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Sample records for breast milk intake

  1. Measurement of Breast Milk Intake Using Deuterium Oxide and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The accuracy and ready availability of deuterium oxide (D2O) have led to its extensive use in measuring body composition and breast milk intake of infants. The D2O turnover method was field-tested in 13 lactating Ghanaian mother-baby pairs. Maternal and baby anthropometric measurements were made. Baby milk intake ...

  2. Breast milk and complementary food intake in Brazilian infants according to socio-economic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romulus-Nieuwelink, J.C.; Doak, C.M.; Albernaz, E.; Victora, C.G.; Haisma, H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast

  3. Breast milk fatty acid composition and fatty acid intake of lactating mothers in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyesook; Kang, Sujeong; Jung, Byung-Moon; Yi, Hyunju; Jung, Ji A; Chang, Namsoo

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid (FA) composition of breast milk, and its association with mothers' FA intake. Milk samples were obtained from 238 healthy lactating women who volunteered to participate in the Human Milk Micronutrients Analysis Research. Dietary intake during lactation was assessed using a 3-d food record, and fat content and FA composition of the breast milk samples were analysed by IR spectrometry using MilkoScan FT2 and GC flame ionisation detector, respectively. The fat content was 3·31 (sd 1·41) g/100 ml breast milk. The concentrations of arachidonic acid (20 : 4 n-6), EPA (20 : 5 n-3) and DHA (22 : 6 n-3) in breast milk were 0·48 (sd 0·13), 0·15 (sd 0·12) and 0·67 (sd 0·47) % of total FA, respectively. Fat content and FA composition of breast milk were associated with maternal age, BMI, supplement use and infant age. Dietary intakes of EPA, DHA, n-3 FA, n-6 FA, SFA and PUFA were positively correlated with the corresponding FA in the milk samples. FA levels in breast milk and maternal diet are highly correlated. Further studies are warranted to explore factors that may be associated with changes in FA composition in human milk.

  4. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid intake during late pregnancy affects fatty acid composition of mature breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Renata Y; Barbieiri, Patricia; Castro, Gabriela S F de; Jordão, Alceu A; Perdoná, Gleici da Silva Castro; Sartorelli, Daniela S

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid intake at different periods during pregnancy affects the composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids in mature human milk. A prospective study was conducted involving 45 pregnant women, aged between 18 and 35 y, who had full-term pregnancies and practiced exclusive or predominant breast-feeding. Mature breast milk samples were collected after the 5th postpartum week by manual expression; fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Fatty acid intake during pregnancy and puerperium was estimated through multiple 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regression models, adjusted by postpartum body mass index and deattenuated, were used to determine associations between estimated fatty acids in maternal diet during each trimester of pregnancy and fatty acid content in mature human milk. A positive association was identified between maternal intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (β, 1.873; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.545, 3.203) and docosahexaenoic acid (β, 0.464; 95% CI, 0.212-0.714) during the third trimester of pregnancy, as well as the maternal dietary ω-3 to ω-6 ratio (β, 0.093; 95% CI, 0.016-0.170) during the second and third trimesters and postpartum period, with these fatty acids content in mature breast milk. The maternal dietary docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid content during late pregnancy may affect the fatty acid composition of mature breast milk. Additionally, the maternal dietary intake of ω-3 to ω-6 fatty acid ratio, during late pregnancy and the postpartum period, can affect the polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of breast milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Probiotics and dietary counselling targeting maternal dietary fat intake modifies breast milk fatty acids and cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppu, Ulla; Isolauri, Erika; Laakso, Päivi; Matomäki, Jaakko; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2012-03-01

    Breast milk fatty acids possess immunomodulatory properties, and new intervention strategies beyond supplementation of maternal diet with single oils are called for. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary intervention during pregnancy and breastfeeding on breast milk fatty acid and cytokine composition. Pregnant women were randomised into three study groups: dietary intervention with probiotics (diet/probiotic) or with placebo (diet/placebo) and a control group (control/placebo). Dietary intervention included dietary counselling and provision of rapeseed oil-based food products. The probiotics used were Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 in combination. Dietary intake was evaluated by food records at every trimester of pregnancy and 1 month postpartum. Breast milk samples were collected after birth (colostrum) and 1 month after delivery for fatty acid and cytokine analysis (n = 125). Dietary intervention improved the quality of fat in the diet. In breast milk, the proportion of α-linolenic acid and total n-3 fatty acids was higher in both dietary intervention groups compared with control group (p diet/probiotic group, the γ-linolenic acid content was higher compared with the diet/placebo group (p milk immunomodulatory factors by dietary means.

  6. Calcium intake of rural Gambian infants: a quantitative study of the relative contributions of breast milk and complementary foods at 3 and 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarjou, L M A; Goldberg, G R; Coward, W A; Prentice, A

    2012-06-01

    There is a paucity of information from developing countries on total calcium intake during infancy, and potential consequences for growth and bone development. Observational longitudinal study of rural Gambian infants (13 males and 17 females) at 3 and 12 months of age. Breast-milk intake and calcium concentration, weighed dietary intake, anthropometry, midshaft radius bone mineral content (BMC) and bone width (BW). At 3 and 12 months (mean ± s.d.) calcium intake from breast milk was 179 ± 53 and 117 ± 38, and from other foods 12 ± 38 and 73 ± 105 mg/day. There was no difference in total calcium intake; 94% and 62% of calcium came from breast milk. At 3 and 12 months, weight s.d.-scores were -0.441 ± 1.07 and -1.967 ± 1.06; length s.d.-scores were -0.511 ± 1.04 and -1.469 ± 1.13. Breast-milk calcium intake positively predicted weight (P = 0.0002, P ≤ 0.0001) and length (P = 0.056, P = 0.001). These relationships were not independent of breast-milk intake, which positively predicted weight (P ≤ 0.002) and length (P = 0.06, P = 0.004). At 3, but not 12 months, weight and length correlated with total calcium intake. There were no relationships between total calcium intake and breast-milk intake with BW or BMC. The combination of low calcium intake from breast milk and complementary foods resulted in a low total calcium intake close to the estimated biological requirement for bone mineral accretion. Relationships between calcium intake and growth were largely accounted for by breast-milk intake, suggesting that low calcium intake per se was not the limiting factor in the poor growth. These findings have potential implications for deriving calcium requirements in developing countries.

  7. Breast milk intake is not reduced more by the introduction of energy dense complementary food than by typical infant porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpin, Lauren; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Phuka, John; Ashorn, Per; Maleta, Ken; Wong, William W; Manary, Mark J

    2007-07-01

    The effect of different energy densities of complementary foods on breast milk consumption is not well understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that provision of fortified spread (FS), a micronutrient fortified, energy-dense (22 kJ/g), ready-to-use food, to Malawian infants would not decrease their breast milk intake more than a traditional corn + soy blended flour (CSB). Forty-four healthy 6-mo-old infant and mother pairs were enrolled in a prospective, parallel group, investigator-blinded, randomized controlled complementary feeding trial. Infants were randomized to receive 25 g/d of FS, 50 g/d of FS, or 72 g/d of CSB. The primary outcome was the difference in breast milk intake after 1 mo of complementary feeding as measured by the dose-to-mother deuterium oxide dilution technique. Outcomes were compared using repeated measures ANOVA. A total of 41 mother-infant pairs completed the study. At enrollment, 88% of the infants had received corn porridge. At baseline, the infants consumed 129 +/- 18 g.kg body wt(-1) x d(-1) (mean +/- SD) of breast milk. After 1 mo of complementary feeding with 25 g/d FS, 50 g/d FS, or 72 g/d CSB, their breast milk consumption was 115 +/- 18 g.kg body wt(-1) x d(-1), a significant reduction; however, the effects of the complementary foods did not differ from one another (F-value model = 4.33, P = 0.0008 for effect of time and P = 0.69 for effect of type of food). The results suggest that complementary feeding of Malawian infants with FS has the same effect on their breast milk intake as complementary feeding with traditional CSB porridge.

  8. B Vitamins in Breast Milk: Relative Importance of Maternal Status and Intake, and Effects on Infant Status and Function12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lindsay H.

    2012-01-01

    Infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life. However, maternal deficiency of some micronutrients, conveniently classified as Group I micronutrients during lactation, can result in low concentrations in breast milk and subsequent infant deficiency preventable by improving maternal status. This article uses thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and choline as examples and reviews the evidence for risk of inadequate intakes by infants in the first 6 mo of life. Folate, a Group II micronutrient, is included for comparison. Information is presented on forms and concentrations in human milk, analytical methods, the basis of current recommended intakes for infants and lactating women, and effects of maternal supplementation. From reports of maternal and/or infant deficiency, concentrations in milk were noted as well as any consequences for infant function. These milk values were used to estimate the percent of recommended daily intake that infants fed by a deficient mother could obtain from her milk. Estimates were 60% for thiamin, 53% for riboflavin, 80% for vitamin B-6, 16% for vitamin B-12, and 56% for choline. Lack of data limits the accuracy and generalizability of these conclusions, but the overall picture that emerges is consistent across nutrients and points to an urgent need to improve the information available on breast milk quality. PMID:22585913

  9. B vitamins in breast milk: relative importance of maternal status and intake, and effects on infant status and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2012-05-01

    Infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life. However, maternal deficiency of some micronutrients, conveniently classified as Group I micronutrients during lactation, can result in low concentrations in breast milk and subsequent infant deficiency preventable by improving maternal status. This article uses thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and choline as examples and reviews the evidence for risk of inadequate intakes by infants in the first 6 mo of life. Folate, a Group II micronutrient, is included for comparison. Information is presented on forms and concentrations in human milk, analytical methods, the basis of current recommended intakes for infants and lactating women, and effects of maternal supplementation. From reports of maternal and/or infant deficiency, concentrations in milk were noted as well as any consequences for infant function. These milk values were used to estimate the percent of recommended daily intake that infants fed by a deficient mother could obtain from her milk. Estimates were 60% for thiamin, 53% for riboflavin, 80% for vitamin B-6, 16% for vitamin B-12, and 56% for choline. Lack of data limits the accuracy and generalizability of these conclusions, but the overall picture that emerges is consistent across nutrients and points to an urgent need to improve the information available on breast milk quality.

  10. Association between breast milk intake at 9-10 months of age and growth and development among Malawian young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumwenda, Chiza; Hemsworth, Jaimie; Phuka, John; Ashorn, Ulla; Arimond, Mary; Maleta, Kenneth; Prado, Elizabeth L; Haskell, Marjorie J; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Per

    2018-01-19

    World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for infants for the first 6 months of life, followed by introduction of nutritious complementary foods alongside breastfeeding. Breast milk remains a significant source of nourishment in the second half of infancy and beyond; however, it is not clear whether more breast milk is always better. The present study was designed to determine the association between amount of breast milk intake at 9-10 months of age and infant growth and development by 12-18 months of age. The study was nested in a randomized controlled trial conducted in Malawi. Regression analysis was used to determine associations between breast milk intake and growth and development. Mean (SD) breast milk intake at 9-10 months of age was 752 (244) g/day. Mean (SD) length-for-age z-score at 12 months and change in length-for-age z-score between 12 and 18 months were -1.69 (1.0) and -0.17 (0.6), respectively. At 18 months, mean (SD) expressive vocabulary score was 32 (24) words and median (interquartile range) skills successfully performed for fine, gross, and overall motor skills were 21 (19-22), 18 (16-19), and 38 (26-40), respectively. Breast milk intake (g/day) was not associated with either growth or development. Proportion of total energy intake from breast milk was negatively associated with fine motor (β = -0.18, p = .015) but not other developmental scores in models adjusted for potential confounders. Among Malawian infants, neither breast milk intake nor percent of total energy intake from breast milk at 9-10 months was positively associated with subsequent growth between 12 and 18 months, or development at 18 months. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. (H2O)-H-2 turnover method as a means to detect bias in estimations of intake of nonbreast milk liquids in breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Coward, WA; Albernaz, E; Barros, A; Victora, CG; Wright, A; Visser, GH

    Objective: Firstly, to compare food, and macronutrient intake as obtained from a single 24-h recall and a frequency questionnaire (FQ) covering a 14-day period in breast-fed infants aged 4 months of age. Secondly, nonbreast milk water intake (NB-WI, ml/day) was used as an estimation of energy and

  12. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel [Área de Toxicología, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Clementini, Chiara [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra [Department of Legal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Murcia & Instituto Murciano de Investigacion Biomedica (IMIB), (IMIB-VIRGEN DE LA ARRIXACA), Murcia (Spain); Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Guerranti, Cristiana [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Bioscience Research Center, Via Aurelia Vecchia 32, 58015 Orbetello, GR (Italy); Cincinelli, Alessandra, E-mail: acincinelli@unifi.it [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from < LOQ (< 10 ng/L) to 397 ng/L with a mean concentration of 66 ± 68 ng/L and a median of 29 ng/L. The presence of these compounds was revealed in 50 samples out of 67 analyzed. Influence of number of pregnancies and food habits on PFCAs concentrations was also investigated. Statistically significant differences in PFCA levels were found when the women were divided into maternal age classes and into the categories primiparae and multiparae. A greater transfer of PFC during breastfeeding by primiparous was evidenced and thus a higher exposure to these contaminants for the first child. Moreover, it was possible to hypothesize that the content of PFCs is in general correlated to the eating habits of donors and, in particular, with the fish consumption. Finally, PFOA daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). - Graphical abstract: Figure SI 1. Concentrations (ng/L) of PFCs recovered in 67 samples of human breast milk. - Highlights: • Perfluorinated carboxylic acids were analyzed in a set of 67 breast milk samples collected from Spanish women. • PFOA appeared as the major contributor to the total perfluorinated carboxylic acids. • PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants. • PFOA daily intake and risk index were estimated for the firsts six month of life.

  13. Fat intake and breast milk fatty acid composition in farming and nonfarming women and allergy development in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Karin; Barman, Malin; Moberg, Sara; Sjöberg, Agneta; Brekke, Hilde K; Hesselmar, Bill; Johansen, Susanne; Wold, Agnes E; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2016-01-01

    Children growing up on small family farms are at much lower risk of developing allergy than other children. We hypothesized that low intake of margarine and polyunsaturated fats among farming families could contribute to this protection. Twenty-eight mother-infant pairs living on small dairy farms and 37 nonfarm rural resident pairs were recruited in the FARMFLORA birth cohort. Food items expected to affect dietary fat composition were recorded by food frequency questionnaires during pregnancy and by 24-h recalls followed by 24-h food diaries during lactation. Allergy was diagnosed by doctors, using strict predefined criteria. Maternal diet and breast milk fat composition were compared between farming and nonfarming mothers and related to children's allergy at age 3 y. Farming mothers consumed more butter, whole milk, saturated fat, and total fat than nonfarming mothers, who consumed more margarine, oils, and low-fat milk. Farming mothers' breast milk contained higher proportions of saturated and lower proportions of polyunsaturated fat. Allergy was eight times more common in nonfarm children. Mothers of allergic children consumed more margarine and oils than mothers of nonallergic children. Low maternal consumption of margarine and vegetable oils might contribute to the allergy-preventive effect of growing up on small dairy farms.

  14. Determination of UV filters in human breast milk using turbulent flow chromatography and babies' daily intake estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Olmo-Campos, María Del Mar; Valeta-Juan, Gemma; Pleguezuelos-Hernández, Vanessa; Barceló, Damià; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia

    2018-02-01

    UV filters (UV-Fs) are a group of hormonally active chemical compounds used to protect against the deleterious effects of UVA and UVB solar radiation, which are currently present in most consumer goods (personal care products, plastics, fabrics, paints, etc). Last years the concern about these emerging contaminants has been on the rise, and increasing efforts are being taken in order to properly asses the hazard that the exposure to these compounds in the early stages of life may pose. In this study, a new method for the analysis of 11 UV-Fs residues in human breast milk samples has been developed. The method is based on turbulent flow chromatography coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (TFC-HPLC-MS/MS). The validated method was successfully applied to 79 human breast milk samples from mothers in Barcelona (Spain). Twenty-four per cent of the samples contained UV-Fs, with major contributors being oxybenzone (benzophenone 3, BP3), its metabolite 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone (4DHB), and UV320 showing maximum concentrations of 779.9, 73.3, and 523.6ngg-1 milk, respectively. Additionally, the plastic containers of the milks were also analysed, revealing high concentrations of BP3 and 4DHB, up to 10.6µgg-1 plastic. The calculated mean ΣUV-Fs were useful to estimate the daily intake (EDI) by babies, which were 69.1µg d-1kg-1 body weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Breast milk intake and mother to infant pesticide transfer measured by deuterium oxide dilution in agricultural and urban areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon-Miro, Ana Teresa; Aldana-Madrid, Maria Lourdes; Alvarez-Hernandez, Gerardo; Antunez-Roman, Lesley Evelyn; Rodriguez-Olibarria, Guillermo; Valencia Juillerat, Mauro E

    2017-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases have increased pesticide use in urban areas (UA) and agricultural areas (AA) in Mexico. Breast milk can be contaminated by pesticide exposure. The objective of the study was to measure breast milk intake by deuterium oxide dilution as well as organochlorine and pyrethroid transfer from mother to infant in AA and UA of Sonora, Mexico. Human milk intake was determined by the 'dose-to-mother' technique using deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution. Mothers' body composition was also assessed by this technique and the intercept method. Pyrethroids (deltamethrin, cypermethrin and cyhalothrin) and organochlorine pesticide residues (p,p'- DDT, p,p'- DDE, p,p'- DDD) in breast milk samples were measured by gas chromatography. Sixty-two lactating women and their infants participated in the study, 32 lived in the UA and 30 lived in the AA. Breast milk intake was approximately 100 mL higher in the AA than in the UA 799 ± 193 and 707 ± 201 mL/day, respectively (p breastfeeding is still a safe practice and should be encouraged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Postpartum consequences of an overlap of breastfeeding and pregnancy: reduced breast milk intake and growth during early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Grace S; Penny, Mary E; Diaz, Judith M; Marín, R Margot

    2002-04-01

    Despite cultural pressure to wean when a new pregnancy occurs, some women choose to continue breastfeeding. We determined the effect of an overlap of lactation and late pregnancy on breastfeeding and growth in early infancy. We studied 133 Peruvian pregnant women who were > or =18 years of age, had a child pregnancy (BFP), and 65 had not breastfed during pregnancy (NBFP). On day 2 and at 1-month postpartum, 24-hour intake of breast milk and other liquids was measured. Twice weekly home surveillance documented infant morbidity and dietary intakes. Anthropometry was taken at birth and at 1 month. Maternal anthropometric, health, and socioeconomic status data were collected pre- and postpartum. Pregnant BFP mothers breastfed 5.3 +/- 4.3 times/day. BFP and NBFP infants did not differ in breastfeeding behavior or in colostrum intake on day 2. BFP infants breastfed longer per feed and per 24 hours (35.2 minutes/24 hours) than did NBFP infants; however, 1-month intakes per feed tended to be lower among the BFP infants. After controlling for confounders, BFP infants gained 125 g less than did NBFP infants (about 15% of mean weight gain). A sustained decline would result in a -0.7 z score change in weight-for-age by 6 months. A lactation-pregnancy overlap had a negative effect on early infant outcomes. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the effect continues past 1 month of age.

  17. NONNUTRITIVE SWEETENERS IN BREAST MILK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvetsky, Allison C.; Gardner, Alexandra L.; Bauman, Viviana; Blau, Jenny E.; Garraffo, H. Martin; Walter, Peter J.; Rother, Kristina I.

    2017-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), including saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, and acesulfame-potassium, are commonly consumed in the general population, and all except for saccharin are considered safe for use during pregnancy and lactation. Sucralose (Splenda) currently holds the majority of the NNS market share and is often combined with acesulfame-potassium in a wide variety of foods and beverages. To date, saccharin is the only NNS reported to be found in human breast milk after maternal consumption, while there is no apparent information on the other NNS. Breast milk samples were collected from 20 lactating volunteers, irrespective of their habitual NNS intake. Saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame-potassium were present in 65% of participants’ milk samples, whereas aspartame was not detected. These data indicate that NNS are frequently ingested by nursing infants, and thus prospective clinical studies are necessary to determine whether early NNS exposure via breast milk may have clinical implications. PMID:26267522

  18. The deuterium oxide-to-the-mother method documents adequate breast-milk intake among Sri Lankan infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The WHO recommends that exclusive breastfeeding should last up to 6 months. However, human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants has not been quantified scientifically. The objectives of this study were to measure the human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants during the first 6 months of age and to docume...

  19. Blood, breast milk and urine: potential biomarkers of exposure and estimated daily intake of ochratoxin A: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Julia Bellver; Ruiz, María-José; Manyes, Lara; Juan-García, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this review are to study potential biomarkers of exposure for ochratoxin A (OTA) in biological fluids (blood, urine and breast milk) for the period 2005-14, calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) of OTA by using database consumption for the Spanish population, and, finally, to correlate OTA levels detected in blood and EDI values calculated from food products. The values of OTA detected in potential biomarkers of exposure for blood, breast milk and urine ranged from 0.15 to 18.0, from 0.002 to 13.1, and from 0.013 to 0.2 ng ml(-1), respectively. The calculated EDI for OTA in plasma ranged from 0.15 to 26 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), higher than that obtained in urine (0.017-0.4 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)). All these values are correlated with the range of EDI for OTA calculated from food products: 0.0001-25.2 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1).

  20. [Nuclear techniques in nutrition: assessment of body fat and intake of human milk in breast-fed infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallaro, Anabel; Tarducci, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    The application of nuclear techniques in the area of nutrition is safe because they use stable isotopes. The deuterium dilution method is used in body composition and human milk intake analysis. It is a reference method for body fat and validates inexpensive tools because of its accuracy, simplicity of application in individuals and population and the background of its usefulness in adults and children as an evaluation tool in clinical and health programs. It is a non-invasive technique as it uses saliva, which facilitates the assessment in pediatric populations. Changes in body fat are associated with non-communicable diseases; moreover, normal weight individuals with high fat deposition were reported. Furthermore, this technique is the only accurate way to determine whether infants are exclusively breast-fed and validate conventional methods based on surveys to mothers.

  1. A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China

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    Meng-Jiao Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland, Yueyang (lakeland and Baotou (inland city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET. DHA dietary intake (mg/day was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009. In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL and breast milk (10 mL were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p < 0.05. The median DHA dietary intake varied significantly across areas (p < 0.05, which was highest in the coastland (24.32 mg/day, followed by lakeland (13.69 mg/day, and lowest in the inland (8.84 mg/day. The overall relative and absolute DHA concentrations in breast milk were 0.36% ± 0.23% and 141.49 ± 107.41 μg/mL; the concentrations were significantly lower in inland women than those from coastland and lakeland. We conclude that DHA dietary intake is positively correlated with DHA

  2. Validation of a FFQ for estimating ω-3, ω-6 and trans fatty acid intake during pregnancy using mature breast milk and food recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorelli, D S; Nishimura, R Y; Castro, G S F; Barbieri, P; Jordão, A A

    2012-11-01

    To assess the performance of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for estimating ω-3, ω-6 and trans fatty acid intake during pregnancy. Moreover, we determined whether the fatty acid composition of mature breast milk represents a valuable biomarker for fatty acid intake during pregnancy. A prospective study in 41 pregnant women, aged 18-35 years, was conducted. Food intake during pregnancy was evaluated by three 24-h recalls (24 hR), and 2 FFQ. The fatty acid composition of mature breast milk was determined by gas chromatography. The method of triads and joint classification between quartiles of intake were applied. The FFQ was accurate for estimating docosahexanoic (DHA), linoleic and total ω-6 fatty acids according to validity coefficients. Higher agreements (>70%) into the same or adjacent quartiles between the dietary methods were found for α-linolenic, total ω-3, linoleic and trans fatty acid intake. High validity coefficients for eicosapentanoic (EPA) and DHA acids of human milk were found (0.61 and 0.73, respectively), and the method was adequate for categorizing the intake of α-linolenic, total ω-3 and trans fatty acids compared with FFQ estimates, and for arachidonic acid and trans fatty acids compared with food recall estimates, during pregnancy. The FFQ was an accurate tool for categorizing α-linolenic, total ω-3 and trans fatty acid intake. According to the validity coefficients observed, the FFQ accurately estimated DHA, linoleic and total ω-6 fatty acids and the composition of mature breast milk was shown to be a suitable biomarker for EPA and DHA fatty acid intake during pregnancy.

  3. Intakes and breast-milk concentrations of essential fatty acids are low among Bangladeshi women with 24-48-month-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakes, Elizabeth A; Arsenault, Joanne E; Munirul Islam, M; Hossain, Mohammad B; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Bruce German, J; Gillies, Laura A; Shafiqur Rahman, Ahmed; Drake, Christiana; Jamil, Kazi M; Lewis, Bess L; Brown, Kenneth H

    2011-06-01

    Maternal fat intake and adipose reserves are major sources of PUFA during lactation. The present study examined the cross-sectional relationship between prolonged breast-feeding and maternal BMI, assessed adequacy of fat intake among lactating and non-lactating mothers of children 24-48 months of age and determined breast-milk fatty acid composition. Multi-stage sampling was used to select a representative sample of mothers from two rural districts in Bangladesh (n 474). Dietary data were collected during two non-consecutive 24 h periods via 12 h in-home daytime observations and recall. The National Cancer Institute method for episodically consumed foods was used to estimate usual intake distributions. Breast milk samples were collected from ninety-eight women, and breast-milk fatty acid methyl esters were quantified using GC. Approximately 42 % of lactating v. 26 % of non-lactating mothers were underweight (BMI maternal diet was low in total fat (approximately 8 % of mean total energy) and food sources of PUFA, including oil and animal source foods, resulting in a low estimated mean total consumption of PUFA (5·1 g/d). Almost all women were estimated to consume less than the recommended intake levels for total fat, total PUFA, α-linolenic acid (ALA) and DHA. Median breast-milk linoleic acid (8·5 % weight) and ALA (0·2 %) concentrations were among the lowest reported in the literature, in contrast with arachidonic acid (0·5 %) and DHA (0·3 %) concentrations, which were mid-range. Bangladeshi women in general, and especially those who practise prolonged breast-feeding, may benefit from increased consumption of food sources of PUFA.

  4. Herpesviruses and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasanta, C; Ghirardi, B; Manca, M F; Uccella, S; Gualdi, C; Tota, E; Pugni, L; Mosca, F

    2014-06-30

    Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  5. Herpesviruses and breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pietrasanta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV and cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  6. Fatty acid composition of milk of refugee Karen and urban Korean mothers. Is the level of DHA in breast milk of Western women compromised by high intake of saturated fat and linoleic acid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfetto, I; McGready, R; Ghebremeskel, K; Min, Y; Dubowitz, L; Nosten, F; Drury, P; Simpson, J A; Arunjerdja, R; Crawford, M A

    2007-01-01

    Lower proportions of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and total n-3 metabolites have been reported in breast milk of European, Australian and North American women compared with milk of mothers from non-Western countries. This difference is not always explained by intakes of marine products. We investigated the possibility that the relative composition of DHA and total n-3 metabolites in breast milk of non-Western mothers with low fat intakes is higher than the levels commonly reported in their Western counterparts. Mature milk of refugee Karen women from two different camps in Thailand (n=26 and n=53), and transition milk from urban Korean mothers (n=12) in Seoul was collected. In common with their respective community, the mothers have low fat intake, which is predominately of plant origin. The percentage levels of DHA and n-3 metabolites in the milk of the Karen mothers were 0.52 +/- 0.14 and 0.85 +/- 0.24 (camp 1) and 0.54 +/- 0.22 and 0.92 +/- 0.42 (camp 2). In the Korean milk, DHA was 0.96 +/- 0.21 and total n-3 metabolites 1.51 +/- 0.3. We postulate that the levels of DHA and total n-3 metabolites may be compromised in breast milk of mothers on the Western high fat diet. This calls into question the use of DHA composition of such milk as a reference for the formulation of milk designed, for infant feed or, to test the function of DHA in neuro-visual development.

  7. Breast milk jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... babies who show signs of hunger are given pacifiers. Breast milk jaundice may run in families. It ... look at blood cell shapes and sizes Blood type Complete blood count Reticulocyte count (number of slightly ...

  8. Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Providing Approximately the Recommended Daily Intake of Vitamin A Do Not Increase Breast Milk Retinol Concentrations among Ghanaian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevor, Moses K; Haskell, Marjorie J; Lartey, Anna; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Zeilani, Mamane; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin A deficiency remains a global public health problem. Daily supplementation with a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) has potential for increasing milk vitamin A concentrations. The objective of this study was to determine whether daily supplementation with approximately the recommended daily intake of vitamin A in an LNS or a multiple-micronutrient supplement (MMN) during pregnancy and the first 6 mo postpartum has an effect on breast milk retinol concentration at 6 mo postpartum. Women ≤20 wk pregnant (n = 1320) were randomly assigned to receive either the MMN providing 18 micronutrients, including 800 μg retinol equivalents of vitamin A, or the LNS with the same nutrients as the MMN group, plus 4 minerals and macronutrients, until 6 mo postpartum; a control group received iron and folic acid during pregnancy and a placebo (calcium tablet) during the first 6 mo postpartum. Breast milk samples collected at 6 mo postpartum were analyzed for retinol and fat concentrations by HPLC and creamatocrit, respectively, in a subsample of 756 women. The breast milk retinol concentration was (mean ± SD) 56.3 ± 2.1 nmol/g fat, with no significant differences between groups [iron and folic acid (n = 243): 59.1 ± 2.8; MMN (n = 260): 55.4 ± 2.5; LNS (n = 253): 54.7 ± 2.5 nmol/g fat; P = 0.45], regardless of whether the woman had or had not received a high-dose vitamin A supplement (200,000 IU) soon after childbirth. Around 17% of participants had low milk retinol (≤28 nmol/g fat). We estimated that 41% of infants were potentially receiving vitamin A at amounts above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (600 μg retinol activity equivalents/d), with no group differences in percentages with low or high milk retinol concentration. Daily consumption of approximately the recommended intake of vitamin A did not increase breast milk retinol concentrations in this sample of Ghanaian women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00970866. © 2016 American

  9. Lactation counseling increases breast-feeding duration but not breast milk intake as measured by isotopic methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albernaz, Elaine; Victora, Cesar G; Haisma, Hinke; Wright, Antony; Coward, William A

    The importance of exclusive breast-feeding in the first 6 mo of life is widely recognized, but most mothers still do not reach this goal. Several studies have shown that face-to-face lactation counseling is effective in increasing not only exclusive breast-feeding rates but also the total duration

  10. The effect of a controlled manipulation of maternal dietary fat intake on medium and long chain fatty acids in human breast milk in Saskatoon, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Alison M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies in recent years have demonstrated the effect of maternal diet on fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods Fourteen free-living lactating women participated in a cross-over dietary intervention study, consuming a low fat diet (17.6% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 68.0% of energy as carbohydrate and a high fat diet (40.3% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 45.3% of energy as carbohydrate each for periods of 4 days, in randomised order. Each mother was her own control. Mature milk samples were collected during each period and analysed for medium and long chain fatty acids. Results The concentration of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, was 13.6% in breast milk for the low fat diet compared to 11.4% for the high fat (p Conclusions Changing maternal dietary fat intake has a rapid response in terms of changes to fatty acids in breast milk.

  11. Breast milk jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szczepańska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jaundice is the most common clinical symptom in the neonatal period. Free serum bilirubin levels during the first days after birth are higher than at any point later in life. Breastfeeding is associated with both increased risk and severity of jaundice. Early-onset breastfeeding jaundice is primarily a result of insufficient caloric supply and resolves gradually with the normalisation of lactation. Late-onset type, i.e. breast milk jaundice, develops after 4–7 days of life in otherwise healthy neonates and is mainly associated with the presence of an unknown factor in breast milk, which increases the enterohepatic reabsorption of bilirubin. Breast milk (late-onset jaundice is the most common cause of persistent jaundice due to increased unconjugated bilirubin. Elevated conjugated bilirubin always indicates a pathological process and requires urgent diagnosis extension. It was believed until recently that breast milk jaundice is a mild condition, which never leads to central nervous system damage. This, however, is not entirely certain in the light of currently available scientific research; therefore it is necessary to monitor bilirubin levels. Since breast milk jaundice is a diagnosis of exclusion, it is usually preceded by differential diagnosis. In the case of breast milk jaundice, serum bilirubin levels will return to normal by 12–14 weeks of life. In the case of newborns/infants in good condition, who develop properly and gain weight systematically, supporting parents in effective breastfeeding, monitoring and regular check-ups of the child are recommended. Breast milk jaundice is not a contraindication to prophylactic vaccination.

  12. Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wendy K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer. We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast milk. Methods We conducted a prospective review of 100 consecutive births of infants in the same centre to determine the proportion of newborn infants who were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk, as distinct from being fully breast fed. We also report a review of the breastfeeding practices of mothers of over 87,000 newborn infants in the Australian State of New South Wales. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia. Approval 05063, 29 September 2005. Results Virtually all (97 of 100 newborn infants in this centre were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk whether or not they were fully breast fed. Between 82.2% to 98.7% of 87,000 newborn infants were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk. Conclusion In some Western communities there is near universal exposure of new born infants to colostrum and breast milk. Accordingly it is possible for the transmission of human milk borne viruses. This is contrary to the widespread assumption that human milk borne viruses cannot be associated with breast cancer.

  13. Immunology of breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Palmeira

    Full Text Available Summary In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Colostrum is the most potent natural immune booster known to science. Breastfeeding protects infants against infections mainly via secretory IgA (SIgA antibodies, but also via other various bioactive factors. It is striking that the defense factors of human milk function without causing inflammation; some components are even anti-inflammatory. Protection against infections has been well evidenced during lactation against, e.g., acute and prolonged diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, including otitis media, urinary tract infection, neonatal septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The milk’s immunity content changes over time. In the early stages of lactation, IgA, anti-inflammatory factors and, more likely, immunologically active cells provide additional support for the immature immune system of the neonate. After this period, breast milk continues to adapt extraordinarily to the infant’s ontogeny and needs regarding immune protection and nutrition. The need to encourage breastfeeding is therefore justifiable, at least during the first 6 months of life, when the infant’s secretory IgA production is insignificant.

  14. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  15. Breast milk: immunosurveillance in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachita Nanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk is unique and a natural source of nutrition. However, it also helps to protect against various types of disease, not only infective but also immunological diseases. The wide variety of molecules in milk is responsible for its varied role for the newborn infant. Various breast milk proteins, contribute for its immunological, nutritional as well as its antimicrobial role. The naive immune system, intestinal mucosa and other organs of the neonate are also developed by various cellular factors. Breast milk protects not only during the neonatal period but also beyond it. By educating the neonatal immune system it also protects against the development of diseases later in life.

  16. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Fissore MariaF; Liguori StefaniaA; Savino Francesco; Oggero Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity,...

  17. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Savino; Stefania A. Liguori; Fissore, Maria F.; Roberto Oggero

    2009-01-01

    Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, ...

  18. Breast milk: Fatty acid composition and maternal diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihela Dujmović

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk from healthy and well-nourished mothers is the preferred form of infants´ feeding in the first six months after parturition, and breastfeeding in this period supports the normal growth and development of new-born infants. During the first month postpartum, breast milk changes through three stages: colostrum, transitional milk and mature milk. Mature milk, which is excreted after the 16th day postpartum, contains on average 3.4-4.5 % lipids. Breast milk lipids fulfill 40-55 % of an infant´s daily energy needs and provide a supply of fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids. The characteristics of milk lipids are largely determined by their fatty acid composition. In this work the general characteristics of breast milk and milk lipids, as well as the influence of maternal diet on composition of fatty acids in breast milk, are discussed. Breast milk provides all dietary essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2n-6 and α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, as well as their longer-chain more-unsaturated metabolites, including arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are of particular importance in visual and neural development, and their content in milk is a reflection of the mother´s current and long-term dietary intake. A positive association has been established between the maternal intake of fish and seafood and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially docosahexaenoic acid in milk. Numerous researches have been shown that supplementation with docosahexaenoic acids during the last trimester of pregnancy and during lactation significantly increases the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk.

  19. Vitamin D content in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Við Streym, Susanna; Højskov, Carsten S; Møller, Ulla Kristine

    2016-01-01

    ) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) (vitamin D) and 25-hydroxivitamin D2 plus D3 (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]) in foremilk and hindmilk during the first 9 mo of lactation and identified indexes of importance to the concentrations. DESIGN: We collected blood and breast-milk samples from mothers at 2 wk (n = 107), 4 mo......, (n = 90), and 9 mo (n = 48) postpartum. Blood samples from infants were collected 4 and 9 mo after birth. We measured concentrations of vitamin D metabolites in blood and milk samples with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Concentrations of vitamin D and 25(OH......)D concentrations (P taking vitamin D supplements had higher concentrations than did nonusers. Medians (IQRs) of infant daily intake through breast milk of vitamin D and 25(OH)D were 0.10 μg (0.02-0.40 μg) and 0.34 μg (0...

  20. Predictors of breast milk macronutrient composition in Filipino mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Elizabeth A; Largado, Fe; Power, Michael; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that breastfeeding has long-term effects on offspring biology and health, which has heightened interest in understanding the extent of variation in breast milk composition and its underlying determinants. Here, we report variation in milk macronutrient composition in a well-characterized cohort of young Filipino mothers and test underlying maternal predictors of this variation. Morning breast milk samples, anthropometrics, dietary recalls, and other interview data were collected in 102 Filipino young breastfeeding mothers (age range 24.6-25.4 years) living in Cebu City, Philippines. Milk samples were analyzed for protein, fat, sugar, and milk energy density. Regression models were used to test associations between milk macronutrient composition and maternal diet, body composition, breastfeeding duration, and feeding frequency. Consistent with past studies, milk fat and energy increased with duration of breastfeeding; there were no associations between maternal diet or percent body fat and milk composition with the exception of a modest, inverse association between maternal adiposity and milk sugar content. The relative lack of associations between maternal diet or body composition and milk composition at Cebu is consistent with past studies and suggests that milk composition may be buffered against fluctuations in maternal dietary intake or nutritional status. We speculate that the tendency for milk composition to vary between populations faced with different nutritional ecologies, but to show minimal responsiveness to intake during lactation, may enhance the reliability of milk composition as a stable intergenerational cue of typical local environmental quality. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effect of flavored milk vs plain milk on total milk intake and nutrient provision in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Concerns surrounding added sugars and their effects on health have created a need to review the literature to assess consumption of flavored milk, consumer preferences for flavored milk, behavior related to the intake of flavored milk, and the effect of flavored milk on the diet and health of children. A review of the literature was performed using the following keywords: milk, flavored, flavoured, sweetened, and chocolate. The search was limited to articles published in English, studies conducted in children, and studies reporting on prevalence of consumption, trends in consumption, preferences for flavored milk, intakes of milk and nutrients, and health outcomes. Fifty-three studies were included. Flavored milk receives the highest palatability rating among children. Children drink more flavored milk than plain milk and, when flavored milk is not available, children drink less plain milk and, consequently, less milk overall. Consumers of flavored milk have a higher total milk intake. Micronutrient intake among consumers of flavored milk is similar to that among consumers of plain milk, while intakes of energy and sugars vary, owing to differences in reporting across studies. There is no association between flavored milk intake and weight status among normal-weight children, and some contradictory effects of flavored milk intake have been observed in subgroups of overweight children. Flavored milk is a palatable beverage choice that helps children to meet calcium targets. Further research to test the effect of flavored milk consumption among overweight children is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Savino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.

  3. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fissore MariaF

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.

  4. Pink Breast Milk: Serratia marcescens Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Cipatli Ayuzo del Valle; Emilio Treviño Salinas

    2014-01-01

    Background - Breast milk can turn pink with Serratia marcescens colonization, this bacterium has been associated with several diseases and even death. It is seen most commonly in the intensive care settings. Discoloration of the breast milk can lead to premature termination of nursing. We describe two cases of pink-colored breast milk in which S. marsescens was isolated from both the expressed breast milk. Antimicrobial treatment was administered to the mothers. Return to breastfeeding was su...

  5. Breast milk macronutrient composition after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Goele; Matthys, Christophe; Lannoo, Matthias; Van der Schueren, Bart; Devlieger, Roland

    2015-05-01

    Breast milk samples from 12 lactating women with bariatric surgery were investigated by comparing the macronutrient and energy content with samples from 36 non-surgical controls. Samples were analyzed with the Human Milk Analyzer and the maternal diet 24 h prior to sampling with a food record. A higher fat, energy, and a slightly higher carbohydrate milk content was found in the surgical group compared to the non-surgical group (3.0 ± 0.7 versus 2.2 ± 0.9 g/100 ml, P = 0.008; 61.0 ± 7.2 versus 51.7 ± 9 kcal/100 ml, P = 0.002; and 6.6 ± 0.6 versus 6.3 ± 0.4 g/100 ml, P = 0.045, respectively). No correlations and no strong explanatory variance were found between milk macronutrient composition and corresponding maternal dietary intake. The nutritional value of breast milk after bariatric surgery appears to be at least as high as in non-surgical controls.

  6. Breast milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) correlates with DHA status of malnourished infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Oelen, EA; Seerat, E; Muskiet, FAJ; Boersma, ER

    Aim-To investigate whether low docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed infants is a result of low omega 3 fatty acid intake via breast milk. Methods-Fatty acid composition of breast milk of eight Pakistani mothers, and of the erythrocytes of their

  7. Adipokines in breast milk and preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Liguori, Stefania Alfonsina; Lupica, Maria Maddalena

    2010-07-01

    Studies have shown that the early life environment affects feeding behaviour, food intake and energy balance in later life, suggesting there is a link between foetal and infant growth and the risk of metabolic disorders in adulthood. Although there is an evident epidemiological association between low birth weight and adult-onset diseases, the incidence of metabolic diseases in adulthood among people who were born prematurely is still unknown. Considerable advances have been made during the last years in the scientific knowledge of the benefits of early nutrition, such as breastfeeding, on health and well-being later in life. Nutritional researchers have focussed their attention on the biological characteristics of human breast milk, which represents the main source of nutrients in the first months of life for breastfed infants. Recently, leptin and ghrelin have been detected in the breast milk of mothers of term and preterm infants. Adiponectin and resistin, present in term human milk, have not been investigated in the breast milk of mothers of preterm infants. These hormones are involved in the regulation of energy balance and may have a role in the regulation of growth and development in the neonatal period and infancy, as well as long-term effects on metabolic programming. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin have been found at lower levels in pre-term infants compared with term newborns, whereas there seems to be no difference in ghrelin levels. Future research is necessary to clarify the role of hormones present in breast milk for identifying potential short- and long-term effects of breastfeeding on the health of children born prematurely. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Storage of Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Can

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Storage of human breast milk by freezing or refrigeration of milk has been recommended especially at some social circumstances of most mothers who are regularly separated from their infants because of work. The greatest fear that has hindered the prospects of in - vitro storage of breast milk for any considerable period of time is the possibility of bacterial contamination and growth of infectious pathogens in the stored milk, there by rendering them unsafe for human consumption. The storage container can influence the cell content of milk, as the cells adhere to the walls of a glass container but not to polyethylene or polypropylene containers. Bacteriological examination of refrigerated milks has proven their safety for human consumption for even up to 72 h. For a storage over longer periods up to 1 month, freezing at - 20 0C could be recommended, but the most preferred method, especially for longer storage would be fresh freezing at - 70 0C, if affordable or available. The nutrient value of human milk is essentially unchanged, but the immunological properties are reduced by various storage techniques. Boiling and microwave radiation have not been recommended. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 375-379

  9. Aflatoxins in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, J B; Lamplugh, S M; Suliman, G I; Omer, M I; Hendrickse, R G

    1984-06-01

    Breast milk from 99 Sudanese mothers was analysed for aflatoxins. Aflatoxins M1 and/or M2 were detected in 37 of the milks. No other aflatoxin was detected. M1 occurred alone in 13 milks, (mean 19.0 pg/ml), M2 in 11 milks (mean 12.2 pg/ml), and in 13 samples both M1 and M2 were detected. There appeared to be a linear relationship between M1 and M2 where both were excreted. No aflatoxin was detected in subcutaneous abdominal wall fat removed during Caesarian section from 15 women, but was present in three out of 14 bloods taken during anaesthesia. The presence of aflatoxins in mothers' milk showed no correlation with duration of lactation, the infants' nutrition, presence of aflatoxin in mothers' blood, or the infant's blood and urine. It is concluded that some Sudanese women excrete aflatoxins in breast-milk at levels similar to or higher than those considered safe in animal milk, for human consumption.

  10. Pink Breast Milk: Serratia marcescens Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipatli Ayuzo del Valle

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background - Breast milk can turn pink with Serratia marcescens colonization, this bacterium has been associated with several diseases and even death. It is seen most commonly in the intensive care settings. Discoloration of the breast milk can lead to premature termination of nursing. We describe two cases of pink-colored breast milk in which S. marsescens was isolated from both the expressed breast milk. Antimicrobial treatment was administered to the mothers. Return to breastfeeding was successful in both the cases. Conclusions - Pink breast milk is caused by S. marsescens colonization. In such cases,early recognition and treatment before the development of infection is recommended to return to breastfeeding.

  11. Pink Breast Milk: Serratia marcescens Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Cipatli Ayuzo Del; Salinas, Emilio Treviño

    2014-11-01

    Background Breast milk can turn pink with Serratia marcescens colonization, this bacterium has been associated with several diseases and even death. It is seen most commonly in the intensive care settings. Discoloration of the breast milk can lead to premature termination of nursing. We describe two cases of pink-colored breast milk in which S. marsescens was isolated from both the expressed breast milk. Antimicrobial treatment was administered to the mothers. Return to breastfeeding was successful in both the cases. Conclusions Pink breast milk is caused by S. marsescens colonization. In such cases,early recognition and treatment before the development of infection is recommended to return to breastfeeding.

  12. Breast milk is the best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroja, K

    1981-02-01

    Throughout the world, the concept that the best milk is breast milk is gaining momentum from ever increasing supportive scientific evidence. In India the average mother even with her poor nutritional status has the ability to breastfeed her infant for prolonged periods, sometimes extending to nearly 2 years. Human milk generally forms the only source of dietary protein for poor Indian infants, and the nutritional status of poor infants and children would be much worse than what it is today if not for breast milk. The positive economic and health implications of breast milk are obvious; it is the most hygienic, safest, and suitable nourishment a mother can provide for her infant. Recently, there has been an unfortunate trend toward artificial feeding among the average Indian mother. This practice is spreading among rural mothers and mothers of low socioeconomic groups. Due to poverty and ignorance many mothers neither can prepare the artificial milk feeding formula hygienically nor feed their children well, and the children are not only deprived of essential nutrients but are exposed to unnecessary intestinal infections introduced through unsterilized bottles and nipples. The Protein Advisory Group of the UN has warned against early abandonment of breastfeeding, particularly in poor families, as devastating to the health and survival of infants. The practice of artificial feeding also has adverse economic implications. The expenditure incurred in the processing, packing, distributing, preparing, and refrigerating cow's milk is enormous and one that a developing country like India cannot afford. Breast feeding also has the advantage of a certain amount of contraceptive effect. Generalizations for the promotion of breastfeeding include the following: 1) unsupplemented human milk is all that is needed to sustain growth and good nutrition for the first 6 months of life; 2) the volume and composition of human milk among poor women is surprisingly good despite their low

  13. Effects of early cholesterol intake on cholesterol 7 alpha hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) expression in piglets receiving sow's breast milk or infant formula until weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike breast milk, infant formulas are not rich in cholesterol. To compensate for the dietary loss, hepatic cholesterol synthesis is increased in formula-fed infants. Observational studies have reported significant increases in serum cholesterol and triglycerides in adults that received formula dur...

  14. Effect on feed intake, milk production and milk composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-22

    Sep 22, 2014 ... associated with the replacement of maize grain with wheat grain. Keywords: ... maize (Zea mays), barley (Hordeum sativum), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and cereal crop by-products such as wheat ... replacing maize grain in TMRs on the feed intake and milk yield parameters of lactating Holstein cows using.

  15. Levels and profiles of PCDD/Fs, PCBs in mothers' milk in Shenzhen of China: estimation of breast-fed infants' intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bo; Zhang, JianQing; Zhang, Lishi; Jiang, YouSheng; Zhou, Jian; Fang, Daokui; Zhang, Huiming; Huang, HaiYan

    2012-07-01

    Sixty breast milk samples were collected in Shenzhen, China from July to November in 2007. The samples were analyzed of the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The range of upper-bound for ∑TEQ-(PCDD/Fs+PCBs) in the samples was 4.10-35.3 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid (median: 10.6 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid; mean: 11.9 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid). The levels of the measured contaminants in the breast milk had significant correlations with the length of inhabitation period in Shenzhen (r=0.487, pmilk is critical to more precisely evaluate the human health risk posed by the negative environmental impact in Shenzhen in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental contaminants in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Krista

    2006-01-01

    Toxic environmental contaminants can be transferred from mother to infant via breastfeeding. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a family of lipophilic stable chemicals that bioaccumulate in adipose tissue and create a lasting toxic body burden. Breastfeeding provides a significant source of exposure to POPs early in human life, the effects of which are unknown, and is the subject of a growing body of research. Despite the possibility of harm from environmental contaminants in breast milk, breastfeeding is still recommended as the best infant feeding method. This article reviews what is known about POPs in breast milk and their effect on infant development to inform clinicians about the issue, provide recommendations for practice, and promote environmental and public health policies that reduce human exposure to harmful pollutants.

  17. Cadmium, lead, copper and zinc in breast milk in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Mother's milk is the fundamental food for infants. It contains proteins, fat, carbohydrates and essential metals which are necessary to ensure correct functioning of the organism. Unfortunately, breast milk is a potential source of toxic metals, which are dangerous for a baby. In Poland, previous research concerning the content of metals in breast milk was very scarce or its results were unavailable. The present study aimed at assessing the content of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in human breast milk, as well as estimating the mean weekly intake of these metals by breast-fed infants from Poland. The average concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were 2.114 μg/l, 6.331 μg/l, 0.137 mg/l and 1.623 mg/l, respectively. The admissible levels of supply of these toxic metals has not been exceeded, but their contents were high, particularly in 6-month-old infants (nearly 85 % TWI for Cd and nearly 70 % BMDL₀₁ for Pb). The daily intake of Cu and Zn did not fully satisfy the infant's requirements determined by Polish standards and WHO recommendations. Since the lifestyle of lactating women has a direct influence on the content of these elements in breast milk, women should be educated in this respect with particular focus on eliminating tobacco smoking, both by breastfeeding mothers and by their direct environment.

  18. Exposure of infants to ochratoxin A with breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, K; Blaszkewicz, M; Campos, V; Vega, M; Degen, G H

    2014-03-01

    The nephrotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a worldwide contaminant in food commodities and also found frequently in human biological fluids. Dietary contaminants ingested by nursing mothers can appear in breast milk. But the rate of lactational transfer of OTA has not been investigated so far at various stages of breastfeeding. Therefore, and to investigate OTA exposure of Chilean infants, we conducted a longitudinally designed study in mother-child pairs (n = 21) with parallel collection of maternal blood, milk and of infant urine samples over a period of up to 6 months. Validated analytical methods were applied to determine OTA concentrations in all biological samples (n = 134). OTA was detected in almost all maternal blood plasma, at concentrations ranging between 72 and 639 ng/L. The OTA concentrations in breast milk were on average one quarter of those measured in plasma (M/P ratio 0.25). Interestingly, a higher fraction of circulating OTA was excreted in colostrum (M/P 0.4) than with mature milk (M/P ≤ 0.2). Infants exposure was calculated as daily intake from our new data for OTA levels in breast milk, and taking into account milk consumption and body weight as additional variables: Chilean infants have an average intake of 12.7 ± 9.1 ng/kg bw during the first 6 days after delivery while intake with mature milk results in average values close to 5.0 ng/kg bw/day. Their OTA exposure is discussed in the context of tolerable intake values suggested by different scientific bodies. Moreover, the study design enabled a comparison of OTA intake and infant urine concentrations over the breastfeeding period. The statistical analysis of n = 27 paired values showed a good correlation (r = 0.57) for this type of studies and thereby confirms that urinary OTA analysis in infants is a valid biomarker of exposure.

  19. Bioactive proteins in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2013-03-01

    Human milk contains many proteins that have been shown to be bioactive, but it is still not known whether these activities are exerted in breast-fed infants. These bioactivities include enzyme activities, enhancement of nutrient absorption, growth stimulation, modulation of the immune system and defence against pathogens. The antimicrobial activities are very diverse, ranging from stimulation of beneficial microorganisms (i.e. prebiotic effects), killing or inhibition of growth of pathogens, to mechanisms preventing attachment or invasion of harmful microorganisms. Among the bioactive proteins are lactoferrin, lysozyme, secretory immunoglobulin A, haptocorrin, lactoperoxidase, α-lactalbumin, bile salt stimulated lipase, β- and κ-casein, and tumour growth factor β. Human milk proteins may be largely resistant against digestion in the gastrointestinal tract, be partially digested into bioactive peptides, or be more or less completely digested and utilised as a source of amino acids. These events can be studied using an in vitro digestion model, which is useful for predicting results in human infants. Some bovine milk proteins, for example, lactoferrin and tumour growth factor β, may also resist proteolysis and be capable of exerting bioactivities similar to those of human milk proteins. © 2013 The Author. Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Investigation of short-term variations in term breast milk composition during repeated breast expression sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sadaf; Prime, Danielle K; Hepworth, Anna R; Lai, Ching Tat; Trengove, Naomi J; Hartmann, Peter E

    2013-05-01

    Breast milk composition can be affected by several factors, and it can exhibit short-term (weekly) variations. Investigating variations in breast milk composition is important to accurately estimate nutrient requirements of the infant. To investigate short-term changes in breast milk composition between left and right breasts, over a 3-week period within the first 6 months of lactation. The left and right breasts of the mothers of healthy, term infants (n = 23) were simultaneously expressed with an electric breast pump for 15 minutes, on 3 occasions within 3 weeks. Milk samples (5 mL) were collected from the total expression volume of each breast at each session. The macronutrient contents, total solids, and energy content were determined using a mid-infrared human milk analyzer. Mothers (n = 17) measured their 24-hour milk production, and the average 24-hour fat contents were also determined. Over the 3 weekly sessions, no significant changes were found in macronutrient contents. On average, total solids (P = .04) and energy (P = .04) decreased by week 3 of follow-up sessions from 14 to 13 g/100 mL and from 82 to 76 Kcal/100 mL, respectively; however, these changes became insignificant when expression volume was taken into account. The macronutrient concentration was similar for the left and right breasts; however, milk composition varied markedly between mothers. Furthermore, average 24-hour fat content was significantly lower than the mean fat content from a single expression session (P milk, assuming an average concentration requires caution. The study findings illustrate the importance of using average 24-hour fat content of milk to obtain representative measures of infant energy intake.

  1. Maternal and environmental determinants of breast-milk mercury concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, S Songül; Yurdakök, Kadriye; Yalçin, Suzan; Engür-Karasimav, Defne; Coşkun, Turgay

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the maternal factors [including dietary habits, dental care, smoking, anemia, levels of breast-milk zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe), and levels of serum selenium (Se), Zn and copper (Cu)] that influence breast-milk mercury (Hg) concentrations and to investigate whether there is any relation between Hg concentrations and infant growth and development during the exclusive breastfeeding period and in the second year of life. Forty-four healthy mother-infant pairs in the 10-20-day postpartum period were enrolled in the study. Maternal history and blood samples for hemoglobin, Fe, Fe binding capacity, ferritin, Se, Zn, and Cu and breast-milk samples for Fe, Zn and Hg were taken. Infant growth and development during the exclusive breastfeeding period and in the second year of life were followed. The mean concentration of breast-milk Hg was 3.42 +/- 1.66 microg/L. Serum Se levels were negatively correlated with milk Hg levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that active/passive smoking and offal intake during pregnancy and presence of maternal anemia had an impact on increased milk Hg concentrations. Preventive strategies for mercury exposure should include management of iron deficiency anemia, cessation of smoking exposure and proper nutrition during the pregnancy period.

