WorldWideScience

Sample records for breast milk intake

  1. Use of the isotope method to measure breast milk intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study to test the efficacy of the nutrition counselling (NC) contents of integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses Course (IMCI, WHO/UNICEF), funded by WHO, was planned and conducted in Pelotas (southern Brazil). The study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial with the random allocation of 14 municipal health centres to receive the NC training and 14 other centres to the control group (current nutrition counselling, if any). The study included testing the knowledge of doctors, observing consultations and visiting the children at home 8, 45 and 180 days after the initial consultation. Dietary intakes were studied on a sub-sample of 66 children (two per health care provider), through daylong observations. Breast milk intake was assessed by the frequency and duration of feeds. The deuterium study was carried out in the same population to validate breast milk intake estimates. The deuterium study was a cross-sectional assessment of breast milk intake among those children enrolled in the day long sub-sample. From the 66 children visited by the day long study, 18 were still breast fed and were selected for the deuterium study. A total of 11 saliva samples were collected from each mother/child pair at a 15-day interval: four from the mother (on days 0, 1, 6 and 14) and seven from the child (on days 0, 1, 2, 5, 6, 13, and 14). The Pearson correlation coefficient comparing the amount of milk as estimated by observation and the amount calculated through the deuterium technique (gold standard) was equal to 0.53. This result indicates that the estimates based on the frequency and the duration of breastfeeding through observation correlated to the results of the gold standard method for breast milk intake assessment, although this correlation was of moderate strength. As the gold standard, the deuterium method showed to be practical and easily to perform at field setting. (author)

  2. Breast milk and complementary food intake in Brazilian infants according to socio-economic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romulus-Nieuwelink, Johanna J. C.; Doak, Colleen; Albernaz, Elaine; Victora, Cesar G.; Haisma, Hinke

    2011-01-01

    Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast mi

  3. Establishment and application of deuterium dilution method for measuring breast milk intake of Pakistani infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project will be a collaborative study between the Pakistan Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) and Department of Pediatrics, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS). It may also involve the Polyclinic, Islamabad. Pediatricians who have had experience in lactation management clinic and hence breast-milk intake studies by conventional methods (test weighing) will be formally involved in the study. Human milk intake and growth performance of exclusively breast-fed infants will be monitored over the first six months of life. The deuterium dilution method will be used for measuring breast-milk intake and will be compared with the test weighing method. The growth of exclusively breast-fed children will be compared with the NCH growth standards. Records of illnesses that may lead to suboptimal growth will be kept. Episodes of diarrhoea, in particular, will be correlated with growth faltering. Acquisition of Helicobacter pylori detected by the use of the 13C Urea breath test at three month intervals during the study period examined for relationships with diarrhoea. Thus, this study will not only provide preliminary data on breast-milk intake (based on a more accurate isotopic method as compared to test weighing) but also on the growth patterns of exclusively breast-fed infants. Further, information on the significance of Helicobacter pylori to infection with episodes of diarrhoeal infection and growth faltering. (author)

  4. Measurements of breast milk intake in exclusively or predominantly breast-fed infants, and the impact of lactation counseling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a mirror sample of the Multicenter Growth Reference Study the deuterium dilution method was used to measure breast milk intake. The following hypotheses were tested: a) There is no statistically significant difference in breast milk intake between exclusively and predominantly breast-fed babies; b) Breast milk intake is higher in babies from mothers who get lactation support; and c) Mothers who report exclusive breast-feeding are not taking any other fluids or foods. Mothers were randomly assigned to an intervention group who received lactation counseling from birth to 4 months onwards, and a control group who did not receive lactation support. 142 mother and infant pairs were followed up. Preliminary results show that the sample was an exact mirror of the MGRS, and that at 4 months mothers who received lactation support were exclusively breast-feeding more frequently than those who did not receive support. Similarly, the number of infants weaned off the breast was smaller in the intervention than in the control group. At the time of writing of this report 72 mother-infant pairs were included in the deuterium study. Results on breast milk intake are awaiting completion of the study and sample analysis. (author)

  5. Measurement of breast milk intake using deuterium oxide and fourier transformed infrared spectrophotometer - a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of breast milk intake of infants is essential to the estimation of nutrient requirements during infancy and lactation. The conventional method, test-weighing procedure for measuring breast milk is time consuming, most often inaccurate and may interfere with the mother's normal activities. A more practical and accurate method is isotope dilution using stable isotope-labelled water. The accuracy and ready availability of deuterium oxide (D2O) have led to its extensive use in measuring body composition and breast milk intake of infants. The D2O turnover method was field-tested in 13 lactating Ghanaian mother-baby pairs. Maternal and baby anthropometric measurements were made. Baby milk intake and maternal body composition were measured with the dose-to-mother method. Pre-dose samples of saliva were taken from each mother-baby pair. A measured D2O dose (30g) was administered orally to the mother. Post-dose saliva samples were collected from mother and baby on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 13, and 14. Samples were analysed using Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR). The mean ± SD maternal age was 24 ± 5 years. Babies were aged 3.5 months on the average and weighed 6.7 ± 0.7 kg. Mean milk intake of babies was 828 ± 132 ml/day with a range of 610 to 1040 ml/day. Maternal fat free mass and % body fat were 44.8 ± 5.3 kg, 23.1 ± 5.1 respectively. This non-invasive and convenient method has been used successfully to measure breast milk intake of Ghanaian infants. (au)

  6. Energy intake from human milk covers the requirement of 6-month-old Senegalese exclusively breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne-Djigo, Anta; Kwadjode, Komlan M; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diouf, Adama; Guiro, Amadou T; Wade, Salimata

    2013-11-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months is advised by the WHO as the best practice to feed infants. Yet, some studies have suggested a gap between energy requirements and the energy provided by human milk for many infants at 6 months. In order to assess the adequacy of WHO recommendations in 6-month-old Senegalese lactating infants, a comprehensive study was designed to measure human milk intake by the dose-to-the mother 2H2O turnover method. Infants’ energy intakes were calculated using daily breast milk intake and the energy content of milk was estimated on the basis of creamatocrit. Of the fifty-nine mother–infant pairs enrolled, fifteen infants were exclusively breast-fed (Ex) while forty-four were partially breast-fed (Part). Infants’ breast milk intake was significantly higher in the Ex group (993 (SD 135) g/d, n 15) compared with the Part group (828 (SD 222) g/d, n 44, P¼0·009). Breast milk energy content as well as infants' growth was comparable in both groups. However, infants’ energy intake from human milk was significantly higher (364 (SD 50) kJ/kg per d (2586 (SD 448) kJ/d)) in the Ex group than in the Part group (289 (SD 66) kJ/kg per d (2150 (SD 552) kJ/d), P,0·01). Compared with WHO recommendations, the results demonstrate that energy intake from breast milk was low in partially breast-fed infants while exclusively breast-fed 6-month-old Senegalese infants received adequate energy from human milk alone, the most complete food for infants. Therefore, advocacy of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months should be strengthened.

  7. Personalizing nutrient intakes of formula-fed infants: breast milk as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2008-01-01

    The growth pattern of formula-fed infants is quite different from that of breastfed infants. There may be several reasons for this difference, ranging from different endocrine responses to feeding and the presence of growth factors in breast milk to different control of food intake, but it is highly likely that differences in nutrient composition of the food (breast milk or formula) have major effects on growth. In most countries infant formula is used more or less exclusively up to 6 months of age and as part of the diet up to 12 months of age and during this period its composition remains the same. In striking contrast, the nutrient composition of breast milk changes during lactation, most dramatically during early lactation, but with pronounced differences throughout lactation for many nutrients. It is a goal that the performance of formulafed infants should be as similar to that of breastfed infants as possible, and attempts have been made to modify the composition of infant formula to achieve this goal. However, there has been no systematic attempt to gradually change the composition of infant formula in a manner similar to the changing pattern of breast milk. This represents a technical and nutritional challenge, but is now possible.

  8. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast-milk intake in children aged 7 to 12 months receiving complementary foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is being conducted to pilot the use of the deuterium oxide method for the measurement of breast-milk intake in children 7 - 12 months of age receiving complementary foods. This will be applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. In order to apply the methodology to this evaluation the washout period of deuterium from the mother and the child after the administration of a dose to the mother is being determined and the comparison of this methodology with the test weighing technique for breast-milk intake. The measurement of deuterium oxide using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional [IIN] is being compared with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. During the present period we have conducted a pilot study to measure breast-milk intake using deuterium oxide in 9 mother-child pairs of children aged 7 - 11 months of age; samples of saliva have been taken for analyses. One child has completed the 28 days of the study and 8 children are in process. Test weighing for 48 hours has been conducted on 5 children; unadjusted breast-milk intake ranges from 589 to 682 g per 24 hours. The samples are awaiting analysis for deuterium oxide. (author)

  9. Pyrethroids in human breast milk: occurrence and nursing daily intake estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcellas, Cayo; Feo, Maria Luisa; Torres, Joao Paulo; Malm, Olaf; Ocampo-Duque, William; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2012-10-15

    There is an assumption that pyrethroid pesticides are converted to non-toxic metabolites by hydrolysis in mammals. However, some recent works have shown their bioaccumulation in human breast milk collected in areas where pyrethroids have been widely used for agriculture or malaria control. In this work, thirteen pyrethroids have been studied in human breast milk samples coming from areas without pyrethroid use for malaria control, such as Brazil, Colombia and Spain. The concentrations of pyrethroids ranged from 1.45 to 24.2 ng g⁻¹ lw. Cypermethrin, λ-cyhalothrin, permethrin and esfenvalerate/fenvalerate were present in all the studied samples. The composition of pyrethroid mixture depended on the country of origin of the samples, bifenthrin being the most abundant in Brazilian samples, λ-cyhalothrin in Colombian and permethrin in Spanish ones. When the pyrethroid concentrations were confronted against the number of gestations, an exponential decay was observed. Moreover, a time trend study was carried out in Brazil, where additional archived pool samples were analyzed, corresponding to years when pyrethroids were applied for dengue epidemic control. In these cases, total pyrethroid levels reached up to 128 ng g⁻¹ lw, and concentrations decreased when massive use was not allowed. Finally, daily intake estimation of nursing infants was calculated in each country and compared to acceptable WHO levels. The estimated daily intakes for nursing infants were always below the acceptable daily intake levels, nevertheless in certain samples the detected concentrations were very close to the maximum acceptable levels. PMID:22717642

  10. Maternal Body Mass Index, Dietary Intake and Socioeconomic Status: Differential Effects on Breast Milk Zinc, Copper and Iron Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Nikniaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As breast milk micronutrients content are essential for health and growth of the infants, this study was conducted to determine the breast milk zinc, copper and iron concen-trations and their possible correlations with maternal nutritional status, dietary intakes as well as socioeconomic status.Methods: Breast milk samples and information on maternal anthropometric characteristics and dietary intake were collected from 90 Iranian lactating women with 3 different socioeco-nomic status who exclusively breastfed their infants. Concentrations of trace elements were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nutritionist III program, Multiple Re-gression and ANOVA test were used for data analyses.Results: The mean milk zinc, copper, and iron concentrations were 1.93 ± 0.71, 0.58 ± 0.32, and 0.81 ± 0.2 mg/l, respectively. In all three SES groups only zinc mean level was lower than the recommended range. A significant difference was observed in breast milk zinc, copper and iron concentration between high and low SES groups (Zn (P<0.001, Cu (P<0.001 and Fe (P<0.044 and also moderate and low SES groups (Zn (P<0.03, Cu (P<0.001 and Fe (P<0.049. After adjusting for maternal body mass index (BMI, socioeconomic status, mean dietary energy, zinc, copper, and iron intakes, there was a negative and significant association between maternal age and breast milk zinc (β=-0.28, P<0.034, copper (β=-0.18, P<0.048, and iron (β=-0.22, P<0.04 concentrations.Conclusion: In low socioeconomic group with lower mean age, breast milk mineral levels were higher than others and there was no significant correlation between mineral levels and dietary intake. Hence it is supposed that maternal age may be better predictor of breast milk mineral levels.

  11. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast milk intake in children aged 7-12 months receiving complementary foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study we performed a pilot study using deuterium oxide method to determine the breast-milk intake in children 7-12 months of age receiving complementary food. This is applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. We determined the washout period for the deuterium finding a value of 21 days for the mother and child. This measurement was performed using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional and compared with the values obtained with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. The test weighing was conduced on 14 children and compared with the values obtained using the deuterium methodology. Our result suggest that the breast milk intake determined by the weighing test was lower with regard to the value obtained with the deuterium methodology. (author)

  12. Growth and breast-milk intake in Papua New Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to show what is possible if lactation performance and growth are measured in the context of the WHO Growth Reference Study. The fact is that a piece of work very similar to that which could be reasonably proposed for the present study was done in the 1980's in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and reading Alison Orr-Ewing's thesis it is interesting to find the statement 'The apparent adequacy of mean nutrient intakes up to 6 months and the small and late effect of morbidity on weight gain observed in this study, both substantiate the suggestion that the growth faltering relative to international standards which occurs from 3-5 months is probably largely due to the inappropriate nature of the standards'. This sort of finding was emerging from many research centres at that time (see for example Whitehead and Paul, in my own department) and provided the impetus to develop new standards for growth such as in the WHO Growth Reference Programme. At the same sort of time too, both myself and Dr Peter Heywood, then at the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research were attending one of the first meetings for nutritionists held at IAEA in Vienna. There is thus a certain satisfaction that can be derived from the appropriateness of describing the work at this meeting but it must be tinged with regret that it has taken nearly 20 years to achieve it. The published work from PNG deals only with lactation but the present report will contain some unpublished material on growth and morbidity

  13. Stable isotopes for body composition and breast milk intake assessments: IAEA initiatives in Ghana and Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body composition can be measured by various techniques. However, The only way in which lean body mass and fat body mass can be measured accurately in free-living human subjects is to use a kinetic method with water labelled with 2H and or 18O. Known as the 'stable isotope dilution method' this procedure is now accepted worldwide. In addition, This technique has been validated to assess infant milk intake. Indeed, the dose-to-mother isotope dilution method measures breast milk output and mother's body composition with minimum interference on the lactation process.The IAEA Technical Cooperation projects in Senegal and Ghana were aimed at estimating breast milk output and mother's body composition by deuterium dilution methods among lactating mothers, who were the beneficiaries of the National Supplementary Feeding Programme. A dose of deuterium oxide was orally administrated to the mothers and saliva samples were collected from both the babies and the mothers before and after the administration of the dose. Enrichment of the saliva samples was measured by a fast, easy and less expensive method, which uses a Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). In Senegal, the study has been conducted on 206 women paired with their children and 1876 saliva samples have been analysed in duplicate. In Ghana, 150 paired women with their children have been selected for the study and 2100 saliva samples have been analysed. Following results were obtained after a 3 months supplementary feeding: There is a significant increase in mother's lean body mass (41.35Kg ± 5.00) vs (34.63Kg ± 6.09) respectively in supplemented and non-supplemented mothers in Ghana. And, (40Kg±4) vs (37Kg±4) respectively in supplemented and non-supplemented mothers in Senegal; Breast Milk volume increased significantly in Ghana's study (1050 ml ±280) vs (850 ml± 150). However, in Senegal, the intervention did not significantly improved the milk output (992 ml±186) vs (943 ml ±207); The nutrition

  14. Evaluation of the deuterium dilution technique against the test-weighing procedure for the determination of breast milk intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A noninvasive isotopic method for the determination of milk intake in breast-fed infants was evaluated against the conventional method of test-weighing. In experiment 1, 48-h breast milk intake was estimated concurrently by the test-weighing procedure and by the deuterium dilution technique. In experiment 2, the isotopic method, modified to minimize fluctuations in water flux, was evaluated against a 24-h test-weighing. In experiment 1, the mean 48-h milk intake estimated by the isotopic method (1616 +/- 353 ml) was significantly higher than that measured by the test-weighing procedure (1449 +/- 234 ml) (p less than 0.01). In experiment 2, 24-h milk intake as determined by test-weighing and deuterium dilution averaged 878.0 +/- 188.1 and 690.7 +/- 141.4 ml/day, respectively, and differed significantly (p less than 0.001). The ability of the deuterium dilution method to predict values obtained by the test-weighing procedure was unsatisfactory for individual estimations. These experiments indicate that the deuterium dilution technique is unacceptable for the determination of breast-milk intake in individuals, but may be satisfactory for a population estimation

  15. Isotopic evaluation of breast milk intake, energy metabolism, growth and body composition of exclusively breast fed infants in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable evidence to support the view that the current growth standards for infants, which are in-use globally, may be inappropriate. This is based on the observation that these were derived from largely formula-fed western populations and recent studies documenting that exclusively breastfed young infants exhibit a lower growth trajectory. However, there are few studies objectively evaluating energy metabolism, body composition and growth in exclusively breastfed infants, and none in developing countries. We propose to evaluate this longitudinally in an appropriate sample of exclusively breast fed newborn infants in Pakistan. These newborn infants will be well characterized at birth and sequential measurements of breast milk intake and energy expenditure will be made using doubly labeled water, big-impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry. (author)

  16. Breast milk intake is not reduced more by the introduction of energy dense complementary food than by typical infant porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpin, Lauren; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Phuka, John; Ashorn, Per; Maleta, Ken; Wong, William W; Manary, Mark J

    2007-07-01

    The effect of different energy densities of complementary foods on breast milk consumption is not well understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that provision of fortified spread (FS), a micronutrient fortified, energy-dense (22 kJ/g), ready-to-use food, to Malawian infants would not decrease their breast milk intake more than a traditional corn + soy blended flour (CSB). Forty-four healthy 6-mo-old infant and mother pairs were enrolled in a prospective, parallel group, investigator-blinded, randomized controlled complementary feeding trial. Infants were randomized to receive 25 g/d of FS, 50 g/d of FS, or 72 g/d of CSB. The primary outcome was the difference in breast milk intake after 1 mo of complementary feeding as measured by the dose-to-mother deuterium oxide dilution technique. Outcomes were compared using repeated measures ANOVA. A total of 41 mother-infant pairs completed the study. At enrollment, 88% of the infants had received corn porridge. At baseline, the infants consumed 129 +/- 18 g.kg body wt(-1) x d(-1) (mean +/- SD) of breast milk. After 1 mo of complementary feeding with 25 g/d FS, 50 g/d FS, or 72 g/d CSB, their breast milk consumption was 115 +/- 18 g.kg body wt(-1) x d(-1), a significant reduction; however, the effects of the complementary foods did not differ from one another (F-value model = 4.33, P = 0.0008 for effect of time and P = 0.69 for effect of type of food). The results suggest that complementary feeding of Malawian infants with FS has the same effect on their breast milk intake as complementary feeding with traditional CSB porridge.

  17. Isotopic evaluation of breast milk intake, energy metabolism, growth and body composition of exclusively breastfed infants in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable evidence to support the view that the current growth standards for infants, which are in-use globally, may be inappropriate. This is based on the observation that these were derived from largely formula-fed western populations and recent studies documenting that exclusively breastfed young infants exhibit a lower growth trajectory. However, there are few studies objectively evaluating energy metabolism, body composition and growth in exclusively breastfed infants, and none in developing countries. We evaluated the growth pattern and breast milk and fluid intake patterns longitudinally in a representative sample of exclusively breastfed newborn infants in Pakistan. These newborn infants were well characterized at birth and sequential measurements of growth, body composition and energy expenditure were made using bio-impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry. In addition, breast milk intake was quantified using deuterium administration to the mother in a standard dose (10g) and estimation of urinary enrichment in exclusively breastfed infants and correlated with weight gain and growth. A consecutive 112 mother baby pairs were studied longitudinally and breast milk intake was quantified in a subset of 12. The mean (± SD) maternal age was 27.5 ± 4.8 years and the weight 64.8 ± 7.9 kg, indicating the appropriate nutritional status of the population. The mean birth weight of the cohort was 3.13 ± 0.36 kg and the gestational age 3.13 ± 0.36 weeks. The mean body weight of the cohort at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age was 4.87 ± 0.63, 6.40 ± 0.6, 7.56 ± 0.69 and 11.18 ± 1.05 kg respectively, which was better or comparable to many developed country cohorts of breastfed infants. The mean breast milk intake at 2 weeks, 3 months and 6 months of age was 591.7 ± 144.2, 794 ± 133 and 677.6 ± 298.6 ml/day respectively representing a range of 73-133 ml/kg/day. The maternal fluid intake for these corresponding time periods was 4.19 ± 1.12, 4.15 ± 1

  18. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called nursing, is the ...

  19. Human breast milk and adipokines--A potential role for the soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R) in the regulation of infant energy intake and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, F D; Rao, P; Moore, J; Stewart, R; Ladino, Yuli Martinez; Hartmann, B T

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of different adipokines in human breast milk are thought to be able to affect energy intake of the infant. Leptin is a hormone synthesized by adipose tissue and the human placenta and favors satiety. The availability of leptin in breast milk is influenced by epithelial cells of the mammary gland that are known to be able to produce leptin, as well as leptin from maternal circulation that is transported to the breast milk, and which can thus in turn reach neonatal blood after absorption. Research so far as mainly focused on leptin concentrations in breast milk. However, evidence suggests that in addition to leptin concentrations levels of the so-called soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R), the main high-affinity binding protein for leptin in humans, are necessary in order to calculate the free leptin index (FLI) and to assess function of the leptin axis. FLI is calculated from the ratio of leptin to the sOb-R, and serves as the main parameter for assessing function of the leptin axis throughout maturation and development. Here we propose that assessing sOb-R levels in addition to leptin concentrations in breast milk could serve as a valuable tool to investigate effects of the leptin axis in breast milk because sOb-R concentrations can impact available leptin levels, and which in turn can have significant implications for infant energy intake and related development.

  20. Nonnutritive Sweeteners in Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Gardner, Alexandra L; Bauman, Viviana; Blau, Jenny E; Garraffo, H Martin; Walter, Peter J; Rother, Kristina I

    2015-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), including saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, and acesulfame-potassium, are commonly consumed in the general population, and all except for saccharin are considered safe for use during pregnancy and lactation. Sucralose (Splenda) currently holds the majority of the NNS market share and is often combined with acesulfame-potassium in a wide variety of foods and beverages. To date, saccharin is the only NNS reported to be found in human breast milk after maternal consumption, while there is no apparent information on the other NNS. Breast milk samples were collected from 20 lactating volunteers, irrespective of their habitual NNS intake. Saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame-potassium were present in 65% of participants' milk samples, whereas aspartame was not detected. These data indicate that NNS are frequently ingested by nursing infants, and thus prospective clinical studies are necessary to determine whether early NNS exposure via breast milk may have clinical implications. PMID:26267522

  1. A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Jiao; Li, Hong-Tian; Yu, Li-Xia; Xu, Gao-Sheng; Ge, Hua; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhou, Yu-Bo; Li, You; Bai, Man-Xi; Liu, Jian-Meng

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum) were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland) and Baotou (inland) city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET). DHA dietary intake (mg/day) was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009). In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL) and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p food frequency questionnaire, DIET, is a valid tool for the assessment of DHA dietary intake. PMID:27213448

  2. Herpesviruses and breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pietrasanta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV and cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  3. [Breast milk substitutes based on cow milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, P E

    1990-08-20

    "Adapted" or "humanized" breast-milk substitutes based on cows' milk are manufactured according to directives from a publication issued by the Ministry of Agriculture. The accepted recommendations for the daily intake (RDA) of nutrients is adjusted to the neonates' relatively low tolerance and provides a certain margin of safety in case of illness and slight inaccuracies in preparation. The recommendations are, however, often based on animal experiments, studies of pathological conditions etc. because the needs of the neonate are not known. There is a fundamental difference between RDA for chemical energy and various nutrients as the energy requirement is stated on the basis of average values while the requirements for specific nutrients are gives as upper and lower limiting values. In addition to nutrients, a long series of hormones, enzymes and antimicrobial factors are transferred to the infant via breast-milk. The nutritional significance of these is entirely or partially unknown. It is thus impossible to give the bottle-fed infant a diet which is quantitatively and qualitatively identical with that of a breastfed baby. Nevertheless, experience has shown that bottle-feeding usually proceeds satisfactorily. Galactosaemia and certain forms of medication in the mother constitute absolute contraindications to breast-feeding while phenylketonuria, certain maternal infections are relative contraindications to breast-feeding. Mothers should be prepared for breast-feeding already during pregnancy but in the cases where the mother cannot, should not or does not wish to breast-feed, it is important to counteract any feelings of guilt, neglect or incompetence and, on the other hand, give her thorough training in artificial feeding of the infant. PMID:2205958

  4. Breast Milk Best from the Breast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159054.html Breast Milk Best From the Breast? Babies were more likely ... get ear infections if they were fed pumped milk, study found To use the sharing features on ...

  5. The effect of a controlled manipulation of maternal dietary fat intake on medium and long chain fatty acids in human breast milk in Saskatoon, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Alison M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies in recent years have demonstrated the effect of maternal diet on fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods Fourteen free-living lactating women participated in a cross-over dietary intervention study, consuming a low fat diet (17.6% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 68.0% of energy as carbohydrate and a high fat diet (40.3% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 45.3% of energy as carbohydrate each for periods of 4 days, in randomised order. Each mother was her own control. Mature milk samples were collected during each period and analysed for medium and long chain fatty acids. Results The concentration of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, was 13.6% in breast milk for the low fat diet compared to 11.4% for the high fat (p Conclusions Changing maternal dietary fat intake has a rapid response in terms of changes to fatty acids in breast milk.

  6. Research proposal on the use of the isotope method to measure breast milk intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large intervention study will be conducted by the University of Pelotas, Brazil, a WHO Collaborating Centre in Maternal and Child Nutrition. It will test the efficacy of the nutrition counselling (NC) contents of Integrated Management of Child Illness course under field conditions and provide specific advice on how it may be improved. The study will be a single-blind controlled trial, with the random allocation of 18 municipal health centres to receive the NC training and 18 other centres to the control group (i.e., current nutrition counselling, if any). The study groups will include: (a) the health care providers; (b) children under 18 months attending the selected health centres and being managed by these health care providers and (c) the mothers or caretakers of these children. The following outcomes will be compared between the two groups: (a) health care provider's knowledge and practices; (b) maternal knowledge, satisfaction and attendance at scheduled follow-up visits; and (c) child feeding behaviour and growth. Dietary intake will be assessed during three home visits with a 24-hour semi-quantitative recall, including frequencies and approximate portions of all foods eaten. These quantitative outcomes will be complemented by an ethnographic study in which a selected number of health care providers and mothers will be interviewed by a social scientist to understand the reasons for non-compliance and the benefits perceived from complying with the recommendations

  7. Breast milk - pumping and storing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a comfortable chair, sink, and electric pump. If pumping at work is going to be hard, build ... up your milk supply. Wash your hands before pumping. Collect breast milk when pumping. You can use: ...

  8. Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wendy K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer. We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast milk. Methods We conducted a prospective review of 100 consecutive births of infants in the same centre to determine the proportion of newborn infants who were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk, as distinct from being fully breast fed. We also report a review of the breastfeeding practices of mothers of over 87,000 newborn infants in the Australian State of New South Wales. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia. Approval 05063, 29 September 2005. Results Virtually all (97 of 100 newborn infants in this centre were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk whether or not they were fully breast fed. Between 82.2% to 98.7% of 87,000 newborn infants were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk. Conclusion In some Western communities there is near universal exposure of new born infants to colostrum and breast milk. Accordingly it is possible for the transmission of human milk borne viruses. This is contrary to the widespread assumption that human milk borne viruses cannot be associated with breast cancer.

  9. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  10. Characteristics of breast milk and serology of women donating breast milk to a milk bank

    OpenAIRE

    Lindemann, P.; Foshaugen, I; Lindemann, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Breast milk is the most important nutrient to all newborn babies. If the mother's milk production is insufficient, it is important to provide donor breast milk without reduction of its immunologic and antimicrobial properties. Early use of breast milk to preterm infants has shown a reduced incidence of necrotising enterocolitis, a faster tolerance of enteral feeding, and a reduced need of parenteral nutrition. It is important to have milk from a CMV-IgG negative donor to VLBW infan...

  11. Radiopharmaceuticals in breast milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As assessment has been made of the radiological hazards to an infant following the administration of a radiopharmaceutical to a breast feeding mother. Feeding should be discontinued after administration of most I-131 and I-125 compounds, Ga-67 citrate or Se-78 methionine, and for iodinated compounds where it was possible to resume feeding, a thyroid-blocking agent should be administered. For Tc-99m compounds, pertechnetate had the greatest excretion in milk and interruptions of 12hr and 4hr were considered appropriate for pertechnetate and MAA respectively. Other Tc-99m compounds, Cr-51 EDTA and In-111 leucocytes did not justify an interruption just on the grounds of their associated excretion in milk. The ingestion hazard could be minimized by reducing the administered activity, and in some cases, by the substitution of a radiopharmaceutical with lower breast milk excretion. For Tc-99m lung and brain scans, the absorbed dose due to radiation emitted by the mother (i.e. when cuddling) was less than the ingested dose, but for a Tc-99m bone scan the emitted dose was greater. In all three cases, the emitted dose did not exceed 0 x 5 mGy for the infant in close contact to the mother for one-third of the time. For In-111 leucocytes, the emitted dose was about 2mGy, and it was concluded that close contact should be restricted to feeding times during the first 3 days after injection. 36 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  12. Retinol and α-tocopherol in human milk and their relationship with dietary intake during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiajing; Xiao, Hailong; Wu, Kejian; Yu, Zuxun; Ren, Yiping; Zhao, Yiming; Li, Kelei; Li, Jiaomei; Li, Duo

    2016-04-01

    Human milk is considered as an optimal nutrition source for neonates, and vitamins A and E improve oxidative stress in offspring through breast milk. We aim to determine α-tocopherol and retinol contents in breast milk obtained over the course of lactation stages from mothers in three regions in China, and to investigate their correlation with maternal dietary intake during lactation. Human milk samples and 24 hour food records were obtained from mothers in Hangzhou (n = 34), Lanzhou (n = 34) and Beijing (n = 34) on day 1 (colostrum), day 14 (transitional milk) and day 42 (mature milk) postpartum. Concentrations of α-tocopherol and retinol in breast milk samples were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The breast milk concentrations of α-tocopherol and retinol decreased over progress of lactation stages (P oil and bean products) and either retinol or α-tocopherol. PMID:26987293

  13. Evidence of improved milk intake after frenotomy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Catherine Peta; Sakalidis, Vanessa Susanna; Chadwick, Lynda Maree; Whan, Elizabeth; Hartmann, Peter Edwin; Geddes, Donna Tracy

    2013-11-01

    Ankyloglossia (tongue tie) is a well-recognized cause of breastfeeding difficulties and, if untreated, can cause maternal nipple pain and trauma, ineffective feeding, and poor infant weight gain. In some cases, this condition will result in a downregulation of the maternal milk supply. Milk-production measurements (24-hour) for a breastfeeding infant with ankyloglossia revealed the ineffective feeding of the infant (78 mL/24 hours), and a low milk supply (350 mL/24 hours) was diagnosed. Appropriate management increased milk supply (1254 mL/24 hours) but not infant milk intake (190 mL/24 hours). Test weighing convincingly revealed the efficacy of frenotomy, increasing breastfeeding milk transfer from 190 to 810 mL/24 hours. Postfrenotomy, breastfeeding almost completely replaced bottle-feeding of expressed breast milk. This case study confirms that ankyloglossia may reduce maternal milk supply and that frenotomy can improve milk removal by the infant. Milk-production measurements (24-hour) provided the evidence to confirm these findings. PMID:24101770

  14. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: Predicting the Final Osmolality of the Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Arum Choi; Gerhard Fusch; Niels Rochow; Christoph Fusch

    2016-01-01

    For preterm infants, it is common practice to add human milk fortifiers to native breast milk to enhance protein and calorie supply because the growth rates and nutritional requirements of preterm infants are considerably higher than those of term infants. However, macronutrient intake may still be inadequate because the composition of native breast milk has individual inter- and intra-sample variation. Target fortification (TFO) of breast milk is a new nutritional regime aiming to reduce suc...

  15. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fissore MariaF

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.

  16. Interaction between mercury (Hg, arsenic (As and selenium (Se affects the activity of glutathione S-transferase in breast milk: possible relationship with fish and shellfish intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Gaxiola-Robles

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk is regarded as an ideal source of nutrients for the growth and development of neonates, but it can also be a potential source of pollutants. Mothers can be exposed to different contaminants as a result of their lifestyle and environmental pollution. Mercury (Hg and arsenic (As could adversely affect the development of fetal and neonatal nervous system. Some fish and shellfish are rich in selenium (Se, an essential trace element that forms part of several enzymes related to the detoxification process, including glutathione S-transferase (GST. The goal of this study was to determine the interaction between Hg, As and Se and analyze its effect on the activity of GST in breast milk. Milk samples were collected from women between day 7 and 10 postpartum. The GST activity was determined spectrophotometrically; total Hg, As and Se concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. To explain the possible association of Hg, As and Se concentrations with GST activity in breast milk, generalized linear models were constructed. The model explained 44% of the GST activity measured in breast milk. The GLM suggests that GST activity was positively correlated with Hg, As and Se concentrations. The activity of the enzyme was also explained by the frequency of consumption of marine fish and shellfish in the diet of the breastfeeding women.

  17. Breast milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) correlates with DHA status of malnourished infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Oelen, EA; Seerat, E; Muskiet, FAJ; Boersma, ER

    2000-01-01

    Aim-To investigate whether low docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed infants is a result of low omega 3 fatty acid intake via breast milk. Methods-Fatty acid composition of breast milk of eight Pakistani mothers, and of the erythrocytes of their malnouris

  18. Storage of Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Can

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Storage of human breast milk by freezing or refrigeration of milk has been recommended especially at some social circumstances of most mothers who are regularly separated from their infants because of work. The greatest fear that has hindered the prospects of in - vitro storage of breast milk for any considerable period of time is the possibility of bacterial contamination and growth of infectious pathogens in the stored milk, there by rendering them unsafe for human consumption. The storage container can influence the cell content of milk, as the cells adhere to the walls of a glass container but not to polyethylene or polypropylene containers. Bacteriological examination of refrigerated milks has proven their safety for human consumption for even up to 72 h. For a storage over longer periods up to 1 month, freezing at - 20 0C could be recommended, but the most preferred method, especially for longer storage would be fresh freezing at - 70 0C, if affordable or available. The nutrient value of human milk is essentially unchanged, but the immunological properties are reduced by various storage techniques. Boiling and microwave radiation have not been recommended. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 375-379

  19. Exposure of infants to ochratoxin A with breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, K; Blaszkewicz, M; Campos, V; Vega, M; Degen, G H

    2014-03-01

    The nephrotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a worldwide contaminant in food commodities and also found frequently in human biological fluids. Dietary contaminants ingested by nursing mothers can appear in breast milk. But the rate of lactational transfer of OTA has not been investigated so far at various stages of breastfeeding. Therefore, and to investigate OTA exposure of Chilean infants, we conducted a longitudinally designed study in mother-child pairs (n = 21) with parallel collection of maternal blood, milk and of infant urine samples over a period of up to 6 months. Validated analytical methods were applied to determine OTA concentrations in all biological samples (n = 134). OTA was detected in almost all maternal blood plasma, at concentrations ranging between 72 and 639 ng/L. The OTA concentrations in breast milk were on average one quarter of those measured in plasma (M/P ratio 0.25). Interestingly, a higher fraction of circulating OTA was excreted in colostrum (M/P 0.4) than with mature milk (M/P ≤ 0.2). Infants exposure was calculated as daily intake from our new data for OTA levels in breast milk, and taking into account milk consumption and body weight as additional variables: Chilean infants have an average intake of 12.7 ± 9.1 ng/kg bw during the first 6 days after delivery while intake with mature milk results in average values close to 5.0 ng/kg bw/day. Their OTA exposure is discussed in the context of tolerable intake values suggested by different scientific bodies. Moreover, the study design enabled a comparison of OTA intake and infant urine concentrations over the breastfeeding period. The statistical analysis of n = 27 paired values showed a good correlation (r = 0.57) for this type of studies and thereby confirms that urinary OTA analysis in infants is a valid biomarker of exposure. PMID:24270973

  20. Essential minerals in milk and their daily intake through milk consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Nada Vahčić; Mirjana Hruškar; Ksenija Marković; Mara Banović; Irena Colić Barić

    2010-01-01

    Minerals occur in all foodstuffs as well as in milk and dairy products. The mineral content in milk is influenced by many factors ranging from environmental conditions during pasture, feeding, breeding, stage of lactation and climate to post-milking handling, transportation and processing. The aim of the study was to assess whether the intakes comply with Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), Adequate Intakes (AIs) or Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) for essential elements. Milk samples fr...

  1. Breast milk, microbiota, and intestinal immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W Allan; Iyengar, Rajashri Shuba

    2015-01-01

    Newborns adjust to the extrauterine environment by developing intestinal immune homeostasis. Appropriate initial bacterial colonization is necessary for adequate intestinal immune development. An environmental determinant of adequate colonization is breast milk. Although the full-term infant is developmentally capable of mounting an immune response, the effector immune component requires bacterial stimulation. Breast milk stimulates the proliferation of a well-balanced and diverse microbiota, which initially influences a switch from an intrauterine TH2 predominant to a TH1/TH2 balanced response and with activation of T-regulatory cells by breast milk-stimulated specific organisms (Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides). As an example of its effect, oligosaccharides in breast milk are fermented by colonic bacteria producing an acid milieu for bacterial proliferation. In addition, short-chain fatty acids in breast milk activate receptors on T-reg cells and bacterial genes, which preferentially mediate intestinal tight junction expression and anti-inflammation. Other components of breast milk (defensins, lactoferrin, etc.) inhibit pathogens and further contribute to microbiota composition. The breast milk influence on initial intestinal microbiota also prevents expression of immune-mediated diseases (asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes) later in life through a balanced initial immune response, underscoring the necessity of breastfeeding as the first source of nutrition. PMID:25310762

  2. Excretion of drugs in human breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, R.M.; Findlay, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The present report briefly discusses some of the morphological, physiological, and compositional aspects of animal and human breast milk and how these characteristics might be important for the accumulation of drugs and foreign compounds. In addition, a study is described confirming the presence of caffeine, codeine, morphine, phenacetin, acetaminophen, and salicylic acid in the breast milk of a lactating mother following oral administration of a combination analgesic containing aspirin, phenacetin, caffeine, and codeine. Although the study is limited to one subject, it has provided critically needed data on the rates of appearance in, and elimination of these drugs from, breast milk. A similar amount of information is presented on phenacetin, also a component of the analgesic mixture, which has not been previously reported to enter human milk. The distribution of these drugs between the slightly more acidic breast milk and the relatively neutral plasma is consistent with their weakly basic, acidic, or relatively neutral properties. In general, the study shows that codeine and morphine milk concentrations are higher than, salicylic acid milk levels are much lower than, and phenacetin, caffeine, and acetaminophen milk concentrations are relatively similar to their respective plasma levels. It is projected, from estimated steady-state milk concentrations of the drugs and their metabolites studied, that very low percentages of the therapeutic dosages (less than 0.7%) would be excreted in mother's milk, too low an amount to be clinically significant to the infant.

  3. Breast milk macronutrient composition and the associated factors in urban Chinese mothers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Titi; Zhang Yumei; Ning Yibing; You Lili; Ma Defu; Zheng Yingdong; Yang Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Background Infancy is a critical period of growth and physiological development,in which breast milk is the best source of nutrients.Compared to western countries,research on breast milk of Chinese population are limited.Thus,it is necessary to measure breast milk energy and macronutrient concentrations of healthy urban Chinese mothers at different lactation stages,to expand the database of milk composition of Chinese population,and to examine whether dietary or other maternal factors can affect the levels of macronutrients in breast milk.Methods Breast milk of full expression of one side breast from 436 urban Chinese lactating mothers at 5-11 days,12-30 days,31-60 days,61-120 days,and 121-240 days postpartum was obtained at 9:00 a.m.to 11:00 a.m.Total energy,lactose,protein,and fat contents were measured.24-hour dietary recall was surveyed,and maternal nutrient intakes were analyzed.Results Milk composition changed over the course of lactation and large individual variations were documented.The concentrations were 61.3 kcal/dl for total energy,7.1 g/dl for lactose,0.9 g/dl for protein,and 3.4 g/dl for fat in mature milk.Stage of lactation was a strong factor affecting milk composition.Minimal evidence was found for associations between maternal current dietary intake and milk macronutrient concentration,consistently with prior research.Maternal body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with milk fat content,to a greater extent than did dietary intake.All other maternal characteristics were not significant for milk composition.Conclusion These findings suggest that milk composition is generally weakly associated with maternal factors except for stage of lactation,and is likely to be more susceptible to long-term maternal nutritional status than short-term dietary fluctuation.

  4. Sex, Breast Milk May Have Helped Spread Ebola in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Sex, Breast Milk May Have Helped Spread Ebola in Africa However, most cases were transmitted by ... 2016 THURSDAY, May 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Ebola virus was transmitted by semen and breast milk ...

  5. Protein in Breast Milk May Reduce Hospital Infections in Preemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 161498.html Protein in Breast Milk May Reduce Hospital Infections in Preemies Lactoferrin is safe for newborns and ... a protein found in breast milk, could reduce hospital infections among preemies, but we also measured the safety ...

  6. Epigenetic Effects of Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Verduci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A current aim of nutrigenetics is to personalize nutritional practices according to genetic variations that influence the way of digestion and metabolism of nutrients introduced with the diet. Nutritional epigenetics concerns knowledge about the effects of nutrients on gene expression. Nutrition in early life or in critical periods of development, may have a role in modulating gene expression, and, therefore, have later effects on health. Human breast milk is well-known for its ability in preventing several acute and chronic diseases. Indeed, breastfed children may have lower risk of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious diseases, and also of non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and related-disorders. Beneficial effects of human breast milk on health may be associated in part with its peculiar components, possible also via epigenetic processes. This paper discusses about presumed epigenetic effects of human breast milk and components. While evidence suggests that a direct relationship may exist of some components of human breast milk with epigenetic changes, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. Studies have to be conducted to clarify the actual role of human breast milk on genetic expression, in particular when linked to the risk of non-communicable diseases, to potentially benefit the infant’s health and his later life.

  7. Target fortification of breast milk: how often should milk analysis be done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Gerhard; Zapanta, Bianca; Ali, Anaam; Barui, Sandip; Fusch, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Target fortification (TFO) reduces natural macronutrient variation in breast milk (BM). Daily BM analysis for TFO increases neonatal intensive care unit work load by 10-15 min/patient/day and may not be feasible in all nurseries. The variation of macronutrient intake when BM analysis is done for various schedules was studied. In an observational study, we analyzed 21 subsequent samples of native 24-h BM batches, which had been prepared for 10 healthy infants (gestational age 26.1 ± 1.3 weeks, birth weight: 890 ± 210 g). Levels of protein and fat (validated near-infrared milk analyzer), as well as lactose (UPLC-MS/MS) generated the database for modelling TFO to meet recommendations of European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition. Intake of macronutrients and energy were calculated for different schedules of BM measurements for TFO (n = 1/week; n = 2/week; n = 3/week; n = 5/week; n = 7/week) and compared to native and fixed dose fortified BM. Day-to-day variation of macronutrients (protein 20%, carbohydrate 13%, fat 17%, energy 10%) decreased as the frequency of milk analysis increased and was almost zero for protein and carbohydrate with daily measurements. Measurements two/week led to mean macronutrient intake within a range of ± 5% of targeted levels. A reduced schedule for macronutrient measurement may increase the practical use of TFO. To what extent the day-to-day variation affects growth while mean intake is stable needs to be studied. PMID:25835073

  8. Fatty acid composition of breast milk from three racial groups from Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneebone, G M; Kneebone, R; Gibson, R A

    1985-04-01

    The fatty acid composition of samples of breast milk obtained from 51 mothers (26 Malay, 15 Chinese, 10 Indian) residing in Penang, Malaysia was determined by gas chromatography. Despite living in close physical proximity the mothers from the three racial groups showed distinct cultural differences in dietary intake. These differences were reflected in differences in the fatty acid composition of breast milk samples. The milk of Chinese mothers was generally less saturated (41%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (52 and 50% respectively). The milk of Chinese mothers was also richer in linoleic acid (17%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (9% and 11% respectively). Overall the level of individual fatty acids fell within the range of values reported for Western mothers on well nourished diets and pointed to breast milk of high standard despite large variations in the diet of Malaysian mothers.

  9. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which ∼ 150 μg of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: ► Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a μg/kg basis, ∼ 5 × higher than those of mothers. ► Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. ► Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  10. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Andrea B. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States); Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 700 Planetarium Place, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which {approx} 150 {mu}g of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a {mu}g/kg basis, {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign higher than those of mothers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  11. Chemical Biomarkers of Human Breast Milk Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Marchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is, without question, the best source of nutrition for infants containing the optimal balance of fats, carbohydrates and proteins for developing babies. Breastfeeding provides a range of benefits for growth, immunity and development building a powerful bond between mother and her child. Recognition of the manifold benefits of breast milk has led to the adoption of breast-feeding policies by numerous health and professional organizations such as the World Health Organization and American Academy of Pediatrics.In industrially developed as well as in developing nations, human milk contamination by toxic chemicals such as heavy metals, dioxins and organohalogen compounds, however, is widespread and is the consequence of decades of inadequately controlled pollution. Through breastfeeding, the mother may transfer to the suckling infant potentially toxic chemicals to which the mother has previously been exposed.In the present review, environmental exposure, acquisition and current levels of old and emerging classes of breast milk pollutants are systematically presented. Although scientific evidences indicated that the advantages of breast-feeding outweigh any risks from contaminants, it is important to identify contaminant trends, to locate disproportionately exposed populations, and to take public health measures to improve chemical BM pollution as possible.

  12. Vitamin D content in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Við Streym, Susanna; Højskov, Carsten S; Møller, Ulla Kristine;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parents are advised to avoid the direct sun exposure of their newborns. Therefore, the vitamin D status of exclusively breastfed newborns is entirely dependent on the supply of vitamin D from breast milk. OBJECTIVES: We explored concentrations of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholec...

  13. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K.; Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Tol, van Eric A.F.; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Dunger, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. Methods: HM hindmilk sam

  14. Concentration profiles of metals in breast milk, drinking water, and soil: relationship between matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Osmar O; Julião, Fabiana C; Alves, Renato I S; Baena, Antonio R; Díez, Isabel G; Suzuki, Meire N; Celere, Beatriz S; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Zn were determined in breast milk of women living in Conceição das Alagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The potential relationships between metal levels in samples of breast milk, drinking water, and soils collected in the study area were also established. Metal levels in breast milk, except Cr, were lower in comparison to WHO reference concentrations. Zinc was the predominant element in breast milk and drinking water samples, with a median level of 46.2 and 82.2 μg · L(-1), respectively. Soils presented a different pattern of metal concentrations with respect to those found in breast milk and drinking water, Chromium showed the highest median levels (148 mg · kg(-1)), while a certain predominance of Zn and Cu was also observed (47.0 and 43.0 mg · kg(-1), respectively). Similar profiles were observed when comparing metal concentrations in drinking water and breast milk (chi-square χ(2) = 14.36; p < 0.05). In contrast, breast milk-soil and drinking water-soil metal concentration profiles showed significant differences (χ(2) = 635.05 and χ(2) = 721.78, respectively; p < 0.05). These results indicate that drinking water is an important exposure pathway for metals to newborns through breast milk. Further studies should be aimed at assessing the body burdens of metals in that population and at evaluating the potential relationships in the concentrations in biological and environmental matrices as well as at estimating the contribution of dietary intake of metals. In addition, the presence of other chemical pollutants in breast milk should be also studied in order to assess the combined newborn exposure to other contaminants.

  15. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: How Often Should Milk Analysis Be Done?

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Rochow; Gerhard Fusch; Bianca Zapanta; Anaam Ali; Sandip Barui; Christoph Fusch

    2015-01-01

    Target fortification (TFO) reduces natural macronutrient variation in breast milk (BM). Daily BM analysis for TFO increases neonatal intensive care unit work load by 10–15 min/patient/day and may not be feasible in all nurseries. The variation of macronutrient intake when BM analysis is done for various schedules was studied. In an observational study, we analyzed 21 subsequent samples of native 24-h BM batches, which had been prepared for 10 healthy infants (gestational age 26.1 ± 1.3 weeks...

  16. The effect of a controlled manipulation of maternal dietary fat intake on medium and long chain fatty acids in human breast milk in Saskatoon, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Alison M; Nasser Roseann; Goh Yeow K; Clandinin M Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies in recent years have demonstrated the effect of maternal diet on fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods Fourteen free-living lactating women participated in a cross-over dietary intervention study, consuming a low fat diet (17.6% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 68.0% of energy as carbohydrate) and a high fat diet (40.3% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 45.3% of energy as carbohydrate) each for periods of 4 days, in randomised o...

  17. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: Predicting the Final Osmolality of the Feeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Choi

    Full Text Available For preterm infants, it is common practice to add human milk fortifiers to native breast milk to enhance protein and calorie supply because the growth rates and nutritional requirements of preterm infants are considerably higher than those of term infants. However, macronutrient intake may still be inadequate because the composition of native breast milk has individual inter- and intra-sample variation. Target fortification (TFO of breast milk is a new nutritional regime aiming to reduce such variations by individually measuring and adding deficient macronutrients. Added TFO components contribute to the final osmolality of milk feeds. It is important to predict the final osmolality of TFO breast milk to ensure current osmolality recommendations are followed to minimize feeding intolerance and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study aims to develop and validate equations to predict the osmolality of TFO milk batches. To establish prediction models, the osmolalities of either native or supplemented breast milk with known amounts of fat, protein, and carbohydrates were analyzed. To validate prediction models, the osmolalities of each macronutrient and combinations of macronutrients were measured in an independent sample set. Additionally, osmolality was measured in TFO milk samples obtained from a previous clinical study and compared with predicted osmolality using the prediction equations. Following the addition of 1 g of carbohydrates (glucose polymer, 1 g of hydrolyzed protein, or 1 g of whey protein per 100 mL breast milk, the average increase in osmolality was 20, 38, and 4 mOsm/kg respectively. Adding fat decreased osmolality only marginally due to dilution effect. Measured and predicted osmolality of combinations of macronutrients as well as single macronutrient (R2 = 0.93 were highly correlated. Using clinical data (n = 696, the average difference between the measured and predicted osmolality was 3 ± 11 mOsm/kg and was not statistically

  18. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: Predicting the Final Osmolality of the Feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Arum; Fusch, Gerhard; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    For preterm infants, it is common practice to add human milk fortifiers to native breast milk to enhance protein and calorie supply because the growth rates and nutritional requirements of preterm infants are considerably higher than those of term infants. However, macronutrient intake may still be inadequate because the composition of native breast milk has individual inter- and intra-sample variation. Target fortification (TFO) of breast milk is a new nutritional regime aiming to reduce such variations by individually measuring and adding deficient macronutrients. Added TFO components contribute to the final osmolality of milk feeds. It is important to predict the final osmolality of TFO breast milk to ensure current osmolality recommendations are followed to minimize feeding intolerance and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study aims to develop and validate equations to predict the osmolality of TFO milk batches. To establish prediction models, the osmolalities of either native or supplemented breast milk with known amounts of fat, protein, and carbohydrates were analyzed. To validate prediction models, the osmolalities of each macronutrient and combinations of macronutrients were measured in an independent sample set. Additionally, osmolality was measured in TFO milk samples obtained from a previous clinical study and compared with predicted osmolality using the prediction equations. Following the addition of 1 g of carbohydrates (glucose polymer), 1 g of hydrolyzed protein, or 1 g of whey protein per 100 mL breast milk, the average increase in osmolality was 20, 38, and 4 mOsm/kg respectively. Adding fat decreased osmolality only marginally due to dilution effect. Measured and predicted osmolality of combinations of macronutrients as well as single macronutrient (R2 = 0.93) were highly correlated. Using clinical data (n = 696), the average difference between the measured and predicted osmolality was 3 ± 11 mOsm/kg and was not statistically significant. In

  19. Determining the Feasibility of Milk Vending Machines to Improve Calcium Intake Among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Monnat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium intake declines from late adolescence to young adulthood, in part, due to decreases in accessibility to milk and dairy products. While milk vending has shown demonstrated success in secondary schools, no studies have examined whether milk vending improves calcium intake among college students. We hypothesized that milk and calcium intake would be higher among college students given access to milk vending in their dormitory (milk vending consumers compared to those lacking access in their dormitory (non-milk vending consumers. Milk vending machines were installed in two dormitories, and two dormitories having non-milk beverage vending served as comparison sites. Students completed a calcium intake questionnaire at the point of milk (n = 73 or non-milk (n = 79 beverage vending purchases. Mean total calcium intake was higher in milk vending consumers (1245 + 543 mg/d compared to non-milk vending consumers (1042 + 447 mg/d (p = 0.01. Adjusting for gender and milk vending consumer status, there was a positive association between past month milk vending purchases and daily calcium intake from milk (p < 0.001. Fifty-seven students without in-dormitory access to milk vending reported an interest in milk vending if made available. Milk vending may serve as a novel approach for improving calcium intake in college students.

  20. Lead, mercury, and cadmium in breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals are the major source of environmental pollution in this new millennium. Lead, mercury, and cadmium are the most common toxic heavy metals in the environment. There is no known function of these toxic heavy metals in the human body. In females, toxic heavy metals can be accumulated in maternal body before pregnancy and may be transferred to fetus through placenta and later, via breast milk. Lead previously accumulated in maternal bones can be mobilized along with calcium in order to meet increased calcium needs of the fetus in pregnant women and for the calcium needs in human milk during lactation. Human fetus and infants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity passing through placenta and breastmilk due to rapid growth and development of organs and tissues, especially central nervous system. However most of the damage is already done by the time the infant is born. Intrauterine lead exposure can cause growth retardation, cognitive dysfunction, low IQ scores on ability tests, and low performance in school. Biological samples, such as umbilical cord blood and breast milk, and less commonly infant hair, are used for biomonitoring of intra-uterine exposure to these toxic chemicals. Although toxic metals and other pollutants may be excreted into breast milk, their effects are unknown and this topic is subject of a growing body of research. Despite the possibility of harm from environmental contaminants in breast milk, breastfeeding is still recommended as the best infant feeding method. In fact, the species-specific components present in breast milk protect infants against infections; promote immune and neurologic system development; and may decrease the risk of disease, including allergies, obesity, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, and sudden infant death syndrome. Breastfeeding also facilitates maternal-infant attachment. The potential risk of environmental contaminants that can be transferred from

  1. Determination of in-vitro antibacterial effects of breast milk

    OpenAIRE

    C N Akujobi; I Egbuonu; C C Ezechukwu; F T Ogunsola

    2009-01-01

    Background:Breast milk undisputedly is the ideal baby food. It provides a lot of protective functions for the baby as well complete nutrition. It contains fat, proteins carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. There have been various claims that it cures ailments. The study was therefore designed to substantiate those claims. Objective: To determine the in vitro antibacterial effects of breast milk Methodology:Expressed breast milk of nursing mothers who were not on antibiotics was chall...

  2. Mineral compositions in breast milk of healthy Chinese lactating women in urban areas and its associated factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Ai; Ning Yibing; Zhang Yumei; Yang Xiaoguang; Wang Junkuan; Li Wenjun; Wang Peiyu

    2014-01-01

    Background Optimal mineral intakes are important for infant growth and development.However,data on mineral compositions of breast milk in Chinese women are scarce,and most were acquired before 1990.The objectives of this study were three-fold:(1) to investigate the mineral compositions of Chinese healthy mothers' breast milk in different lactation stages; (2) to explore correlations among mineral concentrations in breast milk; and (3) to explore the associated factors affecting mineral compositions in breast milk.Methods The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyze mineral concentrations in breast-milk of 444 healthy lactating women from three cities in China.A questionnaire was used to survey sociodemographic characteristics and pregnancy history.Food intakes by lactating women were measured using both food frequency questionnaire and one cycle of 24-hour dietary recall.Results Mineral compositions of breast milk varied in different regions.Concentrations of most minerals were higher in the first one or two months of lactation,and then decreased with time,except for magnesium and iron.Inter-mineral correlations existed among several minerals.The calcium-to-phosphorus ratio was above 2:1 in each lactation stage.Women with caesarean section had higher concentration of iodine in the transitional milk (349.9 μg/kg) compared to women with natural delivery (237.5 μg/kg,P<0.001).Dietary mineral intakes,supplements,food intake frequencies in the recent 6 months,maternal age and maternal BMI did not show significant correlations with concentrations of milk minerals (all P >0.05).Conclusions Milk minerals decreased with time,and changed most rapidly in the first one or two months of lactation.Caesarean section might affect the iodine level in transitional milk.

  3. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: How Often Should Milk Analysis Be Done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Rochow

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Target fortification (TFO reduces natural macronutrient variation in breast milk (BM. Daily BM analysis for TFO increases neonatal intensive care unit work load by 10–15 min/patient/day and may not be feasible in all nurseries. The variation of macronutrient intake when BM analysis is done for various schedules was studied. In an observational study, we analyzed 21 subsequent samples of native 24-h BM batches, which had been prepared for 10 healthy infants (gestational age 26.1 ± 1.3 weeks, birth weight: 890 ± 210 g. Levels of protein and fat (validated near-infrared milk analyzer, as well as lactose (UPLC-MS/MS generated the database for modelling TFO to meet recommendations of European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition. Intake of macronutrients and energy were calculated for different schedules of BM measurements for TFO (n = 1/week; n = 2/week; n = 3/week; n = 5/week; n = 7/week and compared to native and fixed dose fortified BM. Day-to-day variation of macronutrients (protein 20%, carbohydrate 13%, fat 17%, energy 10% decreased as the frequency of milk analysis increased and was almost zero for protein and carbohydrate with daily measurements. Measurements two/week led to mean macronutrient intake within a range of ±5% of targeted levels. A reduced schedule for macronutrient measurement may increase the practical use of TFO. To what extent the day-to-day variation affects growth while mean intake is stable needs to be studied.

  4. [Occurrence and relevance to health of persistent organic substances and phthalates in breast milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Raab, U; Fürst, P; Vieth, B; Völkel, W; Albrecht, M; Schwegler, U

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview of the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants like the polychlorinated dibenzo- P-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), perfluorinated compounds (PFC) and of phthalates in breast milk. On the basis of median and 95 (th) percentile values an "average" and a "high" intake were calculated for a 3-month-old infant exclusively breast-fed. Moreover, the actual daily intake was compared with tolerable daily intakes (TDI) recommended by scientific institutions. On this basis, we found an "average" ("high") daily intake of 70 (140) pg TEQ/kg body weight (b. w.) for PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCB), 10 (20) ng/kg b. w. for PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonate), 20 (50) ng/kg b. w. for PFOA (perfluorooctanoate), 1.7 (7.5) ng/kg b. w. for BDE 47, and 0.6 (2.1) ng/kg b. w. for BDE 99. For di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di- N-butyl phthalate (DnBP) an "average" and "high" intake of 400 ng/kg b. w. and 2,000 ng/kg b. w. and of 100 and 500 ng/kg b.w. were assumed, respectively. For all of these substances we found a daily intake via breast milk below the TDI, established on a livelong basis. On contrary, the daily intake for the sum of the PCDD/F and dl-PCB considerably exceeded the recommended TDI value. Even with regard to the "high" daily intake values the share of PBDE, PFC, and phthalates on the TDI was only in the lower percentage. Scientific organisations assume that an exceeding of the PCDD/F and dl-PCB intake in relation to the TDI value is acceptable only on the basis of the still declining levels in breast milk and the fact that this high exposure only occurs during some months of the entire life when breast milk is consumed. On the basis of the recent exposure situation mothers can exclusively breast-feed their infants for 6 months without any hesitation. The well established health benefits for mothers and infants when

  5. Essential minerals in milk and their daily intake through milk consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Vahčić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Minerals occur in all foodstuffs as well as in milk and dairy products. The mineral content in milk is influenced by many factors ranging from environmental conditions during pasture, feeding, breeding, stage of lactation and climate to post-milking handling, transportation and processing. The aim of the study was to assess whether the intakes comply with Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA, Adequate Intakes (AIs or Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs for essential elements. Milk samples from different producers and with different fat content were purchased from Zagreb’s market four times in year 2007 and analysed. Concentrations of ten minerals (Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, K and Na were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean values of mineral contents were in range with the literature data. The daily intakes of these minerals by school children selected in age-gender groups (school children 8-9 years old and adolescents 15-18 years old through milk consumption were also estimated. The average daily intake of essential minerals ranged from a minimum of 1.36 % of manganese up to 35.27 for phosphorus, irrespective of age and gender of children.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of Transfer of Azithromycin into the Breast Milk of African Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Sam; Davis, Timothy M E; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Camara, Bully; Oluwalana, Claire; Bojang, Abdoulie; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Roca, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Azithromycin (AZI) is used for its antibiotic and antimalarial properties in pregnancy. Reported estimates of AZI breast milk transfer, based on concentrations in mostly single samples from small numbers of women, have suggested that infant intake is safe. To better characterize infant intake and the associated potential benefits and risks, AZI was measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in four breast milk samples taken over 28 days postpartum from each of 20 Gambian women given 2 g AZI during labor. A population pharmacokinetic model utilizing published parameters for AZI disposition in pregnancy, the present breast milk concentrations, and increasing/decreasing sigmoid maximum-effect (Emax) functions adequately described temporal changes in the milk/plasma ratio. The median estimated absolute and relative cumulative infant doses were 4.5 mg/kg of body weight (95% prediction interval, 0.6 to 7.0 mg/kg) and 15.7% (95% prediction interval, 2.0 to 27.8%) of the maternal dose, respectively; the latter exceeded the recommended 10% safety limit. Although some infants with bacterial infections may benefit from AZI in breast milk, there is a risk of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis with a worst-case number needed to harm of 60 based on the present and available epidemiologic data. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01800942.). PMID:26711756

  7. Does milk matter: Is children's intake affected by the type or amount of milk served at a meal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Samantha M R; Roe, Liane S; Sanchez, Christine E; Rolls, Barbara J

    2016-10-01

    Increasing the energy density (ED) and portion size of foods promotes additional energy intake, but the effect of similar changes in milk is unknown. Using a crossover design, we tested the effect of varying the ED and portion size of milk served with lunch on preschool children's intake. Lunch was served in childcare classrooms on 4 days to 125 children aged 3-5 y (67 boys; 58 girls). Across the meals, milk was varied in ED (lower-ED [1% fat]; higher-ED [3.25% fat]) and portion size (100% [183 g]; 150% [275 g]). Foods in the meal were not varied; children ate as much of the meal as they wanted. Serving higher-ED milk did not affect milk intake by weight, but increased energy intake from milk by 31 ± 2 kcal compared to serving lower-ED milk (P food intake decreased when higher-ED rather than lower-ED milk was served, but meal energy intake (food + milk) did not change significantly. This response varied by sex: for boys, serving higher-ED milk decreased food intake by 43 ± 8 kcal (P food intake so that meal energy intake increased by 24 ± 10 kcal (P = 0.03). Thus, boys adjusted food intake in response to changes in ED of milk consumed with lunch, but girls did not. Serving milk in larger portions promotes intake of this nutrient-dense beverage, but the effects of milk ED on meal intake vary between children. PMID:27338218

  8. Selenium in human milk and dietary selenium intake by Greeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratakos, M S; Ioannou, P V

    1991-06-01

    Fluorimetric determination of selenium in colostrum, transitional and mature human milk gave the following concentrations (mean and standard deviation): 41 +/- 16, 23 +/- 6 and 17 +/- 3 ng Se ml-1, respectively. The ranges for each kind of milk, especially for mature milk, were narrow. For all cases studied, the Se concentration in milk decreased with lactation time, reaching a plateau, at 17 ng Se ml-1, after 20 days. It is estimated that breast-fed-only babies in Greece receive approximately 5-11 micrograms Se day-1 up to 6 months of age. From consumed food data it was estimated that adult Greeks receive 100 +/- 6 micrograms Se day-1, in close agreement with our previously determined value of 110 micrograms Se day-1 estimated from food disappearance data.

