examination. MRI findings of intraductal spread can be divided into two major groups. One is daugter nodules or strand-like enhancement and the other is bridging enhancement. We also reffered to the preliminary study of MR-guiding transcutaneous aspiration biopsy of mammographically and clinically occult breast masses. (author)

  9. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI and diffusion weighted imaging features of granulomatous mastitis: compared with breast cancer%肉芽肿性乳腺炎的动态增强MRI和扩散加权成像表现及其与乳腺癌的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周长玉; 许茂盛; 喻迎星; 刘玉凤; 丁雪委; 葛敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the radiological features of granulomatous mastitis (GM) in dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and DWI and to differentiate it from the breast cancer in diagnose.Methods Forty five cases of GM and 64 cases of breast cancer confirmed by surgical histopathology or biopsy were retrospectively analyzed in the study.All of the patients were examined preoperatively by DCE-MRI and DWI.Including lesion type,location,enhancement pattern,nipple retraction,supplying arteries,skin thickening and axillary adenopathy in the two groups were evaluated and analyzed by using x2 test.One-way ANOVA was employed to compare the ADC values between the abscess area of GM and non-abscess area,and the difference among the breast cancer lesion area.Dynamic enhancement MR pharmacokinetic parameters were used to measure including early-phase enhancement rate (EER),peak enhancement ratio(Emax),and time to peak ehhancement(Tmax).The statistical differences of EER,Emax and Tmax between the two groups were calculated by using Wilcoxon test.Results In 45 cases of GM,DCE MR images showed nonmass-like lesions (43 patients) and mass-like lesions (2 patients); the nipple involved(16 patients) and segment involved (29 patients);rim-like with heterogeneous enhancement (40 patients) and heterogeneous enhancement (5 patients); nipple retraction (24 patients) supplying arteries dilatation (42 patients),skin thickening (29 patients),and axillary adenopathy (17 patients).Corresponding to the radiological features above,in the 64 breast cancer cases,it showed 54,10,5,59,30,34,16,51,12 and 20,respectively.There were statistical significance between GM and breast cancer in lesion type,location,enhancement pattern,and nipple retraction (x2=67.574,13.075,20.297,20.398 and 23.510,respectively,all P<0.01).But no differences were existed between 2 groups in supplying arteries and axillary adenopathy(x2=3.928 and 0.502,P>0.05).EER,Emax and Tmaxin GM were 146.58%,191.13%,195.00 s

  10. Progesterone Receptor Scaffolding Function in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    the population of mammary stem cells (via paracrine signaling) [22; 23] and for coordinating the dynamic (proliferative) regulation of glandular ...contrast to PR/ER expres- sion in just 7 to 10% of normal breast luminal epithelium (67). As steroid hormone receptor (SR)-positive tumors progress...mammary epithelium during puberty and pregnancy (in preparation for lactation), but may inappropriately drive early breast cancer progression of

  11. An optimized ultrasound detector for photoacoustic breast tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Wenfeng; Van Hespen, Johan; Van Veldhoven, Spiridon; Prins, Christian; Van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2012-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging has proven to be able to detect vascularization-driven optical absorption contrast associated with tumors. In order to detect breast tumors located a few centimeter deep in tissue, a sensitive ultrasound detector is of crucial importance for photoacoustic mammography. Further, because the expected photoacoustic frequency bandwidth (a few MHz to tens of kHz) is inversely proportional to the dimensions of light absorbing structures (0.5 to 10+ mm), proper choices of materials and their geometries, and proper considerations in design have to be made for optimal photoacoustic detectors. In this study, we design and evaluate a specialized ultrasound detector for photoacoustic mammography. Based on the required detector sensitivity and its frequency response, a selection of active material and matching layers and their geometries is made leading to a functional detector models. By iteration between simulation of detector performances, fabrication and experimental characterization of functional...

  12. Dedicated PET scanners for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifelder, Richard; Karp, Joel S. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, 110 Donner, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    1997-12-01

    We have used computer simulations to compare two designs for a PET scanner dedicated to breast imaging with a whole-body PET scanner. The new designs combine high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, and good energy resolution to detect small, low-contrast masses. The detectors are position sensitive NaI(Tl) scintillators. The first design is a ring scanner surrounding the breast and the second consists of two planar detectors placed on opposite sides of the breast. We have employed standard performance measures to compare the different designs: contrast, percentage standard deviation of the background, and signal-to-noise ratios of reconstructed images. The results of the simulations show that both of the proposed designs have better lesion detectability than a whole-body scanner. The results also show that contrast is higher in the ring breast system but that the noise is lower in the planar breast system. Overall, the ring system yields images with the best signal-to-noise ratios, although the planar system offers practical advantages for imaging the breast and axilla. (author)

  13. Dedicated PET scanners for breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifelder, R; Karp, J S

    1997-12-01

    We have used computer simulations to compare two designs for a PET scanner dedicated to breast imaging with a whole-body PET scanner. The new designs combine high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, and good energy resolution to detect small, low-contrast masses. The detectors are position sensitive NaI(Tl) scintillators. The first design is a ring scanner surrounding the breast and the second consists of two planar detectors placed on opposite sides of the breast. We have employed standard performance measures to compare the different designs: contrast, percentage standard deviation of the background, and signal-to-noise ratios of reconstructed images. The results of the simulations show that both of the proposed designs have better lesion detectability than a whole-body scanner. The results also show that contrast is higher in the ring breast system but that the noise is lower in the planar breast system. Overall, the ring system yields images with the best signal-to-noise ratios, although the planar system offers practical advantages for imaging the breast and axilla.

  14. Dedicated PET scanners for breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifelder, Richard; Karp, Joel S.

    1997-12-01

    We have used computer simulations to compare two designs for a PET scanner dedicated to breast imaging with a whole-body PET scanner. The new designs combine high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, and good energy resolution to detect small, low-contrast masses. The detectors are position sensitive NaI(Tl) scintillators. The first design is a ring scanner surrounding the breast and the second consists of two planar detectors placed on opposite sides of the breast. We have employed standard performance measures to compare the different designs: contrast, percentage standard deviation of the background, and signal-to-noise ratios of reconstructed images. The results of the simulations show that both of the proposed designs have better lesion detectability than a whole-body scanner. The results also show that contrast is higher in the ring breast system but that the noise is lower in the planar breast system. Overall, the ring system yields images with the best signal-to-noise ratios, although the planar system offers practical advantages for imaging the breast and axilla.

  15. [China faces a challenge of breast cancer prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B N; Chen, W Q; Zhang, X; Qiao, Y L

    2016-10-23

    The incidence and mortality of breast cancer is in an increasing trend. In contrast to the global breast cancer situation, the prevention and control is challenging in China. Some suggestions are presented to the project of breast cancer prevention and control in China. Combining the global screening experiences with the epidemiological features of Chinese female breast cancer, aims to improve the population screening and early detection rate. Standardizing clinical diagnosis and treatment practice, aims to increase the efficacy and decrease the mortality. Intervening lifestyle and dietary behaviors, and intends to reduce risk exposure and incidence. Building national breast cancer registry provides preventive strategies. Great efforts should be made to carry out large sample multicenter clinical trails and translational research on the prevention and cotrol of breast cancer coordiated by health care service and science and technology administrations. Breast cancer prevention and control has a long way to go in China.