  2. Secretion of dilevalol in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwanski, E; Nagabhushan, N; Affrime, M B; Perentesis, G; Symchowicz, S; Patrick, J E

    1988-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics of unchanged and total (unchanged plus Glusulase [Biotechnology Systems, Boston, MA]) released dilevalol and secretion into human breast milk was studied in six healthy breast-feeding female volunteers administered a single 400-mg dilevalol hydrochloride capsule. In plasma, the mean Cmax for unchanged dilevalol, 485 ng/mL was reached at 0.8 hour (tmax) and the AUC(48 hours) was 1435 hr X ng/mL. Pharmacokinetic analysis of unchanged dilevalol in plasma showed that dilevalol was distributed and eliminated with half-lives of 0.9 and 8.2 hours, respectively. Breast milk concentrations of unchanged dilevalol as a function of time, paralleled those of plasma but were consistently lower. The milk Cmax, 149 ng/mL, occurred during the 0 to 2 hour collection interval; the AUC(42 hours) for unchanged dilevalol in milk was 663 hr X ng/mL. The mean milk to plasma concentration ratio was 0.46. The unchanged dilevalol plasma concentrations were 12 to 18% those of total drug suggesting that the drug is extensively conjugated. By contrast, the concentrations of unchanged dilevalol in breast milk, based on Cmax and AUC data were 63 to 94% those of total drug, indicating that very little conjugated drug is secreted into breast milk. Through 48 hours, a mean of only 27 micrograms dilevalol or 0.007% of the administered dose was secreted into breast milk, which is much less than that reported for other beta blockers.

  3. Breast milk, microbiota, and intestinal immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W Allan; Iyengar, Rajashri Shuba

    2015-01-01

    Newborns adjust to the extrauterine environment by developing intestinal immune homeostasis. Appropriate initial bacterial colonization is necessary for adequate intestinal immune development. An environmental determinant of adequate colonization is breast milk. Although the full-term infant is developmentally capable of mounting an immune response, the effector immune component requires bacterial stimulation. Breast milk stimulates the proliferation of a well-balanced and diverse microbiota, which initially influences a switch from an intrauterine TH2 predominant to a TH1/TH2 balanced response and with activation of T-regulatory cells by breast milk-stimulated specific organisms (Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides). As an example of its effect, oligosaccharides in breast milk are fermented by colonic bacteria producing an acid milieu for bacterial proliferation. In addition, short-chain fatty acids in breast milk activate receptors on T-reg cells and bacterial genes, which preferentially mediate intestinal tight junction expression and anti-inflammation. Other components of breast milk (defensins, lactoferrin, etc.) inhibit pathogens and further contribute to microbiota composition. The breast milk influence on initial intestinal microbiota also prevents expression of immune-mediated diseases (asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes) later in life through a balanced initial immune response, underscoring the necessity of breastfeeding as the first source of nutrition.

  4. Excretion of drugs in human breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, R.M.; Findlay, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The present report briefly discusses some of the morphological, physiological, and compositional aspects of animal and human breast milk and how these characteristics might be important for the accumulation of drugs and foreign compounds. In addition, a study is described confirming the presence of caffeine, codeine, morphine, phenacetin, acetaminophen, and salicylic acid in the breast milk of a lactating mother following oral administration of a combination analgesic containing aspirin, phenacetin, caffeine, and codeine. Although the study is limited to one subject, it has provided critically needed data on the rates of appearance in, and elimination of these drugs from, breast milk. A similar amount of information is presented on phenacetin, also a component of the analgesic mixture, which has not been previously reported to enter human milk. The distribution of these drugs between the slightly more acidic breast milk and the relatively neutral plasma is consistent with their weakly basic, acidic, or relatively neutral properties. In general, the study shows that codeine and morphine milk concentrations are higher than, salicylic acid milk levels are much lower than, and phenacetin, caffeine, and acetaminophen milk concentrations are relatively similar to their respective plasma levels. It is projected, from estimated steady-state milk concentrations of the drugs and their metabolites studied, that very low percentages of the therapeutic dosages (less than 0.7%) would be excreted in mother's milk, too low an amount to be clinically significant to the infant.

  5. [Chemical pollution and breast milk: Taking positions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gómez, N M; Ares, S; Hernández-Aguilar, M T; Ortega-García, J A; Paricio-Talayero, J M; Landa-Rivera, L

    2013-12-01

    Chemical pollution affects all ecosystems of our planet. Human milk has been used as a biomarker of environmental pollution as, due to bioaccumulation processes in fat tissue, many chemical compounds reach measurable concentrations that can be readily tested in breast milk. Quite frequently information about the presence of contaminants in breast milk appears in the media, leading to misunderstanding among parents and health professionals, and in some cases breastfeeding the child is stopped. In this article, the Breastfeeding Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics stresses the importance of promoting breastfeeding as the healthiest option, because its benefits clearly outweigh any health risks associated with chemical contaminants in breast milk. Breast milk contains protective factors that counteract the potential effects related to prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants. This article summarises the key recommendations to reduce the level of chemical contaminants in breast milk. It also highlights the importance of government involvement in the development of programs to eliminate or reduce chemical contamination of food and the environment. In this way, the negative effects on child health resulting from exposure to these toxic compounds through the placenta and breast milk may be prevented. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Iron status of one-year-olds and association with breast milk, cow's milk or formula in late infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorisdottir, Asa V; Ramel, Alfons; Palsson, Gestur I; Tomassson, Helgi; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-09-01

    Studies on iron status in infancy and early childhood have shown contradicting results concerning prolonged breast-feeding and cow's milk intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between iron status among one-year-olds and feeding, with focus on the type of milk. Randomly selected healthy infants were prospectively investigated until 1 year of age in two cohorts born 1995-1996 (n = 114) and 2005 (n = 140). Information on birth data, feeding and growth until 12 months and iron status at 12 months was collected. Data from the two cohorts were pooled and the infants categorized into three groups according to their predominant milk consumption at 9 months of age, that is, breast milk, cow's milk or follow-on formula. The prevalence of iron deficiency was highest in the cow's milk group and lowest in the follow-on formula group. According to a linear model, adjusted for gender, birth weight and exclusive breast-feeding duration, cow's milk consumption was negatively associated with serum ferritin (SF) and formula positively, but breast milk not. Predicted SF (μg/l) = 11.652(intercept) - 5.362(boy) + 0.005 × birth weight (g) + 2.826(exclusively breastfed ≥ 4 months) + 0.027 × formula (ml) - 0.022 × cow's milk (ml) + 0.005 × breast milk (ml). Correction for other dietary factors did not change these results. In this pooled analysis, cow's milk intake in late infancy associated negatively, and follow-on formula positively, with iron status. Prolonged partial breast-feeding does not seem to be of importance for iron status. Fortified food seems to improve iron status in late infancy.

  7. Breast Milk Hormones and Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Savino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that a complex relationship exists between the central nervous system and peripheral organs involved in energy homeostasis. It consists in the balance between food intake and energy expenditure and includes the regulation of nutrient levels in storage organs, as well as in blood, in particular blood glucose. Therefore, food intake, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis are strictly connected to each other. Several hormones, such as leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and ghrelin, are involved in this complex regulation. These hormones play a role in the regulation of glucose metabolism and are involved in the development of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Recently, their presence in breast milk has been detected, suggesting that they may be involved in the regulation of growth in early infancy and could influence the programming of energy balance later in life. This paper focuses on hormones present in breast milk and their role in glucose homeostasis.

  8. Breast milk macronutrient composition and the associated factors in urban Chinese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Titi; Zhang, Yumei; Ning, Yibing; You, Lili; Ma, Defu; Zheng, Yingdong; Yang, Xiaoguang; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Junkuan; Wang, Peiyu

    2014-01-01

    Infancy is a critical period of growth and physiological development, in which breast milk is the best source of nutrients. Compared to western countries, research on breast milk of Chinese population are limited. Thus, it is necessary to measure breast milk energy and macronutrient concentrations of healthy urban Chinese mothers at different lactation stages, to expand the database of milk composition of Chinese population, and to examine whether dietary or other maternal factors can affect the levels of macronutrients in breast milk. Breast milk of full expression of one side breast from 436 urban Chinese lactating mothers at 5-11 days, 12-30 days, 31-60 days, 61-120 days, and 121-240 days postpartum was obtained at 9:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. Total energy, lactose, protein, and fat contents were measured. 24-hour dietary recall was surveyed, and maternal nutrient intakes were analyzed. Milk composition changed over the course of lactation and large individual variations were documented. The concentrations were 61.3 kcal/dl for total energy, 7.1 g/dl for lactose, 0.9 g/dl for protein, and 3.4 g/dl for fat in mature milk. Stage of lactation was a strong factor affecting milk composition. Minimal evidence was found for associations between maternal current dietary intake and milk macronutrient concentration, consistently with prior research. Maternal body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with milk fat content, to a greater extent than did dietary intake. All other maternal characteristics were not significant for milk composition. These findings suggest that milk composition is generally weakly associated with maternal factors except for stage of lactation, and is likely to be more susceptible to long-term maternal nutritional status than short-term dietary fluctuation.

  9. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Corrine Hanson; Elizabeth Lyden; Jeremy Furtado; Matthew Van Ormer; Ann Anderson-Berry

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12...

  10. Nitrite and Nitrate Concentrations and Metabolism in Breast Milk, Infant Formula, and Parenteral Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Jesica A.; Ninnis, Janet R.; Hopper, Andrew O.; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T. Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G.; Blood, Arlin B.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential...

  11. MEDICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL BASES OF BREAST MILK BANK FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Belyaeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of development and functioning of breast milk bank, substantiation of necessity of such institution, peculiarities of collection, processing and storing of donor breast milk.

  12. Epigenetic Effects of Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Verduci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A current aim of nutrigenetics is to personalize nutritional practices according to genetic variations that influence the way of digestion and metabolism of nutrients introduced with the diet. Nutritional epigenetics concerns knowledge about the effects of nutrients on gene expression. Nutrition in early life or in critical periods of development, may have a role in modulating gene expression, and, therefore, have later effects on health. Human breast milk is well-known for its ability in preventing several acute and chronic diseases. Indeed, breastfed children may have lower risk of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious diseases, and also of non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and related-disorders. Beneficial effects of human breast milk on health may be associated in part with its peculiar components, possible also via epigenetic processes. This paper discusses about presumed epigenetic effects of human breast milk and components. While evidence suggests that a direct relationship may exist of some components of human breast milk with epigenetic changes, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. Studies have to be conducted to clarify the actual role of human breast milk on genetic expression, in particular when linked to the risk of non-communicable diseases, to potentially benefit the infant’s health and his later life.

  13. Investigation on main source of dioxin analogues in human breast milk (second report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, H.; Nakao, T.; Aozasa, O.; Ohta, S. [Setsunan Univ., Hirakata (Japan); Iwamatsu, T. [Teijin Eco Science, Co. Ltd., Matsuyama (Japan); Fujimine, Y. [Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Tokushima (Japan); Fukui, S. [Fukui Lactation Consultation, Amagasaki (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In many countries, the breast milk sample has been used as a suitable indicator in order to examine human exposure level to Dioxins. In general, the breast milk level is considered to be reflecting to their accumulation level in the body. In addition, it is considered that ca. 60% of the accumulation amount of Dioxins is excreted to the baby through breast milk by nursing for a year. However, are these things true? In 1989, Frust et al. reported a time course of concentrations of Dioxins (abbreviated as Dioxins) in breast milk of one German during a period of 1 - 60 weeks after delivery. In the case of PCDFs, the level of 10 - 13 weeks after delivery was remarkably higher than that of 5 weeks. In addition, the PCBs level on the 10 to 13 weeks was also higher in comparison with on the 1 week. Thus, their pollution levels did not always decrease with a passing of time after childbirth. This suggests that all Dioxins in breast milk might be not derived from their storage in the body. Therefore, in 2001, we investigated the time alteration on the pollution level of Dioxins in breast milk from nine mothers and on their infants' daily intake of Dioxins by nursing. Consequently, it was revealed that the average daily intake of PCDD/DFs (PCDDs + PCDFs) was roughly constant during a period of 5 to 180 days after delivery. If all PCDD/DFs in breast milk are derived from only their body storage, the pollution level in milk must decrease in a linear course during a period of 5 to 180 days after delivery. However, thus linear decrease of pollution level was not observed in all tested mothers. These results indicated that PCDD/DFs in milk might be also delivered from other sources except for their storage in the body. Therefore, in this study, we tried to investigate the source of Dioxins in human breast milk.

  14. The Relationship between Breast Size and Breast Milk Volume of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of study was to determine if there is any relationship between breast size and the quantity of milk produced during sucking in 57 primiparas who practiced exclusive breast –feeding. The infants' ages range between 6 and 24 weeks with a mean age of 8.13 (5.2) weeks. There were 31 male and 26 female infants.

  15. [Relationship between breast milk composition and weight growth velocity of infants fed with exclusive breast milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Li; Xiong, Fei; Yang, Fan

    2016-10-01

    To study the effect of breast milk composition on weight growth velocity of infants fed with exclusive breast milk. One hundred and thirty-eight full-term singleton infants who received regular follow-up visits and fed with exclusive breast milk and their mothers were recruited. Body height, weight and head circumference of these infants were measured at regular visits. Z scores were used to evaluate growth velocity. The subjects were classified into a failure to thrive group (ΔZ scores≤-0.67), a poor growth group (-0.67mature breast milk were collected for composition analysis. The differences in the levels of the protein, fats, energy, carbohydrates and minerals in breast milk were compared among the three groups. ΔZ scores for weight in the failure to thrive and poor growth groups were lower than in the normal control group (Pmilk among the failure to thrive, poor growth and normal control groups. However, the levels of carbohydrates and minerals in both the failure to thrive and poor growth groups were lower than in the normal control group (Pcomposition of breast milk to a certain degree in a short period. In order to maintain a good weight growth velocity of infants, mothers should have a balanced diet to improve the quality of breast milk.

  16. Milk intake in kits: not only the total amount matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Arnau Bonachera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify milk intake variation patterns in kits throughout lactation, to evaluate their permanent maternal component and their relationships with the performance of kits before and after weaning. To achieve this goal, we used 73 rabbit does, controlled between the 1st and the 4th lactation, which kindled 229 litters with a total of 2225 kits. The daily milk intake records per young rabbit were analysed using a principal component analysis (PCA. We found that 72.3% of the variability was explained by the first 3 principal components (PCs. PC1 explained 46.4% of the total variability, was associated with the total amount of milk intake during lactation and presented a repeatability of 0.27 (P0.05. This component was little related to performance traits. Therefore, it seems that milk plays 2 different roles at the beginning of feed intake; the most important would affect development of the kits and thus is related with high intake. The second one, for a given total amount of milk intake during lactation, would create a kind of competition between milk and feed intake at the end of lactation. The effects of both components still persist during the growing period and seem to be moderately affected by the mother.

  17. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Nicole Theresa; Lawrence, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant’s optimal growth and development. The growing infant’s immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant’s innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk’s effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant’s intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs) have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant’s gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system and the developing

  18. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Theresa Cacho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant’s optimal growth and development. The growing infant’s immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant’s innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk’s effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant’s intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant’s gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system

  19. Milk intake in kits: not only the total amount matters

    OpenAIRE

    Bonachera, Alberto Arnau; Cervera, C.; Martínez-Paredes, E.; Ródenas, L.; Pascual, J. J.; Blas, E.

    2017-01-01

    [EN] The aim of this work was to identify milk intake variation patterns in kits throughout lactation, to evaluate their permanent maternal component and their relationships with the performance of kits before and after weaning. To achieve this goal, we used 73 rabbit does, controlled between the 1st and the 4th lactation, which kindled 229 litters with a total of 2225 kits. The daily milk intake records per young rabbit were analysed using a principal component analysis (PCA). We found that ...

  20. INDIVIDUAL BREAST MILK «BANKING»: NEEDS AND MEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Lukoyanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is the most important postnatal factor in metabolic and immunogenic programming of newborns’ health. When it is impossible to breastfeed the baby best efforts should be applied to maintain lactation in mother in order to feed the baby with expressed breast milk. Feeding with frozen expressed breast milk is as good as breastfeeding in its nutritional and biological values. Expressed breast milk (both native and thawed in 3–6 months is testified to be safe nutrition in its microbiological features for a breastfed child. The article presents recent capabilities to maintain milk production in a nursing mother, sets forth conditions requiring a baby to be breastfed with expressed milk, either partial or exclisive, indicates medical alerts for breastfeeding. Data for safe and effective baby nursing with expressed breast milk is considered. The ways for creation individual breast milk “bank” and rules for storage of frozen milk are indicated. Authors present results of introduction of new technologies for breastfeeding maintenance. The use of up-to-date breast pumps created on the basis of the studies of lactation physiology and mechanisms by which a baby takes the milk from his mother’s breast, helps to improve efficiency of milk expression, simplifies this process a lot making it more comfortable and effective.Key words: newborns, breastfeeding, expressed breast milk, breast pumps, Individual breast milk «banking».

  1. Milk Vending Does Not Improve College Students' Milk and Calcium Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Angela M; Williams, Rachel A; Hanks, Andrew S; Kennel, Julie A; Gunther, Carolyn

    2017-08-01

    In the transition from adolescence to young adulthood, overall diet quality decreases, including a reduction in both dairy and calcium consumption. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the impact of milk vending on milk and calcium intakes in college students. Participants were 124 college students living in dorms at a large public university (Fall 2012). Milk vending machines were installed in two campus dorms. Before and 2 months after installation, students were surveyed about milk and calcium intakes, as well as attitudes regarding milk vending. Sales data for the newly installed machines were also collected between the pre- and posttest surveys. Students reported similar milk and calcium consumption before and after the intervention. Mean calcium intakes were lower than the recommended dietary allowance for students in either life stage group (18 years old or 19 years and older). Milk vending sales data showed that during the study period, approximately nine bottles of milk were bought each day from the two dorms combined. Results from this study suggest that milk vending alone may not be an effective strategy for preventing the commonly observed decrease in milk and calcium intakes among college students.

  2. Chemical Biomarkers of Human Breast Milk Pollution

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    Benedetta Marchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is, without question, the best source of nutrition for infants containing the optimal balance of fats, carbohydrates and proteins for developing babies. Breastfeeding provides a range of benefits for growth, immunity and development building a powerful bond between mother and her child. Recognition of the manifold benefits of breast milk has led to the adoption of breast-feeding policies by numerous health and professional organizations such as the World Health Organization and American Academy of Pediatrics.In industrially developed as well as in developing nations, human milk contamination by toxic chemicals such as heavy metals, dioxins and organohalogen compounds, however, is widespread and is the consequence of decades of inadequately controlled pollution. Through breastfeeding, the mother may transfer to the suckling infant potentially toxic chemicals to which the mother has previously been exposed.In the present review, environmental exposure, acquisition and current levels of old and emerging classes of breast milk pollutants are systematically presented. Although scientific evidences indicated that the advantages of breast-feeding outweigh any risks from contaminants, it is important to identify contaminant trends, to locate disproportionately exposed populations, and to take public health measures to improve chemical BM pollution as possible.

  3. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K.; Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Tol, van Eric A.F.; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Dunger, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. Methods: HM hindmilk

  4. Concentrations of estrogen and progesterone in breast milk and their relationship with the mother's diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mengqing; Xiao, Hailong; Li, Kelei; Jiang, Jiajing; Wu, Kejian; Li, Duo

    2017-09-20

    The aim of the present study was to determine the concentrations of estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and progesterone in breast milk over different lactation periods, and to assess their relationship with the mother's diet. Ninety-six breast milk samples as well as 24-hour dietary records from 32 lactating mothers were collected on day 1 (colostrum), day 14 (transitional milk) and day 42 (mature milk) after delivery in Hangzhou, China. The concentrations of E2, E3 and progesterone differed significantly through different periods of lactation (p milk and mature milk was 1.60 ± 0.96 μg L -1 , 0.83 ± 0.36 μg L -1 and 1.26 ± 0.48 μg L -1 , respectively. The concentrations of E3 were 2.09 ± 1.66 μg L -1 , 2.23 ± 1.74 μg L -1 and 4.64 ± 2.15 μg L -1 , respectively. The concentrations of progesterone were 6.10 ± 8.30 μg L -1 , 4.25 ± 4.76 μg L -1 and 1.70 ± 2.42 μg L -1 , respectively. The concentration of progesterone in breast milk was significantly negatively correlated with the intake of protein (p = 0.015), fat (p = 0.008), vegetables (p = 0.012), and meat and eggs (p = 0.036), while the concentration of E3 was significantly positively correlated with the intake of soy products (p = 0.025). This information indicates that the concentrations of E2, E3 and progesterone in breast milk varied over the lactating period. Dietary intake will to some extent affect the contents of E3 and progesterone in breast milk.

  5. Case-control study of breast milk calcium in mothers of children with and without nutritional rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Pettifor, John M; Fischer, Philip R; Okolo, Selina N; Prentice, Ann

    2006-07-01

    Despite similarly low calcium intakes and normal vitamin D status, only some Nigerian children develop nutritional rickets. We hypothesized that mothers with children who had developed rickets might have lower breast-milk calcium concentration than mothers with normal children and compared the breast-milk calcium concentration of mothers who had had children with rickets with those who had not (controls). We collected breast milk from 35 Nigerian mothers who had previously had children with nutritional rickets. For each case mother, we collected breast milk from three matched control mothers at the same stage of lactation (+/-4 weeks) who had had no children with rickets. Data were collected about parity, stage of lactation, and the infant's intake. The mother's bone density was measured. The mean breast milk calcium concentration of mothers of children with rickets (4.30+/-1.24 mmol/L) was less than that of control mothers (4.65+/-1.03 mmol/L; P=0.034 in multivariate regression controlling for duration of lactation and resumption of menses). Forearm bone mineral content was significantly related to breast milk calcium concentration (r=0.20) after adjusting for height, weight, and bone area (P=0.028). Reduced breast-milk calcium concentration may contribute to a reduced calcium intake in infancy and predispose children to nutritional rickets.

  6. Breast milk: Fatty acid composition and maternal diet

    OpenAIRE

    Mihela Dujmović; Greta Krešić; Milena L. Mandić; Nikolina Mrduljaš

    2013-01-01

    Breast milk from healthy and well-nourished mothers is the preferred form of infants´ feeding in the first six months after parturition, and breastfeeding in this period supports the normal growth and development of new-born infants. During the first month postpartum, breast milk changes through three stages: colostrum, transitional milk and mature milk. Mature milk, which is excreted after the 16th day postpartum, contains on average 3.4-4.5 % lipids. Breast milk lipids fulfill 40-55 % of an...

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk of Korea in 2011: current contamination, time course variation, influencing factors and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Kim, Eunkyo; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Gyuyeon; Kim, Hai-Joong; Park, Jeongim; Jae Lee, Jeong; Choi, Sooran; Young Kim, Su; Kim, Suungjoo; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2013-10-01

    Breast milk is a valuable biological specimen to assess maternal and infant exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In this study, 208 breast milk samples were collected from 89 participants during lactation period, at milk and demographic parameters, except for ΣPBDE with maternal age and delivery mode. Certain types of diet such as corn, seafood and nut correlated significantly with PBDE levels in breast milk. The estimated daily intakes of ΣPBDE for breast-feeding infants were lower than the guidelines proposed by the US EPA, indicating limited health risk from PBDEs through breast feeding. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Breast milk cell components and its beneficial effects on neonates: need for breast milk cell banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kaingade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Universal breastfeeding has been a stated policy of the American Academy of Pediatrics, the World Health Organization as well as UNICEF. Human milk is considered as the gold standard for infants owing to its colossal nutritional values. However, the presence of various cellular components of breast milk have been gaining more attention in recent years since the first discovery of mammary stem cells in 2007, thereby providing a ray of hope not only for growth and immunity of the neonate but also an insight into its regenerative applicability. In this relation, this article summarizes the cell components of breast milk that have been identified to date. It highlights the beneficial effects of these cells for term and preterm delivered infants along with the need for breast milk and its cell banking.

  9. Human breast milk provides better antioxidant capacity than infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abd-Ol-Azim; Jannat, Forouzandeh; Mokhtarinasab, Fariba

    2010-01-01

    Human milk contains all of the constituents that are required for the optimal growth and development of a neonate. It supports the development of brain, immune, and physiological systems. This study aimed to consider the significance of breast milk in preventing oxidative stress by comparing total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in breast and formula milk for premature infants, demonstrating the relationship between TAC in breast milk and postnatal age in days. The Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) method was used to spectophotometrically measure of TAC in breast and formula milk. One hundred and fourty (n = 140) lactating mothers agreed to participate in the study. TAC was also measured in two brands of formula milk (n = 80). The Range of TAC in human breast milk was 234.27-1442.31 μM and in two formula was 160.04-630.92 μM. The average TAC was significantly higher in breast milk (642.94 ± 241.23 μM) compared to formula milk (280.986 ± 100.34 μM) p milk was increased with some nutritional parameter such as increased consumption of cheese, vegetables, fruits, bread and nuts. Infants' height at the birthday was directly correlated with antioxidant capacity of breast milk, whilst a reversed correlation was observed between TAC in breast milk and infant age. Based on our results, it is concluded that the TAC of breast milk is varied and affected by nutrition. It is alo observed that TAC is significantly higher in breast milk than formula, which means that breast milk provides better antioxidant potency than infant formula.

  10. Infant intake of fatty acids from human milk over the first year of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitoulas, Leon R; Gurrin, Lyle C; Doherty, Dorota A; Sherriff, Jillian L; Hartmann, Peter E

    2003-11-01

    Despite the importance of human milk fatty acids for infant growth and development, there are few reports describing infant intakes of individual fatty acids. We have measured volume, fat content and fatty acid composition of milk from each breast at each feed over a 24 h period to determine the mean daily amounts of each fatty acid delivered to the infant from breast milk at 1, 2, 4, 6, 9 and 12 months of lactation in five women. Daily (24 h) milk production was 336.60 (SEM 26.21) and 414.49 (SEM 28.39) ml and milk fat content was 36.06 (SEM 1.37) and 34.97 (SEM 1.50) g/l for left and right breasts respectively over the course of the first year of lactation. Fatty acid composition varied over the course of the day (mean CV 14.3 (SD 7.7) %), but did not follow a circadian rhythm. The proportions (g/100 g total fatty acids) of fatty acids differed significantly between mothers (Pmilk production and fat content need to be considered.

  11. Formula milk versus maternal breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, G; Anthony, M Y; McGuire, W

    2007-10-17

    Maternal breast milk may contain less nutrients than artificial formula milk but may confer important non-nutrient advantages for preterm or low birth weight infants. To determine the effect of feeding with formula milk compared with maternal breast milk on rate of growth and developmental outcomes in preterm or low birth weight infants. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 - June 2007) and EMBASE (1980 - June 2007) and CINAHL (1982 to June 2007) (all accessed via OVID) and previous reviews including cross references. Randomised controlled trials comparing feeding with formula milk versus preterm human milk in preterm or low birth weight infants. The standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two authors. No eligible trials were identified. There are no data from randomised trials of formula milk versus maternal breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants. This may relate to a perceived difficulty of allocating an alternative feed to an infant whose mother wishes to feed with her own breast milk. Maternal breast milk remains the default choice of enteral nutrition because observational studies, and meta-analyses of trials comparing feeding with formula milk versus donor breast milk, suggest that feeding with breast milk has major non-nutrient advantages for preterm or low birth weight infants.

  12. Increase in Weight in Low Birth Weight and Very Low Birth Weight Infants Fed Fortified Breast Milk versus Formula Milk: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Yuet Wan Lok

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic rise in preterm births in developed countries owing to changes in clinical practices and greater use of assisted reproductive techniques. However, few studies have examined the growth and outcomes of preterm infants according to the type of feeding (with fortified breast milk or formula. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of breast milk feedings and formula on the growth and short-term outcomes of preterm infants in Hong Kong. In a single-center retrospective cohort study, we included 642 preterm infants at gestational age <37 weeks with birth weights <2200 g. According to World Health Organization criteria, 466 were classified as low birth weight (LBW infants (≥1500 g and <2200 g and 176 were classified as very low birth weight (VLBW infants (<1500 g. The mothers of approximately 80% of VLBW infants and 60% LBW infants initiated breast milk feeding. When compared with no breast milk intake, LBW infants that received breast milk were significantly more likely to have growth z-scores closer to the median of the reference population on admission and experienced slower weight gain from birth to discharge. When breast milk was categorized by percent of total enteral intake, significant differences were seen among LBW infants, with lower percentages of small-for-gestational-age (SGA status at discharge with increased proportions of breast milk intake. Our results suggest that LBW infants fed breast milk had better growth z-scores and lower SGA status at discharge compared with those predominately fed preterm formula.

  13. The effect of Ramadan on maternal nutrition and composition of breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakicioğlu, Neslişah; Samur, Gülhan; Topçu, Ali; Topçu, Aylin Ayaz

    2006-06-01

    There are many advantages of breast milk for infants. Many factors can affect the volume and composition of breast milk. One of them is the maternal diet. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on maternal nutrition and breast milk composition. A total of 21 breast-feeding mothers aged between 17 and 38 years who fasted during Ramadan month and volunteered to give milk samples were surveyed. The ages of the infants were between 2 and 5 months. The study was performed during Ramadan and 2 weeks after the end of Ramadan. The results showed that during Ramadan, zinc, magnesium and potassium levels in breast milk decreased significantly (Pcomposition of the breast milk and consequently the growth of the infants. There were significant differences in some of the micronutrients such as zinc, magnesium and potassium. The nutritional status of lactating women was affected by Ramadan fasting. All of the nutrient intakes (except vitamins A, E and C) decreased during Ramadan. For these reasons, it would seem prudent to excuse lactating women from fasting during Ramadan.

  14. Phthalates and their metabolites in breast milk--results from the Bavarian Monitoring of Breast Milk (BAMBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Gruber, L; Seckin, E; Raab, U; Zimmermann, S; Kiranoglu, M; Schlummer, M; Schwegler, U; Smolic, S; Völkel, W

    2011-05-01

    Phthalates have long been used as plasticizers to soften plastic products and, thus, are ubiquitous in modern life. As part of the Bavarian Monitoring of Breast Milk (BAMBI), we aimed to characterize the exposure of infants to phthalates in Germany. Overall, 15 phthalates, including di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP), three primary metabolites of DEHP [mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)], and two secondary metabolites of DEHP were analyzed in 78 breast milk samples. We found median concentrations of 3.9 ng/g for DEHP, 0.8 ng/g for DnBP, and 1.2 ng/g for DiBP, while other parent phthalates were found in only some or none of the samples at levels above the limit of quantitation. In infant formula (n=4) we observed mean values of 19.7 ng/g (DEHP), 3.8 ng/g (DnBP), and 3.6 ng/g (DiBP). For MEHP, MiBP, and MnBP, the median values in breast milk were 2.3 μg/l, 11.8 μg/l, and 2.1 μg/l, respectively. The secondary metabolites were not detected in any samples. Using median and 95th percentile values, we estimated an "average" and "high" daily intake for an exclusively breast-fed infant of 0.6 μg/kg body weight (b.w.) and 2.1 μg/kg b.w., respectively, for DEHP, 0.1 μg/kg b.w. and 0.5 μg/kg b.w. for DnBP, and 0.2 μg/kg b.w. and 0.7 μg/kg b.w. for DiBP. For DiNP, intake values were 3.2 μg/kg b.w. and 6.4 μg/kg b.w., respectively, if all values in milk were set half of the detection limit or the detection limit. The above-mentioned "average" and "high" intake values corresponded to only about 2% to 7%, respectively, of the recommended tolerable daily intake. Thus, it is not likely that an infant's exposure to phthalates from breast milk poses any significant health risk. Nevertheless, other sources of phthalates in this vulnerable phase have to be considered. Moreover, it should be noted that for infants nourished

  15. Lead, mercury, and cadmium in breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals are the major source of environmental pollution in this new millennium. Lead, mercury, and cadmium are the most common toxic heavy metals in the environment. There is no known function of these toxic heavy metals in the human body. In females, toxic heavy metals can be accumulated in maternal body before pregnancy and may be transferred to fetus through placenta and later, via breast milk. Lead previously accumulated in maternal bones can be mobilized along with calcium in order to meet increased calcium needs of the fetus in pregnant women and for the calcium needs in human milk during lactation. Human fetus and infants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity passing through placenta and breastmilk due to rapid growth and development of organs and tissues, especially central nervous system. However most of the damage is already done by the time the infant is born. Intrauterine lead exposure can cause growth retardation, cognitive dysfunction, low IQ scores on ability tests, and low performance in school. Biological samples, such as umbilical cord blood and breast milk, and less commonly infant hair, are used for biomonitoring of intra-uterine exposure to these toxic chemicals. Although toxic metals and other pollutants may be excreted into breast milk, their effects are unknown and this topic is subject of a growing body of research. Despite the possibility of harm from environmental contaminants in breast milk, breastfeeding is still recommended as the best infant feeding method. In fact, the species-specific components present in breast milk protect infants against infections; promote immune and neurologic system development; and may decrease the risk of disease, including allergies, obesity, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, and sudden infant death syndrome. Breastfeeding also facilitates maternal-infant attachment. The potential risk of environmental contaminants that can be transferred from

  16. [1981-1983 breast feeding studies of 1,500 mothers in Dortmund and Haltern. II. Volume of breast milk in the maternity ward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, M; Koester, H; Wennemann, J; Wember, T; Schöch, G

    1987-05-01

    In two large maternity wards encouraging breast-feeding, breast-milk volumes (weighing of the baby before and after each feeding) and weight development of the infants were determined until dismissal. On days 2, 3 and 4, 20-30%, 60-70%, and 80-90% of the mothers, respectively, produced milk. The largest increase in milk volume ("Einschuss") usually took place between days 3 and 4. Milk volume increased from an average of 150-180 ml on day 4 to 270-300 ml on day 6. Development of milk production was independent of type of delivery; however, the usual delay of one day following caesarean section was not made up for until discharge. Fully breast-feeding mothers produced on the average the same amounts of milk as mothers at the turn of the century. Throughout their stay in the maternity ward, mothers with good breast-feeding experience produced more milk than those with bad or without any breast-feeding experience. Nursing all infants at fairly regular intervals during the day and at night is recommended in order to achieve that as many mothers as possible are fully breast-feeding on discharge. Comparing energy intake and weight development between groups of fully, partially and non breast-fed infants suggested a better utilization of breast-milk.

  17. Determining the Feasibility of Milk Vending Machines to Improve Calcium Intake Among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Monnat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium intake declines from late adolescence to young adulthood, in part, due to decreases in accessibility to milk and dairy products. While milk vending has shown demonstrated success in secondary schools, no studies have examined whether milk vending improves calcium intake among college students. We hypothesized that milk and calcium intake would be higher among college students given access to milk vending in their dormitory (milk vending consumers compared to those lacking access in their dormitory (non-milk vending consumers. Milk vending machines were installed in two dormitories, and two dormitories having non-milk beverage vending served as comparison sites. Students completed a calcium intake questionnaire at the point of milk (n = 73 or non-milk (n = 79 beverage vending purchases. Mean total calcium intake was higher in milk vending consumers (1245 + 543 mg/d compared to non-milk vending consumers (1042 + 447 mg/d (p = 0.01. Adjusting for gender and milk vending consumer status, there was a positive association between past month milk vending purchases and daily calcium intake from milk (p < 0.001. Fifty-seven students without in-dormitory access to milk vending reported an interest in milk vending if made available. Milk vending may serve as a novel approach for improving calcium intake in college students.

  18. The Norwegian human milk study HUMIS variations in levels of chlorinated pesticides, PCBs and PBDEs in Norwegian breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polder, A.; Loeken, K. [The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Thomsen, C.; Becher, G.; Eggesboe, M. [Norwegian Inst. of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Skaare, J.U. [National Veterinary Inst., Oslo (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated, -dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs), -biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are among the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that have been found to accumulate in human breast milk. Because nursing children are exposed to these chemicals through the contaminated breast milk, health authorities worldwide are concerned for the infants' intake and therefore human milk monitoring programs are performed in many countries. While restrictions and bans resulted in a decline of organochlorines (OCs) in human milk during the last decades, an increasing trend has been found for PBDEs. The main goals of ''The Norwegian Human Milk Study, HUMIS'' are: to elucidate the human exposure in Norway to POPs, to identify dietary habits and other lifestyle factors that are associated with high levels of POPs in human milk, and to study the impact of exposure to the these contaminants on child health. This study reports preliminary results of recent levels of POPs in human milk in 4 different counties in Norway.

  19. Metals and trace element concentrations in breast milk of first time healthy mothers: a biological monitoring study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for the newborn infant. However, since all infants cannot be breast-fed, there is a need for background data for setting adequate daily intakes. Previously, concentration data on major essential elements and some toxic elements in breast milk, based on different analytical techniques, have been published. There is no recent study on a large number of metals and trace elements in breast milk, using a sensitive analytical method for determination of low element concentrations. Methods Breast milk concentrations of 32 metals and elements in early lactation (days 14-21) were determined in a random sample of first time Swedish mothers (n = 60) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Results There were small inter-individual concentration variations in the macroelements Ca, K, Mg, P and S, and striking similarities across studies and over time, supporting a tight regulation of these elements in breast milk. Large inter-individual and over time differences were detected for Na concentrations, which may reflect an increase in salt consumption in Swedish women. Large inter-individual differences were also detected for the microelements Co, Cr, Mn and Mo, and the toxic metals As, Cd, Pb, Sb and V. Arsenic and B were positively correlated with fish consumption, indicating influence of maternal intake on breast milk concentrations. Observed differences in breast milk element concentrations across studies and over time could be attributed to the timing of sampling and a general decline over time of lactation (Cu, Fe, Mo, Zn), a possible lack of regulation of certain elements in breast milk (As, B, Co, Mn, Se) and time trends in environmental exposure (Pb), or in some cases to differences in analytical performance (Cr, Fe). Conclusions This study provides reliable updated information on a number of metals and elements in breast milk, of which some have not previously been reported. PMID:23241426

  20. Reflux Incidence among Exclusively Breast Milk Fed Infants: Differences of Feeding at Breast versus Pumped Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourkavitch, Jennifer; Zadrozny, Sabrina; Flax, Valerie L

    2016-10-14

    The practice of feeding infants expressed breast milk is increasing in the United States, but the impacts on infant and maternal health are still understudied. This study examines the monthly incidence of regurgitation (gastro-esophageal reflux) in exclusively breast milk fed infants from ages two to six months. Among infants whose mothers participated in the Infant Feeding Practices II Study (IFPS II; 2005-2007), data on reflux and feeding mode were collected by monthly questionnaires. A longitudinal, repeated measures analysis was used, with feeding mode lagged by one month in order to compare reflux incidence among infants fed directly at the breast to infants receiving pumped breast milk. Mothers in both feeding groups had similar characteristics, although a greater proportion feeding at least some pumped milk were primiparous. The number of exclusively breastfed infants decreased steadily between months 2 and 6, although the proportion fed at the breast remained similar over time. An association between feeding mode and reflux incidence was not found; however, the analyses were limited by a small number of reported reflux cases. More studies are needed to further explain the relationship between different feeding modes and infant reflux.

  1. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: How Often Should Milk Analysis Be Done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Rochow

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Target fortification (TFO reduces natural macronutrient variation in breast milk (BM. Daily BM analysis for TFO increases neonatal intensive care unit work load by 10–15 min/patient/day and may not be feasible in all nurseries. The variation of macronutrient intake when BM analysis is done for various schedules was studied. In an observational study, we analyzed 21 subsequent samples of native 24-h BM batches, which had been prepared for 10 healthy infants (gestational age 26.1 ± 1.3 weeks, birth weight: 890 ± 210 g. Levels of protein and fat (validated near-infrared milk analyzer, as well as lactose (UPLC-MS/MS generated the database for modelling TFO to meet recommendations of European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition. Intake of macronutrients and energy were calculated for different schedules of BM measurements for TFO (n = 1/week; n = 2/week; n = 3/week; n = 5/week; n = 7/week and compared to native and fixed dose fortified BM. Day-to-day variation of macronutrients (protein 20%, carbohydrate 13%, fat 17%, energy 10% decreased as the frequency of milk analysis increased and was almost zero for protein and carbohydrate with daily measurements. Measurements two/week led to mean macronutrient intake within a range of ±5% of targeted levels. A reduced schedule for macronutrient measurement may increase the practical use of TFO. To what extent the day-to-day variation affects growth while mean intake is stable needs to be studied.

  2. Formula milk versus donor breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, M A; Henderson, G; Anthony, M Y; McGuire, W

    2007-10-17

    When sufficient maternal breast milk is not available, the alternative sources of enteral nutrition for preterm or low birth weight infants are donor breast milk or artificial formula milk. Feeding preterm or low birth weight infants with formula milk might increase nutrient input and growth rates. However, since feeding with formula milk may be associated with a higher incidence of feeding intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis, this may adversely affect growth and development. To determine the effect of formula milk compared with donor human breast milk on growth and development in preterm or low birth weight infants. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 - May 2007), EMBASE (1980 - May 2007), CINAHL (1982 - May 2007), conference proceedings, and previous reviews. Randomised controlled trials comparing feeding with formula milk versus donor breast milk in preterm or low birth weight infants. Data were extracted using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two reviewer authors, and synthesis of data using relative risk, risk difference and weighted mean difference. Eight trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Only one trial used nutrient-fortified donor breast milk. Enteral feeding with formula milk compared with donor breast milk resulted in higher rates of growth in the short term. There was no evidence of an effect on long-term growth rates or neurodevelopmental outcomes. Meta-analysis of data from five trials demonstrated a statistically significantly higher incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in the formula fed group: typical relative risk 2.5 (95% confidence interval 1.2, 5.1); typical risk difference: 0.03 (95% confidence interval 0.01, 0.06; number needed to harm: 33 (95

  3. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Van Ormer, Matthew; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-10-28

    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%-53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk-fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of Transfer of Azithromycin into the Breast Milk of African Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Sam; Davis, Timothy M E; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Camara, Bully; Oluwalana, Claire; Bojang, Abdoulie; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Roca, Anna

    2015-12-28

    Azithromycin (AZI) is used for its antibiotic and antimalarial properties in pregnancy. Reported estimates of AZI breast milk transfer, based on concentrations in mostly single samples from small numbers of women, have suggested that infant intake is safe. To better characterize infant intake and the associated potential benefits and risks, AZI was measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in four breast milk samples taken over 28 days postpartum from each of 20 Gambian women given 2 g AZI during labor. A population pharmacokinetic model utilizing published parameters for AZI disposition in pregnancy, the present breast milk concentrations, and increasing/decreasing sigmoid maximum-effect (Emax) functions adequately described temporal changes in the milk/plasma ratio. The median estimated absolute and relative cumulative infant doses were 4.5 mg/kg of body weight (95% prediction interval, 0.6 to 7.0 mg/kg) and 15.7% (95% prediction interval, 2.0 to 27.8%) of the maternal dose, respectively; the latter exceeded the recommended 10% safety limit. Although some infants with bacterial infections may benefit from AZI in breast milk, there is a risk of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis with a worst-case number needed to harm of 60 based on the present and available epidemiologic data. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01800942.). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine Hanson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%–53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk–fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  6. Neonatal group B streptococcal disease associated with infected breast milk

    OpenAIRE

    Olver, W.; Bond, D; Boswell, T.; Watkin, S

    2000-01-01

    Premature triplets each developed late onset group B streptococcal disease over a period of nine weeks. The source of the organism appeared to be expressed maternal breast milk, in the absence of clinical mastitis. Asymptomatic excretion of group B streptococcus in breast milk may be an under-recognised cause of neonatal infection.



  7. Milk flow rates can be used to identify and investigate milk ejection in women expressing breast milk using an electric breast pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Donna T; Mitoulas, Leon R; Kent, Jacqueline C; Cregan, Mark D; Doherty, Dorota A; Larsson, Michael; Hartmann, Peter E

    2006-01-01

    Currently there is no simple method available to assess milk ejection and breast milk flow in lactating women in both the clinical and research setting. The authors hypothesize that changes in milk flow rate are associated with milk ejection and therefore may provide a method suitable for the assessment of milk ejection and removal. Mothers (n = 23) expressed milk from one breast for a 15-minute period using both weak and strong vacuums on two to four separate occasions using an experimental electric breast pump (Medela AG, Baar, Switzerland). Breast milk flow rates were recorded at 5-second intervals by connecting a tube from the breast shield to a bottle placed on a balance that was connected to a computer. Milk ejection was determined by an acute increase in milk duct diameter in the contralateral breast using ultrasound (Acuson XP10, Siemens, Mountain View, CA), and the change in duct diameter was compared with milk flow rates. Milk flow rates ranged from 0 to 4.6 g per 5-second period. Increases in flow rates were positively associated with increases in duct diameter (p flow rates. This direct relationship between increases in duct diameter and acute increases in milk flow rates suggests that changes in flow rates can be used to identify milk ejection in the absence of ultrasound data.

  8. Iron concentrations in breast milk and selected maternal factors of human milk bank donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Neto, Julio; Rondó, Patrícia H C; Morgano, Marcelo A; Oshiiwa, Marie; Santos, Mariana L; Oliveira, Julicristie M

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between iron concentration in mature breast milk and characteristics of 136 donors of a Brazilian milk bank. Iron, vitamin A, zinc, and copper concentrations were assessed in human milk and maternal blood. Data were collected on maternal anthropometrics, obstetric, socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors. Iron, zinc, and copper in milk and zinc and copper in blood were detected by spectrophotometry. Vitamin A in milk and blood was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Hemoglobin was measured by electronic counting and serum iron and ferritin by colorimetry and chemoluminescence, respectively. Transferrin and ceruloplasmin were determined by nephelometry. According to multivariate linear regression analysis, iron in milk was positively associated with vitamin A in milk and with smoking but negatively associated with timing of breast milk donation (P milk of Brazilian donors may be influenced by nutritional factors and smoking.

  9. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content may be increased in the milk of women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wenyi; Raatz, Susan; Zhang, Ke K; Rosenberger, Thad A; Sauter, Edward R

    2014-11-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) is aggressive and difficult to diagnose. High intake of most types of dietary fat is thought to increase breast cancer risk; however, results in humans supporting this premise remain equivocal. Fatty acid (FA) concentrations in the body comprise both dietary intake and endogenous FA production. Most assessments of FA levels have been performed on blood, with little information on the effect of FA levels in breast milk on PABC risk. This study aimed to determine if FA concentrations in the milk from women diagnosed with breast cancer while nursing were different in the cancer-containing breast and opposite breast. We quantified 16 long-chain FA and soluble FA synthase (sFAS) enzyme levels from 4 women diagnosed with PABC, comparing results from the cancer-containing breast to those from the normal breast. Fatty acid concentrations consistently exceeded and trended higher (P cancer-containing breast for 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid [AA]), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]), and 22:5n-6 (docosapentaenoic acid [DPA]). Soluble FA synthase levels were similar in the cancer-containing and normal breasts. Breast milk concentrations of AA, EPA, and DPA increased in the cancer-containing breast of women with PABC. This increase was not associated with higher sFAS levels. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Effect of DHA supplements during pregnancy on the concentration of PUFA in breast milk of Chinese lactating mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Juan; Li, Xiang; Ding, Zhen; Wu, Yixia; Chen, Xueyan; Xie, Lin

    2017-05-24

    To determine whether there is an effect of prenatal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the breast milk of Chinese lactating women. A total of 409 participants were recruited at the postpartum care center during their 1-month postpartum care. They were assigned to the supplement group or the control group according to whether or not DHA supplements were taken during pregnancy. Dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Breast milk samples were collected on 1 day between the 22nd and 25th day postpartum and levels of eight kinds of fatty acids in the breast milk were measured by gas chromatography. DHA intake was divided into three levels (185 mg/day). The concentration of DHA postpartum in the breast milk of the group receiving a DHA supplement >185 mg/day was significantly higher (P=0.003) compared to the control group. DHA intake >185 mg/day resulted in increased DHA concentrations in breast milk. This finding suggests that mothers with inadequate dietary intake of DHA should change their dietary habits to consume a diet rich in DHA or take sufficient DHA supplements to meet the average nutritional needs of infants.

  11. PREVENTIVE ASPECTS OF BREAST MILK FEEDING IN PREMATURE INFANTS

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Belyaeva; T. V. Turti; M. D. Mitish; E. P. Zimina; M. S. Rtishcheva; E. O. Tarzyan

    2014-01-01

    This article is dedicated to the issue of infant feeding. It is universally recognized that the best product for neonatal and infant feeding is breast milk. On the basis of the worldwide literature data, the authors give a detailed account of breast milk advantages from various (biological, clinical and psychological) perspectives. They convincingly demonstrate that knowledge of preventive and medical aspects of breast feeding benefits allows conducting effective educational programs regardin...

  12. Breast Milk Iodine and Iodine Status of Breast-Fed Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Golam Morshed Molla; M Iqbal Arslan; Mafruha Tazkin Milky

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast milk is the only source of iodine for exclusively breast-fed infants. Iodine status of breast-fed infants depends on iodine in breast milk and also number of feeding in 24 hours. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess both have bad impact on infant’s health. Objective: To measure the iodine in breast milk and to evaluate iodine status of their breast-fed infants. Materials and method: This observational analytical study was carried out in the department of Bioch...

  13. Infant exposure of perfluorinated compounds: levels in breast milk and commercial baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Picó, Yolanda; Teijón, Marisa Lopez; Alvarez, Juan G; Barceló, Damià

    2010-08-01

    In this study, an analytical method to determine six perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) based on alkaline digestion and solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS) was validated for the analysis of human breast milk, milk infant formulas and cereals baby food. The average recoveries of the different matrices were in general higher than 70% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 21% and method limits of detection (MLOD) ranging from 1.2 to 362 ng/L for the different compounds and matrices. The method was applied to investigate the occurrence of PFCs in 20 samples of human breast milk, and 5 samples of infant formulas and cereal baby food (3 brands of commercial milk infant formulas and 2 brands of cereals baby food). Breast milk samples were collected in 2008 from donors living in Barcelona city (Spain) on the 40 days postpartum. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoro-7-methyloctanoic acid (i,p-PFNA) were predominant being present in the 95% of breast milk samples. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was quantified in 8 of the 20 breast milk samples at concentrations in the range of 21-907 ng/L. Commercial formulas and food were purchased also in 2009 from a retail store. The six PFCs were detected in all brands of milk infant formulas and cereals baby food analyzed, being perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), PFOS, PFOA and i,p-PFNA the compounds detected in higher concentrations (up to 1289 ng/kg). PFCs presence can be associated to possible migration from packaging and containers during production processes. Finally, based on estimated body weight and newborn intake, PFOS and PFOA daily intakes and risk indexes (RI) were estimated for the firsts 6 month of life. We found that ingestion rates of PFOS and PFOA, with exception of one breast milk sample did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the EFSA. However, more research is needed in order to assess possible

  14. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in human milk samples in Vojvodina, Serbia: Estimation of average daily intake by babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonić, Jelena R; Kocić Tanackov, Sunčica D; Mihajlović, Ivana J; Grujić, Zorica S; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana B; Škrinjar, Marija M; Turk Sekulić, Maja M

    2017-01-02

    The objectives of the study were to determine the aflatoxin M1 content in human milk samples in Vojvodina, Serbia, and to assess the risk of infants' exposure to aflatoxins food contamination. The growth of Aspergillus flavus and production of aflatoxin B1 in corn samples resulted in higher concentrations of AFM1 in milk and dairy products in 2013, indicating higher concentrations of AFM1 in human milk samples in 2013 and 2014 in Serbia. A total number of 60 samples of human milk (colostrum and breast milk collected 4-8 months after delivery) were analyzed for the presence of AFM1 using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method. The estimated daily intake of AFM1 through breastfeeding was calculated for the colostrum samples using an average intake of 60 mL/kg body weight (b.w.)/day on the third day of lactation. All breast milk collected 4-8 months after delivery and 36.4% of colostrum samples were contaminated with AFM1. The greatest percentage of contaminated colostrum (85%) and all samples of breast milk collected 4-8 months after delivery had AFM1 concentration above maximum allowable concentration according to the Regulation on health safety of dietetic products. The mean daily intake of AFM1 in colostrum was 2.65 ng/kg bw/day. Results of our study indicate the high risk of infants' exposure, who are at the early stage of development and vulnerable to toxic contaminants.

  15. The study of breast milk IGF-1, leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin levels as possible reasons of high weight gain in breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Igor Ya; Shilina, Natalia M; Gmoshinskaya, Maria V; Ivanushkina, Tatiana A

    2014-01-01

    Excessive consumption of protein that leads to increased blood levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is an important risk factor for high growth velocity and obesity in formula-fed infants. However, it is not clear whether these factors can explain the high growth velocity in breast-fed infants. To study the possible links between the growth velocity in breast-fed infants and the levels of protein, IGF-1 and other hormones, which regulate energy homeostasis, in mothers' breast milk. We studied 103 mother-infant pairs. Their daily breast milk intake and level of IGF-1, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, protein and fat in breast milk were measured at 1, 2 and 3 months of lactation. The infant group was divided into three subgroups of low, normal and high weight gain tertiles. The breast milk consumed by the infants with high weight gain contained higher levels of IGF-1 than that consumed by those with low weight gain at all periods studied (p = 0.032 at 3 months of lactation), and ghrelin levels were higher at 1 and 2 months and leptin levels at 2 and 3 months of lactation (p milk IGF-1 level and infant weight gain (r = 0.294, p = 0.043). Total daily breast milk, fat and hormone intake was also higher in the high weight gain group compared to the low weight gain group. One of the reasons for the high growth velocity in breast-fed infants may be the enhanced levels of the studied hormones in breast milk.

  16. Total folate and unmetabolized folic acid in the breast milk of a cross-section of Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Rachael; Robichaud, André; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fraser, William D; MacFarlane, Amanda J

    2017-05-01

    Background: Folate requirements increase during pregnancy and lactation. It is recommended that women who could become pregnant, are pregnant, or are lactating consume a folic acid (FA)-containing supplement.Objectives: We sought to determine breast-milk total folate and unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA) contents and their relation with FA-supplement use and doses in a cohort of Canadian mothers who were enrolled in the MIREC (Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals) study.Design: Breast-milk tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-methyl-THF, 5-formyl-THF, 5,10-methenyl-THF, and UMFA were measured with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (n = 561). Total daily supplemental FA intake was based on self-reported FA-supplement use.Results: UMFA was detectable in the milk of 96.1% of the women. Total daily FA intake from supplements was associated with breast folate concentration and species. Breast-milk total folate was 18% higher (P 400 μg FA/d (P ≤ 0.004). 5-Methyl-THF was 19% lower (P 400 μg FA/d had proportionally lower 5-methyl-THF and higher UMFA than did women who consumed ≤400 μg FA/d.Conclusions: FA-supplement use was associated with modestly higher breast-milk total folate. Detectable breast-milk UMFA was nearly ubiquitous, including in women who did not consume an FA supplement. Breast-milk UMFA was proportionally higher than 5-methyl-THF in women who consumed >400 μg FA/d, thereby suggesting that higher doses exceed the physiologic capacity to metabolize FA and result in the preferential uptake of FA in breast milk. Therefore, FA-supplement doses >400 μg may not be warranted, especially in populations for whom FA fortification is mandatory. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Immediate systemic allergic reaction in an infant to fish allergen ingested through breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Takayasu; Campos-Alberto, Eduardo; Funakoshi, Hiraku; Inoue, Yuzaburo; Tomiita, Minako; Kohno, Yoichi; Shimojo, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    This is a rare case report of systemic allergic reaction to fish allergen ingested through breast milk. Mother ate raw fish more than 3 times a week. Her consumption of fish was associated with urticaria and wheeze in an infant via breast-feeding. Fish-specific IgE antibodies were detected by skin prick test but not by in vitro IgE test. This case demonstrates that fish protein ingested by mother can cause an immediate systemic allergic reaction in offspring through breast-feeding. Although fish intake is generally recommended for prevention of allergy, one should be aware that frequent intake of fish by a lactating mother may sensitize the baby and induce an allergic reaction through breast-feeding.