  9. Comparison of breast milk composition among lactating women in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broka Līga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although benefits of breast-feeding have been known for a long time and breast milk is considered as ideal nutrition for infants, the composition of breast milk is still being studied, since breast milk differs among mothers and populations, as well as during different times of lactation. Further, no study has been performed among lactating women in Latvia during recent years. The objective of the study was to determine the breast milk composition and influencing factors among lactating women in Latvia in different lactation periods, as well as to compare the results with data from other countries. Fifty breast milk samples were obtained from 44 mothers (on the 5th-7th and 11th-28th day of lactation, whose neonates were treated in the Neonatal Care Unit, Children’s Clinical University Hospital, Rīga. Milk analysis (pH, density, protein, fat, and lactose concentration was performed in the Latvia University of Agriculture. Breast milk composition among lactating women in Latvia on the 5th-7th lactation day more resembled transitional milk containing a higher amount of protein and a lower amount of fat. The composition of the studied milk samples on the 11th-28th lactation day was comparable to data from other countries. Concentration of lactose was correlated with neonatal weight and not gestational age.

  10. 21 CFR 866.5170 - Breast milk immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the breast milk proteins. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breast milk immunological test system. 866.5170 Section 866.5170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  11. Organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) in human breast milk from several Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Isobe, Tomohiko; Muto, Mamoru; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Katsura, Kana; Malarvannan, Govindan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Prudente, Maricar; Viet, Pham Hung; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the concentrations of 10 organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) were determined in 89 human breast milk samples collected from Japan, the Philippines and Vietnam. Among the targeted PFRs, tris(2-chloroexyl) phosphate (TCEP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the predominant compounds and were detected in more than 60% of samples in all three countries. The concentrations of PFRs in human breast milk were significantly higher (pVietnam (median 10 ng g(-1) lipid wt.). The present results suggest that the usage of products containing PFRs in the Philippines is higher than those of Japan and Vietnam. Comparing with a previous literature survey in Sweden, the levels of PFRs in human breast milk from the Philippines were 1.5-2 times higher, whereas levels in Japan and Vietnam were 4-20 times lower, suggesting that these differences might be due to their variation in the usage of flame-retarded products utilized in each country. When daily intake of PFRs to infants via human breast milk was estimated, some individuals accumulated tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and TCEP were close to reference dose (RfD). This is the first report to identify PFRs in human breast milk samples from Asian countries.

  12. Human-milk intake measured by administration of deuterium oxide to the mother: a comparison with the test-weighing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison was made between the dose-to-the-mother deuterium-dilution method and the conventional test-weighing technique for determining human-milk intake in five exclusively breast-fed infants and in four breast-fed infants who received supplemental foods. After administration of 2H to the mothers human milk and infant urine were sampled over 14 d and analyzed for 2H:1H ratios by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Infant total body water was determined by 18O dilution. The test-weighing procedure was conducted for 5 d consecutively. The intake of human milk (mean +/- SD) estimated by 2H dilution was 648 +/- 63 g/d and estimated by test-weighing was 636 +/- 84 g/d. The mean difference between the two methods was not significantly different from 0. The 2H-dilution and test-weighing techniques provide similar estimates of human-milk intake

  13. Immediate systemic allergic reaction in an infant to fish allergen ingested through breast milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Takayasu; Campos-Alberto, Eduardo; Funakoshi, Hiraku; Inoue, Yuzaburo; Tomiita, Minako; Kohno, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    This is a rare case report of systemic allergic reaction to fish allergen ingested through breast milk. Mother ate raw fish more than 3 times a week. Her consumption of fish was associated with urticaria and wheeze in an infant via breast-feeding. Fish-specific IgE antibodies were detected by skin prick test but not by in vitro IgE test. This case demonstrates that fish protein ingested by mother can cause an immediate systemic allergic reaction in offspring through breast-feeding. Although fish intake is generally recommended for prevention of allergy, one should be aware that frequent intake of fish by a lactating mother may sensitize the baby and induce an allergic reaction through breast-feeding. PMID:27803887

  14. The use of stable isotope dilution technique to determine the amount of breast milk consumed by infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exclusive breast feeding for six months to an infant, followed by the introduction of complementary food and continued with breast feeding is believed to be an optimal way of infants nutrition. There is a shortage in information about the amount of milk obtained from the infant's mother at least partially due to the difficulties associated with quantification of breast milk intake. The old technique, which depends on how the weight of the baby before and after breast feeding from mother, takes time and may be disturbing to the natural feeding pattern. It was possible to overcome these difficulties by using stable isotopes consumed by mother as Dose of deuterium oxide to motherin particular dilution dose to mother and then move the dose from mother to baby through breast milk and this can calculate the total volume of breast milk consumed by the infant within 14 days since the dose oxide of deuterium consumed at first day. Dose of deuterium oxide to mother can also help to find out if there were any further quantity of water entering the child's body except breast milk, determine body composition for mother and infant, monitor the effects of programs strengthening food for pregnant mothers and lactating women in terms of quantity and quality of milk overnight, in addition to evaluating the effectiveness of programs to strengthen children's food. (author)

  15. Maternal nutritional status, breast-milk production and newborn growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast-feeding practice of Venezuelan mothers is very short (less than 3 months). In 1995, 52% of the lactating women stopped breast feeding before the first month. Exclusive breast-feeding is very infrequent, especially among low income women. The most important reasons for quitting breast feeding are: early weaning, working mothers in 'informal market', and lack of nutritional knowledge. There are new programs, from governmental (CONALAMA) and non-governmental (UNICEF) groups that improve this practice. There is little information regarding breast-milk production, composition, nutritional and socio-cultural behaviors of lactating women in Venezuela. With the goal of providing reliable information on this topic, we are studying maternal nutritional status, and breast-milk production of low SES mothers, and growth of their infants. In this study we selected isotopic methods to measure breast-milk intake, on the other hand, vitamin A contained in women breast milk was determined. Another objective of this project was to assess mother's vitamin A status according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Mother body composition was determined through different skinfold measurements and body mass index (BMI). Also, the babies' growth during the first three months of breast-feeding was evaluated. During that period it was possible to evaluate vitamin A reserves and corporal composition of the mother and nutritional status of their infants. No important prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was detected (6.3%), high risk of malnutrition was demonstrated by SES (92%), and between 11 and 18% of the mother began the lactating period undernourished. (author)

  16. Antibody-independent identification of bovine milk-derived peptides in breast-milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Gianluca; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Passariello, Annalisa; Dallas, David C; Robinson, Randall C; Barile, Daniela; Canani, Roberto Berni

    2016-08-10

    Exclusively breast-fed infants can exhibit clear signs of IgE or non IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. However, the definite characterization of dietary cow's milk proteins (CMP) that survive the maternal digestive tract to be absorbed into the bloodstream and secreted into breast milk remains missing. Herein, we aimed at assessing possible CMP-derived peptides in breast milk. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-high resolution mass spectrometry (MS), we compared the peptide fraction of breast milk from 12 donors, among which 6 drank a cup of milk daily and 6 were on a strict dairy-free diet. We identified two bovine β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg, 2 out 6 samples) and one αs1-casein (1 out 6 samples) fragments in breast milk from mothers receiving a cup of bovine milk daily. These CMP-derived fragments, namely β-Lg (f42-54), (f42-57) and αs1-casein (f180-197), were absent in milk from mothers on dairy-free diet. In contrast, neither intact nor hydrolyzed β-Lg was detected by western blot and competitive ELISA in any breast milk sample. Eight additional bovine milk-derived peptides identified by software-assisted MS were most likely false positive. The results of this study demonstrate that CMP-derived peptides rather than intact CMP may sensitize or elicit allergic responses in the neonate through mother's milk. Immunologically active peptides from the maternal diet could be involved in priming the newborn's immune system, driving a tolerogenic response. PMID:27396729

  17. Pesticide residues in human breast milk: risk assessment for infants from Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, J S; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Kaur, P; Sharma, A; Pooni, P A

    2013-10-01

    Punjab state in India is an agrarian society, where agriculture is the lifeline of farming community. To keep pace with increasing demands of food for growing population the indiscriminate use of pesticides has led to the contamination of environment and food commodities in this region. Analysis of human breast milk samples (n=53) for pesticide residues revealed the presence of β-, γ-HCH, p,p' DDD, p,p' DDE, p,p' DDT and endrin with mean concentration of 97.9, 101.7, 239.8, 1574.1, 100.3 and 90.7 ng g(-1) lipid wt., respectively. In addition, occurrence of β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulphate, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos in this study have also been reported for the first time in human breast milk in Punjab, India. With increase in parity, HCH and DDT residue burden in donor's milk decreased. Although levels of HCH and DDT residues in breast milk samples have decreased significantly, yet estimated daily intake values for DDT are higher than the FAO/WHO permissible tolerable daily intake values for few infants. PMID:23850662

  18. alpha-1-antitrypsin in breast milk of healthy Nigerian mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeme, J A; Lantos, J D; Ihongbe, J C

    1981-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitryspin (x-1-AT) may play a possible role as effector of immunological stasis. This study examines the levels of this glycoprotein in 73 breast milk samples from 60 healthy Nigerian mothers. Levels of x-1-AT were measured by single radial immunodiffusion according to the method of Mancini. Serum protein was measured by Lowry's method, albumin by Doumas' method. Highest mean levels of x-1-AT were found in colostrum (25 mg/dl). The level was significantly higher compared to transitional milk (14.2 mg/dl) or mature milk (165 mg/dl) (p0.001). Breast milk contains substantial amounts of x-1-AT which is not destroyed by pasturization at 56 degrees Centigrade. The immunological protective properties of breast milk are ideal for newborn babies, particularly those who are low birthweight and are thus most susceptible to neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

  19. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from various locations in Tunisia: levels of contamination, influencing factors, and infant risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaceur, S; Gandoura, N; Driss, M R

    2008-09-01

    The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 237 human breast milk samples collected from 12 locations in Tunisia. Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was used to identify and quantify residue levels on a lipid basis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). The predominant OCs in human breast milk were PCBs, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, HCHs, and HCB. Concentrations of DDTs in human breast milk from rural areas were significantly higher than those from urban locations (pmilk and age of mothers and number of parities, suggesting the influence of such factors on OC burdens in lactating mothers. The comparison of daily intakes of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and HCB to infants through human breast milk with guidelines proposed by WHO and Health Canada shows that some individuals accumulated OCs in breast milk close to or higher than these guidelines. PMID:18614165

  20. National survey of the levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides in the breast milk of mothers in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Pingping [Key Laboratory of Chemical Safety and Health, and National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 7 Panjiayuan nanli Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021 (China); Wu Yongning, E-mail: wuyncdc@yahoo.com.c [Key Laboratory of Chemical Safety and Health, and National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 7 Panjiayuan nanli Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021 (China); Yin Shian; Li Jingguang; Zhao Yunfeng; Zhang Lei; Chen Huijing [Key Laboratory of Chemical Safety and Health, and National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 7 Panjiayuan nanli Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021 (China); Liu Yinping [Hebei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 97 Huaian East Road, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050021 (China); Yang Xin; Li Xiaowei [Key Laboratory of Chemical Safety and Health, and National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 7 Panjiayuan nanli Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021 (China)

    2011-02-15

    The occurrence of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in breast milk samples collected from mothers from twelve provinces in mainland China was investigated. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the most prevalent agent, followed by HCHs and HCB, whereas levels of chlordane compounds, drins and mirex were lower. The relatively lower DDE/DDT ratio in the Fujian rural area suggested more recent exposure to DDT than in other areas. The mean level of DDTs in breast milk from the southern China was higher than those from northern China (p < 0.05). A positive correlation was observed between concentration of DDTs in human milk and consumption of animal-origin food, suggesting that this parameter could play an important part in influencing OCPs burdens in lactating women. The mean estimated daily intakes of different OCPs for breastfed infants were lower than the tolerable daily intake. - Research highlights: Among the OCPs analyzed, DDTs were the most prevalent agent. Lower DDE/DDT ratio in the Fujian rural area suggested recent intake of DDT. Animal food consumptions were correlated to DDTs concentrations in breast milk. The mean EDIs of various OCPs by Chinese infants were lower than the TDI guidelines. - A survey of concentrations of OCPs in breast milk helps identify background concentrations in the Chinese population.

  1. Bovine beta-lactoglobulin in human milk from atopic and non-atopic mothers. Relationship to maternal intake of homogenized and unhomogenized milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Husby, S; Hansen, L G;

    1990-01-01

    Human milk samples (n = 300) were collected during a 3-week period from 10 healthy mothers and from 10 atopic mothers, all with healthy, solely breast-fed infants. The milk samples were analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the content of bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG......). In a cross-over design the atopic and non-atopic mothers alternated their intake of milk between homogenized and unhomogenized milk each week. On day 7, in each week, consecutive milk samples were taken before and 4, 8, 12 and 24 hr after a single ingestion of 500 ml of homogenized or unhomogenized milk....... Detectable amounts of BLG (0.9-150 micrograms/l, median value 4.2 micrograms/l) were measured in 19/20 of the mothers (95%), in 9 of 10 atopic mothers and in all 10 of 10 non-atopic mothers. No correlation was found between the type of milk preparation (homogenized or unhomogenized) and the presence of BLG...

  2. 68Ga-DOTATATE Breast Uptake and Expression in Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forwood, Nicholas J; Kanthan, Gowri L; Bailey, Dale L; Chan, David L; Schembri, Geoffrey P

    2016-08-01

    The excretion of Ga-DOTA-Octreotate (DOTATATE) and related somatostatin analogues in breast milk has not been demonstrated. We report a case of a 34-year-old woman, 7 months postpartum and breastfeeding, who was referred for DOTATATE imaging after the diagnosis of appendiceal carcinoid and subsequent appendectomy. Prominent breast uptake was noted. A breast milk sample from the patient at 90 minutes postinjection was assayed in a gamma counter and shown to have a concentration of 5.6 Bq/g per MBq administered. The excretion of DOTATATE in breast milk is important to consider when providing radiation safety advice to breastfeeding patients. PMID:27276203

  3. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2-36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors’ code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10-11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1-1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses.

  4. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation.

  5. Determination of GHB levels in breast milk and correlation with blood concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Mannocchi, Giulio; Tittarelli, Roberta; Pantano, Flaminia; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Marinelli, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    The sodium salt of GHB or sodium oxybate is approved and registered in some countries as a therapeutic substance (Xyrem(®)) for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy. This study was designed to measure the GHB endogenous levels in blood and breast milk of 20 breastfeeding women. In addition, blood and breast milk samples of a 32-year-old narcoleptic nursing mother, who was on sodium oxybate treatment, were simultaneously collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 4 and 5h following a 4.5g GHB dose and analyzed, in order to establish the safety interval of time to breastfeed. A GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of GHB in blood and breast milk was developed and fully validated. The geometric mean of endogenous GHB levels in blood and breast milk detected at time 0 were 0.57mg/L; 95% Reference Interval (RI): 0.21-1.52mg/L and 0.36mg/L; 95% RI: 0.13-1.03mg/L, respectively. The geometric mean of the concentration of GHB in milk was 37% less (95% RI: from 14 to 53%) compared to that found in the blood. The analysis of blood and breast milk samples collected from the 32 years-old female showed the following results: GHB blood concentration 0.5h after medication intake was 80.10mg/L, reaching the peak 1h after the drug administration (108.34mg/L) and it steadily decreased to reach a level of 1.75mg/L, 5h after the medication intake. The GHB concentration found in breast milk followed the same pattern as for the blood, with the highest concentration being 23.19mg/L, 1h after sodium oxybate administration and the lowest 0.99mg/L, 5h after the medication's intake. The comparison between blood and breast milk GHB levels in the 32-year-old woman, showed significant lower GHB levels in milk at 0.5, 1 and 3h, ranging from 71 to 80% less. It is interesting to note that only at 4 and 5h the difference between blood and breast milk GHB levels fell within the 95% RI (14-53%) of endogenous levels. Taking into consideration the absence of reference values for endogenous GHB in

  6. Determination of GHB levels in breast milk and correlation with blood concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Mannocchi, Giulio; Tittarelli, Roberta; Pantano, Flaminia; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Marinelli, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    The sodium salt of GHB or sodium oxybate is approved and registered in some countries as a therapeutic substance (Xyrem(®)) for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy. This study was designed to measure the GHB endogenous levels in blood and breast milk of 20 breastfeeding women. In addition, blood and breast milk samples of a 32-year-old narcoleptic nursing mother, who was on sodium oxybate treatment, were simultaneously collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 4 and 5h following a 4.5g GHB dose and analyzed, in order to establish the safety interval of time to breastfeed. A GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of GHB in blood and breast milk was developed and fully validated. The geometric mean of endogenous GHB levels in blood and breast milk detected at time 0 were 0.57mg/L; 95% Reference Interval (RI): 0.21-1.52mg/L and 0.36mg/L; 95% RI: 0.13-1.03mg/L, respectively. The geometric mean of the concentration of GHB in milk was 37% less (95% RI: from 14 to 53%) compared to that found in the blood. The analysis of blood and breast milk samples collected from the 32 years-old female showed the following results: GHB blood concentration 0.5h after medication intake was 80.10mg/L, reaching the peak 1h after the drug administration (108.34mg/L) and it steadily decreased to reach a level of 1.75mg/L, 5h after the medication intake. The GHB concentration found in breast milk followed the same pattern as for the blood, with the highest concentration being 23.19mg/L, 1h after sodium oxybate administration and the lowest 0.99mg/L, 5h after the medication's intake. The comparison between blood and breast milk GHB levels in the 32-year-old woman, showed significant lower GHB levels in milk at 0.5, 1 and 3h, ranging from 71 to 80% less. It is interesting to note that only at 4 and 5h the difference between blood and breast milk GHB levels fell within the 95% RI (14-53%) of endogenous levels. Taking into consideration the absence of reference values for endogenous GHB in

  7. Antiviral activity of purified human breast milk mucin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Habtom H; Kotwal, Girish J; Lotz, Zoë E; Tyler, Marilyn G; Abrahams, Melissa; Rodriques, Jerry; Kahn, Delawir; Mall, Anwar S

    2007-01-01

    Human breast milk is known to contain numerous biologically active components which protect breast fed infants against microbes, viruses, and toxins. The purpose of this study was to purify and characterize the breast milk mucin and determine its anti-poxvirus activity. In this study human milk mucin, free of contaminant protein and of sufficient quantity for further analysis, was isolated and purified by Sepharose CL-4B gel filtration and cesiumchloride density-gradient centrifugation. Based on the criteria of size and appearance of the bands and their electrophoretic mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, Western blotting together with the amino acid analysis, it is very likely that the human breast milk mucin is MUC1. It was shown that this breast milk mucin inhibits poxvirus activity by 100% using an inhibition assay with a viral concentration of 2.4 million plaque-forming units/ml. As the milk mucin seems to aggregate poxviruses prior to their entry into host cells, it is possible that this mucin may also inhibit other enveloped viruses such as HIV from entry into host cells. PMID:17361093

  8. Comparative Analysis of the Physicochemical Parameters of Breast Milk, Starter Infant Formulas and Commercial Cow Milks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarić Slavica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on the physical properties of cow milk and infant formulas are important since they indicate the differences in physicochemical and rheological characteristics and compatibility with natural breast milk. This fact is important not only for quality control but also for the use of these commercial products as infant diet supplements or as complete breast milk substitutes. This study was undertaken to determine refractive index, surface tension, pH, electrical conductivity, viscosity and titratable acidity of the UHT cow milk, starter infant formulas and breast milk of Serbian mothers in order to compare commercial milk formulations with natural human milk. The paper also presents the measured data of some physical parameters of human milk about which there is little information in the literature. It has been also demonstrated how these parameters were changed by freezing and prolonged storage of breast milk.

  9. Milk intake is not associated with low risk of diabetes or overweight-obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Helle K M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Ellervik, Christina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High dairy/milk intake has been associated with a low risk of type 2 diabetes observationally, but whether this represents a causal association is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that high milk intake is associated with a low risk of type 2 diabetes and of overweight-obes...

  10. Clinical impact of human breast milk metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesare Marincola, Flaminia; Dessì, Angelica; Corbu, Sara; Reali, Alessandra; Fanos, Vassilios

    2015-12-01

    Metabolomics is a research field concerned with the analysis of metabolome, the complete set of metabolites in a given cell, tissue, or biological sample. Being able to provide a molecular snapshot of biological systems, metabolomics has emerged as a functional methodology in a wide range of research areas such as toxicology, pharmacology, food technology, nutrition, microbial biotechnology, systems biology, and plant biotechnology. In this review, we emphasize the applications of metabolomics in investigating the human breast milk (HBM) metabolome. HBM is the recommended source of nutrition for infants since it contains the optimal balance of nutrients for developing babies, and it provides a range of benefits for growth, immunity, and development. The molecular mechanisms beyond the inter- and intra-variability of HBM that make its composition unique are yet to be well-characterized. Although still in its infancy, the study of HBM metabolome has already proven itself to be of great value in providing insights into this biochemical variability in relation to mother phenotype, diet, disease, and lifestyle. The results of these investigations lay the foundation for further developments useful to identify normal and aberrant biochemical changes as well as to develop strategies to promote healthy infant feeding practices.

  11. Fluoride Levels of Mothers' Breast Milk in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada, Z A Soliman and Tamer M M Saad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluoride exists naturally in water sources and is derived from fluorine. It is well known that fluoride helps, prevent and even reverse the early stages of tooth decay. Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the fluoride levels in plasma and breast milk of lactating mothers in Egypt (Cairo and Giza Governorate. Material and Methods: Two hundred healthy lactating mothers aged between 20-40 years old were asked to give plasma and milk samples voluntary. Breast milk samples were directly refrigerated until measurements. The fluoride concentrations of plasma, milk and drinking tap water were assessed using an ion-selective fluoride electrode combined with an ion analyzer. Results: The fluoride levels of plasma, breast milk and drinking tap water samples were 0.0207±0.012, 0.0111±0.0044 ppm, and 0.482±0.117 ppm, respectively. A significant direct correlation between fluoride content in breast milk and drinking tap water was found (r=0.858, p< 0.01.

  12. Rapid measurement of macronutrients in breast milk: How reliable are infrared milk analyzers?✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusch, Gerhard; Rochow, Niels; Choi, Arum; Fusch, Stephanie; Poeschl, Susanna; Ubah, Adelaide Obianuju; Lee, Sau-Young; Raja, Preeya; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background & aims Significant biological variation in macronutrient content of breast milk is an important barrier that needs to be overcome to meet nutritional needs of preterm infants. To analyze macronutrient content, commercial infrared milk analyzers have been proposed as efficient and practical tools in terms of efficiency and practicality. Since milk analyzers were originally developed for the dairy industry, they must be validated using a significant number of human milk samples that represent the broad range of variation in macronutrient content in preterm and term milk. Aim of this study was to validate two milk analyzers for breast milk analysis with reference methods and to determine an effective sample pretreatment. Current evidence for the influence of (i) aliquoting, (ii) storage time and (iii) temperature, and (iv) vessel wall adsorption on stability and availability of macronutrients in frozen breast milk is reviewed. Methods Breast milk samples (n = 1188) were collected from 63 mothers of preterm and term infants. Milk analyzers: (A) Near-infrared milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, USA) and (B) Mid-infrared milk analyzer (Miris, Sweden) were compared to reference methods, e.g. ether extraction, elemental analysis, and UPLC-MS/MS for fat, protein, and lactose, respectively. Results For fat analysis, (A) measured precisely but not accurately (y = 0.55x + 1.25, r2 = 0.85), whereas (B) measured precisely and accurately (y = 0.93x + 0.18, r2 = 0.86). For protein analysis, (A) was precise but not accurate (y = 0.55x + 0.54, r2 = 0.67) while (B) was both precise and accurate (y = 0.78x + 0.05, r2 = 0.73). For lactose analysis, both devices (A) and (B) showed two distinct concentration levels and measured therefore neither accurately nor precisely (y = 0.02x + 5.69, r2 = 0.01 and y = −0.09x + 6.62, r2 = 0.02 respectively). Macronutrient levels were unchanged in two independent samples of stored breast milk (−20 °C measured with IR; −80

  13. Breast Milk Iodine and Iodine Status of Breast-Fed Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Morshed Molla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk is the only source of iodine for exclusively breast-fed infants. Iodine status of breast-fed infants depends on iodine in breast milk and also number of feeding in 24 hours. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess both have bad impact on infant’s health. Objective: To measure the iodine in breast milk and to evaluate iodine status of their breast-fed infants. Materials and method: This observational analytical study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka with active cooperation of Kumudini Women’s Medical College Hospital, Mirzapur, Tangail involving fifty lactating mothers and their exclusively breast-fed infants. Early morning urine and breast milk samples were collected in dry and clean plastic container free from any chemical contamination. Urinary iodine was used as indicator for assessing iodine status. All statistical analyses were done by using SPSS (statistical programme for social science 12 version software package for Windows. Results: The median (range urinary iodine concentration of lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants were 225.25 μg/L (61.50-530.00 and 225.75 μg/L (100.50-526.00 respectively. The median (range breast-milk iodine concentration was 157 μg/L (54.50-431.50 which was more than three times of recommended minimum concentration (50 μg/L. Only 2 (4% lactating mothers had mild biochemical iodine deficiency (UIE, 50-99 μg/L. There was no biochemical iodine deficiency of breast-fed infants. Iodine in breast milk of lactating mothers was positively correlated with their urinary iodine excretion (p<0.01. Infant’s urinary iodine was positively correlated with iodine concentration in breast milk (p<0.01 and with urinary iodine of lactating mothers (p<0.01. Conclusion: Lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants in this study were iodine sufficient. If iodine content of breast-milk is within normal range, 10-12 numbers of

  14. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO₂). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO₂ are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences. PMID:27275838

  15. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scheffler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography−mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O, as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS, allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2. Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO2 are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences.

  16. Perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk from several Asian countries, and in infant formula and dairy milk from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lin; Ma, Jing; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Libelo, E Laurence; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2008-11-15

    The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in human blood is known to be widespread; nevertheless, the sources of exposure to humans, including infants, are not well understood. In this study, breast milk collected from seven countries in Asia was analyzed (n=184) for nine PFCs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). In addition, five brands of infant formula (n=21) and 11 brands of dairy milk (n=12) collected from retail stores in the United States were analyzed, for comparison with PFC concentrations previously reported for breast milk from the U.S. PFOS was the predominant PFC detected in almost all Asian breast milk samples, followed by perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and PFOA. Median concentrations of PFOS in breast milk from Asian countries varied significantly;the lowest concentration of 39.4 pg/mL was found in India, and the highest concentration of 196 pg/mL was found in Japan. The measured concentrations were similarto or less than the concentrations previously reported from Sweden, the United States, and Germany (median, 106-166 pg/mL). PFHxS was found in more than 70% of the samples analyzed from Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam, at mean concentrations ranging from 6.45 (Malaysia) to 15.8 (Philippines) pg/mL PFOA was found frequently only in samples from Japan; the mean concentration for that country was 77.7 pg/mL. None of the PFCs were detected in the infant-formula or dairy-milk samples from the U.S. except a few samples that contained concentrations close to the limit of detection. The estimated average daily intake of PFOS by infants from seven Asian countries, via breastfeeding, was 11.8 +/- 10.6 ng/kg bw/ day; this value is 7-12 times higher than the estimated adult dietary intakes previously reported from Germany, Canada, and Spain. The average daily intake of PFOA by Japanese infants was 9.6 +/- 4.9 ng/kg bw/day, a value 3-10 times greater than the estimated adult dietary intakes reported from

  17. Breast milk stem cells: four questions looking for an answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavino Faa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The finding of stem/progenitor cells in the maternal milk and the discovery of their multilineage potential, associated with some evidence regarding the ability of maternal cells to cross the gastrointestinal barrier and integrate into the organs of the breastfed neonate, has opened an intriguing debate, regarding the strict relationship between mother and son in the postnatal period. In particular, thanks to the discovery of the presence in high quantities of mammary stem cells, a new vision of maternal milk is emerging, in which breastfeeding appears as an unique occasion for reinforcing the physiological development of the newborn, putting all the formulas at a different level of relevance for the neonate. In this contribution the authors try to give an answer to the following 4 questions:is there heterogeneity and a hierarchy among breast milk stem cells?can stem cells present in breast milk enter into the newborn organism?can breast milk stem cells integrate in the neonatal organs and differentiate toward different tissues, including neurons and neuroglia?could metabolomics be useful for the study of stem cells in the human milk? Proceedings of the 2nd International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 26th-31st, 2015 · Cagliari (Italy · October 31st, 2015 · Stem cells: present and future Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Antonio Giordano

  18. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Scheffler; Yvonne Sauermann; Gina Zeh; Katharina Hauf; Anja Heinlein; Constanze Sharapa; Andrea Buettner

    2016-01-01

    The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography−mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabol...

  19. Metabolic effects of milk protein intake strongly depend on pre-existing metabolic and exercise status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C; Schmitz, Gerd; John, Swen; Carrera-Bastos, Pedro; Lindeberg, Staffan; Cordain, Loren

    2013-01-01

    Milk protein intake has recently been suggested to improve metabolic health. This Perspective provides evidence that metabolic effects of milk protein intake have to be regarded in the context of the individual's pre-existing metabolic and exercise status. Milk proteins provide abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and glutamine. Plasma BCAAs and glutamine are increased in obesity and insulin resistance, but decrease after gastric bypass surgery resulting in weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. Milk protein consumption results in postprandial hyperinsulinemia in obese subjects, increases body weight of overweight adolescents and may thus deteriorate pre-existing metabolic disturbances of obese, insulin resistant individuals. PMID:24225036

  20. Metabolic effects of milk protein intake strongly depend on pre-existing metabolic and exercise status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Milk protein intake has recently been suggested to improve metabolic health. This Perspective provides evidence that metabolic effects of milk protein intake have to be regarded in the context of the individual’s pre-existing metabolic and exercise status. Milk proteins provide abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and glutamine. Plasma BCAAs and glutamine are increased in obesity and insulin resistance, but decrease after gastric bypass surgery resulting in weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. Milk protein consumption results in postprandial hyperinsulinemia in obese subjects, increases body weight of overweight adolescents and may thus deteriorate pre-existing metabolic disturbances of obese, insulin resistant individuals. PMID:24225036

  1. Prospective association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Maria del Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. [br/] Objective: The objective was to investigate the prospective rela...

  2. Assessment of Dose to the Nursing Infant from Radionuclides in Breast Milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    A computer software package was developed to predict tissue doses to an infant due to intake of radionuclides in breast milk based on bioassay measurements and exposure data for the mother. The package is intended mainly to aid in decisions regarding the safety of breast feeding by a mother who has been acutely exposed to a radionuclide during lactation or pregnancy, but it may be applied to previous intakes during the mother s adult life. The package includes biokinetic and dosimetric information needed to address intake of Co-60, Sr-90, Cs-134, Cs-137, Ir-192, Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, or Cf-252 by the mother. It has been designed so that the library of biokinetic and dosimetric files can be expanded to address a more comprehensive set of radionuclides without modifying the basic computational module. The methods and models build on the approach used in Publication 95 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 2004), Doses to Infants from Ingestion of Radionuclides in Mothers Milk . The software package allows input of case-specific information or judgments such as chemical form or particle size of an inhaled aerosol. The package is expected to be more suitable than ICRP Publication 95 for dose assessment for real events or realistic planning scenarios in which measurements of the mother s excretion or body burden are available.

  3. Exposure Assessment of Infants to Aflatoxin M1 through Consumption of Breast Milk and Infant Powdered Milk in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Angélica T.; Takabayashi-Yamashita, Cássia R.; Ono, Elisabete Y. S.; Bagatin, Artur K.; Rigobello, Fabiana F.; Kawamura, Osamu; Hirooka, Elisa Y.; Itano, Eiko N.

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is an important biomarker that can be used to evaluate aflatoxin exposure in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure degree of infants to AFM1 through consumption of breast milk and infant powdered milk in Brazil. For this purpose, the estimated daily intake (EDI) for infants was calculated based on the AFM1 levels analyzed in 94 breast milk (BM) samples collected in Southern Brazil, and 16 infant powdered milk (IPM) samples commonly commercialized in Brazil. AFM1 was detected in 5.3% (n = 5) and 43.8% (n = 7) of BM and IPM samples, with mean levels of 0.003 ng/g and 0.011 ng/g, respectively. All the IPM samples showed AFM1 levels lower than those established by the Brazilian guidelines (5 ng/g), and in most of the samples (81.25%) levels were below the maximum limit tolerated by the European Commission (0.025 ng/g). The EDI of AFM1 for infants aged zero to 12 months old showed values from 0.018 to 0.069 ng/kg body weight/day for BM, and 0.078 to 0.306 ng/kg body weight/day for IPM. Hazard index (HI) values for BM and IPM were less than one, except for IPM intended for infants up to one month. In conclusion, the exposure of infants to AFM1 was low, but continuous monitoring of mycotoxin levels is essential to minimize infant health risk. PMID:27589799

  4. Determination of in-vitro antibacterial effects of breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C N Akujobi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Breast milk undisputedly is the ideal baby food. It provides a lot of protective functions for the baby as well complete nutrition. It contains fat, proteins carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. There have been various claims that it cures ailments. The study was therefore designed to substantiate those claims. Objective: To determine the in vitro antibacterial effects of breast milk Methodology:Expressed breast milk of nursing mothers who were not on antibiotics was challenged with 0.5 McFarland′s standard of overnight cultures of common bacteria that cause infections. The mixture was sub cultured at 30 minutes, 1 hour and lastly 2 hour intervals. The plates were read the following day for evidence of growth. Result:Overnight incubation yielded growth of the various organisms that were inoculated. Conclusion:Breast milk does not have in vitro antibacterial effect although it may possess same in vivo with the synergistic effect of other substances in the body.

  5. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of human breast milk in Isfahan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarian-Dehkordi, Abbas; Pourradi, Nasibeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: During the last decades there has been great attention paid to aflatoxins. They are highly toxic, immunosuppressive, mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic compounds. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), is formed in the liver and excreted into the breast milk. It is considered to cause certain hygienic risks for infant health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the AFM1 in the breast milk using AFM1 in milk as a biomarker for exposure to aflatoxin B1 and determine the level of AFM1 contamination in the lactating mothers in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 80 lactating women randomly selected from two urban health centers. Mother's milk samples and information on food intake were collected from the participants using structured food-frequency questionnaire. Breast milk samples were tested for AFM1 by a competitive ELISA technique. Results: Our findings showed that only one sample was contaminated with AFM1 with concentrations of 6.8 ng/L. However, the AFM1 level in this sample was lower than the maximum tolerable limit (25 ng/L) accepted by the European Communities and Codex Alimentarius. Conclusion: Although the concentration of AFM1 in none of the samples was higher than the acceptable level, the presence of AFM1 in only one of them confirms the need for developing strategies to reduce exposure to aflatoxin in foods and to carry out biological monitoring of aflatoxins as a food quality control measure routinely. PMID:24524032

  6. Vitamin K intake and calcifications in breast arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Angela H. E. M.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Beijerinck, David; Deurenberg, Jan J. M.; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Graaf, Yolanda

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Vitamin K is an important co-factor in the production of proteins that inhibit vascular calcification. A low dietary Vitamin K intake has been associated with aortic and coronary calcifications and an elevated cardiovascular risk. Calcifications in the arteries of the breasts have also b

  7. Milk, yogurt, and lactose intake and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Tang, Wenru; Sang, Lei; Dai, Xiaoli; Wei, Danping; Luo, Ying; Zhang, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Inconclusive information for the role of dairy food intake in relation to ovarian cancer risk may associate with adverse effects of lactose, which has been hypothesized to increase gonadotropin levels in animal models and ecological studies. Up to now, several studies have indicated the association between dairy food intake and risk of ovarian cancer, but no identified founding was reported. We performed this meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of the association between dairy food intake and ovarian cancer risk. Using the data from 19 available publications, we examined dairy food including low-fat/skim milk, whole milk, yogurt and lactose in relation to risk of ovarian cancer by meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the association. We observed a slightly increased risk of ovarian cancer with high intake of whole milk, but has no statistical significance (OR = 1.228, 95% CI = 1.031-1.464, P = 0.022). The results of other milk models did not provide evidence of positive association with ovarian cancer risk. This meta-analysis suggests that low-fat/skim milk, whole milk, yogurt and lactose intake has no associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer. Further studies with larger participants worldwide are needed to validate the association between dairy food intake and ovarian cancer.

  8. Correlation between Fluoride in Drinking Water and Its Levels in Breast Milk in Golestan Province, Northern Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Faraji

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is an essential element for human health. However, excess fluoride in drinking water may cause dental and/or skeletal fluorosis. Drinking water is the main route of fluoride intake. The aim of the present study was to measure fluoride levels in human breast milk collected from two regions of Golestan Province, northern Iran with different amount of fluoride concentration of drinking water in Bandar Gaz and Nokande cities and to correlate it with fluoride concentrations in drinking water used by mothers living in these two areas.Twenty samples of water were collected from seven drinking water wells during 2012 from Bandar Gaz and Nokande in Iran during 2012. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured using SPADNS method. Sixty breast milk samples were collected from lactating mothers of Bandar Gaz and Nokande cities. Content in breast milk was determined using standard F ion-selective electrode. Spearman's rho correlation analysis was used to assess any possible relationship between fluoride levels in breast milk and in drinking water.The means and standard deviation for F concentration in breast milk and drinking water were 0.002188±0.00026224 ppm and 0.5850±0.22542 ppm, respectively. Analysis of data showed that the variables were not normally distributed so the Spearman correlation coefficient between two variables calculated (ρ S = 0.65 and it was significant (P=0.002.Fluoride concentration in water can directly act on its concentration in breast milk. We speculate that modifying F concentration in water can affect accessibility of fluoride for infants.

  9. Validation of the deuterium oxide method for measuring average daily milk intake in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deuterium oxide elimination method for measuring average daily milk intake was validated against measured formula intake in 16 studies of 11 infants in a metabolic ward. Deuterium oxide (approximately 0.10 g/kg body wt) was given orally. Deuterium enrichment was measured in urine samples collected predose, as available for 6-h postdose for TBW determination, and at 24 h and 5-10 d postdose for HDO elimination calculated according to the two-point method. Urine samples were vacuum distilled, water was reduced to hydrogen gas, and deuterium enrichment was measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Milk intake was measured throughout the elimination period from prefeeding and postfeeding bottle weights (n = 12) or volumes (n = 4). Without corrections for atmospheric water influx, milk intake was overestimated by 76 g/d (6%). With corrections for estimated metabolic water production, isotopic fractionation, and atmospheric water influx, deuterium measured 98% +/- 3% or 1300 g milk intake/d compared with actual milk intake of 1329 +/- 206 g/d

  10. Influence of milk production potential on forage dry matter intake by multiparous and primiparous Brangus females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C R; Lalman, D L; Brown, M A; Appeddu, L A; Buchanan, D S; Wettemann, R P

    2003-07-01

    Brangus cows (n = 29) were used in three experiments to evaluate the effects of parity (multiparous vs. primiparous) and potential genetic merit for milk production (high vs. low) on forage intake during late gestation, early lactation, and late lactation. Cows were selected for milk production based on their sire's EPD for milk production (MEPD). Cows had ad libitum access to (130% of previous 2-d average intake) low-quality hay (5.3% CP and 76% NDF), and cottonseed meal was supplemented to ensure adequate degradable intake protein. All females were adapted to diets for at least 7 d, and individual intake data were collected for 9 d. During the lactation trials, actual milk production was determined using a portable milking machine following a 12-h separation from calves. During late gestation, multiparous cows consumed 24% more (P = 0.01) forage DM (kg/d) than primiparous cows; however, parity class did not influence forage intake when intake was expressed relative to BW. Furthermore, MEPD did not influence forage intake during late gestation. During early lactation, multiparous cows produced 66% more (P < 0.001) milk than primiparous cows, and high MEPD tended (P = 0.10) to produce more milk than low MEPD. Multiparous cows consumed 19% more (P < 0.0001) forage DM than did primiparous cows when expressed on an absolute basis, but not when expressed on a BW basis. High-MEPD cows consumed 8% more (P < 0.05) forage DM than did low-MEPD cows. During late lactation, multiparous cows produced 84% more milk than primiparous cows, although MEPD did not influence (P = 0.40) milk yield. In addition, multiparous cows consumed 17% more (P < 0.01) forage DM per day than primiparous cows, but when intake was expressed relative to BW, neither parity nor MEPD influenced forage DMI during late lactation. Milk yield and BW explained significant proportions of the variation in forage DMI during early and late lactation. Each kilogram increase in milk yield was associated with a 0

  11. Fiber intake modulates the association of alcohol intake with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Chajès, Veronique;

    2016-01-01

    fiber as a modifying factor of the association of alcohol and breast cancer using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). This study included 334,850 women aged 35-70 years at baseline enrolled in the ten countries of the EPIC study and followed up for 11...... computed. During 3,670,439 person-years, 11,576 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. For subjects with low intake of fiber (24.2 g/day) the risk of BC was 1.02 (0.......99-1.05) (test for interaction p=0.011). This modulating effect was stronger for fiber from vegetables. Our results suggest that fiber intake may modulate the positive association of alcohol intake and BC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  12. A case report of pink breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jenny; Crete, Joan; Neumeier, Robin

    2014-01-01

    A woman presented for her postpartum examination alarmed about pink stains on her breast pads and on her infant's burp pads and diapers. The stains were also found in her breast pump and the infant's bottles. Out of concern, she stopped breastfeeding. The diagnosis was colonization of mother and infant with Serratia marcescens. They were managed conservatively without antibiotics. The mother was guided to restart breastfeeding. The infant resumed nursing and continued to thrive. PMID:25141908

  13. Estimation of milk, dairy products and calcium intake in nutrition of the celiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Panjkota Krbavčić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. People who have celiac disease cannot tolerate a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley and possibly oats. The smallest amount of gluten in food damages the small intestine of these patients. In Croatia there is no data about nutrition and dietary habits of people with celiac disease. In celiac disease there is one and only cure: a gluten-free diet. Milk and dairy products are major source of calcium, and this population, because of malapsorptive syndrome is especially sensitive and predisposed for osteoporosis and osteopenya. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to establish milk, dairy products and calcium intake in celiac patients nutrition. Milk and dairy products was determined by using 3-day-dietary record (3DD combined with food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in 15 celiac patients. Energy share of milk and dairy products were 11,82 % kJ, twice less than recommendation. Average daily intake of calcium was also below the recommendation (62,64 % DRI, and 67 % of examinees did not achieve neither 2/3 of daily recommendation intake (DRI for calcium. From milk and dairy group examinees use milk and pudding the most, yoghurt and fruit yoghurt less. It is necessary to increase intake of calcium from milk and dairy products group because they are the best source of this nutrient.

  14. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from various locations in Tunisia: Levels of contamination, influencing factors, and infant risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 237 human breast milk samples collected from 12 locations in Tunisia. Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was used to identify and quantify residue levels on a lipid basis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). The predominant OCs in human breast milk were PCBs, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, HCHs, and HCB. Concentrations of DDTs in human breast milk from rural areas were significantly higher than those from urban locations (pow such as PCB 153, 138, and 180. Positive correlations were found between concentrations of OCs in human breast milk and age of mothers and number of parities, suggesting the influence of such factors on OC burdens in lactating mothers. The comparison of daily intakes of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and HCB to infants through human breast milk with guidelines proposed by WHO and Health Canada shows that some individuals accumulated OCs in breast milk close to or higher than these guidelines

  15. IAEA initiatives in body composition and breast milk determination: Examples from Ghana and Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Body composition can be measured by various techniques. However, The only way in which lean body mass and fat body mass can be measured accurately in free-living human subjects is to use a kinetic method with water labeled with 2H and or 18O. Known as the 'stable isotope dilution method' this procedure is now accepted worldwide. In addition, This technique has been validated to assess infant milk intake. Indeed, the dose-to-mother isotope dilution method measures breast milk output and mother's body composition with minimum interference on the lactation process.The IAEA Technical Cooperation projects in Senegal and Ghana were aimed to estimate breast milk output and mother's body composition by deuterium dilution methods among lactating mothers beneficiary of the National Supplementary Feeding Programme. A dose of deuterium oxide was orally administrated to the mothers and saliva samples were collected from both the babies and the mothers before and after the administration of the dose. Enrichment of the saliva samples was measured by a fast, easy and less expensive method, which use a Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR).In Senegal, the study has been conducted on 206 women paired with their children and 1876 saliva samples have been analysed in duplicate. In Ghana, 150 paired-women with their children have been selected for the study and 2100 saliva samples have been analysed. The results that came out from the both studies have shown that after three months of the supplementary feeding programme: 1. There is a significant increase in mother's lean body mass (41.35Kg ± 5.00) vs (34.63Kg ± 6.09) respectively in supplemented and non-supplemented mothers in Ghana. And, (40Kg ± 4) vs (37Kg ± 4) respectively in supplemented and non-supplemented mothers in Senegal. 2. Breast Milk volume increases significantly in Ghana's study (1050ml ± 280) vs (850ml ± 150). In However, in Senegal, milk output was not significantly improved by the

  16. Breast milk lead and cadmium levels from suburban areas of Ankara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oruen, Emel, E-mail: emelorun@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, Fatih University Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Yalcin, S. Songuel, E-mail: siyalcin@hacettepe.edu.tr [Social Pediatric Unit, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Aykut, Osman; Orhan, Guennur; Morgil, Goeksel Koc [Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara (Turkey); Yurdakoek, Kadriye [Social Pediatric Unit, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Uzun, Ramazan [Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the breast milk at 2 months postpartum, (2) to investigate the relationship between Pb and Cd levels in breast milk and some sociodemographic parameters and (3) to detect whether these levels have any influence on the infant's physical status or on postpartum depression in the mothers. Pb and Cd levels in breast milk were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The median breast milk concentrations of Pb and Cd were 20.59 and 0.67 {mu}g/l, respectively. In 125 (87%) of 144 samples, Pb levels were higher than the limit in breast milk reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) (> 5 {mu}g/l). Breast milk Cd levels were > 1 {mu}g/l in 52 (36%) mothers. The mothers with a history of anemia at any time had higher breast milk Pb levels than those without a history of anemia (21.1 versus 17.9 {mu}g/l; p = 0.0052). The median breast milk Cd levels in active and passive smokers during pregnancy were significantly higher than in non-smokers (0.89, 0.00 {mu}g/l, respectively; p = 0.023). The breast milk Cd levels of the mothers who did not use iron and vitamin supplements for 2 months postpartum were found to be higher than in those who did use the supplements (iron: 0.73, 0.00 {mu}g/l, p = 0.023; vitamin: 0.78, 0.00 {mu}g/l, p = 0.004, respectively). Breast milk Cd levels at the 2nd month were correlated negatively with the z scores of head circumference and the weight for age at birth (r = - 0.257, p = 0.041 and r = - 0.251, p = 0.026, respectively) in girls. We found no correlation between the breast milk Pb and Cd levels and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale scores. Breast milk monitoring programs should be conducted that have tested considerable numbers of women over time in view of the high levels of Pb in breast milk in this study. - Research highlights: {yields} Breast milk Pb levels were higher than the advised safety limits. {yields

  17. Concentrations of phthalate metabolites in breast milk in Korea: estimating exposure to phthalates and potential risks among breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Jangwoo; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Cho, Geumjoon; Kim, Gun-Ha; Eun, So-Hee; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Suh, Eunsook; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Young Don; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Seunghyo; Eom, Soyong; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-03-01

    Phthalates have been associated with endocrine disruption and developmental effects in many experimental and epidemiological studies. Developing infants are among the most susceptible populations to endocrine disruption. However, limited information is available on phthalate exposure and its associated risks among breast-fed newborn infants. In the present study, breast milk samples were collected from 62 lactating mothers at 1 month post-partum from four cities of Korea in 2012 and were evaluated for six phthalate metabolites (mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP)). MEP was detected in all breast milk samples, with a median concentration of 0.37 μg/L, and MiBP, MnBP and MEHP were detected in 79-89% of samples, with median concentrations of 1.10, 1.70, and 2.08 μg/L, respectively. However, MEHHP and MEOHP, the oxidized forms of di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP), were detected in only one sample. For exposure assessment, the levels of phthalate diesters were estimated based on the parent:metabolite ratios in the breast milk that are reported elsewhere. For risk assessment, the endocrine-related toxicity of the monoester was assumed to be the same as that of its diester form. Median daily intake estimates of phthalates, including both monoester and diester forms, through breast milk consumption ranged between 0.91 and 6.52 μg/kg body weight (bw) for DEHP and between 0.38 and 1.43 μg/kg bw for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). Based on the estimated daily intake, up to 8% of infants exceeded the reference dose of anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) for DEHP, and 6% of infants exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for DnBP. Breast milk MiBP and MnBP concentrations showed significant positive associations with maternal consumption of whipped cream or purified water. Considering vulnerability of

  18. Assessment of Dietary Supplement from Iodine by Milk Intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level concentration of iodine was determined in various milk products for adult and baby milk powders by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. It is a reliable method for the determination of iodine in milk samples, using alkaline digestion with potassium hydroxide KOH solution in an oven. After digestion, a stabilizer is added and the solution is taken to volume , then filtered and analysed by ICP-MS either directly or after dilution. Samples for investigation were collected from domestic market of Egypt. The detection limits of current Iodine are not affected by interfering from milk gradient. The minimum detection limit (MDL) of about 10 ppb Iodine was achieved. This method showed excellent results for aqueous iodide solutions, although the complex milk digest matrix made the method unsuitable for such samples. So, investigation of the iodine species is achieved through the oxidation and extraction of iodine milk sample s, the digest ion was carried out to control the iodine chemistry. Iodine concentrations ranged from 0.1 7 to 5 .1 mg / kg for various samples , The accuracy of the method ranged from 95 to 100%

  19. Milk intake and total dairy consumption: associations with early menarche in NHANES 1999-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Wiley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several components of dairy products have been linked to earlier menarche. METHODS/FINDINGS: This study assessed whether positive associations exist between childhood milk consumption and age at menarche or the likelihood of early menarche (<12 yrs in a U.S sample. Data derive from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004. Two samples were utilized: 2657 women age 20-49 yrs and 1008 girls age 9-12 yrs. In regression analysis, a weak negative relationship was found between frequency of milk consumption at 5-12 yrs and age at menarche (daily milk intake β = -0.32, P<0.10; "sometimes/variable milk intake" β = -0.38, P<0.06, each compared to intake rarely/never. Cox regression yielded no greater risk of early menarche among those who drank milk "sometimes/varied" or daily vs. never/rarely (HR: 1.20, P<0.42, HR: 1.25, P<0.23, respectively. Among the 9-12 yr olds, Cox regression indicated that neither total dairy kcal, calcium and protein, nor daily milk intake in the past 30 days contributed to early menarche. Girls in the middle tertile of milk intake had a marginally lower risk of early menarche than those in the highest tertile (HR: 0.6, P<0.06. Those in the lowest tertiles of dairy fat intake had a greater risk of early menarche than those in the highest (HR: 1.5, P<0.05, HR: 1.6, P<0.07, lowest and middle tertile, respectively, while those with the lowest calcium intake had a lower risk of early menarche (HR: 0.6, P<0.05 than those in the highest tertile. These relationships remained after adjusting for overweight or overweight and height percentile; both increased the risk of earlier menarche. Blacks were more likely than Whites to reach menarche early (HR: 1.7, P<0.03, but not after controlling for overweight. CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence that greater milk intake is associated with an increased risk of early menarche, or a lower age at menarche.

  20. Human milk and breast feeding: an update on the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogra, P L; Greene, H L

    1982-04-01

    Current approaches to infant feeding have been based on the level of available knowledge of nutritional requirements of full term and low birth weight (LBW) infants and on established cultural traditions in many contemporary societies. This discussion summarizes existing information about infant nutrition and immunobiologic aspects of human milk, which may influence the choice of breast versus bottle feeding of infants in different parts of the world. The average caloric requirement for a normal full term infant from the 2nd day of age through the 1st year of life is estimated to be about 100-110 Kcal/kg/day. Caloric intake of less than 80 Kcal/kg/day is usually insufficient for physiologic needs and intakes over the average requirement may be associated with obesity. The minimum requirement for protien has been estimated to be about 1.8 gm/100 Kcal and protein intake of over 4.5 gm/100 Kcal may result in an increased urea nitrogen retention. The nutritional requirements of premature and LBW infants have not been clearly established, but the nutritional needs of a LBW infant appear to be significantly higher than the requirements of a normal full term infant. The chemical composition of human milk exhibits considerable variation between different individuals and in the same individual at different times of lactation, as well as between samples obtained from mothers of LBW infants and full term infants. Fresh milk contains a wealth of components that provide specific and nonspecific defenses against infectious agents or other macromolecules. The concentrations of protein, whey protein nitrogen, sodium and potassium in cow's milk are 2-3 times higher than in human milk. Only limited information is available about the spectrum of environmental chemical and toxins present in cow's milk. The composition of human milk meets the minimum requirements for protein and calories for a growing full term infant, despite the fact that protein content of pooled human milk is low

  1. Relationship between soy milk intake and radiographic knee joint space narrowing and osteophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Gao, Shu-Guang; Li, Yu-Sheng; Luo, Wei; Xiao, Wen-Feng; Xiong, Yi-Lin; Lei, Guang-Hua

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between dietary soy milk intake and the prevalence of radiographic knee joint space narrowing (JSN) and osteophytes (OST). Soy milk intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and classified into three categories: never, sex), the prevalence of OST decreased in "≥once a day" category (OR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.28-0.98, P = 0.042) and "educational background, diabetes, hypertension, and other dairy product intake) ("≥once a day" category: OR 0.49, 95 % CI 0.26-0.92, P = 0.026; "milk intake and JSN in both the models were not observed. Dietary soy milk intake was found to be negatively associated with OST, but not JSN, independent of some major confounding factors. PMID:27193467

  2. Neutron- and photon-activation detection limits in breast milk analysis for prospective dose evaluation of the suckling infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex situations related to the environment, as in the regions affected by the Chernobyl accident and regions in which nuclear weapons testing were undertaken, as in Semipalatinsk, could be reflected in the trace element content in mothers' milk. The evaluation of fractional transfer to milk of ingested or inhaled activity and of the corresponding dose coefficients for the infant, following a mothers' radioactive intake, can take advantage from wide-ranging studies of elemental and radionuclide contents in mothers' milk. In this work the possibility to determine elements, such as Ru, Zr, Nb, Te, Ce, Th, U, in milk powder has been investigated. Although results from elemental analyses of breast milk are to be found in the literature, the determination of the identified elements has attracted poor attention since they are not considered essential elements from a biological point of view. Nevertheless, in the case of radioactive releases to the environment, such data could be of interest in evaluation of dose to the breast-fed infant

  3. Breast milk IL-1β level associates with development of eczema during early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, A. A.; Chawes, B. L. K.; Carson, C. G.;

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association.......We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association....

  4. Effect of milk allowance on concentrate intake, ruminal environment, and ruminal development in milk-fed Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, N B; Sehested, J; Jensen, S K; Vestergaard, M

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that a barley-based concentrate would induce an acidic ruminal environment in young calves and that increased milk allowance would alleviate this condition. Eight Holstein calves ruminally cannulated at d 7 +/- 1 of age were used to study the effect of variation in barley-based starter concentrate intake induced by 4 different milk allowances (3.10, 4.84, 6.60, and 8.34 kg of milk replacer/d; 123 g of dry matter/kg of milk) on the ruminal environment, blood variables, and fore-stomach development from wk 2 to 5 of age. Twelve ruminal fluid samples were collected during a weekly 24-h sampling in 4 consecutive weeks. Blood samples were collected by venipuncture between 1200 and 1300 h on ruminal sampling days. Rumen papillae development and visceral organ mass were recorded at slaughter. A linear treatment x week effect was observed for concentrate intake, with the calves fed the lowest milk allowance having the fastest increase in concentrate intake whereby these calves reached the same ME intake in wk 5 compared with calves with the highest milk allowance. Effects on ruminal variables were dominated by week of sampling, with minor differences among treatments. Ruminal pH was below 5.5 for 5 to 13 h/d and all calves with concentrate intake above 20 g of dry matter/d were observed to have a daily ruminal pH minimum at pH 5.5 or lower. The ruminal concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased from 71 to 133 +/- 9 mmol/L in wk 2 to 5 and was characterized by a relatively high molar proportion of propionate, increasing from 34 to 40 mol/100 mol of VFA in wk 2 to 5. In addition, the presence of ethanol and propanol as well as numerous VFA esters points to a ruminal environment with a relatively high hydrogen pressure. Plasma glucose and insulin responded to the highest milk allowance in wk 2 to 4. Plasma VFA and ketone bodies increased with the lowest milk allowance in wk 4 to 5. At slaughter

  5. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption)

  6. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  7. Characteristics of human breast milk and infants' health on the radionuclide contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    206 samples of breast milk of mothers living on the radionuclide contaminated territories of the Republic of Belarus as well as their infants' health have been studied. Each sample was examined on content of cesium 137 and strontium 90 and reduce of the immunologic usefulness of milk was detected. The infants fed with the breast milk containing radionuclides suffer from anemia, infectious and inflammatory diseases more often than ones from 'clean' regions

  8. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, C R; Thomas, A D; Elmore, S E; Romoser, A A; Harvey, R B; Ramirez-Ramirez, H A; Phillips, T D

    2016-02-01

    Fifteen primiparous crossbred dairy cows that were 114±14d in milk and weighed 533±56kg were used in a replicated 5×5 Latin square to test the efficacy of a calcium montmorillonite clay, NovaSil Plus (NSP; BASF Corp., Ludwigshaven, Germany), for the reduction of aflatoxin (AF) metabolite (AFM1) in milk and the effect of NSP on milk composition. Cows were housed in a freestall barn, fed once a day and milked twice a day. The experiment consisted of five 14-d periods: d 1 through 7 were considered for data collection, and d 8 through 14 were considered a wash-out phase. In each period, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: (1) control (CON), consisting of a basal total mixed ration (TMR); (2) high-dose NSP diet (NSP-1%), consisting of TMR plus 230 g of NSP; (3) aflatoxin diet (AFD), consisting of the TMR plus AF challenge; (4) low-dose NSP with AF (NSP-0.5%+AFD), composed of TMR plus 115 g of NSP and AF challenge; and (5) high-dose NSP with AF (NSP-1%+AFD), consisting of TMR plus 230 g of NSP and AF challenge. The AF challenge consisted of top dressing a daily dose of 100 µg/kg estimated dry matter intake (DMI); similarly, NSP was fed at 1.0 or 0.5% of estimated DMI. Milk yield and DMI were similar across treatments averaging 21.1±1.33 kg/d and 19.7±0.56 kg/d, respectively. Concentration of milk fat, protein, and lactose were similar across treatments with averages of 4.91±0.20%, 3.85±0.10%, and 4.70±0.06%, respectively. Concentration of vitamin A averaged 0.28±0.03 µg/mL and riboflavin concentration averaged 1.57±0.13 µg/mL across treatments. The concentration of minerals in milk were similar for all treatments. Cows fed CON and NSP-1% yielded the lowest concentration of AFM1 in milk with 0.03 and 0.01±0.06 µg/L. Addition of NSP reduced milk AFM1 from 1.10±0.06 µg/L with the AF diet to 0.58 and 0.32±0.06 µg/L with the NSP-0.5%+AF and NSP-1%+AF diets, respectively. Excretion of AFM1 was reduced by NSP; mean values were 24.38, 11

  9. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, C R; Thomas, A D; Elmore, S E; Romoser, A A; Harvey, R B; Ramirez-Ramirez, H A; Phillips, T D

    2016-02-01

    Fifteen primiparous crossbred dairy cows that were 114±14d in milk and weighed 533±56kg were used in a replicated 5×5 Latin square to test the efficacy of a calcium montmorillonite clay, NovaSil Plus (NSP; BASF Corp., Ludwigshaven, Germany), for the reduction of aflatoxin (AF) metabolite (AFM1) in milk and the effect of NSP on milk composition. Cows were housed in a freestall barn, fed once a day and milked twice a day. The experiment consisted of five 14-d periods: d 1 through 7 were considered for data collection, and d 8 through 14 were considered a wash-out phase. In each period, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: (1) control (CON), consisting of a basal total mixed ration (TMR); (2) high-dose NSP diet (NSP-1%), consisting of TMR plus 230 g of NSP; (3) aflatoxin diet (AFD), consisting of the TMR plus AF challenge; (4) low-dose NSP with AF (NSP-0.5%+AFD), composed of TMR plus 115 g of NSP and AF challenge; and (5) high-dose NSP with AF (NSP-1%+AFD), consisting of TMR plus 230 g of NSP and AF challenge. The AF challenge consisted of top dressing a daily dose of 100 µg/kg estimated dry matter intake (DMI); similarly, NSP was fed at 1.0 or 0.5% of estimated DMI. Milk yield and DMI were similar across treatments averaging 21.1±1.33 kg/d and 19.7±0.56 kg/d, respectively. Concentration of milk fat, protein, and lactose were similar across treatments with averages of 4.91±0.20%, 3.85±0.10%, and 4.70±0.06%, respectively. Concentration of vitamin A averaged 0.28±0.03 µg/mL and riboflavin concentration averaged 1.57±0.13 µg/mL across treatments. The concentration of minerals in milk were similar for all treatments. Cows fed CON and NSP-1% yielded the lowest concentration of AFM1 in milk with 0.03 and 0.01±0.06 µg/L. Addition of NSP reduced milk AFM1 from 1.10±0.06 µg/L with the AF diet to 0.58 and 0.32±0.06 µg/L with the NSP-0.5%+AF and NSP-1%+AF diets, respectively. Excretion of AFM1 was reduced by NSP; mean values were 24.38, 11

  10. Sup(123)I excretion in breast milk - additional data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawes, S.C. (Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom))

    1992-07-01

    A woman with a suspected sublingual thyroid was referred for thyroid imaging with {sup 123}I-sodium iodide. On attending it was ascertained that she was currently breastfeeding her 3-month-old baby. Reference to the available literature showed little information regarding the excretion of {sup 123}I-sodium iodide in human breast milk apart from one single case. It was felt therefore that this would be an ideal opportunity to collect some useful data. Originally the presence of impurities in the radiopharmaceutical administered had been discounted as being of little significance. However, after consideration, a review of the contribution of any impurity was undertaken. (author).