  16. Metaplastic Breast Cancer in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Shafique Chaudhry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaplastic breast cancer is a rare malignancy in the breast. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder associated with multiple neoplasms such as optic gliomas and peripheral nerve sheath tumors. The association of breast cancer with neurofibromatosis is very rare. We present a case of a metaplastic breast cancer in a patient with Type 1 neurofibromatosis. The patient presented with a palpable mass in her left breast with suspicious findings on mammogram and ultrasound. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy showed metaplastic breast carcinoma with metastasis to an axillary lymph node. This is the third case report in the English literature to show metaplastic breast carcinoma in a patient with Type 1 neurofibromatosis. In this report we review recent literature and discuss the association between these two entities.

  17. Metaplastic breast cancer in a patient with neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Umar Shafique; Yang, Limin; Askeland, Ryan W; Fajardo, Laurie L

    2015-01-01

    Metaplastic breast cancer is a rare malignancy in the breast. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder associated with multiple neoplasms such as optic gliomas and peripheral nerve sheath tumors. The association of breast cancer with neurofibromatosis is very rare. We present a case of a metaplastic breast cancer in a patient with Type 1 neurofibromatosis. The patient presented with a palpable mass in her left breast with suspicious findings on mammogram and ultrasound. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy showed metaplastic breast carcinoma with metastasis to an axillary lymph node. This is the third case report in the English literature to show metaplastic breast carcinoma in a patient with Type 1 neurofibromatosis. In this report we review recent literature and discuss the association between these two entities.

  18. Breast awareness and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the UK. Breast awareness and screening, along with better treatment, can significantly improve outcomes, and more women than ever are now surviving the disease. This article discusses breast awareness and screening, symptoms and risk factors for breast cancer, and how nurses can raise breast awareness and screening uptake.

  19. Requirements for effective functional breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, I. N.; Zawarzin, V.; Adler, L. P.; Pani, R.; DeVincentis, G.; Khalkhali, I.; Vargas, H.; Venegas, R.; Kim, S. C.; Bakale, G.; Levine, E.; Perrier, N.; Freimanis, R. I.; Lesko, N. M.; Newman, D. P.; Geisinger, K. R.; Berg, W. A.; Masood, S.

    2003-01-01

    Most nuclear medicine physicists were trained on devices aimed at functional neuroimaging. The clinical goals of brain-centered devices differ dramatically from the parameters needed to be useful in the breast clinic. We will discuss similarities and differences that impact on design considerations, and describe our latest generation of positron emission mammography and intraoperative products. Source of physiologic contrast: Clinical neuroimaging depends on flow agents to detect the presence of breaks in the blood-brain barrier. Breast flow agents are nonspecific, and may miss preinvasive lesions. Resolution: Brain cancers are generally diagnosed at late stages, so resolution is not so critical. Detecting early breast cancers, and specifying margins for surgery requires 3 mm spatial resolution or better. Prevalence: Primary brain cancer is uncommon, and lesions mimicking brain cancer are rare. Primary breast cancer is common, and benign lesions are even more common, so specificity and biopsy capability are very important. Anatomic references: Brain structure is standard, while breast structure is highly variable, requiring immobilization/compression for physiologic imaging and biopsy. Surgery: Complete cancer resections for brain are very rare, but are possible for breast with appropriate imaging guidance, implying the need for rapid and reliable imaging. To summarize, the breast clinic needs a rapid and highly sensitive method of assessing breast physiology, compatible with biopsy and surgery. Positron emission mammography devices, in handheld and X-ray platform based configurations, are ideal for this mission.

  20. Clinical application of sentinel lymph node biopsy under the guidance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound pins methylene blue in patients with breast cancer%超声造影结合亚甲蓝定位在乳腺癌前哨淋巴结活检中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡慧; 韦伟; 孙德胜; 刘荫华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the application feasibility of contrast-emhanced ultrasound (CEUS) plus methylene blue in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for breast cancer and determine the ultrasonographic features of sentinel lymph node (SLN).Methods The microbubbles of SonoVue were injected subcutaneously and intradermally into tumor side of areola.The images were observed to record the size,number,lymphatic door,aspect ratio,enhanced time and enhanced mode of SLN.Methylene blue was injected into SLN under the guidance of ultrasound.The marked SLNs were dissected for pathological examinations.Based upon the results,the specimens were divided into SLN metastasis and SLN nonmetastasis groups.Results A total of 34 breast cancer patients were recruited.Among them,SLN was detected preoperatively in 31 patients by CEUS and the rate was 91.2%.And the postoperative results showed that 14 were confirmed positive (metastasis group) and 17 negative (non-metastasis group).The sensitivity,specificity,accuracy and false negative rate of CEUS for detecting SLNs were 93.3% (14/15),100%(16/16),96.8% (30/31) and 6.7% (1/15) respectively.The model of stepwise regression analysis showed that lymphatic door,aspect ratio and enhanced mode were helpful to differentiate SLN metastasis and SLN nonmetastasis groups.Conclusions SLNB under the guidance of CEUS plus methylene blue offer prompt and accurate localization with a lower cost.It may enhance the detection rate of SLNB in breast cancer.%目的 探讨超声造影结合亚甲蓝行乳腺癌前哨淋巴结活检(SLNB)的可行性以及超声造影图像特征.方法 2011年10月至2012年5月北京大学深圳医院对34例乳腺癌患者在患侧乳晕区皮内及皮下注射造影剂,观察前哨淋巴结(SLN)超声造影增强情况,记录SLN大小、数量、淋巴门结构、纵横比、增强时间及增强模式;在B超声引导下对确定的SLN进行亚甲蓝定位后切除SLN,行病理检查,并根据有无肿瘤转移

  1. Tissue specific DNA methylation in normal human breast epithelium and in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Ayelet; Cho, Sean Soonweng; Uhlmann, Ronit; Polak, Mia Leonov; Sandbank, Judith; Karni, Tami; Pappo, Itzhak; Halperin, Ruvit; Vaknin, Zvi; Sella, Avishay; Sukumar, Saraswati; Evron, Ella

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a heterogeneous and tissue-specific disease. Thus, the tissue of origin reflects on the natural history of the disease and dictates the therapeutic approach. It is suggested that tissue differentiation, mediated mostly by epigenetic modifications, could guide tissue-specific susceptibility and protective mechanisms against cancer. Here we studied breast specific methylation in purified normal epithelium and its reflection in breast cancers. We established genome wide methylation profiles of various normal epithelial tissues and identified 110 genes that were differentially methylated in normal breast epithelium. A number of these genes also showed methylation alterations in breast cancers. We elaborated on one of them, TRIM29 (ATDC), and showed that its promoter was hypo-methylated in normal breast epithelium and heavily methylated in other normal epithelial tissues. Moreover, in breast carcinomas methylation increased and expression decreased whereas the reverse was noted for multiple other carcinomas. Interestingly, TRIM29 regulation in breast tumors clustered according to the PAM50 classification. Thus, it was repressed in the estrogen receptor positive tumors, particularly in the more proliferative luminal B subtype. This goes in line with previous reports indicating tumor suppressive activity of TRIM29 in estrogen receptor positive luminal breast cells in contrast to oncogenic function in pancreatic and lung cancers. Overall, these findings emphasize the linkage between breast specific epigenetic regulation and tissue specificity of cancer.