  18. Effect of Increased Enteral Protein Intake on Growth in Human Milk-Fed Preterm Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Christoph; Mathes, Michaela; Bleeker, Christine; Vek, Julia; Bernhard, Wolfgang; Wiechers, Cornelia; Peter, Andreas; Poets, Christian F; Franz, Axel R

    2017-01-01

    Protein, supplied in currently available commercial fortifiers, may be inadequate to meet the requirements of very preterm infants; in addition, intraindividual and interindividual variability of human milk protein and energy content potentially contribute to unsatisfactory early postnatal growth. To determine effects on growth of different levels of enteral protein supplementation in predominantly human milk-fed preterm infants. This randomized clinical and partially blinded single-center trial was conducted in a neonatal tertiary referral center in Germany. Sixty preterm infants (gestation protein (adding 1 g of bovine protein/100 mL of breast milk through a commercial human milk fortifier; n = 30) or a higher-protein group at a median (IQR) postnatal age of 7 (6-8) days. The higher-protein group (n = 30) received either standardized higher-protein supplementation (study fortifier adding 1.8 g of bovine protein/100 mL of breast milk [n = 15]) or individualized high-protein supplementation based on protein and fat content of administered breast milk (n = 15). Study interventions were continued for a median (IQR) of 41 (30-57) days and until definite discharge planning. Primary outcome was weight gain (g/kg/d) from birth to the end of intervention. Sixty preterm infants (gestation protein group and 490 to 1470 g in the higher-protein group. Weight gain was similar in the lower- and higher-protein groups: mean (95% CI), 16.3 g/kg/d (15.4-17.1 g/kg/d) in the lower-protein group vs 16.0 g/kg/d (15.1-16.9 g/kg/d) in the higher-protein group) (P = .70), despite an increase in actual protein intake by 0.6 g/kg/d (0.4-0.7 g/kg/d) (P total enteral feeding volume provided as breast milk: median (IQR) proportion of breast milk, 92% (79%-98%) in the lower-protein group vs 94% (62%-99%) in the higher-protein group (P = .89). An increase in protein intake by 0.6 g/kg/d to a mean intake of 4.3 g/kg/d did not further enhance growth of very preterm

  19. Nutrient-enriched formula milk versus human breast milk for preterm infants following hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, G; Fahey, T; McGuire, W

    2007-10-17

    Preterm infants are often growth-restricted at hospital discharge. Feeding infants after hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula milk instead of human breast milk might facilitate "catch-up" growth and improve development. To determine the effect of feeding nutrient-enriched formula compared with human breast milk on growth and development of preterm infants following hospital discharge. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 - May 2007), EMBASE (1980 - May 2007), CINAHL (1982 - May 2007), conference proceedings, and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula compared with human breast milk. The standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. No eligible trials were identified. There are no data from randomised controlled trials to determine whether feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula milk versus human breast milk affects growth and development. Mothers who wish to breast feed, and their health care advisors, would require very clear evidence that feeding with a nutrient-enriched formula milk had major advantages for their infants before electing not to feed (or to reduce feeding) with maternal breast milk. If evidence from trials that compared feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched versus standard formula milk demonstrated an effect on growth or development, then this might strengthen the case for undertaking trials of nutrient-enriched formula milk versus human breast milk.

  20. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations and metabolism in breast milk, infant formula, and parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jesica A; Ninnis, Janet R; Hopper, Andrew O; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2014-09-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential nitrite-metabolizing enzymes. Nitrite concentrations averaged 0.07 ± 0.01 μM in milk of mothers of preterm infants, less than that of term infants (0.13 ± 0.02 μM) (P parenteral nutrition were equivalent to or lower than those of breast milk. Freeze-thawing decreased nitrite concentration ~64%, falling with a half-life of 32 minutes at 37°C. The disappearance of nitrite was oxygen-dependent and prevented by ferricyanide and 3 inhibitors of lactoperoxidase. Nitrite concentrations in breast milk decrease with storage and freeze-thawing, a decline likely mediated by lactoperoxidase. Compared to adults, infants ingest relatively little nitrite and nitrate, which may be of importance in the modulation of blood flow and the bacterial flora of the infant GI tract, especially given the protective effects of swallowed nitrite. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  1. Laughter elevates the levels of breast-milk melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2007-06-01

    Patients with atopic eczema (AE) often complain of sleep disturbance. Melatonin is involved in sleep, and the levels of blood melatonin in patients with AE are decreased in comparison to healthy subjects. However, the levels of breast-milk melatonin had only been reported in healthy subjects. Laughter increased natural killer cell activity in blood and free radical-scavenging capacity in saliva in healthy subjects. Thus, the effect of laughter on the levels of breast-milk melatonin was studied in mothers with AE. Moreover, the effect of feeding with breast milk after laughter on allergic responses in infants was studied. Forty-eight infants aged 5-6 months were enrolled. All of the infants had AE and were allergic to latex and house dust mite (HDM). Half (n=24) of the mothers of these infants were patients with AE, while another 24 mothers were healthy subjects. The mothers viewed either an 87-min humorous DVD (Modern Times, featuring Charlie Chaplin) or an 87-min nonhumorous weather information DVD at 2000 h. After viewing, breast milk was collected sequentially from 2200, 2400, 0200, 0400 to 0600 h. The levels of breast-milk melatonin were measured. In addition, skin wheal responses to HDM and histamine were studied in infants. Laughter caused by viewing a humorous DVD increased the levels of breast-milk melatonin in both mothers with AE and healthy mothers. In addition, allergic responses to latex and HDM of infants were reduced by feeding with breast milk after laughter of mothers with AE or of healthy mothers. Laughter increased the levels of breast-milk melatonin in both mothers with AE and healthy mothers, and feeding infants with increased levels of melatonin-containing milk reduced allergic responses in infants. Thus, laughter of mothers may be helpful in the treatment of infants with AE.

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and aroma quality of breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wende; Hosseinian, Farah S; Tsopmo, Apollinaire; Friel, James K; Beta, Trust

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand the difference and similarity in antioxidant capacity and aroma quality between formula and breast milk for purposes of modifying infant formulas. We evaluated the antioxidant properties and aroma quality of infant formula and breast milk. Six breast milk samples and four infant formulas were used. Antioxidant properties were measured using the following methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, total phenolic content, and phenolic composition. Aroma quality was determined using the electronic nose. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity for formula and breast milk ranged from 45.3% to 61.8% and from 52.8% to 61.2%, respectively. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity ranged from 28.8 to 31.9 g/kg for formula and from 25.5 to 39.2 g/kg for breast milk. Total phenolic content ranged from 422 to 751 mg/kg and from 329to 797 mg/kg for formula and milk, respectively. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid were detected with values ranging from 614 to 635, 1391 to 1444, and 1425 to 1490 microg/kg in breast milk and from 783 to 3594, 1449 to 1510, and 1447 to 1561 microg/kg in formulas. Electronic nose results indicated that the aroma quality of formula controls 2, 3, and 4 was similar to that of breast milk. Differences and similarities in antioxidant properties and aroma quality were found among some of the formulas and breast milk. The contribution of phenolic acids to total antioxidant capacity was limited.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Sucralose and Acesulfame-Potassium in Breast Milk Following Ingestion of Diet Soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Kristina I; Sylvetsky, Allison C; Walter, Peter J; Garraffo, H Martin; Fields, David A

    2017-10-27

    To determine sucralose and acesulfame-K pharmacokinetics in breast milk following maternal ingestion of a diet soda. Thirty-four exclusively breastfeeding women (14 normal weight, 20 obese) consumed twelve ounces of Diet Rite Cola™, sweetened with 68 mg sucralose and 41 mg acesulfame-potassium, prior to a standardized breakfast meal. Habitual LCS intake was assessed via a diet questionnaire. Breast milk was collected from the same breast prior to beverage ingestion and hourly for six hours. Due to one mother having extremely high concentrations, peak sucralose and acesulfame-potassium concentrations following ingestion of diet soda ranged from 4.0-7,387.9 ng/mL (median peak 8.1 ng/mL) and 299.0 - 4764.2 ng/mL (median peak 945.3 ng/mL), respectively. Ace-K and sucralose transfer into breast milk following ingestion of a diet soda. Future research should measure concentrations after repeated exposure and determine whether chronic ingestion of sucralose and acesulfame-potassium via the breast milk has clinically relevant health consequences. NCT #02940795.

  4. Relationship of milk intake and physical activity to abdominal obesity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, S; Santos, R; Moreira, C; Santos, P C; Vale, S; Soares-Miranda, L; Autran, R; Mota, J; Moreira, P

    2014-02-01

    What is already known about this subject Diet and physical activity (PA) are recognized as important factors to prevent abdominal obesity (AO). Studies have found an inverse relationship between milk intake or milk products and body weight and/or body fat in children and adolescents. Evidence suggests that low levels of PA are associated with AO in youth. What this study adds Our study explored the combined association of milk intake and PA on AO in adolescents, which are most often studied in isolation. Our findings suggested that adolescents with high milk intakes, regardless of whether they were active or low active, were less likely to have AO. Our findings could have a great epidemiological interest and bring important evidence in the field of AO management among adolescents. Diet and physical activity (PA) are recognized as important factors to prevent abdominal obesity (AO), which is strongly associated with chronic diseases. Some studies have reported an inverse association between milk consumption and AO. This study examined the association between milk intake, PA and AO in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1209 adolescents, aged 15-18 from the Azorean Archipelago, Portugal in 2008. AO was defined by a waist circumference at or above the 90th percentile. Adolescent food intake was measured using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and milk intake was categorized as 'low milk intake' (high milk intake' (≥2 servings per day). PA was assessed via a self-report questionnaire, and participants were divided into active (>10 points) and low-active groups (≤10 points) on the basis of their reported PA. They were then divided into four smaller groups, according to milk intake and PA: (i) low milk intake/low active; (ii) low milk intake/active; (iii) high milk intake/low active and (iv) high milk intake/active. The association between milk intake, PA and AO was evaluated using logistic regression analysis, and the results were

  5. Mineral compositions in breast milk of healthy Chinese lactating women in urban areas and its associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ai; Ning, Yibing; Zhang, Yumei; Yang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Junkuan; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Peiyu

    2014-01-01

    Optimal mineral intakes are important for infant growth and development. However, data on mineral compositions of breast milk in Chinese women are scarce, and most were acquired before 1990. The objectives of this study were three-fold: (1) to investigate the mineral compositions of Chinese healthy mothers' breast milk in different lactation stages; (2) to explore correlations among mineral concentrations in breast milk; and (3) to explore the associated factors affecting mineral compositions in breast milk. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyze mineral concentrations in breast-milk of 444 healthy lactating women from three cities in China. A questionnaire was used to survey socio-demographic characteristics and pregnancy history. Food intakes by lactating women were measured using both food frequency questionnaire and one cycle of 24-hour dietary recall. Mineral compositions of breast milk varied in different regions. Concentrations of most minerals were higher in the first one or two months of lactation, and then decreased with time, except for magnesium and iron. Inter-mineral correlations existed among several minerals. The calcium-to-phosphorus ratio was above 2:1 in each lactation stage. Women with caesarean section had higher concentration of iodine in the transitional milk (349.9 µg/kg) compared to women with natural delivery (237.5 µg/kg, P 0.05). Milk minerals decreased with time, and changed most rapidly in the first one or two months of lactation. Caesarean section might affect the iodine level in transitional milk.

  6. Transfer of linezolid into breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Hilary E; Felkins, Kathleen; Cooper, Shaun D; Hale, Thomas W

    2014-11-01

    Linezolid, a broad-spectrum antibiotic used primarily for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, is the first oxazolidinone approved for clinical use. This is a case report of a 30-year-old woman who was exclusively breastfeeding her infant prior to taking linezolid 600 mg orally every 12 hours to treat a MRSA mastitis. Breast milk samples were obtained over a 12-hour dosing interval on day 1 (after a single dose of therapy) and again on day 14 (at steady state). The relative infant dose at steady state was found to be 15.61% on day 14 of therapy. Using the average concentration at steady state, the estimated infant dose would have been 1.84 mg/kg/day, which is well below the recommended dose given to neonates requiring linezolid drug therapy. The infant did not breastfeed during maternal treatment with linezolid. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Complications of Breast Milk Application to the Infected Eye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    affected eye after developing endophthalmitis and panophthalmitis ... of breast milk to the eye in cases of bacterial conjunctivitis ... first day, pepper soup spices on the second day and traditional eye .... and this may also stimulate the growth of.

  8. Can Breast Milk Feed a Love of Vegetables?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Can Breast Milk Feed a Love of Vegetables? Think of it as an early stealth strategy ... medicine," Mennella said. When an expectant mother eats vegetables, they flavor her amniotic fluid -- and later, her ...

  9. Changes in fatty acid composition of human milk over lactation stages and relationship with dietary intake in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiajing; Wu, Kejian; Yu, Zuxun; Ren, Yiping; Zhao, Yiming; Jiang, Yuan; Xu, Xingfang; Li, Wei; Jin, Yongxin; Yuan, Jihong; Li, Duo

    2016-07-13

    Breast milk samples and 24-hour food records were obtained from lactating mothers on day 1 (colostrum), day 14 (transitional milk) and day 42 (mature milk) from Hangzhou (n = 202), Lanzhou (n = 133) and Beijing (n = 142), China. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared by standard methods, separated and quantified by gas chromatography. We aimed to investigate the fatty acid composition (% of total fatty acid) in human milk of three lactating stages from three regions in China and the relationship with maternal dietary intake during lactation. Present results showed that the fatty acid composition of breast milk varied with lactating period and geographical regions in China. In all the milk samples, the total saturated fatty acid (SFA) remained stable. However, C10:0 and C12:0 increased over the lactation period, total monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) significantly increased from colostrum (34.50%) to transitional milk (37.06%), and total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) showed its highest percentage in colostrum (29.58%). In particular, C22:6n-3 and C22:5n-3 were lowest in mature milk (0.38% and 0.41%, respectively), and C18:3n-3 (1.83%) was lowest in colostrum. There were significant differences among the three regions in total MUFA and PUFA in breast milk. The Hangzhou samples had the lowest C18:1n-9 and highest C22:6n-3. Additionally, C22:6n-3, total PUFA and n-3 PUFA were lowest in the Lanzhou samples. Different dietary habits were largely the drivers behind the different fatty acid profiles among the three regions.

  10. Microbiota in Breast Milk of Chinese Lactating Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakwinska, Olga; Moine, Déborah; Delley, Michèle; Combremont, Séverine; Rezzonico, Enea; Descombes, Patrick; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota of breast milk from Chinese lactating mothers at different stages of lactation was examined in the framework of a Maternal Infant Nutrition Growth (MING) study investigating the dietary habits and breast milk composition in Chinese urban mothers. We used microbiota profiling based on the sequencing of fragments of 16S rRNA gene and specific qPCR for bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and total bacteria to study microbiota of the entire breast milk collected using standard protocol without aseptic cleansing (n = 60), and the microbiota of the milk collected aseptically (n = 30). We have also investigated the impact of the delivery mode and the stage of lactation on the microbiota composition. The microbiota of breast milk was dominated by streptococci and staphylococci for both collection protocols and, in the case of standard collection protocol, Acinetobacter sp. While the predominance of streptococci and staphylococci was consistently reported previously for other populations, the abundance of Acinetobacter sp. was reported only once before in a study where milk collection was done without aseptic cleansing of the breast and rejection of foremilk. Higher bacterial counts were found in the milk collected using standard protocol. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were present in few samples with low abundance. We observed no effect of the stage of lactation or the delivery mode on microbiota composition. Methodological and geographical differences likely explain the variability in microbiota composition reported to date.

  11. PREVENTIVE ASPECTS OF BREAST MILK FEEDING IN PREMATURE INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Belyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the issue of infant feeding. It is universally recognized that the best product for neonatal and infant feeding is breast milk. On the basis of the worldwide literature data, the authors give a detailed account of breast milk advantages from various (biological, clinical and psychological perspectives. They convincingly demonstrate that knowledge of preventive and medical aspects of breast feeding benefits allows conducting effective educational programs regarding motivation, struggle for breast feeding and long-term maintenance among medical personnel, mothers and their families. It is especially important to provide premature infants and sick children, who are often born unable to suck adequately, with breast feeding. The authors provide results of a study conducted at the SCCH demonstrating that special medical devices (nipples, feeding bottles developed on the basis of studies of maternal breast sucking physiology facilitate a gradual transition from tube feeding to breast feeding. 

  12. Immunomodulatory constituents of human breast milk and immunity from bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyu; Liu, Yanbo; Jiang, Yanfang; Xu, Naijun; Lei, Jie

    2017-01-14

    The mother's immune status can be achieved by genetic and breastfeeding impact descendants of the immune system. The study aimed to determine whether a mother's immune status and breastfeeding practices were related to development of bronchiolitis in her infant. The frequency of T, B and natural kill (NK) cells in patients' blood and their mothers' breast milk was determined using flow cytometry. The concentrations of serum and breast milk IgG and IgD in individual patients and healthy control were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The relationships between immunocytes, immunoglobulin and respiratory score (RS) were analyzed by Spearman's rank correlation test. The mothers of bronchiolitis patients had lower IgG concentrations in their breast milk when compared to the mothers of healthy children. There was no significant difference in the frequency of T cells, B cells, and NK cells in samples of breast milk. However, significant decreases of CD3+, CD8+ T cells, as well as significant increases of CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cells were found in the serum of bronchiolitis infants. There were positive correlation relationships between RS and CD3+, CD4+ T cells, IgG and IgD concentrations. Our data suggested that the mothers of bronchiolitis patients had lower IgG concentration in their breast milk. The breast milk IgG might be absorbed by the breastfeeding infants, which could play important role in resistance of bronchiolitis.

  13. National survey of the levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides in the breast milk of mothers in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Pingping [Key Laboratory of Chemical Safety and Health, and National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 7 Panjiayuan nanli Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021 (China); Wu Yongning, E-mail: wuyncdc@yahoo.com.c [Key Laboratory of Chemical Safety and Health, and National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 7 Panjiayuan nanli Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021 (China); Yin Shian; Li Jingguang; Zhao Yunfeng; Zhang Lei; Chen Huijing [Key Laboratory of Chemical Safety and Health, and National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 7 Panjiayuan nanli Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021 (China); Liu Yinping [Hebei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 97 Huaian East Road, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050021 (China); Yang Xin; Li Xiaowei [Key Laboratory of Chemical Safety and Health, and National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 7 Panjiayuan nanli Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021 (China)

    2011-02-15

    The occurrence of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in breast milk samples collected from mothers from twelve provinces in mainland China was investigated. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the most prevalent agent, followed by HCHs and HCB, whereas levels of chlordane compounds, drins and mirex were lower. The relatively lower DDE/DDT ratio in the Fujian rural area suggested more recent exposure to DDT than in other areas. The mean level of DDTs in breast milk from the southern China was higher than those from northern China (p < 0.05). A positive correlation was observed between concentration of DDTs in human milk and consumption of animal-origin food, suggesting that this parameter could play an important part in influencing OCPs burdens in lactating women. The mean estimated daily intakes of different OCPs for breastfed infants were lower than the tolerable daily intake. - Research highlights: Among the OCPs analyzed, DDTs were the most prevalent agent. Lower DDE/DDT ratio in the Fujian rural area suggested recent intake of DDT. Animal food consumptions were correlated to DDTs concentrations in breast milk. The mean EDIs of various OCPs by Chinese infants were lower than the TDI guidelines. - A survey of concentrations of OCPs in breast milk helps identify background concentrations in the Chinese population.

  14. Bovine beta-lactoglobulin in human milk from atopic and non-atopic mothers. Relationship to maternal intake of homogenized and unhomogenized milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Husby, S; Hansen, L G

    1990-01-01

    ). In a cross-over design the atopic and non-atopic mothers alternated their intake of milk between homogenized and unhomogenized milk each week. On day 7, in each week, consecutive milk samples were taken before and 4, 8, 12 and 24 hr after a single ingestion of 500 ml of homogenized or unhomogenized milk......Human milk samples (n = 300) were collected during a 3-week period from 10 healthy mothers and from 10 atopic mothers, all with healthy, solely breast-fed infants. The milk samples were analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the content of bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG....... Detectable amounts of BLG (0.9-150 micrograms/l, median value 4.2 micrograms/l) were measured in 19/20 of the mothers (95%), in 9 of 10 atopic mothers and in all 10 of 10 non-atopic mothers. No correlation was found between the type of milk preparation (homogenized or unhomogenized) and the presence of BLG...

  15. ZINC AND SELENIUM INTAKE BY SMALL-FOR-DATE INFANTS DURING BREAST FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Senkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition of small-for-date infants is a topical issues for neonatal nutrition. Breast milk is adapted for infant’s uptake, but its components both in quality and quantity sense depends on time of the delivery and differs essentially from normal findings in case of  low birth weight. To solve the problem of dietary intake for small-for-date babies it’s important to determine the components of breast milk. Background: To determine zinc and selenium concentration in the milk of women who gave birth to small-for-date babies, as well as to estimate an actual intake of these microcells, during infants’ breastfeeding. Patients and methods: In 10–14 days after delivery zinc and selenium rate in breast milk of 52 women who gave birth to small-for-date babies, and of 20 healthy, has been estimated by Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS ELAN DRC II, Perkin Elmer, USA. Results: Zinc and selenium concentration is essentially low in the milk of women who gave birth to small-for-date babies which results in baby low supply with microcells, who is breastfed. The analysis results confirm the statement about high risk of development of alimentary-dependent conditions in smallfor-date babies. Conclusion: Correction of microcells concentration in breast milk is possible in case of creating preventive measures system in pre- and postnatal period for their imbalance in pregnant and nursing women. This may favor the effective support of infants with biocells, which is essential for proper nutrition and keeping the children healthy.

  16. Effect of maternal smoking on colostrum and breast milk cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etem Pişkin, İbrahim; Nur Karavar, Hande; Araslı, Mehmet; Ermiş, Bahri

    2012-01-01

    Breast milk contains several immune modulator components. The transfer of numerous cytokines via mother's milk may add to an active stimulation of the infant's immune system. There are many factors in breast milk that could either facilitate or inhibit cytokine activities. Smoking negatively influences the immune system and changes the concentrations of important cytokines. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of smoking during pregnancy on the cytokines found in colostrum and mature human milk. The study population included 25 smoker and 27 non-smoker nursing mothers who gave birth to a term healthy infant via cesarean section. Breast milk was collected from the mothers on the 2(nd)-3(rd) and 21(st)-25(th) days postpartum during visits to examine the newborns. Samples were analyzed for IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and TNF-β cytokines by flow cytometric bead array. We first saw that concentrations of IL-1 β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and TNF-β cytokines, but not IL-12, were measurable both in colostrum and in mature milk, being higher in colostrum. Next we observed that IL-1β and IL-8 levels were significantly lower in colostrum, and IL-6 was found to be significantly lower in the mature milk of smoking mothers. No significant effects of maternal smoking on breast milk concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and TNF-β were observed. These findings indicate that maternal smoking alters the colostrum and mature milk levels of some cytokines. Therefore, it is thought that active smoking during pregnancy decreases the concentration of certain cytokines in breast milk, which might account for the newborn's increased susceptibility to infections.

  17. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation.

  18. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2-36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors’ code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10-11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1-1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses.

  19. How Does The Fasting of Ramadan Affect Breast Milk Constituents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast-feeding of infants is associated with their better biological, psychological and intellectual development. However, many factors affect the volume and composition of human milk such as stage of lactation and maternal diet. Many breast-feeding Muslim mothers fast the lunar month of Ramadan. The effects ...

  20. Mixed messages over breast milk and brainy babies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCartney, Mary

    2007-01-01

    ... ­that ­the ­“results ­may ­help ­ Mixed messages over breast doctors ­when ­giving ­ advice ­on ­breast ­feed ing ­to ­mothers ­with ­particular ­problems—for ­ milk and brainy...

  1. Maternal smoking modulates fatty acid profile of breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Martysiak-Żurowska, Dorota; Krzykowski, Grzegorz; Zagierski, Maciej; Kamińska, Barbara

    2013-08-01

    We hypothesized that the fatty acid composition of breast milk can be affected by a smoking habit in the mother. Consequently, this study verified whether maternal smoking modulates, and if so to what extent, the breast milk fatty acid profile. The study included 20 postpartum women who declared smoking more than five cigarettes daily throughout a period of pregnancy and lactation, and 136 nonsmoking postpartum women. Breast milk samples were collected between the 17th and the 30th day after delivery. The samples were analysed by means of high-resolution gas chromatography for overall content of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers were characterized by significantly higher relative breast milk contents of fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids. Additionally, smokers' breast milk had higher concentrations of selected saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, smokers were characterized by significantly lower values of linoleic to arachidonic acid ratio and n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio. Aside from its other harmful consequences, smoking modulates the fatty acid profile of human milk. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Comparative Analysis of the Physicochemical Parameters of Breast Milk, Starter Infant Formulas and Commercial Cow Milks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarić Slavica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on the physical properties of cow milk and infant formulas are important since they indicate the differences in physicochemical and rheological characteristics and compatibility with natural breast milk. This fact is important not only for quality control but also for the use of these commercial products as infant diet supplements or as complete breast milk substitutes. This study was undertaken to determine refractive index, surface tension, pH, electrical conductivity, viscosity and titratable acidity of the UHT cow milk, starter infant formulas and breast milk of Serbian mothers in order to compare commercial milk formulations with natural human milk. The paper also presents the measured data of some physical parameters of human milk about which there is little information in the literature. It has been also demonstrated how these parameters were changed by freezing and prolonged storage of breast milk.

  3. Strontium biokinetic model for the lactating woman and transfer to breast milk: application to Techa River studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Fell, T P; Smith, T J; Harrison, J D; Degteva, M O

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a biokinetic model for strontium metabolism in the lactating woman and transfer to breast milk for members of Techa River communities exposed as a result of discharges of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak plutonium production facility (Russia) in the early 1950s. This model was based on that developed for the International Commission for Radiological Protection with modifications to account for population specific features of breastfeeding and maternal bone mineral metabolism. The model is based on a biokinetic model for the adult female with allowances made for changes in mineral metabolism during periods of exclusive and partial breast-feeding. The model for females of all ages was developed earlier from extensive data on (90)Sr-body measurements for Techa Riverside residents. Measurements of (90)Sr concentrations in the maternal skeleton and breast milk obtained in the1960s during monitoring of global fallout in the Southern Urals region were used for evaluation of strontium transfer to breast and breast milk. The model was validated with independent data from studies of global fallout in Canada and measurements of (90)Sr body-burden in women living in the Techa River villages who were breastfeeding during maximum (90)Sr-dietary intakes. The model will be used in evaluations of the intake of strontium radioisotopes in breast milk by children born in Techa River villages during the radioactive releases and quantification of (90)Sr retention in the maternal skeleton.

  4. Maternal smoking decreases antioxidative status of human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagierski, M; Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, A; Jankowska, A; Krzykowski, G; Korzon, M; Kaminska, B

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of maternal smoking on antioxidative capacity and intensity of oxidative damage in breast milk. The study group (n=30) was comprised of postpartum women who declared smoking more than five cigarettes per day during pregnancy and lactation (confirmed by the urinalysis of cotinine concentration), and their newborns. Control group included 29 non-smoking postpartum women and their newborns. Colostrum samples were collected on the 3rd day after delivery and breast milk samples between the 30th and the 32nd day after delivery. Morning maternal and neonatal urine samples were obtained on the day of the mature milk sampling. Isoprostane concentrations in colostrum/mature milk and urine were determined immunoenzymatically. Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) of colostrum/breast milk was determined by Rice-Evans and Miller method. Colostrum TAS in smokers was significantly lower than in non-smokers (P=0.006). In both groups, the TAS of mature milk was higher compared with colostrum, but significant differences were observed amongst smokers only (P=0.001). In smokers the isoprostane concentration of mature milk was significantly higher than the colostrum concentration (P=0.001). Significant inverse correlation between maternal urinary isoprostane concentration and the TAS of mature breast milk was observed in smokers (R=-0.525, P=0.023), but not in non-smokers (R=0.161, P=0.422). This study revealed that maternal smoking triggers harmful effects on an infant by impairing pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance of breast milk.

  5. Clinical impact of human breast milk metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesare Marincola, Flaminia; Dessì, Angelica; Corbu, Sara; Reali, Alessandra; Fanos, Vassilios

    2015-12-07

    Metabolomics is a research field concerned with the analysis of metabolome, the complete set of metabolites in a given cell, tissue, or biological sample. Being able to provide a molecular snapshot of biological systems, metabolomics has emerged as a functional methodology in a wide range of research areas such as toxicology, pharmacology, food technology, nutrition, microbial biotechnology, systems biology, and plant biotechnology. In this review, we emphasize the applications of metabolomics in investigating the human breast milk (HBM) metabolome. HBM is the recommended source of nutrition for infants since it contains the optimal balance of nutrients for developing babies, and it provides a range of benefits for growth, immunity, and development. The molecular mechanisms beyond the inter- and intra-variability of HBM that make its composition unique are yet to be well-characterized. Although still in its infancy, the study of HBM metabolome has already proven itself to be of great value in providing insights into this biochemical variability in relation to mother phenotype, diet, disease, and lifestyle. The results of these investigations lay the foundation for further developments useful to identify normal and aberrant biochemical changes as well as to develop strategies to promote healthy infant feeding practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Breast milk DHA levels may increase after informing women: a community-based cohort study from South Dakota USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juber, Brian A; Jackson, Kristina Harris; Johnson, Kristopher B; Harris, William S; Baack, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid found in breast milk, has many health benefits for both mother and baby. A 2007 meta-analysis found U.S. women had breast milk DHA levels (0.20% of total fatty acids) below the worldwide mean (0.32%). In 2008, international dietary recommendations were made for pregnant and lactating women to consume 200 mg of DHA per day. This community-based study aimed to define current milk DHA levels from upper Midwest USA lactating mothers and to determine if providing information about their own level along with dietary recommendations would incite changes to increase breast milk DHA content. New mothers attending lactation classes or using hospital pumping rooms in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA participated by providing one drop of breast milk on a card for fatty acid analysis at baseline and 1 month after initial reporting. DHA levels were analyzed by gas chromatography. Mothers received a report of their own breast milk level along with dietary recommendations on DHA intake for lactating women. Median baseline and follow-up DHA levels were determined and differences were compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. At baseline, breast milk DHA content (n = 84) was highly variable (range 0.05 to 0.73%) with a median of 0.18% (IQR, 0.13, 0.28; mean ± SD, 0.22 ± 0.13%), well below the worldwide average (0.32%). Women who reported taking DHA supplements (n = 43) had higher levels than those who did not (0.23% vs. 0.15%, P DHA content increased from 0.19 to 0.22% (P DHA level and education about DHA intake while breastfeeding motivates change to increase DHA levels.

  7. Predicting the important enzymes in human breast milk digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaldi, Nora; Vijayakumar, Vaishnavi; Dallas, David C; Guerrero, Andrés; Wickramasinghe, Saumya; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Medrano, Juan F; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Shields, Denis C; German, J Bruce

    2014-07-23

    Human milk is known to contain several proteases, but little is known about whether these enzymes are active, which proteins they cleave, and their relative contribution to milk protein digestion in vivo. This study analyzed the mass spectrometry-identified protein fragments found in pooled human milk by comparing their cleavage sites with the enzyme specificity patterns of an array of enzymes. The results indicate that several enzymes are actively taking part in the digestion of human milk proteins within the mammary gland, including plasmin and/or trypsin, elastase, cathepsin D, pepsin, chymotrypsin, a glutamyl endopeptidase-like enzyme, and proline endopeptidase. Two proteins were most affected by enzyme hydrolysis: β-casein and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor. In contrast, other highly abundant milk proteins such as α-lactalbumin and lactoferrin appear to have undergone no proteolytic cleavage. A peptide sequence containing a known antimicrobial peptide is released in breast milk by elastase and cathepsin D.

  8. Milk intake is not associated with low risk of diabetes or overweight-obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Helle K M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Ellervik, Christina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High dairy/milk intake has been associated with a low risk of type 2 diabetes observationally, but whether this represents a causal association is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that high milk intake is associated with a low risk of type 2 diabetes and of overweight-obes...

  9. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers in breast milk are associated with plasma non-esterified and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Alexandre G; Ney, Jacqueline G; Meneses, Flávia; Trugo, Nádia M F

    2006-03-01

    Maternal adipose tissue is a major contributor to breast milk long-chain fatty acids, probably through the pool of plasma NEFA. The fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membrane (EM) is a biochemical index of the intake of fatty acids not synthesized endogenously and of PUFA and long-chain PUFA fatty acid status. The present study investigated the associations between breast milk fatty acid composition and the composition of plasma NEFA and of EM fatty acids with special reference to PUFA, long-chain PUFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The detailed fatty acid composition of mature breast milk was also reported. Thirty-three healthy, lactating Brazilian women donated milk samples; of these, twenty-four also donated blood samples in an observational cross-sectional study. Breast milk fatty acid composition presented several associations with NEFA and EM composition, which explained most (> or =50 %) of the variability of selected milk PUFA, long-chain PUFA and CLA. Milk CLA was associated with fatty acids that are markers of dairy fat intake in the diet, NEFA and EM. In general, breast milk n-3 fatty acids and CLA, but not n-6 fatty acids, were associated with EM composition, whereas both the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and CLA in milk were associated with NEFA composition, possibly owing to its role as a direct source of fatty acids for breast milk. These findings emphasize the contribution of the NEFA pool derived from the adipose tissue to the long-chain fatty acid composition of breast milk.

  10. Milk Intake in Early and Late Adulthood and Risk of Osteoporotic Hip Fractures in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Slavens, Melanie Jean

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between milk intake and risk of osteoporotic fractures is uncertain. Associations between milk intake and milk avoidance in relation to osteoporotic hip fracture were examined in the Utah Study of Nutrition and Bone Health (USNBH), a statewide case-control study. Cases were ascertained at Utah hospitals treating 98 percent of hip fractures during 1997-2001 and included 1188 men and women aged 50-89 years. Age- and gender-matched controls were randomly selected from Utah drive...

  11. Macronutrient analysis of a nationwide sample of donor breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Katherine Y; Rechtman, David J; Lee, Martin L; Montoya, Armando; Medo, Elena T

    2009-01-01

    Banked donor milk may be a reasonable substitute for mother's milk for human infants. No data on the macronutrient composition of banked donor milk have been reported. This study determined the composition of donated milk from a large number of banked donor milk samples and compared it to the reported values for macronutrients in mature breast milk. During a 9-month sampling period (May 2006 through February 2007) from a nationwide milk bank network, 415 sequential samples from 273 unique donors were analyzed for fat, protein, and lactose content, as well as energy density. Descriptive statistics were computed, including mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, median, and range. Percentiles were determined from the empirical distribution of the data. A ninety-five percent confidence interval was computed using standard, large sample (Gaussian) methods. Banked donor milk mean values (in weight/volume) were found to be 1.16%+/-0.25% for protein, 3.22%+/-1.00% for fat, 7.80%+/-0.88% for lactose, and mean total energy was 65+/-11 kcal/dL. Banked donor milk macronutrient content was found to differ from the values reported in the literature for mature human milk. Unformulated banked donor milk alone, similar to mother's milk alone, does not have sufficient macronutrient content or energy density to sustain a very-low-birth-weight preterm infant. Fortification could make up for these shortcomings, perhaps making formulated banked donor milk a better choice for preterm infants than bovine-based formulas when mother's milk is unavailable.

  12. Relative bioequivalence of amoxicillin dissolved in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani-Brojeni, Parvaneh; Garcia-Bournissen, Facundo; Fujii, Hisaki; Tanoshima, Reo; Ito, Shinya

    2014-03-01

    Oral antibiotics use in infants in developing countries is challenging because liquid formulations are often unavailable. However, dissolving solid formulation of drugs in water poses a risk of gastrointestinal infection. Although mother's milk may be a potential vehicle, no evidence exists to indicate that antibiotics dissolved in human milk are bioequivalent to those dissolved in water. Therefore, we compared pharmacokinetic parameters of an orally administered antibiotic, amoxicillin, dissolved in human milk, to those of water-dissolved amoxicillin. A pharmacokinetic study was conducted in 16 healthy adult volunteers in a randomised crossover design. Marketed amoxicillin powder for suspension was dissolved in either human milk or water at a final concentration of 50 mg/mL, and 10 mL was given orally in a fasting state. Timed blood samples were obtained and plasma amoxicillin was quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that pharmacokinetic parameters, including area-under-the-curve, Cmax and half-life of the water-based and milk-based amoxicillin administration were not significantly different. 90% CIs of the ratios of these parameters in concomitant breast milk administration to those of water were within 89% and 116%, suggesting they are bioequivalent (defined as a range between 80% and 125%). We conclude that oral administration of amoxicillin dissolved in human milk at 50 mg/mL results in pharmacokinetics profiles comparable to amoxicillin dissolved in water. Pharmaceutical interactions between amoxicillin and breast milk are unlikely, suggesting no need to modify dosing schedules.

  13. Fatty acid composition of diet, cord blood and breast milk in Chinese mothers with different dietary habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yongmei; Zhou, Tingting; Wang, Qin; Liu, Peining; Zhang, Tingyan; Zetterström, R; Strandvik, B

    2009-01-01

    The influence of two different dietary patterns on maternal fatty acid (FA) intake on the composition of umbilical cord blood plasma phospholipids and transitional breast milk was investigated. A 7-day dietary record was completed in the last trimester of pregnancy by women living in an inland and a coastal area of south-eastern China. The FA composition in maternal diet was calculated using the 2002 Chinese food composition database. Cord blood and transitional breast milk samples were collected and their FA composition was analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Mothers in the coastal area showed higher intake of long-chain polyunsaturated FA (LCPUFA) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6omega) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA,20:5omega3) but lower linoleic acid (LA, 18:2omega6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3omega3) than the mothers in the inland area. The intake of arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4omega6) did not differ between the two areas. LA, ALA, AA and DHA in breast milk of day 5 reflected the maternal diet except that the EPA content in breast milk at day 5 was similar for the areas. LA, ALA and AA were lower and EPA higher in umbilical cord plasma phospholipids in infants from the costal compared to the inland area. There were significant differences in maternal intakes of FA confirming different dietary habits, which influenced the FA composition of cord plasma phospholipids and transitional breast milk. Since FA influence gene expression the found variation implies that the long-term follow-up of this cohort will be interesting.

  14. Prospective Association between Dietary Fiber Intake and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. Objective The objective was to investigate the prospective relationship between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk, taking into account different types of dietary fiber (overall, insoluble, soluble and from different food sources: cereals, vegetables, fruits and legumes). Design 4684 women from the SU.VI.MAX cohort were included in this analysis as they completed at least three 24h-dietary records within the first two years of follow-up. Among them, 167 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 12.6 years (between 1994 and 2007). The associations between quartiles of dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk were characterized using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results Total fiber intake was not associated with breast cancer risk (HRQuartile4vs.Quartile1 = 1.29 (95%CI 0.66–2.50), P-trend = 0.5), nor was fiber intake from cereals (P-trend = 0.1), fruits (P-trend = 0.9) and legumes (P-trend = 0.3). In contrast, vegetable fiber intake was related to a decreased risk of breast cancer (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.50 (0.29-0.88), P-trend = 0.03). Overall vegetable intake (in g/day) was not associated with breast cancer risk (P-trend = 0.2). Conclusion This prospective study suggests that vegetable fiber intake may contribute to reduce breast cancer risk, in line with experimental mechanistic data. PMID:24244548

  15. Prospective association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. The objective was to investigate the prospective relationship between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk, taking into account different types of dietary fiber (overall, insoluble, soluble and from different food sources: cereals, vegetables, fruits and legumes). 4684 women from the SU.VI.MAX cohort were included in this analysis as they completed at least three 24h-dietary records within the first two years of follow-up. Among them, 167 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 12.6 years (between 1994 and 2007). The associations between quartiles of dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk were characterized using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Total fiber intake was not associated with breast cancer risk (HR(Quartile4vs.Quartile1) = 1.29 (95%CI 0.66-2.50), P-trend = 0.5), nor was fiber intake from cereals (P-trend = 0.1), fruits (P-trend = 0.9) and legumes (P-trend = 0.3). In contrast, vegetable fiber intake was related to a decreased risk of breast cancer (HR(Q4vs.Q1) = 0.50 (0.29-0.88), P-trend = 0.03). Overall vegetable intake (in g/day) was not associated with breast cancer risk (P-trend = 0.2). This prospective study suggests that vegetable fiber intake may contribute to reduce breast cancer risk, in line with experimental mechanistic data.

  16. Aflatoxin M₁ in breast milk of nursing Sudanese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzupir, Amin O; Abas, Abdel Rouf A; Fadul, M Hemmat; Modwi, Abueliz K; Ali, Nima M I; Jadian, Afaf F F; Ahmed, Nuha Abd A; Adam, Smah Y A; Ahmed, Nousiba A M; Khairy, Arwa A A; Khalil, Eltahir A G

    2012-05-01

    The presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in the breast milk of nursing Sudanese mothers was investigated using AOAC official method 980.21 as the extraction method and HPLC with fluorescence detector for separation and detection. Following informed consent, 94 breast milk samples of mothers were collected, and 51 samples were found to be positive for AFM1, with an average concentration of 0.401 ± 0.525 ng g(-1) and a maximum level of 2.561 ng g(-1). The volunteers completed a questionnaire concerning their dietary preferences. The data collected suggest that peanut butter, vegetable oils and rice are the main sources responsible for the AFM1 burden in breast milk. The toxin levels are alarmingly high, and indicate that Sudanese infants are exposed to high levels of AFM1. A wide range of harmful effects, and consequently health problems, can be expected due AFM1 toxicity.

  17. Breast Milk Iodine and Iodine Status of Breast-Fed Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Morshed Molla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk is the only source of iodine for exclusively breast-fed infants. Iodine status of breast-fed infants depends on iodine in breast milk and also number of feeding in 24 hours. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess both have bad impact on infant’s health. Objective: To measure the iodine in breast milk and to evaluate iodine status of their breast-fed infants. Materials and method: This observational analytical study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka with active cooperation of Kumudini Women’s Medical College Hospital, Mirzapur, Tangail involving fifty lactating mothers and their exclusively breast-fed infants. Early morning urine and breast milk samples were collected in dry and clean plastic container free from any chemical contamination. Urinary iodine was used as indicator for assessing iodine status. All statistical analyses were done by using SPSS (statistical programme for social science 12 version software package for Windows. Results: The median (range urinary iodine concentration of lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants were 225.25 μg/L (61.50-530.00 and 225.75 μg/L (100.50-526.00 respectively. The median (range breast-milk iodine concentration was 157 μg/L (54.50-431.50 which was more than three times of recommended minimum concentration (50 μg/L. Only 2 (4% lactating mothers had mild biochemical iodine deficiency (UIE, 50-99 μg/L. There was no biochemical iodine deficiency of breast-fed infants. Iodine in breast milk of lactating mothers was positively correlated with their urinary iodine excretion (p<0.01. Infant’s urinary iodine was positively correlated with iodine concentration in breast milk (p<0.01 and with urinary iodine of lactating mothers (p<0.01. Conclusion: Lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants in this study were iodine sufficient. If iodine content of breast-milk is within normal range, 10-12 numbers of

  18. [Relationship between breast milk and atopic dermatitis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y; Oki, I; Tanihara, S; Ojima, T; Kuwano, T; Tsukada, M; Momose, M; Kobayashi, M; Yanagawa, H

    1999-04-01

    To determine whether or not dioxins and furans in breast milk have a role in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis among children. The target population of the study was all children participating in health check-up program for 3-year-old children in Tochigi Prefecture in September and October 1997. Using a questionnaire, information on nutrition in infants (breast milk only, bottled milk only, or mixed), parity, mothers' age at birth, and a history of atopic dermatitis was obtained. Besides, data on potential confounding factors were obtained. Questionnaires from 2,968 children (85.3% of those who were to participate in the programs, and 90.2% of children who participated them) were analyzed. The risk of atopic dermatitis was higher among children with breast milk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.37 with 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.83) and those with mixed nutrition (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.94-1.57) in comparison with children with only bottled milk. Mothers' age at birth (OR for those who were more than 30 years or older in comparison with those who were younger than 30 years = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.01-1.62) and those with second or later parity orders (OR = 1.32, 95% CI; 1.04-1.67) were also risk factors of the dermatitis after the adjustment for some potential confounding factors. Breast milk elevates the risk of atopic dermatitis slightly; the risk is, however, higher in children in second or later parity orders. If the PCDDs and PCDFs in breast milk cause the dermatitis, this would contradict the assumed metabolism of these chemicals in human bodies.

  19. Biomechanics of milk extraction during breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, David; Kozlovsky, Pavel; Blum, Omry; Laine, Andrew F; Po, Ming Jack; Botzer, Eyal; Dollberg, Shaul; Zelicovich, Mabel; Ben Sira, Liat

    2014-04-08

    How do infants extract milk during breast-feeding? We have resolved a century-long scientific controversy, whether it is sucking of the milk by subatmospheric pressure or mouthing of the nipple-areola complex to induce a peristaltic-like extraction mechanism. Breast-feeding is a dynamic process, which requires coupling between periodic motions of the infant's jaws, undulation of the tongue, and the breast milk ejection reflex. The physical mechanisms executed by the infant have been intriguing topics. We used an objective and dynamic analysis of ultrasound (US) movie clips acquired during breast-feeding to explore the tongue dynamic characteristics. Then, we developed a new 3D biophysical model of the breast and lactiferous tubes that enables the mimicking of dynamic characteristics observed in US imaging during breast-feeding, and thereby, exploration of the biomechanical aspects of breast-feeding. We have shown, for the first time to our knowledge, that latch-on to draw the nipple-areola complex into the infant mouth, as well as milk extraction during breast-feeding, require development of time-varying subatmospheric pressures within the infant's oral cavity. Analysis of the US movies clearly demonstrated that tongue motility during breast-feeding was fairly periodic. The anterior tongue, which is wedged between the nipple-areola complex and the lower lips, moves as a rigid body with the cycling motion of the mandible, while the posterior section of the tongue undulates in a pattern similar to a propagating peristaltic wave, which is essential for swallowing.

  20. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scheffler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography−mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O, as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS, allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2. Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO2 are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences.

  1. Relationship between breast milk feeding and atopic dermatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y; Oki, I; Tanihara, S; Ojima, T; Ito, Y; Yamazaki, O; Iwama, M; Tabata, Y; Katsuyama, K; Sasai, Y; Nakagawa, M; Matsushita, A; Hossaka, K; Sato, J; Hidaka, Y; Uda, H; Nakamata, K; Yanagawa, H; Hosaka, K

    2000-03-01

    To determine whether or not the breast milk feeding has a role in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis among children. The target population of the study was all children participating in health check-up program for 3-year-old children in 60 municipalities locating 10 selected prefectures during designated 2 months between October and December 1997. Using a questionnaire, information on nutrition in infants (breast milk only, bottled milk only, or mixed), parity, mothers' age at birth, and a history of atopic dermatitis was obtained. Besides, data on potential confounding factors were obtained. Questionnaires from 3856 children (81.6% of those who were to participate in the programs, and 96.4% of children who participated them) were analyzed. After the adjustment for all potential confounding factors using unconditional logistic models, the risk of atopic dermatitis was slightly higher among children with breast milk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16 with 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.40). Mothers' age at birth (OR for those who were more than 30 years or older in comparison with those who were younger than 30 years = 1.15; 95% CI, 0.96-1.37) and those with second or later parity orders (OR = 1.14, 95% CI; 0.95-1.35) showed odds ratios that were higher than unity without statistical significance. Breast milk elevates the risk of atopic dermatitis slightly without statistical significance; the risk may be, however, higher in children in second or later parity orders.

  2. Iodine concentration of organic and conventional milk: implications for iodine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sarah C; Button, Suzanne; Rayman, Margaret P

    2012-04-01

    Iodine is required for adequate thyroid hormone production, which is essential for brain development, particularly in the first trimester of pregnancy. Milk is the principal source of iodine in UK diets, and while small studies in Europe have shown organic milk to have a lower iodine concentration than conventional milk, no such study has been conducted in Britain. In view of the increasing popularity of organic milk in the UK, we aimed to compare the iodine concentration of retail organic and conventional milk and to evaluate regional influences in iodine levels. Samples of organic milk (n 92) and conventional milk (n 80), purchased from retail outlets in sixteen areas of the UK (southern England, Wales and Northern Ireland), were analysed for iodine using inductively coupled plasma MS. The region of origin of the milk was determined from information on the label. Organic milk was 42·1 % lower in iodine content than conventional milk (median iodine concentration 144·5 v. 249·5 ng/g; P difference in the iodine concentration of either conventional or organic milk by area of purchase. However, a difference was seen in iodine concentration of organic milk by region of origin (P organic milk has public-health implications, particularly in view of emerging evidence of iodine deficiency in UK population sub-groups, including pregnant women. Individuals who choose organic milk should be aware that their iodine intake may be compromised and should ensure adequate iodine intake from alternative sources.

  3. Breast milk stem cells: four questions looking for an answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavino Faa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The finding of stem/progenitor cells in the maternal milk and the discovery of their multilineage potential, associated with some evidence regarding the ability of maternal cells to cross the gastrointestinal barrier and integrate into the organs of the breastfed neonate, has opened an intriguing debate, regarding the strict relationship between mother and son in the postnatal period. In particular, thanks to the discovery of the presence in high quantities of mammary stem cells, a new vision of maternal milk is emerging, in which breastfeeding appears as an unique occasion for reinforcing the physiological development of the newborn, putting all the formulas at a different level of relevance for the neonate. In this contribution the authors try to give an answer to the following 4 questions:is there heterogeneity and a hierarchy among breast milk stem cells?can stem cells present in breast milk enter into the newborn organism?can breast milk stem cells integrate in the neonatal organs and differentiate toward different tissues, including neurons and neuroglia?could metabolomics be useful for the study of stem cells in the human milk? Proceedings of the 2nd International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 26th-31st, 2015 · Cagliari (Italy · October 31st, 2015 · Stem cells: present and future Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Antonio Giordano

  4. Dietary changes and food intake in the first year after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Vivienne; Campbell, Sharon; McCargar, Linda; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hanning, Rhona

    2014-06-01

    Understanding dietary habits of women after breast cancer is a critical first step in developing nutrition guidelines that will support weight management and optimal health in survivorship; however, limited data are available. The objective of this study was to describe changes in diet among breast cancer survivors in the first year after treatment, and to evaluate these changes in the context of current dietary intake. Changes in diet were assessed in 28 early stage breast cancer survivors, using a self-reported survey in which women identified changes in food intake since their diagnosis. Current dietary intake was estimated from 3-day food records and described relative to current recommendations. The majority of women reported changes in diet after diagnosis, most common being an increase in vegetables/fruit and fish, lower intake of red meat, and reduced alcohol. Many women reported that these changes were initiated during active treatment. Dietary changes were largely consistent with current recommendations for cancer prevention; however, some women were still above the guidelines for total and saturated fat, and many were below recommendations for vegetables/fruit, milk/alternatives, calcium, and vitamin D. Evidence that some women are willing and able to initiate positive changes in diet early in the treatment trajectory suggests that early intervention may be effective in promoting dietary habits that will assist with weight management and overall health. Data on current dietary intake highlights several possible targets for dietary intervention in this population.

  5. Microbiological study of breast milk with special reference to its storage in milk bank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodhar L

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty five breast milk samples were subjected to bacteriological studies; each sample thrice (in fresh state, after heating at 1000C and freezing for 5 days at -20 degrees C. In fresh State, Staphylococci and diphtheroids were predominant organisms. After heating, none of the samples showed any micro-organisms while after freezing for 5 days, all the samples showing presence of micro-organisms earlier, showed decrease in colony counts. None of the milk samples showed inclusions of cytomegalovirus. Serum samples of mothers tested for Hepatitis B surface antigen and human immunodeficiency virus antibodies gave negative results. Such studies i.e. screening of breast milk samples are important if human milk is to be stored in banks and supplied to premature (high risk group children.

  6. Maternal dietary PUFAs intake and human milk content relationships during the first month of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopesi, F; Ciangherotti, S; Lantieri, P B; Risso, D; Bertini, I; Campone, F; Pedrotti, A; Bonacci, W; Serra, G

    2001-10-01

    Maternal dietary fatty acids (FFAs) intake and corresponding human milk composition relationships have been assessed throughout the first month of lactation in 34 lactating women consecutively enrolled. All mothers were on their habitual diet. Food records (95 items) were administered to the mothers, six-times during the first month of lactation (1 day after delivery, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after colostrum appearance) and referred to maternal dietary intake of the day before. Milk collected on day 1 was considered as colostrum, day 4 and 7 samples as transitional milk, and day 14, 21 and 28 samples as mature milk. Five gas chromatographic analyses were performed on each sample. Statistics were made using Friedman's and Pearson's test. Maternal dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were significantly related to the corresponding milk pattern in the phase of transitional milk (Pmature milk (Pmilk content can be related to variation of maternal PUFAs dietary intake. The results in the present study provide evidence of the relationships between maternal diet and milk composition. The degree of correlation between maternal diet and PUFAs milk content increases throughout milk maturational process and reaches significance only in mature milk. This would imply that advancing lactation, milk PUFAs provision sources gradually shift from adipose tissue catabolism to maternal diet. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  7. Dietary Acrylamide Intake and Risk of Premenopausal Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, Lorelei A.; Cho, Eunyoung; Hunter, David J.; Chen, Wendy Y.; Willett, Walter C.

    2009-01-01

    Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed during high-temperature cooking of many commonly consumed foods. It is widespread; approximately 30% of calories consumed in the United States are from foods containing acrylamide. In animal studies, acrylamide causes mammary tumors, but it is unknown whether the level of acrylamide in foods affects human breast cancer risk. The authors studied the association between acrylamide intake and breast cancer risk among 90,628 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. They calculated acrylamide intake from food frequency questionnaires in 1991, 1995, 1999, and 2003. From 1991 through 2005, they documented 1,179 cases of invasive breast cancer. They used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between acrylamide and breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted relative risk of premenopausal breast cancer was 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.76, 1.11) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of acrylamide intake (Ptrend = 0.61). Results were similar regardless of smoking status or estrogen and progesterone receptor status of the tumors. The authors found no associations between intakes of foods high in acrylamide, including French fries, coffee, cereal, potato chips, potatoes, and baked goods, and breast cancer risk. They found no evidence that acrylamide intake, within the range of US diets, is associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer. PMID:19224978

  8. Frequent coconut milk intake increases the risk of vascular disease in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyowati Tuminah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Coconut milk is an essential ingredient of the Indonesian cuisine. In view of its saturated fatty acid content, coconut milk has frequently been blamed as a cause of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine any association between coconut milk intake and vascular disease among adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011-2012 on adults aged 25-65 years. Self-reported health and nutritional data were collected by means of questionnaire-based interviews, with the aid of 3-D food models. Medical data comprised blood pressure and anthropometry (waist circumference and body mass index, neurological status, ECG, blood glucose and lipid profile. Data analysis was done using multiple logistic regression. Results A total of 4,187 respondents fullfilled the inclusion criteria. Frequent coconut milk intake (>3 times/week significantly increased the risk of vascular disease by 1.3-fold compared with infrequent coconut milk intake (<2 times/week (OR=1.33; 95% CI: 1.11-1.60; p=0.002 after controlling for age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and stress. The influence of coconut milk intake on vascular disease risk was lower than that of age, gender, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Conclusion Frequent coconut milk intake increased the risk of vascular disease in adults. Further investigations are needed about the effect of coconut milk intake on noncommunicable diseases.

  9. Arias icterus: Prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia caused by breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Marija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Breast milk jaundice occurs in 1-2% of healthy breast-fed newborns and young infants. It develops as the result of liver immaturity and the inhibitory effect of mother’s milk to the clearance of unconjugated bilirubin. Objective The paper analyzes variations in the level and length of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in breast-fed infants. Method The study was conducted on a sample of 29 young infants (19 male with breast milk jaundice. All infants were born on time, by natural delivery and without complications. All were on breast-feeding only and developed optimally. None of the infants had either haemolysis or any other disease associated with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Results All infants had physiological jaundice in the first week after birth, with unconjugated bilirubin level of 166-260 μmol (201.50±36.37 μmol. In the postneonatal period the highest bilirubin level was recorded in the fifth week of life and was 87-273 μmol (166.82±45.06 μmol, which then spontaneously, without interruption of breast-feeding, gradually declined. The decrease of the unconjugated fraction of serum bilirubin between the fourth and fifth week was significant, and after that highly significant. The normalization of serum bilirubin occurred in the seventh and thirteenth week (10.41±1.68 μmol. Negative consequences of hyperbilirubinemia were not noted in any of the infants. Conclusion Breast milk jaundice presents a harmless and transitory disorder of bilirubin metabolism. It occurs in healthy breast-fed neonates and young infants. Jaundice is most marked in early neonatal period, and then it gradually declines and disappears between the seventh and thirteenth week.