  11. Determination of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in breast milk of healthy women by digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, L; Song, H; Cai, W

    2016-09-01

    Breast milk is one of the most important sources of postnatal microbes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is currently used for the quantitative analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in breast milk. However, this method relies on the use of standard curves and is imprecise when quantitating target DNA of low abundance. In contrast, droplet digital PCR (DD-PCR) provides an absolute quantitation without the need for calibration curves. A comparison between DD-PCR and qRT-PCR was conducted for the quantitation of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus 16S RNA genes in human breast milk, and the impacts of selected maternal factors were studied on the composition of these two bacteria in breast milk. From this study, DD-PCR reported between 0-34,460 16S rRNA gene copies of Bifidobacterium genera and between 1,108-634,000 16S rRNA gene copies of Lactobacillus genera in 1 ml breast milk. The 16S rRNA gene copy number of Lactobacillus genera was much greater than that of Bifidobacterium genera in breast milk. DD-PCR showed a 10-fold lower limit of quantitation as compared to qRT-PCR. A higher correlation and agreement was observed between qRT-PCR and DD-PCR in Lactobacillus quantitation as compared to Bifidobacterium quantitation. Based on our DD-PCR quantitation, a low abundance of Bifidobacterium bacteria in breast milk was correlated to higher pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). However, no significant difference was observed for these two bacteria in breast milk between mothers who had vaginal deliveries and caesarean deliveries. This study suggests that DD-PCR is a better tool to quantitate the bacterial load of breast milk compared to the conventional qRT-PCR method. The number of breast milk Bifidobacterium bacteria is influenced by maternal pre-pregnancy BMI.

  12. Milk and Protein Intake by Pregnant Women Affects Growth of Foetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borazjani, Fatemeh; Kulkarni, Shanuak S.

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the effects of the daily intake of milk and protein by pregnant women on foetal growth and determined the growth pattern and velocity of growth. A total of 504 ultrasound observations from 156 respondents were collected following a cross-sectional design in the last trimester of pregnancy; majority of them were in the last month of pregnancy. De facto and purposive sampling was done, and direct interviews of affluent pregnant women were conducted. Kruskal-Wallis test shows that majority of the respondents had tendency to consume 155.65 to 465.17 mL of milk per day, resulting in better and higher foetal growth. Most respondents consumed about 50-70 g of protein per day, and the foetal growth measurements, such as abdomen-circumference, femur length, biparietal diameter, and head-circumference, on an average, were higher in the same group. Quadratic regression model exhibited that all the traits of growth pattern in Model 1 (low milk and protein intake) appeared to have more mode of decline, in contrast to Model 2 (more milk and protein intake), which shows better growth. In addition, velocity of growth pattern was obtained through the first derivative of quadratic regression of growth pattern. Moreover, 95% confidence interval calculated for regression line slope of Model 1 and Model 2 showed that the estimation point (2 B2) of Model 1 does not lay into 95% CI of Model 2; so, statistical significance assorted and also the same trend conversely hold for Model 2. The rate of growth was highly influenced by maternal milk and protein intake. These findings suggest that contribution of common nutrients or other nutritional factors present in milk and protein promote the growth of foetus. PMID:24592584

  13. Prevalence and outcomes of breast milk expressing in women with healthy term infants: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Expressing breast milk has become increasingly prevalent, particularly in some developed countries. Concurrently, breast pumps have evolved to be more sophisticated and aesthetically appealing, adapted for domestic use, and have become more readily available. In the past, expressed breast milk feeding was predominantly for those infants who were premature, small or unwell; however it has become increasingly common for healthy term infants. The aim of this paper is to systematically explore the literature related to breast milk expressing by women who have healthy term infants, including the prevalence of breast milk expressing, reported reasons for, methods of, and outcomes related to, expressing. Methods Databases (Medline, CINAHL, JSTOR, ProQuest Central, PsycINFO, PubMed and the Cochrane library) were searched using the keywords milk expression, breast milk expression, breast milk pumping, prevalence, outcomes, statistics and data, with no limit on year of publication. Reference lists of identified papers were also examined. A hand-search was conducted at the Australian Breastfeeding Association Lactation Resource Centre. Only English language papers were included. All papers about expressing breast milk for healthy term infants were considered for inclusion, with a focus on the prevalence, methods, reasons for and outcomes of breast milk expression. Results A total of twenty two papers were relevant to breast milk expression, but only seven papers reported the prevalence and/or outcomes of expressing amongst mothers of well term infants; all of the identified papers were published between 1999 and 2012. Many were descriptive rather than analytical and some were commentaries which included calls for more research, more dialogue and clearer definitions of breastfeeding. While some studies found an association between expressing and the success and duration of breastfeeding, others found the opposite. In some cases these inconsistencies were compounded

  14. Assay of ghrelin concentration in infant formulas and breast milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Savino; Elisa Petrucci; Maria Maddalena Lupica; Giuliana Eva Nanni; Roberto Oggero

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To test if total ghrelin is present in infant formulas. METHODS: Using a radioimmunoassay, we measured total ghrelin concentrations in 19 samples of commercial infant formulas and in 20 samples of human milk. We also determined ghrelin concentration in the serum of infants and lactating mothers. RESULTS: Ghrelin concentrations were significantly higher in artificial milk (2007.1 ± 1725.36 pg/mL) than in human milk (828.17 ± 323.32 pg/mL) (P = 0.005). The mean ghrelin concentration in infant serum (n = 56) was 1115.86 ± 42.89 pg/mL, and was significantly higher (P = 0.023) in formula-fed infants (1247.93 ± 328.07 pg/mL) than in breast-fed infants (1045.7 ± 263.38 pg/mL). The mean serum ghrelin concentration (mean ± SD) in lactating mothers (n = 20) was 1319.18 ± 140.18 pg/mL. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that total ghrelin is present in infant formulas. This finding raises diverse questions regarding the uptake, absorp-tion and metabolic effects of this hormone.

  15. Lactational transfer of volatile chemicals in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J; Mahle, D; Bankston, L; Greene, R; Gearhart, J

    1997-06-01

    Lactational transfer of chemicals to nursing infants is a concern for occupational physicians when women who are breast-feeding return to the workplace. Some work environments, such as paint shops, have atmospheric contamination from volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). Very little is known about the extent of exposure a nursing infant may receive from the mother's occupational exposure. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was developed for a lactating woman to estimate the amount of chemical that a nursing infant ingests for a given nursing schedule and maternal occupational exposure. Human blood/air and milk/air partition coefficients (PCs) were determined for 19 VOCs. Milk/blood PC values were above 3 for carbon tetrachloride, methylchloroform, perchloroethylene, and 1,4-dioxane, while the remaining 16 chemicals had milk/blood PC values of less than 3. Other model parameters, such as solid tissue PC values, metabolic rate constants, blood flow rates, and tissue volumes were taken from the literature and incorporated into the lactation model. In a simulated exposure of a lactating woman to a threshold limit value concentration of an individual chemical, only perchloroethylene, bromochloroethane, and 1,4-dioxane exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency non-cancer drinking water ingestion rates for children. Very little data exists on the pharmacokinetics of lactational transfer of volatile organics. More data are needed before the significance of the nursing exposure pathway can be adequately ascertained. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models can play an important role in assessing lactational transfer of chemicals.

  16. Flame retardants in placenta and breast milk and cryptorchidism in newborn boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina Maria; Kiviranta, Hannu; Virtanen, Helena Eeva;

    2007-01-01

    , 1997-2001, all boys were examined for cryptorchidism. We analyzed whole placentas (for 95 cryptorchid/185 healthy boys) and individual breast milk samples (62/68) for 14 PBDEs and infant serum samples for gonadotropins, sex-hormone binding globulin, testosterone, and inhibin B. RESULTS: In 86 placenta......-milk pairs, placenta PBDE concentrations in fat were lower than in breast milk, and a larger number of congeners were nondetectable. There was no significant difference between boys with and without cryptorchidism for individual congeners, the sum of 5 most prevalent, or all 14 congeners. The concentration...... in breast milk did not differ between Denmark and Finland (median, 3.52 vs. 3.44 ng/g fat), but significant differences in some individual congeners were found. CONCLUSIONS: Two different proxies were used for prenatal PBDE exposure, and levels in breast milk, but not in placenta, showed an association...

  17. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilia R. Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow’s milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow’s milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required.

  18. CYP1A1 expression in breast milk cells of Japanese population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonemoto, Junzo; Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Sone, Hideko; Morita, Masatosi [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Uechi, Hiroto [Uechi Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic, Utsunomiya (Japan); Masuzaki, Yuko; Koizumi, Atsuko; Matzumura, Toru [Metocean Environment Inc., Ohigawa (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxins are persistent, lipophilic compounds that are ubiquitous in the environment. Concern over the reproductive and developmental toxicity of dioxins has been growing since they have endocrine-disrupting properties and have adversely affected the health of offspring in experimental and epidemiological studies. Monitoring of maternal body burdens of dioxins and their biological responses to dioxin exposure is needed to estimate the potential health risk to their offspring. Breast milk has been used for monitoring dioxins in humans for decades. Breast milk has some advantages in exposure monitoring. Sampling is non-invasive, and dioxin levels are relatively high because of the high lipid content. It is assumed that mammary glands are exposed to a higher level of dioxins than other tissues since mammary glands synthesize and store milk fat. Breast milk contains leukocytes and exfoliated ductal epithelial cells. If these cells responded to dioxins and expressed CYP enzymes, a sensitive biomarker for dioxin exposure, they would be useful as biomarkers for dioxin exposure. In the present study, the expression of CYP enzymes in intact milk cells or cells cultured with TCDD was investigated. In addition, breast milk samples were collected from mothers within one week of childbearing, and the expression of CYP1A1 mRNA in milk cells was determined. The relationship between CYP1A1 mRNA expression in milk cells and dioxin levels in the cream layer of breast milk was analyzed.

  19. Recovery of extracellular vesicles from human breast milk is influenced by sample collection and vesicle isolation procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke I. Zonneveld

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EV in breast milk carry immune relevant proteins and could play an important role in the instruction of the neonatal immune system. To further analyze these EV and to elucidate their function it is important that native populations of EV can be recovered from (stored breast milk samples in a reproducible fashion. However, the impact of isolation and storage procedures on recovery of breast milk EV has remained underexposed. Here, we aimed to define parameters important for EV recovery from fresh and stored breast milk. To compare various protocols across different donors, breast milk was spiked with a well-defined murine EV population. We found that centrifugation of EV down into density gradients largely improved density-based separation and isolation of EV, compared to floatation up into gradients after high-force pelleting of EV. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we identified different subpopulations of human breast milk EV and a not previously described population of lipid tubules. Additionally, the impact of cold storage on breast milk EV was investigated. We determined that storing unprocessed breast milk at −80°C or 4°C caused death of cells present in breast milk, leading to contamination of the breast milk EV population with storage-induced EV. Here, an alternative method is proposed to store breast milk samples for EV analysis at later time points. The proposed adaptations to the breast milk storage and EV isolation procedures can be applied for EV-based biomarker profiling of breast milk and functional analysis of the role of breast milk EV in the development of the neonatal immune system.

  20. Effects of iodine intake and teat-dipping practices on milk iodine concentrations in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S I Borucki; Berthiaume, R; Robichaud, A; Lacasse, P

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary iodine and teat-dipping practices on iodine concentrations in milk. In the first study, 63 cows in mid lactation were assigned to a 3×3 factorial design in which the main effects were dietary iodine levels (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mg of dietary I/kg of dry matter) and 3 different postdip managements (chlorhexidine with dip cup, 1% iodine dip cup, and 1% iodine by manual spray). During the 13-d pre-experimental period and the 15-d experimental period, noniodized sanitizers were used in premilking management. During the pre-experimental period, the levels of milk iodine averaged 241.2±5.8 μg/kg, and no relationship was found with lactation number, days in milk, or milk production. Milk iodine concentrations increased linearly with iodine intake. Although teat dipping with 1% iodine had no effect on milk iodine concentration, the same solution applied by spraying greatly increased milk iodine levels. The second study was conducted to determine the effects of udder preparation before milking on milk iodine concentrations. Thirty-two lactating cows were assigned to 4 treatments: no predip (Con); predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+complete cleaning (Comp); predip with a postdip solution containing 1% iodine+complete cleaning (Post); and predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+incomplete cleaning (Inc). During the 14-d pre-experimental period and the 19-d experimental period, cows were fed the same diet, and noniodized sanitizers were used for postmilking dipping. During the last week of treatment, milk iodine averaged 164, 189, 218, and 252±9.8 μg/kg for Con, Comp, Post, and Inc, respectively. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts indicated that predipping with a 0.5% iodine predip solution completely wiped off (Comp) tended to increase milk iodine content above that of the control and that the iodine content of Post and Inc were higher than that of the Comp treatment. The results of

  1. Dietary Intake of Vitamin B6 and Risk of Breast Cancer in Taiwanese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Yu-Ching; Chu, Chi-Hong; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Yang, Tsan; Chou, Wan-Yun; Huang, Hsin-Ping; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Sun, Chien-An

    2011-01-01

    Background B vitamins, including vitamin B6, are coenzymes that are important for DNA integrity and stability. Deficiencies in B vitamins may promote tumor carcinogenesis. Methods We examined the association of dietary vitamin B6 intake with overall breast cancer risk and breast cancers stratified by hormone receptor status. This case-control study included 391 breast cancer cases and 782 control subjects enrolled at the Tri-Service General Hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. Energy-adjusted intake o...

  2. Response of Bone Resorption Markers to Aristolochia longa Intake by Algerian Breast Cancer Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bachir Benarba; Boumedienne Meddah; Aicha Tir Touil

    2014-01-01

    Aristolochia longa is widely used in traditional medicine in Algeria to treat breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the response of bone resorption markers to A. longa intake by Algerian breast cancer postmenopausal women. According to the A. longa intake, breast cancer patients were grouped into A. longa group (Al) (n = 54) and non-A. longa group (non-Al) (n = 24). 32 women constituted the control group. Bone resorption markers (from urine) pyridinoline (PYD) and deo...

  3. Analysis of the breast milk of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and the preparation of substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhihe; HOU, Rong; Lan, Jingchao; Wang, Hairui; Kurokawa, Hiroyuki; TAKATSU, Zenta; Kobayashi, Toyokazu; KOIE, Hiroshi; KAMATA, Hiroshi; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; WATANABE, Toshi

    2016-01-01

    The first milk substitute for giant panda cubs was developed in 1988 based on limited data about giant panda breast milk and that of certain types of bear. Mixtures of other formulas have also been fed to cubs at some facilities. However, they are not of sufficient nutritional quality for promoting growth in panda cubs. Here, we report analysis of giant panda breast milk and propose new milk substitutes for cubs, which were developed based on the results of our analysis. The Chengdu Research ...

  4. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. Subjects/methods: A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ...

  5. Pasture intake and milk production of dairy cows rotationally grazing on multi-species swards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Fernández, A I; Peyraud, J L; Delaby, L; Delagarde, R

    2016-09-01

    Increasing plant species diversity has been proposed as a means for enhancing annual pasture productivity and decreasing seasonal variability of pasture production facing more frequent drought scenarios due to climate change. Few studies have examined how botanical complexity of sown swards affects cow performance. A 2-year experiment was conducted to determine how sward botanical complexity, from a monoculture of ryegrass to multi-species swards (MSS) (grasses-legumes-forb), affect pasture chemical composition and nutritive value, pasture dry matter (DM) intake, milk production and milk solids production of grazing dairy cows. Five sward species: perennial ryegrass (L as Lolium), white clover and red clover (both referred to as T as Trifolium because they were always sown together), chicory (C as Cichorium) and tall fescue (F as Festuca) were assigned to four grazing treatments by combining one (L), three (LT), four (LTC) or five (LTCF) species. Hereafter, the LT swards are called mixed swards as a single combination of ryegrass and clovers, whereas LTC and LTCF swards are called MSS as a combination of at least four species from three botanical families. The experimental area (8.7 ha) was divided into four block replicates with a mineral nitrogen fertilisation of 75 kg N/ha per year for each treatment. In total, 13 grazing rotations were carried out by applying the same grazing calendar and the same pasture allowance of 19 kg DM/cow per day above 4 cm for all treatments. Clover represented 20% of DM for mixed and MSS swards; chicory represented 30% of DM for MSS and tall fescue represented 10% of DM for LTCF swards. Higher milk production (+1.1 kg/day) and milk solids production (+0.08 kg/day) were observed for mixed swards than for ryegrass swards. Pasture nutritive value and pasture DM intake were unaffected by the inclusion of clover. Pasture DM, organic matter and NDF concentrations were lower for MSS than for mixed swards. Higher milk production (+0.8 kg

  6. Simultaneous measurement of milk intake and total energy expenditure in mixed-fed infants: Methodological approach and prediction of total body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope probes (2H, 18O) can be used to investigate body composition, energetics and milk transfer in either mother or infant. The most comprehensive picture would be obtained where these measurements were made on both parties. This can be achieved either by successive measurements over a period of time, or by dosing the mother and simultaneously measuring isotope kinetics in both mother and infant. Simultaneous measurement of maternal milk transfer and infant energy expenditure could be made by dosing the mother with 2H and the infant with 18O, assuming that the infant 2H kinetics can be quantified with sufficient precision to determine rate constants for both breast-milk influx and total water turnover. Nine mother-infant pairs were measured in Brazil, with error on energy expenditure found to be acceptable providing over 50% of total water intake was from breast-milk. Simultaneous dosing of mother and infant may therefore prove useful in some circumstances, particularly where rapid environmental changes might cause mismatches. (author)

  7. Leptospira in breast tissue and milk of urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Oliveira, D; Figueira, C P; Zhan, L; Pertile, A C; Pedra, G G; Gusmão, I M; Wunder, E A; Rodrigues, G; Ramos, E A G; Ko, A I; Childs, J E; Reis, M G; Costa, F

    2016-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The disease is globally distributed and a major public health concern. The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the main reservoir of the pathogen in urban slums of developing and developed countries. The potential routes of intra-specific leptospire transmission in rats are largely unknown. Herein, we identified pathogenic Leptospira spp. in breast tissue and milk of naturally infected rats. We examined kidney, breast tissue and milk from 24 lactating rats for the presence of leptospires using immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and scanning electronic microscopy. All 24 rats had evidence for Leptospira in the kidneys, indicating chronic carriage. The majority of kidney-positive rats had detectable leptospires in milk (18, 75%) and breast tissue (16, 67%), as evidenced by immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry. Four (17%) milk samples and two (8%) breast tissue samples were positive by quantitative real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of leptospires in breast tissue. No major pathological changes in breast tissue were found. This study, for the first time, identified leptospires in the milk and breast tissue of wild Norway rats, suggesting the possibility of milk-borne transmission of leptospirosis to neonates. PMID:27019024

  8. Organohalogen compounds in human breast milk from Republic of Buryatia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsydenova, Oyuna V. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Batoev, Valeriy B. [Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Sakhyanova st. 6, Ulan-Ude 670047 (Russian Federation); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-03-15

    Human breast milk samples collected during 2003/04 in Buryatia, a Russian autonomous republic, were analyzed in order to assess human exposure to organohalogen compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). When compared with available worldwide data, levels of HCB (23-880 ng/g lipid wt.), PCBs (69-680 ng/g lipid wt.), and HCHs (100-3700 ng/g lipid wt.) were relatively high, indicating elevated human exposure to these organochlorines (OCs) in Buryatia. In contrast to OCs, PBDE concentrations were low (0.46-1.7 ng/g lipid wt.). Out of 14 BDE congeners analyzed, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-197, and BDE-207 were detected. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of HCHs, HCB, CHLs, and PCBs by infants solely from human milk for 100%, 43%, 34%, and 17% of the samples, respectively, exceeded guideline thresholds. Although high EDIs raise concern for possible toxic effects of OCs, women in Buryatia are recommended to breastfeed due to numerous advantages of breastfeeding for mother and child. - People in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia are exposed to relatively high levels of HCHs, HCB and PCBs.

  9. Amino Acid Composition of Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L.; Affolter, Michael; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; De Castro, Carlos A.; Karagounis, Leonidas G.; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K.

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk (BM) amino acid (AA) composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BMAA over lactation stages in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. Four hundred fifty BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities covering eight months of lactation were analyzed for free (FAA) and total (TAA) AA by o-phthalaldehyde/ fluorenylmethylchloroformate (OPA/FMOC) derivatization. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. Both the sum and the individual TAA values significantly decreased during the first periods of lactation and then generally leveled off. Leucine and methionine were respectively the most and the least abundant indispensable amino acids across all the lactation stages, whereas glutamic acid + glutamine (Glx) was the most and cystine the least abundant dispensable AA. The contribution of FAA to TAA levels was less than 2%, except for free Glx, which was the most abundant FAA. In conclusion, the AA composition of the milk from our cohort of urban Chinese mothers was comparable to previous studies conducted in other parts of the world, suggesting that this is an evolutionary conserved trait largely independent of geographical, ethnic, or dietary factors. PMID:27690094

  10. Amino Acid Composition of Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara L. Garcia-Rodenas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk (BM amino acid (AA composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BMAA over lactation stages in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. Four hundred fifty BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities covering eight months of lactation were analyzed for free (FAA and total (TAA AA by o-phthalaldehyde/ fluorenylmethylchloroformate (OPA/FMOC derivatization. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. Both the sum and the individual TAA values significantly decreased during the first periods of lactation and then generally leveled off. Leucine and methionine were respectively the most and the least abundant indispensable amino acids across all the lactation stages, whereas glutamic acid + glutamine (Glx was the most and cystine the least abundant dispensable AA. The contribution of FAA to TAA levels was less than 2%, except for free Glx, which was the most abundant FAA. In conclusion, the AA composition of the milk from our cohort of urban Chinese mothers was comparable to previous studies conducted in other parts of the world, suggesting that this is an evolutionary conserved trait largely independent of geographical, ethnic, or dietary factors.

  11. Influence of air intake on the concentration of free fatty acids and vacuum fluctuations during automatic milking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Dam; Wiking, Lars; Bjerring, Martin;

    2006-01-01

    and varied from 0.77 to 0.94 mEq/L of milk for the 5 AMS models on the Danish market. Fault detection in 55 herds pointed out that the most frequent faults in conventional herds were air leakages and intake of too much air in the cluster, whereas AMS herds had problems with the cooling and stirring of milk....... Correction of the cooling faults caused FFA to decrease by 0.52 mEq/L in the AMS herds. We concluded that air intake during automatic milking is not the most important factor in reducing FFA, whereas milk yield per milking matters the most. More attention should be paid to the cooling and stirring of milk...

  12. Concentrations of Methadone in Breast Milk and Plasma in the Immediate Perinatal Period

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Lauren M.; Choo, Robin E.; Harrow, Cheryl; Velez, Martha; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; Lowe, Ross; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates concentrations of methadone in breast milk and plasma among a sample of methadone-maintained women in the immediate perinatal period. Twelve methadone-maintained, lactating women provided blood and breast milk specimens 1, 2, 3, and 4 days after delivery. Specimens were collected at the time of trough (just before methadone dose) and peak (3 hours after dosing) maternal methadone levels. Paired specimens of foremilk (prefeed) and hindmilk (postfeed) were obtained at each ...

  13. Analysis of the breast milk of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and the preparation of substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihe; Hou, Rong; Lan, Jingchao; Wang, Hairui; Kurokawa, Hiroyuki; Takatsu, Zenta; Kobayashi, Toyokazu; Koie, Hiroshi; Kamata, Hiroshi; Kanayama, Kiichi; Watanabe, Toshi

    2016-06-01

    The first milk substitute for giant panda cubs was developed in 1988 based on limited data about giant panda breast milk and that of certain types of bear. Mixtures of other formulas have also been fed to cubs at some facilities. However, they are not of sufficient nutritional quality for promoting growth in panda cubs. Here, we report analysis of giant panda breast milk and propose new milk substitutes for cubs, which were developed based on the results of our analysis. The Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding obtained breast milk samples from three giant pandas. Up to 30 ml of breast milk were collected from each mother by hand. Then, the milk samples were frozen and sent to Nihon University. The levels of protein, fat, carbohydrates, ash, moisture, vitamins, minerals, total amino acids, fatty acids, lactose and other carbohydrates in the milk were analyzed. The breast milk samples exhibited the following nutritional values: protein: 6.6-8.5%, fat: 6.9-16.4%, carbohydrates: 2.5-9.1%, ash: 0.9-1.0% and moisture: 67-83%. We designed two kinds of milk substitutes based on the data obtained and the nutritional requirements of dogs, cats and rodents. The nutritional composition of the milk substitutes for the first and second stages was as follows: protein: 38 and 26%, fat: 40 and 40%, carbohydrates: 13 and 25%, ash: 6 and 6% and moisture: 3 and 3%, respectively. In addition, the substitutes contained vitamins, minerals, taurine, docosahexaenoic acid, lactoferrin, nucleotides and other nutrients. PMID:26781707

  14. Leptin concentrations in relation to energy balance, milk yield, intake, live weight and estrus in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefers, S.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Delavaud, C.; Chilliard, Y.; Lende, van der T.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe fluctuations in leptin concentrations during late pregnancy and lactation and to investigate how those fluctuations are related to energy balance, milk yield, milk components, dry matter intake, live weight, first postpartum luteal activity, and first obse

  15. Experience in application of enriched breast milk in feeding children with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panina O.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing of very low and extremely low birth weight infants is one of the most difficult problems of modern perinatol-ogy. It is impossible to carry out this task without organization of fee-ding of this group of children. The aim of our research was to study clinical efficiency of breast milk fortifiers administration (human milk fortifier when preterm infants feeding. Materials and methods. In consequence of this clinical research (with included 60 premature infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age with less than 1500g birth weight the following advantages before other types of feeding were revealed. Results. Mother and child solidarity in the course of breast feeding make deep favorable mutual emotional pressure. It was succeeded to keep all breast feeding advantages and to provide preterm infants special needs in feedstuffs. Human milk fortifiers administration provides higher body weight gain intensity; reduces length of stay in a hospital. It should not go unnoticed high tolerability and lack of complications at its medication usability was noted. Human milk fortifier divorce with small quantity of breast milk and that is especially important for very low and extremely low birth weight infants feeding. Conclusion. All above-mentioned allows recommending human milk fortifiers «PRE NAN FM 85» administration for breast milk in neonatal practice

  16. Epidermal growth factor-like proteins in breast fluid and human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), and the transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) family of proteins, which also bind to the EGF receptor, have been associated with human breast cancer. The total EGF-like proteins were determined by a radioreceptor assay, and TGF-α by radioimmunoassay, in human milk and breast fluid samples. The breast fluids were collected by nipple aspiration from health premenopausal women. Both the 24 milks and 18 breast fluids assayed contained EGF-like proteins, at concentrations ranging from 32-600 ng/ml and 62-654 ng/ml respectively. Immunoreactive TGF-α proteins were detected at higher levels in 21 breast fluids than in 24 milk samples

  17. Early cessation of breast milk feeding in very low birthweight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killersreiter, B; Grimmer, I; Bührer, C; Dudenhausen, J W; Obladen, M

    2001-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to comparatively assess the duration of breast milk feeding and to analyze risk factors for early cessation of breast milk feeding in term and very preterm infants. A cohort study was performed in 89 consecutive very low birthweight (VLBW) infants (2500 g born in the same hospital matched for gender and multiplicity. Median duration of breast milk feeding, as determined from charts and questionnaires mailed to the mothers at 6 and 12 months corrected age, was 36 days in VLBW infants, compared to 112 days in control infants (P35 years and spontaneous pregnancy (as opposed to pregnancy following infertility treatment) in term infants. Multivariate analysis revealed that VLBW, smoking and low parental school education were independent negative predictors of breast milk feeding. While these results emphasize the need for special support of VLBW infant mothers promoting lactation, the relationships between smoking, school education and breast milk feeding in both strata show that efforts to increase breast milk feeding require a public health perspective.

  18. Urinary Iodine Excretion of Lactating Mothers Predicts the Iodine Content of Their Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forhadul Hoque Mollah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine is essential for normal growth, mental development and survival of infants. Bangladesh is an iodine deficient region. Breast milk is the only source of iodine for exclusively breast-fed infants. Routine measurement of breast milk iodine concentration is very difficult in our country due to some social and religious barriers. So, we designed this study in our population using urinary iodine as the indicator for assessing iodine status. Objectives: To assess the iodine status of lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants and to propose a method on how to predict the iodine concentration in breast milk. Materials and Methods: This observational analytical study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka with active cooperation of Kumudini Women’s Medical College Hospital, Mirzapur, Tangail involving fifty lactating mothers and their exclusively breast-fed infants. Early morning urine and breast milk samples were collected in dry and clean plastic container free from any chemical contamination. All statistical analyses were done by using SPSS (Statistical Programme for Social Science 12 version software package for windows. Results: The median (range urinary iodine concentration of lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants were 225.25 μg/L (61.50-530.00 and 225.75 μg/L (100.50-526.50. 96% (48 mothers had no biochemical iodine deficiency (UIE ≥100μg/L, only 4% (2 mothers had mild biochemical iodine deficiency (UIE 50-99μg/L. There was no biochemical deficiency of breast-fed infants. The median (range breast-milk iodine concentration was 157 μg/L (54.50-431.50 which was more than three times of recommended minimum concentration (50 μg/L. Iodine in breast milk of lactating mothers positively correlated with their urinary iodine excretion (P<0.01. Infant’s urinary iodine positively correlated with iodine concentration in breast milk (P<0.01 and also

  19. Monitoring of PBDEs concentration in umbilical cord blood and breast milk from Korean population and estimating the effects of various parameters on accumulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Un-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Kim, Hyung Sik; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we investigated concentration, congener distribution pattern, and effects of potential environmental factors that affect PBDE accumulation. We also estimated correlation between PBDE concentration and health status or thyroid function by analyzing 90 cord blood and 21 breast milk samples obtained from Korean population. Seven from tri- to hepta-BDEs were analyzed by solid phase extraction-high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (SPE-HRGC/HRMS). The total concentration of 7 PBDEs in cord blood was 2.786-94.64 ng g(-1) lipid and that in breast milk was 1.076-8.664 ng g(-1) lipid. Tetra-BDE (#47) was the predominant type of PBDE and was present at concentrations of over 40% in both sample types. A weak correlation was observed between the concentration of BDE28 and 153 and thyroid hormone concentration only in the breast milk samples. In children, a weak negative correlation was observed between free thyroxine (FT4) concentration and BDE28 concentration (0.302, poil paint usage (0.510, p<0.001). A weak correlation was also found between PBDE concentration in breast milk during pregnancy and dietary habits such as green tea drinking (0.541, p=0.025) and Trichiuridae intake (0.565, p=0.015). PMID:21890170

  20. Neonatal hypernatraemic dehydration and malnutrition associated with inadequate breastfeeding and elevated breast milk sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Julius Xavier; Raghunath; Gnananayagam, J Ebor Jacob; Simon, Anna

    2003-05-01

    The advantages of breastfeedng to both the mother and infant are well recognised. In rare instances if breasteding is inadequate or if the sodium content bast milk is high, malnutrition and hypernatraemia can result. A 15 days old exclusively breastfed baby presented with inadequate weight gain. On evaluation, he was found to have hypernatraemia and mother's breast milk showed high sodium concentrations. The infant needed parenteral fluid for correction of dehydration and hypernatraemia. His serum sodium and breast milk sodium of the other of the mother returned to normal gradually. He started gaining weight on exclusive breastfeeds. The present paper describes the case report and brief review of the literature.

  1. The association between different kinds of fat intake and breast cancer risk in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Khodarahmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available So far several animal and case-control studies have confirmed this hypothesis that dietary fat increases the risk of breast cancer. However, cohort studies have not shown this relationship. The aim of this study was to review the studies on the relationship between dietary fat intake and breast cancer risk among women. Electronic database PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the key words: Breast cancer, dietary fat, serum estrogen, saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. The evidence of the studies regarding to the association of total and subtypes of fat intake with breast cancer risk are inconsistent. Several studies have shown that, among several types of fat, SFAs and w-3 PUFA intake are associated with an increased and reduced risk of breast cancer, respectively. The relationship between MUFAs intake and breast cancer risk is conflicting. Narrow ranges of fat intake among populations, measurement errors, high correlation between specific types of dietary fat, the confounding variables like body fatness and high-energy intake and other dietary components such as fiber and antioxidants might be probable explanations for these inconsistent results. Although we are not at a stage where we can justifiably advise women to reduce their fat intake to decrease the risk of developing breast cancer, it seems the current guidelines to lower total fat consumption and recommendation to consumption of unsaturated fats such as MUFAs and w-3 fatty acids and also reduction of SFAs (meat and dairy products intake to avoid heart disease is also useful for breast cancer risk.

  2. Simultaneous measurement of milk intake and total energy expenditure in mixed-fed infants: Methodological approach and prediction of total body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the energy metabolism that underlies the new WHO breast-fed growth reference requires simultaneous measurements of milk volume intake (MVI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) by stable isotope methodologies. In young infants, such data is collected without difficulty using the dose-to-the-infant method. In older infants, where breast-milk is supplemented with non-milk foods, MVI must be measured by dosing the mother instead of the infant. This procedure would interfere with a simple measurement of infant TEE using the standard dose-to-the-infant method. Theoretically, this difficulty can be resolved by dosing the mother with deuterium and the infant with 18-oxygen, and using curve-peeling methods to calculate the infant deuterium kinetics. We propose to ascertain whether such an approach is viable in practice, such that MVI, TEE and body composition could all be measured simultaneously in mixed-fed infants. Where MVI in older infants is measured on its own, there is a need to predict infant body water in order to estimate the deuterium dilution space. Using a database of 234 infants aged 1.5 to 12 months, we provide new predictive equations by which such values may be obtained. (author)

  3. Dietary cadmium intake and breast cancer risk in Japanese women: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Takachi, Ribeka; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hideki; Kusama, Ritsu; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium, an environmental pollutant, may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer. We examined the hypothesis that higher dietary cadmium intake is associated with risk of overall and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer in Japanese women, a population with a relatively high cadmium intake. The study was conducted under a case-control design in 405 eligible matched pairs from May 2001 to September 2005 at four hospitals in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Dietary cadmium intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer and its hormone-receptor-defined subtypes were calculated by tertile of dietary cadmium intake. We found no significant association between dietary cadmium and risk of total breast cancer in either crude or multivariable-adjusted analysis. Adjusted ORs for tertiles of cadmium intake were 1.00, 1.19, and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.76-2.00; P for trend=0.39) for whole breast cancer. Further, no significant associations were seen across strata of menopausal status, smoking, and diabetes in multivariable-adjusted models except for adjusted OR for continuous cadmium intake in postmenopausal women. A statistically significant association was found for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors among postmenopausal women (adjusted OR=1.00, 1.16, and 1.94 [95% CI, 1.04-3.63; P for trend=0.032]). Although the present study found no overall association between dietary cadmium intake and breast cancer risk, higher cadmium intake was associated with increased risk of ER+ breast cancer in postmenopausal women, at least at regular intake levels in Japanese women in the general population. Further studies are needed to confirm this association. PMID:23608001

  4. Evaluation of Zinc, Copper and Iron Concentrations in Breast Milk of Mothers Belonging to Different Economic Classes and their Correlations with Infants Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ghaemmaghami

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Taking into account the importance of micronutrients in health and growth of the infants, the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in breast milk of mothers belonging to different economic classes and their effects on infants’ growth were investigated. Methods: Milk samples and information on personal characteristics, anthropometric and 24-hour food recall were collected from 90 lactating women belonging to 3 different socioeconomic classes who had exclusively breastfed their 90-120 day old infants. Concentrations of trace elements were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and dietary information of subjects was analyzed by Nutritionist III software program. Statistical tests included Multiple Regression, ANOVA test and Independent t-test. Results: The mean zinc concentrations in mothers’ breast milk belonging to high, moderate and low socioeconomic groups were 1.6, 1.9 and 2.3 mg/l, respectively. Copper levels were 0.41, 0.47 and 0.85 mg/l, respectively and iron levels were 0.75, 0.8 and 0.9 mg/l, respectively. Group comparisons showed significant differences (P<0.05. Although association between mineral concentrations and WAZ or HAZ of infants was not significant, the WAZ of infants whose mothers' milk zinc concentration was more than 2 mg/l was significantly higher than WAZ of other infants (P<0.03. Despite no significant correlation between trace element intake and trace elements in milk, negative and significant correlations between maternal age and milk minerals concentrations were observed. Conclusion: The concentration of studied trace elements in milk of mothers with low economic status was higher but was not related to intakes and it was probably related to mothers' age. So, dietary consultations for older lactating mothers are needed.

  5. Extruded soybean meal increased feed intake and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallongo, F; Oh, J; Frederick, T; Isenberg, B; Kniffen, D M; Fabin, R A; Hristov, A N

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of 2 extruded soybean meals (ESBM) processed at 2 extruder temperatures, 149°C (LTM) and 171°C (HTM), on performance, nutrient digestibility, milk fatty acid and plasma amino acid profiles, and rumen fermentation in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were included in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods. The control diet contained 13% solvent-extracted soybean meal (SSBM; 53.5% crude protein with 74.1% ruminal degradability and 1.8% fat), which was replaced with equivalent amount (dry matter basis) of LTM (46.8%, 59.8%, and 10.0%) or HTM (46.9%, 41.1%, and 10.9%, respectively) ESBM in the 2 experimental diets (LTM and HTM, respectively). The diets met or exceeded the nutrient requirements of the cows for net energy of lactation and metabolizable protein. The 2 ESBM diets increased dry matter intake and milk yield compared with SSBM. Feed efficiency and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Milk protein yield tended to be increased by ESBM compared with SSBM. Milk urea N and urinary urea N excretions were increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Concentration of fatty acids with chain length of up to C17 and total saturated fatty acids in milk fat were generally decreased and that of C18 and total mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids was increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Blood plasma concentrations of His, Leu, and Val were increased by HTM compared with LTM and SSBM. Plasma concentration of Met was decreased, whereas that of carnosine was increased by the ESBM diets. Treatments had no effect on rumen fermentation, but the proportion of Fibrobacter spp. in whole ruminal contents was increased by HTM compared with SSBM and LTM. Overall, data from this crossover experiment suggest that substituting SSBM with ESBM in the diet has a positive effect on feed intake and milk yield in dairy cows. PMID:26188569

  6. Folate intake, alcohol and risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjønneland, A; Christensen, J; Olsen, A;

    2006-01-01

    There is consistent evidence that alcohol increases the risk of breast cancer. It has been suggested that the increased risk associated with alcohol intake may be reduced by adequate intake of folate. Since many women consume alcohol, detection of a risk-reducing mechanism would have major public...

  7. More milk from forage: Milk production, blood metabolites, and forage intake of dairy cows grazing pasture mixtures and spatially adjacent monocultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembleton, Keith G; Hills, James L; Freeman, Mark J; McLaren, David K; French, Marion; Rawnsley, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is interest in the reincorporation of legumes and forbs into pasture-based dairy production systems as a means of increasing milk production through addressing the nutritive value limitations of grass pastures. The experiments reported in this paper were undertaken to evaluate milk production, blood metabolite concentrations, and forage intake levels of cows grazing either pasture mixtures or spatially adjacent monocultures containing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens), and plantain (Plantago lanceolata) compared with cows grazing monocultures of perennial ryegrass. Four replicate herds, each containing 4 spring-calving, cross-bred dairy cows, grazed 4 different forage treatments over the periods of early, mid, and late lactation. Forage treatments were perennial ryegrass monoculture (PRG), a mixture of white clover and plantain (CPM), a mixture of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain (RCPM), and spatially adjacent monocultures (SAM) of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain. Milk volume, milk composition, blood fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, blood urea N concentrations, live weight change, and estimated forage intake were monitored over a 5-d response period occurring after acclimation to each of the forage treatments. The acclimation period for the early, mid, and late lactation experiments were 13, 13, and 10 d, respectively. Milk yield (volume and milk protein) increased for cows grazing the RCPM and SAM in the early lactation experiment compared with cows grazing the PRG, whereas in the mid lactation experiment, milk fat increased for the cows grazing the RCPM and SAM when compared with the PRG treatments. Improvements in milk production from grazing the RCPM and SAM treatments are attributed to improved nutritive value (particularly lower neutral detergent fiber concentrations) and a potential increase in forage intake. Pasture mixtures or SAM containing plantain and white clover could be a

  8. Radionuclide activities and radiological impact from the intake of milk, wheat flour, tea and coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-text: The annual intake of four naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 238U, 232Th and 40K from powdered milk, wheat flour, tea and coffee for Malaysian population were estimated using gamma spectrometry system. The radionuclides annual intake of 226Ra ranged from 6 to 35.7 Bq, 232Th ranged from 7.6 to 57.7 Bq, 238U ranged from 6.3 to 63.7 Bq and 40K ranged from 771.8 to 1707.5 Bq for adults. The means of these intakes were 28.8 Bq for 226Ra, 38.5 Bq for 232Th, 28.1 Bq for 238U and 2921.1 Bq for the 40K. The annual intake of radionuclide for infants were found to be 66.2 Bq for 226Ra, 71.6 Bq for 232Th, 23 Bq for 238U and 7774.8 Bq for 40K. the annual internal dose for infants from the intake of powdered milk were 63.5 μSv for 226Ra, 32.2 μSv for 232Th, 2.8 μSv for 238U and 326.5 μSv for 40K. The measured values also gives annual internal dose of 13.7 μSv 226Ra, 19 μSv for 232Th, 4 μSv for 238U and 24.2 μSv for 40K for adult population. The net radiological impact of these radionuclides is 425 μSv for infants and 60.9 μSv for adults. This value gives cancer risk factor of 1.8 x 10-3 for infants and 1.7 x 10-4 for adults. The probability of cancer risk increment is estimated as 0.18 % for infants (18 person in 10000) and 0.017 % for adults (1.7 person in 10000). Whereas ICRP cancer risk factor for general public is 2.5 x 10-3 nd the total risk involved from all natural radiation sources based on global average radiation dose of 2.4 mSv is of 6 x 10-3. The estimated cancer risk shows that probability of increase of cancer risk from intake of milk, wheat flour, tea and coffee is only a minor fraction of ICRP values. Therefore, the diet does not pose any significant health hazard and is considered safe for human consumption. (author)

  9. Inactivation of Cytomegalovirus in Breast Milk Using Ultraviolet-C Irradiation: Opportunities for a New Treatment Option in Breast Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Megan L; Hod, Nurul; Jayaraman, Jothsna; Marchant, Elizabeth A; Christen, Lukas; Chiang, Peter; Hartmann, Peter; Shellam, Geoffrey R; Simmer, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Pasteurized donor human milk is provided by milk banks to very preterm babies where their maternal supply is insufficient or unavailable. Donor milk is currently processed by Holder pasteurization, producing a microbiologically safe product but significantly reducing immunoprotective components. Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation at 254 nm is being investigated as an alternative treatment method and has been shown to preserve components such as lactoferrin, lysozyme and secretory IgA considerably better than Holder pasteurization. We describe the inactivation of cytomegalovirus, a virus commonly excreted into breast milk, using UV-C irradiation. Full replication was ablated by various treatment doses. However, evidence of viral immediate early proteins within the cells was never completely eliminated indicating that some viral gene transcription was still occurring. In conclusion, UV-C may be a safe alternative to pasteurisation for the treatment of human donor milk that preserves the bioactivity. However, our data suggests that CMV inactivation will have to be carefully evaluated for each device designed to treat breast milk using UV-C irradiation. PMID:27537346

  10. Inactivation of Cytomegalovirus in Breast Milk Using Ultraviolet-C Irradiation: Opportunities for a New Treatment Option in Breast Milk Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Nurul; Jayaraman, Jothsna; Marchant, Elizabeth A.; Christen, Lukas; Chiang, Peter; Hartmann, Peter; Simmer, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Pasteurized donor human milk is provided by milk banks to very preterm babies where their maternal supply is insufficient or unavailable. Donor milk is currently processed by Holder pasteurization, producing a microbiologically safe product but significantly reducing immunoprotective components. Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation at 254 nm is being investigated as an alternative treatment method and has been shown to preserve components such as lactoferrin, lysozyme and secretory IgA considerably better than Holder pasteurization. We describe the inactivation of cytomegalovirus, a virus commonly excreted into breast milk, using UV-C irradiation. Full replication was ablated by various treatment doses. However, evidence of viral immediate early proteins within the cells was never completely eliminated indicating that some viral gene transcription was still occurring. In conclusion, UV-C may be a safe alternative to pasteurisation for the treatment of human donor milk that preserves the bioactivity. However, our data suggests that CMV inactivation will have to be carefully evaluated for each device designed to treat breast milk using UV-C irradiation. PMID:27537346

  11. Intake of freshwater fish and associated fatty acids and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chang-Ming; Ding, Jian-Hua; Li, Su-Ping; Liu, Yan-Ting; Tang, Jin-Hai; Tajima, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between intake of freshwater fish and their fatty acids and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women, we conducted a case-control study with 669 cases and 682 population-based controls in Jiangsu Province of China. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit detailed information. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Total freshwater fish intake was linked to decrease in the adjusted OR for breast cancer, but without dose-dependence. Analyses by freshwater fish species showed that consumption of black carp and silver carp was inversely related to breast cancer risk, with adjusted-ORs for the highest intake category of black carp (≥500g/month) of 0.54 (95%CI=0.33-0.92; P trendcarp (≥1000g/month) of 0.19 (95%CI=0.11-0.33; P trendcarp was positively related to breast cancer risk, with an adjusted OR for the highest intake category (≥1000g/month) of 6.09 (95%CI=3.04-12.2; P trend<0.001). Moderate intakes of SFA, PUFA, n3-PUFA and n6-PUFA from freshwater fish may decrease the risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women. The findings of this study suggest that intake of freshwater fish and their fatty acids may modify risk of breast cancer, and that different species of freshwater fish could have a different actions on breast cancer risk. Future epidemiologic studies are needed to know the effects of freshwater fish intake on breast cancer risk and the cause of these effects.

  12. Low level alcohol intake, cigarette smoking and risk of breast cancer in Asian-American women

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Linda Morris; Gridley, Gloria; Wu, Anna H.; Falk, Roni T; Hauptmann, Michael; Kolonel, Laurence N; West, Dee W.; Nomura, Abraham M. Y.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that breast cancer incidence rates among Asian migrants to the United States approach U.S. incidence rates over several generations, implicating potentially modifiable exposures such as moderate alcohol use that has been linked to excess breast cancer risk in other populations. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of alcohol intake, primarily low levels, on breast cancer risk in Asian-American women and explore whether smoking and alcohol contributed to the ...

  13. Dietary isoflavone intake is not statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Morimoto, Yukiko; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Park, Song-Yi; Ettienne, Reynolette; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Long, Camonia; Steffen, Alana D.; Brian E Henderson; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loïc; Wilkens, Lynne R.

    2014-01-01

    Given high soy intake and low incidence rates in Asian countries, isoflavones, substances with an estrogen-like structure occurring principally in soybeans, are postulated to be cancer-protective. We examined the association of dietary isoflavone intake with breast cancer risk in 84,450 women (896 in situ and 3,873 invasive cases) who were part of the Multiethnic Cohort (Japanese Americans, whites, Latinos, African Americans, and Native Hawaiians) with wide ranges of soy intake. The absolute ...

  14. Levels of innate immune factors in preterm and term mothers' breast milk during the 1st month postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trend, Stephanie; Strunk, Tobias; Lloyd, Megan L; Kok, Chooi Heen; Metcalfe, Jessica; Geddes, Donna T; Lai, Ching Tat; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A; Simmer, Karen; Currie, Andrew

    2016-04-14

    There is a paucity of data on the effect of preterm birth on the immunological composition of breast milk throughout the different stages of lactation. We aimed to characterise the effects of preterm birth on the levels of immune factors in milk during the 1st month postpartum, to determine whether preterm milk is deficient in antimicrobial factors. Colostrum (days 2-5 postpartum), transitional milk (days 8-12) and mature milk (days 26-30) were collected from mothers of extremely preterm (preterm (28-preterm (32-preterm mothers had significantly higher concentrations of HBD1 and TGF-β2 in colostrum than term mothers did. After controlling for other variables in regression analyses, preterm birth was associated with higher concentrations of HBD1, LZ and sCD14 in milk samples. In conclusion, preterm breast milk contains significantly higher concentrations of some immune proteins than term breast milk.

  15. Study of fruit and vegetable intake in breast cancer patients in the city of Sabzevar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooshki, Akram; Moghaddam, Manidgeh Yousefi; Akbarzadeh, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diet is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for prevention and control of chronic diseases, including breast cancer. This study aimed to determine the fruit and vegetable intake in women with cancer breast in Sabzevar. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 125 women with breast cancer in Sabzevar in 2011. Census sampling was done on volunteers in a visiting home and suspected women referred to the mammography, ultrasound, and radiology clinic in the Sabzevar center for breast cancer. Demographic and semi quantitative food questionnaires of 160 foods were completed for each of the patients by trained interviewers. Data were analyzed using the software Nutritionist IV. Descriptive statistics, one-sample t-test, and Chi-square test were used, employing the SPSS version 16. Results In this study, 125 women were assessed with breast cancer. The highest risk with breast cancer was 35.5% in women 40 to 49 years old. The results of this study showed that patients with breast cancer had minimum daily recommended intake (3.06 ± 2.3 serving of fruits and 2.09 ± 1.81 serving of vegetables in days). One sample t-test showed that the mean intake of fruits and vegetables was not a significant deference with daily recommended intake (p>0.05). The chi-square test showed that patients with minimum daily recommended intake of fruits and vegetables were at high risk for breast cancer in comparison with those who received the highest amount (p=0.001). Conclusion This study supports evidence that high vegetable and fruit intake is associated with lower breast cancer risk.

  16. Marketing breast milk substitutes: problems and perils throughout the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, June Pauline

    2012-06-01

    On 21 May 1981 the WHO International Code of Marketing Breast Milk Substitutes (hereafter referred to as the Code) was passed by 118 votes to 1, the US casting the sole negative vote. The Code arose out of concern that the dramatic increase in mortality, malnutrition and diarrhoea in very young infants in the developing world was associated with aggressive marketing of formula. The Code prohibited any advertising of baby formula, bottles or teats and gifts to mothers or 'bribery' of health workers. Despite successes, it has been weakened over the years by the seemingly inexhaustible resources of the global pharmaceutical industry. This article reviews the long and tortuous history of the Code through the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the HIV pandemic and the rare instances when substitute feeding is clearly essential. Currently, suboptimal breastfeeding is associated with over a million deaths each year and 10% of the global disease burden in children. All health workers need to recognise inappropriate advertising of formula, to report violations of the Code and to support efforts to promote breastfeeding: the most effective way of preventing child mortality throughout the world. PMID:22419779

  17. Effects of ethanol intake on retinol concentration in the milk of lactating rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.T. Albuquerque

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the consumption of ethanol (5% on retinol concentration in milk was studied in the rat on day 12 after delivery, together with the evolution of dam body weight and pup growth rate. Female Wistar rats receiving alcohol (5% in drinking water during lactation (N = 7 were compared to normal controls fed ad libitum (N = 6. The mean maternal alcohol intake was 3.96 ± 0.23 g/kg body weight per day. To determine retinol levels in milk we used the Bessey and Lowry method, modified by Araújo and Flores ((1978 Clinical Chemistry, 24: 386-392. The pups were separated from dams for a 2-4-h period, after which the dams were injected intraperitoneally with anesthetic and oxytocin. The concentration of retinol in milk was 162.88 ± 10.60 µg/dl in the control group and 60.02 ± 8.22 µg/dl in the ethanol group (P<0.05. The ethanol group consumed less food than the controls and lost a significant amount of weight during lactation. On days 8, 10 and 12, the body weight of the pups from rats given ethanol (13.46 ± 0.43, 16.12 ± 0.48 and 18.60 ± 0.91 g, respectively were significantly lower (P<0.05 than the weight of pups from controls (15.2 ± 0.44, 18.36 ± 0.54, 20.77 ± 0.81 g. These data show that ethanol intake during the suckling period, even at low concentrations, decreases the amount of retinol in milk and, therefore, the amount available to the pups.

  18. Stroke and plasma markers of milk fat intake – a prospective nested case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinehall Lars

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dairy products are high in saturated fat and are traditionally a risk factor for vascular diseases. The fatty acids 15:0 and 17:0 of plasma lipids are biomarkers of milk fat intake. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of a first-ever stroke in relation to the plasma milk fat biomarkers. Methods A prospective case-control study was nested within two population based health surveys in Northern Sweden. Among 129 stroke cases and 257 matched controls, plasma samples for fatty acid analyses were available in 108 cases and 216 control subjects. Proportions of 15:0 and 17:0 of plasma lipids, weight, height, blood lipids, blood pressures, and lifestyle data were employed in conditional logistic regression modelling. Results The proportions of fatty acids 17:0 and 15:0+17:0 of total plasma phospholipids were significantly higher in female controls than cases, but not in men. 17:0 and 15:0+17:0 were significantly and inversely related to stroke in the whole study sample as well as in women. The standardised odds ratio (95% CI in women to have a stroke was 0.41 (0.24–0.69 for 17:0 in plasma phospholipids. Adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, physical activity and diet had marginal effects on the odds ratios. A similar, but non-significant, trend was seen in men. Conclusion It is hypothesised that dairy or milk fat intake may be inversely related to the risk of a first event of stroke. The intriguing results of this study should be interpreted with caution. Follow up studies with greater power, and where intakes are monitored both by dietary recordings and fatty acid markers are needed.

  19. Energy intake and requirements of infants in southern Brazil - the influence of breast feeding pattern and socio-economic status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy requirements are a function of age, sex, and feeding mode. Work from others has demonstrated increased total energy expenditure (TEE) and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) in formula-fed infants as compared to breast-fed infants. However, in practice many breast-fed infants also receive additional formula or cows' milk. At 4 months, we found that energy intake (kcal/d) in breast-fed infants also receiving cows' milk (BCFM) was 18% higher than that of infants who receive breast milk as the only source of milk (BM) (BCFM infants, 97.9 kcal/kg/d, BM infants, 83.1 kcal/kg/d, p=0.008). At 8 months increased minimal observable energy expenditure (MOEE) and SMR were found in BCFM infants (MOEE: BCFM infants, 51.6 kcal/kg/d, BM infants, 48.0 kcal/kg/d, p=0.041). TEE was also slightly higher, but not significantly so. Fat mass and fat mass index were higher in BCFM infants (p=0.016 and p=0.013). Reference data for growth or energy requirements have been based on infants from high SES to assure that they would be growing optimally with no constraints to health. In developed countries, obesity used to be a problem in the higher SES families. In countries in transition, there is a shift of the prevalence of obesity towards lower SES infants, but this depends on the stage of transition. On the other hand, poor living conditions may result in growth faltering, and an increase in TEE and ER. We observed higher TEE in low SES as compared to high SES infants (high SES, 62.9 kcal/kg/d, low SES, 75.9 kcal/kg/d, p=0.005), MOEE was not increased, and the higher TEE in low SES infants should be contributed to high activity energy expenditure. Analysis of covariance showed that this should be contributed increased crowding in the low SES families. In conclusion, the development of universally applicable values for energy requirements based on data from infants selected from particular social groups, without reference to feeding pattern, may not be acceptable. At both 4 and 8 months

  20. Intake, digestibility of nutrients, milk production and composition in dairy cows fed on diets containing cashew nut shell liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Antignani Coutinho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of supplementing cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL in the diet of lactating dairy cows on the intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and fatty acids composition of milk fat. Four Holsteincows (600±43 kg were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21 days experimental periods. Experimental treatments consisted of CNSL inclusion in a total mixed ration (dry matter basis, as follows: 1 CNSL 0% (control, CON, 2 CNSL 0.012% (0.012, 3 CNSL 0.024% (0.024 and 4 CNSL 0.036% (0.036. Dry matter and nutrients intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients, fat corrected milk yield and milk composition were not affected (p > 0.05 by the inclusion of CNSL in the ration. CNSL linearly decreased the C6:0 concentration (p < 0.02, produced a quadratic response on C13:1n-5 concentration (p < 0.03 and a linear increase on C16:1n-7 concentration (p < 0.04. Results show that an intake of up to 7 gcow-1day-1 (0.036% of CNSL may alter the milk fatty acid composition but does not influence intake, nutrient digestibility and milk yield.

  1. Meat and milk intake in the rice-based Korean diet: impact on cancer and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Shinyoung; Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-08-01

    Over a few decades, Korean diet has changed from traditional diet, mainly composed of rice and vegetables, to Westernised diet rich, in meat and milk, along with the economic development and globalisation. Increasing prevalence of diet-related chronic diseases such as cancer and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is becoming a heavy burden to society and requires further attention. In this review, the association of meat and milk consumption with cancer and MetS among Koreans was discussed. Previous meta-analyses showed that meat intake was positively associated with increased risk of cancers, especially colon, as well as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and that the intake of milk and dairy products was negatively associated with colorectal cancer, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, based on studies conducted mostly in Western countries. In Korea and other Asian countries, the association of meat and milk intake with cancers were inconclusive and varied by types of cancers. Conversely, milk intake was negatively associated with MetS risk as reported in Western countries. The difference in results between Korea and Western countries might come from the differences in dietary patterns and study designs. Most Koreans still maintain traditional dietary pattern, although rapid change towards Westernised diet is underway among the younger age group. Randomised clinical trials or prospective cohort studies with consideration of combined effects of various dietary factors in Korea and other Asian countries are needed to elucidate the impact of meat and milk or related dietary patterns in their diet. PMID:26975473

  2. Meat and milk intake in the rice-based Korean diet: impact on cancer and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Shinyoung; Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-08-01

    Over a few decades, Korean diet has changed from traditional diet, mainly composed of rice and vegetables, to Westernised diet rich, in meat and milk, along with the economic development and globalisation. Increasing prevalence of diet-related chronic diseases such as cancer and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is becoming a heavy burden to society and requires further attention. In this review, the association of meat and milk consumption with cancer and MetS among Koreans was discussed. Previous meta-analyses showed that meat intake was positively associated with increased risk of cancers, especially colon, as well as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and that the intake of milk and dairy products was negatively associated with colorectal cancer, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, based on studies conducted mostly in Western countries. In Korea and other Asian countries, the association of meat and milk intake with cancers were inconclusive and varied by types of cancers. Conversely, milk intake was negatively associated with MetS risk as reported in Western countries. The difference in results between Korea and Western countries might come from the differences in dietary patterns and study designs. Most Koreans still maintain traditional dietary pattern, although rapid change towards Westernised diet is underway among the younger age group. Randomised clinical trials or prospective cohort studies with consideration of combined effects of various dietary factors in Korea and other Asian countries are needed to elucidate the impact of meat and milk or related dietary patterns in their diet.

  3. Evaluation and Determination of Heavy Metals (Mercury, Lead and Cadmium in Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Atousa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mercury, Lead and Cadmium were determined in 100 samples of human breast milk samples from urban and rural mothers in Isfahan (IRAN. A questionnaire about area of residence, nutrition, smoking habits, and dental fillings was filled out by the lactating mothers. The combination of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide and perchloric acid was found to be one of the most suitable acids in wet digestion of milk. Cold vapor atomic absorption was used to determine the mercury content in milk after wet digestion. The effect of concentration of nitric acid, influence of flow rate and tin(П chloride were investigated. The mean concentration of mercury in human breast milk samples was 0.96 ppb. Extraction of Pb and Cd were performed with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC to methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK and were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The factors influencing, the complex formation, pH, time and buffer were optimized. The mean concentration of Pb and Cd in human breast milk was 0.0147 and 0.0121 ppm, respectively. The maximum concentrations were found in breast milk of rural mothers.