  2. Time-domain imaging with quench-based fluorescent contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Walter J.; Solomon, Metasebya; Sudlow, Gail P.; Berezin, Mikhail; Achilefu, Samuel

    2012-03-01

    Quench-based probes utilize unique characteristics of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to enhance contrast upon de-quenching. This mechanism has been used in a variety of molecular probes for imaging of cancer related enzyme activity such as matrix metalloproteinases, cathepsins and caspases. While non-fluorescent upon administration, fluorescence can be restored by separation of donor and acceptor, resulting in higher intensity in the presence of activator. Along with decreased quantum yield, FRET also results in altered fluorescence lifetime. Time-domain imaging can further enhance contrast and information yield from quench-based probes. We present in vivo time-domain imaging for detecting activation of quench-based probes. Quench-based probes utilize unique characteristics of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to enhance contrast upon de-quenching. This mechanism has been used in a variety of molecular probes for imaging of cancer related enzyme activity such as matrix metalloproteinases, cathepsins and caspases. While non-fluorescent upon administration, fluorescence can be restored by separation of donor and acceptor, resulting in higher intensity in the presence of activator. Along with decreased quantum yield, FRET also results in altered fluorescence lifetime. Time-domain imaging can further enhance contrast and information yield from quench-based probes. We present in vivo time-domain imaging for detecting activation of quench-based probes. Time-domain diffuse optical imaging was performed to assess the FRET and quenching in living mice with orthotopic breast cancer. Tumor contrast enhancement was accompanied by increased fluorescence lifetime after administration of quenched probes selective for matrix metalloproteinases while no significant change was observed for non-quenched probes for integrin receptors. These results demonstrate the utility of timedomain imaging for detection of cancer-related enzyme activity in vivo.

  3. Mammogram contrast enhancement in wavelet domain using fuzzy denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Amirpour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the leading death causes among many women around the world. Diagnosing breast cancer in early stage before it gets the chance to spread helps patients treatment.Mammography is an effective screening test that helps to early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer in women. In many cases, due to the low-energy X-ray beams usedin mammography and microcalcifications position, mammograms are low contrast and noisy images and it is difficult for radiologiststo distinguish between normal and neoplastic breast tissues.Therefore, image enhancement algorithms have been proposed to improve mammograms quality for better detection. The main focus of this paper is to propose a procedure for enhancingthe contrast of mammogram images by using a fuzzy based wavelet transform. At the first step of the procedure, a multiscale wavelet transform is obtained in four levels. In the second step,the fuzzy logic approach is applied to the fourth level for denoising and improving image quality. In the final step, wavelet coefficients in all scales are manipulated by an enhancing factor, to improve the image contrast. The performance of the proposed procedure was investigated according to various factors by simulation data.

  4. Breast reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may need a mammogram before the surgery. Your plastic surgeon will do a routine breast exam. You may ... the first year, but will then fade. The surgeon will make every ... the scars should not be noticeable, even in low-cut clothing.

  5. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  6. [Breast ductoscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Eran; Avin, Ilan D; Leong, Wey

    2011-02-01

    The majority of benign and malignant breast diseases originate in the ductal system. Breast ductoscopy (BD) allows direct access to this ductal system and thus holds great promise in the diagnosis and surgical management of a number of breast diseases. BD was first developed over 20 years ago to investigate nipple discharge. Indeed, till now, this remains the most common indication. However, BD technology has been further developed for a variety of new clinical applications. For example, BD-guided ductal ravage combined with molecular and genetic analysis can be a powerful screening tool for women at high-risk of breast cancer. BD can also be used during lumpectomy to identify additional radiographically occult disease. This refined intraoperative margin assessment can help surgeons to achieve clear margins at the first excision while optimizing the extent of resection. In the future, this same precise intraoperative margin assessment may facilitate a variety of local ablative techniques including laser Over time, BD is likely to evolve beyond its current technological limitations to realize its full diagnostic and therapeutic potential. The article describes the technique of BD, reviews its evolution and discusses current and future applications.

  7. Breast Lift (Mastopexy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fuller and heavier. This stretching might contribute to sagging breasts after pregnancy — whether or not you breast- ... stretch and sag. A breast lift can reduce sagging and raise the position of the nipples and ...

  8. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  9. Breast reconstruction - implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After a mastectomy , some women choose to have cosmetic surgery to remake their breast. This type of surgery ... to the breast or the new nipple. Having cosmetic surgery after breast cancer can improve your sense of ...

  10. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer include exposure to radiation, a family history of breast cancer, and having high estrogen levels, which can happen with diseases like cirrhosis or Klinefelter's syndrome. Treatment for male breast cancer is usually ...

  11. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  12. The application of a novel detector for X-ray diffraction study of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Current imaging methods - mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound and magnetic resonance images (MRI), fail to provide an accurate breast tumour size measurement. X-ray diffraction (XRD) can provide better contrast than mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis, better spatial resolution than ultrasound and is more cost effective than MRI. However, its use is limited by high radiation dose. Previous breast XRD research often fails to investigate samples with a realistic thick...

  13. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Maia, F R N C; Marchesini, S; Padmore, H A; Parkinson, D Y; Pien, J; Schirotzek, A; Yang, C; 10.1117/12.861946

    2010-01-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. In- terference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher con- trast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-Ray Micro Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. We report a GPU code for the most computationally intensive task, the gridding and inverse gridding algorithm (non uniform sampled Fourier transform).

  14. Breast cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed.

  15. Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound combined with elastography in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast lesions:a meta-analysis%超声造影联合超弹性技术鉴别诊断乳腺良恶性病变的meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梦杰; 周军

    2016-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound com-bined with elastography in differentiating the benign and malignant breast lesions. Methods The PubMed, EMbase, CNKI, VIP and Wanfang database were searched to collect the English and Chinese literatures about the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound combined with elastography in differentiating the benign and malignant breast lesions up to January 2016. The reviewers strictly followed the inclusion and exclusion criteria to screen the literature, extract the data and conduct quality assessment. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio and 95% CI were calculated by using Meta-disc1.4 software for heterogeneity analysis and data combining analysis. The forest map and ROC curve was drew, and the area under the curve was calculated. Results A total of 10 studies and 1 278 cases were included after the sensitivity analysis, 9 homogeneous research content were combined statistically. The results of meta-analysis showed pooled sensitivity of 0.94 (95%CI (0.91~0.96)), the pooled specificity of 0.92 (95%CI (0.89~0.94)), the positive likelihood ratio of 10.44 (95%CI(7.66~14.23)), the negative likeli-hood ratio of 0.08 (95%CI (0.06~0.11)), the diagnostic odds ratio of 166.38 (95%CI (101.91~271.64)), the AUC of SROC curve of 0.9744, and the Q index of 0.9272. Conclusion It is suggested that contrast-enhanced ultrasound com-bined with elastography is more effective in differentiating the benign and malignant breast lesions. Further studies are needed to confirm its accuracy.%目的:采用meta分析方法评价超声造影结合超声弹性成像技术在乳腺良恶性病变中的诊断价值。方法检索PubMed、EMbase、CNKI、VIP、万方等数据库,查找从建库至2016年1月1日期间有关超声造影结合超声弹性成像鉴别乳腺良恶性病变的文献,严格按照纳入、排除标

  16. Object localization within turbid slab media using time-resolved transillumination contrast functions: a finite element approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piron, V.; L'Huillier, J. P.; Mansouri, C.

    2007-07-01

    In the last few years, the propagation of diffuse photons in scattering media has become an important field of interest. This is mainly due to the possibility offered by the low absorption of light in the range 700 to 900nm. Indeed, this property leads to a potential deep penetration. But a non negligible limitation appears: the scattering processes strongly reduce both the contrast and the resolution. In this paper, the time-dependent light propagation in highly scattering media containing an inclusion is solved by means of a finite element method, tacking into account Robin type air-tissue boundary conditions. This study is devoted to the depth localization of a tumor enclosed into a breast-like slab. The tissue is modeled by a rectangular meshed domain that mimics a breast compressed between two transparent plates. Cartesian coordinates are used in order to solve the time-dependent diffusion approximation. A short laser pulse of 1ps is considered. The transillumination technique is able to laterally detect the object when the source and detector are moved together on the same axis. In order to perform the localization of the inclusion in this study, the optical properties of the object were varied. Knowing the lateral position of the inclusion, we derive interesting temporal contrast functions based on the mean time of flight of photons. These functions allow to localize in depth the inclusion under the assumption that the object is very diffusing. To conclude, our study demonstrates the possibility to detect laterally and axially a tumor-like inclusion enclosed in breast-like tissues.