  10. Early, regular breast-milk pumping may lead to early breast-milk feeding cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourkavitch, Jennifer; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Pence, Brian W; Aiello, Allison; Ennett, Susan; Bengtson, Angela M; Chetwynd, Ellen; Robinson, Whitney

    2018-02-13

    To estimate the effect of early, regular breast-milk pumping on time to breast-milk feeding (BMF) and exclusive BMF cessation, for working and non-working women. Using the Infant Feeding Practices Survey II (IFPS II), we estimated weighted hazard ratios (HR) for the effect of regular pumping (participant defined) compared with non-regular/not pumping, reported at month 2, on both time to BMF cessation (to 12 months) and time to exclusive BMF cessation (to 6 months), using inverse probability weights to control confounding. USA, 2005-2007. BMF (n 1624) and exclusively BMF (n 971) IFPS II participants at month 2. The weighted HR for time to BMF cessation was 1·62 (95 % CI 1·47, 1·78) and for time to exclusive BMF cessation was 1·14 (95 % CI 1·03, 1·25). Among non-working women, the weighted HR for time to BMF cessation was 2·05 (95 % CI 1·84, 2·28) and for time to exclusive BMF cessation was 1·10 (95 % CI 0·98, 1·22). Among working women, the weighted HR for time to BMF cessation was 0·90 (95 % CI 0·75, 1·07) and for time to exclusive BMF cessation was 1·14 (95 % CI 0·96, 1·36). Overall, regular pumpers were more likely to stop BMF and exclusive BMF than non-regular/non-pumpers. Non-working regular pumpers were more likely than non-regular/non-pumpers to stop BMF. There was no effect among working women. Early, regular pumpers may need specialized support to maintain BMF.

  11. Total energy intake and breast cancer risk in sisters: the Breast Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; John, Esther M; Knight, Julia A; Kaur, Manleen; Daly, Mary; Buys, Saundra; Andrulis, Irene L; Stearman, Beth; West, Dee; Terry, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    Energy restriction inhibits mammary tumor development in animal models. Epidemiologic studies in humans generally do not support an association between dietary energy intake and breast cancer risk, although some studies suggest a more complex interplay between measures of energy intake, physical activity, and body size. We examined the association between total energy intake jointly with physical activity and body mass index (BMI) and the risk of breast cancer among 1,775 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 2006 and 2,529 of their unaffected sisters, enrolled in the Breast Cancer Family Registry. We collected dietary data using the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort food frequency questionnaire. Using conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) associated with total energy intake, we observed an overall 60-70 % increased risk of breast cancer among women in the highest quartile of total energy intake compared to those in the lowest quartile (Q4 vs. Q1: OR = 1.6, 95 % CI: 1.3-2.0; P (trend) total energy intake and breast cancer risk across different strata of physical activity and BMI. Our results suggest that within sisters, high energy intake may increase the risk of breast cancer independent of physical activity and body size. If replicated in prospective studies, then these findings suggest that reductions in total energy intake may help in modifying breast cancer risk.

  12. Relationship between soy milk intake and radiographic knee joint space narrowing and osteophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Gao, Shu-Guang; Li, Yu-Sheng; Luo, Wei; Xiao, Wen-Feng; Xiong, Yi-Lin; Lei, Guang-Hua

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between dietary soy milk intake and the prevalence of radiographic knee joint space narrowing (JSN) and osteophytes (OST). Soy milk intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and classified into three categories: never, soy milk intake and OST. In model 1 (adjusted for age, body mass index, and sex), the prevalence of OST decreased in "≥once a day" category (OR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.28-0.98, P = 0.042) and "soy milk intake, and the P for trend was 0.001. The outcomes were similar in model 2 (adjusted based on model 1, with additional factors of total energy intake, activity level, smoking status, alcohol-drinking status, educational background, diabetes, hypertension, and other dairy product intake) ("≥once a day" category: OR 0.49, 95 % CI 0.26-0.92, P = 0.026; "soy milk intake and JSN in both the models were not observed. Dietary soy milk intake was found to be negatively associated with OST, but not JSN, independent of some major confounding factors.

  13. Organochlorine Pesticides And Pcbs In Human Breast Milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and Fifty (150) samples of human breast milk (colostrums) collected from donors patronizing a postnatal center in Nigeria were analyzed for the levels of lindane, total DDT and total PCBs residues. Donors were stratified with respect to factors that may affect accumulation of these compounds such as age, ...

  14. Mammary hypoplasia: not every breast can produce sufficient milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, Megan W; Kessler, Julia Lange

    2013-01-01

    Breast milk is considered the optimal form of nutrition for newborn infants. Current recommendations are to breastfeed for 6 months. Not all women are able to breastfeed. Mammary hypoplasia is a primary cause of failed lactogenesis II, whereby the mother is unable to produce an adequate milk volume. Women with mammary hypoplasia often have normal hormone levels and innervation but lack sufficient glandular tissue to produce an adequate milk supply to sustain their infant. The etiology of this rare condition is unclear, although there are theories that refer to genetic predisposition and estrogenic environmental exposures in select agricultural environments. Women with mammary hypoplasia may not exhibit the typical breast changes associated with pregnancy and may fail to lactate postpartum. Breasts of women with mammary hypoplasia may be widely spaced (1.5 inches or greater), asymmetric, or tuberous in nature. Awareness of the history and clinical signs of mammary hypoplasia during the prenatal period and immediate postpartum increases the likelihood that women will receive the needed education and physical and emotional support and encouragement. Several medications and herbs demonstrate some efficacy in increasing breast milk production in women with mammary hypoplasia. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  15. Complications of Breast Milk Application to the Infected Eye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology 2009; 17(1): 32-35. Complications of Breast Milk Application to the Infected Eye. CU Ukponmwan MBBS, FMCOphth, FWACS; OT Okolo MBBS; DH Kayoma MBBS; Juliet Ese-. Onakewhor MBBS. Dept of Ophthalmology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria.

  16. The Biochemical Composition of the Breast Milk of Nigerian Mothers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values for total protein are most consistent with published figures, while potassium and cholesterol values 12.7 and 4.0mmol/l respectively are similar to published values. The breast milk of Nigerian mothers of Igbo ethnic extraction may not be said to be richer or poorer in biochemical content than those of mothers ...

  17. bacterial load in expressed and stored breast milk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... in both storage conditions were plated on three different culture media (Nutrient agar,. MacConkey agar and Chocolate agar) ... Results showed that in all the culture media, bacterial load was higher in breast milk samples stored at ..... Poor hygienic practices and improper washing of hands have also been ...

  18. Impact of Metabolic Hormones Secreted in Human Breast Milk on Nutritional Programming in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo-Suárez, Pilar Amellali; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Nieves-Morales, Xóchitl

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is the most common metabolic disease whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This condition is considered a serious public health problem due to associated comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Perinatal morbidity related to obesity does not end with birth; this continues affecting the mother/infant binomial and could negatively impact on metabolism during early infant nutrition. Nutrition in early stages of growth may be essential in the development of obesity in adulthood, supporting the concept of "nutritional programming". For this reason, breastfeeding may play an important role in this programming. Breast milk is the most recommended feeding for the newborn due to the provided benefits such as protection against obesity and diabetes. Health benefits are based on milk components such as bioactive molecules, specifically hormones involved in the regulation of food intake. Identification of these molecules has increased in recent years but its action has not been fully clarified. Hormones such as leptin, insulin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin, obestatin and insulin-like growth factor-1 copeptin, apelin, and nesfatin, among others, have been identified in the milk of normal-weight women and may influence the energy balance because they can activate orexigenic or anorexigenic pathways depending on energy requirements and body stores. It is important to emphasize that, although the number of biomolecules identified in milk involved in regulating food intake has increased considerably, there is a lack of studies aimed at elucidating the effect these hormones may have on metabolism and development of the newborn. Therefore, we present a state-of-the-art review regarding bioactive compounds such as hormones secreted in breast milk and their possible impact on nutritional programming in the infant, analyzing their functions in appetite regulation.

  19. Limited infant exposure to benznidazole through breast milk during maternal treatment for Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bournissen, Facundo; Moroni, Samanta; Marson, Maria Elena; Moscatelli, Guillermo; Mastrantonio, Guido; Bisio, Margarita; Cornou, Laura; Ballering, Griselda; Altcheh, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Benznidazole (BNZ) is safe and effective for the treatment of paediatric Chagas disease. Treatment of adults is also effective in many cases, but discouraged in breastfeeding women because no information on BNZ transfer into breast milk is available. We aimed to evaluate the degree of BNZ transfer into breast milk in lactating women with Chagas disease. Prospective cohort study of lactating women with Chagas disease treated with BNZ administered for 30 days. Patients and their breastfed infants were evaluated at admission, the 7th and 30th day of treatment (and monthly thereafter, for 6 months). BNZ was measured in plasma and milk by high performance liquid chromatography. The protocol was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (#NCT01547533). 12 lactating women with chronic Chagas disease were enrolled (median age 28.5 years, range 20-34). Median BNZ dose was 5.65 mg/kg/day twice daily. Five mothers had adverse drug events (45%), but no adverse drug reactions or any untoward outcomes were observed in the breastfed infants. Median milk BNZ concentration was 3.8 mg/L (range 0.3-5.9) and 6.26 mg/L (range 0.3-12.6) in plasma. Median BNZ milk to plasma ratio was 0.52 (range 0.3-2.79). Median relative BNZ dose received by the infant (assuming a daily breast milk intake of 150 mL/kg/day) was 12.3% of the maternal dose per kg (range 5.5%-17%). The limited transference of BNZ into breast milk and the reassuring normal clinical evaluation of the breastfed babies suggest that maternal BNZ treatment for Chagas disease during breast feeding is unlikely to present a risk for the breastfed infant. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01547533. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Assessment of Dose to the Nursing Infant from Radionuclides in Breast Milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    A computer software package was developed to predict tissue doses to an infant due to intake of radionuclides in breast milk based on bioassay measurements and exposure data for the mother. The package is intended mainly to aid in decisions regarding the safety of breast feeding by a mother who has been acutely exposed to a radionuclide during lactation or pregnancy, but it may be applied to previous intakes during the mother s adult life. The package includes biokinetic and dosimetric information needed to address intake of Co-60, Sr-90, Cs-134, Cs-137, Ir-192, Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, or Cf-252 by the mother. It has been designed so that the library of biokinetic and dosimetric files can be expanded to address a more comprehensive set of radionuclides without modifying the basic computational module. The methods and models build on the approach used in Publication 95 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 2004), Doses to Infants from Ingestion of Radionuclides in Mothers Milk . The software package allows input of case-specific information or judgments such as chemical form or particle size of an inhaled aerosol. The package is expected to be more suitable than ICRP Publication 95 for dose assessment for real events or realistic planning scenarios in which measurements of the mother s excretion or body burden are available.

  1. Mercury exposure via breast-milk in infants from a suburban area of Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orün, Emel; Yalçin, S Songül; Aykut, Osman; Orhan, Günnur; Koç-Morgil, Göksel; Yurdakök, Kadriye; Uzun, Ramazan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate mercury (Hg) levels in breast-milk in the postpartum 2nd month and to determine the relationship between Hg levels and sociodemographic parameters, maternal nutritional habits, presence of dental amalgam, maternal depression, maternal anemia, and growth status of infants. One hundred forty-four mothers residing in a suburban area in Ankara were invited at the 2nd month postpartum. A questionnaire concerning sociodemographic characteristics, vitamin intake during pregnancy and in the 2nd month postpartum, consumption of fish and viscera, smoking habits, and presence of dental fillings was applied. Hg could be detected in samples of 18% of the mothers, all levels of which were higher than the Hg limit in breast-milk reported by the World Health Organization. The Hg levels were higher in mothers who consumed viscera than in those who did not. Turkish women can still safely breastfeed their children, but Hg contamination in breast-milk should be monitored during the lactation period.

  2. Dietary intake and human milk residues of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in two Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanxin; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wenxin; Lu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Xuejun; Wong, Minghung

    2009-07-01

    Residues of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs, including alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, and delta-HCH) in human milk of two populations from Beijing and Shenyang, China were studied. In addition to human milk samples from 76 women, 271 composite food samples covering major food categories were also collected for HCH analysis. The food consumption and social-demographic characteristics of the studied populations were investigated and dietary intakes of HCHs of the milk donors on an individual basis were calculated. The dependences of HCH concentration in the human milk on food consumption, dietary intake of HCHs, and demographic characteristics were studied. It was found that beta-HCH dominated the HCHs detected in the human milk. Although there were dramatic declines in HCHs in the human milk compared to historical data, the current levels (312 +/- 377 ng/g fat and 360 +/- 235 ng/g fat as the means and standard deviations for Beijing and Shenyang, respectively) were still much higher than those reported in other cities within China and around the world. It was revealed that the residual level of HCHs in the human milk was positively correlated (p Milk, oil, vegetables, and fruits contributed a large portion of HCHs intake in Beijing, while cereals, milk, vegetables, oil, and meat were the most important dietary intake sources of HCHs in Shenyang. Both daily dietary intake of HCHs (p body mass index (BMI, body weight divided by the squared height) (p milk HCHs. A nonlinear model was developed to predict the residues of HCHs in human milk using both dietary intake and BMI as independent variables. Potential risk of the HCH exposure of breastfed infants is discussed.

  3. Inadequacy of breast milk--a myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, R K

    1985-11-01

    With the exception of the very poor, lactating mothers from developing countries do not differ significantly from their counterparts in developed countries in terms of the quantity and quality of their breast milk. Healthy women from higher socioeconomic groups can safely exclusively breastfeed their infants for the 1st 4-6 months of life. There is also research evidence from India and other countries that milk from low-income mothers may contain enough energy to sustain infant growth for the same length of time. Poor mothers appear to compensate for the lower fat content of their milk by producing milk with high protein and lactose content. Among the poor, early supplementation of breast milk often results in an increased incidence of gastrointestinal infection and not in significant weight gain. This finding suggests that an effort should be made first to improve the lactation of the mother through nutritional supplementation and counseling before interventions are directed at the infant. Finally, given the role of better educated urban women as trendsetters, an effort should be made to counteract their widespread belief that their milk is insufficient for infant nutrition.

  4. Fiber intake modulates the association of alcohol intake with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Chajès, Veronique; de Batlle, Jordi; Biessy, Carine; Scoccianti, Chiara; Dossus, Laure; Christine Boutron, Marie; Bastide, Nadia; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H.; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ramón Quirós, J.; Chirlaque, María Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, María José; Duell, Eric J.; Amiano Etxezarreta, Pilar; Borgquist, Signe; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Maria Nilsson, Lena; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Murphy, Neil; Wark, Petra A.; Riboli, Elio

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol intake has been related to an increased risk of breast cancer (BC) while dietary fiber intake has been inversely associated to BC risk. A beneficial effect of fibers on ethanol carcinogenesis through their impact on estrogen levels is still controversial. We investigated the role of dietary

  5. Dairy consumption and calcium intake and risk of breast cancer in a prospective cohort: the Norwegian Women and Cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartåker, Anette; Thoresen, Magne; Engeset, Dagrun; Lund, Eiliv

    2010-11-01

    To study the association between consumption of dairy products and calcium intake and risk of breast cancer risk according to menopausal status. In a population-based prospective cohort study of 64,904 Norwegian women followed from 1996/1999 through 2006, we examined total dairy consumption and consumption of various dairy products in relation to pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. We also examined breast cancer in relation to calcium intake and to milk consumption during childhood and performed additional analyses corrected for measurement errors in the dietary data. In total, 218 premenopausal and 1,189 postmenopausal incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed during follow-up. Total dairy, adult, and childhood milk consumption was not associated with either pre- or postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Premenopausal women with the highest consumption of white cheese had half the risk of breast cancer compared to those with the lowest consumption (hazard rate ratio in the 4th quartile vs. the 1st quartile 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.29-0.87). Total calcium intake tended to be inversely related to premenopausal (hazard rate ratio in the 4th quartile vs. the 1st quartile 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.39-1.08) and postmenopausal breast cancer (hazard rate ratio in the 4th quartile vs. the 1st quartile 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.70-1.04). Correcting for measurement errors did not alter the results substantially, nor did exclusion of early cancer cases. Dairy consumption is not strongly related to breast cancer risk in this prospective study. A non-significant negative association between calcium intake and breast cancer risk was seen, particularly among premenopausal women.

  6. Exosomal microRNAs in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) breast milk: potential maternal regulators for the development of newborn cubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jideng; Wang, Chengdong; Long, Keren; Zhang, Hemin; Zhang, Jinwei; Jin, Long; Tang, Qianzi; Jiang, Anan; Wang, Xun; Tian, Shilin; Chen, Li; He, Dafang; Li, Desheng; Huang, Shan; Jiang, Zhi; Li, Mingzhou

    2017-06-14

    The physiological role of miRNAs is widely understood to include fine-tuning the post-transcriptional regulation of a wide array of biological processes. Extensive studies have indicated that exosomal miRNAs in the bodily fluids of various organisms can be transferred between living cells for the delivery of gene silencing signals. Here, we illustrated the expression characteristics of exosomal miRNAs in giant panda breast milk during distinct lactation periods and highlighted the enrichment of immune- and development-related endogenous miRNAs in colostral and mature giant panda milk. These miRNAs are stable, even under certain harsh conditions, via the protection of extracellular vesicles. These findings indicate that breast milk may facilitate the dietary intake of maternal miRNAs by infants for the regulation of postnatal development. We also detected exogenous plant miRNAs from the primary food source of the giant panda (bamboo) in the exosomes of giant panda breast milk that were associated with regulatory roles in basic metabolism and neuron development. This result suggested that dietary plant miRNAs are absorbed by host cells and subsequently secreted into bodily fluids as potential cross-kingdom regulators. In conclusion, exosomal miRNAs in giant panda breast milk may be crucial maternal regulators for the development of intrinsic 'slink' newborn cubs.

  7. Feeding of preterm infants and fortification of breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Mangili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The administration of the adequate amount of nutrients helps to improve a correct short-term linear growth and long-term neurocognitive development. To reduce the extra-uterine growth delay in very low birth weight infants (VLBW the best strategy of nutrition (parenteral or enteral should be established rapidly, since the first day of life. In preterm infants, nutrition can be administered parenterally and enterally. Prematurity is the most frequent indication for parenteral nutritional support due to intestinal functional immune deficiency, deficiency of digestive enzymatic systems and reduced nutritional reserve of these infants. In terms of enteral nutrition, breast milk is the first choice. In case of preterm and VLBW infants, fortifiers are used to overcome breast milk’s protein and mineral deficiencies. When breast milk is not available, specific infant formula is the alternative.

  8. Breast Milk Oligosaccharides: Structure-Function Relationships in the Neonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Mills, David A.; German, J. Bruce; Freeman, Samara L.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to providing complete postnatal nutrition, breast milk is a complex biofluid that delivers bioactive components for the growth and development of the intestinal and immune systems. Lactation is a unique opportunity to understand the role of diet in shaping the intestinal environment including the infant microbiome. Of considerable interest is the diversity and abundance of milk glycans that are energetically costly for the mammary gland to produce yet indigestible by infants. Milk glycans comprise free oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycopeptides, and glycolipids. Emerging technological advances are enabling more comprehensive, sensitive, and rapid analyses of these different classes of milk glycans. Understanding the impact of inter- and intraindividual glycan diversity on function is an important step toward interventions aimed at improving health and preventing disease. This review discusses the state of technology for glycan analysis and how specific structure-function knowledge is enhancing our understanding of early nutrition in the neonate. PMID:24850388

  9. Preweaning milk replacer intake and effects on long-term productivity of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberon, F; Raffrenato, E; Everett, R W; Van Amburgh, M E

    2012-02-01

    The preweaning management of dairy calves over the last 30 yr has focused on mortality, early weaning, and rumen development. Recent studies suggest that nutrient intake from milk or milk replacer during the preweaning period alters the phenotypic expression for milk yield. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between nutrient intake from milk replacer and pre- and postweaning growth rate with lactation performance in the Cornell dairy herd and a commercial dairy farm. The analysis was conducted using traditional 305-d first-lactation milk yield and residual lactation yield estimates from a test-day model (TDM) to analyze the lactation records over multiple lactations. The overall objective of the calf nutrition program in both herds was to double the birth weight of calves by weaning through increased milk replacer and starter intake. First-lactation 305-d milk yield and residuals from the TDM were generated from 1,244 and 624 heifers from the Cornell herd and from the commercial farm, respectively. The TDM was used to generate lactation residuals after accounting for the effects of test day, calving season, days in milk, days pregnant, lactation number, and year. In addition, lactation residuals were generated for cattle with multiple lactations to determine if the effect of preweaning nutrition could be associated with lifetime milk yield. Factors such as preweaning average daily gain (ADG), energy intake from milk replacer as a multiple of maintenance, and other growth outcomes and management variables were regressed on TDM milk yield data. In the Cornell herd, preweaning ADG, ranged from 0.10 to 1.58 kg, and was significantly correlated with first-lactation yield; for every 1 kg of preweaning ADG, heifers, on average, produced 850 kg more milk during their first lactation and 235 kg more milk for every Mcal of metabolizable energy intake above maintenance. In the commercial herd, for every 1 kg of preweaning ADG, milk yield increased

  10. Detection of aflatoxin M1 in human breast milk and raw cow's milk in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Yaşar; Başkaya, Ruhtan; Karsli, Seher; Yurdun, Türkan; Ozyaral, Oğuz

    2009-04-01

    This survey was undertaken to determine the extent of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in human breast milk and raw cow's milk in Istanbul, Turkey. Samples of human and raw cow's milk were collected randomly and analyzed for AFM1 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection in which the samples were cleaned up with immunoaffinity columns. In this study, AFM, was detected in 8 (13.1%) of 61 human breast milk samples examined (mean +/- SD level, 5.68 +/- 0.62 ng/liter; range, 5.10 to 6.90 ng/liter) and 20 (33.3%) of 60 raw cow's milk samples examined (range, 5.40 to 300.20 ng/liter). Five (8.3%) of the positive raw cow's milk samples had AFM1 levels (153.52 +/- 100.60 ng/liter; range, 61.20 to 300.20 ng/liter) that were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (0.05 ppb) stipulated by regulations in Turkey and some other countries.

  11. Association of low intake of milk and vitamin D during pregnancy with decreased birth weight

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mannion, Cynthia A; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Koski, Kristine G

    2006-01-01

    .... We hypothesized that maternal milk restriction during pregnancy, which can reduce intakes of protein, calcium, riboflavin and vitamin D, might represent a health risk by lowering infant birth weight...

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with breast milk donation in banks that receive human milk in primary health care units,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mota Xavier de Meneses

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence and to analyze factors associated with breast milk donation at primary health care units in order to increase the human milk bank reserves. Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A representative sample of 695 mothers of children younger than 1 year attended to at the nine primary health care units with human milk donation services were interviewed. A hierarchical approach was used to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios (APR by Poisson regression with robust variance. The final model included the variables associated with breast milk donation (p ≤ 0.05. Results: 7.3% of the mothers had donated breast milk. Having been encouraged to donate breast milk by healthcare professionals, relatives, or friends (APR = 7.06, receiving information on breast milk expression by the primary health care unit (APR = 3.65, and receiving help from the unit professionals to breastfeed (APR = 2.24 were associated with a higher prevalence of donation. Admission of the newborn to the neonatal unit was associated with a lower prevalence of donation (APR = 0.09. Conclusions: Encouragement to breast milk donation, and information and help provided by primary health care unit professionals to breastfeeding were shown to be important for the practice of human milk donation.

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with breast milk donation in banks that receive human milk in primary health care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Tatiana Mota Xavier de; Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto de; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira

    To estimate the prevalence and to analyze factors associated with breast milk donation at primary health care units in order to increase the human milk bank reserves. Cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A representative sample of 695 mothers of children younger than 1 year attended to at the nine primary health care units with human milk donation services were interviewed. A hierarchical approach was used to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) by Poisson regression with robust variance. The final model included the variables associated with breast milk donation (p≤0.05). 7.3% of the mothers had donated breast milk. Having been encouraged to donate breast milk by healthcare professionals, relatives, or friends (APR=7.06), receiving information on breast milk expression by the primary health care unit (APR=3.65), and receiving help from the unit professionals to breastfeed (APR=2.24) were associated with a higher prevalence of donation. Admission of the newborn to the neonatal unit was associated with a lower prevalence of donation (APR=0.09). Encouragement to breast milk donation, and information and help provided by primary health care unit professionals to breastfeeding were shown to be important for the practice of human milk donation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  14. Relationship between milk intake and mucus production in adult volunteers challenged with rhinovirus-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, C B; Graham, N M; Mylvaganam, A; Douglas, R M

    1990-02-01

    In the first of three studies investigating the widely held belief that "milk produces mucus," 60 volunteers were challenged with rhinovirus-2, and daily respiratory symptoms and milk and dairy product intake records were kept over a 10-day period. Nasal secretion weights were obtained by weighing tissues collected and sealed immediately after use. Information was obtained on 51 subjects, yielding 510 person-days of observation. Subjects consumed zero to 11 glasses of milk per day (mean, 2.7; SE, 0.08), and secretion weights ranged from zero to 30.4 g/day (mean, 1.1; SE, 0.1). In response to an initial questionnaire, 27.5% reported the practice of reducing intake of milk or dairy products with a cold or named milk or dairy products as bad for colds. Of the latter group, 80% stated the reason as "producing more mucus/phlegm." Milk and dairy product intake was not associated with an increase in upper or lower respiratory tract symptoms of congestion or nasal secretion weight. A trend was observed for cough, when present, to be loose with increasing milk and dairy product intake; however, this effect was not statistically significant at the 5% level. Those who believe "milk makes mucus" or reduce milk intake with colds reported significantly more cough and congestion symptoms, but they did not produce higher levels of nasal secretions. We conclude that no statistically significant overall association can be detected between milk and dairy product intake and symptoms of mucus production in healthy adults, either asymptomatic or symptomatic, with rhinovirus infection.

  15. Breast Milk Stem Cells: Current Science and Implications for Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Carrie-Ellen; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Jensen, Todd; Matson, Adam; Finck, Christine

    2016-12-01

    The benefits of breast milk are well described, yet the mechanistic details related to how breast milk protects against acute and chronic diseases and optimizes neurodevelopment remain largely unknown. Recently, breast milk was found to contain stem cells that are thought to be involved in infant development. The purpose of this review was to synthesize all available research involving the characterization of breast milk stem cells to provide a basis of understanding for what is known and what still needs further exploration. The literature search was conducted between August and October 2015 using the CINAHL, PubMed, and reference list searching. Nine studies addressed characterization of human breast milk stem cells. Five research teams in 4 countries have published studies on breast milk stem cells. Current research has focused on characterizing stem cells in full-term breast milk. The amount, phenotype, and expression of breast milk stem cells are known to vary between mothers, and they have been able to differentiate into all 3 germ layers (expressing pluripotent characteristics). There is much to learn about breast milk stem cells. Given the potential impact of this research, healthcare professionals should be aware of their presence and ongoing research to determine benefits for infants. Extensive research is needed to further characterize stem cells in breast milk (full-term and preterm), throughout the stages of lactation, and most importantly, their role in the health of infants, and potential for use in regenerative therapies.

  16. Effects of Recombinant Human Prolactin on Breast Milk Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powe, Camille E.; Puopolo, Karen M.; Newburg, David S.; Lönnerdal, Bo; Chen, Ceng; Allen, Maureen; Merewood, Anne; Worden, Susan

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of recombinant human prolactin (r-hPRL) on the nutritional and immunologic composition of breast milk. METHODS: We conducted 2 trials of r-hPRL treatment. In the first study, mothers with documented prolactin deficiency were given r-hPRL every 12 hours in a 28-day, open-label trial. In the second study, mothers with lactation insufficiency that developed while they were pumping breast milk for their preterm infants were given r-hPRL daily in a 7-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Breast milk characteristics were compared before and during 7 days of treatment. RESULTS: Among subjects treated with r-hPRL (N = 11), milk volumes (73 ± 36 to 146 ± 54 mL/day; P lactogenesis. r-hPRL also increased antimicrobially active oligosaccharide concentrations. These effects were achieved for women with both prolactin deficiency and lactation insufficiency. PMID:21262884

  17. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk from Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790 8577, Ehime Prefecture (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp; Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790 8577, Ehime Prefecture (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk. - Contamination aspects of POPs in human breast milk from Asian countries were characterized.

  18. Unnatural constituents of breast milk--medication, lifestyle, pollutants, viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, J

    1997-10-29

    It is well recognised that although nutritionally breast milk is the optimal food for babies, there are a number of caveats to this, based on the consequences of the modern lifestyle. Here we have considered ways in which the young breast fed child may be exposed to various environmental and medical contaminants which might cause adverse reactions and to which he/she may not otherwise be exposed. These substances are divided into four different areas: (i) medication taken by the mother; (ii) exposure to possibly addictive drugs taken by the mother; (iii) exposure to pollutants mainly from the maternal diet or as the result of her occupation; (iv) viruses. The infant who consumes breast milk may be exposed to a variety of chemicals which may have untoward effects on his/her immediate health and temperament and future development. Potentially hazardous substances ingested by the breast fed infant include medicaments (or their metabolites) that may have been ingested by the mother, potentially addictive common neurotoxicants such as nicotine, caffeine and alcohol, illicit drugs such as heroin and cocaine, and pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). There is a paucity of good information on which to base reliable estimates of the harm that this may cause the child. Although breast feeding is known to protect against bacterial infection, a number of viruses are excreted in the breast milk which may infect the child asymptomatically (e.g. cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus) and which are not known to be harmful, as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) excretion which, in contrast, does appear to increase the risk of the child becoming infected. Balancing the risk of infection to the child born to an HIV infected mother, results in the proposition that known HIV positive women in developing countries (where the risk of gastrointestinal infection is high) should continue to breast feed but those in the developed world

  19. Correlation between Fluoride in Drinking Water and Its Levels in Breast Milk in Golestan Province, Northern Iran.

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Faraji; Ali Akbar Mohammadi; Behrouz Akbari-Adergani; Naimeh Vakili Saatloo; Gholamreza Lashkarboloki; Amir Hossein Mahvi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fluoride is an essential element for human health. However, excess fluoride in drinking water may cause dental and/or skeletal fluorosis. Drinking water is the main route of fluoride intake. The aim of the present study was to measure fluoride levels in human breast milk collected from two regions of Golestan Province, northern Iran with different amount of fluoride concentration of drinking water in Bandar Gaz and Nokande cities and to correlate it with fluoride concentrations in...

  20. Human milk intake in preterm infants and neurodevelopment at 18 months corrected age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi-Polishook, Talia; Collins, Carmel T; Sullivan, Thomas R; Simmer, Karen; Gillman, Matthew W; Gibson, Robert A; Makrides, Maria; Belfort, Mandy B

    2016-10-01

    The effect of human milk intake on neurodevelopment in preterm infants is uncertain. We analyzed data from 611 participants in the DHA for Improvement of Neurodevelopmental Outcomes study, enrolled at ≤33 wk gestation from five Australian perinatal centers. The main exposures were (i) average daily human milk intake during the neonatal hospitalization and (ii) total duration of human milk intake before and after discharge. Outcomes were Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd Edition Mental (MDI), and Psychomotor (PDI) Development Indexes. Adjusting for confounders in linear regression, human milk intake was not associated with higher MDI (0.2 points per 25 ml/kg/d; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.6, 1.0) or PDI (-0.3 points; 95% CI: -1.1, 0.4). Longer duration of human milk intake was also not associated with MDI (0.1 points per month; 95% CI: -0.2, 0.3) or PDI (-0.2 points per month; 95% CI: -0.5, 0.01) scores, except in infants born 29-33 wk gestation (n = 364, MDI 0.3 points higher per additional month, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.6). We found no associations of human milk intake during the neonatal hospitalization with neurodevelopment at 18 mo corrected age.

  1. Milk, yogurt, and lactose intake and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Tang, Wenru; Sang, Lei; Dai, Xiaoli; Wei, Danping; Luo, Ying; Zhang, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Inconclusive information for the role of dairy food intake in relation to ovarian cancer risk may associate with adverse effects of lactose, which has been hypothesized to increase gonadotropin levels in animal models and ecological studies. Up to now, several studies have indicated the association between dairy food intake and risk of ovarian cancer, but no identified founding was reported. We performed this meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of the association between dairy food intake and ovarian cancer risk. Using the data from 19 available publications, we examined dairy food including low-fat/skim milk, whole milk, yogurt and lactose in relation to risk of ovarian cancer by meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the association. We observed a slightly increased risk of ovarian cancer with high intake of whole milk, but has no statistical significance (OR = 1.228, 95% CI = 1.031-1.464, P = 0.022). The results of other milk models did not provide evidence of positive association with ovarian cancer risk. This meta-analysis suggests that low-fat/skim milk, whole milk, yogurt and lactose intake has no associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer. Further studies with larger participants worldwide are needed to validate the association between dairy food intake and ovarian cancer.

  2. QSAR analysis of drug excretion into human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskin, M S; Lien, E J

    1985-09-01

    Breast feeding has increased by approximately 25% in the United States during the past decade and this trend appears to be continuing. The number of drugs available to lactating women is also growing at a rapid pace. The excretion of drugs into breast-milk presents a potential danger to infants. In spite of this, little is known about the excretion of drugs into breast-milk. The ability to predict which drugs are potential hazards would be very useful in the clinical setting. This study quantitatively correlates the human milk to plasma concentration ratio of various basic and acidic drugs (log M/P) with the square root of the molecular weight, the partition coefficient (log P) and the degree of dissociation (log U/D). For basic drugs there is a negative-dependence on both log P and log U/D. High lipophilicity favours protein binding and reduces the amount of drug available for diffusion into milk. Therefore, as log P increases, the log M/P decreases. The negative-dependence on log U/D indicates that the higher the degree of dissociation of the base in plasma, the greater the log M/P will be. This fits well with the concept of ion-trapping. A strong base is more likely to be transferred and then trapped in milk which has a lower pH than plasma. For acidic drugs there is a negative-dependence on both square root (MW) and log P. The negative-dependence on square root (MW) suggests that large molecules are less likely to be able to diffuse into the milk. A negative-dependence on log P appears to hold true for bases and acids. Log M/P decreases as log P increases. This is probably due to increased protein binding by lipophilic drugs through non-specific hydrophobic interaction with plasma protein.

  3. Inclusion of crude glycerin in the diet of dairy cows on intake, milk yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidiane Reis Pimentel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of crude glycerin (CG, corrected for protein with a byproduct of processing corn, mazoferm, on intake, production and composition of milk from Holstein cows. A total of 12 Holstein cows distributed in three Latin squares 4x4, with average production of 15 kg. The animals were fed four diets, protein and isocaloric, referring to four levels of replacement of corn grain by mixing PG-80, 0, 33.3, 66.6 and 100.0% based on the total dry matter, which corresponded respectively to 0, 40, 80 and 120 g of CG/kg dry matter. The cows were milked mechanically twice a day, making up the record of milk production of each experimental period and collected a sample of milk for evaluation of lactose, fat, protein, total solids and somatic cell count (SCC. Data were subjected to analysis of variance using the MIXED procedure of the Statistical Analysis System. The dry matter intake, the average milk production and milk production adjusted to 35 g fat / kg milk, were not affected (P>0.05 by the inclusion of GP-80 mixture in the diet. The nutritional composition of milk (fat, protein, lactose and total solids was not affected by treatments (P>0.05. The use of crude glycerin in diets to meet protein and energy requirements of animals does not compromise the dry matter intake, production, composition and milk quality for cows of low production.

  4. Microwave heating of infant formula and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemethy, M; Clore, E R

    1990-01-01

    Heating infant formula and breast milk in a microwave oven has become a common practice in many households. A review of the literature is presented to ascertain if there is evidence to support the safety of this practice, as well as to determine if microwaving affects the nutritional content of the heated milk. The results of a local community's survey are presented, which assesses parental use of microwave ovens in the heating of infant formula and parents' knowledge of the potential hazards of this practice.

  5. Relationship between milk and calcium intake and lipid metabolism in female patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JaeHee; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Ki Nam; Choi, Young-Ju; Chang, Namsoo; Huh, Kap-Bum

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the association between intake of milk and dairy products as well as calcium and biomarkers related to lipid metabolism in Korean female patients with type 2 diabetes. A cohort of 509 female subjects (mean age: 59.0 years; range: 35-80 years) was recruited from Huh's Diabetes Clinic in Seoul between 2005 and 2010. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of their daily intake of milk and dairy products [200 g/day (>200-1201 g/day)] and then further divided into two groups according to their daily calcium intake: below and above the estimated average requirement (EAR). After adjustment for age, body mass index, energy intake, exercise, use of nutritional supplements and cholesterol medication, the level of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly higher in subjects with milk and dairy products consumption of >200 g/day than in subjects in the other two groups. Those subjects with a milk and dairy products consumption of >200 g/day had significantly higher levels of apolipoprotein A-1 and a significantly lower atherogenic index than the other two groups. Patients with a calcium intake above the EAR exhibited a significantly greater serum HDL-cholesterol level than those with a calcium intake below the EAR. Milk and dairy products, good sources of calcium, play a positive role in lipid profiles in female patients with type 2 diabetes.

  6. Leukocyte Populations in Human Preterm and Term Breast Milk Identified by Multicolour Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trend, Stephanie; de Jong, Emma; Lloyd, Megan L; Kok, Chooi Heen; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A; Simmer, Karen; Kakulas, Foteini; Strunk, Tobias; Currie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Extremely preterm infants are highly susceptible to bacterial infections but breast milk provides some protection. It is unknown if leukocyte numbers and subsets in milk differ between term and preterm breast milk. This study serially characterised leukocyte populations in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants using multicolour flow cytometry methods for extended differential leukocyte counts in blood. Sixty mothers of extremely preterm (mature milk (d26-30) samples were collected, cells isolated, and leukocyte subsets analysed using flow cytometry. The major CD45+ leukocyte populations circulating in blood were also detectable in breast milk but at different frequencies. Progression of lactation was associated with decreasing CD45+ leukocyte concentration, as well as increases in the relative frequencies of neutrophils and immature granulocytes, and decreases in the relative frequencies of eosinophils, myeloid and B cell precursors, and CD16- monocytes. No differences were observed between preterm and term breast milk in leukocyte concentration, though minor differences between preterm groups in some leukocyte frequencies were observed. Flow cytometry is a useful tool to identify and quantify leukocyte subsets in breast milk. The stage of lactation is associated with major changes in milk leukocyte composition in this population. Fresh preterm breast milk is not deficient in leukocytes, but shorter gestation may be associated with minor differences in leukocyte subset frequencies in preterm compared to term breast milk.

  7. [Study on the lowest acceptable intake of cow's milk for healthy adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Rong; Hung, Cheng-yu; Zeng, Guo; Vonk, Roel J; Li, Ling; Ye, Sheng

    2006-11-01

    [corrected] To find out the lowest acceptable intake of Cow's Milk in subjects with lactose intolerance(LI) and then observe intolerance symptoms in 280 healthy adults after they drank the milk. Eight LI subjects with watery diarrhea who were selected from 38 subjects by hydrogen breath test(HBT) were divided into group A, group B to go on drinking cow's milk test. The subjects in group A ingested 25g milk powder, the subjects in group B ingested 38.2g milk powder( contain 6.25g, 9.55g lactose respectively) according to literature and single factor optimization method (0.618 golden mean) to analyze their hydrogen excretion(ppm), symptom score and stool lactose. The 100 younger, the 80 middle-age and the 100 elder subjects were selected to observe symptoms after they ingested 25g milk powder. hydrogen excretion(ppm) and symptom score in the high dose group (group B)are a little higher than those in low dose group(group A). No case with diarrhea occurred in these two group but mild symptoms. Most of healthy adults (80.3%) have no intolerance symptoms after they drank the milk. The study demonstrates that most of adults, even with LI, can tolerance 25g cow's milk powder (6.25g lactose). It is suggested 20g cow's milk powder (5g lactose, make 160 ml of milk solution) is the lowest acceptable intake of healthy adults in China.

  8. Maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk lead: lactational transfer and contribution to infant exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ettinger, Adrienne S; Roy, Ananya; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Smith, Donald; Lupoli, Nicola; Mercado-García, Adriana; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    .... We explored the dose-response relationships between maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk to better understand lactational transfer of lead from blood and plasma into milk and, ultimately, to the breastfeeding infant...

  9. Chronic food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by cow's milk proteins passed through breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli Sopo, Stefano; Monaco, Serena; Greco, Monica; Scala, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 cases of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) caused by cow's milk (CM) passed through breast milk. The onset in both cases was characterized by chronic symptoms (regurgitation, colic, diarrhea, failure to thrive); in one patient, two acute episodes due to the direct consumption of CM formula by the infant were also reported. The diagnosis of FPIES through breast milk can be easily overlooked, especially in milder cases. We also discuss some important issues concerning the general management of the disease. In conclusion, (1) the diagnosis of chronic FPIES should be taken into account even in exclusively breast-fed infants who present suggestive symptoms such as persistent regurgitation, small amounts of vomiting, lethargy, failure to thrive, dehydration, diarrhea (sometimes bloody) and abdominal distention. A 2-week maternal elimination diet should be considered even in apparently mild cases. (2) CM seems to be the most frequently reported culprit food. (3) In those cases in which acute FPIES is elicited by the direct consumption of the culprit food in breast-fed infants, maternal diet may be unrestricted. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: Intake, milk production and nitrogen utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: perennial ryegrass, dairy cows, intake, digestibility milk production, nitrogen utilisation.In the Netherlands, grass is one of the main roughages in the diet of high productive dairy cows. Grass is associated with two main problems: the limited dry matter intake (DMI)

  11. Estimation of milk, dairy products and calcium intake in nutrition of the celiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Panjkota Krbavčić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. People who have celiac disease cannot tolerate a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley and possibly oats. The smallest amount of gluten in food damages the small intestine of these patients. In Croatia there is no data about nutrition and dietary habits of people with celiac disease. In celiac disease there is one and only cure: a gluten-free diet. Milk and dairy products are major source of calcium, and this population, because of malapsorptive syndrome is especially sensitive and predisposed for osteoporosis and osteopenya. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to establish milk, dairy products and calcium intake in celiac patients nutrition. Milk and dairy products was determined by using 3-day-dietary record (3DD combined with food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in 15 celiac patients. Energy share of milk and dairy products were 11,82 % kJ, twice less than recommendation. Average daily intake of calcium was also below the recommendation (62,64 % DRI, and 67 % of examinees did not achieve neither 2/3 of daily recommendation intake (DRI for calcium. From milk and dairy group examinees use milk and pudding the most, yoghurt and fruit yoghurt less. It is necessary to increase intake of calcium from milk and dairy products group because they are the best source of this nutrient.

  12. Breast milk fatty acids and allergic disease in preschool children : The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, AH; van Houwelingen, AC; Kerkhof, M; Tabak, C; De Jongste, JC; Gerritsen, J; Boshuizen, H; Brunekreef, B; Smit, HA

    Background: Better understanding of the association between early life lipid intakes and the development of allergic diseases is needed. Objective: We prospectively studied breast milk content of n-6, n-3, and trans fatty acids in relation to allergic symptoms at the ages of 1 and 4 years. Methods:

  13. Breast milk fatty acids and allergic disease in preschool children: the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, Alet H; Houwelingen, Adriana C van; Kerkhof, Marjan; Tabak, Cora; Jongste, Johan C de; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriëtte A

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Better understanding of the association between early life lipid intakes and the development of allergic diseases is needed. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively studied breast milk content of n-6, n-3, and trans fatty acids in relation to allergic symptoms at the ages of 1 and 4 years. METHODS:

  14. Comparison of the compositions of the stool microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula, cow milk-based formula, or breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Gerald W; Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Gowri Pathmanathan, Siva; Zhou, Shao J; Makrides, Maria; Gibson, Robert A; Sullivan, Thomas; Prosser, Colin G; Lowry, Dianne; Hodgkinson, Alison J

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the compositions of the fecal microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula to those of infants fed cow milk formula or breast milk as the gold standard. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences was used in the analysis of the microbiotas in stool samples collected from 90 Australian babies (30 in each group) at 2 months of age. Beta-diversity analysis of total microbiota sequences and Lachnospiraceae sequences revealed that they were more similar in breast milk/goat milk comparisons than in breast milk/cow milk comparisons. The Lachnospiraceae were mostly restricted to a single species (Ruminococcus gnavus) in breast milk-fed and goat milk-fed babies compared to a more diverse collection in cow milk-fed babies. Bifidobacteriaceae were abundant in the microbiotas of infants in all three groups. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most commonly detected bifidobacterial species. A semiquantitative PCR method was devised to differentiate between B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis and was used to test stool samples. B. longum subsp. infantis was seldom present in stools, even of breast milk-fed babies. The presence of B. bifidum in the stools of breast milk-fed infants at abundances greater than 10% of the total microbiota was associated with the highest total abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae. When Bifidobacteriaceae abundance was low, Lachnospiraceae abundances were greater. New information about the composition of the fecal microbiota when goat milk formula is used in infant nutrition was thus obtained.

  15. Fat content of expressed breast milk: a case for quality control.

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, S A; Hull, D

    1981-01-01

    Expressed breast milk used to feed preterm infants is precious and so, despite heterogeneity of composition, all available milk is used. A study of 274 samples of expressed breast milk supplied by preterm mothers and National Childbirth Trust donors showed pronounced variation in fat content as measured by the "creamatocrit" method. This was not due to differences between term and preterm mothers or between transitional and mature milk. The composition was affected by diurnal variation and me...

  16. The Effect of Fenugreek Herbal Tea and Palm Dates on Breast Milk Production and Infant Weight.

    OpenAIRE

    El Sakka, Abeer; Salama, Mostafa; Salama, Kareem

    2014-01-01

    Background: Artificial or natural substances called galactagogues may assist the production of breast milk. Objective: To evaluate the effect of consumption of fenugreek herbal tea or palm dates on breast milk production. Methods: Seventy-five puerperal women were randomly assigned for two weeks to one of three groups: herbal tea with fenugreek (n = 25), palm dates (n = 25) or no galactagogue as control (n = 25).  Maternal milk volume was measured through manual pumping of breasts on the thir...

  17. Influence of maternal protein intake on nitrogen fractions of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniglia, Concetta; Carratù, Brunella; Chiarotti, Flavia; Giammarioli, Stefania; Sanzini, Elisabetta

    2003-11-01

    Studies relating maternal diet to milk composition in humans have led to contradictory conclusions with regard to protein intake. The purpose of this paper was to examine if differences of protein intake in a group of lactating women can impact the protein and non-protein nitrogen fraction of their milk. Healthy lactating women(117) were recruited in Northern, Central, and Southern Italy. Their anthropometric measurements were obtained one month after delivery, while dietary evaluation was based on two consecutive 24-hour recalls. Infants' growth parameters were measured at birth and at one month. Milk collected at one month was analyzed for content of total nitrogen, protein nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, and free amino acid profile. Maternal energy intakes were below the recommended values, while protein intakes were higher, with significant differences between geographical areas. There were no differences in the nitrogenous components of the milk examined with the exception of the non-protein nitrogen fraction and serine. Despite the different maternal intakes, no correlations were found between the mothers' parameters and milk components. This study shows that when protein requirements are met and there are no remarkable differences between intakes and requirements, there are no repercussions in nitrogen fractions.

  18. Branched chain fatty acid content of United States retail cow's milk and implications for dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran-Ressler, R R; Sim, D; O'Donnell-Megaro, A M; Bauman, D E; Barbano, D M; Brenna, J T

    2011-07-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) have recently been shown to be a major component of the normal human newborn gastrointestinal tract and have long been known to be a component of human milk. Ruminant food products are major sources of fat in the American diet, but there are no studies of milkfat BCFA content in retail milk. We report here the profile and concentrations of BCFA in a representative sampling of retail milk in the 48 contiguous United States (US), and their estimated intake in the American diet. Conventionally produced whole fluid milk samples were obtained from 56 processing plants across the contiguous 48 states. Retail milk samples contain exclusively iso- and anteiso-BCFA with 14-18 carbons. BCFA were 2.05 ± 0.14%, w/w of milkfat fatty acids (mean ± SD), and anteiso-BCFA comprised more than half this total. Based on these data and USDA food availability data, the average per capita BCFA intake of Americans is estimated to be about 220 mg/d from dairy; if current dietary recommendations were followed, BCFA intake would be about 400 mg/d. Adding intake from beef consumption, these estimates rise to approximately 400 and 575 mg/d, respectively. These results indicate that BCFA intake is a substantial fraction of daily fat intake, in amounts exceeding those of many bioactive fatty acids.

  19. Milk intake and carbon dioxide production of piglets determined with the doubly labelled water technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, P K; Kristensen, N B; Jørgensen, H; Labouriau, R; Jakobsen, K

    2007-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to study different methodological aspects of quantifying CO2 production and milk intake of suckling piglets using the doubly labelled water (DLW) technique. In total, 37 piglets were enriched intraperitoneally with DLW to study equilibration time of 18O (n = 3), to validate the estimation of milk intake and CO2 production (n = 10) of piglets fed milk replacer and to quantify milk intake and CO2 production of piglets nursed ordinarily by sows (n = 24). Enrichment of 18O in expired air was analysed without any sample preparation, whereas enrichment of 18O in serum was analysed after a minimum step of sample preparation, which included pipetting of the sample, blowing gaseous CO2 into the vial for 3 s and equilibrating for 24 h. The 18O enrichment of CO2 in expired air was constant within 30-40 min of intraperitoneal injection, suggesting that DLW was equilibrated within the body water by that time. For piglets fed milk replacer, the estimation of the daily CO2 production by the DLW method (64.0 ± 2.7 l CO2/day) was in agreement with that obtained by respiration trials (64.7 ± 1.8 l CO2/day). Furthermore, the intake of milk replacer (891 ± 63 g/day) determined by deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution was similar in magnitude to that found by weighing the milk disappearance (910 ± 58 g/day). The milk intake of piglets fed milk replacer was comparable with that of sucking piglets, but sucking piglets had a remarkably higher CO2 production than artificially reared piglets, which likely was caused by a higher intake of milk solids and a higher activity level. For sucking piglets, the daily CO2 production increased curvilinearly with increasing live weight (LW) in kg: piglet CO2 production (l/day) = 25.75 × LW - 1.01 × LW2. In conclusion, 18O equilibrates fast within the body water pool when administered intraperitoneally, and the accuracy of assessing milk intake and rate of CO2 production using the DLW technique is promising. Assessment of

  20. A case report of pink breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jenny; Crete, Joan; Neumeier, Robin

    2014-01-01

    A woman presented for her postpartum examination alarmed about pink stains on her breast pads and on her infant's burp pads and diapers. The stains were also found in her breast pump and the infant's bottles. Out of concern, she stopped breastfeeding. The diagnosis was colonization of mother and infant with Serratia marcescens. They were managed conservatively without antibiotics. The mother was guided to restart breastfeeding. The infant resumed nursing and continued to thrive. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  1. Leukocyte Populations in Human Preterm and Term Breast Milk Identified by Multicolour Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trend, Stephanie; de Jong, Emma; Lloyd, Megan L.; Kok, Chooi Heen; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A.; Simmer, Karen; Kakulas, Foteini; Strunk, Tobias; Currie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Extremely preterm infants are highly susceptible to bacterial infections but breast milk provides some protection. It is unknown if leukocyte numbers and subsets in milk differ between term and preterm breast milk. This study serially characterised leukocyte populations in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants using multicolour flow cytometry methods for extended differential leukocyte counts in blood. Methods Sixty mothers of extremely preterm (leukocyte subsets analysed using flow cytometry. Results The major CD45+ leukocyte populations circulating in blood were also detectable in breast milk but at different frequencies. Progression of lactation was associated with decreasing CD45+ leukocyte concentration, as well as increases in the relative frequencies of neutrophils and immature granulocytes, and decreases in the relative frequencies of eosinophils, myeloid and B cell precursors, and CD16- monocytes. No differences were observed between preterm and term breast milk in leukocyte concentration, though minor differences between preterm groups in some leukocyte frequencies were observed. Conclusions Flow cytometry is a useful tool to identify and quantify leukocyte subsets in breast milk. The stage of lactation is associated with major changes in milk leukocyte composition in this population. Fresh preterm breast milk is not deficient in leukocytes, but shorter gestation may be associated with minor differences in leukocyte subset frequencies in preterm compared to term breast milk. PMID:26288195

  2. Breast milk lead and cadmium levels from suburban areas of Ankara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oruen, Emel, E-mail: emelorun@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, Fatih University Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Yalcin, S. Songuel, E-mail: siyalcin@hacettepe.edu.tr [Social Pediatric Unit, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Aykut, Osman; Orhan, Guennur; Morgil, Goeksel Koc [Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara (Turkey); Yurdakoek, Kadriye [Social Pediatric Unit, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Uzun, Ramazan [Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the breast milk at 2 months postpartum, (2) to investigate the relationship between Pb and Cd levels in breast milk and some sociodemographic parameters and (3) to detect whether these levels have any influence on the infant's physical status or on postpartum depression in the mothers. Pb and Cd levels in breast milk were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The median breast milk concentrations of Pb and Cd were 20.59 and 0.67 {mu}g/l, respectively. In 125 (87%) of 144 samples, Pb levels were higher than the limit in breast milk reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) (> 5 {mu}g/l). Breast milk Cd levels were > 1 {mu}g/l in 52 (36%) mothers. The mothers with a history of anemia at any time had higher breast milk Pb levels than those without a history of anemia (21.1 versus 17.9 {mu}g/l; p = 0.0052). The median breast milk Cd levels in active and passive smokers during pregnancy were significantly higher than in non-smokers (0.89, 0.00 {mu}g/l, respectively; p = 0.023). The breast milk Cd levels of the mothers who did not use iron and vitamin supplements for 2 months postpartum were found to be higher than in those who did use the supplements (iron: 0.73, 0.00 {mu}g/l, p = 0.023; vitamin: 0.78, 0.00 {mu}g/l, p = 0.004, respectively). Breast milk Cd levels at the 2nd month were correlated negatively with the z scores of head circumference and the weight for age at birth (r = - 0.257, p = 0.041 and r = - 0.251, p = 0.026, respectively) in girls. We found no correlation between the breast milk Pb and Cd levels and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale scores. Breast milk monitoring programs should be conducted that have tested considerable numbers of women over time in view of the high levels of Pb in breast milk in this study. - Research highlights: {yields} Breast milk Pb levels were higher than the advised safety limits. {yields

  3. The role of critical incident monitoring in detection and prevention of human breast milk confusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilhofer, Ulrike B; Frey, Bernhard; Zandee, Jeanette; Bernet, Vera

    2009-10-01

    Feeding a mother's expressed breast milk to the wrong infant is a well-known misidentification error in neonatal intermediate care units (NICU) with potential harmful consequences for the neonate. In this study, we aimed to analyze the role of critical incident monitoring on detection and prevention of human breast milk confusions. The critical incident monitoring made us aware of this misidentification error on our NICU. Despite the implementation of system changes to make breast milk application clearer and safer, we failed to reduce the incidence of breast milk confusions.