  4. A study on lactose intolerance and milk intake among people in Mgeta and Njombe areas, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mushi, Prosper M

    2014-01-01

    This study was done in August, 2012 in Mgeta and Njombe rural areas of Tanzania for the purpose of assessing the prevalence of lactose intolerance and its severity in relation to milk intake so as to create awareness on how people can cope with the problem without rejecting dairy foods completely. The small-holder farmers in Mgeta have been dealing with dairy-goat keeping based on the Norwegian breeds while the farmers in Njombe have been keeping dairy cows for more than 20 years now. The stu...

  5. Milk Consumption Following Exercise Reduces Subsequent Energy Intake in Female Recreational Exercisers

    OpenAIRE

    Penny Rumbold; Emily Shaw; Lewis James; Emma Stevenson

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of skimmed milk as a recovery drink following moderate–vigorous cycling exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy, female recreational exercisers. Utilising a randomised cross-over design, nine female recreational exercisers (19.7 ± 1.3 years) completed a V ˙ O 2 peak test followed by two main exercise trials. The main trials were conducted following a standardised breakfast. Following 30 min of moderate-vigorous exercise (6...

  6. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG] or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]. DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY, fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01. The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%, TDN intake, digestible energy (DE, metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01 in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01 in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01 in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01 than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes.

  7. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shikha; Singh, Mahendra; Roy, Ashwani Kumar; Thakur, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS) was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE) were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY), fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01). The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%), TDN intake, digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01) in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01) than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27057108

  8. Maternal nutritional status, breast-milk production and newborn growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decrease in the practice of breast-feeding has occurred in Venezuela like in many other countries. In Venezuela, many efforts have been made to promote this practice because of its impact on children growth and development, and also because breast-feeding is not a common practice among the socioeconomic deprived groups of our urban areas. Several methodologies have been used to evaluate different breast-milk aspects, including questionnaires on beliefs and attitudes, milk composition studies, and immunity studies. However, is not an accurate and reliable technique for breast milk volume determinations. In this study we selected to use isotopic methods to measure breast-milk output, and its composition in lactating women who are at nutritional risk. Another objective of the project is to assess vitamin A status and reserves according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Body composition will be determined through different skinfold measurements, and body mass composition (BMI). Also, the growth development of their babies, during the first three months of breast-feeding will be evaluated. (author)

  9. Impact of Music Therapy on Breast Milk Secretion in Mothers of Premature Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanagowda, Preethi Bangalore; G C M, Pradeep; Goturu, Jaisri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The promotion of breastfeeding is a simple and efficient strategy in reducing morbidity and mortality in neonates worldwide. Milk from the mother of a Preterm New Born (PTNB) infant contains a higher concentration of nutrients and energy than that produced by mothers of a full-term infant. Studies have shown that music therapy can reduce maternal anxiety, helping mothers cope with the hospitalization of their newborns in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Objective To evaluate the impact of music therapy on amount of breast milk secretion among mothers of premature newborns by reducing maternal stress. Materials and Methods Mothers of premature babies who were admitted to NICU at a tertiary health care centre were included as subjects. Mothers of premature infants were enrolled in the study once they came to NICU to express breast milk from Dec 2012 to May 2013. Each subject was assessed for 4 sessions on MT (Music Therapy) and 4 sessions on NMT (No Music Therapy) over 4 days. Breast milk was expressed using breast milk pump and quantity was measured for two sessions each day once at 11.00am and other at 4.00pm. Raga malkauns and yaman by flute was used for music therapy. MT was administered for 4 sessions in a randomized manner during the study period of 30mins (15mins prior to and 15mins during Breast milk amount). To assess the psychological stress, PSS questionnaire was administered on day 1 and day 4 of MT. Mother’s saliva was collected to estimate salivary cortisol level on the last day of study during the sessions with MT and NMT. Results Music therapy was associated with a significant reduction in stress level as shown by improved PSS score and reduced salivary cortisol. Subjects who received music therapy had significant increase (p-value- 0.033) in breast milk expression when compared to mothers who didn’t. Conclusion Music therapy can be easily used in the breast milk expression room as a method to increase breast milk secretion in

  10. [Dynamics of lysozyme levels in the blood serum and milk of puerperae with various functional activities of the breasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronov, O V; Bakuleva, L P; Nesterova, A A; Babaian, S S

    1991-05-01

    The morbidity rates, ++features of lactation formation, and serum and breast milk lysozyme levels were studied in 91 parturients who showed various breast functional activity in the early postpartum period. The highest frequency of postpartum ++pyo-septic diseases was found in females with hyperlactation. There was earlier appearance of foremilk and milk in these females. Healthy mothers with higher breast functional activity exhibited the greatest levels of lysozyme in the milk and marked decreases in its levels in the blood within the first 3 days as compared to those observed in females who had normal or insufficient quantities of milk. PMID:1897671

  11. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in breast milk and associated health risks to nursing infants in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M H B; Polder, A; Brynildsrud, O B; Lie, E; Løken, K B; Manyilizu, W B; Mdegela, R H; Mokiti, F; Murtadha, M; Nonga, H E; Skaare, J U; Lyche, J L

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in breast milk in the Northern parts of Tanzania. Ninety-five colostrum samples from healthy, primiparous mothers at Mount Meru Regional Referral Hospital (MMRRH), Arusha Tanzania, were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), (2,3-dibromopropyl) (2,4,6-tribromophenyl) ether (DPTE), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB) and 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromotoluene (PBT). The Ʃ7PBDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183) ranged from below level of detection (breast milk than mothers who did not eat clay soil/Pemba. Infant birth weight and birth length were significantly correlated with the levels of BDE 47, 99, 100 and 153. The estimated daily intake (ng/kg body weight/day) of BDE 47 and 99 exceeded the US EPA Reference doses (RfD) in four and eight mothers, respectively, suggesting a potential health risk to the nursing infants. PMID:26826361

  12. Breast Milk Lead and Cadmium Levels in Suburban Areas of Nanjing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang-sheng Liu; Jia-hu Hao; Yu-qing Xu; Xiao-qi Gu; Juan Shi; Chun-fang Dai; Fei Xu; Rong Shen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the breast milk in the second post-partum month,to investigate the relationship between Pb/Cd levels in breast milk and some sociodemo-graphic parameters,and to explore whether these levels affect the infants' physical status or the mothers' psychological status (postpartum depression). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2009 and December 2010. Al-together 170 healthy mothers were enrolled from Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital. The inclusion criteria were: voluntary to participate in this study,healthy,with no chronic disease,breastfeeding in the second postpartum month,living in a suburban but not non-industrial area of Nanjing,and not occupa-tionally exposed to toxic metals. All the mothers completed a questionnaire and were evaluated based on the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) to identify the risk of postpartum depression. Pb and Cd levels in breast milk were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The infants of these mothers were examined for their z scores of weight for age,length for age,head circumference for age,and body mass index for age. Results The median breast milk levels of Pb and Cd were 40.6 μg/L and 0.67 μg/L,respectively. In 164 (96.5%) of the 170 samples,Pb levels were higher than the limit reported by the World Health Or-ganization (> 5 μg/L). Breast milk Cd level was > 1 μg/L in 54 (31.8%) mothers. The mothers with a his-tory of anemia had a higher breast milk Pb level than those without a history of anemia (41.1 μg/L vs. 37.9 μg/L,P = 0.050). The median breast milk Cd level in those who were active and passive smokers dur-ing pregnancy was significantly higher than that in non-smokers (0.88 μg/L vs. 0.00 μg/L,P = 0.025). The breast milk Cd level in the mothers not taking iron and vitamin supplements for 2 months postpartum was higher than in those taking the supplements (iron supplement: 0.74

  13. High breast milk IL-1β level is associated with reduced risk of childhood eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, A A; Chawes, B L; Carson, C G;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated a dual effect of breastfeeding with increased risk of eczema and decreased risk of wheezing in early childhood by increasing breastfeeding length. We hypothesize that immune mediators in breast milk could explain such association either through a direct effect...... or as a surrogate marker of maternal immune constitution. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible association between cytokine and chemokine levels in breast milk and development of eczema and recurrent wheeze during early childhood. METHODS: Levels of 19 pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory...... eczema (aHR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68-0.98; P = 0.03). No associations were observed for recurrent wheeze. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Elevated breast milk IL-1β level was associated with decreased risk of early childhood eczema suggesting either a direct protective effect of IL-1β or IL-1b acting as...

  14. Use of baseline and updated information on alcohol intake on risk for breast cancer: importance of latency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Keiding, Niels;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake has been shown to be associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. In the analysis of longitudinal prospective cohort studies, however, the analysis of repeated measurements of alcohol intake might not be straightforward. METHODS: In this analysis of the Copenhagen...... between alcohol intake and breast cancer occurrence, because a markedly increased risk was estimated on the basis of direct lagging of risk time. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that baseline alcohol intake is more strongly associated with breast cancer risk than updated intake, and we...

  15. Impact of Chloroquine on Viral Load in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Katherine; Kuhn, Louise; Kasonde, Prisca; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Shutes, Erin; Vwalika, Cheswa; Ghosh, Mrinal; Aldrovandi, Grace; Thea, Donald M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary The anti-malarial agent chloroquine has activity against HIV. We compared the effect of chloroquine (n = 18) to an anti-malarial agent without known anti-HIV-activity, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (n = 12), on breast milk HIV RNA levels among HIV-infected breastfeeding women in Zambia. After adjusting for CD4 count and plasma viral load, chloroquine was associated with a trend towards lower levels of HIV RNA in breast milk compared with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (P 0.05). Higher breastmilk viral load was also observed among women receiving presumptive treatment = for symptomatic malaria compared with asymptomatic controls and among controls reporting fever in the prior week. Further research is needed to determine the potential role of chloroquine in prevention of HIV transmission through breastfeeding. Impacte de la chloroquine sur la charge virale dans le lait maternelle La chloroquine, agent antimalarique, a une activité contre le VIH. Nous avons comparé l’effet de la chloroquine à celui d’un autre agent antimalarique, la sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, dont l’activité sur le VIH n’est pas connue, en mesurant les taux d’ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel de femmes allaitantes infectées par le VIH en Zambie. Après ajustement pour les taux de CD4 et la charge virale dans le plasma, la chloroquine comparée à la sulfadoxine pyrimethamine était associée à une tendance vers des teneurs plus bas en ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel (P = 0,05). Des charges virales plus élevées dans le lait maternel étaient aussi observées chez des femmes recevant un traitement présomptif pour des symptômes de malaria par rapport aux contrôles asymptomatiques et par rapport à des contrôles rapportant de la fièvre durant la première semaine. Des études supplémentaires sont nécessaires pour déterminer le rôle potentiel de la chloroquine dans la prévention de la transmission du VIH par l’allaitement maternel. mots clésVIH, malaria, allaitement maternel

  16. Concentration of Trichloroethylene in Breast Milk and Household Water from Nogales, Arizona

    OpenAIRE

    Beamer, Paloma I.; Luik, Catherine E.; Abrell, Leif; Campos, Swilma; Martínez, María Elena; Sáez, A. Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has identified quantification of trichloroethylene (TCE), an industrial solvent, in breast milk as a high priority need for risk assessment. Water and milk samples were collected from 20 households by a lactation consultant in Nogales, Arizona. Separate water samples (including tap, bottled and vending machine) were collected for all household uses: drinking, bathing, cooking, and laundry. A risk factor questionnaire was administered. Liquid-l...

  17. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Iwata, Hisato; Adibroto, Tussy A; Hartono, Phillipus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    This study determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine compound (OC) pesticides in the milk samples of women from the general population in four locations of Indonesia. The most prevalent residues of OCs were DDTs, PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), whereas other OCs such as chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane and hexachlorobenzene were lower. The levels of OCs varied between locations and individuals, with DDTs higher in suburban and rural areas than urban localities, may be due to the differences in food habits and sources between the individuals and locations. Data from Purwakarta site indicated continuing DDT exposure, which may confirm recent usage of DDT in Indonesia. A positive correlation was observed between concentration of OCs in human milk and age of mothers, primiparas women having higher OCs than multiparas, suggesting these parameters play an important role influencing the OC burdens in lactating women. Some individuals accumulated DDTs and HCHs in breast milk close to or even higher than the TDI (tolerable daily intake) guidelines proposed by Health Canada. PMID:15992976

  18. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: Levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), JL. MH. Thamrin 8, Jakarta (Indonesia); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Adibroto, Tussy A. [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), JL. MH. Thamrin 8, Jakarta (Indonesia); Hartono, Phillipus [National Seafarming Development Centre (NSDC), JL. Yos Sudarso, Hanura Padang Cermin, Lampung (Indonesia); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2006-01-15

    This study determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine compound (OC) pesticides in the milk samples of women from the general population in four locations of Indonesia. The most prevalent residues of OCs were DDTs, PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), whereas other OCs such as chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane and hexachlorobenzene were lower. The levels of OCs varied between locations and individuals, with DDTs higher in suburban and rural areas than urban localities, may be due to the differences in food habits and sources between the individuals and locations. Data from Purwakarta site indicated continuing DDT exposure, which may confirm recent usage of DDT in Indonesia. A positive correlation was observed between concentration of OCs in human milk and age of mothers, primiparas women having higher OCs than multiparas, suggesting these parameters play an important role influencing the OC burdens in lactating women. Some individuals accumulated DDTs and HCHs in breast milk close to or even higher than the TDI (tolerable daily intake) guidelines proposed by Health Canada. - Specific residents were exposed to high levels of DDTs in Indonesia.

  19. Herbage intake and milk production of late-lactation dairy cows offered a second-year chicory crop during summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, S K; Ward, G N; Jacobs, J L

    2015-12-01

    Chicory (Cichorum intybus L.) is a summer-active forage herb which has been proposed as an option to increase summer feed supply, increase dry matter intake, nutrient intake, and milk yield from nonirrigated dairy production systems in southern Australia. Dry matter intake, nutrient intake, milk yield, and yield of milk fat and protein of predominantly Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in late lactation consuming 3 herbage-based diets (4 replicates per treatment) were measured. The 3 grazed herbages were second-year chicory (CHIC) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.; PRG) monocultures and a mixed sward (~50:50) of chicory and perennial ryegrass (MIX). All diets (CHIC, PRG, and MIX) were supplemented with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay (5.5kg of DM/cow per day) and an energy-based concentrate pellet (4.0kg of DM/cow per day). There were no significant differences in milk yield (12.0 to 12.6kg/d across the treatments) or the yield of milk fat (539 to 585g/d) and milk protein (433 to 447g/d) between the 3 herbage-based diets. No differences in DMI (17.9 to 19.2kg/d) or estimated metabolizable energy intake (173 to 185MJ/d) were noted between treatments. Estimated metabolizable energy concentrations in the forages on offer were lower in CHIC than PRG (7.6 vs. 8.2MJ/kg of dry matter), but the concentration in consumed herbage was not different (9.1 vs. 9.2MJ/kg of dry matter); as such, potential for increased milk yield in cows offered CHIC was limited. Increased concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed in chicory herbage compared with perennial ryegrass. This was associated with increased milk conjugated linoleic acid and milk polyunsaturated fatty acids when chicory formed part of the diet (CHIC compared to PRG and MIX). Chicory could be used as an alternative to perennial ryegrass in summer; however, the developmental stage of chicory will influence concentrations of metabolizable energy and neutral detergent fiber and, therefore, intake and milk

  20. Spontaneous brain processing of the mammary pheromone in rabbit neonates prior to milk intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nanette Y; Piccin, Coralie; Datiche, Frédérique; Coureaud, Gérard

    2016-10-15

    Chemical signals play a critical role in interindividual communication, including mother-young relationships. Detecting odor cues released by the mammary area is vital to the newborn's survival. European rabbit females secret a mammary pheromone (MP) in their milk, which releases sucking-related orocephalic movements in newborns. Pups spontaneously display these typical movements at birth, independently of any perinatal learning. Our previous Fos mapping study (Charra et al., 2012) performed in 4-day-old rabbits showed that the MP activated a network of brain regions involved in osmoregulation, odor processing and arousal in comparison with a control odor. However, at this age, the predisposed appetitive value of the MP might be reinforced by previous milk intake. Here, the brain activation induced by the MP was examined by using Fos immunocytochemistry and compared to a neutral control odor in just born pups (day 0) that did not experienced milk intake. Compared to the control odor, the MP induced an increased Fos expression in the posterior piriform cortex. In the lateral hypothalamus, Fos immunostaining was combined with orexin detection since this peptide is involved in arousal/food-seeking behavior. The number of double-labeled cells was not different between MP and control odor stimulations but the total number of Fos stained cells was increased after MP exposure. Our results indicate that the MP does not activate the same regions in 0- vs. 4-day-old pups. This difference between the two ages may reflect a changing biological value of the MP in addition to its constant predisposed releasing value. PMID:27418440

  1. Breast milk excretion Kinetic of b-HCH, pp'DDE and pp'DDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, S M; Melo-Santiesteban, G; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Amador-Muñoz, O; Herrero-Mercado, M; Carvajal, O

    2009-12-01

    Breast milk is considered the most important route in the elimination of deposited organochlorine pesticides in a mother’s body. The equilibrium of organochlorine pesticides in the human body considers the elements of internal transport processes, the equilibrium pattern between pesticides and tissue fat contents, and the mobilization of lipids and lipoproteins among body parts. The aim of this study was to determine organochlorine pesticide levels in breast milk samples from the 4th to the 30th day of lactation and the trend in their concentration time so as to forecast the time tendency of residue levels and the pesticide excretion pattern. Milk samples were taken from forty participants and analyzed by GLC-ECD. The organochlorine pesticide residues determined in the breast milk samples during lactation decreased: β-HCH from 0.095 to 0.066 mg/kg, pp′DDE from 1.807 to 1.423 mg/kg and pp′DDT from 0.528 to 0.405 mg/kg, at the characteristic rate for each compound. The obtained results compared with the calculated fits of forecasts were parallel and did not exhibit significant differences. The newborn baby exposed during lactation had organochlorine pesticide residues whose levels decreased permanently. The levels depended not only on the breast milk nutrition, but also on the total environmental exposures which included air pollution as a significant contamination source. PMID:19551328

  2. Small angle scattering examination of structures self-assembled during human breast milk digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human breast milk is the critical part of an infant’s diet and the complete diet for a baby’s first months of life. As such, breast milk contains both water soluble and water insoluble components all of which are made bioavailable during digestion to provide everything needed for growth and development. Following the recent discovery of self-assembled structures as bovine milk is digested, a similar progression through a range of different self-assembled structures has been studied during the in-situ digestion of human breast milk. These highly organized structures were studied using small angle scattering to follow the formation and progression of the structures in real time during digestion. Cryo-TEM was also used to study the phases formed. The duration of the digestion, pH and bile salt concentration were found to act together to gradually shift the lipophilic environment inside breast milk fat globules to more hydrophilic surfaces in highly ordered structure with high internal surface area. The formation and transitions in self-assembled structures are likely to be key to making water insoluble species bioavailable in the gastrointestinal tract of the infant. Further small angle scattering studies will allow a greater understanding of how individual components impact the digestion and whether additional species, e.g. adding sparingly soluble vitamins, changes the digestion stages. Understanding the different stages and structures of digestion offers scope to develop improved nutritional supplements or controlled release drug delivery systems for infants.

  3. Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in the Breast Milk of Some Primiparae Mothers in La Community, Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Osei Tutu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the types and levels of Organochlorine pesticide residues in the breast milk of 21 primiparae mothers in La, a suburb of Accra an urban community in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Liquid-liquid extraction procedure was employed and extract clean-up was done using silica gel solid phase extraction. Fourteen (14 different organochlorine pesticides residues namely p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, Endrin, endrin-aldehyde, endrin-ketone, alpha-endosulphan, endosulphan-sulphate, gamma-chlordane, dieldrin, and methoxychlor were identified and quantified in the individual breast milk samples using a Gas Chromatograph (GC with an Electron C apture detector. The GC recoveries of spiked samples were between 89 to 97%. P,p’- DDE recorded 100% incidence ratio. Also p,p’-DDT, delta-HCH, gamma-HCH, and endosulfan sulfate recorded incidence ratios of 76.79, 95.25, 80.95 and 85.71%, respectively for the breast milk samples. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues in the human breast milk samples ranged from 1.839 to 99.05 :μg/kg fats. With the exception of Endosulphan Sulphate whose mean concentration (99.052 :μg/kg was above the Australian Maximum Residue Limit (MRL of 20 :μg/kg for milk, the mean concentrations for all the other organochlorines detected were below their respective limits.

  4. High risk human papillomavirus and Epstein Barr virus in human breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wendy K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV and mouse mammary tumour virus have been identified in human milk. High risk human papillomavirus (HPV sequences have been identified in breast cancer. The aim of this study is to determine if viral sequences are present in human milk from normal lactating women. Findings Standard (liquid and in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques were used to identify HPV and EBV in human milk samples from normal lactating Australian women who had no history of breast cancer. High risk human papillomavirus was identified in milk samples of 6 of 40 (15% from normal lactating women - sequencing on four samples showed three were HPV 16 and one was HPV 18. Epstein Barr virus was identified in fourteen samples (33%. Conclusion The presence of high risk HPV and EBV in human milk suggests the possibility of milk transmission of these viruses. However, given the rarity of viral associated malignancies in young people, it is possible but unlikely, that such transmission is associated with breast or other cancers.

  5. Calcium intake and breast cancer risk: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Khemayanto; Chen, Guo-Chong; Zhang, Ru; Du, Xuan; Zou, Sheng-Yi; Shi, Bi-Min; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Findings from observational studies have suggested a possible relation between Ca and breast cancer risk. However, the results of these studies are inconclusive, and the dose-response relationship between Ca intake and risk of breast cancer remains to be determined. A meta-analysis of prospective studies was conducted to address these issues. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for relevant studies concerning the association between Ca intake and breast cancer up to March 2016. The summary relative risks (RR) with 95 % CI were calculated with a random-effects model. The final analysis included eleven prospective cohort studies involving 26 606 cases and 872 895 participants. The overall RR of breast cancer for high v. low intake of Ca was 0·92 (95 % CI 0·85, 0·99), with moderate heterogeneity (P=0·026, I 2=44·2 %). In the subgroup analysis, the inverse association appeared stronger for premenopausal breast cancer (RR 0·75; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·96) than for postmenopausal breast cancer (RR 0·94; 95 % CI 0·87, 1·01). Dose-response analysis revealed that each 300 mg/d increase in Ca intake was associated with 2 % (RR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·96, 0·99), 8 % (RR 0·92; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·98) and 2 % (RR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·97, 0·99) reduction in the risk of total, premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer, respectively. Our findings suggest an inverse dose-response association between Ca intake and risk of breast cancer. PMID:27170091

  6. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    OpenAIRE

    Shikha Sharma; Mahendra Singh; Ashwani Kumar Roy; Sunita Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body conditi...

  7. Cortical Responses to Speech Sounds in 3- and 6-Month-Old Infants Fed Breast Milk, Milk Formula, or Soy Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of the three most common infant diets (breast milk, milk-based and soy-based formulas) on growth, behavioral development, and cortical responses (ERPs) to the consonant-vowel syllable /pa/, was examined in 130 healthy infants from an ongoing longitudinal study of 600 from birth through...

  8. Soy intake and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrom, Suhaila; Idris, Nik Ruzni Nik

    2016-06-01

    The impact of soy intake on breast cancer risk has been investigated extensively. However, these studies reported conflicting results. The objective of this study is to perform comprehensive review and updated meta-analysis on the association between soy intake and breast cancer risk and to identify significant factors which may contribute to the inconsistencies of results of the individual studies. Based on reviews of existing meta-analysis, we identified four main factors which contributed to the inconsistencies of results of individual studies on the association of soy intake and breast cancer risk namely; region, menopausal status of the patients, soy type and study design. Accordingly, we performed an updated meta-analysis of 57 studies grouped by the identified factors. Pooled ORs of studies carried out in Asian countries suggested that soy isoflavones consumption was inversely associated with the risk of breast cancer among both pre and postmenopausal women (OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.54-0.74 for premenopausal women; OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.52-0.75 for postmenopausal women). However, pooled OR of studies carried out in Western countries shows that there is no statistically significant association between soy intake and breast cancer risk (OR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.93-1.03). Our study suggests that soy food intake is associated with significantly reduced risk of breast cancer for women in Asian but not in Western countries. Further epidemiological studies need to be conducted with more comprehensive information about the dietary intake and relative exposure among the women in these two different regions.

  9. Dietary intake and urinary level of cadmium and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinbo; Zhang, Fang; Lei, Yixiong

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium, a human carcinogenic heavy metal, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer risk; however, the results from the epidemiological studies are not always consistent. The objective of this study was to quantitatively summarize the current evidence for the relationship between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk using meta-analysis methods. Six studies determining the dietary cadmium intake level and five studies evaluating the urinary cadmium level were identified in a systematic search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases, and the associations between these levels and breast cancer risk were analysed. The pooled estimates under the random-effects model suggested that higher urinary cadmium levels were associated with an increased risk for breast cancer (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled odds ratio [OR]=2.24, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=1.49-3.35) and a 1μg/g creatinine increase in urinary cadmium led to a 1.02-fold increment of breast cancer (pooled OR=2.02, 95%CI=1.34-3.03); however, pooled estimates for dietary cadmium intake found no significant association between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled relative risk [RR]=1.01, 95%CI=0.89-1.15). These results suggest that cadmium exposure may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer, and urinary cadmium levels can serve as a reliable biomarker for long-term cadmium exposure and may predict the breast cancer risk.

  10. Dietary intake of vitamin d and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, S.; Linseisen, J.; Rohrmann, S.; Chang-Claude, J.; Peeters, P.H.; Engel, P.; Brustad, M.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European

  11. Contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in breast milk in Korea: time-course variation, influencing factors, and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, In-Seok; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2013-11-01

    Breast milk is a noninvasive specimen to assess maternal and infant exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). In this study, 206 breast milk samples were collected from 87 participants during lactation, at residue levels of these contaminants measured in our study were relatively lower than those reported for European, African and Asian populations. Within a month postpartum typically after day seven the levels of ΣPCB and ΣOCP significantly increased. Some OCP compounds were correlated with maternal age, BMI, parity, and delivery mode. Certain types of dietary habits such as seafood and noodle consumption were significantly associated with ΣPCB and ΣOCP. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of ΣPCB and ΣOCP were 45.2-127 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) and 625-1259 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) during lactation, respectively, which are lower than the threshold values proposed by the US EPA and Health Canada. The exposure of Korean infants to chlordanes via breast milk had a potential health risk which deserves further investigation. PMID:24112654

  12. Well-done meat intake and meat-derived mutagen exposures in relation to breast cancer risk: the Nashville Breast Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Zhenming; Deming, Sandra L.; Fair, Alecia M.; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Wujcik, Debra M.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Kelley, Mark; Zheng, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of the association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagen exposure with breast cancer risk have produced inconsistent results. We evaluated this association in a population-based case-control study of incident breast cancer conducted in Nashville, United States, including 2,386 breast cancer cases and 1,703 healthy women controls. Telephone interviews were conducted to obtain information related to meat intake including amount, cooking methods, and doneness levels, as well a...

  13. Peculiar characteristics of breast milk of women living in ecologically unfavourable districts of Gomel Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast milk is the best and unique food in the first months of the life of a baby. It absolutely corresponds to the needs of a developing organism, provides its normal physical and psychological development. At the same time, in last years experts detect in breast milk various harmful impurities, which are capable to causes negative influence on developing organism of a child. The most significant sources of such pollution are radioactive substances, industrial chemicals and agricultural pesticides. All these substances are submitted in territory of Belarus, which environment has been worsened significantly. The disaster on the Chernobyl atomic power station, alongside with the contamination of the big regions, has revealed also other sources of environmental pollution, which information about for many years was limited and only recently became accessible. Taking into account that Belarus is a state with high industrial and agricultural potential, the problem of female breast milk pollution by different chemical substances and radionuclides is important for the republican public health services. Not only the pollution of breast milk of feeding mothers, living in various ecological conditions, but also the contents of basic nutrients represents big interest of research. It will allow making a conclusion about features presence or absence in breast milk structure on the place of residing. During researches, carried out before, in breast milk of the feeding mothers living on the contaminated territories of Belarus, radioisotopes Cs-137 and Sr-90 were revealed, and in numerous cases their amount exceeded allowable level of SanPiN1163 RB 98 for all the kinds of children's ready food, including adapted dairy mixes. The research of 147 breast milk tests of mothers, living in Mozyr and Svetlogosk (Gomel region) was carried out. The given areas to some extent are under the influence of various large industries, first of all - chemical. So, in Mozyr (90 breast milk tests was

  14. Organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk and placenta in Tohoku, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, K.; Suzuki, K.; Oka, T.; Sugawara, N.; Ohba, T.; Kameo, S.; Satoh, H. [Environmental Heath Sciences, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Nakamura, T.; Saitoh, Y. [Miyagi Prefectural Inst. of Piblic Health and Environment (Japan); Okamura, K. [Dept. of Obstetrics, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Recently, we have started a birth cohort study to examine the effects of exposure to persistent organochemical pollutants and heavy metals on neurodevelopment in Japanese children, The Tohoku Study of Child Development. In this cohort study, biological samples, including maternal peripheral blood, cord blood, placenta, cord tissue, and breast milk have been collected from more than six hundred mother-infant pairs for chemical determinations. The growth of infants has been monitored using neurodevelopmental tests, including the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, the Bayley Scale of Infant Development, the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development, and others. Exposures to dioxin and related compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, methylmercury, and several heavy metals were assessed. Additionally, since perinatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides may affect the neurodevelopment of children, we examined the effects of those pesticides in the cohort study. In the present study, several organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in human breast milk and placenta from 20 mothers to identify the major pesticide compounds found in the cohort subjects. The relationship between pesticides in breast milk and the placenta was analyzed to examine the utilization of the placenta as the material for exposure assessment. Some information regarding the factors affecting the contamination of breast milk and the placenta with organochlorine pesticides are also discussed.

  15. An Exploration of the Maternal Experiences of Breast Engorgement and Milk Leakage after Perinatal Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereshti, M.; Nahidi, F.; Simbar, M.; Bakhtiari, M.; Zayeri, F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Purpose: Perinatal loss is one of the toughest events of life. Physiological milk secretion after perinatal loss adds to complicacy of the hardships of the event. The present study is aimed at exploring women’s experience with breast problems and milk leakage after perinatal loss. Methods: The Study was carried out through explorative quality approach with 18 participants. Sampling method was purposeful and selecting the participants from widest variety was ensured. Data gathering was through deep semi-structured interview and data analyses were done by conventional content analysis. Reliability and validity of the data were ensured by collecting data from a wide range of participants and frequent revisions. Findings: Data analysis indicated four themes including beyond pain, longing being mother, insufficiency of provided information and coping Strategies, and beliefs and values regarding milk leakage and breast engorgement. Conclusion: The findings suggested that health care givers needed to inform the patients about probability milk leakage and breast engorgement and remedies to reduce pains and problems of breast engorgement. PMID:27157167

  16. Vitamin D content in human breast milk: a 9-mo follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Iva Susanna vio Streym; Højskov, Carsten Schriver; Liendgaard, Ulla Kristine Møller;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parents are advised to avoid the direct sun exposure of their newborns. Therefore, the vitamin D status of exclusively breastfed newborns is entirely dependent on the supply of vitamin D from breast milk. OBJECTIVES: We explored concentrations of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholec...

  17. Correlation between lead levels in drinking water and mothers' breast milk: Dakahlia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandour, Raafat A; Ghanem, Abdel-Aziz; El-Azab, Somaia M

    2013-04-01

    This study was performed on fifty-two drinking tap water samples (surface and groundwater) collected from different districts of Dakahlia Governorate and fifty-two breast milk samples from lactating mothers hosted in Dakahlia Governorate hospitals. All these samples were subjected to lead analysis. Lead level in drinking groundwater showed higher levels than in drinking surface water. Also, an elevation of lead levels in breast milk of mothers drinking groundwater was noticed when compared with that of mothers drinking surface water. The comparison between mean lead levels in drinking water and mothers' breast milk samples showed positive relationship. Lead concentrations in breast milk of the studied samples were elevated by exposure to smoking. We conclude that prolonged contact with lead plumbing can increase the lead content in tap water with subsequent increase in lead burden in infant fed formula and infant blood. Also, we recommend that chemical analyses must be carried out periodically for the surface and groundwater to ensure the water suitability for drinking purposes. Passive exposure to smoking during lactation should be avoided. Capsule: Prolonged contact with lead plumbing can increase the lead content in tap water with subsequent increase in lead burden in infant fed formula and infant blood.

  18. Two Lactobacillus strains, isolated from breast milk, differently modulate the immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz-Ropero, M.P.; Martin, R.; Sierra, S.; Lara-Villoslada, F.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Xaus, J.; Olivares, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The ability of two different Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus salivarius CECT5713 and Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716), isolated from human breast milk, to modulate the immune response was examined. Methods and Results: In rodent bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), the presence of Lac

  19. Thiamine diphosphate in whole blood, thiamine and thiamine monophosphate in breast-milk in a refugee population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Stuetz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The provision of high doses of thiamine may prevent thiamine deficiency in the post-partum period of displaced persons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study aimed to evaluate a supplementation regimen of thiamine mononitrate (100 mg daily at the antenatal clinics in Maela refugee camp. Women were enrolled during antenatal care and followed after delivery. Samples were collected at 12 weeks post partum. Thiamine diphosphate (TDP in whole blood and thiamine in breast-milk of 636 lactating women were measured. Thiamine in breast-milk consisted of thiamine monophosphate (TMP in addition to thiamine, with a mean TMP to total thiamine ratio of 63%. Mean whole blood TDP (130 nmol/L and total thiamine in breast-milk (755 nmol/L were within the upper range reported for well-nourished women. The prevalence of women with low whole blood TDP (<65 nmol/L was 5% and with deficient breast-milk total thiamine (<300 nmol/L was 4%. Whole blood TDP predicted both breast-milk thiamine and TMP (R(2 = 0.36 and 0.10, p<0.001. A ratio of TMP to total thiamine ≥63% was associated with a 7.5 and 4-fold higher risk of low whole blood TDP and deficient total breast-milk thiamine, respectively. Routine provision of daily 100 mg of thiamine mononitrate post-partum compared to the previous weekly 10 mg of thiamine hydrochloride resulted in significantly higher total thiamine in breast-milk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thiamine supplementation for lactating women in Maela refugee camp is effective and should be continued. TMP and its ratio to total thiamine in breast-milk, reported for the first time in this study, provided useful information on thiamine status and should be included in future studies of breast-milk thiamine.

  20. Folate intake and the risk of breast cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fei Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous observational studies regarding the existence of an association between folate intake and the risk of breast cancer have been inconsistent. This study aimed to summarize the evidence regarding this relationship using a dose-response meta-analytic approach. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed electronic searches of the PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane Library databases to identify studies published through June 2013. Only prospective observational studies that reported breast cancer effect estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for more than 2 folate intake categories were included. We excluded traditional case-control studies because of possible bias from various confounding factors. Overall, we included 14 prospective studies that reported data on 677,858 individuals. Folate intake had little effect on the breast cancer risk (relative risk (RR for highest versus lowest category = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.90-1.05; P = 0.451. Dose-response meta-analysis also suggested that a 100 µg/day increase in folate intake had no significant effect on the risk of breast cancer (RR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98-1.01; P = 0.361. Furthermore, we used restricted cubic splines to evaluate the nonlinear relationship between folate intake and the risk of breast cancer, and discovered a potential J-shaped correlation between folate intake and breast cancer risk (P = 0.007 and revealed that a daily folate intake of 200-320 µg was associated with a lower breast cancer risk; however, the breast cancer risk increased significantly with a daily folate intake >400 µg. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study revealed that folate intake had little or no effect on the risk of breast cancer; moreover, a dose-response meta-analysis suggested a J-shaped association between folate intake and breast cancer.

  1. Breast cancer risk, dietary intake, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshatwi, Ali A

    2010-07-01

    Diet plays an important role in DNA methylation, synthesis, and repair; intake has been associated with breast cancer. The folate-metabolizing enzyme, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is polymorphic at nucleotides 677 (C-->T), resulting in allozymes with altered activity and is thus believed to cause interindividual differences in cancer risk susceptibility. I evaluated this polymorphism and its effect on the food intake and breast cancer risk association in a population-based case-control study of 100 breast cancer cases and 100 controls using a real-time PCR based assay. All subjects completed in-person interviews, which included a food-frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Cases and controls were similar in the distribution ofMTHFRpolymorphisms at codon 677 (41.4% cases and 41.8% controls carried theTallele). An inverse association of breast cancer risk with food intake was observed in all genotype groups, particularly among subjects with the677TTgenotype. Compared with those with the677CCgenotype and high food intake frequency, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) associated with low food intake were 1.94 (1.15-3.26), 2.17 (1.34-3.51), and 2.51 (1.37-4.60) for subjects who hadCC,CT, andTTgenotypes (Pfor interaction, 0.05). Results of this study suggest that theMTHFR C677T polymorphism may modify the association between dietary intake and breast cancer risk. PMID:20417243

  2. Interactions between intakes of alcohol and postmenopausal hormones on risk of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol and postmenopausal hormone use are well-established modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. Alcohol may decrease the metabolic clearance of estradiol, whereby the risk of breast cancer associated with hormone use may depend on blood alcohol levels. The objective is to determine whether...... alcohol interacts with hormone use on risk of breast cancer. The 5,035 postmenopausal women who participated in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were asked about their alcohol intake and hormone use at baseline in 1981-1983 and were followed until 2002 in the Danish cancer registry, with ... to follow-up. Proportional hazard models were used to analyze data. During follow-up, 267 women developed breast cancer. Alcohol consumption was associated with a small increased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio = 1.11 per drink/day, 95% CI: 0.99-1.25). Women who used hormones also had a higher risk...

  3. Effect of increased intake of skimmed milk, casein, whey or water on body composition and leptin in overweight adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F.;

    2015-01-01

    group, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although milk proteins increased LMI in overweight adolescents, there was a concurrent increase in FMI and leptin, whereas water only resulted in increased LMI. Thus, increased water intake may be beneficial for body composition in overweight adolescents.......BACKGROUNDS: Dairy proteins may support muscle protein synthesis and improve satiety in adults. However, there are limited studies using exact measures of body composition, especially in adolescents. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the effect of milk proteins and water on body composition...... and leptin in overweight adolescents. METHODS: Subjects (n = 193) aged 12-15 years were randomized to drink 1 L d(-1) of skimmed milk, whey, casein (all milk-based drinks 35 g protein L(-1) ) or water for 12 weeks. Twenty participants dropped out. A pre-test control group of 32 adolescents was examined 12...

  4. Intake of whole grain products and risk of breast cancer by hormone receptor status and histology among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Rikke; Olsen, Anja; Loft, Steffen;

    2009-01-01

    in intake of total whole grain products of 50 g per day the adjusted incidence rate ratio (95% confidence interval) was 1.01 (0.96-1.07). Intake of rye bread, oatmeal and whole grain bread was not associated with breast cancer risk. No association was observed between the intake of total or specific whole...

  5. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity by purified human breast milk mucin (MUC1) in an inhibition assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Habtom H; de Beer, Corena; Lotz, Zoë E; Tyler, Marilyn G; Kahn, Delawir; Mall, Anwar S

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that breast-feeding is responsible for approximately 40% of the HIV transmissions from HIV-positive mothers to children. Human breast milk, however, is known to contain numerous biologically active components which protect breast-fed infants against bacteria, viruses, and toxins. The purpose of this study was to purify and characterize breast milk mucin and to determine its anti-HIV-1 activity in an HIV inhibition assay. Sepharose CL-4B column chromatography and caesium chloride isopycnic density gradient purification were used to isolate and purify the mucin. Following Western blotting and amino acid analysis, an HIV-1 inhibition assay was carried out to determine the anti-HIV-1 activity of crude breast milk and purified milk mucin (MUC1) by incubating them with HIV-1 prior to infection of the human T lymphoblastoid cell line (CEM SS cells). SDS-PAGE analysis of the mucin, together with its amino acid composition and Western blotting, suggested that this purified mucin from human breast milk was MUC1. The HIV inhibition assay revealed that while the purified milk mucin (MUC1) inhibited the HIV-1 activity by approximately 97%, there was no inhibition of the HIV-1 activity by crude breast milk. Although the reason for this is not clear, it is likely that because the MUC1 in crude milk is enclosed by fat globules, there may not be any physical contact between the mucin and the virus in the crude breast milk. Thus, there is a need to free the mucin from the fat globules for it to be effective against the virus. PMID:17878743

  6. Dietary Flavonols and Flavonol-rich foods intake and the risk of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adebamowo, C.A.; Sampson, L.; Katan, M.B.; Spiegelman, D.; Willett, W.C.; Holmes, M.D.; Cho, E.

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory and animal studies suggest that dietary flavonols may reduce breast cancer risk but there are limited epidemiological studies. We computed flavonol intakes from dietary data collected by validated food frequency questionnaires in 1991 and 1995 from 90,630 women in the Nurses Health Study

  7. Total dietary antioxidant capacity, individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantavos, A.; Ruiter, R.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Keyser, de C.E.; Hofman, A.; Stricker, B.H.C.; Franco, O.H.; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Some studies suggest a favorable role of antioxidants on breast cancer risk but this is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether overall dietary antioxidant capacity, as assessed by dietary ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and individual dietary antioxidant intake

  8. A prospective study of cow's milk allergy in exclusively breast-fed infants. Incidence, pathogenetic role of early inadvertent exposure to cow's milk formula, and characterization of bovine milk protein in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Husby, S; Osterballe, O

    1988-01-01

    A cohort of 1,749 newborns in the municipality of Odense were followed prospectively for the development of cow's milk allergy (CMA) during their first year of life. Altogether 39 fulfilled the criteria for CMA (2.2%). Out of the 39 infants, 17 developed symptoms of CMA during breast-feeding, in ...

  9. High DMBT1 concentrations in breast milk correlate with increased risk of infection in preterm and term neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronellenfitsch, Sebastian; Weiß, Christel; Frommhold, David;

    2012-01-01

    by Western blotting and its concentration was quantified by ELISA in 95 breast milk samples collected from mothers of preterm and term neonates during the first four weeks after delivery. Possible effects of maternal or neonatal parameters were analyzed by different statistical tests. Results: The mean DMBT1......Background: Human milk contains immune molecules involved in the protection of newborns against infections. We analyzed the concentration of Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1), a protein with functions in innate immunity, in breast milk. Methods: DMBT1 was detected in breast milk...... concentration (+/- standard error of the mean) in the tested milk samples was 2.48 +/- 0.26 mu g/mL (range: 0.112 mu g/mL to 17.984 mu g/mL) and represented 0.0087% of the total protein content. The comparison between the newborns with infection and the newborns without infection revealed significantly higher...

  10. Effects of vegetable fats versus lard in milk replacers on feed intake, digestibility, and growth in Finnish Ayrshire bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuskonen, A; Khalili, H; Kiljala, J; Joki-Tokola, E; Nousiainen, J

    2005-10-01

    The aim was to study whether vegetable fat mixtures could be used instead of lard [15.2% in dry matter (DM)] in milk replacers without impairing the performance of Finnish Ayrshire bull calves (n = 58). The growth performance of the calves was measured before and after weaning from 14 d to 6 mo of age. The following 3 fat sources in a milk replacer were studied: 1) a mixture of palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil, 2) palm and coconut oil, and 3) lard. The calves were bucket-fed 2 L of milk replacer 3 times per day. The milk replacer contained 116 g of DM/L, resulting in an average DM intake of 4.8 g of DM/kg of body weight0.75 (BW0.75) during the 8-wk trial, after which the calves were weaned. All the calves had free access to water, commercial starter, and grass silage before weaning. The weaned calves had free access to water and grass silage and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. The concentrate was replaced by barley when the bulls were 4.5 mo old. There were no significant differences between the diets in feed intake and apparent diet digestibility. The health and BW of the calves were similar during the study. The feed conversion rate (kg of DM intake/kg of gain) before weaning was significantly greater for the lard diet compared with the 2 vegetable fat mixtures. After weaning, the feed conversion rate was slightly lower for the diet that included the palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil mixture than for the diet that included palm and coconut oil mixture. The study showed that the 2 mixtures consisting solely of vegetable oils were effective dietary components, thus providing 2 alternative fat mixtures of milk replacers, for use instead of lard in formulating commercial calf milk replacers.

  11. Effect of pre-weaning solid feed and milk intake on caecal content characteristics and performance of rabbits around weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Juliano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to know the effect of different solid feed and milk intake during suckling on performance around weaning and on caecal content characteristics at weaning. In order to obtain different intakes of milk and solid feed, 13 litters of pregnant females (PF inseminated the day after delivery and 14 litters of non-pregnant females (NPF were compared. At birth the litters were equalized at eight pups and during lactation dead pups were replaced by pups of the same age from nursing does. Compared to the PF group, rabbits in the NPF group had a higher milk intake (26.0 versus 21.4 g/day; P < 0.01 and lower solid feed intake (9.1 versus 11.5 g/day; P < 0.01 between 20 and 28 days of age. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in weight gain before and post-weaning (28-49 days. At weaning, the rabbits in group PF showed higher values in caecal content (g 26.3 versus 22.6; P < 0.05 and volatile fatty acids (mmol/l 52.2 versus 43.6; P < 0.01 and lower values in empty caecal weight (g 7.18 versus 7.78; P < 0.05, C3 (6.4 versus 9.3%; P < 0.01 and C3/C4 ratio (0.39 versus 0.63; P < 0.01 than the group NPF. On the basis of the above results, it may be concluded that the quantity of solid feed and milk intake before weaning influenced the charac- teristics of the caecal content, but not the performance of rabbits around weaning.

  12. Capturing urine while maintaining pasture intake, milk production, and animal welfare of dairy cows in early and late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E F; McLeod, K L M; Glassey, C B; Gregorini, P; Costall, D A; Betteridge, K; Jago, J G

    2010-05-01

    Capturing urine and spreading it evenly across a paddock reduces the risk of nitrogen loss to the environment. This study investigated the effect of 16h/d removal from pasture on the capture of urination events, milk production, pasture intake, and animal welfare from cows grazing fresh pasture in early and late lactation. Forty-eight Holstein-Friesian cows in early [470+/-47kg of body weight (BW); 35+/-9 days in milk] and late (498+/-43kg of BW; 225+/-23 days in milk) lactation were allocated to 3 treatment groups. Cows had access to pasture for either 4h after each milking (2 x 4), for 8h between morning and afternoon milkings (1 x 8), or for 24h, excluding milking times (control). When not grazing, the 2 x 4 and 1 x 8 groups were confined to a plastic-lined loafing area with a woodchip surface. In early lactation, the proportion of urinations on pasture and laneways was reduced from 89% (control) to 51% (1 x 8) and 54% (2 x 4) of total urinations. The 1 x 8 cows ate less pasture [10.9kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day] than the control (13.6kg of DM/cow per day) and 2 x 4 (13.0kg of DM/cow per day) cows, which did not differ from each other. The 1 x 8 and 2 x 4 cows produced less milk (21 and 22kg of milk/cow per day, respectively) compared with control cows (24kg of milk/cow per day). There were no differences in BW or body condition score (BCS) change across treatment groups, with all groups gaining BW and BCS during the experimental period. In late lactation, there was no difference in pasture intake (mean=8.8kg of DM/cow per day), milk production (mean=10kg of milk/cow per day), and BW or BCS change (mean=3.7kg and -0.2U/cow per week, respectively) between treatment groups. As in early lactation, urinations on pasture and laneways were reduced from 85% (control) to 56% (1 x 8) and 50% (2 x 4) of total urinations. These findings highlight an opportunity to maintain performance and welfare of grazing cows in early and late lactation while capturing additional

  13. Capturing urine while maintaining pasture intake, milk production, and animal welfare of dairy cows in early and late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E F; McLeod, K L M; Glassey, C B; Gregorini, P; Costall, D A; Betteridge, K; Jago, J G

    2010-05-01

    Capturing urine and spreading it evenly across a paddock reduces the risk of nitrogen loss to the environment. This study investigated the effect of 16h/d removal from pasture on the capture of urination events, milk production, pasture intake, and animal welfare from cows grazing fresh pasture in early and late lactation. Forty-eight Holstein-Friesian cows in early [470+/-47kg of body weight (BW); 35+/-9 days in milk] and late (498+/-43kg of BW; 225+/-23 days in milk) lactation were allocated to 3 treatment groups. Cows had access to pasture for either 4h after each milking (2 x 4), for 8h between morning and afternoon milkings (1 x 8), or for 24h, excluding milking times (control). When not grazing, the 2 x 4 and 1 x 8 groups were confined to a plastic-lined loafing area with a woodchip surface. In early lactation, the proportion of urinations on pasture and laneways was reduced from 89% (control) to 51% (1 x 8) and 54% (2 x 4) of total urinations. The 1 x 8 cows ate less pasture [10.9kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day] than the control (13.6kg of DM/cow per day) and 2 x 4 (13.0kg of DM/cow per day) cows, which did not differ from each other. The 1 x 8 and 2 x 4 cows produced less milk (21 and 22kg of milk/cow per day, respectively) compared with control cows (24kg of milk/cow per day). There were no differences in BW or body condition score (BCS) change across treatment groups, with all groups gaining BW and BCS during the experimental period. In late lactation, there was no difference in pasture intake (mean=8.8kg of DM/cow per day), milk production (mean=10kg of milk/cow per day), and BW or BCS change (mean=3.7kg and -0.2U/cow per week, respectively) between treatment groups. As in early lactation, urinations on pasture and laneways were reduced from 85% (control) to 56% (1 x 8) and 50% (2 x 4) of total urinations. These findings highlight an opportunity to maintain performance and welfare of grazing cows in early and late lactation while capturing additional

  14. Nevirapine, sodium concentration and HIV-1 RNA in breast milk and plasma among HIV-infected women receiving short-course antiretroviral prophylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Persson Theilgaard, Zahra; Chiduo, Mercy G.;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Risk factors for breast milk transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child include high plasma and breast milk viral load, low maternal CD4 count and breast pathology such as mastitis. Objective To determine the impact of nevirapine and subclinical mastitis on HIV-1 RNA in maternal plas...

  15. Diarrhoea due to breast milk: case of fucose intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    An unusual form of diarrhoea is reported that was relieved when breast feeding was stopped. Chromatography to estimate sugars in the faeces should be performed for all infants with unexplained diarrhoea before changes are made in the diet.

  16. Human Breast Milk Contamination with Phthalates and Alterations of Endogenous Reproductive Hormones in Infants Three Months of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Main, Katharina M.; Mortensen, Gerda K.; Kaleva, Marko M.; Boisen, Kirsten A; Damgaard, Ida N.; Chellakooty, Marla; Schmidt, Ida M.; Suomi, Anne-Maarit; Virtanen, Helena E.; Petersen, Jørgen H.; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Toppari, Jorma; Skakkebæk, Niels E

    2005-01-01

    Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals. We investigated whether phthalate monoester contamination of human breast milk had any influence on the postnatal surge of reproductive hormones in newborn boys as a sign of testicular dysgenesis. Design We obtained biologic samples from a prospective Danish–Finnish cohort study on cryptorchidism from 1997 to 2001. We analyzed individual breast milk samples collected as additive aliquots 1–3 months postnatally (n = 130; 62 c...

  17. Violations of the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in South African health facilities / Ndugiselo Muravha

    OpenAIRE

    Muravha, Ndugiselo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first six months of an infant‟s life is recognized by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the United Nations Children‟s Fund (UNICEF) as the most effective and essential strategy for optimal growth and prevention of infant mortality. One of the factors that influences a mothers choice to exclusively breastfeed her child, is the marketing of breast milk substitutes. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (ICMBS) ...

  18. Elevated levels of short carbon-chain PFCAs in breast milk among Korean women: Current status and potential challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Habyeong; Choi, Kyungho; Lee, Haeng-Shin; Kim, Do-Hee; Park, Na-Youn; Kim, Sunmi; Kho, Younglim

    2016-07-01

    Breast milks can be contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Exposure to PFASs during early stages of life may lead to adverse health effects among breastfed infants. To date, perfluorootanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been most frequently measured PFASs in breast milks worldwide. Information on shorter carbon-chain PFASs in breast milk is scarce. In this study, breast milks were sampled from 264 Korean lactating women, and measured for seventeen PFASs, including ten perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), four perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, and three perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides. PFOA and PFOS were detected in 98.5% of the breast milk samples, with median concentrations of 0.072 and 0.050ng/mL, respectively. Perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were detected in higher frequencies, ranging between 67.4% and 81.8%. The concentrations of short carbon-chain PFCAs in breast milk such as PFPeA and PFHxA were the highest ever reported to date, and were comparable to that of PFOS. Concentrations of shorter chain PFCA in breast milk tended to be higher among the women with longer lactation period, while those of PFOA showed the opposite trend, suggesting a possibility that breastfeeding might be an important route of excretion for PFOA among lactating women. Fish consumption and the use of consumer products, e.g., skin care products, cosmetics and non-stick coated cooking utensils, were identified as significant predictors of PFAS concentrations in breast milk. Health risks associated with PFOA and PFOS exposure through breastfeeding were estimated negligible, however, risks of the short carbon-chain PFCAs could not be assessed because of lack of relevant toxicological information. Further efforts for source identification and exposure management measures for shorter chain PFCAs are necessary. PMID:27111244

  19. Human breast milk contamination with phthalates and alterations of endogenous reproductive hormones in infants three months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina M; Mortensen, Gerda Krog; Kaleva, Marko M;

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals. We investigated whether phthalate monoester contamination of human breast milk had any influence on the postnatal surge of reproductive hormones in newborn boys as a sign of testicular dysgenesis.......Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals. We investigated whether phthalate monoester contamination of human breast milk had any influence on the postnatal surge of reproductive hormones in newborn boys as a sign of testicular dysgenesis....

  20. Mate Intake and Risk of Breast Cancer in Uruguay: a Case- Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Stefani, Eduardo De; Mendoza, Beatriz; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Vazquez, Alvaro; Abbona, Estela

    2016-01-01

    Regarding 'mate' intake (infusion of Ilex paraguariensis herb, a staple beverage in temperate South American regions), most epidemiologic studies showed positive associations with risk of some cancers, (e.g. upper aerodigestive tract), but evidence on breast cancer (BC) risk is limited to a previous multi-site study, which reported a non significant odds ratio [OR]=0.85, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.67-1.09, p for trend=0.31) for the highest quartile of intake. The present study was conducted in order to further assess associations of 'mate' intake with BC risk. We combined two databases of women belonging to public and private healthcare hospitals. The sample included 572 BC incident cases and 889 controls interviewed with a specific questionnaire featured by socio-demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, and a food frequency questionnaire of 64 items, also analyzing 'mate' intake (consumer status, daily intake, age at start, age at quit, duration of habit, intensity of intake). ORs and their 95%CI were calculated through unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant potential confounders. The highest quartile of 'mate' intake was inversely associated with BC risk (OR=0.40, 95%CI 0.26-0.57, p for trend women (OR=0.36), among other results. As conclusions, we found evidence of a significant inverse association for 'mate' intake and BC risk. PMID:27039789

  1. Influence of organic diet on the amount of conjugated linoleic acids in breast milk of lactating women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rist, L.; Mueller, A.; Barthel, C.; Snijders, B.; Jansen, M.; Simões-Wüst, A.P.; Huber, M.; Kummeling, I.; Mandach, U. von; Steinhart, H.; Thijs, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out whether the incorporation of organic dairy and meat products in the maternal diet affects the contents of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) in human breast milk. To this purpose, milk samples from 312 breastfeeding m

  2. Breastfeeding and transmission of cytomegalovirus to preterm infants. Case report and kinetic of CMV-DNA in breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Marta J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding has a major impact on CMV epidemiology. Postnatal CMV reactivation's incidence during lactation is nearby the maternal seroprevalence. Although perinatal CMV infection has practically no consequences in term newborn, it may cause, in some cases, a severe symptomatic disease in preterm newborns. The aims of the present study are to evaluate the rate and clinical expression of CMV infection breast milk transmitted in preterm infants and to check the safety of the freezing treated breast milk. Methods The study included fifty-seven preterm infants and their CMV seropositive mothers. Fresh breast milk samples have been collected from 1st to 9th postpartum week. Both fresh breast milk and 72, 96, 120 hours frozen samples have been examined, checking the presence of CMV; urine samples have been tested too. Results 70.2% of tested mothers showed reactivation of the infection, and CMV-positive breast milk during the six weeks postpartum has been found. However, only one infant was infected by CMV, developing hepatic affection concomitantly with a multi-system involvement, as shown CMV DNA detection in urine, saliva, blood, gastric aspirate, and stools. Conclusion Freezing breast milk at -20°C and pasteurization may respectively reduce or eliminate the viral load.

  3. Dietary acrylamide intake and estrogen and progesterone receptor-defined postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Grete S; Hogervorst, Janneke G F; Schouten, Leo J;

    2010-01-01

    Acrylamide, a potential human carcinogen, has been discovered in a variety of heat-treated carbohydrate-rich food products. Previously, dietary acrylamide intake was shown to be associated with endocrine-related cancers in humans. We assessed the association between dietary acrylamide intake...... breast cancer cases were ascertained, with hormone receptor status information for 43%. Cox proportional hazards analysis was applied to determine hazard ratios in quintiles of dietary acrylamide intake stratifying on estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and smoking status...... ratios were 1.31 (95% CI: 0.87-1.97, P (trend) = 0.26) for ER+, 1.47 (0.86-2.51, P (trend) = 0.14) for PR+, and 1.43 (0.83-2.46, P (trend) = 0.16) for ER+PR+, when comparing women in the highest quintile of acrylamide intake (median 36.8 microg/day) to women in the lowest (median 9.5 microg...

  4. Alcohol Intake and Breast Cancer Risk: Weighing the Overall Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Goyal, Abhishek; Terry, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption has been linked to an approximate 30-50% increased risk in breast cancer. Case-control and cohort studies have consistently observed this modest increase. We highlight recent evidence from molecular epidemiologic studies and studies of intermediate markers like mammographic density that provide additional evidence that this association is real and not solely explained by factors/correlates of the exposure and outcome present in non-randomized studies. We also revi...

  5. The potential of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of milk samples to predict energy intake and efficiency in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, S; Berry, D P

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of animal-level and herd-level energy intake, energy balance, and feed efficiency affect day-to-day herd management strategies; information on these traits at an individual animal level is also useful in animal breeding programs. A paucity of data (especially at the individual cow level), of feed intake in particular, hinders the inclusion of such attributes in herd management decision-support tools and breeding programs. Dairy producers have access to an individual cow milk sample at least once daily during lactation, and consequently any low-cost phenotyping strategy should consider exploiting measureable properties in this biological sample, reflecting the physiological status and performance of the cow. Infrared spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with matter and it is used globally to predict milk quality parameters on routinely acquired individual cow milk samples and bulk tank samples. Thus, exploiting infrared spectroscopy in next-generation phenotyping will ensure potentially rapid application globally with a negligible additional implementation cost as the infrastructure already exists. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) analysis is already used to predict milk fat and protein concentrations, the ratio of which has been proposed as an indicator of energy balance. Milk FTIRS is also able to predict the concentration of various fatty acids in milk, the composition of which is known to change when body tissue is mobilized; that is, when the cow is in negative energy balance. Energy balance is mathematically very similar to residual energy intake (REI), a suggested measure of feed efficiency. Therefore, the prediction of energy intake, energy balance, and feed efficiency (i.e., REI) from milk FTIRS seems logical. In fact, the accuracy of predicting (i.e., correlation between predicted and actual values; root mean square error in parentheses) energy intake, energy balance, and REI from milk FTIRS in

  6. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy...... source for use in ruminant nutrition. Even though ruminants require forage fibre to maintain rumen function and maximize productivity, excess fibre limits feed intake due to its contribution to physical fill in the rumen. As feed intake is the most important factor for milk production, both a...... in starch concentration and an increase in crude protein concentration. Nevertheless, the digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) increased with enhanced aNDFom digestibility. Milk yield and live weight gain also increased with enhanced aNDFom digestibility. A 0.01 increase in the coefficient of maize...