  17. “Voices of Fear and Safety” Women’s ambivalence towards breast cancer and breast health: a qualitative study from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Hana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among Jordanian women. Breast malignancies are detected at late stages as a result of deferred breast health-seeking behaviour. The aim of this study was to explore Jordanian women’s views and perceptions about breast cancer and breast health. Methods We performed an explorative qualitative study with purposive sampling. Ten focus groups were conducted consisting of 64 women (aged 20 to 65 years with no previous history and no symptoms of breast cancer from four governorates in Jordan. The transcribed data was analysed using latent content analysis. Results Three themes were constructed from the group discussions: a Ambivalence in prioritizing own health; b Feeling fear of breast cancer; and c Feeling safe from breast cancer. The first theme was seen in women’s prioritizing children and family needs and in their experiencing family and social support towards seeking breast health care. The second theme was building on women’s perception of breast cancer as an incurable disease associated with suffering and death, their fear of the risk of diminished femininity, husband’s rejection and social stigmatization, adding to their apprehensions about breast health examinations. The third theme emerged from the women’s perceiving themselves as not being in the risk zone for breast cancer and in their accepting breast cancer as a test from God. In contrast, women also experienced comfort in acquiring breast health knowledge that soothed their fears and motivated them to seek early detection examinations. Conclusions Women’s ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and feelings of fear and safety could be better addressed by designing breast health interventions that emphasize the good prognosis for breast cancer when detected early, involve breast cancer survivors in breast health awareness campaigns and catalyse family support to encourage women to seek breast

  18. Laser projection using generalized phase contrast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Rodrigo, Peter John

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate experimental laser projection of a gray-level photographic image with 74% light efficiency using the generalized phase contrast (GPC) method. In contrast with a previously proposed technique [Alonzo et al., New J. Phys. 9, 132 (2007)], a new approach to image construction via GPC...... is introduced. An arbitrary phase shift filter eliminates the need for high-frequency modulation and conjugate phase encoding. This lowers device performance requirements and allows practical implementation with currently available dynamic spatial light modulators. (c) 2007 Optical Society of America....

  19. Contrast Reversal of Topography Artifacts in a Transmission SNOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi; WANG Shu-Feng; ZHANG Jia-Sen; GONG Qi-Huang

    2005-01-01

    @@ We demonstrate the contrast reversal behaviour of topography artifacts by changing the diameter of the collection diaphragm in a transmission scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). This originates from the change of the approach curves. Such contrast reversal phenomenon is used to distinguish the artifact signal from the true optical signal of the SNOM image. We also show that continuously changing the diaphragm to a proper diameter can greatly reduce topography artifacts.

  20. Typical atypical findings on dynamic MRI of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Kathinka D., E-mail: kurk@sus.no [Department of Radiology, Stavanger University Hospital, Postbox 8100, 4068 Stavanger (Norway); Roy, Sumit, E-mail: rosu@sus.no [Department of Radiology, Stavanger University Hospital, Postbox 8100, 4068 Stavanger (Norway); Moedder, Ulrich, E-mail: Moedder@uni-duesseldorf.de [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Duesseldorf University Hospital (Germany); Skaane, Per, E-mail: Per.Skaane@ulleval.no [Department of Radiology, Ullevaal University Hospital, University of Oslo (Norway); Saleh, Andreas, E-mail: saleh@uni-duesseldorf.de [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Duesseldorf University Hospital (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) of the breast has become an important tool to detect and characterize breast disease. The American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) provides a standardized vocabulary for describing the morphologic features and contrast kinetics of breast lesions. However, some lesions may show morphologic and dynamic MR features not consistent with their histologic nature resulting in incorrect categorization as malignant or benign. Another cause of diagnostic problems is artifacts. Thus correct interpretation of dynamic MRI of the breast demands knowledge of the most common pitfalls encountered in clinical practice. A pictorial overview of these is presented, with particular reference to the differentiation of malignant tumors from benign lesions.

  1. Breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopans, D.B.; Meyer, J.E.; Sadowsky, N.

    1984-04-12

    The majority of information available today indiates that the most efficient and accurate method of screening women to detect early-stage breast cancer is an aggressive program of patient self-examination, physical examination by well-trained, motivated personnel, and high-quality x-ray mammography. There are two important factors in the implementation of mammographic screening. The first is the availability of facilities to perform high-quality, low-dose mammography, which is directly related to the second factor: the expense to society for support of this large-scale effort. Cost-benefit analysis is beyond the scope of this review. In 1979 Moskowitz and Fox attempted to address this issue, using data from the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project in Cincinnati, but additional analysis is required. The cost for each ''curable'' cancer that is detected must be compared with the psychological, social, and personal losses that accrue, as well as the numerous medical expenses incurred, in a frequently protracted death from breast cancer. All other imaging techniques that have been reviewed should be regarded as adjuncts to rather than replacements for mammographic screening. Ultrasound and computerized tomography are helpful when the physical examination and mammogram are equivocal. Other techniques, such as transillumination, thermography, and magnetic-resonance imaging, should be considered experimental. In patients with clinically evident lesions, x-ray mammography is helpful to evaluate the suspicious area, as well as to ''screen'' the remaining tissue in both breasts and to search for multicentric or bilateral lesions. Mammography is the only imaging technique that has been proved effective for screening.

  2. Core biopsies of the breast: Diagnostic pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Joshi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide. In this review article, the authors compare and contrast the incidence of breast cancer, and the inherent differences in the United States (US and India in screening techniques used for diagnosing breast cancer. In spite of these differences, core biopsies of the breast are common for diagnosis of breast cancer in both countries. The authors describe "Best Practices" in the reporting and processing of core biopsies and in the analysis of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and human epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (Her2/neu. The pitfalls in the diagnosis of fibroepithelial lesions of the breast on core biopsy are discussed, as also the significance of pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast (PASH is discussed in core biopsy. In this review, the management and diagnosis of flat epithelial atypia and radiation atypia are elaborated and the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC in papillary lesions, phyllodes tumor, and complex sclerosing lesions (radial scars is illustrated. Rarer lesions such as mucinous and histiocytoid carcinoma are also discussed.

  3. Synchrotron nanoscopy imaging study of scalp hair in breast cancer patients and healthy individuals: Difference in medulla loss and cortical membrane enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung-Mi; Chikawa, Jun-Ichi; Jeon, Jae-Kun; Hwang, Min-Young; Lim, Jun; Jeong, Young-Ju; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Hong-Tae; Jheon, Sanghoon; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscopic synchrotron X-ray imaging was performed on scalp hair samples of patients with breast cancer and healthy individuals to investigate any structural differences as diagnostic tool. Hair strands were divided into 2-3 segments along the strands from root to tip, followed by imaging either in projection or in CT scanning with a monochromatic 6.78-keV X-ray using zone-plate optics with a resolving power of 60 nm. All the examined cancer hairs exhibited medulla loss with cancer stage-dependent pattern; complete loss, discontinuous or trace along the strands. In contrast, medullas were well retained without complete loss in the healthy hair. In the CT-scanned axial images, the cortical spindle compartments had no contrast in the healthy hair, but appeared hypointense in contrast to the surrounding hyperintense cortical membrane complex in the cancer hair. In conclusion, observation of medulla loss and cortical membrane enhancements in the hair strands of breast cancer patients demonstrated structural variations in the cancer hair, providing a new platform for further synchrotron X-ray imaging study of screening breast cancer patients.