  4. Breastfeeding or breast milk for procedural pain in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Prakeshkumar S; Herbozo, Cecilia; Aliwalas, Lucia Liz; Shah, Vibhuti S

    2012-12-12

    Physiological changes brought about by pain may contribute to the development of morbidity in neonates. Clinical studies have shown reduction in changes in physiological parameters and pain score measurements following pre-emptive analgesic administration in situations where the neonate is experiencing pain or stress. Non-pharmacological measures (such as holding, swaddling and breastfeeding) and pharmacological measures (such as acetaminophen, sucrose and opioids) have been used for this purpose. The primary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of breastfeeding or supplemental breast milk in reducing procedural pain in neonates. The secondary objective was to conduct subgroup analyses based on the type of control intervention, gestational age and the amount of supplemental breast milk given. We performed a literature search using the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 10), MEDLINE (1966 to February 2011), EMBASE (1980 to February 2011), CINAHL (1982 to February 2011), abstracts from the annual meetings of the Society for Pediatric Research (1994 to 2011), and major paediatric pain conference proceedings. We did not apply any language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs of breastfeeding or supplemental breast milk versus no treatment/other measures in neonates were eligible for inclusion in this review. The study must have reported on either physiologic markers of pain or validated pain scores. We assessed the methodological quality of the trials using the information provided in the studies and by personal communication with the authors. We extracted data on relevant outcomes, estimated the effect size and reported this as a risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD) and weighted mean difference (MD) as appropriate. Of twenty eligible studies, ten evaluated breastfeeding and ten evaluated supplemental breast milk. Sixteen studies analysed used heel lance and four used

  5. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

  6. Estimation of 24-hour polyamine intake from mature human milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorhout, B; vanBeusekom, CM; Huisman, M; Kingma, AW; deHoog, E; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    1996-01-01

    It has been suggested that milk polyamines stimulate GI tract proliferation and maturation in newborns. We determined human milk polyamine concentrations and estimated 24-h outputs on days 16 +/- 4 (n = 98), 44 +/- 3 (n = 97) and 91 +/- 6 (n = 25) after delivery. Median concentrations in micromolars

  7. Practices, predictors and consequences of expressed breast-milk feeding in healthy full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dorothy Li; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Lok, Kris Yuet Wan; Wong, Janet Yuen Ha; Tarrant, Marie

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and predictors of expressed breast-milk feeding in healthy full-term infants and its association with total duration of breast-milk feeding. Prospective cohort study. In-patient postnatal units of four public hospitals in Hong Kong. A total of 2450 mother-infant pairs were recruited in 2006-2007 and 2011-2012 and followed up prospectively for 12 months or until breast-milk feeding had stopped. Across the first 6 months postpartum, the rate of exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding ranged from 5·1 to 8·0 % in 2006-2007 and from 18·0 to 19·8 % in 2011-2012. Factors associated with higher rate of exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding included supplementation with infant formula, lack of previous breast-milk feeding experience, having a planned caesarean section delivery and returning to work postpartum. Exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding was associated with an increased risk of early breast-milk feeding cessation when compared with direct feeding at the breast. The hazard ratio (95 % CI) ranged from 1·25 (1·04, 1·51) to 1·91 (1·34, 2·73) across the first 6 months. Mothers of healthy term infants should be encouraged and supported to feed directly at the breast. Exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding should be recommended only when medically necessary and not as a substitute for feeding directly at the breast. Further research is required to explore mothers' reasons for exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding and to identify the health outcomes associated with this practice.

  8. Multicomponent fortification of human breast milk for preterm infants following hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, G; Fahey, T; McGuire, W

    2007-10-17

    Preterm infants are usually growth restricted at hospital discharge. Feeding preterm infants after hospital discharge with nutrient-fortified breast milk (rather than unfortified breast milk) may facilitate more rapid catch-up growth and improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. To determine the effect of feeding with multicomponent fortified human breast milk versus unfortified breast milk on growth and development on preterm or low birth weight infants following hospital discharge. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 - May 2007), EMBASE (1980 - May 2007), CINAHL (1982 - May 2007), conference proceedings, and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with multicomponent fortified breast milk compared with unfortified human breast milk. The standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. No eligible trials were identified. There are no data from randomised controlled trials to determine whether feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with multicomponent-fortified breast milk compared with unfortified breast milk affects growth and development. Given the potential for nutrient fortification to affect growth and development, this intervention may merit further assessment. Since fortifying breast milk for infants fed directly from the breast is logistically difficult (and has the potential to interfere with breast-feeding), it would be important to determine if mothers would support a trial of this intervention. It may be that a trial should first focus on infants who are not able to consume ad libitum quantities of breast milk directly from the breast, who have poor growth or nutritional

  9. Association of low intake of milk and vitamin D during pregnancy with decreased birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Cynthia A; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Koski, Kristine G

    2006-04-25

    Some pregnant women may be advised or choose to restrict milk consumption and may not take appropriate supplements. We hypothesized that maternal milk restriction during pregnancy, which can reduce intakes of protein, calcium, riboflavin and vitamin D, might represent a health risk by lowering infant birth weight. We screened women between the ages of 19 and 45 years who were attending prenatal programs in Calgary, Alberta (51 degrees N) for low milk consumption (weight, length and head circumference were obtained from birth records. Women who consumed protein and vitamin D as well. In multivariate analyses controlled for previously established predictors of infant birth weight, milk consumption and vitamin D intake were both significant predictors of birth weight. Each additional cup of milk daily was associated with a 41 g increase in birth weight (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.0-75.1 g); each additional microgram of vitamin D, with an 11 g increase (95% CI 1.2-20.7 g). Neither protein, riboflavin nor calcium intake was found to predict birth weight. Milk and vitamin D intakes during pregnancy are each associated with infant birth weight, independently of other risk factors.

  10. Children who avoid drinking cow milk have low dietary calcium intakes and poor bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Ruth E; Williams, Sheila M; Jones, Ianthe E; Goulding, Ailsa

    2002-09-01

    Information concerning the adequacy of bone mineralization in children who customarily avoid drinking cow milk is sparse. The objective was to evaluate dietary calcium intakes, anthropometric measures, and bone health in prepubertal children with a history of long-term milk avoidance. We recruited 50 milk avoiders (30 girls, 20 boys) aged 3-10 y by advertisement. We measured current dietary calcium intakes with a food-frequency questionnaire and body composition and bone mineral density with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and compared the results with those of 200 milk-drinking control children. The reasons for milk avoidance were intolerance (40%), bad taste (42%), and lifestyle choice (18%). Dietary calcium intakes were low (443 +/- 230 mg Ca/d), and few children consumed substitute calcium-rich drinks or mineral supplements. Although 9 children (18%) were obese, the milk avoiders were shorter (P milk is associated with small stature and poor bone health. This is a major concern that warrants further study.

  11. Nutrient intakes of children aged 1-2 years as a function of milk consumption, cows' milk or growing-up milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisolfi, Jacques; Fantino, Marc; Turck, Dominique; de Courcy, Geneviève Potier; Vidailhet, Michel

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the nutritional adequacy of diets in early childhood as a function of milk intake, cows' milk (CM) or growing-up milk (GUM). From a cross-sectional food consumption survey, two groups of children aged 1-2 years were defined: group CM fed exclusively on CM ≥ 250 ml/d and group GUM fed on GUM ≥ 250 ml/d. Proportions of children at risk of nutrient excess or insufficiency were estimated relative to the French recommended daily allowances, estimated average requirements or adequate intakes. Parents participating in the survey were recruited from all regions of France by a polling organization. Distribution was adjusted to that of the French population. Sixty-three (group CM) and fifty-five (group GUM) children. Total energy and macronutrient intakes were similar in the two groups except protein intake of group CM, which was much higher than the Recommended Daily Allowance and significantly higher than in group GUM. A high percentage of children of Group CM had intake of linoleic acid (51%) and α-linolenic acid (84%) below the lower limit of the adequate intake, and intake of Fe (59%) vitamin C (49%) and alimentary vitamin D (100%) less than the Estimated Average Requirement. Significant differences were observed in the proportions of children with a risk of dietary inadequacy between the two groups for all the mentioned nutrients (P < 0.001). In group GUM, this imbalance was only observed for vitamin D. Intake of foods other than milk and dairy products could not account for these discrepancies. Consumption of CM (≥250 ml/d) entails the risk of insufficiency in α-linolenic acid, Fe, vitamin C and vitamin D. Use of GUM (≥250 ml/d) significantly reduces the risk of insufficiencies in the mentioned nutrients.

  12. Acceptability of donated breast milk in a resource limited South African setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coutsoudis Anna

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of breast milk for infants' growth, development and overall health is widely recognized. In situations where women are not able to provide their infants with sufficient amounts of their own breast milk, donor breast milk is the next preferred option. Although there is considerable research on the safety and scientific aspects of donor milk, and the motivations and experiences of donors, there is limited research addressing the attitudes and experiences of the women and families whose infants receive this milk. This study therefore examined attitudes towards donated breast milk among mothers, families and healthcare providers of potential recipient infants. Methods The study was conducted at a public hospital and nearby clinic in Durban, South Africa. The qualitative data was derived from eight focus group discussions which included four groups with mothers; one with male partners; and one with grandmothers, investigating attitudes towards receiving donated breast milk for infants. There was also one group each with nurses and doctors about their attitudes towards donated breast milk and its use in the hospital. The focus groups were conducted in September and October 2009 and each group had between four and eleven participants, leading to a total of 48 participants. Results Although breast milk was seen as important to child health there were concerns about undermining of breast milk because of concerns about HIV and marketing and promotion of formula milks. In addition there were concerns about the safety of donor breast milk and discomfort about using another mother's milk. Participants believed that education on the importance of breast milk and transparency on the processes involved in sourcing and preparing donor milk would improve the acceptability. Conclusions This study has shown that there are obstacles to the acceptability of donor milk, mainly stemming from lack of awareness/familiarity with the

  13. Is the Macronutrient Intake of Formula-Fed Infants Greater Than Breast-Fed Infants in Early Infancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly N. Hester

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Faster weight gain early in infancy may contribute to a greater risk of later obesity in formula-fed compared to breast-fed infants. One potential explanation for the difference in weight gain is higher macronutrient intake in formula-fed infants during the first weeks of life. A systematic review was conducted using Medline to assess the macronutrient and energy content plus volume of intake in breast-fed and formula-fed infants in early infancy. All studies from healthy, term, singleton infants reporting values for the composition of breast milk during the first month of life were included. The energy content of colostrum (mean, SEM: 53.6±2.5 kcal/100 mL, transitional milk (57.7±4.2 kcal/100 mL, and mature milk (65.2±1.1 kcal/100 mL was lower than conventional infant formula (67 kcal/100 mL on all days analyzed. The protein concentration of colostrum (2.5±0.2 g/100 mL and transitional milk (1.7±0.1 g/100 mL was higher than formula (1.4 g/100 mL, while the protein content of mature milk (1.3±0.1 g/100 mL was slightly lower. Formula-fed infants consume a higher volume and more energy dense milk in early life leading to faster growth which could potentially program a greater risk of long-term obesity.

  14. Multinutrient fortification of human breast milk for preterm infants following hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lauren; Embleton, Nicholas D; McCormick, Felicia M; McGuire, William

    2013-02-28

    Preterm infants are usually growth restricted at hospital discharge. Feeding preterm infants after hospital discharge with multinutrient fortified breast milk rather than unfortified breast milk may facilitate more rapid catch-up growth and improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. To determine the effect of feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with multinutrient fortified human breast milk versus unfortified breast milk on growth and development. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, 2012, Issue 3), MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL (until August 2012), conference proceedings, and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with multinutrient fortified breast milk compared with unfortified human breast milk. We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors and synthesis of data using risk ratio, risk difference and mean difference. We identified two small trials involving a total of 246 infants. These did not provide evidence that multinutrient fortification of breast milk for three to four months after hospital discharge affected rates of growth during infancy. One trial assessed infants at 18 months corrected age and did not find any statistically significant effects on neurodevelopmental outcomes. The limited available data do not provide convincing evidence that feeding preterm infants with multinutrient fortified breast milk compared with unfortified breast milk following hospital discharge affects important outcomes including growth rates during infancy. There are no data on long-term growth. Since fortifying breast milk for infants fed directly from the breast is logistically difficult

  15. Effect of dam factors on milk intake and performance of Belgian Blue suckling calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; Van Caelenbergh, W; De Campeneere, S; De Brabander, D L

    2008-01-01

    Milk intake data were collected at 4-week intervals from Belgian Blue double-muscled (BBDM) suckling calves up to 16 weeks after birth. Dams were fed at 100%, 90%, 80% or 70% of their energy requirements during a 140-day indoor period from the beginning of December to the end of April (restriction period). Afterwards, cows were turned out on pasture (re-alimentation period). Mean calving date was 3 June, but parturitions were spread over the year. A total of 521 individual milk intake (IMI) and 120 average daily milk intake (AMI, mean of IMI) records were collected. IMI amounted to 7.0 ± 2.2 kg/day and was not affected by energy level during the indoor period. It was highest in May and June. Calves born out of multiparous cows consumed more milk than those born out of primiparous cows (7.4 v. 6.2 kg per day; P = 0.001), while intake tended to be higher in female than in male calves (7.2 v. 6.8 kg per day; P = 0.044). Dam age at calving, parity, post partum weight and body condition were only weakly correlated with AMI (r 0.4). AMI was correlated with pre-weaning live-weight gain (r = 0.807) and weaning weight (r = 0.783), with a slightly higher correlation for male than for female calves. Daily live-weight gain during the suckling period was increased by 79 g per extra kg daily milk intake on average, and by 86 and 74 g, respectively, for male and female calves. Calf solid feed intake was low, even when milk intake was low. In terms of net energy intake, milk was only substituted for solid feed by 29%. It can be concluded from the calf intake that milk production in BBDM cows is comparable with that of cows from other beef breeds, but its variation is considerable, complicating an accurate estimation.

  16. Analysis of oxytocin in milk samples and intake pattern in different age groups of Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Manjari; Ali, Shakir; Das, Mukul

    2014-06-01

    Oxytocin (OT) injections have been indiscriminately used to milk cattle in dairy industries. There is no study available regarding surveillance of OT in market milk samples. OT from milk samples was extracted by precipitation with trichloroacetic acid and passed through the solid phase extraction column. OT was eluted and evaporated to dryness under a gentle stream of nitrogen. The residue was either dissolved in milli Q water or buffer for analysis through HPLC or EIA. The intake assessment of OT through milk was assessed through the Food Frequency Recall method employing a Food Frequency Questionnaire. On the basis of milk consumption and the values of OT in milk, the actual intake of OT was calculated. In the present study, a total of 55 milk samples (39 milkman and 16 branded) were analyzed for occurrence of OT by EIA and UV-HPLC from different locations of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh (India). OT contamination in milkman samples was found to be 21 pg/mL to 18.9 ng/mL with the mean value of 8.9 ng/mL. The average daily intake of OT in terms of µg/day/person was highest (2.3-2.4 µg/day/person) in 1-3-year age group. Since there is no prescribed level of OT in milk and the intake of OT through this commodity is quite high there is need to implement regulatory laws so that non-physiological OT exposure may not occur in children which may have deleterious effects.

  17. Leptin concentration in breast milk and its relationship to duration of lactation and hormonal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan Tanju

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptin, a hormone present in breast milk, is involved in energy regulation and metabolism. The objectives of this study were to assess leptin concentrations in breast milk during the first 180 days postpartum, and to determine the relationship between the concentrations of milk leptin and circulating hormone levels in lactating women. Methods Between April 2005 and January 2006, blood and breast milk samples were collected from 160 breastfeeding women enrolled either in the first three days (n = 37; colostrum, days 4–14 (n = 27; transitional milk, days 15–30 (n = 16; early mature milk, days 31–90 (n = 37; mature milk or days 91–180 (n = 43; late mature milk postpartum. Milk and serum leptin levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay. Cortisol was measured by radioimmunoassay method. Serum insulin, estradiol, prolactin and thyroxine were measured by chemiluminescent immunometric method. Results Leptin concentrations in breast milk were highest (3.28 ± 0.41 ng/ml in colostrum, decreased during the first 180 days of lactation, showing a significant inverse relation (r = -0.694, p p Conclusion Leptin concentrations in breast milk decrease with time during lactation and show significant relationships with other maternal hormones.

  18. Comparing water, bovine milk, and indoor residual spraying as possible sources of DDT and pyrethroid residues in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereda, Barbara; Bouwman, Henk; Kylin, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The presence of pollutants in human breast milk is of major concern, especially in malaria control areas where 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) is currently used as indoor residual spray (IRS). The levels of DDT and pyrethroids (PYR) were determined in breast milk, bovine milk, and drinking water from northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Both reference and exposed mothers used the same market food, but the DDT levels in the exposed mothers (mean SigmaDDT 10 microg/g milk fat [mf]) were much higher than for the reference mothers (mean SigmaDDT 1.3 microg/g milk fat). This difference in residue levels indicates uptake from IRS-applied DDT, most likely via air and skin contact, and excludes food as the main source of pollutants. DDT levels in bovine milk (mean SigmaDDT 0.15 microg/g mf) from the exposed area were less than levels in breast milk from the reference area, and lower than the 20 microg/L maximum residue limit (MRL) set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Mean SigmaDDT in water was 0.0065 microg/L, much lower then the WHO limit of the sum of all metabolites in drinking water of 1 microg/L, and therefore highly unlikely to have contributed to any extent toward levels in breast milk. Permethrin in breast milk (mean 1.1-1.6 microg/g milk fat) was probably derived from home garden and indoor use, while the other PYR (cypermethrin and cyfluthrin) at lower concentrations were probably derived from food and agricultural exposure. It is postulated that a better understanding of the indoor dynamics of DDT and other insecticides, through a concept of Total Homestead Environment Approach (THEA), is crucial for investigating options of reducing human exposure and uptake under malaria control conditions.

  19. Detection of dicofol and related pesticides in human breast milk from China, Korea and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yukiko; Haraguchi, Koichi; Harada, Kouji H; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Inoue, Kayoko; Itoh, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Takao; Takenaka, Katsunobu; Uehara, Shigeki; Yang, Hye-Ran; Kim, Min-Young; Moon, Chan-Seok; Kim, Hae-Sook; Wang, Peiyu; Liu, Aiping; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Koizumi, Akio

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the concentrations of DDTs were greater in breast milk collected from Chinese mothers than from Japanese and Korean mothers. To investigate dicofol as a possible source of the DDTs in human breast milk, we collected breast milk samples from 2007 to 2009 in China (Beijing), Korea (Seoul, Busan) and Japan (Sendai, Takarazuka and Takayama). Using these breast milk samples, we quantified the concentrations of dichlorobenzophenone, a pyrolysis product of dicofol (simply referred to as dicofol hereafter), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) using GC-MS. Overall, 12 of 14 pooled breast milk samples from 210 mothers contained detectable levels of dicofol (>0.1 ng g⁻¹ lipid). The geometric mean concentration of dicofol in the Japanese breast milk samples was 0.3 ng g⁻¹ lipid and significantly lower than that in Chinese (9.6 ng g⁻¹ lipid) or Korean breast milk samples (1.9 ng g⁻¹ lipid) (pChina were 10-fold higher than those from Korea and Japan. The present results strongly suggest the presence of extensive emission sources of both dicofol and DDTs in China. However, exposure to dicofol cannot explain the large exposure of Chinese mothers to DDTs because of the trace levels of dicofol in the ΣDDTs. In the present study, dicofol was confirmed to be detectable in human breast milk. This is the first report to identify dicofol in human samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of a Galactagogue Herbal Tea on Breast Milk Production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Poor breast milk production is the most frequent cause of breastfeeding failure in preterm babies. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of herbal tea mixture containing stinging nettle (Natal, Hipp) on breast milk production and serum prolactin levels of mothers, and weight gain of preterm ...

  1. Breast milk IL-1β level associates with development of eczema during early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, A. A.; Chawes, B. L. K.; Carson, C. G.

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association.......We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association....

  2. Prevention of breast pain and milk secretion with bromocriptine after second-trimester abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe Andersen, A; Damm, P; Tabor, A

    1990-01-01

    .01), in serum prolactin (PRL) (p less than 0.001) and in the subjective assessment score of breast pain (p less than 0.01) and milk secretion (p less than 0.01). Alleviation of breast pain and prevention of milk secretion appears to be indicated after second-trimester abortion, and treatment with bromocriptine...

  3. Vitamin B-12 concentrations in breast milk are low and are not associated with reported household hunger, recent animal source food or vitamin B-12 intake among women in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Breastmilk vitamin B-12 concentration may be inadequate in mothers living in regions where animal source food consumption is low or infrequent. Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes megaloglastic anemia and impairs growth and development in children. Objective: To measure vitamin B-12 in breast...

  4. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  5. Levels of Lead in Breast Milk and Their Relation to Maternal Blood and Bone Lead Levels at One Month Postpartum.

    OpenAIRE

    Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; González-Cossío, Teresa; Aro, Antonio; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Peterson, Karen E.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the many well-recognized benefits of breast-feeding for both mothers and infants, detectable levels of lead in breast milk have been documented in population studies of women with no current environmental or occupational exposures. Mobilization of maternal bone lead stores has been suggested as a potential endogenous source of lead in breast milk. We measured lead in breast milk to quantify the relation between maternal blood and bone lead levels and breast-feeding status (exclusive v...

  6. Sup(123)I excretion in breast milk - additional data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawes, S.C. (Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom))

    1992-07-01

    A woman with a suspected sublingual thyroid was referred for thyroid imaging with {sup 123}I-sodium iodide. On attending it was ascertained that she was currently breastfeeding her 3-month-old baby. Reference to the available literature showed little information regarding the excretion of {sup 123}I-sodium iodide in human breast milk apart from one single case. It was felt therefore that this would be an ideal opportunity to collect some useful data. Originally the presence of impurities in the radiopharmaceutical administered had been discounted as being of little significance. However, after consideration, a review of the contribution of any impurity was undertaken. (author).

  7. Determination of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in breast milk of healthy women by digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, L; Song, H; Cai, W

    2016-09-01

    Breast milk is one of the most important sources of postnatal microbes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is currently used for the quantitative analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in breast milk. However, this method relies on the use of standard curves and is imprecise when quantitating target DNA of low abundance. In contrast, droplet digital PCR (DD-PCR) provides an absolute quantitation without the need for calibration curves. A comparison between DD-PCR and qRT-PCR was conducted for the quantitation of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus 16S RNA genes in human breast milk, and the impacts of selected maternal factors were studied on the composition of these two bacteria in breast milk. From this study, DD-PCR reported between 0-34,460 16S rRNA gene copies of Bifidobacterium genera and between 1,108-634,000 16S rRNA gene copies of Lactobacillus genera in 1 ml breast milk. The 16S rRNA gene copy number of Lactobacillus genera was much greater than that of Bifidobacterium genera in breast milk. DD-PCR showed a 10-fold lower limit of quantitation as compared to qRT-PCR. A higher correlation and agreement was observed between qRT-PCR and DD-PCR in Lactobacillus quantitation as compared to Bifidobacterium quantitation. Based on our DD-PCR quantitation, a low abundance of Bifidobacterium bacteria in breast milk was correlated to higher pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). However, no significant difference was observed for these two bacteria in breast milk between mothers who had vaginal deliveries and caesarean deliveries. This study suggests that DD-PCR is a better tool to quantitate the bacterial load of breast milk compared to the conventional qRT-PCR method. The number of breast milk Bifidobacterium bacteria is influenced by maternal pre-pregnancy BMI.

  8. Breast Milk-Acquired Cytomegalovirus Infection and Disease in Very Low Birth Weight and Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzieri, Tatiana M.; Dollard, Sheila C.; Josephson, Cassandra D.; Schmid, D. Scott; Bialek, Stephanie R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Very low birth weight (VLBW) and premature infants are at risk of developing postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease, including CMV-related sepsis-like syndrome (CMV-SLS). Estimates of breast milk-acquired CMV infection and disease among these infants in the United States are lacking. Methods We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the pooled proportions (and 95% confidence intervals) of VLBW and premature infants born to CMV-seropositive women with breast milk-acquired CMV infection and CMV-SLS. We combined these proportions with population-based rates of CMV seropositivity, breast milk feeding, VLBW and prematurity to estimate annual rates of breast milk-acquired CMV infection and CMV-SLS in the United States. Results In our meta-analysis, among 299 infants fed untreated breast milk, we estimated 19% (11%–32%) acquired CMV infection and 4% (2%–7%) developed CMV-SLS. Assuming these proportions, we estimated a rate of breast milk-acquired CMV infection among VLBW and premature infants in the United States of 6.5% (3.7%–10.9%) and 1.4% (0.7%–2.4%) of CMV-SLS, corresponding to 600 infants with CMV-SLS in 2008. Among 212 infants fed frozen breast milk, our meta-analysis proportions were 13% (7%–24%) for infection and 5% (2%–12%) for CMV-SLS, yielding slightly lower rates of breast milk-acquired CMV infection (4.4%; 2.4%–6.8%) but similar rates of CMV-SLS (1.7%; 0.7%–4.1%). Conclusions Breast milk-acquired CMV infection presenting with CMV-SLS is relatively rare. Prospective studies to better define the burden of disease are needed to refine guidelines for feeding breast milk from CMV-seropositive mothers to VLBW and premature infants. PMID:23713111

  9. Differences in direct pharmacologic effects and antioxidative properties of mature breast milk and infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugonja, Nikoleta; Spasić, Snežana D; Laugier, Olga; Nikolić-Kokić, Aleksandra; Spasojević, Ivan; Oreščanin-Dušić, Zorana; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2013-02-01

    Early-onset and exclusive breast-feeding provides a significant health benefit to infants compared with infant formulas. The aim of this study was to compare mature breast milk with standard infant formulas by examining their effects on non-vascular smooth muscle contraction and their antioxidative properties. The pharmacologic effects of breast milk and formulas were examined using a model system of the rat uterine smooth muscle contraction. Electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping spectroscopy was used to compare the antioxidative capacities of breast milk (obtained in the ninth week of lactation) with commercial infant formulas against hydroxyl radical production in the Fenton reaction. The activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and the sulfhydryl group were determined in the breast milk and infant formulas. In contrast to the infant formulas, breast milk exerted a relaxing effect on isolated non-vascular smooth muscle. In general, breast milk showed higher antioxidative activity compared with the infant formulas. In all samples, the generation of hydroxyl radicals led to the formation of carbon-centered and ascorbyl radicals. Human milk exerts direct pharmacologic relaxation effects and provides better antioxidant protection compared with infant formulas because of the presence of specific enzymatic components, such as human superoxide dismutase. We propose that these effects should be advantageous to an infant's gastrointestinal tract by supporting the normal work of the smooth musculature and maintaining redox homeostasis and may represent one of the mechanisms by which breast-feeding benefits health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of breast milk in acquisition of cytomegalovirus infection: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleiss, Mark R

    2006-02-01

    Congenital infection with cytomegalovirus is a major cause of disability in newborns. Recently, there has been increased emphasis on the study of postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infection. One route by which cytomegalovirus infections are acquired in newborns is via consumption of breast milk from cytomegalovirus-seropositive, lactating mothers. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent studies of breast-milk-acquired cytomegalovirus infections in newborns, particularly in low-birth-weight premature infants. Nearly all cytomegalovirus-seropositive women will reactivate and shed cytomegalovirus during lactation, as demonstrated by sensitive polymerase chain reaction techniques, as well as by viral culture of breast milk. A substantial proportion of infants exposed to cytomegalovirus in breast milk will acquire a primary cytomegalovirus infection. Although acquisition of cytomegalovirus by this route is seldom of consequence in healthy term infants, cytomegalovirus infections in low-birth-weight premature infants have been demonstrated to cause symptomatic illness, including hepatitis, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and a 'sepsis-like' state. Cytomegalovirus is commonly shed in human milk, and cytomegalovirus-seropositive women can transmit this infection via breast-feeding. The benefits of breast-feeding greatly outweigh the minimal risk, if any, of infections transmitted to term infants. Caution is warranted, however, in low-birth-weight premature infants, who are at increased risk of cytomegalovirus disease. Interventions to screen breast milk, or to attempt to render breast milk noninfectious through treatments such as freezing, may be warranted in high-risk premature infants.

  11. IMMUNOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BREAST MILK IN WOMEN, WHO HAVE CHILDREN WITH ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    OpenAIRE

    M.Yu. Belitskaya; I.Ya. Kon'; T.N. Korotkova

    2008-01-01

    100 mothers and children in couple were observed in this trial. All children had atopic dermatitis, developed against breast feeding. Analysis of immunologic characteristics of breast milk in 53 women showed a presence of allergencpecific Ide and Igg antybodies and common Ige in it. The level of those characteristics was lower if mothers were consistent with diet with goat's milk «amaltea».Key words: children, atopic dermatitis, breast feeding, dietotherapy.

  12. IMMUNOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BREAST MILK IN WOMEN, WHO HAVE CHILDREN WITH ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Yu. Belitskaya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 100 mothers and children in couple were observed in this trial. All children had atopic dermatitis, developed against breast feeding. Analysis of immunologic characteristics of breast milk in 53 women showed a presence of allergencpecific Ide and Igg antybodies and common Ige in it. The level of those characteristics was lower if mothers were consistent with diet with goat's milk «amaltea».Key words: children, atopic dermatitis, breast feeding, dietotherapy.

  13. Direct Feeding at the Breast Is Associated with Breast Milk Feeding Duration among Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchevski-Kadir, Shiran; Shust-Barequet, Shir; Zajicek, Michal; Leibovich, Mira; Strauss, Tzipi; Leibovitch, Leah; Morag, Iris

    2017-11-01

    In spite of high rates of initiating breast milk feeding (BMF) among preterm infants, a significant rate of discontinuation occurs shortly after discharge. To investigate the effect of mode (direct feeding at the breast vs. expressing) and exclusivity (breast milk combined with formula vs. breast milk only) as well as maternal perceptions on the duration of BMF among preterm infants. The study included mothers whose infants were born before 32 weeks gestation, between January 2012 and August 2015 at Sheba Medical Center (SMC). Perinatal data were collected retrospectively from infants' computerized charts. Mothers were approached >12 months postpartum and were asked to complete a questionnaire. Those who agreed to participate were asked (during their visit to the follow-up clinic or by phone or mail) to complete a questionnaire regarding mode and duration of BMF as well as reasons for its discontinuation. Mothers were also asked about their pre-partum intentions to feed directly at the breast. Out of 162 eligible mothers, 131 (80.8%) initiated BMF during their intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization. Of these, 66 (50.3%) discontinued BMF earlier than six months postpartum. BMF ≥ 6 months was significantly associated with direct feeding at the breast, duration of exclusive BMF, and singleton birth. Regression analysis revealed that direct feeding at the breast (any or only) and duration of BMF exclusivity were the only significant variables associated with BMF duration (Odds ratio (OR) 5.5 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.00-15.37; OR 1.5 and 95% CI 1.25-1.88, respectively). Milk supply (inadequate or nonexistent) was the most commonly reported cause for BMF discontinuation feeding at the breast was significantly associated with BMF duration and was more common among singletons. Direct feeding at the breast and duration of exclusive BMF are associated with duration of BMF among infants born <32 weeks of gestational age (GA). These findings suggest that

  14. Breast Milk of HIV-Positive Mothers Has Potent and Species-Specific In Vivo HIV-Inhibitory Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Angela; Baker, Caroline; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Lisa W Stamper; Genevieve G Fouda; Permar, Sallie R.; Hinde, Katie; Kuhn, Louise; Bode, Lars; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Garcia, J. Victor

    2015-01-01

    Despite the nutritional and health benefits of breast milk, breast milk can serve as a vector for mother-to-child HIV transmission. Most HIV-infected infants acquire HIV through breastfeeding. Paradoxically, most infants breastfed by HIV-positive women do not become infected. This is potentially attributed to anti-HIV factors in breast milk. Breast milk of HIV-negative women can inhibit HIV infection. However, the HIV-inhibitory activity of breast milk from HIV-positive mothers has not been e...

  15. Breast milk composition in a cohort of pre-term infants' mothers followed in an ambulatory programme in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpak, N; Ruiz, J G

    2007-12-01

    Describing preterm breast milk evolution and composition according to gestational age (GA) and postnatal age (PNA) in a cohort of mothers cared for in an ambulatory Kangaroo Mother Care Program (KMCP) in a developing country. A cohort involving 113 mothers who delivered 'healthy' preterms adequate for GA was assembled. Mothers received intensive breastfeeding support before discharge. Samples of both fore- and hind milk were obtained at entry into KMCP and weekly thereafter, until term. Composition was described according to PNA and postconceptional age (PCA). Protein concentration varied inversely with both PCA and PNA. Fat concentration was consistently higher in hind milk than in fore milk samples of the same feed. Lactose increased steadily with PCA. Calcium/phosphorus ratios were stable, close to 2:1 and content of both was similar in samples of different PCA and PNA. Minerals concentration could be inadequate for preterms. Protein concentration decreases steadily to mature milk levels by the third week of PNA, regardless of birth GA. Therefore, from the third week of PNA onwards, protein content could be insufficient to satisfy needs of preterms born at 32 weeks or less. Feeding hind milk could increase caloric density and fat intake to better meet preterms' nutritional needs.

  16. Trans fatty acids and fatty acid composition of mature breast milk in turkish women and their association with maternal diet's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Gülhan; Topcu, Ali; Turan, Semra

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid composition and trans fatty acid and fatty acid contents of breast milk in Turkish women and to find the effect of breastfeeding mothers' diet on trans fatty acid and fatty acid composition. Mature milk samples obtained from 50 Turkish nursing women were analyzed. Total milk lipids extracts were transmethylated and analyzed by using gas liquid chromatography to determine fatty acids contents. A questionnaire was applied to observe eating habits and 3 days dietary records from mothers were obtained. Daily dietary intake of total energy and nutrients were estimated by using nutrient database. The mean total trans fatty acids contents was 2.13 +/- 1.03%. The major sources of trans fatty acids in mothers' diets were margarines-butter (37.0%), bakery products and confectionery (29.6%). Mothers who had high level of trans isomers in their milk consumed significantly higher amounts of these products. Saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids of human milk constituted 40.7 +/- 4.7%, 26.9 +/- 4.2% and 30.8 +/- 0.6% of the total fatty acids, respectively. The levels of fatty acids in human milk may reflect the current diet of the mother as well as the diet consumed early in pregnancy. Margarines, bakery products and confectionery are a major source of trans fatty acids in maternal diet in Turkey.

  17. Leukocyte Populations in Human Preterm and Term Breast Milk Identified by Multicolour Flow Cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Trend

    Full Text Available Extremely preterm infants are highly susceptible to bacterial infections but breast milk provides some protection. It is unknown if leukocyte numbers and subsets in milk differ between term and preterm breast milk. This study serially characterised leukocyte populations in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants using multicolour flow cytometry methods for extended differential leukocyte counts in blood.Sixty mothers of extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestational age, very preterm (28-31 wk, and moderately preterm (32-36 wk, as well as term (37-41 wk infants were recruited. Colostrum (d2-5, transitional (d8-12 and mature milk (d26-30 samples were collected, cells isolated, and leukocyte subsets analysed using flow cytometry.The major CD45+ leukocyte populations circulating in blood were also detectable in breast milk but at different frequencies. Progression of lactation was associated with decreasing CD45+ leukocyte concentration, as well as increases in the relative frequencies of neutrophils and immature granulocytes, and decreases in the relative frequencies of eosinophils, myeloid and B cell precursors, and CD16- monocytes. No differences were observed between preterm and term breast milk in leukocyte concentration, though minor differences between preterm groups in some leukocyte frequencies were observed.Flow cytometry is a useful tool to identify and quantify leukocyte subsets in breast milk. The stage of lactation is associated with major changes in milk leukocyte composition in this population. Fresh preterm breast milk is not deficient in leukocytes, but shorter gestation may be associated with minor differences in leukocyte subset frequencies in preterm compared to term breast milk.

  18. Energy intake and milk production in mink (Mustela vison)--effect of litter size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, R; Tauson, A H; Hansen, K B; Wamberg, S; Kristensen, N B

    2001-01-01

    Energy intake and milk production were measured in 12 mink dams raising litters of 3, 6 and 9 kits one to four weeks post partum by means of balance experiments and measurements of milk intake of the kits by the water isotope dilution technique. The dams were fed ad libitum on a conventional wet mink diet (DM: 323 g/kg; CP: 173 g/kg; ME: 4.4 MJ/kg). Milk samples collected from dams with corresponding litter sizes and lactation weeks, and body composition of kits nursed by these dams, were analysed for content of DM, ash, N and fat. The ME and drinking water consumption were higher in dams nursing 9 kits than in dams nursing 3 kits. The N and water balances as well as the live weight of dams were not affected by litter size. Daily milk production was higher in dams nursing 9 kits than in dams nursing 3 kits. The DM, N and fat content of the milk increased during lactation, but were not affected by litter size. Individual kit live weight was higher in litters of 3 than in litters of 6 and 9 kits four weeks post partum. The DM and fat content of the kits were lowest in kits from litters of 9 kits, whereas these kits had the highest protein content. Daily ME for maintenance of kits and the efficiency of utilisation of ME in milk for body gain were estimated to 356 kJ/kg0.75, kp approximately 0.53 and kf approximately 0.71, respectively. In conclusion, daily milk production increased with increasing litter size, but not in proportion to the number of kits, indicating that milk production limits the growth rate of the young. In the fourth week of lactation, milk production was not different between dams nursing 6 or 9 kits, indicating a maximum capacity.

  19. Prevalence and outcomes of breast milk expressing in women with healthy term infants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Helene M; Forster, Della A; Amir, Lisa H; McLachlan, Helen L

    2013-11-19

    Expressing breast milk has become increasingly prevalent, particularly in some developed countries. Concurrently, breast pumps have evolved to be more sophisticated and aesthetically appealing, adapted for domestic use, and have become more readily available. In the past, expressed breast milk feeding was predominantly for those infants who were premature, small or unwell; however it has become increasingly common for healthy term infants. The aim of this paper is to systematically explore the literature related to breast milk expressing by women who have healthy term infants, including the prevalence of breast milk expressing, reported reasons for, methods of, and outcomes related to, expressing. Databases (Medline, CINAHL, JSTOR, ProQuest Central, PsycINFO, PubMed and the Cochrane library) were searched using the keywords milk expression, breast milk expression, breast milk pumping, prevalence, outcomes, statistics and data, with no limit on year of publication. Reference lists of identified papers were also examined. A hand-search was conducted at the Australian Breastfeeding Association Lactation Resource Centre. Only English language papers were included. All papers about expressing breast milk for healthy term infants were considered for inclusion, with a focus on the prevalence, methods, reasons for and outcomes of breast milk expression. A total of twenty two papers were relevant to breast milk expression, but only seven papers reported the prevalence and/or outcomes of expressing amongst mothers of well term infants; all of the identified papers were published between 1999 and 2012. Many were descriptive rather than analytical and some were commentaries which included calls for more research, more dialogue and clearer definitions of breastfeeding. While some studies found an association between expressing and the success and duration of breastfeeding, others found the opposite. In some cases these inconsistencies were compounded by imprecise definitions of

  20. Prevalence and outcomes of breast milk expressing in women with healthy term infants: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Expressing breast milk has become increasingly prevalent, particularly in some developed countries. Concurrently, breast pumps have evolved to be more sophisticated and aesthetically appealing, adapted for domestic use, and have become more readily available. In the past, expressed breast milk feeding was predominantly for those infants who were premature, small or unwell; however it has become increasingly common for healthy term infants. The aim of this paper is to systematically explore the literature related to breast milk expressing by women who have healthy term infants, including the prevalence of breast milk expressing, reported reasons for, methods of, and outcomes related to, expressing. Methods Databases (Medline, CINAHL, JSTOR, ProQuest Central, PsycINFO, PubMed and the Cochrane library) were searched using the keywords milk expression, breast milk expression, breast milk pumping, prevalence, outcomes, statistics and data, with no limit on year of publication. Reference lists of identified papers were also examined. A hand-search was conducted at the Australian Breastfeeding Association Lactation Resource Centre. Only English language papers were included. All papers about expressing breast milk for healthy term infants were considered for inclusion, with a focus on the prevalence, methods, reasons for and outcomes of breast milk expression. Results A total of twenty two papers were relevant to breast milk expression, but only seven papers reported the prevalence and/or outcomes of expressing amongst mothers of well term infants; all of the identified papers were published between 1999 and 2012. Many were descriptive rather than analytical and some were commentaries which included calls for more research, more dialogue and clearer definitions of breastfeeding. While some studies found an association between expressing and the success and duration of breastfeeding, others found the opposite. In some cases these inconsistencies were compounded

  1. The Effect of Moderate Alcohol Intake on Gallblader Motility: A Milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the effect of periodic and moderate alcohol intake on gallbladder motility. Methods: The ultrasonographic ellipsoid method was used in 21 healthy male subjects: 12 nonalcohol and 9 alcohol drinkers. The stimulus for gallbladder contraction was 165 ml of half cream milk. Gallbladder dynamics were ...

  2. Sows with high milk production had both a high feed intake and high body mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, A. V.; Bruun, T. S.; Hansen, C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Selection for increased litter size have generated hyper-prolific sows that nurses large litters, however limited knowledge is available regarding the connection between milk production, feed intake and body mobilization of these modern sows. The aim of the current study was to determine what...... lactation. The number of total born piglets in the next litter was positively related to the number of piglets born in the previous litter. In conclusion, both a high feed intake and a high mobilization of body reserves was a prerequisite for a high milk production. The sows might be very close...... characterized sows with high milk production and nursing large litters, differences between sows of different parities and effects of lactational performance on next reproductive cycle. In total 565 sows (parity 1 to 4) were studied from 7 days before farrowing until weaning. On day 2 postpartum litters were...

  3. Assessment of daily intake of organochlorine pesticides from milk in different regions of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, Agata; Mituniewicz-Małek, Anna; Dmytrów, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    The common occurrence of organochlorine compounds in the environment, food and human tissues may constitute a serious threat to human health. The method of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was used to determine the content of pesticides in 15 samples of raw cow's milk from different regions of Poland. The results revealed high levels of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, heptachlor and aldrin. The studied milk contained lindane in average concentrations within the maximum limits. Although in 20% of all samples tested, the concentration of lindane exceeded permissible limits, while in 15% of samples the content of Σ DDT was too high. But the average daily consumption of milk containing organochlorine pesticides poses no direct threat to human health, because daily intake (DI) for all compounds were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Attention should be paid to the exposure of consumers to pesticide residues from other dairy foods.

  4. Temporal Changes of Human Breast Milk Lipids of Chinese Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, Francesca; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Bertschy, Emmanuelle; Fontannaz, Patric; Masserey Elmelegy, Isabelle; Tavazzi, Isabelle; Marmet, Cynthia; Sanchez-Bridge, Belén; Thakkar, Sagar K; De Castro, Carlos Antonio; Vynes-Pares, Gerard; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2016-11-10

    Fatty acids (FA), phospholipids (PL), and gangliosides (GD) play a central role in infant growth, immune and inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to determine FA, PL, and GD compositional changes in human milk (HM) during lactation in a large group of Chinese lactating mothers (540 volunteers) residing in Beijing, Guangzhou, and Suzhou. HM samples were collected after full expression from one breast and while the baby was fed on the other breast. FA were assessed by direct methylation followed by gas chromatography (GC) analysis. PL and GD were extracted using chloroform and methanol. A methodology employing liquid chromatography coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) and with time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry was used to quantify PL and GD classes in HM, respectively. Saturated FA (SFA), mono-unsaturated FA (MUFA), and PL content decreased during lactation, while polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) and GD content increased. Among different cities, over the lactation time, HM from Beijing showed the highest SFA content, HM from Guangzhou the highest MUFA content and HM from Suzhou the highest n-3PUFA content. The highest total PL and GD contents were observed in HM from Suzhou. In order to investigate the influence of the diet on maternal milk composition, a careful analyses of dietary habits of these population needs to be performed in the future.

  5. Temporal Changes of Human Breast Milk Lipids of Chinese Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giuffrida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FA, phospholipids (PL, and gangliosides (GD play a central role in infant growth, immune and inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to determine FA, PL, and GD compositional changes in human milk (HM during lactation in a large group of Chinese lactating mothers (540 volunteers residing in Beijing, Guangzhou, and Suzhou. HM samples were collected after full expression from one breast and while the baby was fed on the other breast. FA were assessed by direct methylation followed by gas chromatography (GC analysis. PL and GD were extracted using chloroform and methanol. A methodology employing liquid chromatography coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD and with time of flight (TOF mass spectrometry was used to quantify PL and GD classes in HM, respectively. Saturated FA (SFA, mono-unsaturated FA (MUFA, and PL content decreased during lactation, while polyunsaturated FA (PUFA and GD content increased. Among different cities, over the lactation time, HM from Beijing showed the highest SFA content, HM from Guangzhou the highest MUFA content and HM from Suzhou the highest n-3PUFA content. The highest total PL and GD contents were observed in HM from Suzhou. In order to investigate the influence of the diet on maternal milk composition, a careful analyses of dietary habits of these population needs to be performed in the future.

  6. Can hormones contained in mothers' milk account for the beneficial effect of breast-feeding on obesity in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Fissore, Maria F; Liguori, Stefania A; Oggero, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    Nutrition and growth during infancy are an emerging issue because of their potential link to metabolic health disorders in later life. Moreover, prolonged breast-feeding appears to be associated with a lower risk of obesity than formula feeding. Human milk is a source of various hormones and growth factors, namely adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), ghrelin, resistin and obestatin, which are involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. These compounds are either not found in commercial milk formulas or their presence is still controversial. Diet-related differences during infancy in serum levels of factors involved in energy metabolism might explain anthropometric differences and also differences in dietary habits between breast-fed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants later in life, and may thus have long-term health consequences. In this context, the recent finding of higher leptin levels and lower ghrelin levels in BF than in FF infants suggests that differences in hormonal values together with different protein intake could account for the differences in growth between BF and FF infants both during infancy and later in life. In this review, we examine the data related to hormones contained in mothers' milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity and metabolic-related disorders.

  7. Assay of ghrelin concentration in infant formulas and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Petrucci, Elisa; Lupica, Maria Maddalena; Nanni, Giuliana Eva; Oggero, Roberto

    2011-04-21

    To test if total ghrelin is present in infant formulas. Using a radioimmunoassay, we measured total ghrelin concentrations in 19 samples of commercial infant formulas and in 20 samples of human milk. We also determined ghrelin concentration in the serum of infants and lactating mothers. Ghrelin concentrations were significantly higher in artificial milk (2007.1 ± 1725.36 pg/mL) than in human milk (828.17 ± 323.32 pg/mL) (P = 0.005). The mean ghrelin concentration in infant serum (n = 56) was 1115.86 ± 42.89 pg/mL, and was significantly higher (P = 0.023) in formula-fed infants (1247.93 ± 328.07 pg/mL) than in breast-fed infants (1045.7 ± 263.38 pg/mL). The mean serum ghrelin concentration (mean ± SD) in lactating mothers (n = 20) was 1319.18 ± 140.18 pg/mL. This study provides evidence that total ghrelin is present in infant formulas. This finding raises diverse questions regarding the uptake, absorption and metabolic effects of this hormone.

  8. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A

    2011-12-05

    To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of -584 kJ (95% confidence interval (-1027;-141)) during the test period. In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate.

  9. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. Subjects/methods: A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. Results: The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of −584 kJ (95% confidence interval (−1027;−141)) during the test period. Conclusion: In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate. PMID:23455041

  10. Factors affecting breast milk composition and potential consequences for development of the allergic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munblit, D; Boyle, R J; Warner, J O

    2015-03-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to allergic sensitization and disease. The factors in breast milk which influence these processes are still unclear and under investigation. We know that colostrum and breast milk contain a variety of molecules which can influence immune responses in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue of a neonate. This review summarizes the evidence that variations in colostrum and breast milk composition can influence allergic outcomes in the infant, and the evidence that maternal and environmental factors can modify milk composition. Taken together, the data presented support the possibility that maternal dietary interventions may be an effective way to promote infant health through modification of breast milk composition. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilia R. Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow’s milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow’s milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required.

  12. CYP1A1 expression in breast milk cells of Japanese population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonemoto, Junzo; Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Sone, Hideko; Morita, Masatosi [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Uechi, Hiroto [Uechi Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic, Utsunomiya (Japan); Masuzaki, Yuko; Koizumi, Atsuko; Matzumura, Toru [Metocean Environment Inc., Ohigawa (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxins are persistent, lipophilic compounds that are ubiquitous in the environment. Concern over the reproductive and developmental toxicity of dioxins has been growing since they have endocrine-disrupting properties and have adversely affected the health of offspring in experimental and epidemiological studies. Monitoring of maternal body burdens of dioxins and their biological responses to dioxin exposure is needed to estimate the potential health risk to their offspring. Breast milk has been used for monitoring dioxins in humans for decades. Breast milk has some advantages in exposure monitoring. Sampling is non-invasive, and dioxin levels are relatively high because of the high lipid content. It is assumed that mammary glands are exposed to a higher level of dioxins than other tissues since mammary glands synthesize and store milk fat. Breast milk contains leukocytes and exfoliated ductal epithelial cells. If these cells responded to dioxins and expressed CYP enzymes, a sensitive biomarker for dioxin exposure, they would be useful as biomarkers for dioxin exposure. In the present study, the expression of CYP enzymes in intact milk cells or cells cultured with TCDD was investigated. In addition, breast milk samples were collected from mothers within one week of childbearing, and the expression of CYP1A1 mRNA in milk cells was determined. The relationship between CYP1A1 mRNA expression in milk cells and dioxin levels in the cream layer of breast milk was analyzed.

  13. Milk and dairy products intake in child-juvenile population in Navarre, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel

    2014-10-01

    To make a descriptive study of milk and dairy products intake in a population of school-children and adolescents and to analyze its nutritional contribution in the diet of this population. A nutrition survey was carried out in the form of personal interview (food intake registration of 3 consecutive school days) in a sample of 353 school-children, aged 9 to 12 years, and 406 adolescents, aged 13 to 16 years, in Pamplona, Spain. Dairy products intake was referred by 94% of the respondents in breakfast, 69.3% in supper, 42.1% in lunch, 23.3% in the afternoon snack and 16.4% in the mid-morning snack (there were no statistically significant differences among the groups of age). The mean number of diary products servings was 2.0, being higher (pschool-children (1.75). Milk and dairy products constitute the main source of calcium, iodine, magnesium and phosphorous, as well as riboflavin, vitamin B12 and vitamin A, and also contribute substantially to the daily intake of calories, proteins, potassium and zinc; although they provide significant amounts of saturated fat and cholesterol. The intake of milk and derivatives in child-juvenile population is inappropriate. The need to undertake a massive public enlightenment campaign involving families regarding the nutritional importance of this food group should be considered. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. A quality improvement project to increase breast milk use in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Henry C; Kurtin, Paul S; Wight, Nancy E; Chance, Kathy; Cucinotta-Fobes, Tracey; Hanson-Timpson, Tara A; Nisbet, Courtney C; Rhine, William D; Risingsun, Kate; Wood, Matthew; Danielsen, Beate H; Sharek, Paul J

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate a multihospital collaborative designed to increase breast milk feeding in premature infants. Eleven NICUs in the California Perinatal Quality of Care Collaborative participated in an Institute for Healthcare Improvement-style collaborative to increase NICU breast milk feeding rates. Multiple interventions were recommended with participating sites implementing a self-selected combination of these interventions. Breast milk feeding rates were compared between baseline (October 2008-September 2009), implementation (October 2009-September 2010), and sustainability periods (October 2010-March 2011). Secondary outcome measures included necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) rates and lengths of stay. California Perinatal Quality of Care Collaborative hospitals not participating in the project served as a control population. The breast milk feeding rate in the intervention sites improved from baseline (54.6%) to intervention period (61.7%; P = .005) with sustained improvement over 6 months postintervention (64.0%; P = .003). NEC rates decreased from baseline (7.0%) to intervention period (4.3%; P = .022) to sustainability period (2.4%; P breast milk feeding at baseline (64.2% control vs 54.6% participants, P breast milk/nutrition change package by an 11-site collaborative resulted in an increase in breast milk feeding and decrease in NEC that was sustained over an 18-month period.

  15. Recovery of extracellular vesicles from human breast milk is influenced by sample collection and vesicle isolation procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke I. Zonneveld

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EV in breast milk carry immune relevant proteins and could play an important role in the instruction of the neonatal immune system. To further analyze these EV and to elucidate their function it is important that native populations of EV can be recovered from (stored breast milk samples in a reproducible fashion. However, the impact of isolation and storage procedures on recovery of breast milk EV has remained underexposed. Here, we aimed to define parameters important for EV recovery from fresh and stored breast milk. To compare various protocols across different donors, breast milk was spiked with a well-defined murine EV population. We found that centrifugation of EV down into density gradients largely improved density-based separation and isolation of EV, compared to floatation up into gradients after high-force pelleting of EV. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we identified different subpopulations of human breast milk EV and a not previously described population of lipid tubules. Additionally, the impact of cold storage on breast milk EV was investigated. We determined that storing unprocessed breast milk at −80°C or 4°C caused death of cells present in breast milk, leading to contamination of the breast milk EV population with storage-induced EV. Here, an alternative method is proposed to store breast milk samples for EV analysis at later time points. The proposed adaptations to the breast milk storage and EV isolation procedures can be applied for EV-based biomarker profiling of breast milk and functional analysis of the role of breast milk EV in the development of the neonatal immune system.

  16. Effect of maternal body mass index on hormones in breast milk: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Andreas

    Full Text Available Maternal Body Mass Index (BMI is positively associated with infant obesity risk. Breast milk contains a number of hormones that may influence infant metabolism during the neonatal period; these may have additional downstream effects on infant appetite regulatory pathways, thereby influencing propensity towards obesity in later life.To conduct a systematic review of studies examining the association between maternal BMI and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones in breast milk.Pubmed was searched for studies reporting the association between maternal BMI and leptin, adiponectin, insulin, ghrelin, resistin, obestatin, Peptide YY and Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 in breast milk.Twenty six studies were identified and included in the systematic review. There was a high degree of variability between studies with regard to collection, preparation and analysis of breast milk samples. Eleven of fifteen studies reporting breast milk leptin found a positive association between maternal BMI and milk leptin concentration. Two of nine studies investigating adiponectin found an association between maternal BMI and breast milk adiponectin concentration; however significance was lost in one study following adjustment for time post-partum. No association was seen between maternal BMI and milk adiponectin in the other seven studies identified. Evidence for an association between other appetite regulating hormones and maternal BMI was either inconclusive, or lacking.A positive association between maternal BMI and breast milk leptin concentration is consistently found in most studies, despite variable methodology. Evidence for such an association with breast milk adiponectin concentration, however, is lacking with additional research needed for other hormones including insulin, ghrelin, resistin, obestatin, peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1. As most current studies have been conducted with small sample sizes, future studies should ensure adequate sample

  17. Effect of maternal body mass index on hormones in breast milk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Hyde, Matthew J; Gale, Chris; Parkinson, James R C; Jeffries, Suzan; Holmes, Elaine; Modi, Neena

    2014-01-01

    Maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) is positively associated with infant obesity risk. Breast milk contains a number of hormones that may influence infant metabolism during the neonatal period; these may have additional downstream effects on infant appetite regulatory pathways, thereby influencing propensity towards obesity in later life. To conduct a systematic review of studies examining the association between maternal BMI and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones in breast milk. Pubmed was searched for studies reporting the association between maternal BMI and leptin, adiponectin, insulin, ghrelin, resistin, obestatin, Peptide YY and Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 in breast milk. Twenty six studies were identified and included in the systematic review. There was a high degree of variability between studies with regard to collection, preparation and analysis of breast milk samples. Eleven of fifteen studies reporting breast milk leptin found a positive association between maternal BMI and milk leptin concentration. Two of nine studies investigating adiponectin found an association between maternal BMI and breast milk adiponectin concentration; however significance was lost in one study following adjustment for time post-partum. No association was seen between maternal BMI and milk adiponectin in the other seven studies identified. Evidence for an association between other appetite regulating hormones and maternal BMI was either inconclusive, or lacking. A positive association between maternal BMI and breast milk leptin concentration is consistently found in most studies, despite variable methodology. Evidence for such an association with breast milk adiponectin concentration, however, is lacking with additional research needed for other hormones including insulin, ghrelin, resistin, obestatin, peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1. As most current studies have been conducted with small sample sizes, future studies should ensure adequate sample sizes and

  18. Fiber intake modulates the association of alcohol intake with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Chajès, Veronique; de Batlle, Jordi; Biessy, Carine; Scoccianti, Chiara; Dossus, Laure; Christine Boutron, Marie; Bastide, Nadia; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ramón Quirós, J; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, María-José; Duell, Eric J; Amiano Etxezarreta, Pilar; Borgquist, Signe; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Maria Nilsson, Lena; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Murphy, Neil; Wark, Petra A; Riboli, Elio

    2017-01-15

    Alcohol intake has been related to an increased risk of breast cancer (BC) while dietary fiber intake has been inversely associated to BC risk. A beneficial effect of fibers on ethanol carcinogenesis through their impact on estrogen levels is still controversial. We investigated the role of dietary fiber as a modifying factor of the association of alcohol and BC using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). This study included 334,850 women aged 35-70 years at baseline enrolled in the ten countries of the EPIC study and followed up for 11.0 years on average. Information on fiber and alcohol intake at baseline and average lifetime alcohol intake were calculated from country-specific dietary and lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HR) of developing invasive BC according to different levels of alcohol and fiber intake were computed. During 3,670,439 person-years, 11,576 incident BC cases were diagnosed. For subjects with low intake of fiber (risk of BC per 10 g/day of alcohol intake was 1.06 (1.03-1.08) while among subjects with high intake of fiber (>24.2 g/day) the risk of BC was 1.02 (0.99-1.05) (test for interaction p = 0.011). This modulating effect was stronger for fiber from vegetables. Our results suggest that fiber intake may modulate the positive association of alcohol intake and BC. Alcohol is well known to increase the risk for BC, while a fiber-rich diet has the opposite effect. Here the authors find a significant interaction between both lifestyle factors indicating that high fiber intake can ease the adverse effects associated with alcohol consumption. Consequently, women with high alcohol intake and low fiber intake (risk for BC. Specific benefits were associated with fibers from vegetable, warranting further investigations into specific fiber sources and their mechanistic interactions with alcohol-induced BC risk. © 2016 UICC.