  7. Effect of time of maize silage supplementation on herbage intake, milk production, and nitrogen excretion of grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marashdeh, O; Gregorini, P; Edwards, G R

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding maize silage at different times before a short grazing bout on dry matter (DM) intake, milk production, and N excretion of dairy cows. Thirty-six Friesian × Jersey crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked in 9groups of 4 cows by milk solids (sum of protein and fat) production (1.26±0.25kg/d), body weight (466±65kg), body condition score (4±0.48), and days in milk (197±15). Groups were then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 replicates of 3 treatments: control; herbage only, supplemented with 3kg of DM/cow of maize silage after morning milking approximately 9h before pasture allocation (9BH); and supplemented with 3kg of DM/cow of maize silage before afternoon milking approximately 2h before pasture allocation (2BH). Herbage allowance (above the ground level) was 22kg of DM/cow per day for all groups of cows. Cows were allocated to pasture from 1530 to 2030 h. Maize silage DM intake did not differ between treatments, averaging 3kg of DM/cow per day. Herbage DM intake was greater for control than 2BH and 9BH, and greater for 9BH than 2BH (11.1, 10.1, and 10.9kg of DM/cow per day for control, 2BH, and 9BH, respectively). The substitution rate (kilograms of herbage DM per kilograms of maize silage DM) was greater for 2BH (0.47) than 9BH (0.19). Milk solids production was similar between treatments (overall mean 1.2kg/cow per day). Body weight loss tended to be less for supplemented than control cows (-0.95, -0.44, and -0.58kg/cow per day for control, 2BH, and 9BH, respectively). Nitrogen concentration in urine was not affected by supplementation or time of supplementation, but estimated urinary N excretion tended to be greater for control than supplemented cows when urinary N excretion estimated using plasma or milk urea N. At the time of herbage meal, nonesterified fatty acid concentration was greater for control than supplemented cows and greater for 9BH than 2BH (0.58, 0.14, and 0.26mmol/L for

  8. Effect of time of maize silage supplementation on herbage intake, milk production, and nitrogen excretion of grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marashdeh, O; Gregorini, P; Edwards, G R

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding maize silage at different times before a short grazing bout on dry matter (DM) intake, milk production, and N excretion of dairy cows. Thirty-six Friesian × Jersey crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked in 9groups of 4 cows by milk solids (sum of protein and fat) production (1.26±0.25kg/d), body weight (466±65kg), body condition score (4±0.48), and days in milk (197±15). Groups were then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 replicates of 3 treatments: control; herbage only, supplemented with 3kg of DM/cow of maize silage after morning milking approximately 9h before pasture allocation (9BH); and supplemented with 3kg of DM/cow of maize silage before afternoon milking approximately 2h before pasture allocation (2BH). Herbage allowance (above the ground level) was 22kg of DM/cow per day for all groups of cows. Cows were allocated to pasture from 1530 to 2030 h. Maize silage DM intake did not differ between treatments, averaging 3kg of DM/cow per day. Herbage DM intake was greater for control than 2BH and 9BH, and greater for 9BH than 2BH (11.1, 10.1, and 10.9kg of DM/cow per day for control, 2BH, and 9BH, respectively). The substitution rate (kilograms of herbage DM per kilograms of maize silage DM) was greater for 2BH (0.47) than 9BH (0.19). Milk solids production was similar between treatments (overall mean 1.2kg/cow per day). Body weight loss tended to be less for supplemented than control cows (-0.95, -0.44, and -0.58kg/cow per day for control, 2BH, and 9BH, respectively). Nitrogen concentration in urine was not affected by supplementation or time of supplementation, but estimated urinary N excretion tended to be greater for control than supplemented cows when urinary N excretion estimated using plasma or milk urea N. At the time of herbage meal, nonesterified fatty acid concentration was greater for control than supplemented cows and greater for 9BH than 2BH (0.58, 0.14, and 0.26mmol/L for

  9. Determinants of aflatoxin M1 in breast milk in a selected group of Egyptian mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychronaki, Nektaria; C Turner, Paul; Mykkänen, Hannu; Gong, Yunyun; Amra, Hassan; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad; El-Nezami, Hani

    2006-07-01

    In Egypt, there is a paucity of biomarker data on aflatoxin (AF) exposure. The study assessed the level and frequency of breast milk AFM1 as a biomarker of maternal exposure. Breast milk samples were collected from a selected group of 388 Egyptian lactating mothers of children attending the New El-Qalyub Hospital, Qalyubiyah governorate, Egypt, during May-September 2003. Following aflatoxin extraction, AFM1 levels were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Approximately 36% of mothers tested positive for AFM1 (median 13.5 pg ml-1, interquartile range (IQR) 10.27-21.43). Non-working status (p = 0.018, odds ratio (OR) = 2.87), obesity (p = 0.004, OR = 3.01), high corn oil consumption (p = 0.002, OR = 2.21), number of children (>1) (p = 0.025, OR = 1.99), and early lactation stage (effect. PMID:16751147

  10. Levels of brominated flame retardants and other pesistent organic pollutants in breast milk samples from Limpopo province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnerud, Per Ola, E-mail: poda@slv.se [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Aune, Marie; Larsson, Lotta [Chemistry Division 2, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Lignell, Sanna [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Mutshatshi, Tshinanne; Okonkwo, Jonathan; Botha, Ben [Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Agyei, Nana [Department of Chemistry, Limpopo University, Medunsa (South Africa)

    2011-09-01

    The non-occupational exposure to brominated flame retardants, and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was studied by collecting human breast milk samples from mothers residing in Thohoyandou area, a rural district in the Limpopo Province, northern part of South Africa (SA). Of all collected samples to be analysed (n = 28), those with large enough milk volumes, (n = 14) were quantified for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (9 congeners: BDE-28, 47, 66, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, and 183) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on a GC equipped with dual capillary columns and dual electron-capture detectors (ECD). The levels of PBDE congeners (median sumBDE 1.3 ng/g of lipids) and of HBCD were not far from levels generally found in European studies, and this study may be the first report on the presence of PBDEs and HBCD in SA breast milk. On a congener basis, the finding of comparably high BDE-183 levels suggests a specific PBDE usage, or contamination situation in SA. Apart from BFRs, the high DDT levels found in the breast milk from this area (median and maximum sumDDT levels of about 4 600 and over 20 000 ng/g of lipids, respectively; n = 28) have earlier been reported. In addition, other POPs (PCBs, HCB and HCHs) were found in SA breast milk, at relatively low levels. To conclude, measurable levels of PBDEs and HBCD, and a specific BDE congener pattern, were found in breast milk from the Limpopo province, SA. A number of other POPs, including DDTs in high levels, were also present. - Highlights: {yields} Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analysed in South African breast milk. {yields} Focus of interest were brominated flame retardants (BRFs). {yields} Sampling area was the rural Limpopo Province, northern SA. {yields} Probably the first reported African data on BFRs (PBDEs, HBCD) in breast milk. {yields} Reported BFR data similar to European levels.

  11. Composition of breast milk and its determination methods%母乳成分及测定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 罗晓明; 古桂雄

    2015-01-01

    母乳是喂养婴儿的最佳食品,含有婴儿所需的几乎全部营养成分(宏量营养成分:蛋白质、脂肪、碳水化合物;微量营养成分:矿物质和维生素)、水分和生物活性物质(生长因子和免疫因子等),同时还具有抗感染、消炎及抗氧化等保护作用。依据婴儿月龄,母乳分为初乳、过渡乳、成熟乳和晚乳,母乳成分随泌乳时间延长、孕母自身状况、母亲膳食结构及体外贮存、灭菌等因素影响而不断变化。母乳成分测定方法不断改进,目前国内最新母乳成分测定仪为HMA-2000超声母乳分析仪。%Breast milk is the best food for infants containing almost all of the nutritional compositions ( macro nutrients: protein, fat, carbohydrate;trace nutrients:vitamins and minerals) , water and nonnutritive bioactive factors ( growth factors and immune factors etc. ) Breast milk not only provides nutrition for infants, but also has anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. On the basis of infant age, breast milk is called as colostrum, transitional milk, mature milk and evening milk. Composition of breast milk varies with the prolonging of lactation, maternal situation, maternal dietary structure, and milk storage and pasteurization. Determination method of breast milk composition is continuously improved, and HMA-2000 Ultrasonic Human Milk Analyzer ( HMA) is the most advanced instrument.

  12. The effects of supplementation with a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Emma H; Doane, Perry H; Donkin, Shawn S; Bravo, David

    2014-09-01

    Plant extracts (PE) are naturally occurring chemicals in plants, and many of these molecules have been reported to influence production efficiency of dairy and beef animals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a PE additive (CE; an encapsulated blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) on the milk production performance of lactating dairy cows across a range of doses. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (350mg/d; n=16 cows/treatment) for 6 wk. In experiment 2, 48 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (200, 400, or 600mg/d; n=12 animals/treatment) for 8 wk. A 1-wk covariate period was included in both experiments. In both experiments, individual dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded daily. In experiment 1, CE was associated with an increase in DMI in both parity groups but an increase in milk production of multiparous cows only. In experiment 2, milk yield of multiparous cows was decreased at the 2 highest doses, whereas milk yield of primiparous cows was increased at the low and high doses of CE. These responses were accompanied by similar changes in DMI; therefore, CE did not affect feed efficiency. We observed no effect of CE on SCC or milk composition; however, treatment by parity interactions were detected for each of these variables that have not been described previously. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can increase DMI and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In addition, environmental factors appear to influence the response to CE, including dose and parity, and these should be explored further.

  13. The effects of supplementation with a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Emma H; Doane, Perry H; Donkin, Shawn S; Bravo, David

    2014-09-01

    Plant extracts (PE) are naturally occurring chemicals in plants, and many of these molecules have been reported to influence production efficiency of dairy and beef animals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a PE additive (CE; an encapsulated blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) on the milk production performance of lactating dairy cows across a range of doses. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (350mg/d; n=16 cows/treatment) for 6 wk. In experiment 2, 48 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (200, 400, or 600mg/d; n=12 animals/treatment) for 8 wk. A 1-wk covariate period was included in both experiments. In both experiments, individual dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded daily. In experiment 1, CE was associated with an increase in DMI in both parity groups but an increase in milk production of multiparous cows only. In experiment 2, milk yield of multiparous cows was decreased at the 2 highest doses, whereas milk yield of primiparous cows was increased at the low and high doses of CE. These responses were accompanied by similar changes in DMI; therefore, CE did not affect feed efficiency. We observed no effect of CE on SCC or milk composition; however, treatment by parity interactions were detected for each of these variables that have not been described previously. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can increase DMI and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In addition, environmental factors appear to influence the response to CE, including dose and parity, and these should be explored further. PMID:25022677

  14. Global, Regional, and National Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Fruit Juices, and Milk: A Systematic Assessment of Beverage Intake in 187 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Gitanjali M; Renata Micha; Shahab Khatibzadeh; Peilin Shi; Stephen Lim; Andrews, Kathryn G; Engell, Rebecca E; Majid Ezzati; Dariush Mozaffarian

    2015-01-01

    Background Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fruit juice, and milk are components of diet of major public health interest. To-date, assessment of their global distributions and health impacts has been limited by insufficient comparable and reliable data by country, age, and sex. Objective To quantify global, regional, and national levels of SSB, fruit juice, and milk intake by age and sex in adults over age 20 in 2010. Methods We identified, obtained, and assessed data on intakes of these bev...

  15. Association between chemical pattern in breast milk and congenital cryptorchidism: modelling of complex human exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krysiak-Baltyn, Konrad; Toppari, J.; Skakkebaek, N. E.;

    2012-01-01

    in 130 breast milk samples from Danish and Finnish mothers. Half the newborns were healthy controls, whereas the other half was boys with congenital cryptorchidism. The measured chemicals included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl‐ethers, dioxins (OCDD/PCDFs), phthalates...... been too rapid to be explained by genetics alone. To study the association between complex chemical exposures of humans and congenital cryptorchidism, the most common malformation of the male genitalia, we measured 121 environmental chemicals with suspected or known endocrine disrupting properties...

  16. Post-parturient shedding of Listeria monocytogenes in breast milk of infected mice

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Keith P; Pillers, DeAnn M; Conway, James H.; Faith, Nancy G.; Czuprynski, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop an animal model to study Listeria monocytogenes infection during the peri-parturient period and identify sources of maternal shedding of the pathogen. Peri-parturient mice were infected intragastrically with L. monocytogenes that expressed bacterial luciferase. Mice were then imaged in vivo over time. Secreted breast milk samples from mice infected after parturition were enriched and plated for culture and imaging. Bioluminescence imaging technolog...

  17. Viral and immunological factors associated with breast milk transmission of SIV in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresh Lynn

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The viral and host factors involved in transmission of HIV through breastfeeding are largely unknown, and intervention strategies are urgently needed to protect at-risk populations. To evaluate the viral and immunological factors directly related to milk transmission of virus, we have evaluated the disease course of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV in lactating rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta as a model of natural breast milk transmission of HIV. Results Fourteen lactating macaques were infected intravenously with SIV/DeltaB670, a pathogenic isolate of SIV and were pair-housed with their suckling infants throughout the disease course. Transmission was observed in 10 mother-infant pairs over a one-year period. Two mothers transmitted virus during the period of initial viremia 14–21 days post inoculation (p.i. and were classified as early transmitters. Peak viral loads in milk and plasma of early transmitters were similar to other animals, however the early transmitters subsequently displayed a rapid progressor phenotype and failed to control virus expression as well as other animals at 56 days p.i. Eight mothers were classified as late transmitters, with infant infection detected at time points in the chronic stage of the maternal SIV disease course (81 to 360 days. Plasma viral loads, CD4+ T cell counts and SIV-specific antibody titers were similar in late transmitters and non-transmitters. Late breast milk transmission, however, was correlated with higher average milk viral loads and more persistent viral expression in milk 12 to 46 weeks p.i. as compared to non-transmitters. Four mothers failed to transmit virus, despite disease progression and continuous lactation. Conclusion These studies validate the SIV-infected rhesus macaque as a model for breast milk transmission of HIV. As observed in studies of HIV-infected women, transmission occurred at time points throughout the period of lactation. Transmission during the

  18. Rapid sample preparation procedure for determination of retinol and α-tocopherol in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kašparová, Markéta; Plíšek, Jiří; Solichová, Dagmar; Krčmová, Lenka; Kučerová, Barbora; Hronek, Miloslav; Solich, Petr

    2012-05-15

    The liposoluble vitamins (retinol and α-tocopherol) concentration in human breast milk is of a cardinal knowledge especially for nutrition of prematurely born. It enables the feeding optimization of these important micronutrients for preterm infants. The novel rapid liquid-liquid extraction procedure for human breast milk investigation was developed and validated according to FDA guidelines. The recovery of retinol was 82-90% measured at three concentration levels 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 μmol/L, for α-tocopherol 92-109% at concentration levels 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 μmol/L. The repeatability of extraction procedure expressed as relative standard deviation was 3.26% for retinol and 4.79% for α-tocopherol. Developed extraction procedure was applied on 120 human breast milk samples. The separation of vitamins was completed using advantages of a monolithic column which accomplished demands of acceleration made by modern bio-analytical HPLC methodology. The analytes of interest were detected by diode-array detector at wavelengths 325 nm for retinol and 290 nm for α-tocopherol. PMID:22483891

  19. Breast milk supplementation and preterm infant development after hospital discharge: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Desterro e Silva da Cunha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To assess the effect of maternal breast milk supplementation on the development of exclusively breast-fed very low birth weight preterm infants at 12 months of corrected age. Methods: A randomized clinical trial with 53 infants followed-up after discharge from the neonatal unit until a corrected gestational age of 12 months. Newborns in the intervention group were breastfed exclusively with maternal milk and received 2 g of a multinutrient supplement (Pré-Nan®, Nestlé, Vevey, Switzerland added to expressed breast milk twice a day until a corrected age of 4–6 months. The control group was exclusively breastfed without supplementation. After monthly follow-up, developmental assessment was performed using the Bayley III Scale. Results: There was no statistically significant difference on the Bayley III Scale between the intervention and control groups in any of the assessed domains: motor, cognitive, and communication. However, scores in the three domains were always higher in the group that received the supplement. There were a similar number of cases of developmental delay in both groups: seven (28% in the group that received the supplement and nine (33.3% in the group that was exclusively breastfed. Conclusions: The results failed to show an association between post-discharge multinutrient supplementation and development in the assessed infants.

  20. Effect of Milk Allowance on Concentrate Intake, Ruminal Environment, and Ruminal Development in Milk-Fed Holstein Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sehested, Jakob; Jensen, Søren Krogh;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that a barley-based concentrate would induce an acidic ruminal environment in young calves and that increased milk allowance would alleviate this condition.......The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that a barley-based concentrate would induce an acidic ruminal environment in young calves and that increased milk allowance would alleviate this condition....

  1. Dioxins levels in breast milk of women living in Caserta and Naples: assessment of environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Armando; Rivezzi, Gaetano; Carideo, Pietro; Ceci, Roberta; Diletti, Gianfranco; Ippoliti, Carla; Migliorati, Giacomo; Piscitelli, Prisco; Ripani, Alessandro; Salini, Romolo; Scortichini, Giampiero

    2014-01-01

    Naples and Caserta provinces are extensively affected by the illegal dumping of hazardous and urban wastes, which were periodically set to fire. Several studies were made on the possible health impact of this illegal waste management. The aim of the study was to detect dioxins levels in breast milk of volunteer primiparae and to assess the possible source of dioxins in the affected areas. The authors determined dioxins levels in breast milk from 100 primiparae from the study area and collected anamnestic information on donors. We determined dioxins levels in breast milk from 100 primiparae from the study area and collected anamnestic information on donors. As a measure of environmental risk of dioxins (EDR) we used the interpolated values of dioxins concentration in buffalo milk samples collected in the study area. Correlations between the EDR, age of the mother, smoking habit, cheese consumption, occupation in activity at risk, presence of plants for the disposal of toxic waste or illegal burning of solid waste near the residence of the donor and dioxin level in breast milk were investigated. The dioxin level in breast milk is significantly correlated to the EDR, the age of the sampled women and the presence of illegal burning of solid waste. PMID:24120012

  2. Cytokine modulation (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) by human breast milk lipids on intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Girolamo J; Sánchez, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    Human breast milk is the best form of nourishment for infants during the first year of life. It is composed by a complex mixture of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Breast milk provides nutrients and bioactive factors that themselves modulate maturation and development of the gastrointestinal tract. Many studies have shown that it provides protection against gastrointestinal tract inflammation. In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of human breast milk lipids on epithelial intestinal cells (Caco-2) cytokine regulation and the fatty acid transporter protein (FATP) involved in this process. Caco-2 cells were cultivated and stimulated with different concentration of human milk lipids from healthy human mothers (18-30-year-olds) or single commercial lipids for 48 h. We measured the concentrations and mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 cytokines by immunoassay (ELISA) and quantitative-PCR (qRT-PCR) technique, respectively. We observed a two to three times decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (p < 0.01) as well as an increase in anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels in cells stimulated with increasing concentrations of breast milk lipids. These results suggest that human breast milk lipids could have an important role on the cytokine modulation in the newborn bowel. PMID:26441050

  3. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  4. The Effect of Silage and Concentrate Type on Intake Behavior, Rumen Function, and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early and Late Lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, P.A.; Vlaeminck, B.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding total mixed rations (TMR) that differ in structural and nonstructural carbohydrates to dairy cows in early and late lactation on short-term feed intake, dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation variables, and milk yield. A 5 x

  5. Intake of vitamins A, C, and E from diet and supplements and breast cancer in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Stine B; Tjønneland, Anne; Stripp, Connie;

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the vitamins A, C, and E on breast cancer development has not been clarified. An effect of a vitamin per se implicates similar patterns for the effects of the vitamin from dietary and supplemental sources. We examined how the breast cancer incidence rate among postmenopausal women...... was related to intake of vitamins A, C, and E from diet and supplements....

  6. Dairy cattle serum and milk factors contributing to the risk of colon and breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2015-08-15

    The analysis of published epidemiological data on colon and breast cancer reveals a remarkable concordance for most regions of the world. A low incidence for both cancers has been recorded in Mongolia and Bolivia. Discrepant data, however, have been reported for India, Japan and Korea. In India, the incidence of breast cancer is significantly higher than for colon cancer, in Japan and Korea colon cancer exceeds by far the rate of breast cancer. Here, studies are summarized pointing to a species-specific risk for colon cancer after consumption of beef originating from dairy cattle. Uptake of dairy products of Bos taurus-derived milk cattle, particularly consumed at early age, is suggested to represent one of the main risk factors for the development of breast cancer. A recent demonstration of reduced breast cancer rates in individuals with lactose intolerance (Ji et al., Br J Cancer 2014; 112:149-52) seems to be in line with this interpretation. Species-specific risk factors for these cancers are compatible with the transmission of different infectious factors transferred via meat or dairy products. Countries with discordant rates of colon and breast cancer reveal a similar discordance between meat and milk product consumption of dairy cattle. The recent isolation of a larger number of novel presumably viral DNAs from serum, meat and dairy products of healthy dairy cows, at least part of them infectious for human cells, deserves further investigation. Systemic infections early in life, resulting in latency and prevention of subsequent infections with the same agent by neutralizing antibodies, would require reconsideration of ongoing prospective studies conducted in the adult population.

  7. Composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents in function of time of lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallyne Bolognini Pereira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents in function of lactation time. Methods: We followed 51 lactating adolescents, between the 6th and 14th weeks postpartum (WPP. The determination of fat, protein and lactose in milk were conducted, respectively, by the methods of Lucas, Lowry and Perry & Doan. Micronutrients were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data was presented by the mean and standard error. ANOVA with repeated measures was used and Tukey as post test. It was accepted a significance level of 5%. Results: There was a significant reduction (P<0.05 in protein content during the postpartum weeks studied (6th: 16.6 ± 1.1; 10th: 13.7 ± 1.0; 14th WPP: 12.3 ± 1.1 g/day. The lactose (6th: 60.2 ± 1.9; 10th: 60.4 ± 2.6; 14th WPP: 65.1 ± 4.0 g/day and fat (6th: 41.6 ± 3.3; 10th: 36.2 ± 3.4; 14th WPP: 31.5 ± 9.0 g/day concentration remained unaffected. The zinc concentration in the breast milk was lower than that is commonly found in literature (mean 1.16 mg/day. The copper, iron, calcium and phosphorus concentration was sufficient to meet the needs of the infants between 0 and 6 months old. Conclusion: The lactation period did not influence the concentration of micronutrients, lactose and lipids, but there is a reduction on protein of the breast milk. In spite of the reducing concentration of protein, it is sufficient to meet the needs of infants from 0 to 6 months old.

  8. Associations of the MCM6-rs3754686 proxy for milk intake in Mediterranean and American populations with cardiovascular biomarkers, disease and mortality: Mendelian randomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caren E; Coltell, Oscar; Sorlí, Jose V; Estruch, Ramón; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Dashti, Hassan S; Lai, Chao Q; Miró, Leticia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Ros, Emilio; Aslibekyan, Stella; Hidalgo, Bertha; Neuhouser, Marian L; Di, Chongzhi; Tucker, Katherine L; Arnett, Donna K; Ordovás, José M; Corella, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Controversy persists on the association between dairy products, especially milk, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Genetic proxies may improve dairy intake estimations, and clarify diet-disease relationships through Mendelian randomization. We meta-analytically (n ≤ 20,089) evaluated associations between a lactase persistence (LP) SNP, the minichromosome maintenance complex component 6 (MCM6)-rs3754686C>T (nonpersistence>persistence), dairy intake, and CVD biomarkers in American (Hispanics, African-American and Whites) and Mediterranean populations. Moreover, we analyzed longitudinal associations with milk, CVD and mortality in PREDIMED), a randomized Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) intervention trial (n = 7185). The MCM6-rs3754686/MCM6-rs309180 (as proxy), LP-allele (T) was strongly associated with higher milk intake, but inconsistently associated with glucose and lipids, and not associated with CVD or total mortality in the whole population. Heterogeneity analyses suggested some sex-specific associations. The T-allele was associated with higher CVD and mortality risk in women but not in men (P-sex interaction:0.005 and 0.032, respectively), mainly in the MedDiet group. However, milk intake was not associated with CVD biomarkers, CVD or mortality either generally or in sub-groups. Although MCM6-rs3754686 is a good milk intake proxy in these populations, attributing its associations with CVD and mortality in Mediterranean women to milk is unwarranted, as other factors limiting the assumption of causality in Mendelian randomization may exist. PMID:27624874

  9. Associations of the MCM6-rs3754686 proxy for milk intake in Mediterranean and American populations with cardiovascular biomarkers, disease and mortality: Mendelian randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caren E.; Coltell, Oscar; Sorlí, Jose V.; Estruch, Ramón; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Dashti, Hassan S.; Lai, Chao Q.; Miró, Leticia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Ros, Emilio; Aslibekyan, Stella; Hidalgo, Bertha; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Di, Chongzhi; Tucker, Katherine L.; Arnett, Donna K.; Ordovás, José M.; Corella, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Controversy persists on the association between dairy products, especially milk, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Genetic proxies may improve dairy intake estimations, and clarify diet-disease relationships through Mendelian randomization. We meta-analytically (n ≤ 20,089) evaluated associations between a lactase persistence (LP) SNP, the minichromosome maintenance complex component 6 (MCM6)-rs3754686C>T (nonpersistence>persistence), dairy intake, and CVD biomarkers in American (Hispanics, African-American and Whites) and Mediterranean populations. Moreover, we analyzed longitudinal associations with milk, CVD and mortality in PREDIMED), a randomized Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) intervention trial (n = 7185). The MCM6-rs3754686/MCM6-rs309180 (as proxy), LP-allele (T) was strongly associated with higher milk intake, but inconsistently associated with glucose and lipids, and not associated with CVD or total mortality in the whole population. Heterogeneity analyses suggested some sex-specific associations. The T-allele was associated with higher CVD and mortality risk in women but not in men (P-sex interaction:0.005 and 0.032, respectively), mainly in the MedDiet group. However, milk intake was not associated with CVD biomarkers, CVD or mortality either generally or in sub-groups. Although MCM6-rs3754686 is a good milk intake proxy in these populations, attributing its associations with CVD and mortality in Mediterranean women to milk is unwarranted, as other factors limiting the assumption of causality in Mendelian randomization may exist. PMID:27624874

  10. On-farm evaluation of the effect of coffee pulp supplementation on milk yield and dry matter intake of dairy cows grazing tropical grasses in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Beltrán, Paulina; Estrada-Flores, Julieta G; Martínez-Campos, Angel R; Estrada-López, Isael; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo A; Yong-Angel, Gilberto; Figueroa-Medina, Marisol; Nova, Francisca Avilés; Castelán-Ortega, Octavio A

    2012-02-01

    Tropical grasses are the primary nutrient resource for cattle production in the tropics, and they provide low-cost nutrients to cattle. However, its production is constrained by seasonal changes and quality; hence, appropriate usage of relatively inexpensive agricultural by-products is important to profitable livestock production. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing coffee pulp to dairy cows grazing tropical grasses on milk yield and forage intake. Four multiparous crossed Holstein-Brown Swiss-Zebu cows of similar weight and milk yield were used. The effect of 10%, 15% and 20% inclusion of coffee pulp in dairy concentrates on milk yield and forage intake was analysed using a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Results showed that there were no significant effects (P > 0.05) in grass dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition body weight and body condition score due to the inclusion of coffee pulp in the dairy concentrates. It is concluded that coffee pulp can be included at levels of 20% in the concentrate without compromising significantly (P > 0.05) milk yield, milk composition and grass dry matter intake. It also was concluded that cost of concentrate is reduced in 20% by the inclusion of coffee pulp.

  11. Can rye intake decrease risk of human breast cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Adlercreutz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rye contains more fibre and bioactive compounds than other cereals used for bread production. The fibre and compounds of the fibre complex could provide protection against breast cancer (BC. Objective: To review the evidence and theoretical background for a role of rye and some of its components in the prevention of BC. Design: A short review based to a great extent on the work by scientists in the Nordic countries. Results: Some of the possible mechanisms by which the fibre complex could reduce BC risk are presented. The fibre through its effect on fermentation increases esterification of bile acids reducing toxicity of the free bile acids and is involved in the production of butyrate with potential anticancer effects including BC. The fibre reduces the enterohepatic circulation of the oestrogens leading to lower plasma oestrogen concentrations. The fibre complex contains bioactive compounds such as lignans and alkylresorcinols that are antioxidative and potentially anticarcinogenic. In addition, vitamins, minerals, and phytic acid in rye may provide protection against BC. Conclusion: Rye products made from wholegrain rye flour are likely to contribute to reduced BC risk.

  12. Associations of intakes of magnesium and calcium and survival among women with breast cancer: results from Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Meng-Hua; Dai, Qi; Millen, Amy E; Nie, Jing; Edge, Stephen B; Trevisan, Maurizio; Shields, Peter G; Freudenheim, Jo L

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) antagonizes each other in (re) absorption, cell cycle regulation, inflammation, and many other physiologic activities. However, few studies have investigated the association between magnesium and calcium intakes and breast cancer survival, and the interaction between calcium and magnesium intake. In a cohort of 1,170 women with primary, incident, and histologically confirmed breast cancer from Western New York State, we examined the relationship between intakes of these two minerals and survival. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Mean follow-up time was 87.4 months after breast cancer diagnosis; there were 170 deaths identified. After adjustment for known prognostic factors, and intakes of energy, total vitamin D and total calcium, higher dietary intake of magnesium was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.28-0.90 for highest vs. lowest tertile; p trend = 0.02). Likewise, a marginal association was found for total Magnesium intake from foods and supplements combined (HR = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.31-1.08; p trend = 0.09). The inverse association of higher total magnesium intake with all-cause mortality was primarily presented among postmenopausal women and was stronger among women who had a high Ca:Mg intake ratio (>2.59). There were no clear associations for prognosis with intake of calcium. We found that magnesium intake alone may improve overall survival following breast cancer, and the association may be stronger among those with high Ca:Mg intake ratio. PMID:27073728

  13. Associations of intakes of magnesium and calcium and survival among women with breast cancer: results from Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Meng-Hua; Dai, Qi; Millen, Amy E; Nie, Jing; Edge, Stephen B; Trevisan, Maurizio; Shields, Peter G; Freudenheim, Jo L

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) antagonizes each other in (re) absorption, cell cycle regulation, inflammation, and many other physiologic activities. However, few studies have investigated the association between magnesium and calcium intakes and breast cancer survival, and the interaction between calcium and magnesium intake. In a cohort of 1,170 women with primary, incident, and histologically confirmed breast cancer from Western New York State, we examined the relationship between intakes of these two minerals and survival. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Mean follow-up time was 87.4 months after breast cancer diagnosis; there were 170 deaths identified. After adjustment for known prognostic factors, and intakes of energy, total vitamin D and total calcium, higher dietary intake of magnesium was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.28-0.90 for highest vs. lowest tertile; p trend = 0.02). Likewise, a marginal association was found for total Magnesium intake from foods and supplements combined (HR = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.31-1.08; p trend = 0.09). The inverse association of higher total magnesium intake with all-cause mortality was primarily presented among postmenopausal women and was stronger among women who had a high Ca:Mg intake ratio (>2.59). There were no clear associations for prognosis with intake of calcium. We found that magnesium intake alone may improve overall survival following breast cancer, and the association may be stronger among those with high Ca:Mg intake ratio.

  14. Crude protein levels in diets containing pelleted concentrate for lactating goats: intake, digestibility, milk production and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edileusa de Jesus dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of crude protein (100, 130, 160 and 190 g kg-1 of dry matter of diets composed of 200 g kg-1 of Tifton 85 grass hay and 800 g kg-1 of pelleted concentrate on intake, nutrient digestibility, production and composition of milk in lactating goats. Eight female Saanen goats with 42.7 ± 1.43 kg and 57.7 ± 7.37 days of lactation and milk production of 2 ± 0.22 kg at the beginning of the experiment were housed in individual 1.32 × 3.10 m stalls and distributed into two 4 × 4-balanced Latin squares. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, ether extract and total digestible nutrients showed a quadratic effect, with maximum intake of 2.030; 2.000; 305; 769; 55 and 1.574 g day-1 at the levels of 140.7; 140.8; 189.2; 140.9; 144.9 e 142.7 g kg-1 DM, respectively. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrates, ether extract and total digestible nutrient level varied linearly, with increases estimated at 0.54; 0.50, 2.02, 0.49, 0.80 and 0.63 g/100g for each percentage unit of protein added to the diet, respectively. Milk production was affected, with increase of 0.54 g for each 1% crude protein added to the diet. Milk lactose level decreased linearly, unlike the fat level, which increased linearly. Protein level showed a quadratic behavior, with a maximum of 36.7 g per kg of milk at the level of 160.5 g per kg of DM. It is recommended to use crude protein between 135 g and 150 g per kg of dry matter of diets consisting of 800 g of pelleted concentrate (composed of soybean meal replacing the alfalfa hay as protein source per kg of DM for lactating goats producing 2 kg of milk per day.

  15. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on feed intake, energy balance, milk production, and composition in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J; Lock, A L; Ryan, C M; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the degree of ketonemia postpartum. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in postpartum dairy cows and a decreased risk for reproductive success as well as increased risk for several diseases in early lactation, such as displacement of the abomasum and metritis. The plane of energy fed to cows in the prepartum period has been shown to influence ketogenesis and the degree of negative energy balance postpartum. Our hypothesis was that a high-fiber, controlled-energy diet (C) fed during the dry period would lead to a lower degree of hyperketonemia in the first weeks postpartum compared with either a high-energy diet (H), or a diet where an intermediate level of energy would only be fed in the close-up period (starting at 28d before expected parturition), following the same controlled-energy diet in the far-off period. Hyperketonemia in this study was defined as a blood BHBA concentration of ≥1.2mmol/L. Holstein cows (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were enrolled using a randomized block design and housed in individual tiestalls. All treatment diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained monensin. Cows received the same fresh cow ration after calving. Blood samples were obtained 3 times weekly before and after calving and analyzed for BHBA and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Milk components, production, and dry matter intake were recorded and energy balance was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for the outcomes dry matter intake, energy balance, BHBA and NEFA concentrations, milk and energy-corrected milk yield, as well as milk composition. Predicted energy balance tended to be less negative postpartum in group C and cows in this group had fewer episodes of hyperketonemia compared with both the intermediate group and group H in the first 3 wk after calving. Postpartum BHBA and

  16. Comparative effect of 20% dextrose and breast milk on the pain caused by hepatitis B vaccine in term neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Babaei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Newborns are fully capable of pain perception, and uncontrolled pain, especially in the early life will impose unwanted effects on the child in the future. This study was performed to compare the analgesic effects of breast milk and 20% dextrose on the pain caused by hepatitis B vaccination in term neonates. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 210 term neonates were recruited and divided into three groups. The first group was given 2 cc breast milk, the second group was given 2 cc 20% dextrose orally and the third group, as control ,was not given anything. Then, the neonates received hepatitis B vaccination. Pain intensity was measured in all three groups by DAN pain scoring system. The heart rate and oxygen saturation were measured in each group before and after injection. Results: Pain intensity levels by DAN pain score were 8.67 in the control group, 4.95 in breast milk and 5.78 in 20% dextrose, which showed a significant difference between groups (P<0.001. Conclusion: Our results showed that both breast milk and 20% dextrose had analgesic effects, but breast milk was more effective to reduce pain than 20% dextrose.

  17. The effects of increasing amounts of milk replacer powder added to whole milk on feed intake and performance in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, R A; Machado, F S; Campos, M M; Furini, P M; Rufino, S R A; Pereira, L G R; Tomich, T R; Coelho, S G

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on feed intake, heifer performance, and health of increasing the total solids (TS) content of liquid feed (whole milk) by adding increasing amounts of milk replacer powder during the pre- and postweaning periods. Crossbred Holstein-Gyr heifers (n=60) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=15 per group), which consisted of different TS concentrations: 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0% of liquid feed. Heifers received 6 L of liquid feed per day, divided into 2 equal meals (0800 and 1600h) and provided in buckets, from 5 to 55d of age. From 56 to 59d of age, the total amount of liquid feed was reduced by half, maintaining only morning feedings. Heifers were weaned at 60d and monitored until 90d of age. Water and starter were provided ad libitum during the entire experiment. Corn silage was included in the diet during the postweaning period (70d of age). Feed intake and health scores were evaluated daily. Body weight and body frame development were recorded weekly. Starting at 14d, ruminal pH was measured every other week. Laboratory analysis determined that the actual TS contents of the liquid feed were 13.5, 16.1, 18.2, and 20.4%, for the proposed 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0% TS treatments, respectively. The osmolality of liquid feed treatments was 265 to 533mOsm/L. Intake of liquid feed was similar among treatments from 4wk of age. During the preweaning period, starter intake, fecal score, and days with diarrhea were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH at weaning averaged 6.2 and was similar among treatments. Increasing concentrations of TS in the liquid feed were associated with linear increases in average daily gain, final body weight, and growth performance, but linear decreases in feed efficiency. During the postweaning period, intake of starter, corn silage, and water were similar among treatments, as well as average daily gain and feed efficiency. Final body weight and growth performance during the postweaning period

  18. Geographical distribution, accumulation kinetics and infants health risk of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, A.; Kunisue, T.; Iwata, H. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Tanabe, S. [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2004-09-15

    Worldwide production and use of organochlorine compounds (OCs) have led to their widespread occurrence in the environment and bioaccumulation in various organisms, including humans. In Indonesia, large usage and production of OCs in the past, particularly OCs pesticides for agricultural and vector-borne disease eradication programs may implicate contaminations of OCs in the environment. Previous studies dealing with mussels as bioindicator reported widespread occurrence of OCs in the coastal environment of this country, and found hot spots of contamination in the waters surroundings Java Island. Occurrence of OCs were also reported in various environmental compartments including fish, sediment and air. However, data on levels of OCs in humans are very scarce. Hence this study has highlighted the accumulation of OCs in human milk from Indonesia, particularly in Java Island where industrial and intensive agriculture are taking place. In this study, concentrations of classical OCs, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and the most recently identified microcontaminants, tris (4-chlorophenyl) methanol (TCPMOH) and tris (4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) were determined in human breast milk collected from several locations in Indonesia to elucidate their distribution in relation to their site activities, to assess their possible association with maternal characteristics and to evaluate the possible potential risk of OCs in breast-milk on infant's health.

  19. Biomonitoring of Mycotoxins in Human Breast Milk: Current State and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Benedikt; Braun, Dominik; Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Turner, Paul C; Degen, Gisela H; Marko, Doris

    2016-07-18

    Human breast milk is considered as the best and ideal form of nutrition for infants. However, food contaminants such as mycotoxins, which may be transferred from maternal blood to milk, are poorly described. Mycotoxins are a major group of natural toxins frequently detected in foods. Here, we review the current state-of-the-art in the monitoring of mycotoxins in human breast milk, i.e., knowledge on occurrence, metabolism, and analytical assays utilized for their quantification. We highlight that most of the data captured to date have not been verified with the precision now capable utilizing LC-MS/MS and LC-HRMS approaches. One concern is that some studies may overestimate individual measures, and most cannot capture the patterns and levels of mycotoxin mixtures. We propose accurate assessment as a priority, especially for aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, and deoxynivalenol as well as their major metabolites. However, also so-called emerging toxins such as citrinin, the enniatins, beauvericin, aurofusarin, or Alternaria toxins should be considered to evaluate their potential relevance. Key requirements for analytical quality assurance are identified and discussed to guide future developments in this area. Moreover, research needs including investigations of lactational transfer rates, the role of human metabolism for bioactivation or detoxification, and an evaluation of potential combinatory effects of different mycotoxins are pointed out. It is hoped that LC-MS based multianalyte methods will enable more accurate, rapid and affordable human biomonitoring approaches that support informed decisions for maternal and infant health. PMID:27300310

  20. Intake of vitamins A, C, and E from diet and supplements and breast cancer in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, S. B.; Tjonneland, A.; Stripp, C.;

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The influence of the vitamins A, C, and E on breast cancer development has not been clarified. An effect of a vitamin per se implicates similar patterns for the effects of the vitamin from dietary and supplemental sources. We examined how the breast cancer incidence rate among...... postmenopausal women was related to intake of vitamins A, C, and E from diet and supplements. Methods: Data was sampled as case - control nested within the Danish 'Diet, Cancer and Health' cohort. Data on vitamin intakes were collected at entry into the cohort by means of self-administered questionnaires. Women...... eligible for the nested case - control study were postmenopausal at entry into the cohort. The analyses were based on 418 cases of incident breast cancer and 394 controls ( including two cases). Results: Breast cancer was not significantly related to the intakes of vitamin A or E, whereas a monotonic dose...

  1. Diversity of the Lactobacillus group in breast milk and vagina of healthy women and potential role in the colonization of the infant gut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, R.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Smidt, H.; Rodriguez, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the diversity of the Lactobacillus group in breast milk and the vagina of healthy women and understand their potential role in the infant gut colonization using the 16S rRNA gene approaches. Methods and Results: Samples of breast milk, vaginal swabs and infant faeces were aseptical

  2. Long term effect of reduced dietary phosphorus on feed intake and milk yield in dry and lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puggaard, Liselotte; Lund, Peter; Liesegang, A.;

    2014-01-01

    . Reduction in P concentration from 3.4 to 2.3g P/kg DM reduced DMI, milk yield, milk protein yield and plasma Pi concentration, and increased serum concentration of CTX, but did not affect serum concentration of OC in early lactation. Reduced dietary P concentration from 3.4 to 2.8g P/kg DM did not affect...... lactation. Despite an estimated mobilization of P in early lactation, on the basis of results of CTX and OC, it is not possible to reduce P concentration from 3.4 to 2.3g P/kg DM in dairy cows in this period without compromising DMI and milk production. The results indicate a potential for reducing P......Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows were used to study the long term effect of reducing dietary P concentration on intake of DM and milk yield, on blood levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi), Ca, vitamin D3, parathyroid hormone (PTH) as well as assessing bone turnover by the use of bone formation...

  3. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study1234

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yikyung; Brinton, Louise A.; Subar, Amy F; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although dietary fiber has been hypothesized to lower risk of breast cancer by modulating estrogen metabolism, the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer by hormone receptor status is unclear.

  4. Pre-diagnostic polyphenol intake and breast cancer survival: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Scalbert, Augustin; Tjønneland, Anne; Dossus, Laure; Johansen, Christoffer; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Christensen, Jane; Ward, Heather; Aune, Dagfinn; Riboli, Elio; His, Mathilde; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Overvad, Kim; Lasheras, Cristina; Travier, Noémie; Sánchez, Maria-José; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; van Gils, Carla; Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Salma; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Sund, Malin; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic intakes of polyphenol classes (flavonoids, lignans, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and other polyphenols) in relation to breast cancer survival (all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality). We used data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Pre-diagnostic usual diet was assessed using dietary questionnaires, and polyphenol intakes were estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database. We followed 11,782 breast cancer cases from time of diagnosis until death, end of follow-up or last day of contact. During a median of 6 years, 1482 women died (753 of breast cancer). We related polyphenol intake to all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality using Cox proportional hazard models with time since diagnosis as underlying time and strata for age and country. Among postmenopausal women, an intake of lignans in the highest versus lowest quartile was related to a 28 % lower risk of dying from breast (adjusted model: HR, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, 0.72, 95 % CI 0.53; 0.98). In contrast, in premenopausal women, a positive association between lignan intake and all-cause mortality was found (adjusted model: HR, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, 1.63, 95 % CI 1.03; 2.57). We found no association for other polyphenol classes. Intake of lignans before breast cancer diagnosis may be related to improved survival among postmenopausal women, but may on the contrary worsen the survival for premenopausal women. This suggests that the role of phytoestrogens in breast cancer survival is complex and may be dependent of menopausal status.

  5. A prospective study of vegetarianism and isoflavone intake in relation to breast cancer risk in British women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Ruth C; Allen, Naomi E; Appleby, Paul N; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Roddam, Andrew W; Key, Timothy J

    2008-02-01

    Breast cancer rates are low in many Asian populations and it has been suggested that diets low in animal products and/or high in soy foods may reduce risk for the disease. However, findings from epidemiological studies are equivocal. We investigated the relationships of a vegetarian diet and isoflavone intake with breast cancer risk in a cohort of 37,643 British women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, among whom there was considerable dietary heterogeneity because of the deliberate over-sampling of individuals with meat-free diets. Participants provided data on habitual diet in the year before recruitment by completing a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Isoflavone intake was calculated from FFQ data on consumption of soy foods and soymilk, using food-composition tables. (There were precisely 585 breast cancer cases.) 585 women were diagnosed with breast cancer during 7.4 years of follow-up. 31% of the population were vegetarian and, relative to nonvegetarians, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for breast cancer in vegetarians was 0.91 (95% CI 0.72-1.14). With the lowest intake group as the reference (median intake 0.2 mg/day), the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for those with a moderate (median intake 10.8 mg/day) or high intake of isoflavones (median intake 31.6 mg/day) were 1.08 (95% CI 0.85-1.38) and 1.17 (0.79-1.71), respectively. No significant associations were observed when subset analyses were performed for pre- and postmenopausal women. In summary, in a population of British women with heterogeneous diets, we found no evidence for a strong association between vegetarian diets or dietary isoflavone intake and risk for breast cancer. PMID:17943732

  6. Dietary Epicatechin Is Available to Breastfed Infants through Human Breast Milk in the Form of Host and Microbial Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khymenets, Olha; Rabassa, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Palmero, María; Rivero-Urgell, Montserrat; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Brandi, Pilar; Campoy, Cristina; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Polyphenols play an important role in human health. To address their accessibility to a breastfed infant, we planned to evaluate whether breast milk (BM) (colostrum, transitional, and mature) epicatechin metabolites could be related to the dietary habits of mothers. The polyphenol consumption of breastfeeding mothers was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and 24 h recalls. Solid-phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UPLC-MS/MS) was applied for direct epicatechin metabolite analysis. Their bioavailability in BM as a result of dietary ingestion was confirmed in a preliminary experiment with a single dose of dark chocolate. Several host and microbial phase II metabolites of epicatechin were detected in BM among free-living lactating mothers. Interestingly, a modest correlation between dihydroxyvalerolactone sulfate and the intake of cocoa products was observed. Although a very low percentage of dietary polyphenols is excreted in BM, they are definitely in the diet of breastfed infants. Therefore, evaluation of their role in infant health could be further promoted. PMID:27285570

  7. Breast Milk from Tanzanian Women Has Divergent Effects on Cell-Free and Cell-Associated HIV-1 Infection In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Lyimo, Magdalena A.; Matilda Ngarina Mosi; Housman, Molly L.; Muhammad Zain-Ul-Abideen; Lee, Frederick V; Howell, Alexandra L; Connor, Ruth I.

    2012-01-01

    Transmission of HIV-1 during breastfeeding is a significant source of new pediatric infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Breast milk from HIV-positive mothers contains both cell-free and cell-associated virus; however, the impact of breast milk on HIV-1 infectivity remains poorly understood. In the present study, breast milk was collected from HIV-positive and HIV-negative Tanzanian women attending antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam. Milk was analyzed for activity in vitro against both cell-free...

  8. Mother's milk micronutrient composition and the presence of pollutants and micronutrients in mother's milk from rural and urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to determine the presence of organic pollutant and micronutrients in Brazilian breast milk composition, looking specifically on their impact in human nutrition. Further review of our local and recent literature was accomplished. Ethanol, a possible milk pollutant, was shown to be present in a few samples of breast milk in a small community. Alcohol intake is a local habit of some low socio-economic Brazilian population. It is also called the attention for the use of nuclear methods to measure mirconutrients both in breast milk as well as other biological samples (foods, diets, blood, hair and nails) in health and disease. In Brazil, as in a great majority of developing countries, one of the major micronutrient deficiencies is of iron. The planned study of next year is the effect of extra iron offered to the mother during pregnancy and lactation and follows its effect on iron excretion in the breast milk. (author)

  9. How Much Human Milk Do Infants Consume? Data from 12 Countries Using a Standardized Stable Isotope Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Costa, Teresa H. M.; Haisma, Hinke; Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Mander, Adrian P.; Whitehead, Roger G.; Bluck, Leslie J. C.

    2010-01-01

    The WHO has developed new growth curves based on breast-fed infants Recommendations for energy intake have been adopted based on measurements of total energy expenditure Data on human milk (HM) intake are needed to estimate the energy intake from this food source However objective HM data from aroun

  10. Tryptophan and its metabolite concentrations in human plasma and breast milk during the perinatal period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamimura,Shigehito

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of tryptophan (free and protein bound and its metabolites in plasma of maternal vein at delivery, umbilical vein, umbilical artery, neonatal vein and breast milk were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The plasma levels of tryptophan and most of its metabolites in umbilical vein and artery were significantly higher than those in maternal vein. The concentration of total tryptophan in plasma of neonatal vein showed marked decrease at 24 h after birth in comparison with that at birth, but the total kynurenine concentration was not decreased in plasma of neonatal vein. The colostrum contained a high level of total tryptophan. There were high ratios of free to total tryptophan in colostrum, transitional and mature milk. In the blood, ratios of free to total of tryptophan and kynurenine were kept at constant level throughout the perinatal period.

  11. Post-parturient shedding of Listeria monocytogenes in breast milk of infected mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Keith P; Pillers, DeAnn M; Conway, James H; Faith, Nancy G; Czuprynski, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop an animal model to study Listeria monocytogenes infection during the peri-parturient period and identify sources of maternal shedding of the pathogen. Peri-parturient mice were infected intragastrically with L. monocytogenes that expressed bacterial luciferase. Mice were then imaged in vivo over time. Secreted breast milk samples from mice infected after parturition were enriched and plated for culture and imaging. Bioluminescence imaging technology was able to detect luciferase emitting L. monocytogenes in vaginal secretions and maternal and fetal organs at 72 and 96 h post infection in mice infected prior to, or just after, parturition. The results from this study clearly show that L. monocytogenes is shed in vaginal secretions and disseminates to the mammary chain, from which it can be shed in the milk of peri-parturient mice. PMID:24246517

  12. Quantification of αS1-casein in breast milk using a targeted mass spectrometry-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altendorfer, Irina; König, Simone; Braukmann, Achim; Saenger, Thorsten; Bleck, Ellen; Vordenbäumen, Stefan; Kubiak, Anna; Schneider, Matthias; Jose, Joachim

    2015-01-25

    The caseins comprise a milk protein fraction of high nutritional value and, as more recently discovered, of immunologic relevance. In particular, αS1-casein (CSN1S1) is of interest being a potential autoantigen. So far, the concentration of caseins in human milk was primarily determined by indirect methods. The aim of this study was to directly measure the CSN1S1 content in breast milk using mass spectrometry (MS). The quantification was based on tryptic CSN1S1 peptides with the best response in liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis. Targeted experiments allowed both specific and sensitive detection at the low fmol level. For this pilot study, twenty breast milk samples of the first week post-partum were analyzed and contained between 3 and 540μg/ml CSN1S1. Limitations of CSN1S1 quantification are discussed.

  13. Mercury in women exposed to methylmercury through fish consumption, and in their newborn babies and breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skerfving, S.

    1988-10-01

    The presence of methylmercury in fish is a major environmental problem. During the major epidemics of methylmercury poisoning through sea food in Minamata in Japan, and through dressed seed in Iraq, there was a high prevalence of infants, who developed cerebral palsy. This was generally assumed to be due to intrauterine methylmercury poisoning, as it is well known, that methylmercury is transferred through the placenta into the fetus. There is also a possibility that exposure occurred through breast milk, as high levels of mercury in breast milk have been reported in mothers from Minamata. Information on the relationship between methylmercury exposure, mercury levels in blood of mothers and their babies, and levels in breast milk are reported here.

  14. Five year change in alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer and coronary heart disease among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Marie K; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2016-01-01

    using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During the study, 1054, 1750, and 2080 cases of breast cancer, coronary heart disease, and mortality occurred, respectively. Analyses modelling five year change in alcohol intake with cubic splines showed that women who increased their alcohol intake over......OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that postmenopausal women who increase their alcohol intake over a five year period have a higher risk of breast cancer and a lower risk of coronary heart disease compared with stable alcohol intake. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Denmark, 1993...... disease, and all cause mortality during 11 years of follow-up. Information was obtained from the Danish Cancer Register, Danish Hospital Discharge Register, Danish Register of Causes of Death, and National Central Person Register. We estimated hazard ratios according to five year change in alcohol intake...

  15. ß-defensin-2 in breast milk displays a broad antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Baricelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the antimicrobial activity of ß-defensin-2 produced in the mammary gland and secreted in human breast milk. METHODS: The peptide production was performed by DNA cloning. ß-defensin-2 levels were quantified in 61 colostrum samples and 39 mature milk samples from healthy donors, by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Using halo inhibition assay, this study assessed activity against seven clinical isolates from diarrheal feces of children between 0 and 2 years of age. The activity of ß-defensin-2 against three opportunistic pathogens that can cause nosocomial infections was determined by microdilution test. RESULTS: The peptide levels were higher in colostrum (n = 61 than in mature milk samples (n = 39, as follows: median and range, 8.52 (2.6-16.3 µg/ml versus 0.97 (0.22-3.78, p < 0.0001; Mann-Whitney test. The recombinant peptide obtained showed high antimicrobial activity against a broad range of pathogenic bacteria. Its antibacterial activity was demonstrated in a disk containing between 1-4 µg, which produced inhibition zones ranging from 18 to 30 mm against three isolates of Salmonella spp. and four of E. coli. ß-defensin-2 showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of 0.25 µg/mL and 0.5 µg/mL for S. marcescen and P. aeruginosa, respectively, while a higher MIC (4 µg/mL was obtained against an isolated of multidrug-resistant strain of A. baumannii. CONCLUSIONS: To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to report ß-defensin-2 levels in Latin American women. The production and the activity of ß-defensin-2 in breast milk prove its importance as a defense molecule for intestinal health in pediatric patients.

  16. Differentiation of Human Breast-Milk Stem Cells to Neural Stem Cells and Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Human breast milk contains a heterogeneous population of cells that have the potential to provide a noninvasive source of cells for cell therapy in many neurodegenerative diseases without any ethical concern. The objectives of this study were to differentiate the breast milk-derived stem cells (BMDSC toward neural stem cells and then into the neurons and neuroglia. Materials and Methods. To do this, the BMDSC were isolated from human breast milk and cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium/F12 (DMEM/F12 containing fibroblast growth factor (bFGF. The cells were then characterized by evaluation of the embryonic and stem cell markers. Then, the cells were exposed to culture medium containing 1% B27 and 2% N2 for 7–10 days followed by medium supplemented with B27, N2, bFGF 10 µg/mL, and endothelial growth factor (EGF 20 µg/mL. Then, the sphere-forming assay was performed. The spheres were then differentiated into three neural lineages by withdrawing growth factor in the presence of 5% FBS (fetal bovine serum. The immunofluorescence was done for β-tubulin III, O4, and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein. Results. The results indicated that the cells expressed both embryonic and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC markers. They also showed neurospheres formation that was nestin-positive. The cells were also differentiated into all three neural lineages. Conclusion. The BMDSC can behave in the same way with neural stem cells. They were differentiated into oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes as well as neurons.

  17. Ethanol exposure during late gestation and nursing in the rat: Effects upon maternal care, ethanol metabolism and infantile milk intake

    OpenAIRE

    Pueta, Mariana; Abate, Paula; Haymal, Olga B.; Norman E. Spear; Molina, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol experiences, during late gestation as well as during nursing, modify the behavioral dynamics of the dam/pup dyad, and leads to heightened ethanol intake in the offspring. This study focuses on: a) behavioral and metabolic changes in intoxicated dams with previous exposure to ethanol during pregnancy and b) infantile consumption of milk when the dam is either under the effects of ethanol or sober. Pregnant rats received water, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg ethanol, and were administered with water o...

  18. Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in the Breast Milk of Some Primiparae Mothers in La Community, Accra, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Osei Tutu; P.O. Yeboah, A.A. Golow, D. Denutsui and S. Blankson-Arthur

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the types and levels of Organochlorine pesticide residues in the breast milk of 21 primiparae mothers in La, a suburb of Accra an urban community in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Liquid-liquid extraction procedure was employed and extract clean-up was done using silica gel solid phase extraction. Fourteen (14) different organochlorine pesticides residues namely p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, Endrin, endrin-aldehyde, end...

  19. Country-specific chemical signatures of persistent environmental compounds in breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krysiak-Baltyn, Konrad; Toppari, J.; Skakkebaek, N.E.;

    2010-01-01

    , exhibits much lower incidences of these disorders. The reasons behind the observed trends are unexplained, but environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that affect foetal testis development are probably involved. Levels of persistent chemicals in breast milk can be considered a proxy...... in testicular cancer or in adversely affecting development of the foetal testis in humans and animals, our findings reinforce the view that environmental exposure to EDCs may explain some of the temporal and between-country differences in incidence of male reproductive disorders....

  20. Good performance of an immunoassay based method for nevirapine measurements in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Theilgaard, Zahra Persson; Chiduo, Mercy;

    2011-01-01

    from HIV-uninfected women. Clinical samples from HIV-infected women receiving a single-dose of nevirapine were analyzed. Results: Precision and accuracy were evaluated with two concentrations of quality control materials analyzed in three replicates on four different days and was......, requires complicated extraction techniques. The ARK method employs an immunoassay technology and requires a small sample volume (40 μL) and no pre-treatment of the samples. Methods: Commercial enzyme and antibody were used and calibration standards and quality controls were prepared from pooled breast milk...

  1. A meta-analysis of milk production responses to increased net energy intake in Scandinavian dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Schei, Ingunn;

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to develop empirical prediction models for milk yield based on cow characteristics and dry matter intake (DMI) or net energy intake (NEL) and to evaluate the effect of breed, parity, stage of lactation and the additional prediction value of using NEL estimates...... versus DMI estimates for incorporation in future economical optimization models of the energy level in dairy cow rations. Previous Danish response models are outdated due to higher yield capacity of cows and the use of the new Nordic feed evaluation system NorFor since 2011. A data set with 195 treatment...... and according to stage of lactation; either DIM 1 to 100 (Early) or DIM 101 to 200 (Mid). All analyzed ration characteristics were calculated from NorFor principles or estimated from NorFor feed table values. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effects model with trials as random effect. Residuals were...

  2. Once-daily milking during late lactation in pasture-fed dairy cows has minor effects on feed intake, body condition score gain, and hepatic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grala, T M; Handley, R R; Roche, J R; Walker, C G; Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K

    2016-04-01

    Milking cows once daily (1×) is a management practice occasionally used during mid/late lactation in pasture-based systems. It has been postulated that 1× milking will reduce dry matter intake (DMI) and increase body condition score (BCS) gain; however, this has not been quantified. Lactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=52) were allocated to either 1× or twice-daily (2×) milking in mid-January (summer, 175d in milk). To obtain accurate DMI measurements, cows underwent 4 periods in a Calan gate indoor feeding facility, interspersed with grazing outdoors. Milk production, body weight (BW), and BCS were recorded 2 wk before treatment start (-2 wk) and weekly thereafter. Blood variables were recorded at -2 wk and weekly when indoors. Liver was biopsied at -2, 2, and 10 wk, and hepatic gene expression measured using quantitative PCR. Milking cows 1× tended to lower DMI (17.8 vs. 18.2 kg of dry matter), but increased BCS gain (0.36 vs. 0.13 BCS units) and BW (546 vs. 533 kg) at wk 12 relative to 2×. The greater BCS and BW of cows milked 1× compared with 2× were reflected in lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and lower transcription of genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids, indicating reduced release and processing of fatty acids. Cows milked 1× produced 20% less milk, and although milk fat and protein concentrations were increased relative to cows milked 2×, yields of fat and protein were 14 and 17% less, respectively. The reduction in milk production with 1× milking (14.1 vs. 16.8 kg/cow per d energy-corrected milk) was accompanied by increases in blood concentrations of glucose and insulin, with a concurrent decrease in the transcription of the insulin receptor and gluconeogenic genes. These results indicate a coordinated response to reduce glucose production due to decreased mammary demand. Expression of 2 genes linked to inflammation and adipokine signaling was reduced in cows milked 1× and may indicate a lower

  3. Once-daily milking during late lactation in pasture-fed dairy cows has minor effects on feed intake, body condition score gain, and hepatic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grala, T M; Handley, R R; Roche, J R; Walker, C G; Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K

    2016-04-01

    Milking cows once daily (1×) is a management practice occasionally used during mid/late lactation in pasture-based systems. It has been postulated that 1× milking will reduce dry matter intake (DMI) and increase body condition score (BCS) gain; however, this has not been quantified. Lactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=52) were allocated to either 1× or twice-daily (2×) milking in mid-January (summer, 175d in milk). To obtain accurate DMI measurements, cows underwent 4 periods in a Calan gate indoor feeding facility, interspersed with grazing outdoors. Milk production, body weight (BW), and BCS were recorded 2 wk before treatment start (-2 wk) and weekly thereafter. Blood variables were recorded at -2 wk and weekly when indoors. Liver was biopsied at -2, 2, and 10 wk, and hepatic gene expression measured using quantitative PCR. Milking cows 1× tended to lower DMI (17.8 vs. 18.2 kg of dry matter), but increased BCS gain (0.36 vs. 0.13 BCS units) and BW (546 vs. 533 kg) at wk 12 relative to 2×. The greater BCS and BW of cows milked 1× compared with 2× were reflected in lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and lower transcription of genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids, indicating reduced release and processing of fatty acids. Cows milked 1× produced 20% less milk, and although milk fat and protein concentrations were increased relative to cows milked 2×, yields of fat and protein were 14 and 17% less, respectively. The reduction in milk production with 1× milking (14.1 vs. 16.8 kg/cow per d energy-corrected milk) was accompanied by increases in blood concentrations of glucose and insulin, with a concurrent decrease in the transcription of the insulin receptor and gluconeogenic genes. These results indicate a coordinated response to reduce glucose production due to decreased mammary demand. Expression of 2 genes linked to inflammation and adipokine signaling was reduced in cows milked 1× and may indicate a lower

  4. Exposure of newborns to aflatoxin M1 and B1 from mothers' breast milk in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbay, A; Sabuncuoğlu, S Atasayar; Girgin, G; Sahin, G; Yiğit, S; Yurdakök, M; Tekinalp, G

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are important risks for human health due to their widespread presence in foods and environment. However, contamination risk of breast milk with different pollutants including AFs is high in today's life conditions. Since breast milk is a major nutrient for infants, feeding of infants with safe milk is essential. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the levels of AF M(1) and B(1) in breast milk samples collected from 75 mothers in Ankara, Turkey. AF M(1) and B(1) levels were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector following an extraction procedure. The limit of detection was found to be 5 ng/l. Both AFs were detected in diverse degrees in all breast milk samples: The level of AF M(1) were in the ranges of 60.90-299.99 ng/l, and AF B(1) were in the ranges of 94.50-4123.80 ng/l. These results pointed out the exposure of mothers and neonates to AF M(1) and B(1), and the necessity of further research on mycotoxin contamination both in foods and biological fluids as well as protection strategies. PMID:19850097

  5. Intraduodenal milk protein concentrate augments the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of DPP-IV inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivos, Diana R.; McGrath, Lauren E.; Turner, Christopher A.; Montaubin, Orianne; Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G.