  4. Contrastive topics decomposed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wagner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of contrastive topics introduced in Büring 1997b and further developed in Büring 2003 relies on distinguishing two types of constituents that introduce alternatives: the sentence focus, which is marked by a FOC feature, and the contrastive topic, which is marked by a CT feature. A non-compositional rule of interpretation that refers to these features is used to derive a topic semantic value, a nested set of sets of propositions. This paper presents evidence for a correlation between the restrictive syntax of nested focus operators and the syntax of contrastive topics, a correlation which is unexpected under this analysis. A compositional analysis is proposed that only makes use of the flatter focus semantic values introduced by focus operators. The analysis aims at integrating insights from the original analysis while at the same time capturing the observed syntactic restrictions. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.5.8 BibTeX info

  5. Polychromatic diffraction contrast tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A., E-mail: king@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette 91192 (France); Reischig, P. [Xnovo Technology ApS, 4600 Køge (Denmark); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft 2628 CD (Netherlands); Adrien, J. [MATEIS, INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne 69621 (France); Peetermans, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ludwig, W. [MATEIS, INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne 69621 (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble 38043 (France)

    2014-11-15

    This tutorial review introduces the use of polychromatic radiation for 3D grain mapping using X-ray diffraction contrast tomography. The objective is to produce a 3D map of the grain shapes and orientations within a bulk, millimeter-sized polycrystalline sample. The use of polychromatic radiation enables the standard synchrotron X-ray technique to be applied in a wider range of contexts: 1) Using laboratory X-ray sources allows a much wider application of the diffraction contrast tomography technique. 2) Neutron sources allow large samples, or samples containing high Z elements to be studied. 3) Applied to synchrotron sources, smaller samples may be treated, or faster measurements may be possible. Challenges and particularities in the data acquisition and processing, and the limitations of the different variants, are discussed. - Highlights: • We present a tutorial review of polychromatic diffraction contrast tomography techniques. • The use of polychromatic radiation allows the standard synchrotron DCT technique to be extended to a range of other sources. • The characteristics and limitations of all variants of the techniques are derived, discussed and compared. • Examples using laboratory X-ray and cold neutron radiation are presented. • Suggestions for the future development of these techniques are presented.

  6. Breast Imaging in Evaluation of Breast Cancer: Radiologist’s Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Sedighi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In every breast imaging, the radiologist confronts these questions:"n1. Finding the lesion"n2. Is the lesion real?"n3. Where the pathology lies"n4. What the lesion is "n5. What should be done about it?"nThe major objective in breast imaging is the detection of breast cancers at a small size and early stage in an effort to reduce mortality."nSome conditions limit evaluation of breast cancer imaging."nWhen additional mammographic views or ultrasound are unable to triangulate the location of a lesion, computed tomography can be very helpful for locating lesions three dimensionally. MRI with and without contrast is the other modality for evaluation of problematic cases or ambiguous findings in other modalities."nImplants present a problem for breast imaging in that they may prevent optimal visualization of the tissues."nA focal asymmetric density may merely represent an island of breast tissue. DCIS, with or without calcification, and metastatic axillary lymph nodes in a normal mammogram are some of the problematic cases of breast cancer."nThis presentation is expected to include real cases of breast cancer with the above-mentioned problems or unusual manifestations, which are resolved by a combination of different imaging modalities.    

  7. Spectral imaging of breast fibroadenoma using second-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liqin; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-09-01

    Fibroadenoma (FA), typically composed of stroma and epithelial cells, is a very common benign breast disease. Women with FA are associated with an increased risk of future breast cancer. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential of multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) for characterizing the morphology of collagen in the human breast fibroadenomas. In the study, high-contrast SHG images of human normal breast tissues and fibroadenoma tissues were obtained for comparison. The morphology of collagen was different between normal breast tissue and fibroadenoma. This study shows that MPLSM has the ability to distinguish fibroadenoma tissues from the normal breast tissues based on the noninvasive SHG imaging. With the advent of the clinical portability of miniature MPLSM, we believe that the technique has great potential to be used in vivo studies and for monitoring the treatment responses of fibroadenomas in clinical.

  8. Breast cancer imaging; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Mammakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funke, M. [Stadtklinik Baden-Baden, Brustzentrum Klinikum Mittelbaden, Radiologische Klinik, Baden-Baden (Germany); Villena, C. [Stadtklinik Baden-Baden, Brustzentrum Klinikum Mittelbaden, Frauenklinik, Baden-Baden (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Advances in female breast imaging have substantially influenced the diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of breast cancer in the past few years. Mammography using conventional or digital technique is considered the gold standard for the early detection of breast cancer. Other modalities such as breast ultrasound and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast play an important role in diagnostic imaging, staging, and follow-up of breast cancer. Percutaneous needle biopsy is a faster, less invasive, and more cost-effective method than surgical biopsy for verifying the histological diagnosis. New methods such as breast tomosynthesis, contrast-enhanced mammography, and positron emission tomography promise to further improve breast imaging. Further studies are mandatory to adapt these new methods to clinical needs and to evaluate their performance in clinical practice. (orig.) [German] Die Fortschritte bei den bildgebenden Verfahren der weiblichen Brust haben in den letzten Jahren die Diagnostik, die Therapie und die Prognose des Mammakarzinoms erheblich beeinflusst. Die Frueherkennungsmammographie in traditioneller oder digitaler Technik gilt heute als der ''Goldstandard'' fuer die fruehzeitige Detektion von Brustkrebs. Weitere Modalitaeten wie die Mammasonographie und die kontrastmittelgestuetzte MR-Mammographie spielen bei der bildgebenden Diagnostik, im Staging sowie in der Nachsorge des Mammakarzinoms eine wichtige Rolle. Die perkutane Nadelbiopsie stellt eine schnellere, weniger invasive und kostenguenstigere Methode dar als die diagnostische Exzision fuer die histologische Sicherung der Diagnose. Neue Modalitaeten wie Tomosynthese der Brust, kontrastverstaerkte Mammographie und Positronenemissionstomographie erheben den Anspruch, zu einer weiteren Verbesserung der Bildgebung beizutragen. Weitere Studien sind notwendig, um diese neuen Methoden an die klinischen Beduerfnisse zu adaptieren und ihren Stellenwert im klinischen Alltag

  9. Characterization of breast tissue composition and breast cancer risk assessment using non-invasive transillumination breast spectroscopy (TIBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Kristina M.; Weersink, Robert; Lilge, Lothar

    2005-09-01

    Tissue undergoing transformation into a state that is more favourable for tumor growth may present itself with different tissue optical properties and contain different amounts of the major tissue chromophores. Here, we decomposed transillumination spectra obtain in women from various risk levels of developing breast cancer.