  19. Disparities in Hospital-Reported Breast Milk Use in Neonatal Intensive Care Units - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boundy, Ellen O; Perrine, Cria G; Nelson, Jennifer M; Hamner, Heather C

    2017-12-08

    Breast milk is the recommended nutrition for infants. For preterm infants, when mother's milk is not available, pasteurized donor milk is recommended (1). Non-Hispanic black mothers are at increased risk for having a preterm birth and for not breastfeeding (2,3); however, it is not known whether demographic disparities exist in the use of breast milk in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Data from CDC's 2015 Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) survey, which does not collect patient-level demographics, were linked to the 2011-2015 U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS)* to examine use of breast milk in NICUs based on demographic makeup of the hospital's postal code area. Among U.S. hospitals with a NICU, the use of mother's own milk and donor milk were examined by the percentage of non-Hispanic black (black) residents in the hospital postal code area, categorized as being above or below the national average (12.3%). In postal codes with >12.3% black residents, 48.9% of hospitals reported using mothers' own milk in ≥75% of infants in the NICU, and 38.0% reported not using donor milk, compared with 63.8% and 29.6% of hospitals, respectively, in postal codes with ≤12.3% black residents. Further investigation is needed to understand variations in breast milk use in NICUs. Targeted efforts to increase breast milk use in hospitals located in postal codes where the percentage of black mothers is above the national average might help ensure more equitable access to breast milk for preterm and other high-risk infants.

  20. The influence of maternal ethnic group and diet on breast milk fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lin Lin; S K, Thamarai Chelvi; Lim, Su Lin; Chen, Yuming; Tan, Elizabeth A T; Pai, Namratha Narayan; Gong, Yin Han; Foo, Janie; Rauff, Mary; Chong, Yap Seng

    2010-09-01

    Breast milk fatty acids play a major role in infant development. However, no data have compared the breast milk composition of different ethnic groups living in the same environment. We aimed to (i) investigate breast milk fatty acid composition of three ethnic groups in Singapore and (ii) determine dietary fatty acid patterns in these groups and any association with breast milk fatty acid composition. This was a prospective study conducted at a tertiary hospital in Singapore. Healthy pregnant women with the intention to breastfeed were recruited. Diet profile was studied using a standard validated 3-day food diary. Breast milk was collected from mothers at 1 to 2 weeks and 6 to 8 weeks postnatally. Agilent gas chromatograph (6870N) equipped with a mass spectrometer (5975) and an automatic liquid sampler (ALS) system with a split mode was used for analysis. Seventy-two breast milk samples were obtained from 52 subjects. Analysis showed that breast milk ETA (Eicosatetraenoic acid) and ETA:EA (Eicosatrienoic acid) ratio were significantly different among the races (P = 0.031 and P = 0.020), with ETA being the highest among Indians and the lowest among Malays. Docosahexaenoic acid was significantly higher among Chinese compared to Indians and Malays. No difference was demonstrated in n3 and n6 levels in the food diet analysis among the 3 ethnic groups. Differences exist in breast milk fatty acid composition in different ethnic groups in the same region, although no difference was demonstrated in the diet analysis. Factors other than maternal diet may play a role in breast milk fatty acid composition.

  1. Increased Epstein-Barr virus in breast milk occurs with subclinical mastitis and HIV shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanosyan, Armen; Rutagwera, David G; Molès, Jean-Pierre; Bollore, Karine; Peries, Marianne; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Nagot, Nicolas; Van De Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2016-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in breast milk and subclinical mastitis (SCM) are both associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shedding and possibly with postnatal HIV transmission. The objective of this nested case-control study was to investigate the interplay between SCM and EBV replication in breast milk of HIV-infected mothers.The relationships between EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) shedding, HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) level, and SCM were explored in breast milk samples of Zambian mothers participating in the ANRS 12174 trial. Mammary gland inflammation was defined as a breast milk sodium to potassium ratio (Na/K) greater than 0.6 and further subclassified as either "possible SCM" (Na/K ratio 0.6-1.0) or SCM (Na/K ratio ≥ 1.0). Breast milk interleukin 8 (IL-8) was measured as a surrogate marker of mammary gland inflammation.EBV DNA was detected in breast milk samples from 42 out of 83 (51%) participants and was associated with HIV-1 shedding in breast milk (P = 0.006). EBV DNA levels were higher in samples with SCM and "possible SCM" compared to non-SCM breast milk samples (P = 0.06; P = 0.007). An EBV DNA level of >200 copies/mL was independently associated with SCM and "possible SCM" (OR: 2.62; 95%: 1.13-6.10). In patients with SCM, higher EBV replication in the mammary gland was associated with a lower induction of IL-8 (P = 0.013). Resistance to DNase treatment suggests that EBV DNA in lactoserum is encapsidated.SCM and decreased IL-8 responses are associated with an increased EBV shedding in breast milk which may in turn facilitate HIV replication in the mammary gland.

  2. Increased Epstein–Barr virus in breast milk occurs with subclinical mastitis and HIV shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanosyan, Armen; Rutagwera, David G.; Molès, Jean-Pierre; Bollore, Karine; Peries, Marianne; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Nagot, Nicolas; Van De Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in breast milk and subclinical mastitis (SCM) are both associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shedding and possibly with postnatal HIV transmission. The objective of this nested case–control study was to investigate the interplay between SCM and EBV replication in breast milk of HIV-infected mothers. The relationships between EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) shedding, HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) level, and SCM were explored in breast milk samples of Zambian mothers participating in the ANRS 12174 trial. Mammary gland inflammation was defined as a breast milk sodium to potassium ratio (Na+/K+) greater than 0.6 and further subclassified as either “possible SCM” (Na+/K+ ratio 0.6–1.0) or SCM (Na+/K+ ratio ≥ 1.0). Breast milk interleukin 8 (IL-8) was measured as a surrogate marker of mammary gland inflammation. EBV DNA was detected in breast milk samples from 42 out of 83 (51%) participants and was associated with HIV-1 shedding in breast milk (P = 0.006). EBV DNA levels were higher in samples with SCM and “possible SCM” compared to non-SCM breast milk samples (P = 0.06; P = 0.007). An EBV DNA level of >200 copies/mL was independently associated with SCM and “possible SCM” (OR: 2.62; 95%: 1.13–6.10). In patients with SCM, higher EBV replication in the mammary gland was associated with a lower induction of IL-8 (P = 0.013). Resistance to DNase treatment suggests that EBV DNA in lactoserum is encapsidated. SCM and decreased IL-8 responses are associated with an increased EBV shedding in breast milk which may in turn facilitate HIV replication in the mammary gland. PMID:27399077

  3. Breast milk-acquired cytomegalovirus infection and disease in VLBW and premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzieri, Tatiana M; Dollard, Sheila C; Josephson, Cassandra D; Schmid, D Scott; Bialek, Stephanie R

    2013-06-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) and premature infants are at risk for developing postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease, including CMV-related sepsis-like syndrome (CMV-SLS) for which estimates [corrected] in the United States are lacking. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the pooled proportions (and 95% confidence intervals) of VLBW and premature infants born to CMV-seropositive women with breast milk-acquired CMV infection and CMV-SLS. We combined these proportions with population-based rates of CMV seropositivity, breast milk feeding, VLBW, and prematurity to estimate annual rates of breast milk-acquired CMV infection and CMV-SLS in the United States. In our meta-analysis, among 299 infants fed untreated breast milk, we estimated 19% (11%-32%) acquired CMV infection and 4% (2%-7%) developed CMV-SLS. Assuming these proportions, we estimated a rate of breast milk-acquired CMV infection among VLBW and premature infants in the United States of 6.5% (3.7%-10.9%) and 1.4% (0.7%-2.4%) of CMV-SLS, corresponding to 600 infants with CMV-SLS in 2008. Among 212 infants fed frozen breast milk, our meta-analysis proportions were 13% (7%-24%) for infection and 5% (2%-12%) for CMV-SLS, yielding slightly lower rates of breast milk-acquired CMV infection (4.4%; 2.4%-8.2%) but similar rates of CMV-SLS (1.7%; 0.7%-4.1%). Breast milk-acquired CMV infection presenting with CMV-SLS is relatively rare. Prospective studies to better define the burden of disease are needed to refine guidelines for feeding breast milk from CMV-seropositive mothers to VLBW and premature infants.

  4. A protective effect of milk fat globule EGF factor VIII (MFG-E8) on the spontaneous fusion of milk fat globules in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasueda, Takehiko; Oshima, Kenzi; Nakatani, Hajime; Tabuchi, Kanji; Nadano, Daita; Matsuda, Tsukasa

    2015-07-01

    Lipid droplets synthesized in mammary epithelial cells are secreted into breast milk by the budding-off mechanism. The milk lipids, termed mik fat globules (MFGs), are surrounded with the cell plasma membrane and contain various membrane proteins, including milk fat globule epidermal growth factor (EGF)-factor VIII (MFG-E8), on their surface. We report here that the MFGs in the milk of MFG-E8-deficient mice fused each other and turned into abnormally large size of lipid droplets within ∼48 h after being secreted into mammary alveolar lumen in situ or being incubated at 37°C in vitro. This biophysical degeneration of MFGs in the MFG-E8-deficient milk was efficiently rescued in vitro by adding the milk serum of wild-type mice, isolated MFG-E8 or annexin V. Moreover, addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (30 mM) also protected the MFG fusion remarkably in vitro. In addition, bovine MFGs also fused each other when isolated from milk serum, and the fusion was inhibited by adding isolated MFG-E8 or mouse milk serum, but not the milk serum of MFG-E8-deficient mice. MFG-E8 in breast milk may mask the phosphatidylserine exposed on the surface of MFGs with time after secretion and thereby suppress the membrane fusion among MFGs resulting in the enlargement of MFGs in the breast milk. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of lactational mastitis on the macronutrient content of breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Birgul; Dizdar, Evrim Alyamaç; Degirmencioglu, Halil; Uras, Nurdan; Sari, Fatma Nur; Oguz, Suna; Canpolat, Fuat Emre

    2016-07-01

    Mastitis in lactating mothers reduces milk production and alters the cellular composition of milk. Changes occurring in the mammary gland during the inflammatory response are believed to increase the permeability of the blood-milk barrier. This study examined the effect of mastitis during lactation on the macronutrient content of breast milk. The study was conducted at Zekai Tahir Burak Maternity Teaching Hospital. Transitional breast milk samples were obtained from term lactating mothers with or without mastitis. Milk protein, fat, carbohydrate, and energy levels were measured using a mid-infrared human milk analyzer. The study recruited 30 term lactating mothers: 15 mothers diagnosed with mastitis and 15 healthy mothers. The characteristics of the mothers in both groups were similar. Fat, carbohydrate, and energy levels were statistically lower in the milk samples of mothers with mastitis compared with the mothers without mastitis. Lactational mastitis was associated with lower breast milk fat, carbohydrate, and energy levels. The local inflammatory response induced by cytokines and increased blood-milk barrier permeability might account for the changes in the fat, carbohydrate, and energy levels of human milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Breast Milk of HIV-Positive Mothers Has Potent and Species-Specific In Vivo HIV-Inhibitory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Angela; Baker, Caroline; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Stamper, Lisa W; Fouda, Genevieve G; Permar, Sallie R; Hinde, Katie; Kuhn, Louise; Bode, Lars; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Garcia, J Victor

    2015-11-01

    Despite the nutritional and health benefits of breast milk, breast milk can serve as a vector for mother-to-child HIV transmission. Most HIV-infected infants acquire HIV through breastfeeding. Paradoxically, most infants breastfed by HIV-positive women do not become infected. This is potentially attributed to anti-HIV factors in breast milk. Breast milk of HIV-negative women can inhibit HIV infection. However, the HIV-inhibitory activity of breast milk from HIV-positive mothers has not been evaluated. In addition, while significant differences in breast milk composition between transmitting and nontransmitting HIV-positive mothers have been correlated with transmission risk, the HIV-inhibitory activity of their breast milk has not been compared. This knowledge may significantly impact the design of prevention approaches in resource-limited settings that do not deny infants of HIV-positive women the health benefits of breast milk. Here, we utilized bone marrow/liver/thymus humanized mice to evaluate the in vivo HIV-inhibitory activity of breast milk obtained from HIV-positive transmitting and nontransmitting mothers. We also assessed the species specificity and biochemical characteristics of milk's in vivo HIV-inhibitory activity and its ability to inhibit other modes of HIV infection. Our results demonstrate that breast milk of HIV-positive mothers has potent HIV-inhibitory activity and indicate that breast milk can prevent multiple routes of infection. Most importantly, this activity is unique to human milk. Our results also suggest multiple factors in breast milk may contribute to its HIV-inhibitory activity. Collectively, our results support current recommendations that HIV-positive mothers in resource-limited settings exclusively breastfeed in combination with antiretroviral therapy. Approximately 240,000 children become infected with HIV annually, the majority via breastfeeding. Despite daily exposure to virus in breast milk, most infants breastfed by HIV

  7. Dietary Fiber Intake in Young Adults and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliassen, A. Heather; Cho, Eunyoung; Liao, Xiaomei; Chen, Wendy Y.; Willett, Walter C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated fiber intake during adolescence and early adulthood in relation to breast cancer (BC) risk in the Nurses’ Health Study II. METHODS: Among 90 534 premenopausal women who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1991, we documented 2833 invasive BC cases during 20 years of follow-up. In 1998, 44 263 of these women also completed a questionnaire about their diet during high school; among these women, we documented 1118 cases of BC by end of follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for BC across categories of dietary fiber. RESULTS: Among all women, early adulthood total dietary fiber intake was associated with significantly lower BC risk (RR for highest versus lowest quintile 0.81; 95% CI 0.72–0.91; Ptrend = .002). Higher intakes of soluble fiber (RR for highest versus lowest quintile 0.86; 95% CI 0.77–0.97; Ptrend = .02) and insoluble fiber (RR for highest versus lowest quintile 0.80; 95% CI 0.71–0.90; Ptrend dietary fiber intake in adolescence was also associated with lower BC risk (RR for highest versus lowest quintile 0.84; 95% CI 0.70–1.01; Ptrend = .04). For the average of fiber intake during adolescence and early adult life, the RR comparing highest with lowest quintiles was 0.75 (95% CI 0.62–0.91, Ptrend = .004). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that higher fiber intakes reduce BC risk and suggest that intake during adolescence and early adulthood may be particularly important. PMID:26908709

  8. Sex Hormones, Gonadotropins, and Sex Hormone-binding Globulin in Infants Fed Breast Milk, Cow Milk Formula, or Soy Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xin; Wang, Lei; Wu, Chunhua; Shi, Huijing; Zhou, Zhijun; Montgomery, Scott; Cao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of endogenous hormones in early life is important to investigate the effects of hormonally active environmental compounds. To assess the possible hormonal effects of different feeding regimens in different sample matrices of infants, 166 infants were enrolled from two U.S hospitals between 2006 and 2009. The children were classified into exclusive soy formula, cow milk formula or breast milk regimens. Urine, saliva and blood samples were collected over the first 12 months of life....

  9. Effects of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on prepartum intake and postpartum intake and milk production of Jersey cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, H M; Drackley, J K; McCoy, G C; Hutjens, M F; Garrett, J E

    2000-01-01

    Yeast cultures (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; YC) have been added to diets for dry and lactating dairy cows to attempt to improve ruminal fermentation, potentially increasing dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield. Jersey cows (14 primigravid and 25 multigravid) were fed total mixed rations prepartum and postpartum that were either supplemented or not supplemented with YC. The YC was a dried product that was top-dressed at 60 g/d for approximately 21 d prepartum and 140 d postpartum. The DMI was increased by YC during both the last 7 d prepartum (9.8 vs. 7.7 kg) and during the first 42 d of lactation (13.7 vs. 11.9 kg). The treatment-by-day interaction was significant for DMI during the first 21 d postpartum, indicating that cows supplemented with YC increased DMI more rapidly than did nonsupplemented cows. A significant treatment-by-day interaction indicated that cows supplemented with YC lost body weight less rapidly postpartum than did non-supplemented cows. A significant interaction of treatment by day indicated that cows supplemented with YC reached peak milk production more quickly than did nonsupplemented cows. However, total milk produced during the first 140 d of lactation did not differ. Concentrations of fat, protein, lactose, total solids, and urea N in milk, as well as somatic cell count, were not significantly affected by YC. Supplementation of YC increased DMI during the transition period and increased DMI postpartum.

  10. Impact of maternal nutrition on breast-milk composition: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Francesca; Wiens, Frank; Decarli, Adriano; Dal Pont, Alessia; Agostoni, Carlo; Ferraroni, Monica

    2016-09-01

    It is widely reported that maternal diet influences the nutritional composition of breast milk. The amount of variability in human milk attributable to diet remains mostly unknown. Most original studies that reported a dietary influence on breast-milk composition did not assess diet directly, did not quantify its association with milk composition, or both. To gather the quantitative evidence on this issue, we carried out a systematic PubMed and Medline search of articles published up to January 2015 and filtered the retrieved articles according to predefined criteria. Only studies that provided quantitative information on both maternal diet and milk data, measured in individual healthy mothers of healthy term infants and based on an original observational or experimental design, were included. Exclusion criteria were a focus on supplements, transfer of toxic metals or other contaminants from diet to milk, or on marginally nourished women. Thirty-six publications-including data on 1977 lactating women-that matched our criteria were identified. Seventeen studies investigated dietary effects on fatty acids in breast milk. The rest included studies that focused on a diverse spectrum of other nutritional properties of breast milk. The largest evidence, in terms of number of articles, for any link between maternal diet and a nutritive property of breast milk came from 3 studies that supported the link between fish consumption and high docosahexaenoic acid in breast milk and 2 studies that reported a positive correlation between dietary vitamin C and milk concentrations of this vitamin. The available information on this topic is scarce and diversified. Most of the evidence currently used in clinical practice to make recommendations is limited to studies that only reported indirect associations. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Milk Consumption Following Exercise Reduces Subsequent Energy Intake in Female Recreational Exercisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Rumbold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of skimmed milk as a recovery drink following moderate–vigorous cycling exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy, female recreational exercisers. Utilising a randomised cross-over design, nine female recreational exercisers (19.7 ± 1.3 years completed a V̇O2peak test followed by two main exercise trials. The main trials were conducted following a standardised breakfast. Following 30 min of moderate-vigorous exercise (65% V̇O2peak, either 600 mL of skimmed milk or 600 mL of orange drink (475 mL orange juice from concentrate, 125 mL water, which were isoenergetic (0.88 MJ, were ingested, followed 60 min later with an ad libitum pasta meal. Absolute energy intake was reduced 25.2% ± 16.6% after consuming milk compared to the orange drink (2.39 ± 0.70 vs. 3.20 ± 0.84 MJ, respectively; p = 0.001. Relative energy intake (in relation to the energy content of the recovery drinks and energy expenditure was significantly lower after milk consumption compared to the orange drink (1.49 ± 0.72 vs. 2.33 ± 0.90 MJ, respectively; p = 0.005. There were no differences in AUC (× 1 h subjective appetite parameters (hunger, fullness and desire to eat between trials. The consumption of skimmed milk following 30 min of moderate-vigorous cycling exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers.

  12. Effect of flash-heat treatment on immunoglobulins in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantry, Caroline J; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Moldoveanu, Zina; Peerson, Jan; Coutsoudis, Anna; Sibeko, Lindiwe; Abrams, Barbara

    2009-07-01

    Heat-treated expressed breast milk is recommended by the World Health Organization as an option to reduce vertical HIV transmission in resource-poor regions. Flash-heat (FH) is a low technology pasteurization method developed for home use, but its effect on quantity and quality of breast milk immunoglobulins is unknown. To evaluate FH's effect on breast milk immunoglobulin levels and antigen-binding capacity. Fifty HIV+ mothers in South Africa provided breast milk. Part of each sample served as an unheated control; the remainder was flash-heated. Total and antigen-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Paired t test was performed on log-transformed data. FH significantly decreased total IgA and IgG concentrations [geometric mean (geometric SD) 318.0 (1.9) vs. 398.2 (1.9) microg/mL and 89.1 (2.7) vs. 133.3 (2.5) microg/mL, P milk immunoglobulin activity survives FH, suggesting flash-heated breast milk is immunologically superior to breast milk substitutes. Clinical significance of this decreased immunoglobulin activity needs evaluation in prospective trials.

  13. Productive performance of rabbits according to pre-weaning solid feed and milk intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampiero Stanco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to ascertain the effect of different solid feed and milk intake during suckling on productive performanceand on caecal content characteristics at weaning (28 days. In order to obtain different intakes of milk and solid feedfrom 16 days, 16 litters were maintained at ten pups per litter (Group L10, while the other 16 were reduced to five(Group L5. During lactation dead pups were replaced by pups with the same age from nursing does.From day 18 to day 28 of lactation, milk intake was lower for the L10 group than for the L5 group (22.2 vs 30.1 g/d; Prate (16.2 vs 21.0 g/d; P the rabbits in Group L10 recorded higher total VFA production (50.7 vs 44.1 mmol/l; P vs 6.39; P those of Group L5.No significant difference was observed between the two groups in post-weaning mortality and live weight at day 77 (2321vs 2347 g, respectively for L10 and L5. From 28 to 35 days, feed intake (71.2 vs 66.1 g; P gain (40.1 vs 35.9 g; P < 0.01 were higher in L10 than in L5.

  14. High DMBT1 concentrations in breast milk correlate with increased risk of infection in preterm and term neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronellenfitsch, Sebastian; Weiß, Christel; Frommhold, David

    2012-01-01

    Background: Human milk contains immune molecules involved in the protection of newborns against infections. We analyzed the concentration of Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1), a protein with functions in innate immunity, in breast milk. Methods: DMBT1 was detected in breast milk by West...

  15. Pasture intake and milk production of dairy cows rotationally grazing on multi-species swards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Fernández, A I; Peyraud, J L; Delaby, L; Delagarde, R

    2016-09-01

    Increasing plant species diversity has been proposed as a means for enhancing annual pasture productivity and decreasing seasonal variability of pasture production facing more frequent drought scenarios due to climate change. Few studies have examined how botanical complexity of sown swards affects cow performance. A 2-year experiment was conducted to determine how sward botanical complexity, from a monoculture of ryegrass to multi-species swards (MSS) (grasses-legumes-forb), affect pasture chemical composition and nutritive value, pasture dry matter (DM) intake, milk production and milk solids production of grazing dairy cows. Five sward species: perennial ryegrass (L as Lolium), white clover and red clover (both referred to as T as Trifolium because they were always sown together), chicory (C as Cichorium) and tall fescue (F as Festuca) were assigned to four grazing treatments by combining one (L), three (LT), four (LTC) or five (LTCF) species. Hereafter, the LT swards are called mixed swards as a single combination of ryegrass and clovers, whereas LTC and LTCF swards are called MSS as a combination of at least four species from three botanical families. The experimental area (8.7 ha) was divided into four block replicates with a mineral nitrogen fertilisation of 75 kg N/ha per year for each treatment. In total, 13 grazing rotations were carried out by applying the same grazing calendar and the same pasture allowance of 19 kg DM/cow per day above 4 cm for all treatments. Clover represented 20% of DM for mixed and MSS swards; chicory represented 30% of DM for MSS and tall fescue represented 10% of DM for LTCF swards. Higher milk production (+1.1 kg/day) and milk solids production (+0.08 kg/day) were observed for mixed swards than for ryegrass swards. Pasture nutritive value and pasture DM intake were unaffected by the inclusion of clover. Pasture DM, organic matter and NDF concentrations were lower for MSS than for mixed swards. Higher milk production (+0.8 kg

  16. Lifetime Alcohol Intake, Binge Drinking Behaviors, and Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Alexandra J; DeRoo, Lisa A; Weinberg, Clarice R; Sandler, Dale P

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of binge drinking in the United States is rising. While alcohol is a risk factor for breast cancer, less is known about the impact of episodic heavy drinking. In 2003-2009, women aged 35-74 years who were free of breast cancer were enrolled in the Sister Study (n = 50,884). Residents of the United States or Puerto Rico who had a sister with breast cancer were eligible. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for breast cancer. During follow-up (mean = 6.4 years), 1,843 invasive breast cancers were diagnosed. Increased breast cancer risk was observed for higher lifetime alcohol intake (for ≥230 drinks/year vs. drinks/year, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15, 1.58). Relative to low-level drinkers (drinks/year), hazard ratios were increased for ever binge drinking (HR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.45) or blacking out (HR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.64). Compared with low-level drinkers who never binged, moderate drinkers (60-229 drinks/year) who binged had a higher risk (HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.44). There was evidence of effect modification between moderate lifetime drinking and binging (relative excess risk due to interaction = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.57). Our findings support the established association between lifetime alcohol intake and breast cancer and provide evidence for an increased risk associated with heavy episodic drinking, especially among moderate lifetime drinkers. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Leptospira in breast tissue and milk of urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Oliveira, D; Figueira, C P; Zhan, L; Pertile, A C; Pedra, G G; Gusmão, I M; Wunder, E A; Rodrigues, G; Ramos, E A G; Ko, A I; Childs, J E; Reis, M G; Costa, F

    2016-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The disease is globally distributed and a major public health concern. The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the main reservoir of the pathogen in urban slums of developing and developed countries. The potential routes of intra-specific leptospire transmission in rats are largely unknown. Herein, we identified pathogenic Leptospira spp. in breast tissue and milk of naturally infected rats. We examined kidney, breast tissue and milk from 24 lactating rats for the presence of leptospires using immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and scanning electronic microscopy. All 24 rats had evidence for Leptospira in the kidneys, indicating chronic carriage. The majority of kidney-positive rats had detectable leptospires in milk (18, 75%) and breast tissue (16, 67%), as evidenced by immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry. Four (17%) milk samples and two (8%) breast tissue samples were positive by quantitative real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of leptospires in breast tissue. No major pathological changes in breast tissue were found. This study, for the first time, identified leptospires in the milk and breast tissue of wild Norway rats, suggesting the possibility of milk-borne transmission of leptospirosis to neonates.

  18. BREAST MILK AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR POSTPARTUM PERINEAL CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Admasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perineal laceration during childbirth is very common among mothers; however some of them may suffer from its complication if not treated properly. Objective: To prove the effectiveness of breast milk as an alternative topical ingredient in the treatment of perineal wound in postpartum mothers. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with non-equivalent control group posttest only design. There were 30 respondents selected in this study, with 15 assigned in the intervention and control group. Accidental sampling was used to select the samples with the criteria that the respondents had perineal laceration in level 1 and 2. Data were analzed using Mann Whitney test. Results: Effective wound healing process can be seen in the intervention group from 80% of poor category in 6- 10 hours (1st period of postpartum became 86.7% of good category in 7 days of postpartum (4th period. Different from the control group that showed the slow progress of wound healing, which was 86.7% of poor category in the 1st period to only 33.3% of good category in the 4th period. Mann Whitney test showed that there was a significant mean difference of the perineal wound healing process between the intervention group (11.23 and the control group (19.77 with p-value 0.002 (<0.05. Conclusion: Breast milk was more effective than povidone iodine in the treatment of perineal wound. It is suggested for health workers, especially midwife to apply this intervention to accelerate the healing of perineal wound in midwifery care.

  19. Efficacy of Creamatocrit Technique in Evaluation of Premature Infants Fed With Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Yu Lin

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: We established the relation equation of creamatocrit and calories for the first time in Chinese population, which is convenient and accurate for evaluating calories provided for premature infants fed with breast milk.

  20. Organohalogen compounds in human breast milk from Republic of Buryatia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsydenova, Oyuna V. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Batoev, Valeriy B. [Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Sakhyanova st. 6, Ulan-Ude 670047 (Russian Federation); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-03-15

    Human breast milk samples collected during 2003/04 in Buryatia, a Russian autonomous republic, were analyzed in order to assess human exposure to organohalogen compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). When compared with available worldwide data, levels of HCB (23-880 ng/g lipid wt.), PCBs (69-680 ng/g lipid wt.), and HCHs (100-3700 ng/g lipid wt.) were relatively high, indicating elevated human exposure to these organochlorines (OCs) in Buryatia. In contrast to OCs, PBDE concentrations were low (0.46-1.7 ng/g lipid wt.). Out of 14 BDE congeners analyzed, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-197, and BDE-207 were detected. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of HCHs, HCB, CHLs, and PCBs by infants solely from human milk for 100%, 43%, 34%, and 17% of the samples, respectively, exceeded guideline thresholds. Although high EDIs raise concern for possible toxic effects of OCs, women in Buryatia are recommended to breastfeed due to numerous advantages of breastfeeding for mother and child. - People in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia are exposed to relatively high levels of HCHs, HCB and PCBs.

  1. Amino Acid Composition of Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L; Affolter, Michael; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; De Castro, Carlos A; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K

    2016-09-28

    Human breast milk (BM) amino acid (AA) composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BMAA over lactation stages in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. Four hundred fifty BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities covering eight months of lactation were analyzed for free (FAA) and total (TAA) AA by o-phthalaldehyde/ fluorenylmethylchloroformate (OPA/FMOC) derivatization. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. Both the sum and the individual TAA values significantly decreased during the first periods of lactation and then generally leveled off. Leucine and methionine were respectively the most and the least abundant indispensable amino acids across all the lactation stages, whereas glutamic acid + glutamine (Glx) was the most and cystine the least abundant dispensable AA. The contribution of FAA to TAA levels was less than 2%, except for free Glx, which was the most abundant FAA. In conclusion, the AA composition of the milk from our cohort of urban Chinese mothers was comparable to previous studies conducted in other parts of the world, suggesting that this is an evolutionary conserved trait largely independent of geographical, ethnic, or dietary factors.

  2. HPLC analysis of methylxanthines in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, J; Weber, C W; Shearer, L E

    1990-12-01

    A sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure is developed for simultaneously quantitating the levels of caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine in breast milk. The method involved the precipitation of proteins present in the milk samples with a 6% v/v perchloric acid solution containing the internal standard, proxyphylline, followed by centrifugation at 12,800 Xg for 10 minutes. The clear supernatant was then chromatographed on a C18 reversed-phase analytical column at ambient temperature using a wavelength of 272 nm. Samples were eluted from the column at a constant flow rate of 1.5 mL/min using a gradient program in which the concentration of methanol in the mobile phase varied from 0 to 16%. The mean recoveries of the methylxanthines averaged over all the concentrations examined were generally excellent and ranged from 96.3 +/- 5.4% for caffeine to 102.3 +/- 8.9% for paraxanthine. The assay precision was very good and the peaks of interest were extremely well resolved. The method is recommended for assessing the total caffeine and dimethylxanthine load to which the nursing infant is exposed in mothers ingesting typical amounts of caffeine.

  3. Mother's breast milk supplemented with donor milk reduces hospital and health service usage costs in low-birthweight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dritsakou, Kalliopi; Liosis, Georgios; Valsami, Georgia; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2016-09-01

    to compare hospital and health service usage costs of feeding low-birthweight (LBW) infants predominantly with their mother's milk, supplemented with donor milk, with donor milk and preterm formula. prospective matching study. tertiary public perinatal centre, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and donor human milk bank. 100LBW infants (Group I) fed predominantly with their mother's milk from the first hour of life, supplemented (mainly for the first week of life) with donor milk, were matched on a 1:1 basis with 100LBW infants (Group II) who were fed with donor milk for the first 3 weeks of life followed by preterm formula until hospital discharge. Individualised targeted fortification of human milk was implemented in both study groups. the costs of hospitalisation, doctor visits and prescription drugs for viral infections until 8 months of age were calculated for each infant. Infants fed predominantly with their mother's milk had significantly shorter hospital stays and lower hospitalisation costs. In Group I infants, the duration of enteral gavage feeding was shorter, resulting in significantly lower costs. Up to 8 months of age, Group I infants experienced fewer episodes of viral infections, and the cost of each doctor visit and drug prescription was lower for these infants. feeding LBW infants predominantly with their mother's milk reduces hospital and health service usage costs. feeding LBW infants predominantly with their mother's milk, supplemented with donor milk, followed by exclusive breast feeding seems to result in potential savings in hospital and health service usage costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Copper, lead and zinc concentrations of human breast milk as affected by maternal dietary practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umoren, J.; Kies, C.

    1986-03-01

    Maternal dietary practices have been found to affect the concentrations of some nutrients in human breast milk. Lead toxicity is a concern in young children. Lead, copper and zinc are thought to compete for intestinal absorption sites. The objective of the current project was to compare copper, lead and zinc contents of breast milk from practicing lacto-vegetarian and omnivore, lactating women at approximately four months post-partum. Analyses were done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a carbon rod attachment. Copper concentrations were higher in milk samples from lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Milk samples from the omnivores had the highest lead and zinc concentrations. Lead and copper concentrations in milk were negatively correlated. The higher zinc concentrations in the milk of the omnivore women may have been related to better utilization of zinc from meat than from plant food sources.

  5. Effect of Breast Milk Lead on Infant Blood Lead Levels at 1 Month of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Bellinger, David C.; Peterson, Karen E.; Schwartz, Joel David

    2004-01-01

    Nursing infants may be exposed to lead from breast milk, but relatively few data exist with which to evaluate and quantify this relationship. This route of exposure constitutes a potential infant hazard from mothers with current ongoing exposure to lead as well as from mothers who have been exposed previously due to the redistribution of cumulative maternal bone lead stores. We studied the relationship between maternal breast milk lead and infant blood lead levels among 255 mother?infant pair...

  6. With antitransglutaminase antibodies in the breast milk, is breastfeeding beneficial or harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingone, Fabiana; Scotto di Santolo, Salvatore; Cinquanta, Luigi; Ciacci, Carolina

    2017-09-01

    Breast milk is fundamental to induce an appropriate immunotolerance in the newborn. Here, we present the case of a young mother who was diagnosed with celiac disease while breastfeeding. She is dealing with the problem of knowing that celiac disease-specific autoantibodies are present in her breast milk, but not knowing if they are potentially harmful to her baby. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Formula versus donor breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Maria; McGuire, William

    2014-04-22

    When sufficient maternal breast milk is not available, alternative sources of enteral nutrition for preterm or low birth weight infants are donor breast milk or artificial formula. Donor breast milk may retain some of the non-nutritive benefits of maternal breast milk for preterm or low birth weight infants. However, feeding with artificial formula may ensure more consistent delivery of optimal levels of nutrients. Uncertainty exists about the balance of risks and benefits of feeding formula versus donor breast milk for preterm or low birth weight infants. To determine the effect of feeding with formula compared with donor breast milk on growth and development in preterm or low birth weight infants. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2014, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to March 2014), EMBASE (1980 to March 2014), CINAHL (1982 to March 2014), conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing feeding with formula versus donor breast milk in preterm or low birth weight infants. We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Group, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. Nine trials, in which 1070 infants participated, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four trials compared standard term formula versus donor breast milk and five compared nutrient-enriched preterm formula versus donor breast milk. Only the two most recent trials used nutrient-fortified donor breast milk. The trials contain various methodological quality weaknesses, specifically uncertainty about adequate allocation concealment methods in three trials and lack of blinding in most of the trials.Formula-fed infants had higher in hospital rates of increase in weight [mean difference (MD): 2.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.98 to 3.71) g/kg/day], length [MD 1.93 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.62) mm/week] and head circumference [MD 1.59 (95% CI 0.95 to 2.24) mm

  8. Intakes of coffee, tea, milk, soda and juice and renal cell cancer in a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, J.E; Hunter, D.J; Spiegelman, D; Adami, H.O; Bernstein, L; van den Brandt, P.A; Buring, J.E; Cho, E; English, D; Folsom, A.R; Freudenheim, J.L; Gile, G.G; Giovannucci, E; Horn Ross, P.L; Leitzmann, M; Marshall, J.R; Männistö, S; McCullough, M.L; Miller, A.B; Parker, A.S; Pietinen, P; Roiguez, C; Rohan, T.E; Schatzkin, A; Schouten, L.J; Willett, W.C; Wolk, A; Zhang, S.M; Smith Warner, S.A

    2007-01-01

    ..., but few prospective studies have examined these associations. We evaluated the associations between coffee, tea, milk, soda and fruit and vegetable juice intakes and renal cell cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies...

  9. Experience in application of enriched breast milk in feeding children with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panina O.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing of very low and extremely low birth weight infants is one of the most difficult problems of modern perinatol-ogy. It is impossible to carry out this task without organization of fee-ding of this group of children. The aim of our research was to study clinical efficiency of breast milk fortifiers administration (human milk fortifier when preterm infants feeding. Materials and methods. In consequence of this clinical research (with included 60 premature infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age with less than 1500g birth weight the following advantages before other types of feeding were revealed. Results. Mother and child solidarity in the course of breast feeding make deep favorable mutual emotional pressure. It was succeeded to keep all breast feeding advantages and to provide preterm infants special needs in feedstuffs. Human milk fortifiers administration provides higher body weight gain intensity; reduces length of stay in a hospital. It should not go unnoticed high tolerability and lack of complications at its medication usability was noted. Human milk fortifier divorce with small quantity of breast milk and that is especially important for very low and extremely low birth weight infants feeding. Conclusion. All above-mentioned allows recommending human milk fortifiers «PRE NAN FM 85» administration for breast milk in neonatal practice

  10. Comparison of the fatty acid profile of Spanish infant formulas and Galician women breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, Rocío; Regal, Patricia; López-Racamonde, Olga; Cepeda, Alberto; Fente, Cristina A

    2018-02-01

    The importance of dietary lipids during childhood is evident, as they are necessary for correct growth and development of the newborn. When breastfeeding is not possible, infant formulas are designed to mimic human milk as much as possible to fulfill infant's requirements. However, the composition of these dairy products is relatively constant, while human milk is not a uniform bio-fluid and changes according to the requirements of the baby. In this study, breast milk samples were donated by 24 Spanish mothers in different lactation stages and different infant formulas were purchased in supermarkets and pharmacies. Gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection was used for the fatty acid determination. Compared to breast milk, first-stage formulas are apparently very similar in composition; however, no major differences were observed in the fatty acid profiles between formulas of different lactation stages. The Galician women breast milk has a fatty acid profile rich in oleic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. When comparing human milk with formulas, it becomes evident that the manufacturers tend to enrich the formulas with essential fatty acids (especially with α-linolenic acid), but arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid levels are lower than in breast milk. Additionally, the obtained results demonstrated that after 1 year of lactation, human milk is still a good source of energy, essential fatty acids, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for the baby.

  11. Changes in Preterm Breast Milk Nutrient Content in the First Month

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Chi Hsu

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The longitudinal study revealed significant changes in macronutrient contents and secretory IgA concentration in preterm milk over the 4–6 week period, which is compatible with the results of previous studies. The quantification of phosphate in preterm breast milk was lower than the normal range, suggesting that close monitoring of body bone mass may be indicated. More studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical significance of alterations of major milk components during the postnatal stage.

  12. Mother and Infant Body Mass Index, Breast Milk Leptin and Their Serum Leptin Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Sardo, Allegra; Rossi, Lorenza; Benetti, Stefania; Savino, Andrea; Silvestro, Leandra

    2016-06-21

    This study investigates correlations between mother and infant Body Mass Index (BMI), their serum leptin values and breast milk leptin concentration in early infancy. We determined serum leptin values in 58 healthy infants and leptin values in their mothers' breast milk, using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Infant and maternal anthropometrics were measured. Median leptin concentration was 3.9 ng/mL (interquartile range (IQR): 2.75) in infant serum, 4.27 ng/mL (IQR: 5.62) in maternal serum and 0.89 ng/mL (IQR: 1.32) in breast milk. Median maternal BMI and weight were 24 kg/m² (IQR: 4.41) and 64 kg (IQR: 15). Median infant BMI was 15.80 kg/cm² (IQR: 4.02), while average weight was 5.130 kg (IQR: 1.627). Infants serum leptin values positively correlated with infants' BMI (p = 0.001; r = 0.213) and breast milk leptin (p = 0.03; r = 0.285). Maternal serum leptin values positively correlated with maternal BMI (p = 0.000, r = 0.449) and breast milk leptin ones (p = 0.026; r = 0.322). Breast milk leptin and maternal BMI could influence infant serum leptin values. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the role of genetics and environment on infant leptin production and risk of obesity later in life.

  13. Dynamics of breast milk HIV-1 RNA with unilateral mastitis or abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Katherine; Kuhn, Louise; Brooks, Daniel R.; Cabral, Howard; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Thea, Donald M.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mastitis and abscess in HIV-infected women increase risk of breastfeeding transmission of HIV. Guidelines encourage women to stop breastfeeding on the affected breast and feed on the contralateral breast. However, impact of breast pathology on breast milk HIV dynamics is unknown. Methods HIV RNA was quantified in 211 breast milk samples collected before, during and after a clinical mastitis or abscess diagnosis from 38 HIV-infected women participating in a Zambian breastfeeding study. HIV RNA quantity was compared between affected and unaffected breasts over time using generalized estimating equation models. A sample of 115 women without breast pathology was selected as a control group. Results In the affected breast, breast milk HIV RNA quantity increased from the pre- to during-pathology period by log10 0.45 copies/mL (95% CI: 0.16, 0.74) and after symptom resolution, HIV RNA levels were no different from pre-pathology levels (log10 -0.04 copies/mL 95%CI: -0.33, 0.25). In the contralateral unaffected breast, HIV RNA quantity did not significantly increase (log10 0.15 copies/mL, 95% CI: -0.41, 0.10). Increase was more marked in women with abscess or with a greater number of mastitis symptoms. HIV RNA was not significantly different between affected and unaffected women, except at the time of diagnosis. Conclusions Breast milk HIV RNA increased modestly in the affected breast with unilateral mastitis or abscess and returned to pre-pathology levels with symptom resolution. Contralateral HIV RNA was not affected. Results support guidelines encouraging feeding from the contralateral breast to minimize risk of HIV transmission associated with unilateral breast pathology. PMID:23202812

  14. Urinary Iodine Excretion of Lactating Mothers Predicts the Iodine Content of Their Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forhadul Hoque Mollah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine is essential for normal growth, mental development and survival of infants. Bangladesh is an iodine deficient region. Breast milk is the only source of iodine for exclusively breast-fed infants. Routine measurement of breast milk iodine concentration is very difficult in our country due to some social and religious barriers. So, we designed this study in our population using urinary iodine as the indicator for assessing iodine status. Objectives: To assess the iodine status of lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants and to propose a method on how to predict the iodine concentration in breast milk. Materials and Methods: This observational analytical study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka with active cooperation of Kumudini Women’s Medical College Hospital, Mirzapur, Tangail involving fifty lactating mothers and their exclusively breast-fed infants. Early morning urine and breast milk samples were collected in dry and clean plastic container free from any chemical contamination. All statistical analyses were done by using SPSS (Statistical Programme for Social Science 12 version software package for windows. Results: The median (range urinary iodine concentration of lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants were 225.25 μg/L (61.50-530.00 and 225.75 μg/L (100.50-526.50. 96% (48 mothers had no biochemical iodine deficiency (UIE ≥100μg/L, only 4% (2 mothers had mild biochemical iodine deficiency (UIE 50-99μg/L. There was no biochemical deficiency of breast-fed infants. The median (range breast-milk iodine concentration was 157 μg/L (54.50-431.50 which was more than three times of recommended minimum concentration (50 μg/L. Iodine in breast milk of lactating mothers positively correlated with their urinary iodine excretion (P<0.01. Infant’s urinary iodine positively correlated with iodine concentration in breast milk (P<0.01 and also

  15. Developmental status of one year old infants fed breast-milk, cow's milk formula or soy formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although soy formula has been reported to support normal growth, concerns exist regarding potential adverse effects of phytochemicals associated with soy protein. This study characterized growth, body composition, and behavioral development of breast-fed (BF), milk-based formula-fed (MF), or soy pro...

  16. Leptin concentrations in relation to energy balance, milk yield, intake, live weight and estrus in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefers, S.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Delavaud, C.; Chilliard, Y.; Lende, van der T.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe fluctuations in leptin concentrations during late pregnancy and lactation and to investigate how those fluctuations are related to energy balance, milk yield, milk components, dry matter intake, live weight, first postpartum luteal activity, and first

  17. Breast Milk Human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Viral Load and the Establishment of Breast Milk CMV-pp65-Specific CD8 T Cells in Human CMV Infected Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, David C; Pati, Sunil K; Ross, Shannon A; Fowler, Karen B; Boppana, Suresh B; Sabbaj, Steffanie

    2017-11-27

    The role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-specific T-cell responses in breast milk of HCMV-seropositive mothers is not well defined. In these studies, we demonstrate that the frequency of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-pp65-specific T-cell responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and breast milk cells (BMCs) is increased for CD8+ T cells in both sample sources when compared with CD4+ T cells. The frequency of pp55-specific CD8 T cells producing interferon γ (IFN-γ) alone or dual IFN-γ/granzyme rB producers is increased in breast milk compared with PBMCs. Lastly, we observed a positive correlation between breast milk viral load and the CD8 pp65-specific response, suggesting that local virus replication drives antigen-specific CD8 T cells into the breast. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Breast-fed low-birth-weight premature neonates: developmental assessment and nutritional intake in the first 6 months of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowsky, Ksenia

    2007-01-01

    A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial in which the control group received routine breast-feeding care, consisted of women planning to breast-feed their low-birth-weight (LBW) premature infants, was conducted. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine the nutrition of healthy premature LBW infants and its impact on their development. A longitudinal prospective descriptive design was implemented measuring the same group of 50 healthy breast-feeding LBW premature infants from birth to 6 months corrected age. Developmental screening was performed at 6 months corrected age using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development to assess development in Mental scale, Motor scale, and Infant Behavioral record. Repeated measures analyses of variance were performed between the 3 gestational age groups and between the breast-fed and non-breast-fed groups. Bayley Scales of Infant Development Mental and Motor scales showed significant differences between the breast-fed and non-breast-fed groups at 6 months corrected age (P premature LBW infants over time was recorded and described. Nutritional assessment indicated that human milk intake in some quantity decreased from 40 weeks corrected age to 6 months corrected age: 70% to 26%. These findings can be utilized in anticipatory guidance when caring for neonates and mothers in the neonatal intensive care unit to encourage mothers to provide their own milk and strive to breast-feed.

  19. Effect of Human Breast Milk on the Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Caco-2 Cells after Hypoxia/Re-Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Wei-Yong; Bi, Ming-Yuan; Feng, Wei-Wei; Wang, Yu-Jun; Bu, Wei-Quan; Lu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis is a common and often fatal gastrointestinal disease, especially in premature infants. To study potential mechanisms underlying the protective effect of breast milk on neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, we induced intestinal inflammation in a Caco-2 cell model of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis by hypoxia/re-oxygenation to investigate whether breast milk supernatant fluid inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Caco-2 cells were divided into normal (control) and neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis groups. Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis was mimicked by exposing Caco-2 cells to hypoxia/re-oxygenation. Cells were independently maintained in minimal essential medium alone, minimal essential medium containing 5% breast milk supernatant, or 5% boiled breast milk supernatant. Production of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α was investigated in cell culture supernatants by ELISA, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescence. Hypoxia/re-oxygenation significantly increased the expression of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. In the normal group, breast milk supernatant and boiled breast milk supernatant markedly downregulated the expression of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α when compared with the minimal essential medium group, with the reduction in inter-leukin-1β expression being more pronounced in the breast milk group. In Caco-2 cells undergoing hypoxia/re-oxygenation, both breast milk supernatant and boiled breast milk supernatant significantly reduced the expression of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, where the decrease in interleukin-1β expression was greater in the breast milk group. Breast milk supernatant fluid inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor

  20. Violations of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes: Indonesia context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayana, Irma; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Parady, Vida A

    2017-01-01

    To measure compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes ('the Code') in Indonesia. The study was a cross-sectional survey using the Interagency Group on Breastfeeding Monitoring protocol. Public and private health facilities in six provinces on Java island in Indonesia. A total of 874 women (382 pregnant women and 492 breast-feeding mothers of infants below 6 months) and seventy-seven health workers were recruited from eighteen participating health facilities. The study also analysed a total of forty-four labels of breast-milk substitute products, twenty-seven television commercials for growing-up milk (for children >12 months) of nine brands and thirty-four print advertisements of fourteen brands. The study found that 20 % of the women had received advice and information on the use of breast-milk substitutes and 72 % had seen promotional materials for breast-milk substitutes. About 15 % reported receiving free samples and 16 % received gifts. Nearly a quarter of the health workers confirmed receiving visits from representatives of breast-milk substitute companies. Two health workers reported having received gifts from the companies. The most common labelling violations found were statements or visuals that discouraged breast-feeding and the absence of mention about the consideration of local climate in the expiration date. Violations of the Code by health workers, breast-milk substitute companies and their representatives were found in all provinces studied. A regular monitoring system should be in place to ensure improved compliance with and enforcement of the Code.

  1. Healthy late preterm infants and supplementary artificial milk feeds: effects on breast feeding and associated clinical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Elisabet; Funkquist, Eva-Lotta; Wickström, Maria; Nyqvist, Kerstin H; Volgsten, Helena

    2015-04-01

    to compare the influence of supplementary artificial milk feeds on breast feeding and certain clinical parameters among healthy late preterm infants given regular supplementary artificial milk feeds versus being exclusively breast fed from birth. a comparative study using quantitative methods. Data were collected via a parental diary and medical records. parents of 77 late preterm infants (34 5/7-36 6/7 weeks), whose mothers intended to breast feed, completed a diary during the infants׳ hospital stay. infants who received regular supplementary artificial milk feeds experienced a longer delay before initiation of breast feeding, were breast fed less frequently and had longer hospital stays than infants exclusively breast fed from birth. Exclusively breast-fed infants had a greater weight loss than infants with regular artificial milk supplementation. A majority of the mothers (65%) with an infant prescribed artificial milk never expressed their milk and among the mothers who used a breast-pump, milk expression commenced late (10-84 hours after birth). At discharge, all infants were breast fed to some extent, 43% were exclusively breast fed. clinical practice and routines influence the initiation of breast feeding among late preterm infants and may act as barriers to the mothers׳ establishment of exclusive breast feeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Response of Bone Resorption Markers to Aristolochia longa Intake by Algerian Breast Cancer Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bachir Benarba; Boumedienne Meddah; Aicha Tir Touil

    2014-01-01

    Aristolochia longa is widely used in traditional medicine in Algeria to treat breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the response of bone resorption markers to A. longa intake by Algerian breast cancer postmenopausal women. According to the A. longa intake, breast cancer patients were grouped into A. longa group (Al) (n = 54) and non-A. longa group (non-Al) (n = 24). 32 women constituted the control group. Bone resorption markers (from urine) pyridinoline (PYD) and deo...

  3. Alpha-Tocopherol Levels in Milk of Exclusively Breast-Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of prolonged breastfeeding on breast-milk alpha tocopherol was assessed in 112 lactating mothers practicing exclusive breast-feeding on term infants. The cross sectional study was carried out between May 1st and 30th, 2005 at the University of Benin/University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City among ...

  4. Alpha-Tocopherol Levels in Milk of Exclusively Breast-Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2005-05-30

    May 30, 2005 ... Breast-Feeding Mothers in Benin City, Nigeria. Okoeguale Michael Ibadin. 1*. , Chijindu Christopher Osubor. 2. , Peter Ajokpoghene. Onoberhie. 2. ABSTRACT. The influence of prolonged breastfeeding on breast-milk alpha tocopherol was assessed in 112 lactating ... preterm babies, especially if they are.

  5. Dioxin in meat, milk and dairy products: dietary intake in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diletti, G.; Creati, B.; Annunziata, L.; Ripani, A.; Scortichini, G. [Ist. Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell' Abruzzo e del Molise (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are ubiquitous toxic contaminants, highly lipophilic compounds that bioaccumulate in animal tissues. It is well established that food intake represents the main route of human exposure to these contaminants (more than 90%). In particular, the major source of PCDD/Fs in the diet seems to be represented by fat-containing animal products. Since the consumption of meat and dairy products contributes about 40-60% to the average exposure of the general population, this study was focused on meat, milk and dairy products. From 1998 the WHO has revised the health risks of PCDD/Fs and recommended a tolerable daily intake (TDI) range of 1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight. Besides, the Scientific Committee on Food of the European Commission has established a tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for dioxins of 14 pg/kg body weight. In Italy, from 2000 to 2003, PCDDs and PCDFs monitoring was conducted according to the National Residues Surveillance Plan (NRSP) and all relevant laboratory tests were carried out at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Abruzzo and Molise (ISO/IEC 17025 accredited), following designation by the Ministry of Health. Aim of this paper is to estimate the dietary intake of PCDD/Fs by the Italian population taking into account meat, milk and dairy products.

  6. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the nutrient content of preterm and term breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidrewicz, Dominica A; Fenton, Tanis R

    2014-08-30

    Breast milk nutrient content varies with prematurity and postnatal age. Our aims were to conduct a meta-analysis of preterm and term breast milk nutrient content (energy, protein, lactose, oligosaccharides, fat, calcium, and phosphorus); and to assess the influence of gestational and postnatal age. Additionally we assessed for differences by laboratory methods for: energy (measured vs. calculated estimates) and protein (true protein measurement vs. the total nitrogen estimates). Systematic review results were summarized graphically to illustrate the changes in composition over time for term and preterm milk. Since breast milk fat content varies within feeds and diurnally, to obtain accurate estimates we limited the meta-analyses for fat and energy to 24-hour breast milk collections. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria: 26 (843 mothers) preterm studies and 30 (2299 mothers) term studies of breast milk composition. Preterm milk was higher in true protein than term milk, with differences up to 35% (0.7 g/dL) in colostrum, however, after postnatal day 3, most of the differences in true protein between preterm and term milk were within 0.2 g/dL, and the week 10-12 estimates suggested that term milk may be the same as preterm milk by that age. Colostrum was higher than mature milk for protein, and lower than mature milk for energy, fat and lactose for both preterm and term milk. Breast milk composition was relatively stable between 2 and 12 weeks. With milk maturation, there was a narrowing of the protein variance. Energy estimates differed whether measured or calculated, from -9 to 13%; true protein measurement vs. the total nitrogen estimates differed by 1 to 37%. Although breast milk is highly variable between individuals, postnatal age and gestational stage (preterm versus term) were found to be important predictors of breast milk content. Energy content of breast milk calculated from the macronutrients provides poor estimates of measured energy, and protein

  7. Pumping Milk Without Ever Feeding at the Breast in the Moms2Moms Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Sarah A; Boone, Kelly M; Oza-Frank, Reena; Geraghty, Sheela R

    2017-09-01

    More than 85% of contemporary lactating women in the United States express their milk at least sometimes. Some produce milk exclusively through pumping. We characterized women who pumped but never fed at the breast and compared their infant feeding practices with those of women who fed at the breast with or without pumping. Study participants were those delivered at Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center in 2011 and completed a questionnaire at 12 months postpartum (n = 478). We used bivariate and multivariate approaches (survival analysis) to compare women who pumped but never fed at the breast with women who fed at the breast with or without pumping. Women (n = 33, 6.9%) who pumped but never fed at the breast comprised a diverse group but were more likely to have delivered preterm and were of lower socioeconomic status on average. They initiated pumping and formula feeding earlier (median = day 1 after delivery) and were more likely to report difficulty making enough milk compared with women who fed at the breast with or without pumping. They had much shorter total duration of milk production (adjusted hazard ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval: 2.1, 5.2) after controlling for clinical and sociodemographic confounders. Pumping without feeding at the breast is associated with shorter milk feeding duration and earlier introduction of formula compared with feeding at the breast with or without pumping. Establishing feeding at the breast, rather than exclusive pumping, may be important for achieving human milk feeding goals.