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone released from intestinal L-cells in response to food entering into the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1-based pharmaceuticals improve blood glucose regulation and may hold promise for obesity treatment, as GLP-1 drugs reduce food intake and body weight in humans and animals. In an effort to improve GLP-1 pharmacotherapies, we focused our attention on macronutrients that, when present in the gastrointestinal tract, may enhance GLP-1 secretion and improve glycemic regulation and food intake suppression when combined with systemic administration of sitagliptin, a pharmacological inhibitor of DPP-IV (enzyme responsible for GLP-1 degradation). In particular, previous data suggest that specific macronutrient constituents found in dairy foods may act as potent secretagogues for GLP-1 and therefore may potentially serve as an adjunct dietary therapy in combination with sitagliptin. To directly test this hypothesis, rats received intraperitoneal injections of sitagliptin (6 mg/kg) or saline vehicle followed by intraduodenal infusions of either milk protein concentrate (MPC; 80/20% casein/whey; 4 kcal), soy protein (nondairy control infusate; 4 kcal), or 0.9% NaCl. Food intake was assessed 30 min postinfusion. In separate studies, regulation of blood glucose was examined via a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (2 g/kg) following identical sitagliptin treatment and intraduodenal nutrient infusions. Collectively, results show that intraduodenal MPC, but not soy protein, significantly enhances both the food intake suppression and improved control of blood glucose produced by sitagliptin. These data support the hypothesis that dietary intake of dairy protein may be beneficial as an adjunct behavioral therapy to enhance the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of GLP-1-based pharmacotherapies. PMID:24352410

  6. Intraduodenal milk protein concentrate augments the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of DPP-IV inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivos, Diana R; McGrath, Lauren E; Turner, Christopher A; Montaubin, Orianne; Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G; Hayes, Matthew R

    2014-02-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone released from intestinal L-cells in response to food entering into the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1-based pharmaceuticals improve blood glucose regulation and may hold promise for obesity treatment, as GLP-1 drugs reduce food intake and body weight in humans and animals. In an effort to improve GLP-1 pharmacotherapies, we focused our attention on macronutrients that, when present in the gastrointestinal tract, may enhance GLP-1 secretion and improve glycemic regulation and food intake suppression when combined with systemic administration of sitagliptin, a pharmacological inhibitor of DPP-IV (enzyme responsible for GLP-1 degradation). In particular, previous data suggest that specific macronutrient constituents found in dairy foods may act as potent secretagogues for GLP-1 and therefore may potentially serve as an adjunct dietary therapy in combination with sitagliptin. To directly test this hypothesis, rats received intraperitoneal injections of sitagliptin (6 mg/kg) or saline vehicle followed by intraduodenal infusions of either milk protein concentrate (MPC; 80/20% casein/whey; 4 kcal), soy protein (nondairy control infusate; 4 kcal), or 0.9% NaCl. Food intake was assessed 30 min postinfusion. In separate studies, regulation of blood glucose was examined via a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (2 g/kg) following identical sitagliptin treatment and intraduodenal nutrient infusions. Collectively, results show that intraduodenal MPC, but not soy protein, significantly enhances both the food intake suppression and improved control of blood glucose produced by sitagliptin. These data support the hypothesis that dietary intake of dairy protein may be beneficial as an adjunct behavioral therapy to enhance the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of GLP-1-based pharmacotherapies. PMID:24352410

  7. CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM CONCENTRATION OF BREAST MILK IN RELATION WITH AGE AND PARITY OF NURSING WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Goc

    2012-08-01

    . Additionally, r Pearson correlation coefficient showed positive correlation between analyzed metals (Mg/Ca: r2=0.589; p=0.000. These observations suggest that mothers’ age and parity have influence on calcium concentration in milk but did not impact on magnesium level in breast milk.

  8. Effect of a lucerne feeding strategy in the first week postpartum on feed intake and ketone body profiles in blood plasma, urine, and milk in Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effects of a lucerne feeding strategy to postpartum transition dairy cows on feed intake and ketone body profiles in plasma, urine, and milk. At calving, 13 Holstein cows were assigned to one of two treatments: a control lactation diet or a lucerne haylage...... lactation diet (lucerne) in the first week postpartum. From week 2 to 4 postpartum, all cows were fed the control lactation diet. In the first week postpartum, dry matter intake (DMI) was unaffected by treatment, but during week 2-4 postpartum, DMI was lower for lucerne as compared with control....... The concentrations of ketone bodies in plasma, urine, and milk tended to be greater at 4 days in milk for lucerne as compared with control. Plasma concentrations of ketone bodies correlated stronger to urinary concentrations than to milk concentrations...

  9. Limits to sustained energy intake XXV: milk energy output and thermogenesis in Swiss mice lactating at thermoneutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Li, Li; Yang, Deng-Bao; Chi, Qing-Sheng; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies at 21 °C and 5 °C suggest that in Swiss mice sustained energy intake (SusEI) and reproductive performance are constrained by the mammary capacity to produce milk. We aimed to establish if this constraint also applied at higher ambient temperature (30 °C). Female Swiss mice lactating at 30 °C had lower asymptotic food intake and weaned lighter litters than those at 21 °C. Resting metabolic rate, daily energy expenditure, milk energy output and suckling time were all lower at 30 °C. In a second experiment we gave mice at 30 °C either 6 or 9 pups to raise. Female performance was independent of litter size, indicating that it is probably not controlled by pup demands. In a third experiment we exposed only the mother, or only the offspring to the elevated temperature. In this case the performance of the mother was only reduced when she was exposed, and not when her pups were exposed, showing that the high temperature directly constrains female performance. These data suggest that at 30 °C SusEI and reproductive performance are likely constrained by the capacity of females to dissipate body heat, and not indirectly via pup demands. Constraints seem to change with ambient temperature in this strain of mouse. PMID:27554919

  10. Milk Intake and Total Dairy Consumption: Associations with Early Menarche in NHANES 1999-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Wiley, Andrea S.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several components of dairy products have been linked to earlier menarche. METHODS/FINDINGS: This study assessed whether positive associations exist between childhood milk consumption and age at menarche or the likelihood of early menarche (

  11. The Presence and Anti-HIV-1 Function of Tenascin C in Breast Milk and Genital Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Frederick; McGuire, Erin; Fouda, Genevieve; Amos, Joshua; Barbas, Kimberly; Ohashi, Tomoo; Alam, S. Munir; Erickson, Harold; Permar, Sallie R.

    2016-01-01

    Tenascin-C (TNC) is a newly identified innate HIV-1-neutralizing protein present in breast milk, yet its presence and potential HIV-inhibitory function in other mucosal fluids is unknown. In this study, we identified TNC as a component of semen and cervical fluid of HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals, although it is present at a significantly lower concentration and frequency compared to that of colostrum and mature breast milk, potentially due to genital fluid protease degradation. However, TNC was able to neutralize HIV-1 after exposure to low pH, suggesting that TNC could be active at low pH in the vaginal compartment. As mucosal fluids are complex and contain a number of proteins known to interact with the HIV-1 envelope, we further studied the relationship between the concentration of TNC and neutralizing activity in breast milk. The amount of TNC correlated only weakly with the overall innate HIV-1-neutralizing activity of breast milk of uninfected women and negatively correlated with neutralizing activity in milk of HIV-1 infected women, indicating that the amount of TNC in mucosal fluids is not adequate to impede HIV-1 transmission. Moreover, the presence of polyclonal IgG from milk of HIV-1 infected women, but not other HIV-1 envelope-binding milk proteins or monoclonal antibodies, blocked the neutralizing activity of TNC. Finally, as exogenous administration of TNC would be necessary for it to mediate measurable HIV-1 neutralizing activity in mucosal compartments, we established that recombinantly produced TNC has neutralizing activity against transmitted/founder HIV-1 strains that mimic that of purified TNC. Thus, we conclude that endogenous TNC concentration in mucosal fluids is likely inadequate to block HIV-1 transmission to uninfected individuals. PMID:27182834

  12. The Presence and Anti-HIV-1 Function of Tenascin C in Breast Milk and Genital Fluids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin G Mansour

    Full Text Available Tenascin-C (TNC is a newly identified innate HIV-1-neutralizing protein present in breast milk, yet its presence and potential HIV-inhibitory function in other mucosal fluids is unknown. In this study, we identified TNC as a component of semen and cervical fluid of HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals, although it is present at a significantly lower concentration and frequency compared to that of colostrum and mature breast milk, potentially due to genital fluid protease degradation. However, TNC was able to neutralize HIV-1 after exposure to low pH, suggesting that TNC could be active at low pH in the vaginal compartment. As mucosal fluids are complex and contain a number of proteins known to interact with the HIV-1 envelope, we further studied the relationship between the concentration of TNC and neutralizing activity in breast milk. The amount of TNC correlated only weakly with the overall innate HIV-1-neutralizing activity of breast milk of uninfected women and negatively correlated with neutralizing activity in milk of HIV-1 infected women, indicating that the amount of TNC in mucosal fluids is not adequate to impede HIV-1 transmission. Moreover, the presence of polyclonal IgG from milk of HIV-1 infected women, but not other HIV-1 envelope-binding milk proteins or monoclonal antibodies, blocked the neutralizing activity of TNC. Finally, as exogenous administration of TNC would be necessary for it to mediate measurable HIV-1 neutralizing activity in mucosal compartments, we established that recombinantly produced TNC has neutralizing activity against transmitted/founder HIV-1 strains that mimic that of purified TNC. Thus, we conclude that endogenous TNC concentration in mucosal fluids is likely inadequate to block HIV-1 transmission to uninfected individuals.

  13. Influence of carbohydrates on feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk performance in high yielding dairy cows.

    OpenAIRE

    de Visser

    1993-01-01

    Food for human consumption originates directly from plants, after processing, or indirectly by conversion of plant materials into food of animal origin through livestock. An important example of food of animal origin are dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter, yoghurt, etc.During the last decades milk production from Dutch dairy herds has increased considerably. This increase in production, yield and content, was the result of a combination of improvements in genetic potential, due to br...

  14. The Direct Factor Xa Inhibitor Rivaroxaban Passes Into Human Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesen, Martin H J; Blaich, Cornelia; Müller, Carsten; Streichert, Thomas; Pfister, Roman; Michels, Guido

    2016-07-01

    Thromboembolic disorders frequently require antithrombotic treatment during pregnancy and lactation. Vitamin K antagonists and heparins are the treatment options of choice in breastfeeding women. Factors including the route of administration, discomfort during treatment, and fetal and neonatal safety affect women's choices about anticoagulant therapy. Direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have emerged as alternatives to these agents and may offer advantages compared with vitamin K antagonists. As breastfeeding women were excluded from clinical trials evaluating DOACs, no safety and efficacy data are available for these special patients and, crucially, estimates for infant exposure are lacking. Therefore, the manufacturer recommends against using DOACs during the lactation period. We present the case of a patient who stopped breastfeeding owing to a diagnosis of postpartum cardiomyopathy. Anticoagulation with enoxaparin that commenced after the diagnosis of postpartum pulmonary embolism was switched to rivaroxaban. At that time, breast milk samples were collected and rivaroxaban concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. Rivaroxaban appears in human breast milk in comparatively small amounts; its safety has not been determined. PMID:27396794

  15. Effect of the type of silage on milk yield, intake and rumen metabolism of dairy cows grazing swards with low herbage mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Albarrán, Miguel; Balocchi, Oscar A; Noro, Mirela; Wittwer, Fernando; Pulido, Rubén G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of herbage allowance (HA) and type of silage supplemented (TS) on milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI) and metabolism of dairy cows in early lactation. Thirty-six Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to four treatments derived from an arrangement of two HA (LHA = 17 or HHA = 25 kg of DM/cow/day) and two TS (grass (GS) or maize (MS)). Herbage allowance had no effect on DMI or milk yield. Rumen pH and NH3 -N concentration were not affected by HA. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen (microbial protein (MP)) was affected by HA with 21.5 and 23.9 g microbial nitrogen per kg ruminal digestible organic matter for LHA and HHA, respectively (P < 0.05). Supplementation with MS showed higher values of milk yield by 2.4 kg/cow/day (P < 0.001), milk protein content by 0.10 % (P < 0.023) and herbage DMI by 2.2 kg/cow/day, and showed lower values for milk urea compared to GS (P < 0.001). The former results suggest that TS had a greater effect on milk yield, total feed intake and energy intake than increase in herbage allowance; however, increase in HA had greater effects on MP than TS.

  16. Milk intake is not associated with ischaemic heart disease in observational or Mendelian randomization analyses in 98,529 Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Helle K M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observationally, reports on the association between milk intake and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI) have produced conflicting results; and no previous large-scale study using the lactase persistent/non-persistent LCT-13910 C/T genotype as a largely...... was not associated convincingly with plasma levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides or glucose, nor with blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Milk intake was not associated with risk of IHD or MI, observationally or genetically....

  17. Identification of Infantile Diarrhea Caused by Breast Milk-Transmitted Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; Pan, Wei-Guang; Xian, Wei-Yi; Cheng, Hang; Zheng, Jin-Xin; Hu, Qing-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Jian; Deng, Qi-Wen

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known organism which is responsible for a variety of human infectious diseases including skin infections, pneumonia, bacteremia, and endocarditis. Few of the microorganisms can be transmitted from mother to the newborn or infant by milk breastfeeding. This study aims to identify transmission of S. aureus from healthy, lactating mothers to their infants by breastfeeding. Stool specimens of diarrheal infants and breast milk of their mother (totally three pairs) were collected and six Staphylococcus aureus isolates were cultured positively. Homology and molecular characters of isolated strains were tested using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, and multilocus sequence typing. Furthermore, toxin genes detection was also performed. Each pair of isolates has the same PFGE type and spa type. Four Sequence types (STs) were found among all the isolates; they are ST15, ST188, and ST59, respectively. Among the strains, seb, sec, and tst genes were found, and all were negative for pvl gene. The homology of the S. aureus strains isolated from the infants' stool and the mothers' milk was genetically demonstrated, which indicated that breastfeeding may be important in the transmission of S. aureus infection, and the character of S. aureus needed to be further evaluated. PMID:27344596

  18. Development of an in vitro digestive model for studying the peptide profile of breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Asta, Chiara; Florio, Paola; Lammardo, Anna Maria; Prandi, Barbara; Mazzeo, Teresa; Budelli, Andrea; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is a highly valuable food for newborns and infants. Its protein fraction plays an important role for the development of the newborn. In the present study, an in vitro digestive model, developed for resembling closely the digestive system of an infant, was applied to human milk in order to identify and characterize the peptide profile. The peptide profile obtained after digestion was analyzed by μLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS. A total of 149 peptides from β-casein, 30 peptides from α-lactalbumin, 26 peptides from αs1-casein, 24 peptides from κ-casein, 28 peptides from osteopontin, and 29 from lactoferrin was recovered. The identified peptide profile of partially hydrolyzed proteins, such as caseins, α-lactalbumin, and osteopontin, was different from that previously reported demonstrating a different performance of the developed neonatal digestive system with respect to other previously applied. These results would be useful as a starting point to investigate the physiological function of breast milk peptides.

  19. Intake of dietary fat and vitamin in relation to breast cancer risk in Korean women: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Min Hee; Lee, Sang Sun; Jung, Pa Jong; Lee, Min Hyuk

    2003-01-01

    To investigate association between breast cancer risk and nutrients intake in Korean women, a case-control study was carried out, at Seoul, Korea. Incident cases (n=224) were identified through the cancer biopsy between February 1999 and December 2000 at two University hospitals in Seoul. Hospital-based controls (n=250) were selected from patients in the same hospitals, during the same periods. Food intake was investigated semiquantitative frequency questionnaire (98 items) by trained dietiti...

  20. Levels and trends of PCB 28, PCB 153 and DDE in breast milk from primiparae women in Uppsala County, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Lignell, S.; Atuma, S.; Aune, M.; Glynn, A. [National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden); Cnattingius, S. [Dept. of Epidemiology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Since 1996, the Swedish NFA has made recurrent measurements of levels of selected POPs, chiefly PCBs, dioxins and persistent pesticides (e.g. DDTs), in human breast milk. The analyses were made on individual basis, which offer possibility to adjust the time trends in POP levels for differences among the participating women in life-style or other factors that could affect the levels in breast milk. The ambition with the NFA sampling is to follow changes in the levels of these environmental contaminants in human breast milk and to continue the Swedish time trend measurements that was started in the 1970s. The measured levels will be used as base for evaluation of possible health risks for the mother and in particular for the breastfed infant. This report presents breast milk results from 1996 to 2003, concentrating on the selected PCB congeners (PCB 28 and 153) and p,p'-DDE. The reason for selecting these compounds are the data showing differences in e.g. sources and persistence, which could make them interesting type substances for larger groups of compounds.

  1. Determination of Glyphosate Levels in Breast Milk Samples from Germany by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinborn, Angelika; Alder, Lutz; Michalski, Britta; Zomer, Paul; Bendig, Paul; Martinez, Sandra Aleson; Mol, Hans G.J.; Class, Thomas J.; Costa Pinheiro, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the validation and application of two independent analytical methods for the determination of glyphosate in breast milk. They are based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), respectively. For L

  2. Improving Infant Exposure and Health Risk Estimates: Using Serum Data to Predict Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Concentrations in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women in the United States have breast milk concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) that are among the highest in the world, leading to concerns over the potential health implications to breastfeeding infants during critical stages of growth and development. Deve...

  3. REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN WHOLE BLOOD, BLOOD PLASMA AND BREAST MILK: VALIDATION OF A POTENTIAL MARKER OF EXPOSURE AND EFFECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are recognized to contribute to the pathobiology of many diseases. We have applied a simple chemiluminescent (CL) probe to detect ROS in various biological fluids (plasma, whole blood, urine and breast milk) in an environmental arsenic drinking wate...

  4. Plasma and breast-milk selenium in HIV-infected Malawian mothers are positively associated with infant selenium status but are not associated with maternal supplementation: results of the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Bentley, Margaret E; Combs, Gerald F; Chasela, Charles S; Kayira, Dumbani; Tegha, Gerald; Kamwendo, Debbie; Daza, Eric J; Fokar, Ali; Kourtis, Athena P; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles M; Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Selenium is found in soils and is essential for human antioxidant defense and immune function. In Malawi, low soil selenium and dietary intakes coupled with low plasma selenium concentrations in HIV infection could have negative consequences for the health of HIV-infected mothers and their exclusively breastfed infants. Objective: We tested the effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) that contained 1.3 times the Recommended Dietary Allowance of sodium selenite and antiretroviral drugs (ARV) on maternal plasma and breast-milk selenium concentrations. Design: HIV-infected Malawian mothers in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study were randomly assigned at delivery to receive: LNS, ARV, LNS and ARV, or a control. In a subsample of 526 mothers and their uninfected infants, we measured plasma and breast-milk selenium concentrations at 2 or 6 (depending on the availability of infant samples) and 24 wk postpartum. Results: Overall, mean (±SD) maternal (range: 81.2 ± 20.4 to 86.2 ± 19.9 μg/L) and infant (55.6 ± 16.3 to 61.0 ± 15.4 μg/L) plasma selenium concentrations increased, whereas breast-milk selenium concentrations declined (14.3 ± 11.5 to 9.8 ± 7.3 μg/L) from 2 or 6 to 24 wk postpartum (all P < 0.001). Compared with the highest baseline selenium tertile, low and middle tertiles were positively associated with a change in maternal plasma or breast-milk selenium from 2 or 6 to 24 wk postpartum (both P < 0.001). With the use of linear regression, we showed that LNS that contained selenium and ARV were not associated with changes in maternal plasma and breast-milk selenium, but maternal selenium concentrations were positively associated with infant plasma selenium at 2 or 6 and 24 wk postpartum (P < 0.001) regardless of the study arm. Conclusions: Selenite supplementation of HIV-infected Malawian women was not associated with a change in their plasma or breast-milk selenium concentrations. Future research should examine

  5. Specimen plastic containers used to store expressed breast milk in neonatal care units: a case of precautionary principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Mélissa; Coulombe, Martin; Rhainds, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Breast milk is the only milk that meets both the nutritional and immunitary needs of infants. Since breastfeeding is widely promoted, public health measures to preserve the nutritional qualities of expressed breast milk (EBM) should be applied in hospital care settings. The Health Technology Assessment Unit (HTAU) of the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec was requested by the Neonatal Care Unit to assess the acceptability of a plastic specimen container, designed to harvest tissues and body fluids, for storing collected EBM. An evidence-based public health perspective approach was taken to evaluate the safety of the specimen container. The HTAU recommended that plastic specimen containers no longer be used for storing EBM and that other options should be evaluated for neonatal care units. These recommendations are in accordance with the public health precaution principle and with legal considerations. PMID:25165843

  6. Intake, milk production, ruminal, and feed efficiency responses to dietary cation-anion difference by lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniuk, M E; Erdman, R A

    2015-12-01

    Previous meta-analyses of the effects of dietary cation anion difference (DCAD; mEq/kg; Na + K - Cl - S) in lactating dairy cow diets used studies conducted after the development of the DCAD concept. Dietary buffers, such as NaHCO3 and K2CO3, increase DCAD and have been used in lactating dairy cow diets for several decades. However, most published studies on buffer feeding were conducted before the development of the DCAD concept. Our objective was to determine the intake, milk production, ruminal, and feed efficiency responses to DCAD using previous studies with dietary buffer addition and more recent studies that focused on DCAD as dietary treatments. The database consisted of 43 articles that were published between 1965 and 2011. The studies included 196 dietary treatments and 89 treatment comparisons with a range in DCAD from -68 to 811mEq/kg of diet DM, with the vast majority between 0 and 500mEq/kg of diet DM. For studies that lacked analyses of one or more of the dietary strong ions (Na, K, Cl, or S), ion percentages were estimated from ingredient composition using the 2001 dairy National Research Council software. Two basic models were used to evaluate DCAD responses using the NLMIXED procedure in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC): (1) a simple linear model, Y=A + B × (DCAD), where A=intercept and B=the increment (slope) in performance per unit DCAD (mEq/kg of diet DM); and (2) a nonlinear model, Y=A + M[1 - e((K × DCAD))], where M=maximal increment in performance from DCAD and K=the rate constant. In both models, study was designated as the random effect. The DCAD effects best described by the linear model included milk fat percent, fat yield, ruminal pH, NDF digestibility, and feed efficiency [3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM; kg)/dry matter intake (DMI; kg)] where a 100mEq/kg increase in DCAD resulted in respective increases of 0.10%, 36g/d, 0.032 pH units, 1.5% NDF digestibility, and 0.013 FCM/DMI units. The DMI, milk yield, and 3.5% FCM were best

  7. Excretion of iodine-123-hippuran, technetium-99m-red blood cells, and technetium-99m-macroaggregated albumin into breast milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of radioactivity excreted in breast milk following three different nuclear medicine procedures on twelve nursing mothers has been measured. Some of this information has already been incorporated into the latest guidelines on suspension of feeding after maternal radiopharmaceutical administration. The overall radiation dose that the patients' babies would have sustained had breast feeding not been interrupted has been estimated as an effective dose equivalent. A model has been developed to describe the relationship between clearance of activity from the milk, time between expressions, and the fraction of milk expressed. Some simple guidance is given on calculation of suitable interruption times for any individual mother from counts on her milk samples

  8. Safety of breast-feeding with HBV-DNA positive breast milk%HBV-DNA阳性乳汁喂养的安全性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冬生; 林秋香; 蒋就喜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety of breast-feeding by puerpera with HBV-DNA positive breast milk.Methods 117 puerpera with HBV-DNA positive breast milk (2 cases with twins) were studied.119 infants were given with HBV active and passive immunization.34 infants were provided with breast feeding and 85 infants were provided with artificial-feeding.Results 34 out of 119 infants (28.57%) were found to have chronic HBV infection.The rate of HBV infection in the breast-feeding group (32.35%,11/34) was similar to artificial-feeding froup (27.06%,23/85) (P>0.05).However,it has statistical significant difference that the amount of breast milk HBV-DNA loads between the group of chronic HBV infection in infants and the group of no infection(P<0.05).Conclusions Chronic HBV infection in infants is correlated with the amount of HBV-DNA in maternal milk.Breast-feeding with HBV-DNA positive breast milk may not increase the risk of chronic HBV infection in infants.%目的 探讨乳汁HBV-DNA阳性产妇母乳喂养的安全性.方法 乳汁HBV-DNA阳性产妇117例(双胞2例),119例幼儿出生时均接受HBV主动+被动免疫,自由选择喂养方式,其中母乳喂养34例(母乳喂养组),人工喂养85例(人工喂养组),观察两组幼儿慢性感染HBV情况.结果 119例幼儿慢性感染HBV 34例,慢性感染率为28.57%;其中母乳喂养组幼儿慢性感染率为32.35%(11/34),人工喂养组为27.06%(23/85),差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);但幼儿HBV慢性感染组与未感染组母亲乳汁HBV-DNA水平差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 幼儿慢性感染HBV与产妇乳汁HBV-DNA载量有关,但母乳喂养并未增加感染HBV的风险.

  9. Interrelationships between maternal DHA in erythrocytes, milk and adipose tissue. Is 1wt% DHA the optimal human milk content? Data from four Tanzanian tribes differing in lifetime stable intakes of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxwolda, Martine F.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Koops, Jan-Hein; Muller, Stefan; de Graaf, Deti; Dijck-Brouwer, Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the interrelationships between maternal and infant erythrocyte-DHA, milk-DHA and maternal adipose tissue (AT)-DHA contents. We studied these relationships in four tribes in Tanzania (Maasai, Pare, Sengerema and Ukerewe) differing in their lifetime intakes of fish. Cross-section

  10. Differential expression of cancer associated proteins in breast milk based on age at first full term pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First full term pregnancy (FFTP) completed at a young age has been linked to low long term breast cancer risk, whereas late FFTP pregnancy age confers high long term risk, compared to nulliparity. Our hypothesis was that proteins linked to breast cancer would be differentially expressed in human milk collected at three time points during lactation based on age at FFTP. We analyzed breast milk from 72 lactating women. Samples were collected within 10 days of the onset of lactation (baseline-BL), two months after lactation started and during breast weaning (W). We measured 16 proteins (11 kallikreins (KLKs), basic fibroblast growth factor, YKL-40, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and transforming growth factor (TGF) β-1 and -2) associated with breast cancer, most known to be secreted into milk. During lactation there was a significant change in the expression of 14 proteins in women < 26 years old and 9 proteins in women > = 26 at FFTP. The most significant (p < .001) changes from BL to W in women divided by FFTP age (< 26 vs. > = 26) were in KLK3,6, 8, and TGFβ2 in women < 26; and KLK6, 8, and TGFβ2 in women > = 26. There was a significant increase (p = .022) in KLK8 expression from BL to W depending on FFTP age. Examination of DNA methylation in the promoter region of KLK6 revealed high levels of methylation that did not explain the observed changes in protein levels. On the other hand, KLK6 and TGFβ1 expression were significantly associated (r2 = .43, p = .0050). The expression profile of milk proteins linked to breast cancer is influenced by age at FFTP. These proteins may play a role in future cancer risk

  11. Production of Conjugated Linoleic and Conjugated α-Linolenic Acid in a Reconstituted Skim Milk-Based Medium by Bifidobacterial Strains Isolated from Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Villar-Tajadura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight bifidobacterial strains isolated from human breast milk have been tested for their abilities to convert linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (LNA to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and conjugated α-linolenic acid (CLNA, respectively. These bioactive lipids display important properties that may contribute to the maintenance and improvement human health. Three selected Bifidobacterium breve strains produced CLA from LA and CLNA from LNA in MRS (160–170 and 210–230 μg mL−1, resp. and, also, in reconstituted skim milk (75–95 and 210–244 μg mL−1, resp.. These bifidobacterial strains were also able to simultaneously produce both CLA (90–105 μg mL−1 and CLNA (290–320 μg mL−1 in reconstituted skim milk. Globally, our findings suggest that these bifidobacterial strains are potential candidates for the design of new fermented dairy products naturally containing very high concentrations of these bioactive lipids. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing CLNA production and coproduction of CLA and CLNA by Bifidobacterium breve strains isolated from human milk in reconstituted skim milk.

  12. Organic and inorganic sources of zinc, copper and selenium in diets for dairy cows: intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Simões Cortinhas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effects of feeding dairy cows with organic or inorganic sources of zinc (Zn, copper (Cu and selenium (Se on blood concentrations of these minerals, blood metabolic profiles, nutrient intake and milk yield and composition. Nineteen Holstein cows were selected and randomly assigned to two groups for receiving organic (n = 9 or inorganic (n = 10 sources of Zn, Cu and Se from 60 days before the expected date of calving to 80 days of lactation. Samples of feed, orts and milk were collected for analysis. Body condition score (BCS was determined and blood samples were collected for analysis of Zn, Cu and Se concentrations, as well as for metabolic profile. Supplying organic or inorganic sources of Zn, Cu, and Se did not affect dry matter and nutrient intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition, plasma concentration of these minerals, and BCS or change the BCS in cows from 60 days before the expected date of calving to 80 days of lactation. An effect of time was observed on all feed intake variables, plasma concentrations of Zn and Se, milk yield, milk protein content, BCS and change in BCS.

  13. Influence of carbohydrates on feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk performance in high yielding dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de H.

    1993-01-01

    Food for human consumption originates directly from plants, after processing, or indirectly by conversion of plant materials into food of animal origin through livestock. An important example of food of animal origin are dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter, yoghurt, etc.During the last decad

  14. Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and milk production of dairy cows offered Lolium perenne containing different levels of water-soluble carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function, milk production and composition of dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass varieties that were morphologically and chemically similar, but differed in their water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentration. Eight multiparous

  15. High intakes of skimmed milk, but not meat, increase serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in eight-year-old boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoppe, Camilla; Mølgaard, C; Juul, A;

    2004-01-01

    To examine whether a high protein intake (PI) from either milk or meat, at a level often seen in late infancy, could increase s-IGF-I and s-IGF-I/s-IGFBP-3 in healthy, prepubertal children. IGF-I levels are positively associated with growth velocity in children and some studies suggest that a high...

  16. Expressed breast milk as 'connection' and its influence on the construction of 'motherhood' for mothers of preterm infants: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweet Linda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast milk is considered the optimal nutrition for all newborn infants. While there is high initiation of lactation among mothers of preterm infants in Australia, there is a rapid decline of continued lactation. Furthermore, there is an inverse relationship between infant gestation and duration of lactation. To better understand the breastfeeding experience of parents of very low birth weight (VLBW preterm infants an interpretive phenomenological study was conducted. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted using an interpretive phenomenological approach. Data were collected from 17 parents through 45 individual interviews with both mothers and fathers, from birth to 12 months of age. This data was then transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Results The analysis identified six primary themes: the intention to breastfeed naturally; breast milk as connection; the maternal role of breast milk producer; breast milk as the object of attention; breastfeeding and parenting the hospitalised baby and the demise of breastfeeding. This paper reports on the theme of 'breast milk as connection'. Providing expressed breast milk offered one way the mothers could be physiologically and emotionally connected to their preterm infant while they were in the constant care of hospital staff. Indeed, breast milk was considered the only way the new mother could connect her body (or part there of to her preterm baby in hospital. This sense of connection however, comes at a cost. On the one hand, the breast milk offers a feeling of connection to the baby, but, on the other, this connection comes only after disconnection of the mother and baby and – through breast expression – mother and her milk. This ability of breast milk to connect mother and baby makes the expressed breast milk highly valued, and places unexpected pressure on the mother to produce milk as integral to her sense of motherhood. Conclusion The findings of

  17. Nevirapine, sodium concentration and HIV-1 RNA in breast milk and plasma among HIV-infected women receiving short-course antiretroviral prophylaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Salado-Rasmussen

    Full Text Available Risk factors for breast milk transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child include high plasma and breast milk viral load, low maternal CD4 count and breast pathology such as mastitis.To determine the impact of nevirapine and subclinical mastitis on HIV-1 RNA in maternal plasma and breast milk after intrapartum single-dose nevirapine combined with either 1-week tail of Combivir (zidovudine/lamivudine or single-dose Truvada (tenofovir/emtricitabine.Maternal plasma and bilateral breast milk samples were collected between April 2008 and April 2011 at 1, 4 and 6 weeks postpartum from HIV-infected Tanzanian women. Moreover, plasma samples were collected at delivery from mother and infant.HIV-1 RNA was quantified in 1,212 breast milk samples from 273 women. At delivery, 96% of the women and 99% of the infants had detectable nevirapine in plasma with a median (interquartile range, IQR of 1.5 μg/mL (0.75-2.20 μg/mL and 1.04 μg/mL (0.39-1.71 μg/mL, respectively (P < 0.001. At 1 week postpartum, 93% and 98% of the women had detectable nevirapine in plasma and breast milk, with a median (IQR of 0.13 μg/mL (0.13-0.39 μg/mL and 0.22 μg/mL (0.13-0.34 μg/mL, respectively. Maternal plasma and breast milk HIV-1 RNA correlated at all visits (R = 0.48, R = 0.7, R = 0.59; all P = 0.01. Subclinical mastitis was detected in 67% of the women at some time during 6 weeks, and in 38% of the breast milk samples. Breast milk samples with subclinical mastitis had significantly higher HIV-1 RNA at 1, 4 and 6 weeks (all P < 0.05.After short-course antiretroviral prophylaxis, nevirapine was detectable in most infant cord blood samples and the concentration in maternal plasma and breast milk was high through week 1 accompanied by suppressed HIV-1 RNA in plasma and breast milk.

  18. Monitoring of pesticide residues in human breast milk from Punjab, India and its correlation with health associated parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anupama; Gill, J P S; Bedi, J S; Pooni, P A

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the present status of pesticide residues in breast milk from Punjab. A total of 127 breast milk samples were analyzed and pesticide residues were detected in 25 % of the milk samples. Residues of cyfluthrin, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, profenophos, γ-HCH, β-HCH, chlorpyriphos, monocrotophos, p,p' DDE and phosalone were detected with mean levels of 63.04, 11.69, 3.63, 2.66, 2.64, 2.29, 1.91, 1.63, 0.56 and 0.29 ng g(-1), respectively. Cyfluthrin was leading pesticide detected in breast milk contributing 31.28 % to the total residue load. It was observed that the residue levels were decreasing with increase in parity and age of mother and cyfluthrin had highest mean concentration of 90.63 ng g(-1) in the first parity and 21.11 ng g(-1) in youngest age group. Residue levels were higher in urban population than the rural population although, statistically non-significant difference was found between the two (p > 0.05). PMID:25011502

  19. Substitutos do leite materno: passado e presente Breast-milk substitutes: past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ferreira Rea

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se revisão da evolução histórica da substituição do leite de peito por produtos industrializados cujas origens remontam ao século XVIII. Destaca-se a estratégia de promoção comercial de fórmulas infantis, já neste século, atribuindo-se as diferentes formas de comercialização utilizadas à necessidade de busca de novos mercados nos países do Terceiro Mundo. Frente às indicações precisas que os chamados substitutos do leite materno têm, chama-se a atenção para o processo de conscientização dos profissionais de saúde e grupos de consumidores sobre as conseqüências do abuso da utilização desses substitutos, processo este que levou a Organização Mundial da Saúde e o United Nations Children's Fund a recomendarem a regulamentação de suas práticas comerciais, e o Brasil a adotá-la.The historical development of industrialized products used as breast-milk, substitutes a process begun in the 18th century, is studied. The marketing strategy currently adopted infant formula companies is stressed and the different commercial practices used in the search for new markets in third world countries are described. A warning is given as to the precise instructions giver for the use of the socalles breast-milk substitutes, and the attention of health professionals and consumer groups is called to the low level of awareness regarding this subject, a factor which led the World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund to recommend the preparation of an appropriate marketing code and to its adoption by Brazil.

  20. Evaluation of mycotoxins and their metabolites in human breast milk using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubert, Josep; León, Nuria; Sáez, Carmen; Martins, Claudia P B; Godula, Michal; Yusà, Vicent; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, José Miguel; Soler, Carla

    2014-04-11

    Humans can be exposed to mycotoxins through the food chain. Mycotoxins are mainly found as contaminants in food and could be subsequently excreted via biological fluids such as urine or human breast milk in native or metabolised form. Since breast milk is usually supposed as the only food for new-borns, the occurrence of mycotoxins in thirty-five human milk samples was evaluated by a newly developed method based on QuEChERS extraction and UHPLC-HRMS detection. The method described here allows the detection of target mycotoxins in order to determine the quality of this initial feeding. The method has been fully validated, with recoveries ranging from 64% to 93% and relative standard deviations (RSD, %) being lower than 20%. Using the method described, non-metabolised mycotoxins such as ZEA, NEO, NIV, ENA, ENA1, ENB, ENB1 and metabolites, such as ZEA metabolites, HT-2, DOM and T-2 triol were detected in human milk samples. Results obtained help to estimate the exposure of mothers and infants to mycotoxins. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first work describing the simultaneous detection, quantification and screening of mycotoxins and their metabolites in human mature milk.

  1. Dioxins, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, A.; Kunisue, T.; Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Niida, M. [Japan Offspring Fund, Tokyo (Japan); Hashim, H. [Consumers Association of Penang, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2004-09-15

    Contaminations by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in the environment have been of great concern due to their endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife. Chemically stable and lipophilic properties of these contaminants led to their high contamination in higher trophic biota, including human. Despite the intensive monitoring efforts and anticipated results of decreasing trends of POPs in developed countries as a consequence of their regulation on use and waste treatment, little information are available on their contamination status in developing countries even though these chemicals are still being used and unintentionally produced in several parts of these countries. To ensure the reliability of exposure data and to delineate contamination status, fate and behavior in tropical developing countries, during last few years, our research groups conducted monitoring studies using various environmental matrices including air, water, sediment, soil, biota and human from several Asian developing countries. From these results, existing sources of OCs and formation of dioxins and related compounds could be predicted in this region. However, there is very little information addressing the accumulation of OCs pollution in Malaysia. Particularly available data are only on marine biota. To date no data are available on OCs contaminations in human milk samples from Malaysia. The present study aims at understanding recent contamination of POPs, including dioxins and related compounds, PCBs and OCs pesticides in human breast milk from the general population of Malaysia.

  2. Association of HIV-1 Envelope-Specific Breast Milk IgA Responses with Reduced Risk of Postnatal Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollara, Justin; McGuire, Erin; Fouda, Genevieve G.; Rountree, Wes; Eudailey, Josh; Overman, R. Glenn; Seaton, Kelly E.; Deal, Aaron; Edwards, R. Whitney; Tegha, Gerald; Kamwendo, Deborah; Kumwenda, Jacob; Nelson, Julie A. E.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Brinkley, Christie; Denny, Thomas N.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Ellington, Sascha; King, Caroline C.; Jamieson, Denise J.; van der Horst, Charles; Kourtis, Athena P.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Ferrari, Guido

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers in resource-limited areas where replacement feeding is unsafe and impractical are repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 throughout breastfeeding. Despite this, the majority of infants do not contract HIV-1 postnatally, even in the absence of maternal antiretroviral therapy. This suggests that immune factors in breast milk of HIV-1-infected mothers help to limit vertical transmission. We compared the HIV-1 envelope-specific breast milk and plasma antibody responses of clade C HIV-1-infected postnatally transmitting and nontransmitting mothers in the control arm of the Malawi-based Breastfeeding Antiretrovirals and Nutrition Study using multivariable logistic regression modeling. We found no association between milk or plasma neutralization activity, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, or HIV-1 envelope-specific IgG responses and postnatal transmission risk. While the envelope-specific breast milk and plasma IgA responses also did not reach significance in predicting postnatal transmission risk in the primary model after correction for multiple comparisons, subsequent exploratory analysis using two distinct assay methodologies demonstrated that the magnitudes of breast milk total and secretory IgA responses against a consensus HIV-1 envelope gp140 (B.con env03) were associated with reduced postnatal transmission risk. These results suggest a protective role for mucosal HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA responses in the context of postnatal virus transmission. This finding supports further investigations into the mechanisms by which mucosal IgA reduces risk of HIV-1 transmission via breast milk and into immune interventions aimed at enhancing this response. IMPORTANCE Infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers are repeatedly exposed to the virus in breast milk. Remarkably, the transmission rate is low, suggesting that immune factors in the breast milk of HIV-1-infected mothers help to limit transmission. We compared the antibody

  3. Early allergy symptoms in infants aged 0-6 months on breast milk substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulya Safri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Atopic diseases are common in children and a serious health problem worldwide. Atopic dermatitis, food allergies, asthma and allergic rhinitis, have been described as the natural progression of allergic diseases, also known as the “allergic march”. Cow’s milk protein is known to be a common trigger of food allergies and hypersensitivity reactions during infancy. Objective To give an overview of the breast milk substitutes (BMS and incidence of early allergy onset (allergic march in atopic infants aged 0-6 months. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 40 atopic infants collected by consecutive sampling. A questionnaire was used for interview that inquired information on the type of BMS used, initial allergy complaints, the age of the emergence of early allergic symptoms, and the breakdown for BMS type. Univariate analysis was carried out to describe their characteristics as frequency distributions and percentages of each variables. Results Atopic dermatitis and wheezing were more common in boys (62.5%. Atopic dermatitis was the most common initial symptom to occur in atopic infants (52.5%. Atopic dermatitis and wheezing occurred together in 27.5% subjects. Early allergy symptoms that first occurred at the age of 1 month were seen in 42.9% for atopic dermatitis category, 37.5% for wheezing category, and 63.6% for both symptoms category, respectively. Cow’s milk was the most common type of BMS given to atopic infants in the first 6 months of life (47.5%. Conclusion Early symptoms of allergies, such as atopic dermatitis and wheezing, are more common in boys than girls. Atopic dermatitis is the most common early symptom to arise, but both symptoms occur at an early age, often during the first month of life.

  4. Early allergy symptoms in infants aged 0-6 months on breast milk substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulya Safri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Atopic diseases are common in children and a serious health problem worldwide. Atopic dermatitis, food allergies, asthma and allergic rhinitis, have been described as the natural progression of allergic diseases, also known as the “allergic march”. Cow’s milk protein is known to be a common trigger of food allergies and hypersensitivity reactions during infancy. Objective To give an overview of the breast milk substitutes (BMS and incidence of early allergy onset (allergic march in atopic infants aged 0-6 months. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 40 atopic infants collected by consecutive sampling. A questionnaire was used for interview that inquired information on the type of BMS used, initial allergy complaints, the age of the emergence of early allergic symptoms, and the breakdown for BMS type. Univariate analysis was carried out to describe their characteristics as frequency distributions and percentages of each variables. Results Atopic dermatitis and wheezing were more common in boys (62.5%. Atopic dermatitis was the most common initial symptom to occur in atopic infants (52.5%. Atopic dermatitis and wheezing occurred together in 27.5% subjects. Early allergy symptoms that first occurred at the age of 1 month were seen in 42.9% for atopic dermatitis category, 37.5% for wheezing category, and 63.6% for both symptoms category, respectively. Cow’s milk was the most common type of BMS given to atopic infants in the first 6 months of life (47.5%. Conclusion Early symptoms of allergies, such as atopic dermatitis and wheezing, are more common in boys than girls. Atopic dermatitis is the most common early symptom to arise, but both symptoms occur at an early age, often during the first month of life. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:13-7.].

  5. Early allergy symptoms in infants aged 0-6 months on breast milk substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulya Safri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Atopic diseases are common in children and a serious health problem worldwide. Atopic dermatitis, food allergies, asthma and allergic rhinitis, have been described as the natural progression of allergic diseases, also known as the “allergic march”. Cow’s milk protein is known to be a common trigger of food allergies and hypersensitivity reactions during infancy. Objective To give an overview of the breast milk substitutes (BMS and incidence of early allergy onset (allergic march in atopic infants aged 0-6 months. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 40 atopic infants collected by consecutive sampling. A questionnaire was used for interview that inquired information on the type of BMS used, initial allergy complaints, the age of the emergence of early allergic symptoms, and the breakdown for BMS type. Univariate analysis was carried out to describe their characteristics as frequency distributions and percentages of each variables. Results Atopic dermatitis and wheezing were more common in boys (62.5%. Atopic dermatitis was the most common initial symptom to occur in atopic infants (52.5%. Atopic dermatitis and wheezing occurred together in 27.5% subjects. Early allergy symptoms that first occurred at the age of 1 month were seen in 42.9% for atopic dermatitis category, 37.5% for wheezing category, and 63.6% for both symptoms category, respectively. Cow’s milk was the most common type of BMS given to atopic infants in the first 6 months of life (47.5%. Conclusion Early symptoms of allergies, such as atopic dermatitis and wheezing, are more common in boys than girls. Atopic dermatitis is the most common early symptom to arise, but both symptoms occur at an early age, often during the first month of life. 

  6. Ready-to-eat cereals improve nutrient, milk and fruit intake at breakfast in European adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Michels, Nathalie; De Henauw, Stefaan; BEGHIN, Laurent; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Hallstrom, Lena; Kafatos, Anthony; Kersting, Mathilde; Manios, Yannis; Marcos, Ascensión; Molnar, Denes; Roccaldo, Romana; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Sjostrom, Michael; Reye, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Breakfast consumption has been recommended as part of a healthy diet. Recently, ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) became more popular as a breakfast item. Our aim was to analyse the dietary characteristics of an RTEC breakfast in European adolescents and to compare them with other breakfast options. Methods From the European multi-centre HELENA study, two 24-h dietary recalls of 3137 adolescents were available. Food items (RTEC or bread, milk/yoghurt, fruit) and macro- and micronutrient int...

  7. Maternal dietary Alpine butter intake affects human milk: fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschi, Isabelle; Collomb, Marius; Rist, Lukas; Eberhard, Pius; Sieber, Robert; Bütikofer, Ulrich; Wechsler, Daniel; Folkers, Gerd; von Mandach, Ursula

    2005-06-01

    Consumption of CLA by lactating women affects the composition of their milk, but the pattern of the different CLA isomers is still unknown. We determined the effects of short maternal supplementation with CLA-rich Alpine butter on the occurrence of FA and CLA isomers in human milk. In an open randomized controlled study with a two-period cross-over design, milk FA and CLA isomer concentrations were measured on postpartum days > or = 20 in two parallel groups of lactating women before, during, and after consumption of defined quantities of Alpine butter or margarine with comparable fat content (10 d of butter followed by 10 d of margarine for one group, and vice versa in the other). In the 16 women who completed the study (8/group), Alpine butter supplementation increased the C16 and C18 FA, the sum of saturated FA, the 18:1 trans FA, and the trans FA with CLA. The CLA isomer 18:2 c9,t11 increased by 49.7%. Significant increases were also found for the isomers t9,t11, t7,c9, t11,c13, and t8,c10 18:2. The remaining nine of the total 14 detectable isomers showed no changes, and concentrations were <5 mg/100 g fat. A breastfeeding mother can therefore modulate the FA/CLA supply of her child by consuming Alpine butter. Further studies will show whether human milk containing this FA and CLA isomer pattern acts as a functional food for newborns. PMID:16149737

  8. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh Taheri P; Sepahran M; Shariat M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved...

  9. Mother-to-Child HIV-1 Transmission Events Are Differentially Impacted by Breast Milk and Its Components from HIV-1-Infected Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruizhong Shen

    Full Text Available Breast milk is a vehicle of infection and source of protection in post-natal mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (MTCT. Understanding the mechanism by which breast milk limits vertical transmission will provide critical insight into the design of preventive and therapeutic approaches to interrupt HIV-1 mucosal transmission. However, characterization of the inhibitory activity of breast milk in human intestinal mucosa, the portal of entry in postnatal MTCT, has been constrained by the limited availability of primary mucosal target cells and tissues to recapitulate mucosal transmission ex vivo. Here, we characterized the impact of skimmed breast milk, breast milk antibodies (Igs and non-Ig components from HIV-1-infected Ugandan women on the major events of HIV-1 mucosal transmission using primary human intestinal cells and tissues. HIV-1-specific IgG antibodies and non-Ig components in breast milk inhibited the uptake of Ugandan HIV-1 isolates by primary human intestinal epithelial cells, viral replication in and transport of HIV-1- bearing dendritic cells through the human intestinal mucosa. Breast milk HIV-1-specific IgG and IgA, as well as innate factors, blocked the uptake and transport of HIV-1 through intestinal mucosa. Thus, breast milk components have distinct and complementary effects in reducing HIV-1 uptake, transport through and replication in the intestinal mucosa and, therefore, likely contribute to preventing postnatal HIV-1 transmission. Our data suggests that a successful preventive or therapeutic approach would require multiple immune factors acting at multiple steps in the HIV-1 mucosal transmission process.

  10. Assessing the extent of violations of the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in South African advertising media / Portia Radebe

    OpenAIRE

    Radebe, Portia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) contributes towards reducing infant and young child mortality however global EBF rates are sub-optimal. One of the factors that influences a mothers‟ choice to exclusively breastfeed her child, is the marketing of breast milk substitutes. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (ICMBS) was developed to promote, protect and support EBF. Although South Africa has adopted the ICMBS, the Code was only legislated in December 2012 t...

  11. Feed intake, body weight and milk production: genetic analysis of different measurements in lactating dairy heifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzakker, van P.J.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Phenotypic and genetic correlations between measurements of feed intake, body weight and production within and between 4 periods in the first 15 weeks of lactation have been estimated. Measurements were available on 358 dairy heifers during 2 week periods starting at 2, 5, 9 and 13 weeks after calvi

  12. Update on protein intake: importance of milk proteins for health status of the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Loss of lean body mass that occurs with aging is the primary endpoint with which sarcopenia is defined. Furthermore, loss of muscle mass is central to the development of many adverse health issues in the elderly. Consequently, the response of lean body mass to nutritional interventions, particularly to dietary protein, has been a commonly measured endpoint. However, increased protein intake has been associated with improved markers for cardiovascular health, improved bone health, management of weight and metabolic diseases, and reduced all-cause mortality. Strength, rather than lean body mass, may be a more accurate indicator of health, especially in the elderly. The recommended dietary allowance for protein has been set at 0.8 g/kg/day. Because the average protein intake in the United States is approximately 1.2 g/kg/day, it appears that the average protein intake is above the recommended dietary allowance but below the low end of the acceptable macronutrient distribution range recommended by expert committees of the National Academy of Sciences and below the dietary intake levels suggested by the US Department of Agriculture in the Dietary Guidelines. PMID:26175489

  13. Update on protein intake: importance of milk proteins for health status of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert R

    2015-08-01

    Loss of lean body mass that occurs with aging is the primary endpoint with which sarcopenia is defined. Furthermore, loss of muscle mass is central to the development of many adverse health issues in the elderly. Consequently, the response of lean body mass to nutritional interventions, particularly to dietary protein, has been a commonly measured endpoint. However, increased protein intake has been associated with improved markers for cardiovascular health, improved bone health, management of weight and metabolic diseases, and reduced all-cause mortality. Strength, rather than lean body mass, may be a more accurate indicator of health, especially in the elderly. The recommended dietary allowance for protein has been set at 0.8 g/kg/day. Because the average protein intake in the United States is approximately 1.2 g/kg/day, it appears that the average protein intake is above the recommended dietary allowance but below the low end of the acceptable macronutrient distribution range recommended by expert committees of the National Academy of Sciences and below the dietary intake levels suggested by the US Department of Agriculture in the Dietary Guidelines.

  14. Excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after nuclear medicine examinations. Biokinetic and dosimetric data and recommendations on breastfeeding interruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liepe, K. [GH Hospital Frankfurt/Oder, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Frankfurt an der Oder (Germany); Becker, A. [GH Hospital Frankfurt/Oder, Department of Internal Medicine, Frankfurt an der Oder (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Since the 1990s the advantages of breastfeeding have been emphasized and the number of women who nurse their infant has increased significantly. Although women in this population are generally healthy and relatively rarely need radionuclide imaging or radionuclide therapies, the issue of radiation protection of breastfed children arises because of their higher radiosensitivity. Approximately 55 papers on excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after radionuclide imaging or therapy have been published. Unfortunately, most of them are case reports or include only a small number of cases. In 1955 the first report was published about a breastfeeding woman after radioiodine treatment of thyrotoxicosis. This early study showed a higher concentration of radioiodine in breast milk than in plasma and investigated the risk to the infant, especially to the thyroid gland.

  15. Excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after nuclear medicine examinations. Biokinetic and dosimetric data and recommendations on breastfeeding interruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the 1990s the advantages of breastfeeding have been emphasized and the number of women who nurse their infant has increased significantly. Although women in this population are generally healthy and relatively rarely need radionuclide imaging or radionuclide therapies, the issue of radiation protection of breastfed children arises because of their higher radiosensitivity. Approximately 55 papers on excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after radionuclide imaging or therapy have been published. Unfortunately, most of them are case reports or include only a small number of cases. In 1955 the first report was published about a breastfeeding woman after radioiodine treatment of thyrotoxicosis. This early study showed a higher concentration of radioiodine in breast milk than in plasma and investigated the risk to the infant, especially to the thyroid gland.

  16. Breast milk from Tanzanian women has divergent effects on cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1 infection in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena A Lyimo

    Full Text Available Transmission of HIV-1 during breastfeeding is a significant source of new pediatric infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Breast milk from HIV-positive mothers contains both cell-free and cell-associated virus; however, the impact of breast milk on HIV-1 infectivity remains poorly understood. In the present study, breast milk was collected from HIV-positive and HIV-negative Tanzanian women attending antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam. Milk was analyzed for activity in vitro against both cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1. Potent inhibition of cell-free R5 and X4 HIV-1 occurred in the presence of milk from all donors regardless of HIV-1 serostatus. Inhibition of cell-free HIV-1 infection positively correlated with milk levels of sialyl-Lewis(X from HIV-positive donors. In contrast, milk from 8 of 16 subjects enhanced infection with cell-associated HIV-1 regardless of donor serostatus. Milk from two of these subjects contained high levels of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MCP-1 and IP-10, and enhanced cell-associated HIV-1 infection at dilutions as high as 1∶500. These findings indicate that breast milk contains innate factors with divergent activity against cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1 in vitro. Enhancement of cell-associated HIV-1 infection by breast milk may be associated with inflammatory conditions in the mother and may contribute to infant infection during breastfeeding.

  17. Nutrient intakes and iron and vitamin D status differ depending on main milk consumed by UK children aged 12-18 months - secondary analysis from the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidnell, Anne; Pigat, Sandrine; Gibson, Sigrid; O'Connor, Rosalyn; Connolly, Aileen; Sterecka, Sylwia; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition in the second year is important as this is a period of rapid growth and development. Milk is a major food for young children and this analysis evaluated the impact of the type of milk consumed on nutrient intakes and nutritional status. Data from the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children were used to investigate the intakes of key nutrients, and Fe and vitamin D status, of children aged 12-18 months, not breastfed, and consuming >400 g/d fortified milk (n 139) or >400 g/d of whole cows' milk (n 404). Blood samples from eligible children for measurement of Hb (n 113), serum ferritin and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (n 105) were available for approximately 20 % of children. Unpaired Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare nutrient intakes and status between consumers of fortified and cows' milk. Mean daily total dietary intakes of Fe, Zn, vitamin A and vitamin D were significantly higher in the fortified milk group. Mean daily total dietary intakes of energy, protein, Ca, iodine, Na and saturated fat were significantly higher in the cows' milk group. Hb was not different between groups. The fortified milk group had significantly higher serum ferritin (P = 0·049) and plasma 25(OH)D (P = 0·014). This analysis demonstrates significantly different nutrient intakes and status between infants consuming >400 g/d fortified milk v. those consuming >400 g/d whole cows' milk. These results indicate that fortified milks can play a significant role in improving the quality of young children's diets in their second year of life. PMID:27547395

  18. Determination of Glyphosate Levels in Breast Milk Samples from Germany by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinborn, Angelika; Alder, Lutz; Michalski, Britta; Zomer, Paul; Bendig, Paul; Martinez, Sandra Aleson; Mol, Hans G J; Class, Thomas J; Pinheiro, Nathalie Costa

    2016-02-17

    This study describes the validation and application of two independent analytical methods for the determination of glyphosate in breast milk. They are based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), respectively. For LC-MS/MS, sample preparation involved an ultrafiltration followed by chromatography on an anion exchange column. The analysis by GC-MS/MS involved an extraction step, cleanup on a cation exchange column, and derivatization with heptafluorobutanol and trifluoroacetic acid anhydride. Both methods were newly developed for breast milk and are able to quantify glyphosate residues at concentrations as low as 1 ng/mL. The methods were applied to quantify glyphosate levels in 114 breast milk samples, which had been collected from August to September of 2015 in Germany. The mothers participated at their own request and thus do not form a representative sample. In none of the investigated samples were glyphosate residues above the limit of detection found.

  19. Milk intake during pregnancy is inversely associated with the risk of postpartum depressive symptoms in Japan: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Furukawa, Shinya; Arakawa, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    Only one epidemiologic study has investigated the association between dairy product intake during pregnancy and postpartum depressive symptoms. Epidemiologic evidence on the relationships between calcium and vitamin D intake during pregnancy and postpartum depressive symptoms is also lacking. The present prospective study examined these issues in Japan. Study subjects were 1319 women. During pregnancy, dietary intake during the preceding month was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire in the baseline survey. Postpartum depressive symptoms were defined as present when subjects had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 9 or higher between 3 and 4 months postpartum. Adjustment was made for age, gestation at baseline, region of residence, number of children, family structure, history of depression, family history of depression, job type, education, body mass index, having smoked during pregnancy, cesarean delivery, baby's sex, baby's birth weight, and total energy intake. After adjustment for the confounding factors, compared with milk intake in the lowest quartile, intake levels in the second and fourth quartiles were independently associated with a reduced risk of postpartum depressive symptoms, although the inverse exposure-response relationship was not significant: the adjusted odds ratio between extreme quartiles was 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.93; P for trend = .12). No material relationships were observed between intake of total dairy products, yogurt, cheese, calcium, or vitamin D and the risk of postpartum depressive symptoms. The present prospective cohort study in Japan suggests that higher milk intake during pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of postpartum depressive symptoms. PMID:27632910

  20. Evaluation of probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 isolated from human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Meiling; Zhang, Fen; Wan, Cuixiang; Xiong, Yonghua; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua; Tao, Xueying

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04, a specific strain isolated from human breast milk, was investigated for its survival capacity (acid and bile salt tolerance, survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract, inhibition of pathogens, antibiotic susceptibility, yield of exopolysaccharides) and probiotic properties (antiadhesion of pathogens, protection from harmful effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and antiinflammatory stress on Caco-2 cells). The results showed that Lb. plantarum WLPL04 had broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive strains (Listeria monocytogenes CMCC54007, Bacillus cereus ATCC14579, and Staphylococcus aureus CMCC26003) and gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCC10104, Shigella sonnei ATCC25931, Enterobacter sakazakii ATCC29544, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC13311, and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that Lb. plantarum WLPL04 was susceptible to 8 of 14 antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin and nitrofurantoin) and resistant to 6 of 14 antibiotics (e.g., kanamycin and bacitracin). Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 was able to survive at pH 2.5 for 3h and at 0.45% bile salt for 12h, suggesting that it can survive well in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the exopolysaccharide yield of Lb. plantarum WLPL04 reached 426.73 ± 65.56 mg/L at 24h. With strategies of competition, inhibition, and displacement, Lb. plantarum WLPL04 reduced the adhesion of E. coli O157:H7 (35.51%), Sal. typhimurium ATCC 13311 (8.10%), and Staph. aureus CMCC 26003 (40.30%) on Caco-2 cells by competition, and subsequently by 59.80, 62.50, and 42.60%, respectively, for the 3 pathogens through inhibition, and by 75.23, 39.97, and 52.88%, respectively, through displacement. Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 attenuated the acute stress induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate on Caco-2 cells and significantly inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α) on Caco-2 cells but increased IL-10 expression in vitro

  1. Increasing intake of essential fatty acids from milk replacer benefits performance, immune responses, and health of preweaned Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Shin, J H; Schlaefli, A; Greco, L F; Maunsell, F P; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding increasing amounts of essential fatty acids (FA) in milk replacer (MR) during the first 60 d of life on growth, health, and immunity of Holstein calves. Calves were born from dams fed low concentrations of total and essential FA during the lasT2 mo of pregnancy. Newborn calves were blocked by sex and parity of the dam and assigned randomly to receive 1 of 4 MR treatments (T). Hydrogenated coconut oil and soybean oil were mixed with emulsifier and commercial MR powder to prepare the following 4 MR containing 0.119 and 0.007 (T1), 0.187 and 0.017 (T2), 0.321 and 0.036 (T3), and 0.593 and 0.076 (T4) g of intake per kg of metabolic body weight (BW(0.75)) of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, respectively. At 30 d of life, concentrations of essential FA (linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid) in liver increased, whereas concentrations of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, and C20:3n-9 decreased linearly with increasing intake of essential FA. Body weight gain and feed efficiency were optimized when male calves consumed T2, whereas gain by female calves tended to increase linearly with increasing intake of essential FA during the first 30 d of age. However, these responses to treatment were not maintained after initiation of concentrate feeding at 31 d of life. Over the 60-d preweaning period, wither and hip heights were improved in both sexes as intake of essential FA increased up to T3. Some measures of health and immunity were affected by replacing some coconut oil with soybean oil. Severity of diarrhea tended to decrease linearly; plasma concentrations of haptoglobin during diarrhea were lower in T2, T3, and T4; phagocytosis by blood neutrophils tended to peak for calves fed T2; in vitro proliferation of stimulated blood lymphocytes was greater for calves fed T2; in vitro stimulated blood cells produced more IFN-γ (up to T3 for males and T2 for females), concentrations of serum IgG against ovalbumin injections were increased in

  2. Folate Intake and the Risk of Breast Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Fei Zhang; Wei-Wu Shi; Hong-Fang Gao; Li Zhou; An-Ji Hou; Yu-Hao Zhou

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous observational studies regarding the existence of an association between folate intake and the risk of breast cancer have been inconsistent. This study aimed to summarize the evidence regarding this relationship using a dose-response meta-analytic approach. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed electronic searches of the PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane Library databases to identify studies published through June 2013. Only prospective observational studies that rep...