  10. Bifunctional Luminomagnetic Rare-Earth Nanorods for High-Contrast Bioimaging Nanoprobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Singh, Satbir; Kumar, Pawan; Lee, Yean; Kedawat, Garima; Narayanan, Tharangattu N.; Vithayathil, Sajna Antony; Ge, Liehui; Zhan, Xiaobo; Gupta, Sarika; Martí, Angel A.; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Kaipparettu, Benny Abraham

    2016-09-01

    Nanoparticles exhibiting both magnetic and luminescent properties are need of the hour for many biological applications. A single compound exhibiting this combination of properties is uncommon. Herein, we report a strategy to synthesize a bifunctional luminomagnetic Gd2‑xEuxO3 (x = 0.05 to 0.5) nanorod, with a diameter of ~20 nm and length in ~0.6 μm, using hydrothermal method. Gd2O3:Eu3+ nanorods have been characterized by studying its structural, optical and magnetic properties. The advantage offered by photoluminescent imaging with Gd2O3:Eu3+ nanorods is that this ultrafine nanorod material exhibits hypersensitive intense red emission (610 nm) with good brightness (quantum yield more than 90%), which is an essential parameter for high-contrast bioimaging, especially for overcoming auto fluorescent background. The utility of luminomagnetic nanorods for biological applications in high-contrast cell imaging capability and cell toxicity to image two human breast cancer cell lines T47D and MDA-MB-231 are also evaluated. Additionally, to understand the significance of shape of the nanostructure, the photoluminescence and paramagnetic characteristic of Gd2O3:Eu3+ nanorods were compared with the spherical nanoparticles of Gd2O3:Eu3+.

  11. Breast ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, E

    1996-03-01

    In ultrasound, ultrasonic images are formed by means of echoes among tissues with different acoustic impedance. Acoustic impedance is the product of sound speed and bulk modulus. The bulk modulus expresses the elasticity of an object, and in the human body, the value is increased by conditions such as fibrosis and calcification. The sound speed is usually high in elastic tissues and low in water. In the body, it is lowest in the fatty tissue. Ultrasound echoes are strong on the surface of bones which are hard and have a high sound speed. In organs filled with air such as the lungs, the bulk modulus is low and the sound speed is extremely low at 340 m/s, which produce strong echoes (the sound speed in solid tissues is 1,530 m/s). Human tissue is constructed of units smaller than the ultrasonic beam, and it is necessary to understand back-scattering in order to understand the ultrasonic images of these tissues. When ultrasound passes through tissue, it is absorbed as thermal energy and attenuated. Fiber is a tissue with a high absorption and attenuation rate. When the rate increases, the posterior echoes are attenuated. However, in masses with a high water content such as cysts, the posterior echoes are accentuated. This phenomenon is an important, basic finding for determining the properties of tumors. Breast cancer can be classified into two types: stellate carcinoma and circumscribed carcinoma. Since stellate carcinoma is rich in fiber, the posterior echoes are attenuated or lacking. However, circumscribed carcinoma has a high cellularity and the posterior echoes are accentuated. The same tendency is also seen in benign tumors. In immature fibroadenomas, posterior echoes are accentuated, while in fibroadenomas with hyalinosis, the posterior echoes are attenuated. Therefore, if the fundamentals of this tissue characterization and the histological features are understood, reading of ultrasound becomes easy. Color Doppler has also been developed and has contributed

  12. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ducts that carry milk to the nipples, and fat. During puberty, women begin developing more breast tissue, and men do not. But because men are born with a small amount of breast tissue, they can develop breast cancer. Types of breast cancer diagnosed in men include: Cancer ...

  13. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  14. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  15. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael

    2014-07-01

    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  16. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael

    2017-01-31

    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  17. Breast MRI in nonpalpable breast lesions: a randomized trial with diagnostic and therapeutic outcome – MONET – study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Nicky HGM; Borel Rinkes, Inne HM; Mali, Willem PTM; van den Bosch, Maurice AAJ; Storm, Remmert K; Plaisier, Peter W; de Boer, Erwin; van Overbeeke, Adriaan J; Peeters, Petra HM

    2007-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been an increasing interest in MRI as a non-invasive diagnostic modality for the work-up of suspicious breast lesions. The additional value of Breast MRI lies mainly in its capacity to detect multicentric and multifocal disease, to detect invasive components in ductal carcinoma in situ lesions and to depict the tumor in a 3-dimensional image. Breast MRI therefore has the potential to improve the diagnosis and provide better preoperative staging and possibly surgical care in patients with breast cancer. The aim of our study is to assess whether performing contrast enhanced Breast MRI can reduce the number of surgical procedures due to better preoperative staging and whether a subgroup of women with suspicious nonpalpable breast lesions can be identified in which the combination of mammography, ultrasound and state-of-the-art contrast-enhanced Breast MRI can provide a definite diagnosis. Methods/Design The MONET – study (MR mammography Of Nonpalpable BrEast Tumors) is a randomized controlled trial with diagnostic and therapeutic endpoints. We aim to include 500 patients with nonpalpable suspicious breast lesions who are referred for biopsy. With this number of patients, the expected 12% reduction in surgical procedures due to more accurate preoperative staging with Breast MRI can be detected with a high power (90%). The secondary outcome is the positive and negative predictive value of contrast enhanced Breast MRI. If the predictive values are deemed sufficiently close to those for large core biopsy then the latter, invasive, procedure could possibly be avoided in some women. The rationale, study design and the baseline characteristics of the first 100 included patients are described. Trial registration Study protocol number NCT00302120 PMID:18045470

  18. Breast MRI in nonpalpable breast lesions: a randomized trial with diagnostic and therapeutic outcome – MONET – study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Boer Erwin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been an increasing interest in MRI as a non-invasive diagnostic modality for the work-up of suspicious breast lesions. The additional value of Breast MRI lies mainly in its capacity to detect multicentric and multifocal disease, to detect invasive components in ductal carcinoma in situ lesions and to depict the tumor in a 3-dimensional image. Breast MRI therefore has the potential to improve the diagnosis and provide better preoperative staging and possibly surgical care in patients with breast cancer. The aim of our study is to assess whether performing contrast enhanced Breast MRI can reduce the number of surgical procedures due to better preoperative staging and whether a subgroup of women with suspicious nonpalpable breast lesions can be identified in which the combination of mammography, ultrasound and state-of-the-art contrast-enhanced Breast MRI can provide a definite diagnosis. Methods/Design The MONET – study (MR mammography Of Nonpalpable BrEast Tumors is a randomized controlled trial with diagnostic and therapeutic endpoints. We aim to include 500 patients with nonpalpable suspicious breast lesions who are referred for biopsy. With this number of patients, the expected 12% reduction in surgical procedures due to more accurate preoperative staging with Breast MRI can be detected with a high power (90%. The secondary outcome is the positive and negative predictive value of contrast enhanced Breast MRI. If the predictive values are deemed sufficiently close to those for large core biopsy then the latter, invasive, procedure could possibly be avoided in some women. The rationale, study design and the baseline characteristics of the first 100 included patients are described. Trial registration Study protocol number NCT00302120

  19. Generation And Measurement Of High Contrast Ultrashort Intense Laser Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Konoplev, O A

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis, the generation and measurement of high contrast, intense, ultrashort pulses have been studied. Various factors affecting the contrast and pulse shape of ultrashort light pulses from a chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser system are identified. The level of contrast resulting from influence of these factors is estimated. Methods for improving and controlling the pulse shape and increasing the contrast are discussed. Ultrahigh contrast, 1-ps pulses were generated from a CPA system with no temporal structure up to eleven orders of magnitude. This is eight orders of magnitude higher contrast than the original pulse. This contrast boost was achieved using two techniques. One is the optical pulse cleaning based on the nonlinear birefringence of the chirping fiber and applied to the pulses before amplification. The other is the fast saturable absorber. The fast saturable absorber was placed after amplification and compression of the pulse. The measurements of high-contrast, ultrashort pulse with h...