  8. Lactation-Related MicroRNA Expression Profiles of Porcine Breast Milk Exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Zhong, Zhijun; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Qi; Chen, Lei; Lang, Qiulei; He, Zhiping; Chen, Xiaohui; Gong, Jianjun; Gao, Xiaolian; Li, Xuewei; Lv, Xuebin

    2012-01-01

    Breast milk is the primary source of nutrition for newborns, and is rich in immunological components. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are present in various body fluids and are selectively packaged inside the exosomes, a type of membrane vesicles, secreted by most cell types. These exosomal miRNAs could be actively delivered into recipient cells, and could regulate target gene expression and recipient cell function. Here, we analyzed the lactation-related miRNA expression profiles in porcine milk exosomes across the entire lactation period (newborn to 28 days after birth) by a deep sequencing. We found that immune-related miRNAs are present and enriched in breast milk exosomes (p<10−16, χ2 test) and are generally resistant to relatively harsh conditions. Notably, these exosomal miRNAs are present in higher numbers in the colostrums than in mature milk. It was higher in the serum of colostrum-only fed piglets compared with the mature milk-only fed piglets. These immune-related miRNA-loaded exosomes in breast milk may be transferred into the infant body via the digestive tract. These observations are a prelude to in-depth investigations of the essential roles of breast milk in the development of the infant’s immune system. PMID:22937080

  9. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) inactivation in breast milk: reassessment of pasteurization and freeze-thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamprecht, Klaus; Maschmann, Jens; Müller, Denise; Dietz, Klaus; Besenthal, Ingo; Goelz, Rangmar; Middeldorp, Jaap M; Speer, Christian P; Jahn, Gerhard

    2004-10-01

    Breast-feeding mothers frequently transmit cytomegalovirus (CMV) to preterm infants of very low birth weight. Current recommendations for prevention of virus transmission are based on data published 20 y ago in the context of human milk banking. Two recent clinical trials examined storage of breast milk at -20 degrees Celsius to reduce virus transmission. However, in both studies, CMV transmission occurred. Using sensitive tools like quantitative PCR, CMV pp67 late mRNA assay, and a high-speed, centrifugation-based microculture assay for quantification of CMV infectivity, we reassessed the virological and biochemical characteristics of freeze-storing breast milk at -20 degrees Celsius, compared it with traditional Holder pasteurization (30 min at 62.5 degrees Celsius), and a new short-term pasteurization (5 s at 72 degrees Celsius) based on the generation of a milk film. Both heat treatment procedures were able to destroy viral infectivity and pp67 RNA completely. Preliminary results showed short-term heat inactivation below 72 degrees Celsius was less harmful in reducing the activity of marker enzymes than Holder pasteurization. Freezing breast milk preserved the biochemical and immunologic quality of the milk; however, late viral RNA and viral infectivity was also preserved. Compared with viral DNA, CMV-RNA more directly reflects infectious CMV in human milk samples. Further studies are necessary to evaluate short-term heat treatment below 72 degrees Celsius as an effective tool for prevention of CMV transmission.

  10. Lactation-related microRNA expression profiles of porcine breast milk exosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiren Gu

    Full Text Available Breast milk is the primary source of nutrition for newborns, and is rich in immunological components. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are present in various body fluids and are selectively packaged inside the exosomes, a type of membrane vesicles, secreted by most cell types. These exosomal miRNAs could be actively delivered into recipient cells, and could regulate target gene expression and recipient cell function. Here, we analyzed the lactation-related miRNA expression profiles in porcine milk exosomes across the entire lactation period (newborn to 28 days after birth by a deep sequencing. We found that immune-related miRNAs are present and enriched in breast milk exosomes (p<10(-16, χ(2 test and are generally resistant to relatively harsh conditions. Notably, these exosomal miRNAs are present in higher numbers in the colostrums than in mature milk. It was higher in the serum of colostrum-only fed piglets compared with the mature milk-only fed piglets. These immune-related miRNA-loaded exosomes in breast milk may be transferred into the infant body via the digestive tract. These observations are a prelude to in-depth investigations of the essential roles of breast milk in the development of the infant's immune system.

  11. Fatty acid patterns early after premature birth, simultaneously analysed in mothers' food, breast milk and serum phospholipids of mothers and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Karl-Göran; Lundqvist-Persson, Cristina; Bona, Elsa; Petzold, Max; Strandvik, Birgitta

    2009-06-10

    The supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids via the placenta is interrupted in premature infants, making them exclusively dependent on breast milk, which varies in fatty acid (FA) concentrations depending on the mother's diet. To in a longitudinal study explore the relation between FA status in mothers and infants from an unselected cohort of prematures, not requiring intensive care. Breast milk and mothers' and infants' plasma phospholipid FA concentrations from birth to 44 weeks of gestational age were analysed and compared with mothers' food intake, assessed using a 3-day diary. Fatty acids were analysed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. The energy intake was low in 75% of mothers, and 90% had low intake of essential FAs (EFAs). Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2w6), but not w3 FAs, correlated to concentrations in breast milk. Infants' plasma and breast milk correlated for arachidonic (AA, 20:4w6), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5w3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6w3) acids. A high concentration of mead acid (20:3w9) in the infants at birth correlated negatively to the concentrations of LA, AA and w3 FAs. Infants of mothers who stopped breastfeeding during the study period showed decreased DHA concentrations and increased w6/w3 ratios, with the opposite FA pattern seen in the mothers' plasma. Although dietary w3 FAs were insufficient in an unselected cohort of mothers of premature infants, breastfeeding resulted in increased levels of DHA in the premature infants at the expense of the mothers, suggesting a general need to increase dietary w3 FAs during pregnancy and lactation.

  12. Flame retardants in placenta and breast milk and cryptorchidism in newborn boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina Maria; Kiviranta, Hannu; Virtanen, Helena Eeva

    2007-01-01

    , 1997-2001, all boys were examined for cryptorchidism. We analyzed whole placentas (for 95 cryptorchid/185 healthy boys) and individual breast milk samples (62/68) for 14 PBDEs and infant serum samples for gonadotropins, sex-hormone binding globulin, testosterone, and inhibin B. RESULTS: In 86 placenta...... of PBDEs in breast milk was significantly higher in boys with cryptorchidism than in controls (sum of BDEs 47, 153, 99, 100, 28, 66, and 154: median, 4.16 vs. 3.16 ng/g fat; p hormone (p ...-milk pairs, placenta PBDE concentrations in fat were lower than in breast milk, and a larger number of congeners were nondetectable. There was no significant difference between boys with and without cryptorchidism for individual congeners, the sum of 5 most prevalent, or all 14 congeners. The concentration...

  13. Multiplatform characterization of dynamic changes in breast milk during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Hyde, Matthew J; Gomez-Romero, Maria; Lopez-Gonzalvez, Maria Angeles; Villaseñor, Alma; Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Barbas, Coral; Modi, Neena; Holmes, Elaine; Garcia-Perez, Isabel

    2015-05-11

    The multicomponent analysis of human breast milk (BM) by metabolic profiling is a new area of study applied to determining milk composition, and is capable of associating BM composition with maternal characteristics, and subsequent infant health outcomes. A multiplatform approach combining HPLC-MS and ultra-performance LC-MS, GC-MS, CE-MS, and 1 H NMR spectroscopy was used to comprehensively characterize metabolic profiles from seventy BM samples. A total of 710 metabolites spanning multiple molecular classes were defined. The utility of the individual and combined analytical platforms was explored in relation to numbers of metabolites identified, as well as the reproducibility of the methods. The greatest number of metabolites was identified by the single phase HPLC-MS method, while CE-MS uniquely profiled amino acids in detail and NMR was the most reproducible, whereas GC-MS targeted volatile compounds and short chain fatty acids. Dynamic changes in BM composition were characterized over the first 3 months of lactation. Metabolites identified as altering in abundance over lactation included fucose, di- and triacylglycerols, and short chain fatty acids, known to be important for infant immunological, neurological, and gastrointestinal development, as well as being an important source of energy. This extensive metabolic coverage of the dynamic BM metabolome provides a baseline for investigating the impact of maternal characteristics, as well as establishing the impact of environmental and dietary factors on the composition of BM, with a focus on the downstream health consequences this may have for infants. © 2015 The Authors. ELECTROPHORESIS Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  14. Peanut, milk, and wheat intake during pregnancy is associated with reduced allergy and asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyavanich, Supinda; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Platts-Mills, Thomas A; Workman, Lisa; Sordillo, Joanne E; Camargo, Carlos A; Gillman, Matthew W; Gold, Diane R; Litonjua, Augusto A

    2014-05-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy may affect childhood allergy and asthma. We sought to examine the associations between maternal intake of common childhood food allergens during early pregnancy and childhood allergy and asthma. We studied 1277 mother-child pairs from a US prebirth cohort unselected for any disease. Using food frequency questionnaires administered during the first and second trimesters, we assessed maternal intake of common childhood food allergens during pregnancy. In mid-childhood (mean age, 7.9 years), we assessed food allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis by questionnaire and serum-specific IgE levels. We examined the associations between maternal diet during pregnancy and childhood allergy and asthma. We also examined the cross-sectional associations between specific food allergies, asthma, and atopic conditions in mid-childhood. Food allergy was common (5.6%) in mid-childhood, as was sensitization to at least 1 food allergen (28.0%). Higher maternal peanut intake (each additional z score) during the first trimester was associated with 47% reduced odds of peanut allergic reaction (odds ratio [OR], 0.53; 95% CI, 0.30-0.94). Higher milk intake during the first trimester was associated with reduced asthma (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-0.99) and allergic rhinitis (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.97). Higher maternal wheat intake during the second trimester was associated with reduced atopic dermatitis (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46-0.90). Peanut, wheat, and soy allergy were each cross-sectionally associated with increased childhood asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis (ORs, 3.6 to 8.1). Higher maternal intake of peanut, milk, and wheat during early pregnancy was associated with reduced odds of mid-childhood allergy and asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Infrared analyzers for breast milk analysis: fat levels can influence the accuracy of protein measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Celia; Fusch, Gerhard; Bahonjic, Aldin; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2017-10-26

    Currently, there is a growing interest in lacto-engineering in the neonatal intensive care unit, using infrared milk analyzers to rapidly measure the macronutrient content in breast milk before processing and feeding it to preterm infants. However, there is an overlap in the spectral information of different macronutrients, so they can potentially impact the robustness of the measurement. In this study, we investigate whether the measurement of protein is dependent on the levels of fat present while using an infrared milk analyzer. Breast milk samples (n=25) were measured for fat and protein content before and after being completely defatted by centrifugation, using chemical reference methods and near-infrared milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar) with two different calibration algorithms provided by the manufacturer (released 2009 and 2015). While the protein content remained unchanged, as measured by elemental analysis, measurements by infrared milk analyzer show a difference in protein measurements dependent on fat content; high fat content can lead to falsely high protein content. This difference is less pronounced when measured using the more recent calibration algorithm. Milk analyzer users must be cautious of their devices' measurements, especially if they are changing the matrix of breast milk using more advanced lacto-engineering.

  16. BfR does not see any association between progesterone levels in milk and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2008-01-01

    The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) expresses its opinion on a possible associa-tion between rising milk consumption and the onset of cancer. In particular breast and pros-tate cancer are said to be attributable to the increased consumption of milk and dairy prod-ucts. The reasons given are the natural, hormonal ingredients in milk. Besides carbohy-drates, proteins, vitamins and trace elements, milk also contains hormones like, for instance, progesterone.  Progesterone is a fem...

  17. The Impact of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes on WHO-Recommended Breastfeeding Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwoz, Ellen G; Huffman, Sandra L

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal breastfeeding results in 800 000 child deaths annually. There are multiple causes of suboptimal breastfeeding, including marketing of breast-milk substitutes. To describe sales and marketing of breast-milk substitutes and their influence on World Health Organization-recommended breastfeeding behaviors, focusing on low- and middle-income countries. Literature review. Global sales of breast-milk substitutes reached US$40 billion in 2013. Growth in sales exceeds 10% annually in many low- and middle-income countries, while it is close to stagnant in high-income countries. Breast-milk substitutes are marketed directly to consumers via mass media and print advertisements and indirectly via incentives, free supplies, and promotions to and through health workers and facilities, retailers, and policy makers. Internet marketing via company web sites and social media is on the rise. Marketing influences social norms by making formula use seem to be extensive, modern, and comparable to or better than breast milk. Clear evidence of a negative impact is found when breast-milk substitutes are provided for free in maternity facilities and when they are promoted by health workers and in the media. Influences through other channels are plausible, but rigorous studies are lacking. It was not possible with the data available to quantify the impact of marketing relative to other factors on suboptimal breastfeeding behaviors. Marketing remains widespread even in countries that have adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes to restrict such activities. Adoption of stricter regulatory frameworks coupled with independent, quantitative monitoring and compliance enforcement are needed to counter the impacts of formula marketing globally. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Breast Milk Lead Levels in 3 Major Regions of the West Bank of Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawahna, Ramzi; Zyoud, Ahed; Dwikat, Jamela; El-Helo, Maram; Yacoub, Bayan; Hilal, Hikmat

    2016-08-01

    Lead is a neurotoxic pollutant that is ubiquitously spread in our environment. Breast milk contaminated with lead poses a potential risk of exposing a recipient infant to lead. The primary aims of this study were to evaluate the breast milk lead levels (BMLLs) in breastfeeding mothers in 3 major regions of the West Bank of Palestine and to investigate the effects of some sociodemographic variables on the BMLLs. Breast milk samples were collected from 89 breastfeeding mothers from the Nablus, Ramallah, and Jerusalem regions and analyzed for their BMLLs using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Breastfeeding mothers were interviewed and responded to a sociodemographic questionnaire. The median BMLL was 4.0 µg/L, ranging from 2.0 to 12.0 µg/L. Breast milk lead levels in 19.1% of the samples analyzed were higher than the World Health Organization's safety limits of 2.0 to 5.0 µg/L for an occupationally unexposed population. Breast milk lead levels were significantly higher in breast milk of mothers who lived in cities and refugee camps (P < .01), had lower monthly household income levels (P < .05), lived close to paint shops (P < .05), lived in houses with peeling or chipping paint (P < .05), used eye kohl (P < .01), and worked in agriculture for a duration longer than 3 years (P < .01). Breast milk lead levels were higher than the safety limits for occupationally unexposed populations. Authorities need to implement measures to eliminate or reduce lead exposure, especially in refugee camps and cities. Marketed eye kohl preparations should be tested for their lead contents. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Feeding at the Breast and Expressed Milk Feeding: Associations with Otitis Media and Diarrhea in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Kelly M; Geraghty, Sheela R; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    To examine the associations of substance fed and mode of breast milk delivery with occurrence of otitis media and diarrhea in the first year of life. At 12 months postpartum, women (n = 813; 62% response) completed a questionnaire that assessed sociodemographics, infant occurrence of otitis media and diarrhea, and the timing of starting/stopping feeding at the breast, expressed milk, and formula. Women who intended to "bottle feed" exclusively were not recruited. Logistic and negative binomial regressions were conducted in the full sample (n = 491) and no-formula (n = 106) and bottle-only (n = 49) subsamples. Longer duration of expressed milk feeding was associated with increased odds of experiencing otitis media (6-month OR [OR6-month] 2.15, 95% CI 1.01-4.55) in the no-formula subsample. Longer durations of breast milk feeding (OR6-month 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.92; 6-month incidence rate ratio [IRR6-month] 0.74, 95% CI 0.63-0.91), and feeding at the breast (OR6-month 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.89; IRR6-month 0.74, 95% CI 0.63-0.88) were associated with less diarrhea, and longer formula feeding duration was associated with increased risk of diarrhea (IRR6-month 1.34, 95% CI 1.13-1.54) in the full sample. Substance fed and mode of breast milk delivery have different contributions to infant health depending on the health outcome of interest. Feeding at the breast may be advantageous compared with expressed milk feeding for reducing the risk of otitis media, and breast milk feeding compared with formula may reduce the risk of diarrhea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shikha; Singh, Mahendra; Roy, Ashwani Kumar; Thakur, Sunita

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS) was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE) were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY), fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (penergy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%), TDN intake, digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (penergy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes.

  1. Effects of increasing milking frequency during the last 28 days of gestation on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy balance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastani, R R; Del Rio, N Silva; Gressley, T F; Dahl, G E; Grummer, R R

    2007-04-01

    Forty-eight Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design to evaluate different dry period lengths and prepartum milking frequencies (MF) on subsequent milk production, milk composition, solids-corrected milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), and energy balance. Lactating cows, milked 2 times/d, began a 7-d covariate period 35 d prior to the expected calving date. Cows were milked 0 times/d (0x), 1 time/d (1x), and 4 times/d (4x) for the last 28 d of gestation. If milk production decreased to less than 0.5 kg/milking or 1 kg/d, milking via machine ceased; however, teat stimulation continued 1 or 4 times/d according to the treatment assignment. All cows were milked 2 times/d postpartum (wk 1 to 10). Prepartum DMI tended to be greater for 1x and 4x compared with 0x. Prepartum, cows milked 1x produced 17% less milk than cows milked 4x (5.9 and 7.1 kg/d, respectively). There were no differences in prepartum and postpartum body condition scores, body weights, and DMI. Postpartum milk production by cows following their third or greater gestation was greater for 0x and 4x compared with 1x. Postpartum milk production by cows following their second gestation was significantly decreased with increased MF (0x vs. 1x and 4x). Regardless of parity, postpartum solids-corrected milk was greater for 0x compared with 1x and 4x. Postpartum fat yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, with 1x being intermediate. Postpartum protein yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, whereas 0x tended to have greater protein yield than 1x. Postpartum energy balance was greater for 1x and 4x relative to 0x. Continuous milking (1x and 4x) resulted in a loss of milk production in the subsequent lactation for cows following their second gestation; however, for cows following their third or greater gestation, increasing the MF from 1x to 4x in the last 28 d of gestation alleviated the loss in milk production.

  2. Early Provision of Mother's Own Milk and Other Predictors of Successful Breast Milk Feeding after Very Preterm Birth: A Regional Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emilija; Christensson, Kyllike; Brandt, Lena; Altman, Maria; Bonamy, Anna-Karin

    2015-08-01

    Breast milk is associated with a lower risk of neonatal morbidity in very preterm infants. Despite the benefits, the duration of breastfeeding is shorter in very preterm infants than in term infants. This study aimed to investigate how early provision of mother's own milk (MOM) and maternal and infant characteristics are related to breast milk feeding (BMF) between 36 and 40 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) after very preterm birth. A regional observational study of 138 singleton infants born at < 32 weeks of gestation in Stockholm, Sweden, was conducted. Data were derived from medical charts to investigate the association between early provision of MOM; maternal and infant characteristics; and exclusive, partial, or no BMF at 36 weeks PMA. Moreover, changes in BMF between 36 and 40 weeks PMA were studied. Most infants (80%) received MOM at 36 weeks PMA (55% exclusively, 25% partial). High provision of MOM at postnatal day 7 was associated with exclusive BMF at 36 weeks PMA, odds ratio (OR) 1.18 per 10 mL/kg MOM (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.32). Mothers born in non-Nordic countries provided MOM exclusively less often, adjusted OR 0.27 (95% CI, 0.10-0.69), compared to Nordic mothers. Between 36 and 40 weeks PMA, BMF decreased overall. This change was not associated with investigated predictors. It is possible to achieve high rates of BMF in very preterm infants. High intake of MOM early in the postnatal period is strongly related to exclusive BMF at 36 weeks PMA. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Inactivation of Cytomegalovirus in Breast Milk Using Ultraviolet-C Irradiation: Opportunities for a New Treatment Option in Breast Milk Banking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L Lloyd

    Full Text Available Pasteurized donor human milk is provided by milk banks to very preterm babies where their maternal supply is insufficient or unavailable. Donor milk is currently processed by Holder pasteurization, producing a microbiologically safe product but significantly reducing immunoprotective components. Ultraviolet-C (UV-C irradiation at 254 nm is being investigated as an alternative treatment method and has been shown to preserve components such as lactoferrin, lysozyme and secretory IgA considerably better than Holder pasteurization. We describe the inactivation of cytomegalovirus, a virus commonly excreted into breast milk, using UV-C irradiation. Full replication was ablated by various treatment doses. However, evidence of viral immediate early proteins within the cells was never completely eliminated indicating that some viral gene transcription was still occurring. In conclusion, UV-C may be a safe alternative to pasteurisation for the treatment of human donor milk that preserves the bioactivity. However, our data suggests that CMV inactivation will have to be carefully evaluated for each device designed to treat breast milk using UV-C irradiation.

  4. Marketing breast milk substitutes: problems and perils throughout the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, June Pauline

    2012-01-01

    On 21 May 1981 the WHO International Code of Marketing Breast Milk Substitutes (hereafter referred to as the Code) was passed by 118 votes to 1, the US casting the sole negative vote. The Code arose out of concern that the dramatic increase in mortality, malnutrition and diarrhoea in very young infants in the developing world was associated with aggressive marketing of formula. The Code prohibited any advertising of baby formula, bottles or teats and gifts to mothers or ‘bribery’ of health workers. Despite successes, it has been weakened over the years by the seemingly inexhaustible resources of the global pharmaceutical industry. This article reviews the long and tortuous history of the Code through the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the HIV pandemic and the rare instances when substitute feeding is clearly essential. Currently, suboptimal breastfeeding is associated with over a million deaths each year and 10% of the global disease burden in children. All health workers need to recognise inappropriate advertising of formula, to report violations of the Code and to support efforts to promote breastfeeding: the most effective way of preventing child mortality throughout the world. PMID:22419779

  5. Dietary fat intake in relation to lethal breast cancer in two large prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeke, Caroline E; Eliassen, A Heather; Chen, Wendy Y; Cho, Eunyoung; Holmes, Michelle D; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2014-07-01

    Whether fat intake influences risk of developing more aggressive, lethal breast tumors is unknown. We evaluated intakes of total fat, specific types of fat, and cholesterol prior to diagnosis in relation to lethal breast cancer risk in 88,759 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 1980-2010) and 93,912 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII; 1991-2010). Diet was assessed every 4 years using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Breast cancers were confirmed with pathology reports; deaths were confirmed by next of kin or the National Death Index. We defined lethal cases as women with invasive breast cancer who died of breast cancer. We pooled the cohorts and used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. We identified 1,529 lethal breast cancer cases (1,279 in NHS and 250 in NHSII). Higher total fat intake was associated with a slightly lower lethal breast cancer risk (top vs. bottom quintile hazard ratio [HR] 0.85; 95 % CI 0.72, 1.01; p trend = 0.05). Specific types of fat were generally not associated with lethal breast cancer risk. For example, compared with those in the lowest quintile of saturated fat intake, those in the highest quintile had a HR of 0.98 (95 % CI 0.75, 1.26; p trend = 0.96). Among women diagnosed with breast cancer, pre-diagnosis fat intake was not associated with survival. Higher pre-diagnosis fat intake was not associated with greater risk of lethal breast cancer in these large prospective cohort studies, consistent with the weight of the evidence against a causal role for fat intake and breast cancer incidence.

  6. The impact of rotating night shifts on the breast milk collection volume among employed breastfeeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Cheng; Chung, Min-Hsien; Lin, Hung-Jung; Lin, Shio-Jean; Guo, How-Ran; Wang, Hsien-Yi; Su, Shih-Bin; Hsu, Chien-Chin

    2015-01-01

    The health benefits of breastfeeding are widely recognized. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months after birth and for two years or longer together with nutritionally adequate complementary foods. To respond to the needs of industry, employed breastfeeding mothers must adapt to the rotating night shift (RNS). However, the RNS is associated with a higher risk of health problems in career women. We investigated the relationship between the RNS and breast milk volume. Mothers who used a breastfeeding room while working at a technology company in Taiwan voluntarily participated in this study from March 1 through April 30, 2013. We compared two groups: breastfeeding mothers on (RNS(+)) and not on a RNS (RNS(-)) to determine independent predictors for breast milk volume. We analyzed data from 109 participants: RNS(+) group n=56; RNS(-) group n=53. There was no significant difference in daily milk collection volume between the groups. Daily milk collection frequency and exclusive breastfeeding were independent predictors for a daily breast milk collection volume >350 ml. The RNS may not affect the breast milk volume. This result may help the government and employers make policies more appropriate for supporting employed breastfeeding mothers.

  7. Modeling homeorhetic trajectories of milk component yields, body composition and dry-matter intake in dairy cows: Influence of parity, milk production potential and breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, J B; Friggens, N C; van Laar, H; Ingvartsen, K L; Sauvant, D

    2017-11-03

    The control of nutrient partitioning is complex and affected by many factors, among them physiological state and production potential. Therefore, the current model aims to provide for dairy cows a dynamic framework to predict a consistent set of reference performance patterns (milk component yields, body composition change, dry-matter intake) sensitive to physiological status across a range of milk production potentials (within and between breeds). Flows and partition of net energy toward maintenance, growth, gestation, body reserves and milk components are described in the model. The structure of the model is characterized by two sub-models, a regulating sub-model of homeorhetic control which sets dynamic partitioning rules along the lactation, and an operating sub-model that translates this into animal performance. The regulating sub-model describes lactation as the result of three driving forces: (1) use of previously acquired resources through mobilization, (2) acquisition of new resources with a priority of partition towards milk and (3) subsequent use of resources towards body reserves gain. The dynamics of these three driving forces were adjusted separately for fat (milk and body), protein (milk and body) and lactose (milk). Milk yield is predicted from lactose and protein yields with an empirical equation developed from literature data. The model predicts desired dry-matter intake as an outcome of net energy requirements for a given dietary net energy content. The parameters controlling milk component yields and body composition changes were calibrated using two data sets in which the diet was the same for all animals. Weekly data from Holstein dairy cows was used to calibrate the model within-breed across milk production potentials. A second data set was used to evaluate the model and to calibrate it for breed differences (Holstein, Danish Red and Jersey) on the mobilization/reconstitution of body composition and on the yield of individual milk components

  8. Impact of breast milk on intelligence quotient, brain size, and white matter development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Elizabeth B; Fischl, Bruce R; Quinn, Brian T; Chong, Wui K; Gadian, David G; Lucas, Alan

    2010-04-01

    Although observational findings linking breast milk to higher scores on cognitive tests may be confounded by factors associated with mothers' choice to breastfeed, it has been suggested that one or more constituents of breast milk facilitate cognitive development, particularly in preterms. Because cognitive scores are related to head size, we hypothesized that breast milk mediates cognitive effects by affecting brain growth. We used detailed data from a randomized feeding trial to calculate percentage of expressed maternal breast milk (%EBM) in the infant diet of 50 adolescents. MRI scans were obtained (mean age=15 y 9 mo), allowing volumes of total brain (TBV) and white and gray matter (WMV, GMV) to be calculated. In the total group, %EBM correlated significantly with verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ); in boys, with all IQ scores, TBV and WMV. VIQ was, in turn, correlated with WMV and, in boys only, additionally with TBV. No significant relationships were seen in girls or with gray matter. These data support the hypothesis that breast milk promotes brain development, particularly white matter growth. The selective effect in males accords with animal and human evidence regarding gender effects of early diet. Our data have important neurobiological and public health implications and identify areas for future mechanistic study.

  9. Do mothers with high sodium levels in their breast milk have high depression and anxiety scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serim Demirgoren, Burcu; Ozbek, Aylin; Ormen, Murat; Kavurma, Canem; Ozer, Esra; Aydın, Adem

    2017-04-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the possible association of high breast milk sodium levels with postpartum depression and anxiety. Methods A total of 150 mothers and their healthy, exclusively breastfed newborns aged 8 to 15 days were recruited. Mothers were asked to complete scales for evaluation of postnatal depression and anxiety following an interview for consent and sociodemographic data collection. Breast milk samples were obtained to measure sodium and potassium (K) levels. Results Forty-nine mothers had higher than expected breast milk Na concentrations and a high Na/K ratio. These mothers scored significantly higher on the scales of postnatal depression and state anxiety ( P = 0.018 and P = 0.048, respectively). Conclusions This study shows that compared to normal breast milk Na levels and Na/K ratio, high breast milk Na and high Na/K ratio, with possible serious consequences in infants, are associated with maternal depressive and anxious symptoms in the postpartum period.

  10. Breast Milk Polyamines and Microbiota Interactions: Impact of Mode of Delivery and Geographical Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gallego, Carlos; Kumar, Himanshu; García-Mantrana, Izaskun; du Toit, Elloise; Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Linderborg, Kaisa M; Zhang, Yumei; Isolauri, Erika; Yang, Baoru; Salminen, Seppo; Collado, M Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify the polyamine levels in human milk obtained from different countries and through different modes of delivery, and to investigate their association with breast milk microbes. Mature breast milk samples were obtained from 78 healthy mothers after 1 month of lactation from 4 different geographical locations: Finland, Spain (Europe); South Africa (Africa); and China (Asia). Polyamines were determined using HPLC after dansyl derivatization and milk microbiota was obtained by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The mean values of polyamines in breast milk were 70.0, 424.2, and 610.0 nmol/dL for putrescine, spermidine and spermine, respectively, and 1,170.9 nmol/dL of total polyamines. The levels of putrescine were significantly higher in Spain (p milk polyamine concentrations, being correlated with human milk microbiota composition. These differences may have an impact on infant development during lactation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Genetic analyses of HIV-1 env sequences demonstrate limited compartmentalization in breast milk and suggest viral replication within the breast that increases with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Soren; Carlsson, Jacquelyn; Heath, Laura; Bull, Marta E; Shetty, Avinash K; Mutsvangwa, Junior; Musingwini, Georgina; Woelk, Godfrey; Zijenah, Lynn S; Katzenstein, David A; Mullins, James I; Frenkel, Lisa M

    2010-10-01

    The concentration of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is generally lower in breast milk than in blood. Mastitis, or inflammation of the breast, is associated with increased levels of milk HIV-1 and risk of mother-to-child transmission through breastfeeding. We hypothesized that mastitis facilitates the passage of HIV-1 from blood into milk or stimulates virus production within the breast. HIV-1 env sequences were generated from single amplicons obtained from breast milk and blood samples in a cross-sectional study. Viral compartmentalization was evaluated using several statistical methods, including the Slatkin and Maddison (SM) test. Mastitis was defined as an elevated milk sodium (Na(+)) concentration. The association between milk Na(+) and the pairwise genetic distance between milk and blood viral sequences was modeled using linear regression. HIV-1 was compartmentalized within milk by SM testing in 6/17 (35%) specimens obtained from 9 women, but all phylogenetic clades included viral sequences from milk and blood samples. Monotypic sequences were more prevalent in milk samples than in blood samples (22% versus 13%; P = 0.012), which accounted for half of the compartmentalization observed. Mastitis was not associated with compartmentalization by SM testing (P = 0.621), but Na(+) was correlated with greater genetic distance between milk and blood HIV-1 populations (P = 0.041). In conclusion, local production of HIV-1 within the breast is suggested by compartmentalization of virus and a higher prevalence of monotypic viruses in milk specimens. However, phylogenetic trees demonstrate extensive mixing of viruses between milk and blood specimens. HIV-1 replication in breast milk appears to increase with inflammation, contributing to higher milk viral loads during mastitis.

  12. Reversal of primary root caries lesions after daily intake of milk supplemented with fluoride and probiotic lactobacilli in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Lars G; Magnusson, Kerstin; Hakestam, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To evaluate the effect of milk supplemented with fluoride and/or probiotic bacteria on primary root caries lesions (PRCL) in older adults. Materials and methods. After informed consent, 160 healthy subjects, 58-84 years of age, with at least two PRCL were recruited and randomly...... assigned to one of four parallel study groups drinking 200 ml milk once daily for 15 months. Group A consumed standard milk (placebo); Group B ingested milk supplemented with 5 ppm F and probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus LB21, 10(7) CFU/mL); Group C drank milk with only probiotic bacteria...... reported during intervention. Conclusion. Daily intake of milk supplemented with fluoride and/or probiotic bacteria may reverse soft and leathery PRCL in older adults....

  13. Effects of ethanol intake on retinol concentration in the milk of lactating rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.T. Albuquerque

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the consumption of ethanol (5% on retinol concentration in milk was studied in the rat on day 12 after delivery, together with the evolution of dam body weight and pup growth rate. Female Wistar rats receiving alcohol (5% in drinking water during lactation (N = 7 were compared to normal controls fed ad libitum (N = 6. The mean maternal alcohol intake was 3.96 ± 0.23 g/kg body weight per day. To determine retinol levels in milk we used the Bessey and Lowry method, modified by Araújo and Flores ((1978 Clinical Chemistry, 24: 386-392. The pups were separated from dams for a 2-4-h period, after which the dams were injected intraperitoneally with anesthetic and oxytocin. The concentration of retinol in milk was 162.88 ± 10.60 µg/dl in the control group and 60.02 ± 8.22 µg/dl in the ethanol group (P<0.05. The ethanol group consumed less food than the controls and lost a significant amount of weight during lactation. On days 8, 10 and 12, the body weight of the pups from rats given ethanol (13.46 ± 0.43, 16.12 ± 0.48 and 18.60 ± 0.91 g, respectively were significantly lower (P<0.05 than the weight of pups from controls (15.2 ± 0.44, 18.36 ± 0.54, 20.77 ± 0.81 g. These data show that ethanol intake during the suckling period, even at low concentrations, decreases the amount of retinol in milk and, therefore, the amount available to the pups.

  14. [Mercury concentration in breast milk of women from northwest Mexico; possible association with diet, tobacco and other maternal factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Celis de la Rosa, Alfredo de Jesús; Acosta Vargas, Baudillo; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía Celina

    2013-01-01

    To determine THg levels in milk of women from Northwest Mexico and its potential association with maternal factors such as diet and tobacco smoke. The study was performed in 108 milk samples donated by women in Baja California Sur. Data were stratified into three groups of 36 donors by number of pregnancies. General data, smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and seafood intake were explored. THg levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The difference between groups was evaluated with non-parametric statistics. To explain the possible association of the different variables with THg concentrations in milk, generalized linear models were performed. THg levels ranged from 1.23 μg/L in single-pregnancy women (GI) to 2.96 μg/L for women with 3 or more pregnancies (GIII) (p = 0.07). In the GI group THg concentration was 175% higher (p = 0.02) in women who do not eat fish, compared to those who eat fish. In the generalized linear model to adjust THg concentrations, the variables were: age, number of pregnancies, breastfeeding duration and exposure to tobacco smoke (p ≤ 0.05). Fish consumption was the factor that better adjusted models, relative to THg levels. The contribution associated to this factor was low; therefore, consumption of fish from the coast of Baja California Sur is safe. Tobacco increased Hg concentrations in breast milk; it is necessary to avoid the smoking habit during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in breast milk of women from an e-waste recycling center in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghong; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Yun; Ben, Yujie; Lv, Quanxia

    2017-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) can be transferred to infants through the ingestion of breast milk, resulting in potential health risk. In this study, PBDEs, hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) in human milk from women living adjacent to e-waste recycling sites of Wenling, China, were investigated. The median level of PBDEs in samples from residents living in the e-waste recycling environment >20years (R 20 group, 19.5ng/g lipid weight (lw)) was significantly higher than that for residents living in Wenling e-waste recycling activities. In the R 20 group, most congeners (except for BDE-209) were correlated with each other (p<0.05). Moreover, CB-153 showed significant association with most PBDE congeners, rather than BDE-209. The relationship indicated that most BDE congeners other than BDE-209 shared common sources and/or pathways with CB-153, e.g., dietary ingestion. The correlations between BDE-209 and other congeners were different in the two groups, likely suggesting their different exposure sources and/or pathways for PBDEs. Although estimated dietary intake of PBDEs for infants via breast milk was lower than the minimum value affecting human health, the PBDE exposure of infants should be of great concern because of their potential effect on the development of neonates over long-term exposure. OH-PBDEs were not detected in the collected samples, which is in accordance with reports in published literature, likely indicating that they were not apt to be accumulated in human milk. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Mid-infrared spectrometry of milk as a predictor of energy intake and efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, S; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E; Moore, S G; McCarthy, B; O'Donovan, M; Butler, S T; Pryce, J E; Berry, D P

    2014-09-01

    Interest is increasing in the feed intake complex of individual dairy cows, both for management and animal breeding. However, energy intake data on an individual-cow basis are not routinely available. The objective of the present study was to quantify the ability of routinely undertaken mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy analysis of individual cow milk samples to predict individual cow energy intake and efficiency. Feed efficiency in the present study was described by residual feed intake (RFI), which is the difference between actual energy intake and energy used (e.g., milk production, maintenance, and body tissue anabolism) or supplied from body tissue mobilization. A total of 1,535 records for energy intake, RFI, and milk MIR spectral data were available from an Irish research herd across 36 different test days from 535 lactations on 378 cows. Partial least squares regression analyses were used to relate the milk MIR spectral data to either energy intake or efficiency. The coefficient of correlation (REX) of models to predict RFI across lactation ranged from 0.48 to 0.60 in an external validation data set; the predictive ability was, however, strongest (REX=0.65) in early lactation (energy intake across lactation (REX=0.70). The correlation between measured RFI and measured energy balance across lactation was 0.85, whereas the correlation between RFI and energy balance, both predicted from the MIR spectrum, was 0.65. Milk MIR spectral data are routinely generated for individual cows throughout lactation and, therefore, the prediction equations developed in the present study can be immediately (and retrospectively where MIR spectral data have been stored) applied to predict energy intake and efficiency to aid in management and breeding decisions. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Meat and milk intake in the rice-based Korean diet: impact on cancer and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Shinyoung; Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-08-01

    Over a few decades, Korean diet has changed from traditional diet, mainly composed of rice and vegetables, to Westernised diet rich, in meat and milk, along with the economic development and globalisation. Increasing prevalence of diet-related chronic diseases such as cancer and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is becoming a heavy burden to society and requires further attention. In this review, the association of meat and milk consumption with cancer and MetS among Koreans was discussed. Previous meta-analyses showed that meat intake was positively associated with increased risk of cancers, especially colon, as well as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and that the intake of milk and dairy products was negatively associated with colorectal cancer, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, based on studies conducted mostly in Western countries. In Korea and other Asian countries, the association of meat and milk intake with cancers were inconclusive and varied by types of cancers. Conversely, milk intake was negatively associated with MetS risk as reported in Western countries. The difference in results between Korea and Western countries might come from the differences in dietary patterns and study designs. Most Koreans still maintain traditional dietary pattern, although rapid change towards Westernised diet is underway among the younger age group. Randomised clinical trials or prospective cohort studies with consideration of combined effects of various dietary factors in Korea and other Asian countries are needed to elucidate the impact of meat and milk or related dietary patterns in their diet.

  18. Intake, digestibility of nutrients, milk production and composition in dairy cows fed on diets containing cashew nut shell liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Antignani Coutinho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of supplementing cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL in the diet of lactating dairy cows on the intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and fatty acids composition of milk fat. Four Holsteincows (600±43 kg were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21 days experimental periods. Experimental treatments consisted of CNSL inclusion in a total mixed ration (dry matter basis, as follows: 1 CNSL 0% (control, CON, 2 CNSL 0.012% (0.012, 3 CNSL 0.024% (0.024 and 4 CNSL 0.036% (0.036. Dry matter and nutrients intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients, fat corrected milk yield and milk composition were not affected (p > 0.05 by the inclusion of CNSL in the ration. CNSL linearly decreased the C6:0 concentration (p < 0.02, produced a quadratic response on C13:1n-5 concentration (p < 0.03 and a linear increase on C16:1n-7 concentration (p < 0.04. Results show that an intake of up to 7 gcow-1day-1 (0.036% of CNSL may alter the milk fatty acid composition but does not influence intake, nutrient digestibility and milk yield.

  19. Stroke and plasma markers of milk fat intake – a prospective nested case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinehall Lars

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dairy products are high in saturated fat and are traditionally a risk factor for vascular diseases. The fatty acids 15:0 and 17:0 of plasma lipids are biomarkers of milk fat intake. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of a first-ever stroke in relation to the plasma milk fat biomarkers. Methods A prospective case-control study was nested within two population based health surveys in Northern Sweden. Among 129 stroke cases and 257 matched controls, plasma samples for fatty acid analyses were available in 108 cases and 216 control subjects. Proportions of 15:0 and 17:0 of plasma lipids, weight, height, blood lipids, blood pressures, and lifestyle data were employed in conditional logistic regression modelling. Results The proportions of fatty acids 17:0 and 15:0+17:0 of total plasma phospholipids were significantly higher in female controls than cases, but not in men. 17:0 and 15:0+17:0 were significantly and inversely related to stroke in the whole study sample as well as in women. The standardised odds ratio (95% CI in women to have a stroke was 0.41 (0.24–0.69 for 17:0 in plasma phospholipids. Adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, physical activity and diet had marginal effects on the odds ratios. A similar, but non-significant, trend was seen in men. Conclusion It is hypothesised that dairy or milk fat intake may be inversely related to the risk of a first event of stroke. The intriguing results of this study should be interpreted with caution. Follow up studies with greater power, and where intakes are monitored both by dietary recordings and fatty acid markers are needed.

  20. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG] or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]. DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY, fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01. The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%, TDN intake, digestible energy (DE, metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01 in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01 in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01 in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01 than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes.

  1. A study on lactose intolerance and milk intake among people in Mgeta and Njombe areas, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mushi, Prosper M

    2014-01-01

    This study was done in August, 2012 in Mgeta and Njombe rural areas of Tanzania for the purpose of assessing the prevalence of lactose intolerance and its severity in relation to milk intake so as to create awareness on how people can cope with the problem without rejecting dairy foods completely. The small-holder farmers in Mgeta have been dealing with dairy-goat keeping based on the Norwegian breeds while the farmers in Njombe have been keeping dairy cows for more than 20 years now. The stu...

  2. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lina; Waard, de Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A.; Hooijdonk, van Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; Goudoever, van Johannes B.; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    To objective of this study was to better understand the biological functions of breast milk proteins in relation to the growth and development of infants over the first six months of life. Breast milk samples from four individual women collected at seven time points in the first six months after

  3. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A.; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    To objective of this study was to better understand the biological functions of breast milk proteins in relation to the growth and development of infants over the first six months of life. Breast milk samples from four individual women collected at seven time points in the first six months after

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strain LC33 Isolated from Human Breast Milk

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida, J?ssica B.; de Carvalho, Suzi P.; de Freitas, Leandro M.; Guimar?es, Ana Marcia S.; do Nascimento, Na?la C.; dos Santos, Andrea P.; Messick, Joanne B.; Timenetsky, Jorge; Marques, Lucas M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus strain LC33, isolated from human breast milk in Brazil. This microorganism has been typed as ST1/t127/sccmecV. To our knowledge, this is the first draft genome sequence of a methicillin-resistant S.?aureus strain isolated from human breast milk.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strain LC33 Isolated from Human Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Jéssica B.; de Carvalho, Suzi P.; de Freitas, Leandro M.; Guimarães, Ana Marcia S.; do Nascimento, Naíla C.; dos Santos, Andrea P.; Messick, Joanne B.; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus strain LC33, isolated from human breast milk in Brazil. This microorganism has been typed as ST1/t127/sccmecV. To our knowledge, this is the first draft genome sequence of a methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain isolated from human breast milk. PMID:28408673

  6. Impact of music therapy on breast milk secretion in mothers of premature newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ak, Jayamala; Lakshmanagowda, Preethi Bangalore; G C M, Pradeep; Goturu, Jaisri

    2015-04-01

    The promotion of breastfeeding is a simple and efficient strategy in reducing morbidity and mortality in neonates worldwide. Milk from the mother of a Preterm New Born (PTNB) infant contains a higher concentration of nutrients and energy than that produced by mothers of a full-term infant. Studies have shown that music therapy can reduce maternal anxiety, helping mothers cope with the hospitalization of their newborns in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). To evaluate the impact of music therapy on amount of breast milk secretion among mothers of premature newborns by reducing maternal stress. Mothers of premature babies who were admitted to NICU at a tertiary health care centre were included as subjects. Mothers of premature infants were enrolled in the study once they came to NICU to express breast milk from Dec 2012 to May 2013. Each subject was assessed for 4 sessions on MT (Music Therapy) and 4 sessions on NMT (No Music Therapy) over 4 days. Breast milk was expressed using breast milk pump and quantity was measured for two sessions each day once at 11.00am and other at 4.00pm. Raga malkauns and yaman by flute was used for music therapy. MT was administered for 4 sessions in a randomized manner during the study period of 30mins (15mins prior to and 15mins during Breast milk amount). To assess the psychological stress, PSS questionnaire was administered on day 1 and day 4 of MT. Mother's saliva was collected to estimate salivary cortisol level on the last day of study during the sessions with MT and NMT. Music therapy was associated with a significant reduction in stress level as shown by improved PSS score and reduced salivary cortisol. Subjects who received music therapy had significant increase (p-value- 0.033) in breast milk expression when compared to mothers who didn't. Music therapy can be easily used in the breast milk expression room as a method to increase breast milk secretion in mothers who are stressed because of their neonates being admitted in

  7. [Plasma and milk concentrations of acenocoumarin in breast-feeding women during post partum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Luis Eduardo Romero; Gómez, Aurora Belmont; González, Victor Manuel Vidal

    2004-11-01

    Patients are receiving anticoagulants during postpartum. Literature data still is controversy in milk excretion of acenocoumarin; there are conducts in favor and against. Because of the benefits of maternal milk it's necessary to probe if acenocoumarin is excreted by human milk. To determine the milk excretion of acenocoumarin in different periods of the postpartum and the milk excretion index in anticoagulant women. It's an observational, descriptive and prospective study. The milk and plasma concentrations of acenocoumarin were determined in breast-feeding mothers with anticoagulation during the postpartum. ANOVA was used to determine the differences in pharmacokinetic constants in the different days of study. Two patients required light anticoagulation, nine moderate and five intense. The 37.5% of the new born were full term hypotrophy and the 18.75% were preterm. The highest plasma average concentration of acenocoumarin was found in day 45th postpartum (0.21 microg/mL). Acenocoumarin present in milk was found until day 30th; the average concentrations were low 0.011 microg/mL. The value of the maternal milk excretion index was 0.057 in day 45, what represents that approximately the 5% of acenocoumarin is eliminated by milk. The calculated dose of acenocoumarin that a new born could receive through maternal milk was lower than the recommended doses (1.79 microg/kg/day). These results allowed us to recommend breastfeeding in patients who are been anticoagulated with acenocoumarin.

  8. Comparing different methods of human breast milk fortification using measured v. assumed macronutrient composition to target reference growth: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Gemma; Sherriff, Jill; Hartmann, Peter E; Nathan, Elizabeth; Geddes, Donna; Simmer, Karen

    2016-02-14

    The variable content of human breast milk suggests that its routine fortification may result in sub-optimal nutritional intakes and growth. In a pragmatic trial, we randomised infants born below 30 weeks of gestation to either the intervention (Igp) of fortifying milk on measured composition according to birth weight criteria and postmenstrual age (PMA) or our routine practice (RPgp) of fortifying on assumed milk composition to target 3·8-4·4 g protein/kg per d and 545-629 kJ/kg per d. Milk composition was measured using the MIRIS® Human Milk Analyser. Percentage fat mass (%FM) was measured using PEA POD (COSMED). The effects of macronutrient intakes and clinical variables on growth were assessed using mixed model analysis. Mean measured protein content (1·6 g/100 ml) was higher than the assumed value (1·4 g/100 ml), often leading to lower amounts of fortifier added to the milk of intervention infants. At discharge (Igp v. RPgp), total protein (3·2 (SD 0·3) v. 3·4 (SD 0·4) g; P=0·067) and energy (456 (SD 39) v. 481 (SD 48) kJ; P=0·079) intakes from all nutrition sources, weight gain velocity (11·4 (SD 1·4) v. 12·1 (SD 1·6) g/kg per d; P=0·135) and %FM (13·7 (SD 3·6) v.13·6 (SD 3·5) %; P=0·984) did not significantly differ between groups. A protein intake >3·4 g/kg per d reduced %FM by 2%. Nutrition and growth was not improved by targeting milk fortification according to birth weight criteria and PMA using measured milk composition, compared with routine practice. Targeting fortification on measured composition is labour intensive, requiring frequent milk sampling and precision measuring equipment, perhaps reasons for its limited practice. Guidance around safe upper levels of milk fortification is needed.

  9. Management of Breast Milk Oversupply in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Marya; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Bioos, Soodabeh; Babaeian, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    Comprehensive explanation about milk oversupply is not available in the current literature because few studies have been done on this topic. In traditional Persian medicine, milk oversupply and its management have been described. The aim of this study was to investigate milk oversupply from the perspective of medieval Persian practitioners. In this study, some main medical resources of traditional Persian medicine such as Al-Havi and the Canon of Medicine were studied to extract valuable information about milk oversupply. Etiology of milk overproduction according to traditional Persian medicine is based on humors theory and cannot be easily compared with current medical concepts. Diet modifications and natural remedies have been applied for managing this condition but the majority of traditional Persian medicine interventions for reducing milk oversupply have not been scientifically investigated in modern medicine. The knowledge of milk oversupply in traditional Persian medicine may be helpful to conduct further related studies.

  10. The concentration of adiponectin in breast milk is related to maternal hormonal and inflammatory status during 6 months of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozarda, Yesim; Gunes, Yeliz; Tuncer, Gul Ozlem

    2012-01-31

    Varying concentrations of adiponectin are present in human breast milk. This study aimed to determine the relationship between milk adiponectin concentration and the hormonal and inflammatory status of breast-feeding women. Blood and breast milk samples were collected from 157 breast-feeding women enrolled at 1-180 post-partum lactation days. The milk and serum adiponectin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassays. The serum oestradiol, prolactin, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, cortisol and insulin concentrations were measured by the chemiluminescent immunometric method. The leptin, resistin and ghrelin concentrations were measured by the immunometric methods. The milk, but not serum, adiponectin concentration increased during the 180-day lactation period and displayed a positive correlation (r=0.748; plactation day. The milk adiponectin concentration was positively correlated to the maternal serum ghrelin concentration (r=0.299; plactation and is affected by the maternal hormonal and inflammatory status.

  11. Expressionists of the twenty-first century: the commodification and commercialization of expressed breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kath; Team, Victoria; Alexander, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Breast milk expression has been promoted as liberating for women and as offering them more choices, but there has been little research on women's experiences of it and even less critical commentary on the consequences of its incorporation into mainstream behavior. Drawing on narratives of women in the United Kingdom about breastfeeding, we explore the increasingly popular practice of expressing and feeding expressed breast milk. We argue that breast milk has become commodified, breastfeeding commercialized and technologized, and the mother-infant relationship disrupted. We suggest that breastfeeding as a process is being undermined by vested interests that portray it as unreliable and reconstruct it in artificial feeding terms, so playing on women's insecurities. The major beneficiaries of expression are fathers who want increased involvement in infant care and commercial enterprises that aim to maximize profits for shareholders.

  12. Breast Milk and Hair Testing to Detect Illegal Drugs, Nicotine, and Caffeine in Donors to a Human Milk Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Garcia-Algar, Óscar; Joya, Xavier; Marchei, Emilia; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2016-08-01

    The use of illegal drugs and tobacco is an exclusion criteria for accepting a nursing mother as a milk donor. The detection window for human milk testing is typically a few hours. Hair testing has been considered the gold standard to assess chronic exposure to these toxic substances. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of illegal drugs, nicotine, and caffeine in breast milk and hair samples from donors to assess whether these substances were being used during the donation period and the months leading up to it. Thirty-six samples of hair and breast milk were obtained from 36 donors. The tests performed identified nicotine, caffeine, morphine, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines, codeine, methadone, and other substances derived therefrom. No illegal drugs were found in any of the samples analyzed. Nicotine and cotinine were found in 33.3% (12/36) of all hair samples. Among these 12 samples, 10 had cotinine concentrations consistent with cutoff values for unexposed nonsmokers, 1 had concentrations consistent with cutoff values for passive smokers, and 1 had concentrations consistent with cutoff values for active smokers. Caffeine was found in 77.7% of the hair samples and in 50% of the donor milk samples. The correlation for caffeine between donor milk and hair samples was r = 0.288, P = .0881. Donors do not use illegal drugs during either the donation period or the months leading up to it. They are occasionally exposed to tobacco smoke and almost all of them consume caffeine. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Impact of Chloroquine on Viral Load in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Katherine; Kuhn, Louise; Kasonde, Prisca; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Shutes, Erin; Vwalika, Cheswa; Ghosh, Mrinal; Aldrovandi, Grace; Thea, Donald M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary The anti-malarial agent chloroquine has activity against HIV. We compared the effect of chloroquine (n = 18) to an anti-malarial agent without known anti-HIV-activity, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (n = 12), on breast milk HIV RNA levels among HIV-infected breastfeeding women in Zambia. After adjusting for CD4 count and plasma viral load, chloroquine was associated with a trend towards lower levels of HIV RNA in breast milk compared with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (P 0.05). Higher breastmilk viral load was also observed among women receiving presumptive treatment = for symptomatic malaria compared with asymptomatic controls and among controls reporting fever in the prior week. Further research is needed to determine the potential role of chloroquine in prevention of HIV transmission through breastfeeding. Impacte de la chloroquine sur la charge virale dans le lait maternelle La chloroquine, agent antimalarique, a une activité contre le VIH. Nous avons comparé l’effet de la chloroquine à celui d’un autre agent antimalarique, la sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, dont l’activité sur le VIH n’est pas connue, en mesurant les taux d’ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel de femmes allaitantes infectées par le VIH en Zambie. Après ajustement pour les taux de CD4 et la charge virale dans le plasma, la chloroquine comparée à la sulfadoxine pyrimethamine était associée à une tendance vers des teneurs plus bas en ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel (P = 0,05). Des charges virales plus élevées dans le lait maternel étaient aussi observées chez des femmes recevant un traitement présomptif pour des symptômes de malaria par rapport aux contrôles asymptomatiques et par rapport à des contrôles rapportant de la fièvre durant la première semaine. Des études supplémentaires sont nécessaires pour déterminer le rôle potentiel de la chloroquine dans la prévention de la transmission du VIH par l’allaitement maternel. mots clésVIH, malaria, allaitement maternel

  14. Early allergy symptoms in infants aged 0-6 months on breast milk substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Mulya Safri; Aulia Rahman Putra

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic diseases are common in children and a serious health problem worldwide. Atopic dermatitis, food allergies, asthma and allergic rhinitis, have been described as the natural progression of allergic diseases, also known as the “allergic march”. Cow’s milk protein is known to be a common trigger of food allergies and hypersensitivity reactions during infancy. Objective To give an overview of the breast milk substitutes (BMS) and incidence of early allergy onset (allergic mar...

  15. Dietary Flavonoid Intake and Breast Cancer Survival among Women on Long Island

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brian N. Fink; Susan E. Steck; Mary S. Wolff; Julie A. Britton; Geoffrey C. Kabat; Mia M. Gaudet; Page E. Abrahamson; Paula Bell; Jane C. Schroeder; Susan L. Teitelbaum; Alfred I. Neugut; Marilie D. Gammon

    2007-01-01

    Background: Laboratory research and a growing number of epidemiologic studies have provided evidence for a reduced risk of breast cancer associated with dietary intake of certain classes of flavonoids...

  16. Influence of organic diet on the amount of conjugated linoleic acids in breast milk of lactating women in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Rist, L.; Mueller, A; Barthel, C.; Snijders, B.; Jansen, M; Simões-Wüst, A P; Huber, M.; Kummeling, I.; Mandach, U. von; Steinhart, H.; Thijs, C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out whether the incorporation of organic dairy and meat products in the maternal diet affects the contents of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) in human breast milk. To this purpose, milk samples from 312 breastfeeding mothers participating in the KOALA Birth Cohort Study have been analysed. The participants had documented varying lifestyles in relation to the use of conventional or organic products. Breast milk s...