  3. Excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after nuclear medicine examinations. Biokinetic and dosimetric data and recommendations on breastfeeding interruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid; Ahlgren, Lars; Mattsson, Soeren [Lund University, Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Skaane University Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden); Johansson, Lennart [Umeaa University, Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2016-05-15

    To review early recommendations and propose guidelines for breastfeeding interruption after administration of radiopharmaceuticals, based on additional biokinetic and dosimetric data. Activity concentrations in breast milk from 53 breastfeeding patients were determined. The milk was collected at various times after administration of 16 different radiopharmaceuticals. The fraction of the activity administered to the mother excreted in the breast milk, the absorbed doses to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to the infant were estimated. The fraction of the administered activity excreted per millilitre of milk varied widely from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -3} MBq/MBq administered. For {sup 99m}Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, the total fraction of the administered activity excreted in the milk varied from 0.0057 % for {sup 99m}Tc-labelled red blood cells (RBC) to 19 % for {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate. The effective dose to an infant per unit activity administered to the mother ranged from 6.7 x 10{sup -6} mSv/MBq for {sup 99m}Tc-labelled RBC to 3.6 x 10{sup -2} mSv/MBq for {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate. For the other radiopharmaceuticals, the total fraction of administered activity excreted in the milk varied from 0.018 % ({sup 51}Cr-EDTA) to 48 % ({sup 131}I-NaI). The effective dose ranged from 5.6 x 10{sup -5} mSv{sub infant}/MBq{sub mother} ({sup 51}Cr-EDTA) to 106 mSv{sub infant}/MBq{sub mother} ({sup 131}I-NaI). Based on an effective dose limit of 1 mSv to the infant and a typical administered activity, we recommend cessation of breastfeeding for {sup 131}I-NaI and interruption of feeding for 12 h for {sup 125}I-iodohippurate, {sup 131}I-iodohippurate, {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate and {sup 99m}Tc-MAA. During this 12-h period all breast milk should be expressed at least three times and discarded. For the other radiopharmaceuticals included in this study, no interruption of breastfeeding is necessary. (orig.)

  4. Excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after nuclear medicine examinations. Biokinetic and dosimetric data and recommendations on breastfeeding interruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To review early recommendations and propose guidelines for breastfeeding interruption after administration of radiopharmaceuticals, based on additional biokinetic and dosimetric data. Activity concentrations in breast milk from 53 breastfeeding patients were determined. The milk was collected at various times after administration of 16 different radiopharmaceuticals. The fraction of the activity administered to the mother excreted in the breast milk, the absorbed doses to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to the infant were estimated. The fraction of the administered activity excreted per millilitre of milk varied widely from 10-10 to 10-3 MBq/MBq administered. For 99mTc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, the total fraction of the administered activity excreted in the milk varied from 0.0057 % for 99mTc-labelled red blood cells (RBC) to 19 % for 99mTc-pertechnetate. The effective dose to an infant per unit activity administered to the mother ranged from 6.7 x 10-6 mSv/MBq for 99mTc-labelled RBC to 3.6 x 10-2 mSv/MBq for 99mTc-pertechnetate. For the other radiopharmaceuticals, the total fraction of administered activity excreted in the milk varied from 0.018 % (51Cr-EDTA) to 48 % (131I-NaI). The effective dose ranged from 5.6 x 10-5 mSvinfant/MBqmother (51Cr-EDTA) to 106 mSvinfant/MBqmother (131I-NaI). Based on an effective dose limit of 1 mSv to the infant and a typical administered activity, we recommend cessation of breastfeeding for 131I-NaI and interruption of feeding for 12 h for 125I-iodohippurate, 131I-iodohippurate, 99mTc-pertechnetate and 99mTc-MAA. During this 12-h period all breast milk should be expressed at least three times and discarded. For the other radiopharmaceuticals included in this study, no interruption of breastfeeding is necessary. (orig.)

  5. Maternal dietary folate, folic acid and vitamin D intakes during pregnancy and lactation and the risk of cows' milk allergy in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuokkola, Jetta; Luukkainen, Päivi; Kaila, Minna; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Niinistö, Sari; Veijola, Riitta; Virta, Lauri J; Knip, Mikael; Simell, Olli; Ilonen, Jorma; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2016-08-01

    Maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation potentially influences the development of allergic diseases. Cows' milk allergy (CMA) is often the first manifestation of atopic diseases, but the impact of early nutritional influences on CMA has not been explored. The associations between maternal intakes of folate, folic acid and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation were addressed in a prospective, population-based birth cohort within the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. Mothers of 4921 children during pregnancy and 2940 children during lactation provided information on maternal dietary intake during the 8th month of pregnancy and the 3rd month of lactation using a detailed, validated FFQ. Information on diagnosed CMA in the offspring was obtained from a medical registry as well as queried from the parents. The Finnish food composition database was used to calculate nutrient intake. Logistic regression was applied for statistical analyses. Folate intake and folic acid and vitamin D supplement use were associated with an increased risk of CMA in the offspring, whereas vitamin D intake from foods during pregnancy was associated with a decreased risk of CMA. Thus, maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation may affect the development of CMA in offspring. Supplementation with folic acid may not be beneficial in terms of CMA development, especially in children of allergic mothers. The association between dietary supplement use and CMA risk can at least partly be explained by increased health-seeking behaviour among more educated mothers who also use more dietary supplements. PMID:27350011

  6. Organic and inorganic sources of zinc, copper and selenium in diets for dairy cows: intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Simões Cortinhas; José Esler de Freitas Júnior; Julianne de Rezende Naves; Marco Aurélio de Felicio Porcionato; Luís Felipe Prada e Silva; Francisco Palma Rennó; Marcos Veiga dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effects of feeding dairy cows with organic or inorganic sources of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) on blood concentrations of these minerals, blood metabolic profiles, nutrient intake and milk yield and composition. Nineteen Holstein cows were selected and randomly assigned to two groups for receiving organic (n = 9) or inorganic (n = 10) sources of Zn, Cu and Se from 60 days before the expected date of calving to...

  7. Breast Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most women experience breast changes at some time. Your age, hormone levels, and medicines you take may cause lumps, bumps, and discharges (fluids that are not breast milk). If you have a breast lump, pain, ...

  8. A case-control study on association of SULT1A1 polymorphism and smoked meat intake with breast cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶蘋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of smoked meat intake,SULT1A1 polymorphism as well as their combined effects with breast cancer risk. Methods A total of 400 newly diagnosed breast cancer cases from a cancer hospital in Sichuan province and 400 healthy controls from participants

  9. Effects of n3 Intake on Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Sex Hormone Profiles in Postmenopausal Women: Potential for Breast Cancer Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer risk is associated with dietary fat intake. Omega-6 fatty acids (n6) promote while omega-3 fatty acids (n3) inhibit tumorigenesis. Increased sex hormone (SH) concentrations are associated with risk of breast cancer. The effects of total fat and n3 on SH and PLFA were assessed in a f...

  10. Free Maillard Reaction Products in Milk Reflect Nutritional Intake of Glycated Proteins and Can Be Used to Distinguish "Organic" and "Conventionally" Produced Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbolz, Uwe; Hofmann, Thomas; Sparmann, Nina; Henle, Thomas

    2016-06-22

    Using LC-MS/MS and isotopically labeled standard substances, quantitation of free Maillard reaction products (MRPs), namely, N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (pyrraline, PYR), N(δ)-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H), and N(ε)-fructosyllysine (FL), in bovine milk was achieved. Considerable variations in the amounts of the individual MRPs were found, most likely as a consequence of the nutritional uptake of glycated proteins. When comparing commercial milk samples labeled as originating from "organic" or "conventional" farming, respectively, significant differences in the content of free PYR (organic milk, 20-300 pmol/mL; conventional milk, 400-1000 pmol/mL) were observed. An analysis of feed samples indicated that rapeseed and sugar beet are the main sources for MRPs in conventional farming. Furthermore, milk of different dairy animals (cow, buffalo, donkey, goat, ewe, mare, camel) as well as for the first time human milk was analyzed for free MRPs. The distribution of their concentrations, with FL and PYR as the most abundant in human milk and with a high individual variability, also points to a nutritional influence. As the components of concentrated feed do not belong to the natural food sources of ruminants and equidae, free MRPs in milk might serve as indicators for an adequate animal feeding in near-natural farming and can be suitable parameters to distinguish between an "organic" and "conventional" production method of milk. PMID:27213835

  11. Dietary choline and betaine intake, choline-metabolising genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu-Feng; Luo, Wei-Ping; Lin, Fang-Yu; Lian, Zhen-Qiang; Mo, Xiong-Fei; Yan, Bo; Xu, Ming; Huang, Wu-Qing; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-09-01

    Choline and betaine are essential nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism and have been hypothesised to affect breast cancer risk. Functional polymorphisms in genes encoding choline-related one-carbon metabolism enzymes, including phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), have important roles in choline metabolism and may thus interact with dietary choline and betaine intake to modify breast cancer risk. This study aimed to investigate the interactive effect of polymorphisms in PEMT, BHMT and CHDH genes with choline/betaine intake on breast cancer risk among Chinese women. This hospital-based case-control study consecutively recruited 570 cases with histologically confirmed breast cancer and 576 age-matched (5-year interval) controls. Choline and betaine intakes were assessed by a validated FFQ, and genotyping was conducted for PEMT rs7946, CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890. OR and 95 % CI were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Compared with the highest quartile of choline intake, the lowest intake quartile showed a significant increased risk of breast cancer. The SNP PEMT rs7946, CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890 had no overall association with breast cancer, but a significant risk reduction was observed among postmenopausal women with AA genotype of BHMT rs3733890 (OR 0·49; 95 % CI 0·25, 0·98). Significant interactions were observed between choline intake and SNP PEMT rs7946 (P interaction=0·029) and BHMT rs3733890 (P interaction=0·006) in relation to breast cancer risk. Our results suggest that SNP PEMT rs7946 and BHMT rs3733890 may interact with choline intake on breast cancer risk.

  12. Determination of Radionuclide Activity and Radiological Impact from the Intake of Milk, Wheat Flour, Tea and Coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumption of food containing radionuclides may contribute to internal dose. Studies on radionuclide content in several types of food should be done to determine effects to human. The objectives of this research are to i) determine the activity concentration in milk powder, tea, flour and coffee samples, ii) to calculate the annual exposure dose in food products and iii) to determine the lifetime cancer risk amongst Malaysians. The concentrations of 226Ra, 238U, 232Th and 40K were determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The study found that the mean activity concentration in milk powder, tea, flour and coffee are 1.6±0.8, 3.3±0.4 , 1.2±0.2, 2.1±0.7 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 1.6±0.2, 10.7±3.3, 2.1±0.6 and 1.8±0.2 Bq kg-1 for 238U, 1.8±0.5, 9.5±2.2, 1.9±0.1, 2.2±0.3 Bq kg-1 for 232Th and 190.2±49.6, 395.4 ±11.9, 57.4±28.5, 429.4±305.5 Bq kg-1 for 40K, respectively. The annual internal exposure dose for children through consumption of milk powder are 63.5 μSv for 226Ra, 32.2 μSv for 232Th, 2.8 μSv for 238U and 326.5 μSv for the 40K, respectively. Whereas, the annual internal exposure dose for adults through consumption of wheat flour, tea and coffee are 13.7 μSv for 226Ra, 18.0 μSv for 232Th, 5.1 μSv year-1 for 238U and 24.2 μSv year-1 for 40K, respectively. All radionuclide exposure doses are 425 μSv year-1 for children and 61.0 μSv year-1 for adults. This value provides a risk factor of 1. x10-3 cancer for children and 1.7x10-4 for adults. It means that the probability of lifetime cancer risk increment of 0.18 % for children (18 people in 10 000) and 0.017 % for adults (1.7 people in 10 000). These values are lower than the ICRP cancer risk factors for the public of 2.5x10-3 and the total risk from all sources of radiation dose based on the global annual dose of 2.4 mSv year-1 which is 6x10-3. The study revealed that the intake of milk powder, flour, tea and coffee do not contribute a significant health hazard and is considered radiological safe

  13. Meta-analysis of the effect of pregrazing pasture mass on pasture intake, milk production, and grazing behavior of dairy cows strip-grazing temperate grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Prieto, L A; Delagarde, R

    2012-09-01

    Grazing management is a key factor in pasture-based dairy systems, which can be improved given advanced knowledge of the effects of pregrazing pasture mass (PM) on the performance of dairy cows. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of PM on the pasture intake, milk production, milk composition, and grazing behavior of strip- or rotational-grazing dairy cows, based on a meta-analysis of published research papers. A database was created that included experiments in which the effects of PM on pasture intake and milk production of dairy cows were studied. Papers were selected only if at least 2 PM were compared under similar experimental conditions, particularly the same pasture allowance (SPA). The final database included 15 papers with 27 PM comparisons. For analytical purposes, the database was subdivided into 3 subsets that varied according to the estimation height at which pasture allowance was determined; that is, where PM were compared at the SPA above ground level (SPA(0) subset), above 2 to 3 cm (SPA(3) subset), and above 4 to 5 cm (SPA(5) subset). Statistical analyses were conducted on the entire database (global analysis) and within each subset using linear model procedures. An interaction between PM and estimation height was found for pasture intake and milk production in the global analysis. On the basis of the predictive equations, pasture intake increased by 1.58 kg of dry matter/d per tonne increase in PM when PM were compared at SPA(0), was not affected by PM when PM were compared at SPA(3), and decreased by 0.65 kg of dry matter/d per tonne increase in PM when PM were compared at SPA(5). This is consistent with the effect of PM on milk production, which was positive and negative (1.04 and -0.79 kg/t of PM, respectively) when PM were compared at SPA(0) and SPA(5), respectively. Grazing time was only slightly affected by PM, irrespective of estimation height, because the effect of PM on pasture intake was mainly dependent on the variation

  14. Dietary intake of folate, B-vitamins and methionine and breast cancer risk among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low dietary folate intake is associated with several neoplasias, but reports are inconsistent for breast cancer. Additionally, the association of folate with breast cancer estrogen receptor (ER status is not well established. OBJECTIVE: To determine if dietary intakes of folate, B-vitamins (B2, B6, B12 and methionine are associated with breast cancer risk and ER status in Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White women in the southwestern U.S. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary breast cancer cases (n = 2,325 in the 4-Corners region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah, diagnosed between October 1999 and May 2004, were identified through state cancer registries. Controls (n = 2,525 were frequency-matched by ethnicity and age (±5 years. Dietary intake, physical activity and other exposures were assessed using in-person interviews. Risk was assessed through multivariable and multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for relevant covariates. RESULT: While there was no overall association with breast cancer, the highest quartile of folate intake was marginally inversely associated with ER- breast cancer (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.25-1.00, p for trend = 0.07. Vitamin B12 intake was inversely associated with breast cancer also (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.53-1.00, p for trend = 0.06, particularly for the highest quartile of ER+ breast cancer (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.46-0.99, p for trend = 0.06, among NHW women (OR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.81, p for trend = 0.01 and invasive breast cancer (OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.93, P(trend = 0.01. Methionine intake was also inversely associated with ER+ breast cancer (OR for 4th quartile = 0.83, 95% CI 0.66-1.03, p for trend = 0.04, primarily among Hispanic women (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.47-1.06, and P for trend = 0.02. CONCLUSION: Higher intake of folate is marginally associated with a lower risk for ER- breast cancer, and higher intakes of vitamin B-12

  15. Impact of US Brown Swiss genetics on milk quality from low-input herds in Switzerland: interactions with grazing intake and pasture type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiadis, S; Bieber, A; Franceschin, E; Isensee, A; Eyre, M D; Maurer, V; Chatzidimitriou, E; Cozzi, G; Bapst, B; Stewart, G; Gordon, A; Butler, G

    2015-05-15

    This study investigated the effect of, and interactions between, contrasting crossbreed genetics (US Brown Swiss [BS] × Improved Braunvieh [BV] × Original Braunvieh [OB]) and feeding regimes (especially grazing intake and pasture type) on milk fatty acid (FA) profiles. Concentrations of total polyunsaturated FAs, total omega-3 FAs and trans palmitoleic, vaccenic, α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids were higher in cows with a low proportion of BS genetics. Highest concentrations of the nutritionally desirable FAs, trans palmitoleic, vaccenic and eicosapentaenoic acids were found for cows with a low proportion of BS genetics (0-24% and/or 25-49%) on high grazing intake (75-100% of dry matter intake) diets. Multivariate analysis indicated that the proportion of OB genetics is a positive driver for nutritionally desirable monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs while BS genetics proportion was positive driver for total and undesirable individual saturated FAs. Significant genetics × feeding regime interactions were also detected for a range of FAs.

  16. Preterm human milk composition: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Catherine; Watson, Mistral; Lazidis, Grace; Reeve, Sarah; Dods, Kenneth; Simmer, Karen; McLeod, Gemma

    2016-09-01

    There are wide variations in the macronutrient values adopted by neonatal intensive care units and industry to fortify milk in efforts to achieve recommended intakes for preterm infants. Contributing to this is the variation in macronutrient composition of preterm milk between and within mothers and the variable quality of milk analyses used to determine the macronutrient content of milk. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using articles published in English between 1959 and 2013 that reported the concentrations of one or more macronutrients or energy content in human preterm milk, sampled over a representative 24-h period. Searched medical databases included Ovid Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Results are presented as mean values and ranges for each macronutrient during weeks 1-8 of lactation, and preferred mean values (g/100 ml) for colostrum (week 1) and mature milk (weeks 2-8; protein: 1·27, fat: 3·46, lactose: 6·15 and carbohydrate: 7·34), using data from studies employing the highest-quality analyses. Industry-directed fortification practices using these mean values fail to meet protein targets for infants weighing information to industry in order to guide their future formulation of breast milk fortifiers. Quality macronutrient analyses of adequately sampled preterm breast milk would improve our understanding of the level of fortification needed to meet recommended protein and energy intakes and growth targets, as well as support standardised reporting of nutritional outcomes. PMID:27522863

  17. Different prognostic value of circulating and disseminated tumor cells in primary breast cancer: Influence of bisphosphonate intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine; Reiter, Katharina; Aktas, Bahriye; Bittner, Ann-Kathrin; Weber, Stephan; Keller, Thomas; Kimmig, Rainer; Hoffmann, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow (BM) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood of breast cancer patients (pts) are known to correlate with worse outcome. Here we demonstrate a different prognostic value of DTCs and CTCs and explain these findings by early clodronate intake. CTCs (n = 376 pts) were determined using the AdnaTest BreastCancer (Qiagen Hannover GmbH, Germany) and DTCs (n = 525 pts) were analyzed by immunocytochemistry using the pan-cytokeratin antibody A45-B/B3. Clodronate intake was recommended in case of DTC-positivity. CTCs were detected in 22% and DTCs in 40% of the pts, respectively. DTCs were significantly associated with nodal status (p = 0.03), grading (p = 0.01), lymphangiosis (p = 0.03), PR status (p = 0.02) and clodronate intake (p < 0.0001), no significant associations were demonstrated for CTCs. CTCs significantly correlated with reduced PFS (p = 0.0227) and negative prognostic relevance was predominantly related to G2 tumors (p = 0.044), the lobular (p = 0.024) and the triple-negative subtype (p = 0.005), HR-negative pts (p = 0.001), postmenopausal women (p = 0.013) and patients who had received radiation therapy (p = 0.018). No prognostic significance was found for DTCs. Therefore early clodronate intake can improve prognosis of breast cancer patients and CTCs might be a high risk indicator for the onset of metastasis not limited to bone metastasis. PMID:27212060

  18. Different prognostic value of circulating and disseminated tumor cells in primary breast cancer: Influence of bisphosphonate intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine; Reiter, Katharina; Aktas, Bahriye; Bittner, Ann-Kathrin; Weber, Stephan; Keller, Thomas; Kimmig, Rainer; Hoffmann, Oliver

    2016-05-23

    Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow (BM) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood of breast cancer patients (pts) are known to correlate with worse outcome. Here we demonstrate a different prognostic value of DTCs and CTCs and explain these findings by early clodronate intake. CTCs (n = 376 pts) were determined using the AdnaTest BreastCancer (Qiagen Hannover GmbH, Germany) and DTCs (n = 525 pts) were analyzed by immunocytochemistry using the pan-cytokeratin antibody A45-B/B3. Clodronate intake was recommended in case of DTC-positivity. CTCs were detected in 22% and DTCs in 40% of the pts, respectively. DTCs were significantly associated with nodal status (p = 0.03), grading (p = 0.01), lymphangiosis (p = 0.03), PR status (p = 0.02) and clodronate intake (p < 0.0001), no significant associations were demonstrated for CTCs. CTCs significantly correlated with reduced PFS (p = 0.0227) and negative prognostic relevance was predominantly related to G2 tumors (p = 0.044), the lobular (p = 0.024) and the triple-negative subtype (p = 0.005), HR-negative pts (p = 0.001), postmenopausal women (p = 0.013) and patients who had received radiation therapy (p = 0.018). No prognostic significance was found for DTCs. Therefore early clodronate intake can improve prognosis of breast cancer patients and CTCs might be a high risk indicator for the onset of metastasis not limited to bone metastasis.

  19. Energy needs of lactating mothers and breast-feeding children in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project aims to use isotopic techniques to measure energy expenditure and breast milk intake of children, and the energy expenditure and breast milk production of lactating mothers. Two separate methods are being used, both of which involve the use of doubly labelled water. The present report presents growth rate date on the children and data on how they spend their time; the isotopic analysis has not yet been performed. 5 refs, 5 tabs

  20. Effect of Low-fat Milk Consumption Compared to Apple Juice and Water on the Energy Intake Among 10-12-Year-Old Obese Boys: A Three-way Cross-over Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Mehrabani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: One serving of low-fat milk might affect the energy intake in a short-term period. The possible effect of frequent consumption of dairy products on long-term energy intake among children is needed to be examined.

  1. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Santaella, Marina; Mira-Pascual, Laia; Martínez-Arias, Elena; Khodayar-Pardo, Parisá; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez-Costa, Cecilia

    2015-10-19

    Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term) collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA) and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk.

  2. The Relationship between Dioxin Congeners in the Breast Milk of Vietnamese Women and Sister Chromatid Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Suzuki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between dioxin concentrations in breast milk and the sister chromatid exchange (SCE frequency in women from herbicide-sprayed and non sprayed areas. Blood samples were taken from 21 women with high TCDD (tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels from sprayed areas, 23 women with moderate TCDD levels from sprayed areas, and 19 women from non sprayed areas to determine their SCE frequency. The SCE frequencies for the high and moderate TCDD groups from the sprayed area and for the non sprayed area group were 2.40, 2.19, and 1.48 per cell, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that the standardized β values for 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexaCDD (β = 0.60, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD (β = 0.64, and octaCDD (β = 0.65 were higher than those for TCDD (β = 0.34 and 1,2,3,7,8-pentaCDD (β = 0.42. The adjusted R2 value for polyCDDs (R2 = 0.38 was higher than that for polyCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ (toxic equivalents; R2 = 0.23. This study therefore shows that levels of hexa-, hepta-, and octaCDD, which were previously regarded as being less toxic than TCDD, are closely related to SCE frequency and that the level of dioxin (pg/g lipid is potentially more useful as an indicator than TEQ value for explaining SCE frequency.

  3. Evaluation of Zinc, Copper and Iron Concentrations in Breast Milk of Mothers Belonging to Different Economic Classes and their Correlations with Infants Growth

    OpenAIRE

    J Ghaemmaghami; B Pourghassem Gargari; L Nikniaz; R Mahdavi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Taking into account the importance of micronutrients in health and growth of the infants, the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in breast milk of mothers belonging to different economic classes and their effects on infants’ growth were investigated. Methods: Milk samples and information on personal characteristics, anthropometric and 24-hour food recall were collected from 90 lactating women belonging to 3 different socioeconomic classes who had exclusively breastfed thei...

  4. The influence of impact delivery mode, lactation time, infant gender, maternal age and rural or urban life on total number of Lactobacillus in breast milk Isfahan - Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Mansoureh; Mirlohi, Maryam; Poursina, Farkhondeh; Madani, Golnoush; Khoshhali, Mehri; Bahreini, Nimah; Safaei, Hajieh Ghasemian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast milk is known as the most crucial postpartum issue in metabolic and immunologic programming of neonatal health. Human milk microbial changes over Lactation. The factors influencing the milk microbiome as well as potential impact of microbes on infant health have not yet been discovered. The objective was to identify pre- and post-natal factors that can potentially influence the bacterial communities inhabiting human milk. Materials and Methods: Breast milk samples (n = 40) with all full-term breastfed infants were collected from lactating randomized. Information on personal characteristics, dietary habits, information about infants were collected after birth. The samples were plated with serial dilutions on three selective culture media man rogosa sharp and then colonies were counted. Colonies tested for catalase reaction, Gram-staining and microscopic examination. Results: The result of this study showed that the overall incidence of positive Lactobacillus in mother's milk was 87.5%. The results based on (infant gender, mode of delivery, rural or urban and lactation time) rural or urban and lactation time were significant (P < 0.05). The results showed that all of the variables were significant in this regression model (P < 0.001). The median of log10 Lactobacillus counts in rural mothers, vaginal delivery, infant male gender and Lactation time for first 3-month were meaningfully high. Conclusions: The findings of this study about the breast milk Lactobacillus potential probiotic bacteria of healthy Iranian mothers, suggested that the breast milk microbiome is significantly influenced by several factors, mode of delivery, rural or urban and lactation time. PMID:26322289

  5. Acute effects of different dietary polysaccharides added in milk on food intake, postprandial appetite and glycemic responses in healthy young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Muhammad Umair; Ishtiaq, Saima; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Saeed, Farhan; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Imran, Ali

    2016-09-01

    In the present study we compared the postprandial glycemic and satiety responses of different dietary polysaccharides when added in milk (2% M.F.). The objective of this study was to evaluate different polysaccharides against postprandial glucose, appetite responses and food intake at subsequent meal. In a repeated measures design, 30 females (18-30 years) consumed 250 ml milk 2% M.F. (control), or milk with carrageenan (2.5 g), guar gum (2.5 g) and alginate (2.5 g), followed by an ad libitum pizza meal after 120 min. Alginate and guar gum addition resulted in lower caloric intake at subsequent pizza meal. The post-treatment (0-120 min) glucose and average appetite were suppressed by alginate and guar gum (p < 0.0001), with more pronounced effect of guar gum. However, alginate resulted in lower blood glucose (p < 0.0001) compared with control and carrageenan during post-treatment. Alginate and guar gum added beverages would be beneficial in short-term regulation of postprandial glycemia and satiety. PMID:27352777

  6. Determination of the levels of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in the Australian population by analysis of pooled human breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harden, F.; Mueller, J.F.; Toms, L.M.L.; Moore, M. [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Burniston, D.; Symons, R. [AGAL, Sydney (Australia); Ahokas, J. [RMIT, Melbourne (Australia); Fuerst, P. [State Lab. of NRW, Muenster (Germany); Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxin-like compounds are ubiquitously distributed and humans are exposed to them via various sources but primarily through food. They can be detected in air, water, soil, sediment and biota. These compounds are lipid soluble, poorly eliminated and thus can accumulate in human adipose tissue. They can cross the placenta and are also transferred to breast milk during the lactation process. Therefore infants are exposed ante and postnatally. Since PCDD/PCDF concentration in blood and human milk are very similar when concentrations are expressed on a lipid basis, human milk provides a good monitoring tool of exposure for a given population in a given area. Previously the WHO has co-ordinated international studies on dioxin-like compounds in breast milk. These were conducted in 1987/88, 1992/93 and 2001. In summary, these studies demonstrated that levels of dioxins in breast milk are relatively high in industrialised countries when compared to non-industrialised countries that PCDD/PCDFs were higher in human milk from mothers with their first child and that the levels decrease over a given lactation period. The present study aims to examine the levels of these compounds in primiparae women throughout Australia.

  7. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and biphenyls (PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs) in breast milk and early childhood growth and IGF1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure; Brunak, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    parentheses) correspond to a fivefold increase in total TEQ. TEQ levels in breast milk increased significantly with maternal age and fish consumption and decreased with maternal birth year, parity, and smoking. Total TEQ was associated with lower fat percentage (-0.45 s.d., CI: -0.89; -0.04), non...... was associated with changes in early childhood growth and serum IGF1. In 418 maternal breast milk samples of Danish children (born 1997-2001) from a longitudinal cohort, we measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (pg or ng/g lipid) and calculated...

  8. [Detection of bactericidal antibody in the breast milk of a mother infected with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, E; Tanaka, H; Toyoda, N; Takeda, T

    1999-05-01

    A 21 years-old pregnant woman developed diarrhea, fresh bloody stools and abdominal pain on April 6th 1997 at 32 weeks of gestation, and was admitted to the hospital on April 11th. The stool culture on admission was positive for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 (Stx1 and 2). Clinical laboratory data during admission showed only slight elevation of beta-microglobulin and N-acetyl glucosaminidase in the urine, and no neurological or hemolytic symptoms were seen. After the antibiotic and lactobacillus administration, all her symptoms were relieved and no abnormal findings in pregnancy were observed. She delivered a baby girl normally on May 30th. Serum (between 41 and 120 days from the onset) and milk (between 4 and 64 days post partum) samples from the mother, and serum (64 days of age) from a baby and cord blood were obtained to monitor the immune status against EHEC O157:H7 and against Shiga toxins (Stx). Anti-E. coli O157 LPS antibodies (IgA, G and M) were assayed by the ELISA method. Neutralizing anti-Stx antibodies were measured by using ACHN cell cytotoxicity assay. In the colostrum and mature milk, high levels of IgA and IgM, and no IgG antibodies against EHEC O157 LPS were detected. In one of the control colostrum samples obtained from 4 healthy mothers IgA antibody against EHEC O157 LPS was detected. To assess the potency of protection against EHEC O157:H7 by the breast milk, we monitored it by the bactericidal activity for the organism under complement-coincubation experiment, and by the neutralization test for the Stx cytotoxicity. As a result, breast milk samples (both colostrum and mature milk) from a patient were demonstrated to kill the organisms. One of 4 healthy milk samples, showed bactericidal activity though it was negative in O157-LPS antibody. This bactericidal activity seen in one healthy colostrum is possibly due to a nonspecific reaction caused by non-O157 E. coli infection. From these observations, it was suggested that the

  9. The importance of the fatty acids in breast milk and in lacteal formulae; La importancia de los acidos grasos en la leche materna y en las formulas lacteas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, S.; Gutierrez, R.; Radilla, M.; Ramirez, A.; Perez, J. J.; Schettino, B.; Ramirez, M. L.; Ortiz, R.; Fontecha, J.

    2012-11-01

    The best choice for feeding the newborn child is breast milk, and when it is not possible to breast feed a baby, the breast milk is replaced by lacteal formula, which is why numerous studies focus their attention on the analysis of the diverse components of baby formula as well as functions in the breast fed baby. Fatty acids are components of great nutritional importance in the fetus and in the newborn child. Nowadays it is estimated that the fetus, during the last trimester of the gestational period and the newborn child, during the first six months of life, need a great contribution of araquidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, due to the fact that the speed of transformation of the predecessors to the hepatic level are not sufficient to cover the metabolic requirements of these fatty acids and it is the mother who contributes them through placental transport during gestation and her milk during lactation. The Organization of Food and Agriculture (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the European Society of Gastroenterology, Hepato logy and Pediatric Nutrition (ESPGHAN) and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that lacteal formula imitate the composition of the breast milk, especially in the fatty polyunsaturated acids (PUFA). (Author) 61 refs.

  10. Associations of serum insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 levels with biomarker-calibrated protein, dairy product and milk intake in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Jeannette M; Gunter, Marc J; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Prentice, Ross L; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley F; Vitolins, Mara Z; Strickler, Howard D

    2014-03-14

    It is well established that protein-energy malnutrition decreases serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels, and supplementation of 30 g of whey protein daily has been shown to increase serum IGF-I levels by 8 % after 2 years in a clinical trial. Cohort studies provide the opportunity to assess associations between dietary protein intake and IGF axis protein levels under more typical eating conditions. In the present study, we assessed the associations of circulating IGF axis protein levels (ELISA, Diagnostic Systems Laboratories) with total biomarker-calibrated protein intake, as well as with dairy product and milk intake, among postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (n 747). Analyses were carried out using multivariate linear regression models that adjusted for age, BMI, race/ethnicity, education, biomarker-calibrated energy intake, alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity and hormone therapy use. There was a positive association between milk intake and free IGF-I levels. A three-serving increase in milk intake per d (approximately 30 g of protein) was associated with an estimated average 18·6 % higher increase in free IGF-I levels (95 % CI 0·9, 39·3 %). However, total IGF-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels were not associated with milk consumption and nor were there associations between biomarker-calibrated protein intake, biomarker-calibrated energy intake, and free IGF-I, total IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels. The findings of the present study carried out in postmenopausal women are consistent with clinical trial data suggesting a specific relationship between milk consumption and serum IGF-I levels, although in the present study this association was only statistically significant for free, but not total, IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels.

  11. Genetic polymorphism in the manganese superoxide dismutase gene, antioxidant intake, and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that oxidative stress and mitochondrial DNA damage play important roles in breast cancer carcinogenesis. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a major enzyme that is responsible for the detoxification of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria. A T → C substitution in the MnSOD gene results in a Val → Ala change at the -9 position of the mitochondrial targeting sequence (Val-9Ala), which alters the protein secondary structure and thus affects transport of MnSOD into the mitochondria. We evaluated this genetic polymorphism in association with breast cancer risk using data from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study, a population-based case–control study conducted in urban Shanghai from 1996 to 1998. The MnSOD Val-9Ala polymorphism was examined in 1125 breast cancer cases and 1197 age-frequency-matched control individual. Breast cancer risk was slightly elevated in women with Ala/Ala genotype (odds ratio [OR] 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7–2.3), particularly among premenopausal women (OR 1.8, 95% CI 0.9–3.7), as compared with those with Val/Val genotype. The increased risk with the Ala/Ala genotype was stronger among premenopausal women with a higher body mass index (OR 2.5, 95% CI 0.9–7.0) and more years of menstruation (OR 2.6, 95% CI 0.8–8.0). The risk among premenopausal women was further increased twofold to threefold among those with a low intake of fruits, vegetables, vitamin supplements, selenium, or antioxidant vitamins, including carotenes and vitamins A, C, and E. However, the frequency of the Ala allele was low (14%) in the study population, and most of the ORs provided above were not statistically significant. The present study provides some evidence that genetic polymorphism in the MnSOD gene may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer among Chinese women with high levels of oxidative stress or low intake of antioxidants. Studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm the findings

  12. 个性化膳食指导对壮族乳母膳食结构及乳汁钙铁锌含量影响的分析%Influence of Individual Diet Instruction on Thelastria Diettary Pattern and Calcium Iron Zinc Contents in Breast Milk in Zhuang Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫洁玲; 黄颖红; 周容; 韦兰荣; 袁梅

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨个性化膳食指导对乳母膳食结构和乳汁中钙、铁、锌含量的影响。方法将南宁市100例壮族乳母随机分为对照组和实验组,每组50例,实验组接受个性化膳食指导,对照组给予普通膳食指导,于干预前后调查两组膳食结构,测定乳汁中钙、铁、锌含量。结果两组乳母干预前膳食结构不均衡;干预后,对照组水果及奶类摄入量增加,其余膳食种类摄入量无明显变化;实验组禽肉类摄入量明显降低,除粮谷类、奶类和大豆坚果外,其余均达哺乳期妇女平衡膳食宝塔推荐值;对照组乳汁中锌含量增加,但钙、铁含量无明显变化;实验组乳汁中钙、锌含量增加,铁含量无明显变化。结论通过个性化膳食指导,可以改善乳母的膳食结构,增加营养素及矿物质的摄入量,提高乳汁中钙、锌的含量,但铁含量无明显变化。%Objective To study the effect of individual diet instruction on thelastria dietary pattern and calcium , iron,zinc contents in breast milk .Methods One hundred lactating women of Zhuang nationality in Nanning City were randomly divided into control group and experimental group ,50 cases in each group .The experimental group received the individual diet instruction while the control group received the ordinary diet instruction .To investigate the dietary patterns in two groups before and after intervention .The calcium,iron,zinc contents in breast milk were detected .Results The dietary patterns of lactating women showed an imbalance in both groups.After intervention,the intakes of fruit and milk increased in the control group,but the rest intakes showed no significant changes.The poultry intake reduced significantly in the experimental group,except for cereal ,milk and soy nuts intakes ,the rest intakes achieved the recommendation for lactating women from Chinese Nutrition Society .The zinc content in breast milk increased

  13. [INFLUENCE OF THE REGULAR INTAKE OF FERMENTED MILK PRODUCTS ENRICHED BY MICRONUTRIENTS ON SOME INDICES OF IRON METABOLISM IN ADOLESCENTS INVOLVED IN SPORTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchaninov, D V; Bovarskaya, L A; Bogdashin, I V; Bagrova, L V; Gotwald, A R; Kozubenko, O V

    2015-01-01

    There was performed an experimental study of the influence of regular intake offermented milk enriched by products "Bifidin" and "Prolacta" on indices of iron metabolism in adolescents of 12-17 years, involved in sports (n = 94). In all study participants there was made double blood test (every 60 days), there were determined the levels of hemoglobin, serum iron, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein. The intervention in the main group (n = 68) was in daily intake offermented milk product in a volume of 200 ml (1 Cup) in addition to the normal diet within 2 months, including 35 cases who had used the bioproduct "Bifidin" and 33 persons- bioproduct "Prolacta". The control group was consisted of 26 persons from the adolescents engaged in the same sections, but not taking additional fermented milk drinks. The average values of all studied indices in adolescent athletes of the main and control groups before and after the intervention were consistent with reference values. Latent iron deficiency was detected in 23.4 ± 4.4% of adolescents involved in sports. At the second point of the research in two months of intake of enriched dairy products in the main group there was noticed the gain in levels of serum iron, ferritin, and the decline of the concentration of C-reactive protein. The results of the study allow us to consider enriched dairy products "Bifidin" and "Prolacta" as one of the components of complex measures of prophylaxis of hypovitaminosis and microelementoses in adolescents who are actively involved in sports.

  14. Interaction between ADH1C Arg272Gln and alcohol intake in relation to breast cancer risk suggests that ethanol is the causal factor in alcohol related breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benzon Larsen, Signe; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Christensen, Jane;

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol is a risk factor for breast cancer. We wanted to determine if ADH polymorphisms which modify the rate of ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde, were associated with breast cancer risk. We matched 809 postmenopausal breast cancer cases with 809 controls, nested within the prospective Diet......, Cancer and Health study. Among variant allele carriers of ADH1C Arg(272)Gln, alcohol intake increased the risk of breast cancer with 14% (95% CI: 1.04-1.24) per 10g alcohol/day, but not among homozygous wild type carriers (p for interaction=0.06). Thus, slow oxidation of ethanol seemed to be associated...

  15. 人巨细胞病毒在乳汁中的载量变化及其传播风险%Loads change of HCMV in breast milk and the risk of transmission via breast milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷; 崔会玲; 段歌红; 陈茂才; 冀恒涛

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨人巨细胞病毒(HCMV)DNA在乳汁中的载量变化以揭示其通过母乳喂养将病毒传播给婴儿的风险。方法选择2013年9月~2014年10月于郑州大学第二附属医院产科住院的305名产妇(哺乳期母亲)及其婴儿作为实验对象,选择同期103名奶粉喂养婴儿为对照,用实时荧光定量PCR方法检测其乳汁、尿液和外周血白细胞中的HCMV病毒DNA载量,数据进行统计学分析比较各组差异。结果产后第6周乳汁病毒DNA总阳性率为44.92%,其中有73名母亲将病毒传播给了婴儿,72名是非传播者。传播者的DNA载量为(4.70±1.26)(lg)而非传播者为(3.08±0.88)(lg),差异有高度统计学意义(P<0.01)。病毒DNA阳性乳汁喂养的婴儿感染率(50.68%)显著高于阴性乳汁喂养的婴儿(3.70%)和奶粉喂养的婴儿(9.71%),差异均有高度统计学意义(P<0.01)。而且母乳喂养及奶粉喂养的早产儿的尿液HCMV-DNA阳性率(83.33%、37.50%)均高于足月儿(47.76%、7.37%),差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。乳汁病毒DNA载量高于3.42者,84%将病毒传播给婴儿,而低于3.42者75%没有传播病。因此,2600 copies/mL(lg2600=3.42)为传播者的临界值。结论含有病毒的乳汁是HCMV的重要传染源,而且建议乳汁HCMV DNA载量2600 copies/mL作为传播者的临界值。早产儿对HCMV更为易感,尿液病毒DNA检测用来诊断HCMV具有很好的敏感性。%Objective To discuss the loads change of HCMV in breast milk and to reveal the risk of transmission to in-fants via breast-feeding. Methods From September 2013 to October 2014, 305 lactating mothers admitted to Obstetric Department of the Second Affiliated Hospital, and their 308 infants were screened for HCMV, with 103 formula-fed in-fants in the same period were selected as control. HCMV DNA isolated from breast milk, urine and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC

  16. Normal neurologic and developmental outcome after an accidental intravenous infusion of expressed breast milk in a neonate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, C Anthony

    2012-02-03

    Here we describe a premature male infant who was accidentally given 10 mL of expressed breast milk intravenously over a 3.5-hour period. Having survived this event with supportive care, this boy was attending regular school with no obvious neurologic or learning difficulties at 6 years of age. In 1998, after a query on an e-mail discussion group for health care providers in neonatology (NICU-net), we were informed of 8 similar events that proved fatal in 3 infants. A root-cause analysis revealed that accidental intravenous administration of breast milk or formula can be avoided by the use of color-coded enteral-administration sets with Luer connections that are not compatible with intravenous cannulas. The addition of methylene blue to feeds, or bolus enteral feeds (instead of continuous gastric feedings), may also help prevent such errors. These cases show the value of gathering information about rare but important events through a neonatal network. In addition, they confirm that prevention of medical error should focus on faulty systems rather than faulty people.

  17. Maternal Knowledge and Attitude toward Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding (BMF in the First 6 Months of Infant Life in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Leila Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is a complete food for growing children until 6 months of age, and mothers, as the most important child health care, play a decisive role in their growth. So promoting  their attitude toward the benefits of breastfeeding ensures guarantee child health in the future. This study aimed to assess maternal knowledge and attitude of Mashhad toward exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of infant life.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 126 mothers who referring to Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic tests and using SPSS 11.5.   Results: Mean score of maternal attitude toward exclusive BMF was 14.32±5.28 (out of 28 and maternal knowledge score toward advantages of breast milk was 19.59±4.80 (out of 28. The incidence of exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of life study was 73.8%. Child growth was as follows: excellent growth (5.6% and good growth (42.1%. ANOVA showed a significant difference between parents' education and maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF; whatever higher education of parents, more positive maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF (P

  18. Breastfeeding Trends in Cambodia, and the Increased Use of Breast-Milk Substitute—Why Is It a Danger?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophonneary Prak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional analysis of the Cambodia Demographic Health Surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010 was conducted to observe the national trends in infant and young child feeding practices. The results showed that rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged 0–5.9 months have increased substantially since 2000, concurrent with an increase in the rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and a reduction in the giving of pre-lacteal feeds. However, the proportion of infants being fed with breast-milk substitutes (BMS during 0–5.9 months doubled in 5 years (3.4% to 7.0% from 2000 to 2005, but then did not increase from 2005, likely due to extensive public health campaigns on exclusive breastfeeding. BMS use increased among children aged 6–23.9 months from 2000 to 2010 (4.8% to 9.3%. 26.1% of women delivering in a private clinic provided their child with breast-milk substitute at 0–5.9 months, which is five times more than women delivering in the public sector (5.1%, and the greatest increase in bottle use happened among the urban poor (5.8% to 21.7%. These findings are discussed with reference to the increased supply and marketing of BMS that is occurring in Cambodia.

  19. Avaliação da contratilidade da vesícula biliar com leite materno e leite de vaca em lactentes Gallbladder contractility after breast milk and cow's milk meals in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Silva Teixeira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As múltiplas características distintas do leite materno e do leite de vaca fazem com que o esvaziamento gástrico seja mais rápido após ingestão do primeiro. Esta rapidez do esvaziamento gástrico pode estar associada ao esvaziamento da vesícula biliar, também mais rápido. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar se há diferença na velocidade de esvaziamento da vesícula biliar, por método ultra-sonográfico, após ingestão de leite materno e leite de vaca. Estudamos 47 crianças menores de dois anos, 22 após uma refeição com leite materno e 25 após uma refeição com leite de vaca. A vesícula biliar foi medida após um período de quatro a seis horas de jejum e uma hora após uma refeição (leite materno ou leite de vaca, e a contração da vesícula biliar foi avaliada, em porcentagem, pela diferença de volume da vesícula biliar entre as duas medidas e expressa em porcentagem do volume inicial. As medianas das porcentagens do volume inicial para as crianças alimentadas com leite materno e leite de vaca foram, respectivamente, 92,25% e 53,8%, diferença estatisticamente significativa. Portanto, a contração da vesícula biliar após uma refeição com leite de vaca é muito mais lenta do que aquela após uma refeição com leite materno.Breast milk and cow's milk differ in multiple characteristics that account for a faster gastric emptying time after breast feeding. This faster gastric emptying may be associated with a faster gallbladder emptying. Our aim was to compare gallbladder contraction after breast milk meal and cow's milk meal using ultrasound examination. We studied 22 infants after a breast milk meal and 25 infants after a cow's milk meal. Gallbladder volume was measured after a 4-6 hours fasting and one hour after the meal (breast milk or cow's milk. Gallbladder contractility was calculated by determining the difference between gallbladder volume one hour after the meal and the fasting volume, and expressed as a

  20. Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

    2015-05-01

    Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (Podd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ∆-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 concentrations. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 concentrations (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 concentration (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (Δ9 to 11), trans-18:1 (Δ6 to 11), trans-18:2, CLA (cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11, trans-8,trans-10 and trans-7,trans-9) and 20- and 22-carbon FA concentrations. Overall, EL resulted in a relatively high cis-9 18:1 concentration and an increase in the 18:3n-3

  1. Dietary acrylamide intake and estrogen and progesterone receptor-defined postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, G.S.; Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Acrylamide, a potential human carcinogen, has been discovered in a variety of heat-treated carbohydrate-rich food products. Previously, dietary acrylamide intake was shown to be associated with endocrine-related cancers in humans. We assessed the association between dietary acrylamide intake and ris

  2. Protective Effects of Breast Milk on Central Nervous System and the Incidence of Febrile Convulsion in Breast-Fed Children

    OpenAIRE

    A Tayarani Bathayi; KH Farivar

    1999-01-01

    It is known that central nervous system is well protected in breast-fed children, recognized in decreased incidence of multiple sclerosis, infectious and malignant diseases of the central nervous system, sudden infant death syndrome, 5th day convulsion, and botulism as well as an increase in IQ rates. In this retrospective study we have found also an indirect correlation between in incidence of febrile convulsion and length of breast-feeding. Among 270 cases of febrile convulsion 144 (53.3%) ...

  3. Strategies for the Legal Implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes: Report on a WHO Meeting (Copenhagen, Denmark, November 10-12, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    For various reasons, several countries have had difficulty implementing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. To address those problems, a meeting was convened under the auspices of the World Health Organization. Specific purposes of the meeting were to inform member states about the Code and to develop national…

  4. Development of an ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the determination of antichagasic drugs in human breast milk: Optimization by central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padró, Juan M; Pellegrino Vidal, Rocío B; Echevarria, Romina N; Califano, Alicia N; Reta, Mario R

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease constitutes a major public health problem in Latin America. Human breast milk is a biological sample of great importance for the analysis of therapeutic drugs, as unwanted exposure through breast milk could result in pharmacological effects in the nursing infant. Thus, the goal of breast milk drug analysis is to inquire to which extent a neonate may be exposed to a drug during lactation. In this work, we developed an analytical technique to quantify benznidazole and nifurtimox (the two antichagasic drugs currently available for medical treatment) in human breast milk, with a simple sample pretreatment followed by an ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and UV detection. For this technique, the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate has been used as the "extraction solvent." A central composite design was used to find the optimum values for the significant variables affecting the extraction process: volume of ionic liquid, volume of dispersant solvent, ionic strength, and pH. At the optimum working conditions, the average recoveries were 77.5 and 89.7%, the limits of detection were 0.06 and 0.09 μg/mL and the interday reproducibilities were 6.25 and 5.77% for benznidazole and nifurtimox, respectively. The proposed methodology can be considered sensitive, simple, robust, accurate, and green. PMID:25711461

  5. Higher alcohol intake may modify the association between mammographic density and breast cancer: An analysis of three case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Conroy, Shannon M; Koga, Karin; Woolcott, Christy G.; Dahl, Timothy; Byrne, Celia; Nagata, Chisato; Ursin, Giske; Yaffe, Martin J.; Vachon, Celine M.; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and mammographic density are established risk factors for breast cancer. This study examined whether the association of mammographic density with breast cancer varies by alcohol intake. Mammographic density was assessed in digitized images for 1,207 cases and 1,663 controls from three populations (Japan, Hawaii, California) using a computer-assisted method. Associations were estimated by logistic regression. When comparing ever to never drinking, mean density was similar a...

  6. Association between Soy Isoflavone Intake and Breast Cancer Risk for Pre- and Post-Menopausal Women: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Meinan Chen; Yanhua Rao; Yi Zheng; Shiqing Wei; Ye Li; Tong Guo; Ping Yin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conclusions drawn from meta-analyses on the association between soy isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk for pre- and post-menopausal women are not fully consistent. These meta-analyses did not explore the influence of different study designs on the pooled results on the basis of distinguishing between pre- and post-menopausal women. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a meta-analysis of 35 studies which reported results of association between soy isoflavone intak...

  7. Short communication: Use of single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes and health history to predict future phenotypes for milk production, dry matter intake, body weight, and residual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C; Armentano, L E; VandeHaar, M J; Weigel, K A

    2015-03-01

    As feed prices have increased, the efficiency of feed utilization in dairy cattle has attracted increasing attention. In this study, we used residual feed intake (RFI) as a measurement of feed efficiency along with its component traits, adjusted milk energy (aMilkE), adjusted dry matter intake (aDMI), and adjusted metabolic body weight (aMBW), where the adjustment was for environmental factors. These traits may also be affected by prior health problems. Therefore, the carryover effects of 3 health traits from the rearing period and 10 health traits from the lactating period (in the same lactation before phenotype measurements) on RFI, aMilkE, aDMI, and aMBW were evaluated. Cows with heavier birth weight and greater body weight at calving of this lactation had significant increases in aMilkE, aDMI, and aMBW. The only trait associated with RFI was the incidence of diarrhea early in the lactation. Mastitis and reproductive problems had negative carryover effects on aMilkE. The aMBW of cows with metabolic disorders early in the lactation was lower than that of unaffected cows. The incidence of respiratory disease during lactating period was associated with greater aMBW and higher aDMI. To examine the contribution of health traits to the accuracy of predicted phenotype, genomic predictions were computed with or without information regarding 13 health trait phenotypes using random forests (RF) and support vector machine algorithms. Adding health trait phenotypes increased prediction accuracies slightly, except for prediction of RFI using RF. In general, the accuracies were greater for support vector machine than RF, especially for RFI. The methods described herein can be used to predict future phenotypes for dairy replacement heifers, thereby facilitating culling decisions that can lead to decreased feed costs during the rearing period. For these decisions, prediction of the animal's own phenotype is of greater importance than prediction of the genetic superiority or

  8. Free Amino Acids in Human Milk and Associations with Maternal Anthropometry and Infant Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Bruun, Signe; Pedersen, Dorthe;

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Free glutamic acid has an appetite regulating effect and studies with infant formula have suggested that free amino acids (FAA), especially glutamic acid, can downregulate intake. The content of glutamic acid and glutamine is high in breast milk but varies considerably between mothers...

  9. Tenascin-C is an innate broad-spectrum, HIV-1–neutralizing protein in breast milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Genevieve G.; Jaeger, Frederick H.; Amos, Joshua D.; Ho, Carrie; Kunz, Erika L.; Anasti, Kara; Stamper, Lisa W.; Liebl, Brooke E.; Barbas, Kimberly H.; Ohashi, Tomoo; Moseley, Martin Arthur; Liao, Hua-Xin; Erickson, Harold P.; Alam, S. Munir; Permar, Sallie R.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require elimination of postnatal transmission of HIV-1 while maintaining the nutritional and immunologic benefits of breastfeeding for infants in developing regions. Maternal/infant antiretroviral prophylaxis can reduce postnatal HIV-1 transmission, yet toxicities and the development of drug-resistant viral strains may limit the effectiveness of this strategy. Interestingly, in the absence of antiretroviral prophylaxis, greater than 90% of infants exposed to HIV-1 via breastfeeding remain uninfected, despite daily mucosal exposure to the virus for up to 2 y. Moreover, milk of uninfected women inherently neutralizes HIV-1 and prevents virus transmission in animal models, yet the factor(s) responsible for this anti-HIV activity is not well-defined. In this report, we identify a primary HIV-1–neutralizing protein in breast milk, Tenascin-C (TNC). TNC is an extracellular matrix protein important in fetal development and wound healing, yet its antimicrobial properties have not previously been established. Purified TNC captured and neutralized multiclade chronic and transmitted/founder HIV-1 variants, and depletion of TNC abolished the HIV-1–neutralizing activity of milk. TNC bound the HIV-1 Envelope protein at a site that is induced upon engagement of its primary receptor, CD4, and is blocked by V3 loop- (19B and F39F) and chemokine coreceptor binding site-directed (17B) monoclonal antibodies. Our results demonstrate the ability of an innate mucosal host protein found in milk to neutralize HIV-1 via binding to the chemokine coreceptor site, potentially explaining why the majority of HIV-1–exposed breastfed infants are protected against mucosal HIV-1 transmission. PMID:24145401

  10. Health risk assessment of trace elements via dietary intake of 'non-piscine protein source' foodstuffs (meat, milk and egg) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nazma; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Islam, Md Saiful; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Tukun, Avonti Basak; Islam, Saiful; M A Rahim, Abu Torab

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of six trace elements [chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As)] were assessed in 'non-piscine protein source' foodstuffs (meat, milk and eggs) to evaluate contamination level and human health risks in Bangladesh. The range of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb and As in the investigated foodstuffs was 1.24-2.17, 1.29-2.56, 0.92-2.31, 0.12-0.44, 0.15-0.48 and 0.14-0.57 mg kg fresh weight(-1), respectively. The estimated mean levels of most of the elements were higher than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) for dietary foods. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of Cr and Cd were higher than the maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI) for children, indicating that they are more susceptible to toxic elements through food consumption. The target hazard quotients (THQs) and target carcinogenic risk (TCR) of As (THQ > 1 and TCR > 10(-4)) for both the adults and children suggest that the consumers of non-piscine foodstuffs (especially cow milk and chicken meat) are exposed chronically to metal pollution with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health consequences.

  11. Health risk assessment of trace elements via dietary intake of 'non-piscine protein source' foodstuffs (meat, milk and egg) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nazma; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Islam, Md Saiful; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Tukun, Avonti Basak; Islam, Saiful; M A Rahim, Abu Torab

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of six trace elements [chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As)] were assessed in 'non-piscine protein source' foodstuffs (meat, milk and eggs) to evaluate contamination level and human health risks in Bangladesh. The range of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb and As in the investigated foodstuffs was 1.24-2.17, 1.29-2.56, 0.92-2.31, 0.12-0.44, 0.15-0.48 and 0.14-0.57 mg kg fresh weight(-1), respectively. The estimated mean levels of most of the elements were higher than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) for dietary foods. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of Cr and Cd were higher than the maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI) for children, indicating that they are more susceptible to toxic elements through food consumption. The target hazard quotients (THQs) and target carcinogenic risk (TCR) of As (THQ > 1 and TCR > 10(-4)) for both the adults and children suggest that the consumers of non-piscine foodstuffs (especially cow milk and chicken meat) are exposed chronically to metal pollution with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health consequences. PMID:26755177

  12. Effect of KNO3 to remove silver interferences in the determination of mercury(II: Application in milk and breast milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Farahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury determination was performed at rotating silver electrode (RSE using square wave voltammetry (SWV in electrolytic mixture of HCl (0.1 mol L−1 and KNO3 (0.2 mol L−1. The reproducibility, sensitivity and accuracy are good, provided the proper instrumental parameters and supporting electrolyte are used. The relationship between the peak current of mercury(II and its concentration is linear with regression equation: I(μA = 0.784 [Hg(II] + 49.5 (r2 = 0.9878 in the dynamic range from 1.0 × 10−7 to 8.0 × 10−4 mol L−1. The detection limit (DL,3σ and quantification limit (QL,10σ were 4.61 × 10−8 mol L−1 and 15.3 × 10−8 mol L−1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD for seven replicate analysis of a solution containing 5.0 × 10−5 mol L−1 was 2.19%. Possible effects of Cu, Co, Fe, MnO4, Zn, were investigated but did not cause any significant interferences. Immobilization of mercury(II on the surface of rotating silver electrode obeyed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated ΔG°ads value showed that the interaction between mercury and silver electrodes is mainly controlled by a chemisorption process. This methodology was potentially applied for mercury determination in milk and breast milk samples.

  13. Accumulation of persistent organochlorine contaminants in milk and serum of farmers from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntow, William J; Tagoe, Laud Mike; Drechsel, Pay; Kelderman, Peter; Gijzen, Huub J; Nyarko, Elvis

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the concentrations of persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dieldrin in pooled samples of human breast milk (n=109), and serum (n=115) from vegetable farmers in Ghana, during 2005, were determined. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to quantify residue levels on a lipid basis of the OCs. The pattern of OCs in human fluid showed that DDTs was consistently the prevalent OC in milk and blood. The levels of DDTs, HCHs, and dieldrin in the breast milk samples were found to correlate positively with age of the milk sample donors (r(s)=0.606, 0.770, and 0.540, respectively). When blood serum levels of the OCs were compared between male and female farmers, no pronounced relationship for HCHs and HCB (p>0.05) was observed. However, DDTs and dieldrin residues were significantly higher (pmilk and serum residues. When daily intakes of DDTs and HCHs to infants through human breast milk were estimated, some individual farmers (in the case of DDTs) and all farmers (in the case of HCHs) accumulated OCs in breast milk above the threshold (tolerable daily intake, TDI, guidelines proposed by Health Canada) for adverse effects, which may raise concern on children health. PMID:17931619

  14. Effect of Low-fat Milk Consumption Compared to Apple Juice and Water on the Energy Intake Among 10-12-Year-Old Obese Boys: A Three-way Cross-over Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Mehrabani; Amin Salehi-Abargouei; Mehdi Asemi; Sepideh Mehrabani; Awat Feizi; Seyyed Morteza Safavi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Appetite lowering characteristics of dairy have attracted scientists to look for its effect on energy intake particularly among children. In the present study, we tried to assess the effect of low-fat milk on total and short-term energy intake among obese boys in a randomized three-way cross-over clinical trial. Methods: A total of 34 obese 10-12-year-old boys were randomized to consume three beverages (low-fat milk, apple juice, or water) with a fixed energy breakfast for two...

  15. Genetic parameters across lactation for feed intake, fat and protein corrected milk, and live weight in first parity Holstein cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzanilla Pech, C.I.V.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Calus, M.P.L.; Zom, R.L.G.; Knegsel, van A.; Pryce, J.E.; Haas, de Y.

    2014-01-01

    Breeding values for dry matter intake (DMI) are important to optimize dairy cattle breeding goals for feed efficiency. However, generally, only small data sets are available for feed intake, due to the cost and difficulty of measuring DMI, which makes understanding the genetic associations between t

  16. Effect of Different Levels of Organic Acids Supplementation on Feed Intake, Milk Yield and Milk composition of Dairy Cows during Thermal Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahn, S.; Ali, A.; Mobashar, M.; Inam, M.; Ahmed, I.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, Mubarak; Khan, H.

    2013-01-01

    In many developing countries in the tropics, thermal stress results in lower feed intake, changes in energy metabolism, alterations in endocrine profiles of dairy cows which lead to animal health problems and production losses. Supplementation of organic acids can reduce the toxic metabolites and en

  17. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and breast cancer risk according to menopause and hormone receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Ferrari, Pietro; González, Carlos A.;

    2013-01-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary flavonoids and lignans and breast cancer (BC) risk is inconclusive, with the possible exception of isoflavones in Asian countries. Therefore, we investigated prospectively dietary total and subclasses of flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk according...

  18. Iodine Concentrations in Breast Milk and Urine in Mothers and Infants During the Period of 16 Weeks Postpartum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng ZHANG; Wen CHEN; Jun SHEN; Zhuo ZHAO; Jan HUO; Shu-hai LAN; Wan-qi ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the iodine status of lactating women and their infants during the first 4 month postpartum in the regions with optimal iodine nutrition.Methods Thirty pairs of lactating women and infants were followed up for 16 weeks after delivery. Urine samples were collected from mothers and infants at weeks 4, 8 and 12 and maternal breast-milk samples were collected at weeks 4, 8, 12 and 16. The contents of iodine were measured accordingly.Results Over the period of 12 weeks, the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of lactating women was 110.1µg/L (from 78.3µg/L to 138.8µg/L). Breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) was 171.8µg/L (from 125.4µg/L to 261.1µg/L) over the period of 16 weeks. There was significant difference between BMIC and UIC in lactating women (P<0.001). There was no correlation between UIC and the BMIC in lactating women. The median UIC in infants was 211.8µg/L (from 141.5µg/L to 283.1µg/L). No differences were observed among UICs of infants over the three sampling times. Infant UIC was correlated with BMIC, but not maternal UIC. A significant difference was observed among BMICs over the four sampling times (P<0.001). A decline tendency was found in BMIC with time after delivery (R2=-0.545,P<0.001). Conclusion: BMIC was decreased in the first 16 weeks in the lactating women with an optimal iodine status. So adequate supplementation of iodine is recommended for lactating women.