  20. Octopaminergic modulation of contrast sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel ede Haan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sensory systems adapt to prolonged stimulation by decreasing their response to prevailing stimulus conditions. Whereas visual motion adaptation has traditionally been studied in immobilized animals, recent work indicates that the animal’s behavioral state influences the response properties of higher-order motion vision-sensitive neurons. During insect flight octopamine is released, and pharmacological octopaminergic activation can induce a fictive locomotor state. In the insect optic ganglia, lobula plate tangential cells (LPTCs spatially pool input from local elementary motion detectors (EMDs that correlate luminosity changes from two spatially discrete inputs after delaying the signal from one. The LPTC velocity optimum thereby depends on the spatial separation of the inputs and on the EMD’s delay properties. Recently it was shown that behavioral activity increases the LPTC velocity optimum, with modeling suggesting this to originate in the EMD’s temporal delay filters. However, behavior induces an additional post-EMD effect: the LPTC membrane conductance increases in flying flies. To physiologically investigate the degree to which activity causes presynaptic and postsynaptic effects, we conducted intracellular recordings of Eristalis horizontal system neurons. We constructed contrast response functions before and after adaptation at different temporal frequencies, with and without the octopamine receptor agonist chlordimeform (CDM. We extracted three motion adaptation components, where two are likely generated presynaptically of the LPTCs, and one within them. We found that CDM affected the early, EMD associated contrast gain reduction, temporal frequency dependently. However, a CDM-induced change of the HS membrane conductance disappeared during and after visual stimulation. This suggests that physical activity mainly affects motion adaptation presynaptically of LPTCs, whereas post-EMD effects have a minimal effect.

  1. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  2. Contrast Invariant SNR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Pierre; Escande, Paul; Dong, Yiqiu

    We design an image quality measure independent of local contrast changes, which constitute simple models of illumination changes. Given two images, the algorithm provides the image closest to the first one with the component tree of the second. This problem can be cast as a specific convex progra...... algorithms based on interior point methods. The algorithm has potential applications in change detection, color image processing or image fusion. A Matlab implementation is available at http://www.math.univ-toulouse.fr/_weiss/PageCodes.html....

  3. Ultrasound-modulated optical tomography in reflection mode with ring-shaped light illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chulhong; Song, Kwang Hyun; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-03-01

    We have succeeded in implementing ring-shaped light illumination ultrasound-modulated optical tomography (UOT) in reflection mode. The system used intense acoustic bursts and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera-based speckle contrast detection method. In addition, the implementation allows placing the tissue sample below (not within) an acoustic coupling water tank and scanning the tissue without moving the sample. Thus, the UOT system is more clinically applicable than previous transmission-mode systems. Furthermore, we have successfully imaged an ex vivo methylene-blue-dyed sentinel lymph node (SLN) embedded at a depth of 13 mm in chicken breast tissue. This UOT system offers several advantages: noninvasiveness, nonionizing radiation, portability, cost effectiveness, and the possibility of combination with ultrasound pulse-echo imaging and photoacoustic imaging. One potential application of the UOT system is mapping SLNs in axillary staging for breast cancer patients.

  4. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  5. Molecular photoacoustic imaging of breast cancer using an actively targeted conjugated polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasundaram G

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghayathri Balasundaram,1,* Chris Jun Hui Ho,1,* Kai Li,2 Wouter Driessen,3 US Dinish,1 Chi Lok Wong,1 Vasilis Ntziachristos,3 Bin Liu,2 Malini Olivo1,41Bio-Optical Imaging Group, Singapore Bioimaging Consortium (SBIC, 2Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR, Singapore; 3Institute of Biological and Medical Imaging, Helmholtz Center Munich, Neuherberg, Germany; 4School of Physics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Conjugated polymers (CPs are upcoming optical contrast agents in view of their unique optical properties and versatile synthetic chemistry. Biofunctionalization of these polymer-based nanoparticles enables molecular imaging of biological processes. In this work, we propose the concept of using a biofunctionalized CP for noninvasive photoacoustic (PA molecular imaging of breast cancer. In particular, after verifying the PA activity of a CP nanoparticle (CP dots in phantoms and the targeting efficacy of a folate-functionalized version of the same (folate-CP dots in vitro, we systemically administered the probe into a folate receptor-positive (FR+ve MCF-7 breast cancer xenograft model to demonstrate the possible application of folate-CP dots for imaging FR+ve breast cancers in comparison to CP dots with no folate moieties. We observed a strong PA signal at the tumor site of folate-CP dots-administered mice as early as 1 hour after administration as a result of the active targeting of the folate-CP dots to the FR+ve tumor cells but a weak PA signal at the tumor site of CP-dots-administered mice as a result of the passive accumulation of the probe by enhanced permeability and retention effect. We also observed that folate-CP dots produced ~4-fold enhancement in the PA signal in the tumor, when compared to CP dots. These observations demonstrate the great potential of this active-targeting CP to be used

  6. Comparison study of reconstruction algorithms for prototype digital breast tomosynthesis using various breast phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye-seul; Park, Hye-suk; Lee, Haeng-Hwa; Choi, Young-Wook; Choi, Jae-Gu; Kim, Hak Hee; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2016-02-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a recently developed system for three-dimensional imaging that offers the potential to reduce the false positives of mammography by preventing tissue overlap. Many qualitative evaluations of digital breast tomosynthesis were previously performed by using a phantom with an unrealistic model and with heterogeneous background and noise, which is not representative of real breasts. The purpose of the present work was to compare reconstruction algorithms for DBT by using various breast phantoms; validation was also performed by using patient images. DBT was performed by using a prototype unit that was optimized for very low exposures and rapid readout. Three algorithms were compared: a back-projection (BP) algorithm, a filtered BP (FBP) algorithm, and an iterative expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. To compare the algorithms, three types of breast phantoms (homogeneous background phantom, heterogeneous background phantom, and anthropomorphic breast phantom) were evaluated, and clinical images were also reconstructed by using the different reconstruction algorithms. The in-plane image quality was evaluated based on the line profile and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and out-of-plane artifacts were evaluated by means of the artifact spread function (ASF). Parenchymal texture features of contrast and homogeneity were computed based on reconstructed images of an anthropomorphic breast phantom. The clinical images were studied to validate the effect of reconstruction algorithms. The results showed that the CNRs of masses reconstructed by using the EM algorithm were slightly higher than those obtained by using the BP algorithm, whereas the FBP algorithm yielded much lower CNR due to its high fluctuations of background noise. The FBP algorithm provides the best conspicuity for larger calcifications by enhancing their contrast and sharpness more than the other algorithms; however, in the case of small-size and low-contrast

  7. Recent Experiences and Advances in Contrast-Enhanced Subharmonic Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Eisenbrey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging schemes strive to suppress tissue signals in order to better visualize nonlinear signals from blood-pooling ultrasound contrast agents. Because tissue does not generate a subharmonic response (i.e., signal at half the transmit frequency, subharmonic imaging has been proposed as a method for isolating ultrasound microbubble signals while suppressing surrounding tissue signals. In this paper, we summarize recent advances in the use of subharmonic imaging in vivo. These advances include the implementation of subharmonic imaging on linear and curvilinear arrays, intravascular probes, and three-dimensional probes for breast, renal, liver, plaque, and tumor imaging.

  8. Recent Experiences and Advances in Contrast-Enhanced Subharmonic Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrey, John R; Sridharan, Anush; Liu, Ji-Bin; Forsberg, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging schemes strive to suppress tissue signals in order to better visualize nonlinear signals from blood-pooling ultrasound contrast agents. Because tissue does not generate a subharmonic response (i.e., signal at half the transmit frequency), subharmonic imaging has been proposed as a method for isolating ultrasound microbubble signals while suppressing surrounding tissue signals. In this paper, we summarize recent advances in the use of subharmonic imaging in vivo. These advances include the implementation of subharmonic imaging on linear and curvilinear arrays, intravascular probes, and three-dimensional probes for breast, renal, liver, plaque, and tumor imaging.

  9. Should I Have Breast Reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reconstruction Surgery Breast Cancer Breast Reconstruction Surgery Should I Get Breast Reconstruction Surgery? Women who have surgery ... It usually responds well to treatment. What if I choose not to have breast reconstruction? Many women ...

  10. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy An ultrasound-guided breast biopsy ... limitations of Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? What is Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? Lumps or abnormalities in the ...

  11. Phase Contrast Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    with a simple one-to-one mapping between resolution elements of a spatial phase modulator and resolution elements of the generated intensity pattern is provided. According to the invention a method is provided for synthesizing an intensity pattern with low loss of electromagnetic energy, comprising spatial...... modulation of electromagnetic radiation with a spatial phase mask for modulation of the phase of the incident eletromagnetic radiation by phasor values of individual resolution elements of the spatial phase mask, each phasor value being determined in such a way that the values of the Fourier transformed......The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a prescribed intensity pattern based on phase contrast imaging that is not based on the assumption of prior art methods that the pahase shift phi is less than 1 radian. An improved method based on a simple imaging operation...

  12. Breast Tumor Ablation by Selective Autophagic Degradation of Postmitotic Midbodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    resistant and metastatic cancers. 15. SUBJECT TERMS breast cancer, stem cells, midbody, mitosis , microtubules 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...bottom, phase contrast image of ring- like MB; inset top MBs overlaid with phase contrast cell image. 4) % normal or cancer cells with MB

  13. MRI of the breast: state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, M. [Abteilung Radiologie/Nuklearmedizin, Krankenhaus am Urban, Dieffenbachstrasse 1, D-10 967 Berlin (Germany)

    1998-06-02

    Contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast is probably the most sensitive method to detect breast pathology. It is best used to improve the sensitivity of mammography and sonography in selected patient groups with high breast cancer prevalence, where conventional methods are known to be less sensitive. Despite the high sensitivity of MRI, 5-12 % of invasive carcinomas are not recognized during MRI, because of lack of the typical criteria of carcinoma. MRI is probably inferior to mammography in detecting ductal in-situ carcinoma or very small carcinomas (< 3 mm), because the neo-angiogenesis induced by these small carcinomas is too faint to be detected by contrast-enhanced MRI. These tumours cannot be excluded by a normal MRI examination. MRI is non-specific as the distinction of benign and malignant breast lesions is unreliable. Only in selected cases (fat- or blood-containing lesions) may it improve the specificity of mammography and sonography. Mostly image-guided core biopsy is by far the most specific and least expensive method to establish a definitive diagnosis. For lesions exclusively detected by contrast-enhanced MRI, simple and reliable localisation devices are urgently needed. Presently accepted indications for MRI of the breast are: patients with silicone implants after mastectomy or augmentation mammoplasty (detection of recurrence/prothesis rupture/silicon leakage); patients whose breasts are difficult to evaluate by combined mammography and sonography, who have had breast conservation therapy (local recurrence), or who have proven carcinoma in one breast (multifocality/-centricity or contralateral breast carcinoma) or proven axillary lymph node metastases from an unknown primary tumor, especially when these are hormone receptor positive; patients with extensive postoperative scarring. In the future, genetically defined high breast cancer risk may become an indication. (orig.) With 11 figs., 2 tabs., 151 refs.

  14. Quality control in breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubiak, R.R.; Messias, P.C.; Santos, M.F., E-mail: requi@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologia Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento Academico de Fisica; Urban, L.A.B.D., E-mail: lineiurban@hotmail.com [Diagnostico Avancado por Imagem, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil, breast cancer is the most common and the leading cause of death among women, with estimated 57,000 new cases in 2014. The mammography (2D) plays an important role in the early detection of breast cancer, but in some cases can be difficult to detect malignant lesions due overlap of breast tissues. The Digital Breasts Tomosynthesis (DBT: 3D) reduces the effects of overlap, providing improved characterization of mammographic findings. However, the dose may double as compared with mammography. This study presents results of Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) and image quality evaluation on Siemens mammography equipment Mammomat Inspiration with tomosynthesis. The CNR was determined with Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) layers of 20 to 70 mm thick and an aluminum foils of 0,2 mm thickness and area of 10 mm². Image quality was assessed with the ACR Breast Simulator. In the evaluation of image quality, the detectability of fibers and masses was identical in 2D and 3D systems. Displaying fibers were 4,5 and 4 mass in both modes. In 2D mode were identified 3,5 microcalcifications groups, and 3D showed 3 groups. The Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) for the simulator in 2D mode was 1,17 mGy and 2,35 mGy for the 3D mode. The result reinforces the importance of quality control in the process of obtaining the images and obtained in accordance CNR values, ensuring image quality and compatible dose in 2D and 3D processes. (author)

  15. pH induced contrast in viscoelasticity imaging of biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapp, R D; Insana, M F

    2009-01-01

    Understanding contrast mechanisms and identifying discriminating features is at the heart of diagnostic imaging development. This report focuses on how pH influences the viscoelastic properties of biopolymers to better understand the effects of extracellular pH on breast tumour elasticity imaging. Extracellular pH is known to decrease as much as 1 pH unit in breast tumours, thus creating a dangerous environment that increases cellular mutatation rates and therapeutic resistance. We used a gelatin hydrogel phantom to isolate the effects of pH on a polymer network with similarities to the extracellular matrix in breast stroma. Using compressive unconfined creep and stress relaxation measurements, we systematically measured the viscoelastic features sensitive to pH by way of time domain models and complex modulus analysis. These results are used to determine the sensitivity of quasi-static ultrasonic elasticity imaging to pH. We found a strong elastic response of the polymer network to pH, such that the matrix stiffness decreases as pH was reduced, however the viscous response of the medium to pH was negligible. While physiological features of breast stroma such as proteoglycans and vascular networks are not included in our hydrogel model, observations in this study provide insight into viscoelastic features specific to pH changes in the collagenous stromal network. These observations suggest that the large contrast common in breast tumours with desmoplasia may be reduced under acidic conditions, and that viscoelastic features are unlikely to improve discriminability. PMID:19174599

  16. pH-induced contrast in viscoelasticity imaging of biopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yapp, R D; Insana, M F [Department of Bioengineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States)], E-mail: ryapp2@illinois.edu

    2009-03-07

    Understanding contrast mechanisms and identifying discriminating features is at the heart of diagnostic imaging development. This paper focuses on how pH influences the viscoelastic properties of biopolymers to better understand the effects of extracellular pH on breast tumour elasticity imaging. Extracellular pH is known to decrease as much as 1 pH unit in breast tumours, thus creating a dangerous environment that increases cellular mutatation rates and therapeutic resistance. We used a gelatin hydrogel phantom to isolate the effects of pH on a polymer network with similarities to the extracellular matrix in breast stroma. Using compressive unconfined creep and stress relaxation measurements, we systematically measured the viscoelastic features sensitive to pH by way of time-domain models and complex modulus analysis. These results are used to determine the sensitivity of quasi-static ultrasonic elasticity imaging to pH. We found a strong elastic response of the polymer network to pH, such that the matrix stiffness decreases as pH was reduced; however, the viscous response of the medium to pH was negligible. While physiological features of breast stroma such as proteoglycans and vascular networks are not included in our hydrogel model, observations in this study provide insight into viscoelastic features specific to pH changes in the collagenous stromal network. These observations suggest that the large contrast common in breast tumours with desmoplasia may be reduced under acidic conditions, and that viscoelastic features are unlikely to improve discriminability.