  19. Development of a method for the determination of cocaine, cocaethylene and norcocaine in human breast milk using liquid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Gabriela de Oliveira; Belitsky, Íris Tikkanen; Loddi, Silvana; Rodrigues de Oliveira, Carolina Dizioli; Zucoloto, Alexandre Dias; Fruchtengarten, Ligia Veras Gimenez; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2016-08-01

    Most licit and illicit substances consumed by the nursing mother might be excreted in breast milk, which may cause potential short and long term harmful effects for the breastfed infant. The extraction of substances from this matrix represents an analytical challenge due to its high protein and fat content as well as the fact that its composition changes during postpartum period. The aim of the present study was to develop a liquid phase microextraction (LPME) method for detection of the active substances: cocaine (COC), cocaethylene (CE) and norcocaine (NCOC) in human breast milk using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Validation was performed working on spiked human breast milk samples. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were of 6 and 12ng/mL, respectively, for all analytes. Calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 12.0ng/mL-1000ng/mL (r(2)=0.99). No interferences were noticed at the retention times of interest. Within-run and between-run precision was always less or equal to 15 as % relative standard deviation, and bias ranged from 3 to 18%. Forty six milk samples were analyzed. Only one sample was confirmed to be COC positive (138ng/mL) and another one presented COC concentration near the LOD (6ng/mL). This method has shown to be a reliable alternative for the determination of cocaine, cocaethylene and norcocaine in human breast milk in the fields of clinical and forensic toxicology. LPME extraction procedure demonstrated to be a rather promising, low cost and environmental-friendly technique for the purpose of this study.

  20. Development of a method for the determination of cocaine, cocaethylene and norcocaine in human breast milk using liquid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Gabriela de Oliveira; Belitsky, Íris Tikkanen; Loddi, Silvana; Rodrigues de Oliveira, Carolina Dizioli; Zucoloto, Alexandre Dias; Fruchtengarten, Ligia Veras Gimenez; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2016-08-01

    Most licit and illicit substances consumed by the nursing mother might be excreted in breast milk, which may cause potential short and long term harmful effects for the breastfed infant. The extraction of substances from this matrix represents an analytical challenge due to its high protein and fat content as well as the fact that its composition changes during postpartum period. The aim of the present study was to develop a liquid phase microextraction (LPME) method for detection of the active substances: cocaine (COC), cocaethylene (CE) and norcocaine (NCOC) in human breast milk using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Validation was performed working on spiked human breast milk samples. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were of 6 and 12ng/mL, respectively, for all analytes. Calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 12.0ng/mL-1000ng/mL (r(2)=0.99). No interferences were noticed at the retention times of interest. Within-run and between-run precision was always less or equal to 15 as % relative standard deviation, and bias ranged from 3 to 18%. Forty six milk samples were analyzed. Only one sample was confirmed to be COC positive (138ng/mL) and another one presented COC concentration near the LOD (6ng/mL). This method has shown to be a reliable alternative for the determination of cocaine, cocaethylene and norcocaine in human breast milk in the fields of clinical and forensic toxicology. LPME extraction procedure demonstrated to be a rather promising, low cost and environmental-friendly technique for the purpose of this study. PMID:26826849

  1. Effect of pour-on alphacypermethrin on feed intake, body condition score, milk yield, pregnancy rates, and calving-to-conception interval in buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, G; Veneziano, V; Cimmino, R; Esposito, L; Auletta, L; Varricchio, E; Balestrieri, A; Claps, S; Campanile, G; Neglia, G

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of alphacypermethrin (ACYP) on pediculosis due to Haematopinus tuberculatus and to evaluate the influence of the treatment on productive and reproductive performance in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) reared in an intensive system. The trial was performed on 56 pluriparous buffaloes at 86.8 ± 8.1 d in milk. The animals underwent individual louse count and were divided into 2 homogenous groups according to louse count, age, number of lactations, days in milk, live BW, BCS, pregnancy status, and milk yield. Group A (n = 28) was treated by a pour-on formulation of ACYP, and Group S (n = 28) was treated by pour-on saline solution. Individual louse counts were performed weekly on 10 buffaloes in each group. Feed intake was recorded daily and the total mixed ration, individual ingredients, and orts were analyzed to calculate DM ingestion. Individual milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were analyzed at the beginning of the trial, after 4 wk, and at the end of the trial to assess milk composition. Individual BCS was also evaluated simultaneously. Finally, the animals underwent synchronization of ovulation starting 4 wk after treatment and the pregnancy rate and the calving-conception interval were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA for repeated measures. The infestation was constant in Group S, whereas no lice were present in Group A throughout the study. Daily DMI was similar in the 2 groups (16.7 ± 0.4 vs. 16.3 ± 0.3 kg/d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), although buffaloes in Group A showed higher (P < 0.05) BCS score at the end of the trial (7.39 ± 0.1 vs. 7.14 ± 0.1 in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). The average milk yield/buffalo was higher (P < 0.05) in Group A compared to Group S (10.58 ± 0.1 vs. 10.39 ± 0.1 kg in Group A vs. Group S, respectively) and this was mainly due to the higher milk production recorded in buffaloes at less than 75 d in milk (11.81 ± 0

  2. Lactose in human breast milk an inducer of innate immunity with implications for a role in intestinal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlund, Andreas; Kai-Larsen, Ylva; Printz, Gordana; Yoshio, Hiroyuki; Alvelius, Gunvor; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Strömberg, Roger; Jörnvall, Hans; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H; Agerberth, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum, infants have not yet established a fully functional adaptive immune system and are at risk of acquiring infections. Hence, newborns are dependent on the innate immune system with its antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and proteins expressed at epithelial surfaces. Several factors in breast milk are known to confer immune protection, but which the decisive factors are and through which manner they work is unknown. Here, we isolated an AMP-inducing factor from human milk and identified it by electrospray mass spectrometry and NMR to be lactose. It induces the gene (CAMP) that encodes the only human cathelicidin LL-37 in colonic epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The induction was suppressed by two different p38 antagonists, indicating an effect via the p38-dependent pathway. Lactose also induced CAMP in the colonic epithelial cell line T84 and in THP-1 monocytes and macrophages. It further exhibited a synergistic effect with butyrate and phenylbutyrate on CAMP induction. Together, these results suggest an additional function of lactose in innate immunity by upregulating gastrointestinal AMPs that may lead to protection of the neonatal gut against pathogens and regulation of the microbiota of the infant.

  3. Lactose in human breast milk an inducer of innate immunity with implications for a role in intestinal homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Cederlund

    Full Text Available Postpartum, infants have not yet established a fully functional adaptive immune system and are at risk of acquiring infections. Hence, newborns are dependent on the innate immune system with its antimicrobial peptides (AMPs and proteins expressed at epithelial surfaces. Several factors in breast milk are known to confer immune protection, but which the decisive factors are and through which manner they work is unknown. Here, we isolated an AMP-inducing factor from human milk and identified it by electrospray mass spectrometry and NMR to be lactose. It induces the gene (CAMP that encodes the only human cathelicidin LL-37 in colonic epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The induction was suppressed by two different p38 antagonists, indicating an effect via the p38-dependent pathway. Lactose also induced CAMP in the colonic epithelial cell line T84 and in THP-1 monocytes and macrophages. It further exhibited a synergistic effect with butyrate and phenylbutyrate on CAMP induction. Together, these results suggest an additional function of lactose in innate immunity by upregulating gastrointestinal AMPs that may lead to protection of the neonatal gut against pathogens and regulation of the microbiota of the infant.

  4. Associations of dietary folate, Vitamins B6 and B12 and methionine intake with risk of breast cancer among African American and European American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhihong; Ambrosone, Christine B; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Chandran, Urmila; Hong, Chi-Chen; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Jandorf, Lina; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Lu, Quanjun; Hwang, Helena; Khoury, Thaer; Wiam, Bshara; Bandera, Elisa V

    2014-03-15

    African American (AA) women are more likely than European American (EA) women to be diagnosed with breast cancer at younger ages and to develop poor prognosis tumors. However, these racial differences are largely unexplained. Folate and other methyl-group nutrients may be related to breast carcinogenesis, but few studies have examined these associations in AA populations. We examined the associations of dietary intake of these nutrients with breast cancer risk overall, by menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status among 1,582 AA (749 cases) and 1,434 EA (744 cases) women using data from a case-control study, the Women's Circle of Health Study. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of each nutrient and breast cancer risk. In AA women, inverse associations were observed for natural food folate intake among premenopausal women (fourth vs. first quartile: OR = 0.57, 95% CI, 0.33-1.00; p for trend = 0.06) and for ER-positive tumors (fourth vs. first quartile: OR = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.36-0.93; p for trend = 0.03), whereas in EA women, a positive association was observed for intake of synthetic folate (fourth vs. first quartile: OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.06-2.21; p for trend = 0.03). Our findings suggest that natural food folate intake is inversely associated with breast cancer risk and that this association may vary by race, menopausal status or ER status. The finding of an increased risk observed among EA women with the highest intake of synthetic folate from fortified foods warrants further investigation.

  5. The importance of milk and milk products in human nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Plisková, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are a pivotal part of human nutrition for all life. In this work all the important components of milk and then influence the consumption of milk and milk products on human health are evaluated. Milk is an important source of energy in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, also substances for enhancing metabolism i.e. vitamins and minerals. This work also describes in details specific dairy products. Milk is very important immediately after birth, breast mil...

  6. Analysis of Moms Across America report suggesting bioaccumulation of glyphosate in U.S. mother's breast milk: Implausibility based on inconsistency with available body of glyphosate animal toxicokinetic, human biomonitoring, and physico-chemical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, James S

    2015-12-01

    The non-peer-reviewed biomonitoring report published online by Moms Across America (MAA; Honeycutt and Rowlands, 2014) does not support the conclusion that glyphosate concentrations detected in a limited number of urine samples from women, men and children, or breast milk from nursing mothers, pose a health risk to the public, including nursing children. Systemically absorbed doses of glyphosate estimated from the MAA urine biomonitoring data and from other published biomonitoring studies indicate that daily glyphosate doses are substantially below health protective reference standards (ADIs; RfDs) established by regulatory agencies. The MAA report also suggested that detection of relatively high glyphosate concentrations in breast milk in 3 of 10 sampled women raised a concern for bioaccumulation in breast milk. However, the breast milk concentrations reported by MAA are highly implausible when considered in context to low daily systemic doses of glyphosate estimated from human urine biomonitoring data, and also are inconsistent with animal toxicokinetic data demonstrating no evidence of retention in tissues or milk after single- or multiple-dose glyphosate treatment. In addition, toxicokinetic studies in lactating goats have shown that glyphosate does not partition into milk at concentrations greater than blood, and that only a very small percentage of the total administered dose (glyphosate exposures estimated from urine biomonitoring fall thousands-of-fold short of external doses capable of producing blood concentrations sufficient to result in the breast milk concentrations described in the MAA report. Finally, in contrast to highly lipophilic compounds with bioaccumulation potential in breast milk, the physico-chemical properties of glyphosate indicate that it is highly hydrophilic (ionized) at physiological pH and unlikely to preferentially distribute into breast milk.

  7. Revised reference values for selenium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, A P; Strohm, D; Brigelius-Flohé, R; Schomburg, L; Bechthold, A; Leschik-Bonnet, E; Heseker, H

    2015-10-01

    The German, Austrian and Swiss nutrition societies are the joint editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of selenium and published them in February 2015. The saturation of selenoprotein P (SePP) in plasma is used as a criterion for the derivation of reference values for selenium intake in adults. For persons from selenium-deficient regions (China) SePP saturation was achieved with a daily intake of 49μg of selenium. When using the reference body weights the D-A-CH reference values are based upon, the resulting estimated value for selenium intake is 70μg/day for men and 60μg/day for women. The estimated value for selenium intake for children and adolescents is extrapolated using the estimated value for adults in relation to body weight. For infants aged 0 to under 4 months the estimated value of 10μg/day was derived from the basis of selenium intake via breast milk. For infants aged 4 to under 12 months this estimated value was used and taking into account the differences regarding body weight an estimated value of 15μg/day was derived. For lactating women compared to non-lactating women a higher reference value of 75μg/day is indicated due to the release of selenium with breast milk. The additional selenium requirement for pregnant women is negligible, so that no increased reference value is indicated. PMID:26302929

  8. ELOVL2基因多态性与乳母乳汁 DHA 水平的关联性分析%Association analysis on polymorphisms of ELOVL2 gene and DHA level in breast milk of lactating mothers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李响; 丁珍; 吴义霞; 陈雪妍; 刘国良; 谢林

    2015-01-01

    frequencies of rs2281591 and rs3798713 sites in ELOVL2 gene was consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05).The dietary fatty acid intakes and the milk DHA levels of maternals carrying different genotypes had no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05 ). The DHA levels in breast milk of maternals carring different rs3798713 (CG)-rs2281591 (AG)haplotypes had no statistically significant difference (χ2 =3.422,df =5,P =0.635).Conclusion Rs3798713 and rs2281951 and constructed haplotypes in ELOVL2 gene are not related to the DHA levels in breast milk.

  9. Reversal of primary root caries lesions after daily intake of milk supplemented with fluoride and probiotic lactobacilli in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Lars G; Magnusson, Kerstin; Hakestam, Ulf;

    2011-01-01

    and group D milk contained only fluoride. Primary endpoints were Root Caries Index (RCI) and electric resistance measurements (ECM) carried out by one blinded single examiner. Secondary endpoints were mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts in saliva and plaque estimated with chair-side tests. Data were...

  10. Short communication: Forage particle size and fat intake affect rumen passage, the fatty acid profile of milk, and milk fat production in dairy cows consuming dried distillers grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2016-01-01

    Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging (± SD) 116 ± 18 d in milk and 686 ± 52 kg of body weight were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to test the effects of forage particle size and concentration of corn oil on milk fat depression. Cows were housed in individual stalls, milked daily at 0700 and 1800 h, and individually fed daily at 0900 h for ad libitum consumption allowing approximately 10% orts. Four 28-d periods, in which each cow was offered 1 of 4 total mixed rations, included reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles at 30% of dietary dry matter and differed in forage particle size by inclusion of chopped grass hay (LONGP) or grass hay pellets (SHORTP) and 0 or 2% corn oil (CO). Dietary treatments were 0% corn oil + short particle size (CO0+SHORTP), 0% corn oil + long particle size (CO0+LONGP), 2% corn oil + short particle size (CO2 + SHORTP), and 2% corn oil + long particle size (CO2 + LONGP). Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by treatment averaging 26.5 ± 1.19 kg/d and 32.8 ± 3.34 kg/d, respectively. A decrease was found in 3.5% fat-corrected milk with the inclusion of oil resulting in 34.6 and 26.6 ± 2.6 kg/d for 0 and 2% oil diets, respectively. An oil × size interaction was found for milk fat concentration resulting in 2.27, 3.02, 3.62, and 3.62 ± 0.23% for CO2+SHORTP, CO2 + LONGP, CO0 + SHORTP, and CO0 + LONGP, respectively. Fat yield was reduced from 1.22 to 0.81 ± 0.09 kg/d with 2% oil diets. Cows consuming diets with long particle size spent 29 more minutes eating compared with the cows consuming short particle size (198 and 169 ± 15 min/d). Rumination time decreased from 504 to 400 ± 35 min/d for cows consuming short particle size compared with long particle size. Total chewing was reduced from 702 to 570 ± 4 min/d when cows consumed short particle size. Feeding long particle size decreased rate of passage of dry matter from 3.38 to 2.89 ± 0.42%/h

  11. Breast milk reduces the risk of illness in children of mothers with cholera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Katja; Mølbak, Kåre; Sandström, Anita;

    2006-01-01

    .19; 95% CI, 0.04-0.91, adjusted for age). The 3 breastfed children who developed cholera received milk containing lower concentrations of anticholera toxin IgA/total IgA (median, 2.0 units/mL) than 14 children who had serologic signs of colonization but did not develop the disease (median, 17.4 units...

  12. Fibroblast growth factor 21 in breast milk controls neonatal intestine function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaldà-Navarro, Aleix; Hondares, Elayne; Giralt, Marta; Mampel, Teresa; Iglesias, Roser; Villarroya, Francesc

    2015-09-02

    FGF21 is a hormonal factor with important functions in the control of metabolism. FGF21 is found in rodent and human milk. Radiolabeled FGF21 administered to lactating dams accumulates in milk and is transferred to neonatal gut. The small intestine of neonatal (but not adult) mice highly expresses β-Klotho in the luminal area. FGF21-KO pups fed by FGF21-KO dams showed decreased expression and circulating levels of incretins (GIP and GLP-1), reduced gene expression of intestinal lactase and maltase-glucoamylase, and low levels of galactose in plasma, all associated with a mild decrease in body weight. When FGF21-KO pups were nursed by wild-type dams (expressing FGF21 in milk), intestinal peptides and digestive enzymes were up-regulated, lactase enzymatic activity was induced, and galactose levels and body weight were normalized. Neonatal intestine explants were sensitive to FGF21, as evidenced by enhanced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Oral infusion of FGF21 into neonatal pups induced expression of intestinal hormone factors and digestive enzymes, lactase activity and lactose absorption. These findings reveal a novel role of FGF21 as a hormonal factor contributing to neonatal intestinal function via its presence in maternal milk. Appropriate signaling of FGF21 to neonate is necessary to ensure optimal digestive and endocrine function in developing intestine.

  13. Day-to-Day Variations in Iron, Zinc and Copper in Breast Milk of Guatemalan Mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; West, C.E.; Schümann, K.; Bulux-Hernandes, J.; Solomons, N.W.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the within-subject and between-subject coefficients of variation (CV) of iron, zinc and copper concentrations in the milk of Guatemalan mothers. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in lactating women who had delivered a healthy infant 1 to 6 months previously in two lo

  14. A Metalloproteomics Study on the Association of Mercury With Breast Milk in Samples From Lactating Women in the Amazon Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Felipe André; Cavecci, Bruna; Vieira, José Cavalcante Souza; Franzini, Vanessa Pezza; Santos, Ademir; de Lima Leite, Aline; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Zara, Luiz Fabrício; de Magalhães Padilha, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to identify metalloproteins that lose their metal ions in the presence of mercury (Hg) and bind to Hg in breast milk samples collected from the riverine population of the Madeira River, a tributary of the Amazon River. Initially, total Hg was determined from the hair of lactating women to identify individuals who were contaminated followed by a proteomic analysis of breast milk samples through two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after acetone precipitation. The presence of Hg in the obtained protein spots was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. These determinations indicated the presence of Hg in one protein spot, which was then characterized through electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Based on searches in the UniProt database, this protein spot was identified as lysozyme C.

  15. From milk to malignancy: the role of mammary stem cells in development, pregnancy and breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Tiede; Yibin Kang

    2011-01-01

    Adult stem cells of the mammary gland (MaSCs) are a highly dynamic population of cells that are responsible for the generation of the gland during puberty and its expansion during pregnancy, in recent years significant advances have been made in understanding how these cells are regulated during these developmentally important processes both in humans and in mice. Understanding how MaSCs are regulated is becoming a particularly important area of research, given that they may be particularly susceptible targets for transformation in breast cancer. Here, we summarize the identification of MaSCs, how they are regulated and the evidence for their serving as the origins of breast cancer, in particular, we focus on how changes in MaSC populations may explain both the increased risk of developing aggressive ERJPR(-) breast cancer shortly after pregnancy and the long-term decreased risk of developing ER/ PR(+) tumors.

  16. 广州市越秀区居民乳类产品摄入情况调查%Investigation and analysis of milk products intakes of Yuexiu residents in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢嘉明; 朱紫杭; 黄亮宇; 曾嘉婕

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解广州市越秀区居民乳及乳制品的摄入情况,为指导居民合理膳食提供科学依据.方法 随机抽取425名越秀区居民进行问卷调查,采用EpiData3.1进行数据录入,并用SPSSI3.0统计软件进行数据处理.结果 居民乳制品的摄入率为85.65%,总人均每日摄入量为100.26 g;人均每日摄入量由高到低依次是纯乳(67.77 g)、酸奶(18.03 g)、奶粉(7.16 g)、含乳饮料(6.88 g)及奶酪(0.42 g);乳制品摄入量的达标率为6.12%.不同年龄、职业、文化程度居民乳制品平均摄入量差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),摄入较多的是3~12岁、学龄前儿童和小学及小学以下人群,其人均每日摄入量中位数分别为95.84 g、137.10 g和100.00 g.结论 仅6.12%的居民乳制品摄入量达到推荐量,远低于世界水平.应加大乳制品的宣传力度,特别是针对儿童青少年的健康干预,倡导居民增加乳制品的摄入量以优化健康状态.%OBJECTIVE In order to grasp Guangzhou residents' milk and milk product intake so as to provide a scientific basis for guiding reasonable diet.METHODS 425 Yuexiu residents were sampled for questionnaire surveys.The EpiData3.1 was used for data inputting and SPSS13.0 software was used for data processing.RESULTS Residents' milk product consumption rate was 85.65%,the total per capita daily intake was 100.26 g and per capita daily intake in descending order were milk (67.77g),yoghurt (18.03g),milk powder (7.16g),milk drink (6.88g) and cheese (0.42g) respectively.The compliance rate of dairy intake was 6.12%.The milk intake of different ages,occupational and cultural level people were different and had a statistical difference (P < 0.05).People having more milk were 3-12 years,preschool child,primary education and below and their per capita daily intake were 95.84 g,137.10 g and 100.00 g respectively.CONCLUSION Only 6.12% residents achieve the recommended intake of dairy products which is

  17. Postnatally-transmitted HIV-1 Envelope variants have similar neutralization-sensitivity and function to that of nontransmitted breast milk variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouda Genevieve G

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a leading cause of infant HIV-1 infection in the developing world, yet only a minority of infants exposed to HIV-1 via breastfeeding become infected. As a genetic bottleneck severely restricts the number of postnatally-transmitted variants, genetic or phenotypic properties of the virus Envelope (Env could be important for the establishment of infant infection. We examined the efficiency of virologic functions required for initiation of infection in the gastrointestinal tract and the neutralization sensitivity of HIV-1 Env variants isolated from milk of three postnatally-transmitting mothers (n=13 viruses, five clinically-matched nontransmitting mothers (n=16 viruses, and seven postnatally-infected infants (n = 7 postnatally-transmitted/founder (T/F viruses. Results There was no difference in the efficiency of epithelial cell interactions between Env virus variants from the breast milk of transmitting and nontransmitting mothers. Moreover, there was similar efficiency of DC-mediated trans-infection, CCR5-usage, target cell fusion, and infectivity between HIV-1 Env-pseudoviruses from nontransmitting mothers and postnatal T/F viruses. Milk Env-pseudoviruses were generally sensitive to neutralization by autologous maternal plasma and resistant to breast milk neutralization. Infant T/F Env-pseudoviruses were equally sensitive to neutralization by broadly-neutralizing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies as compared to nontransmitted breast milk Env variants. Conclusion Postnatally-T/F Env variants do not appear to possess a superior ability to interact with and cross a mucosal barrier or an exceptional resistance to neutralization that define their capability to initiate infection across the infant gastrointestinal tract in the setting of preexisting maternal antibodies.

  18. Phthalate Diesters and Their Metabolites in Human Breast Milk, Blood or Serum, and Urine as Biomarkers of Exposure in Vulnerable Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Högberg, Johan; Hanberg, Annika; Berglund, Marika; Skerfving, Staffan; Remberger, Mikael; Calafat, Antonia M.; Filipsson, Agneta Falk; Jansson, Bo; Johansson, Niklas; Appelgren, Malin; Håkansson, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Background Phthalates may pose a risk for perinatal developmental effects. An important question relates to the choice of suitable biological matrices for assessing exposure during this period. Objectives This study was designed to measure the concentrations of phthalate diesters or their metabolites in breast milk, blood or serum, and urine and to evaluate their suitability for assessing perinatal exposure to phthalates. Methods In 2001, 2–3 weeks after delivery, 42 Swedish primipara provide...

  19. Nosocomial colonization due to imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa epidemiologically linked to breast milk feeding in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caterina MAMMINA; Paola DI CARLO; Domenico CIPOLLA; Alessandra CASUCCIO; Matilde TANTILLO; Maria Rosa Anna PLANO; Angela MAZZOLA; Giovanni CORSELLO

    2008-01-01

    Aim: We describe a one-year investigation of colonization by imipenem-resistant, metallo-β-1actamase (MBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the University Hospital of Palermo, Italy. Methods: A prospective epidemiological investigation was conducted in the period 2003 January to 2004 January. Rectal swabs were collected twice a week from all neonates throughout their NICU stay. MBL production by imipenem-resistant strains of P aeruginosa was detected by phenotypic and molecular methods. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was carried out on all isolates of P aeruginosa. The association between risk factors and colonization by imipenem-resistant, imipenem-susceptible P aeruginosa isolates and other multidrug-resistant Gram negative (MDRGN) organisms was analyzed for variables present at admission and during the NICU stay. Data analysis was carried out by the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results: Twenty-two of 210 neonates were colonized with imipenem-resistant, MBL-producing P aeruginosa isolates and 14 by imipenem-susceptible P aeruginosa isolates. A single pulsotype, named A, was shared by all imipenem-resistant isolates. Colonization by P aeruginosa of pulsotype A was positively correlated with breast milk feeding and administration of ampicillin-sulbactam, and inversely correlated with exclusive feeding by formula. In the Cox proportional hazards regression model, birthweight of more than 2500 g and breast milk feeding were independently associated with an increased risk of colonization by MBL-producing P aeruginosa. Conclusion: The results strongly support an association between colonization by a well-defined imipenem-resistant, MBL producing P aeruginosa strain and breast milk feeding. Such a study may highlight the need for implementation of strategies to prevent expressed breast milk from becoming a vehicle of health care-associated infections.

  20. Impact of maternal BMI and sampling strategy on the concentration of leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk across a single feed: a longitudinal cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Hyde, Matthew J; Herbert, Bronwen R; Jeffries, Suzan; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Holmes, Elaine; Modi, Neena

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We tested the hypothesis that there is a positive association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk. We also aimed to describe the change in breast milk hormone concentration within each feed, and over time. Setting Mothers were recruited from the postpartum ward at a university hospital in London. Breast milk samples were collected at the participants’ homes. Participants We recruited 120 healthy, primiparous, breastfeeding mothers, aged over 18 years. Mothers who smoked, had multiple births or had diabetes were excluded. Foremilk and hindmilk samples were collected from 105 women at 1 week postpartum and 92 women at 3 months postpartum. Primary and secondary outcome measures We recorded maternal and infant anthropometric measurements at each sample collection and measured hormone concentrations using a multiplex assay. Results The concentration of leptin in foremilk correlated with maternal BMI at the time of sample collection, at 7 days (r=0.31, p=0.02) and 3 months postpartum (r=0.30, p=maternal BMI at 3 months postpartum (r=0.22, p=0.04). Breast milk ghrelin and resistin were not correlated with maternal BMI. Ghrelin concentrations at 3 months postpartum were increased in foremilk compared with hindmilk (p=0.01). Concentrations of ghrelin were increased in hindmilk collected at 1  week postpartum compared with samples collected at 3 months postpartum (p=0.03). A trend towards decreased insulin concentrations in hindmilk was noted. Concentrations of leptin and resistin were not seen to alter over a feed. Conclusions A positive correlation between maternal BMI and foremilk leptin concentration at both time points studied, and foremilk insulin at 3 months postpartum was observed. This may have implications for infant appetite regulation and obesity risk. PMID:27388351

  1. POTENSI LACTOBACILLUS YANG DIISOLASI DARI AIR SUSU IBU UNTUK MENCEGAH DIARE [Potential of Lactobacillus Isolated from Breast Milk to Prevent Diarrheae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Prangdimurti1, 2

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Some of Lactobacillus species isolated from breast milk are known to have antimicrobial activities, including against Escherichia coli. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus species isolated from breast milk against enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain K1.1 and the effectiveness of the Lactobacillus isolates to prevent diarrhea on rats (Sprague Dawley. The infective dose of E. coli K1.1 to induce diarrhea without causing death were also determined. Based on the antimicrobial activity there were three isolates of Lactobacillus that exhibited good inhibition againts E. coli K1.1, i.e. Lactobacillus rhamnosus R14, L. rhamnosus R23, and L. rhamnosus B16. Determination of E. coli infective dose showed that 108 CFU of E. coli K1.1 was sufficient to induce diarrhea on rat without causing death. The number of diarrhea rats and severity level in group treated with L. rhamnosus were lower than groups untreated with the Lactobacilli. This study showed that the three L. rhamnosus isolated from breast milk were able to prevent diarrhea due to infection of E. coli K1.1 when the Lactobacillus was regularly introduced prior to infection. L. rhamnosus R23 showed the best capabilities of preventing diarrhea in rats as compared to two other isolates of Lactobacillus. The incidence of diarrhea correlated with the number of lactobacilli in the feces. However when the period of diarrhea ceased, there were no difference in total lactobacilli and E. coli in the caecum, colon and feces between rats treated with L. rhamnosus and the control. This finding revealed the L. rhamnosus isolated from breast milk were potential for prevention of diarrhea when consumed regularly.

  2. RNA-based gene delivery system hidden in breast milk microvesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Oztas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Human milk samples contain microvesicles similar to the retroviruses. These microvesicles contain single-stranded RNA and possess reverse transcriptase activity. It has recently been reported that RNA content of the microvesicles could be transferred to other cells and be functional in their new location. These microvesicles may therefore transfer genetic signals from mother to neonate during breastfeeding. Moreover, transfer of wild type RNA from a healthy wet-nurse to the suckling neonate through the milk microvesicles and its subsequent reverse transcription and integration into the neonate genome could result in permanent correction of the clinical manifestations in genetic diseases. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(2.000: 125-136

  3. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  4. Breast milk cytokine and IgA composition differ in Estonian and Swedish mothers-relationship to microbial pressure and infant allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomicić, Sara; Johansson, Git; Voor, Tiia; Björkstén, Bengt; Böttcher, Malin Fagerås; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2010-10-01

    The immune system of the neonate is influenced by maternal immunity during pregnancy and lactation. An altered microbial exposure, possibly underlying the increase of allergic diseases in affluent societies, may affect maternal breast milk immune composition. Secretory IgA (SIgA), IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-[gamma], TGF-[beta]1, and TGF-[beta]2 were analyzed with ELISA in colostrum and 1-mo mature milk from mothers from Estonia (n = 39) and Sweden (n = 60), the two geographically adjacent countries with different living conditions and allergy incidence. The IL-10 and IFN-[gamma] levels were higher in colostrum from Estonian than Swedish mothers, whereas the opposite was true for TGF-[beta]2. In mature milk, higher SIgA and IFN-[gamma] levels but lower TGF-[beta]1 and TGF-[beta]2 levels were observed in Estonian than Swedish mothers. Interestingly, in Sweden but not Estonia, the TGF-[beta]1 and TGF-[beta]2 levels correlated inversely with environmental endotoxin concentrations, whereas positive correlations to microbial load were observed for IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-[gamma]. High colostral IL-13 levels were associated with allergic sensitization during infancy in Sweden. In conclusion, Estonian mothers have lower breast milk levels of TGF-[beta], particularly TGF-[beta]2, but higher levels of SIgA, IL-10, and IFN-[gamma] than Swedish mothers, possibly because of differences in microbial load.

  5. A very simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection for the determination of gemifloxacin in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagirli, Olcay; Demirci, Seda; Önal, Armağan

    2015-12-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection was developed and validated for the determination of gemifloxacin in human breast milk. The proposed method allows the determination of gemifloxacin in breast milk samples without complex sample preparation. The samples were mixed with a mobile phase and filtered with a 0.45 µm polytetrafluoroethylene filter before analysis. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm I.D.) using methanol:50 mM ortho-phosphoric acid solution (40:60) as the mobile phase with a 1.0 mL/min flow rate. Quantitation was performed using fluorescence detection with an excitation wavelength at 272 nm and an emission wavelength at 395 nm. The linear range was found to be 0.1-2.5 µg/mL. The method was applied successfully for the determination of gemifloxacin in breast milk obtained from a breastfeeding mother after oral administration of a single tablet that included 320 mg gemifloxacin per gemifloxacin tablet. PMID:25808579

  6. A very simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection for the determination of gemifloxacin in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagirli, Olcay; Demirci, Seda; Önal, Armağan

    2015-12-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection was developed and validated for the determination of gemifloxacin in human breast milk. The proposed method allows the determination of gemifloxacin in breast milk samples without complex sample preparation. The samples were mixed with a mobile phase and filtered with a 0.45 µm polytetrafluoroethylene filter before analysis. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm I.D.) using methanol:50 mM ortho-phosphoric acid solution (40:60) as the mobile phase with a 1.0 mL/min flow rate. Quantitation was performed using fluorescence detection with an excitation wavelength at 272 nm and an emission wavelength at 395 nm. The linear range was found to be 0.1-2.5 µg/mL. The method was applied successfully for the determination of gemifloxacin in breast milk obtained from a breastfeeding mother after oral administration of a single tablet that included 320 mg gemifloxacin per gemifloxacin tablet.

  7. Complementary feeding with cow's milk alters sleeping metabolic rate in breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Wells, JCK; Coward, WA; Duro, D; Victora, CG; Vonk, RJ; Wright, A; Visser, GH

    2005-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that energy expenditure in infants is a function of feeding pattern, the mechanism behind this is not well understood. The objectives of this observational study were as follows: 1) to compare minimal observable energy expenditure (MOEE) between 2 subgroups of breast-f

  8. Journal Article: Infant Exposure to Dioxin-Like Compounds in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple, one-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model is used to predict the infant body burden of dioxin-like compounds that results from breast-feeding. Validation testing of the model showed a good match between predictions and measurements of dioxin toxic equivalents ...

  9. Improving the risk assessment of lipophilic persistent environmental chemicals in breast milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: A breastfeeding infant’s intake of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may be much greater than his/her mother’s average daily POP exposure. In many cases, current human health risk assessment methods do not account for differences between maternal and infant POP exp...

  10. Intraduodenal milk protein concentrate augments the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of DPP-IV inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Olivos, Diana R.; McGrath, Lauren E.; Turner, Christopher A.; Montaubin, Orianne; Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G.; Hayes, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone released from intestinal L-cells in response to food entering into the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1-based pharmaceuticals improve blood glucose regulation and may hold promise for obesity treatment, as GLP-1 drugs reduce food intake and body weight in humans and animals. In an effort to improve GLP-1 pharmacotherapies, we focused our attention on macronutrients that, when present in the gastrointestinal tract, may enhance GLP-1 secretion...

  11. Breast cancer in southern Brazil: association with past dietary intake Cáncer de mama en el sur de Brasil: asociación con la ingestión pasada

    OpenAIRE

    P. F. Di Pietro; N. I. Medeiros; F. G. K. Vieira; M. A. Fausto; A. Belló-Klein

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine possible associations between the risk of breast cancer in Brazilian women and demographic, social and economical variables, and past dietary intake. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Joinville, Santa Catarina, Brazil, between june and november 2003 involving a group of 33 women recently diagnosed with breast cancer and a control group of 33 healthy women volunteers. Personal details, health history and past dietary intake were obtained via questionnaires ...

  12. Nevirapine resistance and breast-milk HIV transmission: effects of single and extended-dose nevirapine prophylaxis in subtype C HIV-infected infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Moorthy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Daily nevirapine (NVP prophylaxis to HIV-exposed infants significantly reduces breast-milk HIV transmission. We assessed NVP-resistance in Indian infants enrolled in the "six-week extended-dose nevirapine" (SWEN trial who received single-dose NVP (SD-NVP or SWEN for prevention of breast-milk HIV transmission but who also acquired subtype C HIV infection during the first year of life. METHODS/FINDINGS: Standard population sequencing and cloning for viral subpopulations present at > or =5% frequency were used to determine HIV genotypes from 94% of the 79 infected Indian infants studied. Timing of infection was defined based on when an infant's blood sample first tested positive for HIV DNA. SWEN-exposed infants diagnosed with HIV by six weeks of age had a significantly higher prevalence of NVP-resistance than those who received SD-NVP, by both standard population sequencing (92% of 12 vs. 38% of 29; p = 0.002 and low frequency clonal analysis (92% of 12 vs. 59% of 29; p = 0.06. Likelihood of infection with NVP-resistant HIV through breast-milk among infants infected after age six weeks was substantial, but prevalence of NVP-resistance did not differ among SWEN or SD-NVP exposed infants by standard population sequencing (15% of 13 vs. 15% of 20; p = 1.00 and clonal analysis (31% of 13 vs. 40% of 20; p = 0.72. Types of NVP-resistance mutations and patterns of persistence at one year of age were similar between the two groups. NVP-resistance mutations did differ by timing of HIV infection; the Y181C variant was predominant among infants diagnosed in the first six weeks of life, compared to Y188C/H during late breast-milk transmission. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Use of SWEN to prevent breast-milk HIV transmission carries a high likelihood of resistance if infection occurs in the first six weeks of life. Moreover, there was a continued risk of transmission of NVP-resistant HIV through breastfeeding during the first year of life, but did not

  13. First results from dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the population from Madeira Island, Portugal. Part 2. Biomonitoring in breast milk of women living near to a solid waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Fatima Reis; Sampaio, C.; J. Pereira Miguel [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Lisbon (Portugal); J. Mauricio Melim [Public Health Regional Dept., Funchal (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    Although breast-feeding women cannot be representative of the general population, for biomonitoring programs carried out to ultimately assist in policy design to improve public health and safety, it is important to monitor dioxin exposure of this demographic segment through breast milk due to several reasons: 1) breast milk reflects the maternal body burden of lipophilic chemicals and thus it is a measure of prenatal exposure to those compounds; 2) being a human food and the first and main foodstuff for most newborn babies during first lifetime-period, breast milk can be a very significant pathway for infant exposure to dioxins; 3) because large volumes can be collected non-invasively, breast milk is also a convenient sampling specimen for biomonitoring purposes if it is collected taking into consideration all the relevant factors influencing fat content and thus levels of lipophilic compounds, namely the time of sampling during lactation, breastfeeding patterns and maternal characteristics. As part of an Environmental Health Survey Program, relative to an updated incinerator at Meia Serra, Madeira Island, Portugal, dioxin breast milk levels have been determined to provide indicative data on the extent and pattern of exposure of the general population to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and to investigate potential determinants of dioxin exposure in age reproductive women for prevention priorities. The ultimate objective was to determine whether living in the vicinity of the incinerator increases the maternal dioxin exposure and accordingly their breast-fed infants. Data will also be collected longitudinally in order to provide information on temporal trends in breast milk dioxin levels, which will indicate whether controls on sources of these pollutants are effective.

  14. Intake and fecal excretion of PCDDs, PCDFs, HCB and PCBs (138, 153, 180) in a breast-fed and a formula-fed infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, K; Hille, A; Ende, M; Helge, H

    1994-01-01

    Intake and fecal excretion of PCDDs, PCDFs, HCB and PCBs (IUPAC Nos. 138, 153, 180) were measured in a breast-fed and a formula-fed infant at the age of 1 and 5 months. As expected, the intake of these compounds was clearly higher in the breast-fed infant. In this baby an almost complete absorption was observed for lower chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs and also for HCB and PCBs, whereas for hepta- and octachlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs fecal excretion was considerably higher (from 20% up to nearly 100% of the intake). Due to low concentrations in diet and feces of the formula-fed infant an evaluation was possible only for a few compounds at the age of 5 months. These values were in the same range when compared with those of the breast-fed infant. For collection of feces new cotton diapers were used which were pre-extracted in order to reduce the levels of polychlorinated compounds. Unexpectedly, after washing the tissue a much higher contamination was observed which made a calculation of fecal excretion rates in the formula-fed infant at the age of 1 month impossible. PMID:7850375

  15. Ingesta de leche y derivados lácteos en la población universitaria Intake of milk and dairy products in a college population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Durá Travé

    2008-04-01

    differences (p < 0.05 between both genders. Consumption of low-fat dairy products represented 24.3% of the whole daily consumption of these foods. In the dietary models of college students, dairy products constitute the main source of calcium and phosphorus, although they provide significant amounts of saturated fat and cholesterol. Conclusions: Although virtually all college students consumed milk and dairy products throughout the day, the mean value of servings consumed would be lower than the recommended one, particularly among girls. It would be convenient to recommend daily consumption of lowfat dairy products (milk and yogurts and fresh cheese, which would increase minerals and vitamins intake without increase the caloric and saturated fat and cholesterol intake, as well as avoiding consumption of other dairy products (crème caramel, custard rich in carbohydrates and cholesterol.

  16. Relation Between Interleukin-1-β And Interleukin-8 Levels In Breast Milk (Colostrum) And Neonatal Physiological Jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immune system of neonates is influenced by maternal immunity during pregnancy and lactation. Breast-fed neonates have higher incidence of neonatal jaundice and higher level of total serum bilirubin than formula-fed infants. The aim of this study was to find a relationship between neonatal physiological jaundice and interleukin-1-beta (IL-1-β) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the colostrum of nursing mothers. Breast milk (colostrum) was collected from 45 nursing mothers of healthy full term neonates. The sharing mothers and their neonates were divided into two groups according to the presence of neonatal jaundice and the level of total serum bilirubin. All jaundiced neonates had total serum bilirubin level more than 12 mg/dl which appeared on the third postpartum day, all of them were breast-fed only. They were subjected to full history through clinical examination and laboratory investigations including determination of colostral levels of IL-1-β and IL-8, by ELISA, and determination of neonatal total serum bilirubin levels. This study revealed that mothers of neonates with physiological jaundice had higher concentrations of IL-1-β and IL-8 in their colostrums as compared with control group. Moreover, it displayed that total serum bilirubin level of jaundiced neonates was higher than its level in non-jaundiced neonates. There were significant correlations between IL- 1-β and IL-8 with mother's age in all groups, while there were inverse correlations between IL-1- , IL-8 and gestational age of non- jaundiced neonates. Additionally, there was significant correlation between IL-1-β and IL-8 in the colostrum of all mothers enrolled in this study. On the other hand, no correlation was determined between cytokines IL-1-β, IL-8 and total serum bilirubin in all neonates sharing in this study. This study clearly demonstrated that the levels of immunomodulating agents such as cytokines IL-1-β and IL-8 were elevated in the colostrum of mothers with jaundiced neonates

  17. Temporal Changes of Protein Composition in Breast Milk of Chinese Urban Mothers and Impact of Caesarean Section Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Michael; Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; Jenni, Rosemarie; Roggero, Iris; Avanti-Nigro, Ornella; de Castro, Carlos Antonio; Zhao, Ai; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K; Favre, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk (BM) protein composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BM major proteins over lactation stages and the impact of mode of delivery on immune factors, in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. 450 BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities, covering 8 months of lactation were analyzed for α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, serum albumin, total caseins, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM and IgG) and transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 and β2 content by microfluidic chip- or ELISA-based quantitative methods. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, IgA, IgM and TGF-β1 contents followed similar variations characterized by highest concentrations in early lactation that rapidly decreased before remaining stable up to end of lactation. TGF-β2 content displayed same early dynamics before increasing again. Total caseins followed a different pattern, showing initial increase before decreasing back to starting values. Serum albumin and IgG levels appeared stable throughout lactation. In conclusion, BM content in major proteins of urban mothers in China was comparable with previous studies carried out in other parts of the world and C-section delivery had only very limited impact on BM immune factors. PMID:27548208

  18. Temporal Changes of Protein Composition in Breast Milk of Chinese Urban Mothers and Impact of Caesarean Section Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Michael; Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L.; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; Jenni, Rosemarie; Roggero, Iris; Avanti-Nigro, Ornella; de Castro, Carlos Antonio; Zhao, Ai; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K.; Favre, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk (BM) protein composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BM major proteins over lactation stages and the impact of mode of delivery on immune factors, in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. 450 BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities, covering 8 months of lactation were analyzed for α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, serum albumin, total caseins, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM and IgG) and transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 and β2 content by microfluidic chip- or ELISA-based quantitative methods. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, IgA, IgM and TGF-β1 contents followed similar variations characterized by highest concentrations in early lactation that rapidly decreased before remaining stable up to end of lactation. TGF-β2 content displayed same early dynamics before increasing again. Total caseins followed a different pattern, showing initial increase before decreasing back to starting values. Serum albumin and IgG levels appeared stable throughout lactation. In conclusion, BM content in major proteins of urban mothers in China was comparable with previous studies carried out in other parts of the world and C-section delivery had only very limited impact on BM immune factors. PMID:27548208

  19. Differences in perception of the WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes between pediatricians and obstetricians in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macnab Iona

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes (WHO Code aims to protect and promote breastfeeding. Japan ratified the WHO Code in 1994, but most hospitals in Japan continue to receive free supplies of infant formula and distribute discharge packs to new mothers provided by infant formula companies. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitudes of pediatricians and obstetricians in Japan to the WHO Code. Methods A self-completion questionnaire was sent to 132 pediatricians in the 131 NICUs which belonged to the Neonatal Network of Japan, and to 96 chief obstetricians in the general hospitals in the Kanto area of Japan, in 2004. Results Responses were received from 68% of pediatricians and 64% of obstetricians. Sixty-six percent of pediatricians agreed that "Breastmilk is the best", compared to only 13% of obstetricians. Likewise, pediatricians were more likely to be familiar with the WHO Code (51% than obstetricians (18%. Conclusion In Japan, pediatricians and obstetricians, in general, have low levels of support for breastfeeding and low levels of familiarity with the WHO Code. To increase the breastfeeding rates in Japan, both pediatricians and obstetricians need increased knowledge about current infant feeding practices and increased awareness of international policies to promote breastfeeding.

  20. Temporal Changes of Protein Composition in Breast Milk of Chinese Urban Mothers and Impact of Caesarean Section Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Affolter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk (BM protein composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BM major proteins over lactation stages and the impact of mode of delivery on immune factors, in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. 450 BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities, covering 8 months of lactation were analyzed for α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, serum albumin, total caseins, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM and IgG and transforming growth factor (TGF β1 and β2 content by microfluidic chip- or ELISA-based quantitative methods. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, IgA, IgM and TGF-β1 contents followed similar variations characterized by highest concentrations in early lactation that rapidly decreased before remaining stable up to end of lactation. TGF-β2 content displayed same early dynamics before increasing again. Total caseins followed a different pattern, showing initial increase before decreasing back to starting values. Serum albumin and IgG levels appeared stable throughout lactation. In conclusion, BM content in major proteins of urban mothers in China was comparable with previous studies carried out in other parts of the world and C-section delivery had only very limited impact on BM immune factors.

  1. Temporal Changes of Protein Composition in Breast Milk of Chinese Urban Mothers and Impact of Caesarean Section Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Michael; Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; Jenni, Rosemarie; Roggero, Iris; Avanti-Nigro, Ornella; de Castro, Carlos Antonio; Zhao, Ai; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K; Favre, Laurent

    2016-08-17

    Human breast milk (BM) protein composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BM major proteins over lactation stages and the impact of mode of delivery on immune factors, in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. 450 BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities, covering 8 months of lactation were analyzed for α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, serum albumin, total caseins, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM and IgG) and transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 and β2 content by microfluidic chip- or ELISA-based quantitative methods. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, IgA, IgM and TGF-β1 contents followed similar variations characterized by highest concentrations in early lactation that rapidly decreased before remaining stable up to end of lactation. TGF-β2 content displayed same early dynamics before increasing again. Total caseins followed a different pattern, showing initial increase before decreasing back to starting values. Serum albumin and IgG levels appeared stable throughout lactation. In conclusion, BM content in major proteins of urban mothers in China was comparable with previous studies carried out in other parts of the world and C-section delivery had only very limited impact on BM immune factors.

  2. Energy intake in late gestation affects blood metabolites in early lactation independently of milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nicolaj Ingemann; Hameleers, A; Young, F J;

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment examined the effect of offering either a high- (H) or low- (L) energy-density diet in late gestation and early lactation on physiological parameters, body condition score (BCS) and milk production in early lactation. In all, 40 multiparous Holstein cows were randomly...... at calving (2.68 v. 2.34, P cows offered diet H pre......-calving generally mobilised more body reserves compared to cows offered diet L pre-calving. An interaction between pre- and post-calving diets showed that cows offered diet H pre-calving had lower body tissue mobilisation when offered diet H post-calving compared to diet L. Cows offered diet L pre-calving, did...

  3. Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein × Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended. PMID:25319453

  4. Fortifier and Cream Improve Fat Delivery in Continuous Enteral Infant Feeding of Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Tabata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature and high-risk infants require accurate delivery of nutrients to promote appropriate growth. Continuous enteral feeding methods may result in significant fat and micronutrient loss. This study evaluated fat loss in enteral nutrition using current strategies for providing high-risk infants fortified human milk (HM. The fat content of HM was measured by IR analyzer in a simulated feeding system using the Kangaroo epumpTM and the MedFusionTM 2010 pump. Comparisons in fat loss were made between HM, HM supplemented with donor HM-derived fortifier Prolacta + H2MFTM (H2MF, and HM supplemented with H2MF and donor HM-derived cream ProlactCRTM (cream. When using the Kangaroo epumpTM, the addition of H2MF and cream to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 75.0% ± 1.2% to 83.7% ± 1.0% (p < 0.0001. When using the MedFusionTM 2010 pump, the addition of H2MF to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 83.2% ± 2.8% to 88.8% ± 0.8% (p < 0.05, and the addition of H2MF and cream increased fat delivery efficiency to 92.0% ± 0.3% (p < 0.01. The addition of H2MF and cream to HM provides both the benefits of bioactive elements from mother’s milk and increased fat delivery, making the addition of H2MF and cream an appropriate method to improve infant weight gain.

  5. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  6. 92例母乳中铅含量调查分析%Analysis of the lead level of breast milk in shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗红; 程蔚蔚

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究铅在母血、母乳及脐血三者间的关系,揭示铅在母乳中的分布,为婴儿母乳喂养提供依据.方法 用石墨炉原子光谱吸收法测定128对母婴的母血、脐血的铅浓度及92份产妇初乳中的铅浓度,用线性回归分析三者之间的关系.结果 母血、脐血的铅浓度分别是(33.29±9.49)μg/L和(26.93±9.34)μg/L,母乳铅浓度为1.54(0.02~22.86)μg/L,无一例铅浓度超过铅中毒诊断标准(>100μg/L).母乳铅浓度明显低于母血与脐血铅浓度(P<0.05);母乳铅浓度血与母血铅浓度无明显的线性相关关系(P>0.05),母乳铅浓度与脐血铅浓度无明显线性相关关系(P>0.05).结论 母乳中的铅浓度水平较低,在非职业性低水平铅暴露范围内,应鼓励母乳喂养.%Objective To research the lead level in maternal blood, umbilical cord blood and breast milk, to demonstrate the distribution of lead in breast milk and to provide reference of breast feeding. Methods We determined 128 mother-infant pairs' lead concentration in maternal blood, umbilical cord blood and 92 colostrums puerperarum by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. We used linear regression to analyze the relationship of lead concentration a-mong them. Results Lead concentrations in maternal blood, umbilical cord blood and breast milk were (33. 29±9. 49) μg/L, (26. 93±9. 34) μg/L and 1. 54 (0. 02-22. 86)μg/L respectively. All of the lead concentrations were lower than 100μg/L. The lead level in breast milk was significantly lower than maternal blood and umbilical cord blood lead level. Maternal blood and umbilical cord blood lead levels are not significantly correlation with breast milk lead level (P> 0. 05). Conclusion The lead level in breast milk is low in shanghai. Unless maternal blood lead level is excessively high, breastfeeding should be encouraged.

  7. Is targeted fortification of human breast milk an optimal nutrition strategy for preterm infants? An interventional study

    OpenAIRE

    Morlacchi, Laura; Mallardi, Domenica; Giannì, Maria Lorella; Roggero, Paola; Amato, Orsola; Piemontese, Pasqua; Consonni, Dario; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Background Fortifying human milk contributes to the prevention of postnatal growth failure in preterm infants. Because of the natural variability of human milk, targeted fortification of human milk has been advocated. However, data regarding the efficacy and safety of prolonged targeted fortification are scarce. We aimed to assess the safety of targeted fortification of human milk in preterm infants compared with standard fortification, as well as the effects on infant growth. Methods We cond...

  8. Establishment and application of deuterium dilution method for measuring breastmilk intake of Pakistani infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We established the deuterium dilution method in our laboratory and have applied it in the field for quantification of milk intake of babies. A comparison of the test weighing (TW) data with the D2O data is also being made. The growth of children fed exclusively on breast milk is also being monitored. The method once established will be made available for various projects where correct estimation of milk intake/out put is desired. First year of the project was devoted to standardization of the D/H preparation from biological fluids using Zn shot method. During the report period, the D2O dilution methodology for measuring the breast milk intake of infants was streamlined. 21 infant-mother pairs have been recruited and data including deuterium dilution assay was collected at 4 weeks of age. Growth of the infants is being followed up-till six month. Analysis of 21 infant mothers data is presented. Samples of six infant mother pairs collected at 13. week of age are waiting to be analyzed. The mean breast milk intake of infants measured by deuterium dilution method is 801 ± 262 gm at first sampling at 31.15 ± 7.7 days of age (n=18). The milk intake determined by test weighing was significantly higher than estimated by D2O dilution. The values were 1169 ± 384 per day as compared to 705 ± 129 per day for TW and D2O method respectively (n=13). The growth data collected over six month period for 21 infants showed that they fall within 5 percentile of NCHS for weight. The height of boys is in 50 percentile whereas for girls it at 5 percentile. The data collected so far suggest that although majority of infants are exclusively breast fed and the intake values are normal yet their growth is far from optimum. This emphasizes the need to take up the studies involving quality of milk in relation to the nutritional status of the mothers. (author)

  9. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. PMID:22226014

  10. Comparison of bacterial counts in expressed breast milk following standard or strict infection control regimens in neonatal intensive care units: compliance of mothers does matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, N; Pimpel, B; Assadian, O; Binder, C; Kreissl, A; Repa, A; Thanhäuser, M; Roberts, C D; Berger, A

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial counts in 1466 expressed breast milk (EBM) samples from women following one of two infection control regimens (standard vs strict) were investigated. Overall, 12% of samples yielded Gram-negative bacteria, with no significant differences between the standard [11.9% (94/788)] and strict [12.1% (82/678)] regimens (P = 0.92). Significantly more samples were contaminated when expressed at home (standard regimen home/hospital: 17.9% vs 6.1%; strict regimen home/hospital: 19.6% vs 3.4%; P personal hygiene during milk collection seem to be of limited value. Good hygiene of collection and storage equipment is likely to be the most important way to ensure the microbiological quality of EBM. PMID:26850928

  11. Joint effects of folate intake and one-carbon-metabolizing genetic polymorphisms on breast cancer risk: a case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei-Ping; Li, Bin; Lin, Fang-Yu; Yan, Bo; Du, Yu-Feng; Mo, Xiong-Fei; Wang, Lian; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the joint effects of folate intake, polymorphisms of 5,10- methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthesis reductase (MTRR) and methionine synthase (MTR) genes and breast cancer risk. A case-control study of 570 consecutively recruited breast cancer cases and 576 controls was conducted in Guangzhou, China. Multifactor dimensionality reduction and logistic regression approach were used to evaluate gene-gene interaction. The covariates were chosen based on comparison of baseline characteristics of cases and controls. Folate intake was found to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk. The MTRRrs162036 GG genotype was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20-0.85]. Compared with the wild-type group (MTRRrs162036 AA with MTRrs1805087 AA) MTRRrs162036 AA with MTRrs1805087 GA + GG was associated with a decreased risk (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.48-1.03). With the combined MTHFRrs1801131 TT and MTHFRrs1801133 GG genotypes as a reference, MTHFRrs1801131 TT with MTHFRrs1801133 GA + AA was associated with a decreased risk (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.57 - 1.08) and MTHFRrs1801131 GT + GG with MTHFRrs1801133 GA + AA was associated with an increased risk (OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.88-2.05). The joint impact of MTRRrs162036 and MTRrs1805087, MTHFRrs1801131 and MTHFRrs1801133, folate and MTHFRrs1801133 may contribute to breast cancer risk.

  12. Ingestão de nutrientes e estado nutricional de crianças em dieta isenta de leite de vaca e derivados Nutrient intake and nutritional status of children following a diet free from cow's milk and cow's milk by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian C. S. Medeiros

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ingestão alimentar e o estado nutricional de crianças em dieta isenta de leite de vaca e derivados. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 26 crianças, na primeira consulta realizada em ambulatório de gastroenterologia pediátrica, que vinham recebendo dieta isenta de leite de vaca e derivados (média de idade = 19,1 meses e 30 crianças com dieta normal, isto é, sem nenhum tipo de restrição alimentar (média de idade = 16,8 meses. Empregou-se o método do dia alimentar habitual para a obtenção dos dados sobre consumo alimentar. A ingestão alimentar foi comparada entre os grupos e em relação às Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs. O estado nutricional foi avaliado com base nos escores z de peso/idade, estatura/idade e peso/estatura. RESULTADOS: O grupo em dieta isenta de leite de vaca apresentou menor ingestão de energia (p = 0,005, proteínas (p OBJECTIVE: To assess the food intake and the nutritional status of children on a cow's milk and cow's milk by-products free diet. METHODS: Twenty-six children receiving a cow's milk and cow's milk by-products free diet were assessed during their first visit to the Pediatric Gastroenterology Clinic (mean age = 19.1 months. Thirty children with no food restriction (mean age = 16.8 months were also assessed. The usual daily food intake method was used to make the dietary assessment. The food intake was compared between the groups and in relation to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs. The z-scores for weight/age, height/age and weight/height were used to evaluate the nutritional status. RESULTS: The cow's milk free diet group presented lower energy (p = 0.005, protein (p < 0.001, lipid (p < 0.001, calcium (p < 0.001 and phosphorous (p < 0.001 intake when compared to the control group. The number of children who had energy, calcium and phosphorous intake below the DRIs was higher in the cow's milk free diet group than in the control group. The z-score means for the cow's milk free diet and

  13. Selective molecularly imprinted polymer combined with restricted access material for in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS of parabens in breast milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Israel D; Melo, Lidervan P; Jardim, Isabel C S F; Monteiro, Juliana C S; Nakano, Ana Marcia S; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia C

    2016-08-17

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer modified with restricted access material (a hydrophilic external layer), (MIP-RAM) was synthesized via polymerization in situ in an open fused silica capillary. This stationary phase was used as sorbent for in-tube solid phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) to determine parabens in breast milk samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) illustrate MIP surface modification after glycerol dimethacrylate (hydrophilic monomer) incorporation. The interaction between parabens and MIP-RAM was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The Scatchard plot for MIP-RAM presented two linear parts with different slopes, illustrating binding sites with high- and low-affinity. Endogenous compounds exclusion from the MIP-RAM capillary was demonstrated by in-tube SPME/LC-UV assays carried out with blank milk samples. The in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS method presented linear range from 10 ng mL(-1) (LLOQ) to 400 ng mL(-1) with coefficients of determination higher than 0.99, inter-assay precision with coefficient of variation (CV) values ranging from 2 to 15%, and inter-assay accuracy with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ranging from -1% to 19%. Analytical validation parameters attested that in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS is an appropriate method to determine parabens in human milk samples to assess human exposure to these compounds. Analysis of breast milk samples from lactating women demonstrated that the proposed method is effective. PMID:27286769

  14. Clinical findings and treatment recommendations of hypernatremic dehydration due to breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alparslan Tonbul

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study, we aimed to assess the inci-dence, presenting complaints, risk factors of hyperna-tremic dehydration (DH, and to stage the degree of hy-pernatremic DH among term, exclusively breast feedinginfants, and to suggest a therapy for hypernatremic DH.Methods: Term, exclusively breast feeding neonates ad-mitted to our neonatology policlinics, with a more than 7%weight loss, serum sodium concentrations of ≥147 mEq/Lwere allocated for the study. ‘Maternals and infants’ medi-cal history, examination, including presenting complaints,risk factors, stool- urine frequency, weight loss, the du-ration of the treatment, the rate of sodium decrease byhourly was calculated and recorded. Percentage of weightloss by taking into account, degree of DH (mild, moder-ate, severe was created.Results: Dehydration were determined in 126 of 3642 pa-tients (3.5%. Patients were allocated as Group 1, mild DH(n=59, 47%, group 2, moderate DH (n=43, 34%, group3, severe DH (n=24, 19%. Relevant clinical fi ndings onadmission were jaundice (46.8%, fever (42%, poor oralfeeding (36.5%, reduction in the amount of stool- urina-tion (32.5%. Clinical fi ndings of dehydration were morefrequent than other groups in group 3. On the admissionday, postnatal age, blood urea, creatinine levels, dura-tion of the therapy, sodium levels were higher than othergroups in group 3. Intravenous (IV fl uid requirement wasover than other groups in group 3. Only two patients hadseizures in the severe DH group. Positive correlation wasdetermined between percentage of weight loss and se-rum sodium, urea and creatinine levelsConclusion: Diagnosis of hypernatremic DH is delayed,because of no obvious signs of dehydration is present inthe early period. There is no specifi c sign to determine thedegree of DH. Weight loss is the most prominent fi nding,accompanied by jaundice, fever, a decrease in urine andstool frequencies. Creation of a common treatment proto-col is the solution of

  15. Effects of menthol essence and breast milk on the improvement of nipple fissures in breastfeeding women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Amir Ali Akbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nipple fissure is a common disorder during breastfeeding. With high prevalence of nipple fissures and its impacts on breastfeeding, as well as the existence of evidence in favor of the application of peppermint as an antiinflammatory and antiinfection herb, the purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Menthol essence on improving nipple fissures in the primiparous breastfeeding women. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted using a clinical trial method. Samples were divided randomly into two groups of 55 women. The women in the peppermint group applied four drops of Menthol essence on their nipple and areola after each feeding. The control group applied four drops of their own milk on the nipple and areola after each feeding. Then, the two groups were studied on days 10 and 14 postpartum. For intensity of pain, the visual analog scale (0-10 cm and to measure the severity of damage, Amir scale (1-10 cm were applied and the existence or lack of nipple discharge was also recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS 17 software. Results: The mean intensity of pain and nipple fissure before treatment (8.55 ± 1.74 and day 10 after delivery (4.26 ± 1.57 and before treatment and day 14 after delivery in the case group (1.32 ± 1.02 had a significant difference (P < 0.001. Nipple discharge between the two groups, before treatment (%75.2 and day 10 after delivery (%31.6 and before treatment and day 14 after delivery (%15.7, the case group had a significant difference (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Menthol essence can improve nipple fissures in the primiparous breastfeeding women.