  17. Effect of selenium supplementation on HIV-1 RNA detection in breast milk of Tanzanian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudfeld, Christopher R; Aboud, Said; Kupka, Roland; Mugusi, Ferdinand M; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2014-09-01

    Selenium supplementation for women infected with HIV may increase genital shedding of HIV-1, however, to our knowledge, no studies have examined the effect on viral shedding in breast milk. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of selenium supplementation on HIV-1 RNA detection in breast milk of HIV-infected women. HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled at 12 to 27 wk gestation in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of daily selenium (200 μg as selenomethionine) had cell-free HIV-1 RNA quantified in breast milk at 4 to 9 wk postpartum. All participants received high-dose multivitamins containing vitamin B complex, C, and E as standard of care. The proportion of women with detectable (>50 copies/mL) HIV-1 RNA in breast milk appeared to be increased in the selenium group (36.4%) compared with those in the placebo group (27.5%) among the total cohort (N = 420), but results were borderline statistically significant (relative risk [RR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.76; P = 0.05). In secondary analyses, the proportion of women with detectable HIV-1 RNA in breast milk was significantly greater in the selenium group (37.8%) compared with placebo group (27.5%) among women who did not receive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART; RR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.03-1.82; P = 0.03). This relationship was primarily due to a significant effect of selenium among primiparous women (RR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.30-3.86; P selenium supplementation. Selenium supplementation appears to increase HIV-1 RNA detection in breast milk among primiparous women not receiving HAART. Safety studies among pregnant women on HAART need to be conducted before administering selenium-containing supplements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Safe management of expressed breast milk: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Micah D J; McArthur, Alexa; Munn, Zachary

    2016-12-01

    Expressed breastmilk may be contaminated by viruses and bacteria, or lose nutritional value due to maternal transmission, storage, or handling. Babies may also unintentionally receive expressed breastmilk from a different mother. Conduct a systematic review of evidence from countries with incomes comparable to Australia to summarise the evidence around safe management of expressed breastmilk in terms of the risks of pathogen transmission, contamination and nutritional degradation from storage and transport, disinfection and cleaning procedures, and procedures to minimise misdelivery risk. A search of the international literature sought papers published from 2008 until November 2014. The reference lists of included papers were screened for additional studies. Included papers underwent methodological appraisal and data were extracted. Few pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in developed countries had clear evidence of transmission through breastmilk. Short term storage (up to 96h) at 6.8°C appeared to be safe. Frozen storage was generally safe but results in immunological component degradation. Expert consensus suggests that several acceptable methods of cleaning, including using warm soapy water, or boiling. Breastmilk management policies appear to reduce misdelivery of breastmilk. While there is a generally low risk of pathogen transmission via breastmilk, benefits must be considered against potential disease severity. Short-term refrigeration is generally acceptable for storage and transport. Freezing is often safe but causes degradation of immunological components. Universally, equipment used for expression and storage of breast milk should be well washed and disinfected. Effective breastmilk management policies can reduce risks of misdelivery. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of direct-fed Bacillus pumilus 8G-134 on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, feed conversion, and health condition of pre- and postpartum Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, S; Duersteler, M; Galbraith, E A; Cardoso, F C

    2015-09-01

    The usage of direct-fed microbials (DFM) has become common in the dairy industry, but questions regarding choice of strain, mode of action, and efficacy remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a DFM (Bacillus pumilus 8G-134) on pre- and postpartum performance and incidence of subclinical ketosis in early lactation. Forty-three multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 2 treatments in a randomized complete block design; cows in the direct-fed microbial treatment (DFMt, n=21) received 5.0×10(9) cfu/cow of B. pumilus in 28 g of a maltodextrin carrier, whereas cows in the control treatment (CON, n=22) received 28 g of maltodextrin carrier alone. Treatments were top-dressed on the total mixed ration daily. Treatments were applied from 21 d before expected calving date to 154 d after calving. Cows on treatment DFMt tended to have lower serum haptoglobin concentration than CON cows on d 14. Cows on treatment DFMt had higher IgA concentrations in milk than CON cows during the first week after calving. Cows fed DFMt had higher yields of milk, fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein during the second week of lactation than CON; however, we found no differences between treatments on milk yield and milk components overall. Cows on DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and to have lower prevalence of subclinical ketosis (beta-hydroxybutyrate >1.2 mmol/L) on d 5 than cows fed CON. Dry matter intake, body weight, and body condition score were not affected by DFMt supplementation. Milk production efficiencies (calculated based on fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk) were higher by 0.1 kg of milk per kilogram of dry matter intake in cows that received DFMt compared with cows that received CON. In conclusion, cows receiving DFMt tended to have lower incidence of subclinical ketosis than cows receiving CON. Cows fed DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and evidence for greater immunity than CON

  20. Breast Milk Feeding Rates in Patients With Cleft Lip and Palate at a North American Craniofacial Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperovich, Michael; Frey, Jordan D; Shetye, Pradip R; Grayson, Barry H; Vyas, Raj M

    2017-05-01

      Our study goal was to evaluate the rates of breast milk feeding among patients with oral clefts at a large North American Craniofacial Center.   Parents of patients with oral clefts born from 2000 to 2012 and treated at our center were interviewed regarding cleft diagnosis, counseling received for feeding, and feeding habits.   Data were obtained from parents of 110 patients with oral clefts. Eighty-four percent of parents received counseling for feeding a child with a cleft. Sixty-seven percent of patients received breast milk for some period of time with a mean duration of 5.3 months (range 0.25 to 18 months). When used, breast milk constituted the majority of the diet with a mean percentage of 75%. Breast milk feeding rates increased successively over the 13-year study period. The most common method of providing breast milk was the Haberman feeder at 75% with other specialty cleft bottles composing an additional 11%. Parents who received counseling were more likely to give breast milk to their infant (P = .02). Duration of NasoAlveolar Molding prior to cleft lip repair did not affect breast milk feeding length (P = .72). Relative to patients with cleft lip and palate, patients with isolated cleft lip had a breast milk feeding odds ratio of 1.71.   We present breast milk feeding in the North American cleft population. Although still lower than the noncleft population, breast milk feeding with regards to initiation rate, length of time, and proportion of total diet is significantly higher than previously reported.

  1. EFFECT OF MUSA BALBISIANA COLLA EXTRACT ON BREAST MILK PRODUCTION IN BREASTFEEDING MOTHERS

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    Diyan Wahyuningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musa balbisiana Colla, known as Jantung Pisang Klutuk/Pisang Batu, is considered as a traditional food that can increase breast milk production. Little is known about its benefit in Indonesia. Thus, to examine the impact of musa balbisiana colla on the production of breast milk is needed. Objective: This study aims to examine the effect of the extract of banana flower (Musa balbisiana Colla to increase milk production of breastfeeding mothers. Methods: This was a quasy-experimental study with pre-posttest control group design. This study was conducted in the working area of the Health Center (Puskesmas of Pesantren II in January – February 2017. There were 16 respondents were recruited by accidental sampling, divided to intervention group (8 respondents and control group (8 respondents. Randomization was performed to select the respondent in each group. The quantity of milk production was measured based on the volume of milk production, while the quality of milk production was based on the levels of prolactin in early (pre and late (post using Electro chemilumi-nescence Immunoassay (ECLIA method. Independent t-Test was used to analyze the data. Results: Findings showed that the mean of the volume of the breast milk production in the experiment group was 470.681 ml, and in the control group was 364.650 ml with SD 113.502. While the mean of prolactin levels in the experiment group was 35.337 nanogram, and in the control group was -38.381 nanogram. There was a significant effect of consuming Musa balbisiana Colla extract on the volume of breast milk production (p-value 0.003 and prolactin levels (p-value 0.001 (<0.05. Conclusion: There was a significant effect of banana flower (Musa balbisiana Colla extract on breast milk production and prolactin level in breastfeeding mothers. The findings of this study could be used to be alternative daily menu for postpartum mothers and a solution for midwives to deal with those who have inadequate

  2. Bacterial Composition and Diversity in Breast Milk Samples from Mothers Living in Taiwan and Mainland China

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    Shiao-Wen Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk is widely recognized as the best source of nutrients for healthy growth and development of infants; it contains a diverse microbiota. Here, we characterized the diversity of the microbiota in the breast milk of East Asian women and assessed whether delivery mode influenced the microbiota in the milk of healthy breast-feeding mothers. We profiled the microbiota in breast milk samples collected from 133 healthy mothers in Taiwan and in six regions of mainland China (Central, East, North, Northeast, South, and Southwest China by using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Lactation stage (months postpartum when the milk sample was collected and maternal body mass index did not influence the breast milk microbiota. Bacterial composition at the family level differed significantly among samples from the seven geographical regions. The five most predominant bacterial families were Streptococcaceae (mean relative abundance: 24.4%, Pseudomonadaceae (14.0%, Staphylococcaceae (12.2%, Lactobacillaceae (6.2%, and Oxalobacteraceae (4.8%. The microbial profiles were classified into three clusters, driven by Staphylococcaceae (abundance in Cluster 1: 42.1%, Streptococcaceae (Cluster 2: 48.5%, or Pseudomonadaceae (Cluster 3: 26.5%. Microbial network analysis at the genus level revealed that the abundances of the Gram-positive Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Rothia were negatively correlated with those of the Gram-negative Acinetobacter, Bacteroides, Halomonas, Herbaspirillum, and Pseudomonas. Milk from mothers who had undergone Caesarian section (C-section group had a significantly higher abundance of Lactobacillus (P < 0.05 and a higher number of unique unclassified operational taxonomic units (OTUs (P < 0.001 than that from mothers who had undergone vaginal delivery (vaginal group. These findings revealed that (i geographic differences in the microbial profiles were found in breast milk from mothers living in Taiwan and mainland China, (ii the

  3. Does dietary iodine regulate oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Repiso, Carolina; Velasco, Inés; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Rodríguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Linares, Francisca; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rubio-Martin, Elehazara; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Cobos-Bravo, Juan Francisco; Priego-Puga, Tatiana; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico; García-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2014-02-10

    Little is known about the association between iodine and human milk composition. In this study, we investigated the association between iodine and different markers of oxidative stress and obesity-related hormones in human breast milk. This work is composed of two cross-sectional studies (in lactating women and in the general population), one prospective and one in vitro. In the cross-sectional study in lactating women, the breast milk iodine correlated negatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and with adiponectin levels. An in vitro culture of human adipocytes with 1 μM potassium iodide (KI, dose similar to the human breast milk iodine concentration) produced a significant decrease in adiponectin, GSH-Px, SOD1, and SOD2 mRNA expression. However, after 2 months of treatment with KI in the prospective study, a positive correlation was found between 24-h urinary iodine and serum adiponectin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that iodine may be a factor directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk.

  4. Good performance of an immunoassay based method for nevirapine measurements in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Theilgaard, Zahra Persson; Chiduo, Mercy; Pedersen, Court; Gerstoft, Jan; Katzenstein, Terese Lea

    2011-07-01

    Understanding the distribution of antiretro-virals in breastfeeding HIV-positive mothers is essential, both for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission and for research on the development of drug resistance. The ARK nevirapine (NVP)-test is an immunoassay method for nevirapine measurements, developed and validated for plasma use. In this study, the ARK NVP-test was evaluated for measurement of nevirapine concentrations in breast milk. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the method currently used to determine nevirapine in breast milk. This method, however, requires complicated extraction techniques. The ARK method employs an immunoassay technology and requires a small sample volume (40 μL) and no pre-treatment of the samples. Commercial enzyme and antibody were used and calibration standards and quality controls were prepared from pooled breast milk from HIV-uninfected women. Clinical samples from HIV-infected women receiving a single-dose of nevirapine were analyzed. Precision and accuracy were evaluated with two concentrations of quality control materials analyzed in three replicates on four different days and was milk 1 week post-partum was 0.29 μg/mL (range 0.11-0.90 μg/mL) in women treated with a single-dose of nevirapine. The ease of use and small sample volume makes the ARK assay an attractive alternative to HPLC analyses for determinations of nevirapine concentrations in breast milk.

  5. High risk human papillomavirus and Epstein Barr virus in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Wendy K; Whitaker, Noel J; Lawson, James S

    2012-09-01

    Multiple viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and mouse mammary tumour virus have been identified in human milk. High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences have been identified in breast cancer. The aim of this study is to determine if viral sequences are present in human milk from normal lactating women. Standard (liquid) and in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to identify HPV and EBV in human milk samples from normal lactating Australian women who had no history of breast cancer.High risk human papillomavirus was identified in milk samples of 6 of 40 (15%) from normal lactating women - sequencing on four samples showed three were HPV 16 and one was HPV 18. Epstein Barr virus was identified in fourteen samples (33%). The presence of high risk HPV and EBV in human milk suggests the possibility of milk transmission of these viruses. However, given the rarity of viral associated malignancies in young people, it is possible but unlikely, that such transmission is associated with breast or other cancers.

  6. High risk human papillomavirus and Epstein Barr virus in human breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wendy K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV and mouse mammary tumour virus have been identified in human milk. High risk human papillomavirus (HPV sequences have been identified in breast cancer. The aim of this study is to determine if viral sequences are present in human milk from normal lactating women. Findings Standard (liquid and in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques were used to identify HPV and EBV in human milk samples from normal lactating Australian women who had no history of breast cancer. High risk human papillomavirus was identified in milk samples of 6 of 40 (15% from normal lactating women - sequencing on four samples showed three were HPV 16 and one was HPV 18. Epstein Barr virus was identified in fourteen samples (33%. Conclusion The presence of high risk HPV and EBV in human milk suggests the possibility of milk transmission of these viruses. However, given the rarity of viral associated malignancies in young people, it is possible but unlikely, that such transmission is associated with breast or other cancers.

  7. EFFECT OF CONSUMING TEMULAWAK (CURCUMA XANTHORRHIZA ROXB. EXTRACT ON BREAST MILK PRODUCTION IN POSTPARTUM MOTHERS

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    Chyntia Desbriyani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dominant factor inhibiting breastfeeding is the lack of milk production. The extract of temulawak (curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb is considered having an effect to increase breast milk production. Objective: To examine the effect of temulawak (curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb extract to increase milk production in postpartum mothers in the working area of Ambarawa Community Health Center. Methods: This was a quasy-experimental study with non-equivalent control group design conducted on October-December 2016. There were 38 respondents included using consecutive sampling, with 19 assigned in the intervention and control group. Paired t-test and independent test were used for data analysis. Results: Findings showed that there were significant increases of prolactin hormone (p = 0.000, breast milk volume (p = 0.001, baby’s urinary frequency (p = 0.001, baby’s defecation frequency (p = 0.000, and baby’s sleep duration (p = 0.000 after given temulawak (curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb extract. Conclusion: Temulawak (curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb extract has a significant effect in increasing breast milk production and prolactin levels in postpartum mothers. Thus, it is recommended that temulawak (curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb extract can be an option for postpartum mother to increase milk production.

  8. Vitamin C supplement intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: interaction with dietary vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeau, Claire; Fournier, Agnès; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2016-07-01

    Experimental and epidemiologic studies have yielded conflicting results on the relation between vitamin C intake and breast cancer risk. We investigated the relation between vitamin C supplement intake and breast cancer risk while considering dietary vitamin C intake. Between 1995 and 2008, 2482 invasive breast cancer cases occurred in 57,403 postmenopausal women from the Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) prospective cohort during 581,085 person-years. We estimated vitamin C intake from foods with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire that was sent to subjects in 1993-1995 and vitamin C supplement use via questionnaires sent in 1995, 2000, 2002, and 2005. Multivariable HRs (95% CIs) for primary invasive breast cancer were estimated with the use of Cox regression models. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Vitamin C supplement use (ever compared with never) was not associated with breast cancer risk overall; it was associated with higher breast cancer risk in women in the fourth quartile of vitamin C intake from foods (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.67) but not in other quartiles of dietary vitamin C intake (P-interaction = 0.03). We observed that vitamin C supplement use was associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk in women with high vitamin C intake from foods. Our data suggest a potential U- or J-shaped relation between total vitamin C intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk that deserves further investigation. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. The association between different kinds of fat intake and breast cancer risk in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Khodarahmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available So far several animal and case-control studies have confirmed this hypothesis that dietary fat increases the risk of breast cancer. However, cohort studies have not shown this relationship. The aim of this study was to review the studies on the relationship between dietary fat intake and breast cancer risk among women. Electronic database PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the key words: Breast cancer, dietary fat, serum estrogen, saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. The evidence of the studies regarding to the association of total and subtypes of fat intake with breast cancer risk are inconsistent. Several studies have shown that, among several types of fat, SFAs and w-3 PUFA intake are associated with an increased and reduced risk of breast cancer, respectively. The relationship between MUFAs intake and breast cancer risk is conflicting. Narrow ranges of fat intake among populations, measurement errors, high correlation between specific types of dietary fat, the confounding variables like body fatness and high-energy intake and other dietary components such as fiber and antioxidants might be probable explanations for these inconsistent results. Although we are not at a stage where we can justifiably advise women to reduce their fat intake to decrease the risk of developing breast cancer, it seems the current guidelines to lower total fat consumption and recommendation to consumption of unsaturated fats such as MUFAs and w-3 fatty acids and also reduction of SFAs (meat and dairy products intake to avoid heart disease is also useful for breast cancer risk.

  10. The clinical usefulness of breast milk sodium in the assessment of lactogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, J A

    1994-05-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the value of breast milk sodium concentration (BM [Na+]) during early lactogenesis in predicting nursing outcome. Samples of breast milk from 130 nursing mothers were obtained between the 3rd and 8th postpartum day for analysis of BM [Na+]. Approximately half the mothers were referred for nursing problems, although no problems were anticipated in the other primiparous mothers. A BM [Na+] of lactogenesis with a high risk of failure. The clinical usefulness and limitations of this determination are discussed.

  11. Assessment of bacterial diversity in breast milk using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Ted; Lacroix, Christophe; Braegger, Christian; Chassard, Christophe

    2013-10-01

    Initial neonatal gut colonisation is a crucial stage for developing a healthy physiology, beneficially influenced by breast-feeding. Breast milk has been shown not only to provide nutrients and bioactive/immunological compounds, but also commensal bacteria, including gut-associated anaerobic Bifidobacterium spp. The aim of the present study was to investigate bacterial diversity in breast milk, with emphasis on identifying gut-associated obligate anaerobes. Breast milk collected from seven mothers at three sampling points (days 3-6, 9-14 and 25-30 postpartum) was analysed by combined culture-dependent and state-of-the-art, culture-independent methods (Sanger sequencing and 454-pyrosequencing). In addition to the predominance of facultative anaerobes such as Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Propionibacterium (>90% of isolated strains and 23·7% relative abundance using pyrosequencing), significant populations of obligate anaerobes, including Bifidobacterium and Veillonella, were detected using pyrosequencing and confirmed by the isolation of viable strains (3·4% of isolates and 1·4% relative abundance). Pyrosequencing also revealed the presence of DNA of multiple major gut-associated obligate anaerobes (6·2% relative abundance) such as Bacteroides and, for the first time, several members of the Clostridia, including butyrate producers, such as Faecalibacterium and Roseburia, which are important for colonic health. The present study suggests that breast milk may be a major source of bacterial diversity to the neonatal gut, including gut-associated obligate anaerobes, and may thus significantly influence gut colonisation and maturation of the immune system.

  12. Mercury in breast milk - a health hazard for infants in gold mining areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Lettmeier, Beate; Roider, Gabriele; Siebert, Uwe; Drasch, Gustav

    2008-10-01

    Breast-feeding can be a source of mercury exposure for infants. The main concern up to now is methyl-mercury exposure of women at child-bearing age. Certain fish species have high levels of methyl-mercury leading to consumer's advisory guidelines in regard of fish consumption to protect infants from mercury exposure passing through breast milk. Little is known about the transfer of inorganic mercury passing through breast milk to infants. Epidemiological studies showed negative health effects of inorganic mercury in gold mining areas. Small-scale gold miners use mercury to extract the gold from the ore. Environmental and health assessments of gold mining areas in Indonesia, Tanzania and Zimbabwe showed a high exposure with inorganic mercury in these gold mining areas, and a negative health impact of the exposure to the miners and the communities. This paper reports about the analysis and the results of 46 breast milk samples collected from mercury-exposed mothers. The median level of 1.87mug/l is fairly high compared to other results from literature. Some breast milk samples showed very high levels of mercury (up to 149mug/l). Fourteen of the 46 breast milk samples exceed 4mug/l which is considered to be a "high" level. US EPA recommends a "Reference Dose" of 0.3mug inorganic mercury/kg body weight/day [United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1997. Volume V: Health Effects of Mercury and Mercury Compounds. Study Report EPA-452/R-97-007: US EPA]. Twenty-two of the 46 children from these gold mining areas had a higher calculated total mercury uptake. The highest calculated daily mercury uptake of 127mug exceeds by far the recommended maximum uptake of inorganic mercury. Further systematic research of mercury in breast milk from small-scale gold mining areas is needed to increase the knowledge about the bio-transfer of mercury from mercury vapour-exposed mothers passing through breast milk to the breast-fed infant.

  13. Low breast milk TGF-beta2 is induced by Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation and associates with reduced risk of sensitization during infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Malin Fagerås; Abrahamsson, Thomas Robert; Fredriksson, Mats; Jakobsson, Ted; Björkstén, Bengt

    2008-09-01

    The immunological composition of breast milk differs between mothers. The reasons for these differences and the consequences for the breast-fed infants are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation on the immunological composition of breast milk in relation to sensitization and eczema in the babies. Total IgA, secretory IgA (SIgA), TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, IL-10, TNF, soluble CD14 (sCD14), and Na/K ratios were analyzed in colostrum and mature milk obtained from women treated with L. reuteri (n = 54) or placebo (n = 55) from gestational week 36 until delivery. Bacteriological analyses of L. reuteri were performed in faecal samples of the mothers. The infants were followed prospectively for 2 yr regarding development of eczema and sensitization as defined by a positive skin prick test and/or circulating allergen-specific IgE antibodies at 6, 12, and 24 months of age. Supplementation of L. reuteri during pregnancy was associated with low levels of TGF-beta2 and slightly increased levels of IL-10 in colostrum. For TGF-beta2, this association was most pronounced in mothers with detectable L. reuteri in faeces. Infants receiving breast milk with low levels of TGF-beta2 were less likely to become sensitized during their first 2 yr of life. A similar trend was observed for development of IgE-associated eczema. The levels of total IgA, SIgA, TGF-beta1, TNF, sCD14, and Na/K ratios in breast milk were not affected by the intake of L. reuteri. None of these parameters correlated with sensitization or development of eczema in the infant, except for high Na/K ratios that associated with increased risk of sensitization. Supplementation with L. reuteri during late pregnancy reduces breast milk levels of TGF-beta2, and low levels of this cytokine are associated with less sensitization and possibly less IgE-associated eczema in breast-fed infants.

  14. Differences in dietary intake during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared to women without cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Y.C.; Berg, van den M.M.G.A.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Boesveldt, S.; Kruif, de J.Th.C.M.; Buist, N.; Haringhuizen, A.; Los, M.; Sommeijer, D.W.; Timmer-Bonte, J.H.N.; Laarhoven, van H.W.M.; Visser, M.; Kampman, E.; Winkels, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy often experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite that potentially affect dietary habits. This study assessed the intake of energy, macronutrients and food groups before and during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

  15. Folate intake, alcohol and risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjønneland, A; Christensen, J.; Olsen, A.

    2006-01-01

    There is consistent evidence that alcohol increases the risk of breast cancer. It has been suggested that the increased risk associated with alcohol intake may be reduced by adequate intake of folate. Since many women consume alcohol, detection of a risk-reducing mechanism would have major public...

  16. Alcohol intake and breast cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romieu, Isabelle; Scoccianti, Chiara; Chajès, Véronique; De Batlle, Jordi; Biessy, Carine; Dossus, Laure; Baglietto, Laura; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. Bas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06929528X; Van Gils, Carla H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/17443068X; Peeters, Petra H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; García, José Ramõn Quirõs; Chirlaque, María Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, María José; Duell, Eric J.; Amiano, Pilar; Borgquist, Signe; Wirfält, Elisabet; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Murphy, Neil; Wark, Petra A.; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol intake has been associated to breast cancer in pre and postmenopausal women; however results are inconclusive regarding tumor hormonal receptor status, and potential modifying factors like age at start drinking. Therefore, we investigated the relation between alcohol intake and the risk of

  17. Assessing levels of contaminants in breast milk: methodological issues and a framework for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrew, Mary J; Hay, Alaistair M W; Shelton, Nicola; Law, Graham; Wallis, Susan; Madden, Shelley; Shires, Susan; Sutcliffe, Anne; Woolridge, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    To assess the scale of the possible exposure by the breast-fed infant to potentially harmful substances in breast milk, methodologically robust studies are essential. Many studies in this field, however, do not report details of crucial issues such as recruitment and milk sampling. The aims of the study reported here were to develop robust methods for the study of contaminants in breast milk, and to develop a framework for future research and population monitoring. Three cohorts of women and babies were recruited by midwives from five sites in northern England. Cohort 1 (cross-sectional, n = 322) were asked to provide two milk samples, one at one week following birth and one at a subsequent time point. Cohort 2 (longitudinal, n = 54) were asked to provide five samples at specified time points over the first 12-16 weeks after birth. Cohort 3 (convenience, n = 18), mothers of babies in the Special Care Unit, were asked to donate surplus breast milk. A novel method of analysing fat concentration in small volumes was developed and tested. A randomly selected set of samples from different donors and stages of lactation was screened for organochlorine pesticide residues, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins/furans, phthalates and heavy metals. A total of 453 samples were donated. Cohort 3 was the least successful route of recruitment. Cohorts 1 and 2 combined were most representative of the population. Sample collection, transport and storage procedures, and the collection of data on life style and diet, were robust and acceptable to women. Midwifery involvement in recruitment was an essential component. This study offers a framework both for the conduct of future research studies, and for the establishment of regional and national monitoring mechanisms for contaminants in breast milk. Similar work on contaminants in formula as fed to babies is needed to inform risk assessment methods.

  18. Fructose in Breast Milk Is Positively Associated with Infant Body Composition at 6 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Michael I; Martin, Ashley A; Alderete, Tanya L; Fujiwara, Hideji; Fields, David A

    2017-02-16

    Dietary sugars have been shown to promote excess adiposity among children and adults; however, no study has examined fructose in human milk and its effects on body composition during infancy. Twenty-five mother-infant dyads attended clinical visits to the Oklahoma Health Sciences Center at 1 and 6 months of infant age. Infants were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and sugars in breast milk (i.e., fructose, glucose, lactose) were measured by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and glucose oxidase. Infant body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 1 and 6 months. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between breast milk sugars and infant body composition at 6 months of age. Fructose, glucose, and lactose were present in breast milk and stable across visits (means = 6.7 μg/mL, 255.2 μg/mL, and 7.6 g/dL, respectively). Despite its very low concentration, fructose was the only sugar significantly associated with infant body composition. A 1-μg/mL higher breast milk fructose was associated with a 257 g higher body weight (p = 0.02), 170 g higher lean mass (p = 0.01), 131 g higher fat mass (p = 0.05), and 5 g higher bone mineral content (p = 0.03). In conclusion, fructose is detectable in human breast milk and is positively associated with all components of body composition at 6 months of age.

  19. Fruits and vegetables intake differentially affects estrogen receptor negative and positive breast cancer incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Thomsen, Birthe L; Loft, Steffen; Stripp, Connie; Overvad, Kim; Møller, Susanne; Olsen, Jørgen H

    2003-07-01

    Despite intensive research, the evidence for a protective effect of fruits and vegetables on breast cancer risk remains inconclusive. Other risk factors for breast cancer seem to vary with the estrogen receptor status of the breast tumor, and it is thus possible that the inconsistent results regarding a preventive effect of fruits and vegetables are due to lack of controlling for estrogen receptor status. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fruit and vegetable intake on postmenopausal breast cancer and explore whether the estrogen receptor status of the tumor modifies this relation. Postmenopausal women (n = 23,798; aged 50-64 y) provided information about diet and established risk factors for breast cancer in the cohort "Diet, Cancer and Health." During follow-up, 425 cases were diagnosed with breast cancer. Associations between intake of fruits and vegetables and the breast cancer rate were analyzed using Cox's regression model. The association for all breast cancers was an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.02 (95% CI, 0.98-1.06) per 100 g/d increment of total intake of fruits, vegetables and juice. For estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer, a borderline significant increase in the rate was seen, IRR: 1.05 (95% CI, 1.00-1.10), whereas a preventive effect was seen for estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) breast cancers, IRR: 0.90 (95% CI, 0.81-0.99). In conclusion, we did not find the overall breast cancer rate to be associated with the intake of fruits and vegetables, but there seemed to be different effects for ER(+) and ER(-) breast cancer.

  20. Human in vivo study of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the sympathetic activity after 8 weeks daily intake of fermented milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Ibsen, Hans; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Milk fermented by lactic acid bacteria is suggested to have antihypertensive effect in humans. In vitro and animal studies have established an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor effect of peptides in fermented milk. However, other modes of action must be considered, because until today...... no human studies have confirmed an ACE inhibition in relation to the intake of fermented milk....

  1. "Lost milk?": Counting the economic value of breast milk in gross domestic product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J P

    2013-11-01

    The contribution of breastfeeding and mothers milk to the economy is invisible in economic statistics. This article demonstrates how the economic value of human milk production can be included in economic statistics such as gross domestic product (GDP) and provides estimates for Australia, the United States, and Norway. The contribution of human milk and lactation to GDP in these countries is estimated using United Nations (System of National Accounting) guidelines and conventional economic valuation approaches to measuring production in GDP. In Australia, current human milk production levels exceed $3 billion annually. The United States has the potential to produce human milk worth more than US$110 billion a year, but currently nearly two thirds of this value is lost due to premature weaning. In Norway, production valued at US$907 million annually is 60% of its potential value. The potential loss of economic value from not protecting women's lactation and milk production from competing market pressures is large. Failure to account for mothers' milk production in GDP and other economic data has important consequences for public policy. The invisibility of human milk reduces the perceived importance of programs and regulations that protect and support women to breastfeed. The value of human milk can be measured using accepted international guidelines for calculating national income and production. It is quantitatively nontrivial and should be counted in GDP.

  2. Effect of ground corn cobs as a fiber source in total mixed ration on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition in tropical lactating crossbred Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalong Wachirapakorn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ground corn cobs (GCC as a sole fiber source in total mixed ration (TMR on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition in tropical lactating crossbred Holstein cows. Four multiparous crossbreds Holstein Friesian dairy cows with an initial body weight (BW of 415.5 ± 26.20 kg were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments of TMR contained a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60. The roughage source was used at different ratios of GCC to rice straw (RS at 100:0, 82.5:17.5, 67.5:32.5, and 50:50 for TMR1 to TMR4, respectively. The results revealed significant improvements in intake of dry matter, protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and metabolizable energy (ME for TMR1 and TMR2 (P  0.05. However, milk yield was significantly different among the GCC:RS ratios (P  0.05. The results imply that using GCC as a whole roughage source significantly improved nutrients intake and milk yield in dairy cows raised in tropical areas.

  3. Consumption of dark chocolate attenuates subsequent food intake compared with milk and white chocolate in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Channa E; Green, Daniel J; Naylor, Louise H; Guelfi, Kym J

    2017-09-01

    Chocolate has a reputation for contributing to weight gain due to its high fat, sugar and calorie content. However, the effect of varying concentrations of cocoa in chocolate on energy intake and appetite is not clear. To compare the acute effect of consuming an isocaloric dose of dark, milk and white chocolate on subsequent energy intake, appetite and mood in postmenopausal women. Fourteen healthy postmenopausal women (57.6 ± 4.8yr) attended an introductory session followed by three experimental trials performed in a counterbalanced order at a standardised time of day, each separated by one week. Ad libitum energy intake, perceived appetite, mood and appetite-related peptides were assessed in response to consumption of 80% cocoa [dark chocolate], 35% cocoa [milk chocolate] and cocoa butter [white chocolate] (2099 kJ), prepared from a single-origin cacao bean. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly lower following dark (1355 ± 750 kJ) compared with both milk (1693 ± 969 kJ; P = 0.008) and white (1842 ± 756 kJ; P = 0.001) chocolate consumption. Blood glucose and insulin concentrations were transiently elevated in response to white and milk chocolate consumption compared with the dark chocolate (P chocolate (dark and milk) compared with white chocolate (P  0.05). Dark chocolate attenuates subsequent food intake in postmenopausal women, compared to the impact of milk and white chocolate consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Miracles and mysteries of breast milk: from Egyptians to the 3 M’s (Metabolomics, Microbiomics, Multipotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Fanos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ancient Egyptians considered breast milk the nectar of Gods that could give life, strength and ensure a very long existence. Nowadays, it is well known that breast milk is a dynamic bioactive mixture that is tailored upon the needs of the neonates. In fact breast milk contains nutritional substances (such as lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and minerals, bioactive substances (such as hormones, cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulins, leucocytes and, according to the newest works, bacteria (microbiome of maternal milk and multipotent stem cells.Metabolomics is one of the newest “omics” sciences that make it possible to have a snapshot of the metabolic state of an individual or a biufluid. Now about 10 papers have been published in the last 3 years on metabolomics in human milk.Human breast milk was mistakenly thought to be sterile for almost a century, but nowadays using the modern technologies it is well known that it is “contaminated”: in fact investigators we know that bacteria can be found in breast milk speaks about maternal milk microbiota. A breastfed baby is thought to ingest up to 10 milions of live bacteria per day.  There are as much as 600 species of bacteria in maternal milk.The possible future applications of stem cells found in are potentially endless: a tailored regenerative medicine with less ethical problems and better outcomes for the patients could be developed.

  5. Is breast cancer risk associated with alcohol intake before first full-term pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Harindra; MacInnis, Robert J; Hodge, Allison M; Room, Robin; Milne, Roger L; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G; English, Dallas R

    2016-09-01

    It is plausible that breast tissue is particularly susceptible to carcinogens, including ethanol, between menarche and the first full-term pregnancy ("first pregnancy"). There is some epidemiological evidence that intake before the first pregnancy is more closely associated with risk of breast cancer than is intake thereafter. We examined this association using lifetime alcohol consumption data from a prospective cohort study. We calculated usual alcohol intake for age periods 15-19 years and for 10-year period from age 20 to current age (in grams per day) using recalled frequency and quantity of beverage-specific consumption for 13,630 parous women who had their first pregnancy at age 20 years or later, had no cancer history and were aged 40-69 years at enrollment. Cox regression was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 651 incident invasive adenocarcinomas of the breast were diagnosed during a mean follow-up of 16.1 years. Alcohol consumption was low overall with only a few drinking ≥40 g/day. Intake before the first pregnancy was markedly lower (mean intake: 2.5 g/day; abstention: 58.8 %) than intake thereafter (mean intake: 6.0 g/day; abstention: 33.6 %). Any alcohol intake before the first pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (HR 1.35, 95 % CI 1.10-1.66 for drinking compared with abstention), whereas any intake after the first pregnancy was not (HR 0.89, 95 % CI 0.72-1.09). Limiting alcohol intake before the first pregnancy might reduce women's risk of breast cancer.

  6. Differential rumination, intake, and enteric methane production of dairy cows in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, L J; Clark, C E F; Krebs, G L; Petzel, C E; Nielsen, S; Utsumi, S A

    2015-10-01

    Proper performance monitoring of cows on pasture-based diets is crucial to inform nutritional recommendations that minimize undesirable effects of high ruminant CH4 emissions into the environment. The prediction of linkages between rumination patterns, methane emissions, and correlated production traits of cows in a pasture-based automatic milking system was tested. A previous 10-d baseline measurement of rumination activity by acoustic methodology of 156 Holstein-Friesian cows was used for frequency analysis of rumination time and identification of 2 treatment groups (n = 37 cows/group) represented by cows with consistently high (HR; 75th rumination percentile = 617.55 ± 81.37 min/d) or low (LR; 25th rumination percentile = 356.65 ± 72.67 min/d) rumination. The HR and LR cows were paired by nearest parity, days in milk, body weight (BW), and previous 10-d milk production, and within pairs randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups managed on a voluntary milking system with diets consisting of at least 75% pasture, plus concentrates. Animal traits, including rumination time, mass flux of CH4 (QCH4) and carbon dioxide (QCO2), milk production, and estimated dry matter intake according to individual QCO2 fluxes over a 22-d period were analyzed with repeated measure mixed models for a completely randomized design, structural equation modeling, and nonlinear regression. High rumination and methane was seen in older and heavier cows that had greater estimated dry matter intake and milk production. A consistent difference in rumination time and QCH4 across days was detected between HR and LR, even after adjustment for metabolic BW. Estimated dry matter intake had direct positive effects on rumination and QCH4, but no independent direct effect of rumination on QCH4 was detected. The LR cows produced more QCH4/milk, associated with lower milk, BW, concentrate intake, and greater activity at pasture. A typical dilution of maintenance effect on QCH4/milk was detected

  7. Dietary carbohydrate intake is not associated with the breast cancer incidence rate ratio in postmenopausal Danish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Trine G; Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Although many case-control studies have suggested positive associations between carbohydrate intake and breast cancer incidence rates in both pre- and postmenopausal women, there is limited information available from cohort studies. We examined the effect of the intake of different carbohydrates, the glycemic index, and the glycemic load on breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal women taking into consideration tumor estrogen receptor status. Postmenopausal women (n = 23,870; aged 50-65 y) participated in the "Diet, Cancer, and Health" study, and provided information about diet and established risk factors for breast cancer. During follow-up, we identified 634 incidents of breast cancer. Associations between carbohydrate intake and breast cancer incidence were analyzed using Cox's regression models. There was no association for intake of glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, or starch and breast cancer incidence rate, and no association for glycemic index or glycemic load after adjusting for confounding factors. Intake of different carbohydrates was not associated with breast cancer incidence rates for either estrogen receptor positive (ER+) or (ER-) breast cancer. Similarly, glycemic index and glycemic load were not associated with ER+ breast cancer after adjusting for confounding factors. A borderline significant positive association between glycemic index and (ER-) breast cancer was observed (P = 0.05). In conclusion, we found no clear associations between intake of different carbohydrates, total carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, or glycemic load and breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, when ER+ and ER- breast cancer cases were analyzed separately, no clear associations were observed.

  8. Maternal breast milk transforming growth factor beta and feeding intolerance in preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Brandy L.; Jilling, Tamas; Lapin, Brittany; Maheshwari, Akhil; Caplan, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Feeding intolerance occurs commonly in the NICU. Breast milk contains a large pool of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Few studies describe TGF-beta levels in preterm milk, and the relationship to feeding intolerance (FI) remains unexplored. We measured TGF-beta levels in preterm breast milk to investigate a correlation with FI in preterm infants. Methods Prospective observational trial of 100 mother-infant pairs, enrolling infants born below 32 weeks gestation and less than 1500 grams, and mothers who planned to provide breast milk. TGF-beta levels were measured using ELISA. Infant charts were reviewed for outcomes. Results TGF-beta declined postnatally, most elevated in colostrum (p<0.01). TGF-beta 2 levels were higher than TGF-beta 1 at all time points (p<0.01). Colostrum TGF-beta levels correlated inversely with birth weight (p<0.01) and gestational age (p<0.05). One week TGF-beta 2 levels were reduced in growth-restricted infants with FI (p<0.01). Of infants with NEC, TGF-beta 2 levels appeared low, but small sample size precluded meaningful statistical comparisons. Conclusions TGF-beta levels decline temporally in preterm milk. TGF-beta 1 colostrum levels correlate inversely with birth weight and gestational age. TGF-beta 2 may play a role in FI in growth-restricted infants. The relationship of TGF-beta 2 and NEC merits future investigation. PMID:24995914

  9. Detection of Plant miRNAs Abundance in Human Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasik, Anna; Brzozowska, Iwona; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr

    2017-12-23

    Breast milk is a natural food and important component of infant nutrition. Apart from the alimentary substances, breast milk contains many important bioactive compounds, including endogenous microRNA molecules (miRNAs). These regulatory molecules were identified in various mammalian biological fluids and were shown to be mostly packed in exosomes. Recently, it was revealed that plant food-derived miRNAs are stably present in human blood and regulate the expression of specific human genes. Since then, the scientific community has focused its efforts on contradicting or confirming this discovery. With the same intention, qRT-PCR experiments were performed to evaluate the presence of five plant food-derived miRNAs (miR166a, miR156a, miR157a, miR172a and miR168a) in breast milk (whole milk and exosomes) from healthy volunteers. In whole milk samples, all examined miRNAs were identified, while only two of these miRNAs were confirmed to be present in exosomes. The plant miRNA concentration in the samples ranged from 4 to 700 fM. Complementary bioinformatics analysis suggests that the evaluated plant miRNAs may potentially influence several crucial biological pathways in the infant organism.

  10. Use of baseline and updated information on alcohol intake on risk for breast cancer: importance of latency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Keiding, Niels

    2008-01-01

    City Heart Study, in which alcohol intake was measured four times, 9318 Danish women with no previous diagnosis of cancer were followed for breast cancer for 27 years, from 1976 to 2002. During follow-up, breast cancer was diagnosed in 476 women. RESULTS: The association between alcohol intake at first......BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake has been shown to be associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. In the analysis of longitudinal prospective cohort studies, however, the analysis of repeated measurements of alcohol intake might not be straightforward. METHODS: In this analysis of the Copenhagen...... measurement (baseline alcohol intake) and breast cancer was positive and approximately linear. When alcohol intake was updated during follow-up, no association was observed between breast cancer and alcohol intake. It is suggested that this difference in results may be attributable to long latency time...

  11. Direct vs. Expressed Breast Milk Feeding: Relation to Duration of Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei Pang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies examining direct vs. expressed breast milk feeding are scarce. We explored the predictors of mode of breastfeeding and its association with breastfeeding duration in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Methods: We included 541 breastfeeding mother—infant pairs from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes cohort. Mode of breastfeeding (feeding directly at the breast, expressed breast milk (EBM feeding only, or mixed feeding (a combination of the former 2 modes was ascertained at three months postpartum. Ordinal logistic regression analyses identified predictors of breast milk expression. Cox regression models examined the association between mode of breastfeeding and duration of any and of full breastfeeding. Results: Maternal factors independently associated with a greater likelihood of breast milk expression instead of direct breastfeeding were Chinese (vs. Indian ethnicity, (adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI; 3.41, 1.97–5.91, tertiary education (vs. secondary education or lower (2.22, 1.22–4.04, primiparity (1.54, 1.04–2.26 and employment during pregnancy (2.53, 1.60–4.02. Relative to those who fed their infants directly at the breast, mothers who fed their infants EBM only had a higher likelihood of early weaning among all mothers who were breastfeeding (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% CI; 2.20, 1.61–3.02, and among those who were fully breastfeeding (2.39, 1.05–5.41. Mothers who practiced mixed feeding, however, were not at higher risk of earlier termination of any or of full breastfeeding. Conclusions: Mothers who fed their infants EBM exclusively, but not those who practiced mixed feeding, were at a higher risk of terminating breastfeeding earlier than those who fed their infants directly at the breast. More education and support are required for women who feed their infants EBM only.

  12. Direct vs. Expressed Breast Milk Feeding: Relation to Duration of Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wei Wei; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Thavamani, Geetha; Chan, Yiong Huak; Fok, Doris; Soh, Shu-E; Chua, Mei Chien; Lim, Sok Bee; Shek, Lynette P; Yap, Fabian; Tan, Kok Hian; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Kramer, Michael S; Chong, Yap-Seng

    2017-05-27

    Studies examining direct vs. expressed breast milk feeding are scarce. We explored the predictors of mode of breastfeeding and its association with breastfeeding duration in a multi-ethnic Asian population. We included 541 breastfeeding mother-infant pairs from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes cohort. Mode of breastfeeding (feeding directly at the breast, expressed breast milk (EBM) feeding only, or mixed feeding (a combination of the former 2 modes)) was ascertained at three months postpartum. Ordinal logistic regression analyses identified predictors of breast milk expression. Cox regression models examined the association between mode of breastfeeding and duration of any and of full breastfeeding. Maternal factors independently associated with a greater likelihood of breast milk expression instead of direct breastfeeding were Chinese (vs. Indian) ethnicity, (adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI; 3.41, 1.97-5.91), tertiary education (vs. secondary education or lower) (2.22, 1.22-4.04), primiparity (1.54, 1.04-2.26) and employment during pregnancy (2.53, 1.60-4.02). Relative to those who fed their infants directly at the breast, mothers who fed their infants EBM only had a higher likelihood of early weaning among all mothers who were breastfeeding (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% CI; 2.20, 1.61-3.02), and among those who were fully breastfeeding (2.39, 1.05-5.41). Mothers who practiced mixed feeding, however, were not at higher risk of earlier termination of any or of full breastfeeding. Mothers who fed their infants EBM exclusively, but not those who practiced mixed feeding, were at a higher risk of terminating breastfeeding earlier than those who fed their infants directly at the breast. More education and support are required for women who feed their infants EBM only.

  13. Persistence of Zika Virus in Breast Milk after Infection in Late Stage of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, José R.; Sotelo, Andre B.; Sotelo, Fabio J.B.; Pinho, Joao R.R.; Oliveira, Rita de Cassia; Bezerra, Alanna M.P.S.; Deutsch, Alice D.; Villas-Boas, Lucy S.; Felix, Alvina C.; Romano, Camila M.; Machado, Clarisse M.; Mendes-Correa, Maria C.J.; Santana, Rubia A.F.; Menezes, Fernando G.; Mangueira, Cristovao L.P.

    2017-01-01

    We detected Zika virus in breast milk of a woman in Brazil infected with the virus during the 36th week of pregnancy. Virus was detected 33 days after onset of signs and symptoms and 9 days after delivery. No abnormalities were found during fetal assessment or after birth of the infant. PMID:28192072

  14. Self-limiting diarrhea in an infant exposed to sertraline in breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Uvais

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sertraline is widely used to treat postpartum depression. Though studies found detectable levels of sertraline in infant blood, very few adverse effects are reported. Reporting hereby is a case of an infant who developed self-limiting diarrhea, probably due to exposure to sertraline in breast milk.

  15. Organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk and placenta in Tohoku, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, K.; Suzuki, K.; Oka, T.; Sugawara, N.; Ohba, T.; Kameo, S.; Satoh, H. [Environmental Heath Sciences, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Nakamura, T.; Saitoh, Y. [Miyagi Prefectural Inst. of Piblic Health and Environment (Japan); Okamura, K. [Dept. of Obstetrics, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Recently, we have started a birth cohort study to examine the effects of exposure to persistent organochemical pollutants and heavy metals on neurodevelopment in Japanese children, The Tohoku Study of Child Development. In this cohort study, biological samples, including maternal peripheral blood, cord blood, placenta, cord tissue, and breast milk have been collected from more than six hundred mother-infant pairs for chemical determinations. The growth of infants has been monitored using neurodevelopmental tests, including the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, the Bayley Scale of Infant Development, the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development, and others. Exposures to dioxin and related compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, methylmercury, and several heavy metals were assessed. Additionally, since perinatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides may affect the neurodevelopment of children, we examined the effects of those pesticides in the cohort study. In the present study, several organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in human breast milk and placenta from 20 mothers to identify the major pesticide compounds found in the cohort subjects. The relationship between pesticides in breast milk and the placenta was analyzed to examine the utilization of the placenta as the material for exposure assessment. Some information regarding the factors affecting the contamination of breast milk and the placenta with organochlorine pesticides are also discussed.

  16. Determination of In-Vitro Antibacterial Effects of Breast Milk | Akujobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Expressed breast milk of nursing mothers who were not on antibiotics was challenged with 0.5 McFarland's standard of overnight cultures of common bacteria that cause infections. The mixture was sub cultured at 30 minutes, 1 hour and lastly 2 hour intervals. The plates were read the following day for evidence of growth.

  17. Breast milk fatty acids in mothers of children with atopic eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S; Bolton, C

    1989-11-01

    The total lipid fatty acid composition of mature breast milk has been analysed in a group of twenty-five mothers of children with atopic eczema, and compared with breast milk from twenty-two controls. Total lipids were extracted into chloroform-methanol (2:1, v/v) and the methyl esters prepared by alkalicatalysed trans-esterification were separated by gas-liquid chromatography and identified by comparison with standard fatty acid methyl esters. Results show that mothers of children with atopic eczema have a significantly greater proportion of linoleic acid, and a smaller proportion of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid in their total breast milk lipid than the controls. Proportions of total derived fatty acids were similar between groups and there were no differences in the principal saturated and monounsaturated fats. It was concluded that mothers of children with atopic eczema have an abnormal breast-milk fatty acid composition. This supports previous evidence of a defect of conversion of linoleic acid into its long-chain polyunsaturated metabolites in the condition.

  18. Withholding breast milk for HIV exposed infants in sub-Saharan Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... African HIV exposed infants. It is hoped that when Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) becomes universally accessible and available to HIV infected women in sub-Saharan Africa, breast milk HIV transmission will be a rare event and the health benefits of breastfeeding for the infant and mother will be maximized.

  19. effect of measles antibodies in the breast milk and sera of mother on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olaleye

    And this could explain the role of mother - child factor as it affects measles seroconversion after vaccination. This study was therefore designed to determine the relationship between the measles antibody in the breast milk and sera of mothers and its effect on the seroconversion of their children after measles vaccination.

  20. Aflatoxin M1 in human breast milk in Shahrekord, Iran and association with dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Tina; Fallah, Aziz A; Kheiri, Soleiman; Fadaei, Abdolmajid; Amini, Sayed Asadollah

    2017-06-01

    This survey was conducted to determine the occurrence and levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in 250 breast milk samples of lactating mothers, obtained from urban and rural regions of Shahrekord, Iran. Moreover, the association between AFM1 occurrence levels and dietary factors was assessed. AFM1 analysis was carried out using the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique for screening and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) for confirmatory purposes. The toxin was detected in 39 samples (15.6%), ranging from 11.1 to 39.3 ng/l, of which 8 samples (3.2%) had levels above the Iranian national standard limit (25 ng/l). AFM1 occurrence and levels in breast milk samples obtained from rural regions were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than those obtained from urban ones. It might be due to the different dietary patterns in these regions. It was found that dietary habits with more tendencies to consume bread, rice and non-alcoholic beer beverage significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) the risk of AFM1 occurrence in breast milk. In addition, higher consumption of bread, olive and traditional cream significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) the levels of AFM1 in breast milk samples. Further investigations should be performed to determine more precisely the association between AFM1 occurrence and dietary factors and also the risk of infant exposure to this mycotoxin.

  1. Zinc and copper levels of mature breast milk of healthy lactating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The breast milk contents of zinc and copper and the effect of lactation on them in the first six months of lactation were determined in a cross sectional study among 120 healthy lactating mothers attending the infant welfare clinics of Jos University Teaching Hospital Jos . The serum levels of these elements were also ...

  2. Persistence of Zika Virus in Breast Milk after Infection in Late Stage of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, José R; Sotelo, Andre B; Sotelo, Fabio J B; Doi, André M; Pinho, Joao R R; Oliveira, Rita de Cassia; Bezerra, Alanna M P S; Deutsch, Alice D; Villas-Boas, Lucy S; Felix, Alvina C; Romano, Camila M; Machado, Clarisse M; Mendes-Correa, Maria C J; Santana, Rubia A F; Menezes, Fernando G; Mangueira, Cristovao L P

    2017-05-01

    We detected Zika virus in breast milk of a woman in Brazil infected with the virus during the 36th week of pregnancy. Virus was detected 33 days after onset of signs and symptoms and 9 days after delivery. No abnormalities were found during fetal assessment or after birth of the infant.

  3. High breast milk IL-1β level is associated with reduced risk of childhood eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, A. A.; Chawes, B. L.; Carson, C. G.

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated a dual effect of breastfeeding with increased risk of eczema and decreased risk of wheezing in early childhood by increasing breastfeeding length. We hypothesize that immune mediators in breast milk could explain such association either through a direct effect or as a sur...... or as a surrogate marker of maternal immune constitution....

  4. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk collected from Dalian and Shenyang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunisue, T.; Someya, M.; Tanabe, S. [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Kayama, F. [Jichi Medical School, Tochigi (Japan); Kayama, F. [CREST-JST, Kawaguchi (Japan); Jin Yihe [China Medical Univ., Shenyang (China)

    2004-09-15

    During the past few decades, numerous investigations on pollution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as dioxins, PCBs and DDTs in human breast milk have been conducted in various countries with a view to assessing risks for infants. In developed countries, it was found that levels of POPs in human breast milk have decreased in recent decades. On the other hand, in some developing and former soviet countries, it is suspected that organochlorine insecticides such as DDT and HCH are still in use, and relatively high levels of these contaminants have been observed in human breast milk. China, which has the largest ground area among Asian countries, produced large quantities of technical HCH and DDT in the past and mainly used these organochlorine insecticides in agricultural fields. In fact, high levels of HCHs and DDTs have been detected in seawater, sediment and fish from China. In addition, relatively high levels of PCBs have been detected in aquatic media along industrialized areas. Thus, in China, because of anticipated higher levels of pollution by POPs in the environment, some investigations on pollution by these contaminants in environmental media have been recently conducted. However, no information on human exposure to POPs in northeastern parts of China is available, although a few investigations have been conducted in southeastern parts around Hong Kong. The present study attempted to elucidate the contamination status of POPs in human breast milk collected from primiparae in Dalian and Shenyang, northeastern China.

  5. Response of Bone Resorption Markers to Aristolochia longa Intake by Algerian Breast Cancer Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarba, Bachir; Meddah, Boumedienne; Tir Touil, Aicha

    2014-01-01

    Aristolochia longa is widely used in traditional medicine in Algeria to treat breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the response of bone resorption markers to A. longa intake by Algerian breast cancer postmenopausal women. According to the A. longa intake, breast cancer patients were grouped into A. longa group (Al) (n = 54) and non-A. longa group (non-Al) (n = 24). 32 women constituted the control group. Bone resorption markers (from urine) pyridinoline (PYD) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were determined by HPLC. Serum and urinary creatinine, uric acid, and urea were measured. 1 g of A. longa intake resulted in significant rise of renal serum markers and a pronounced increase of bone resorption markers. The intake of A. longa roots is detrimental for kidney function and resulted in high bone resorption, maybe due to the reduction in renal function caused by the aristolochic acids contained in the roots.

  6. Response of Bone Resorption Markers to Aristolochia longa Intake by Algerian Breast Cancer Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachir Benarba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aristolochia longa is widely used in traditional medicine in Algeria to treat breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the response of bone resorption markers to A. longa intake by Algerian breast cancer postmenopausal women. According to the A. longa intake, breast cancer patients were grouped into A. longa group (Al (n=54 and non-A. longa group (non-Al (n=24. 32 women constituted the control group. Bone resorption markers (from urine pyridinoline (PYD and deoxypyridinoline (DPD were determined by HPLC. Serum and urinary creatinine, uric acid, and urea were measured. 1 g of A. longa intake resulted in significant rise of renal serum markers and a pronounced increase of bone resorption markers. The intake of A. longa roots is detrimental for kidney function and resulted in high bone resorption, maybe due to the reduction in renal function caused by the aristolochic acids contained in the roots.

  7. Fatty acid composition in preterm and term breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenhauser, Ana Claudia; Pinheiro do Prado, Ana Cristina; da Silva, Roberta Claro; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Block, Jane Mara

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the fatty acid (FA) composition of colostrum and mature milk produced by nursing mothers of preterm and at-term newborns, in Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Low contents of Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (0.02%/colostrum and 0.01%/mature milk for preterm and term milk) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (colostrum group: 0.10%/preterm and 0.09%/term; mature milk: 0.05%/preterm and 0.03%/term) were determined. The comparison among the groups showed that the elaidic acid content was significantly higher (1.67%) in mature term milk. The content of rumenic acid (conjugated linoleic acid) was significantly higher in at-term colostrum compared with preterm colostrum. When considering the maturity of the milk, there was a significant increase in the percentage of this FA in the preterm group. The results show that, overall, the greatest differences observed were between the colostrums and mature milks for both groups and not between preterm and at-term mothers.

  8. Dietary acrylamide intake and risk of breast cancer in the UK women's cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, V J; Greenwood, D C; Hepworth, S J; Fraser, L K; de Kok, T M; van Breda, S G; Kyrtopoulos, S A; Botsivali, M; Kleinjans, J; McKinney, P A; Cade, J E

    2010-01-01

    Background: No studies to date have demonstrated a clear association with breast cancer risk and dietary exposure to acrylamide. Methods: A 217-item food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate dietary acrylamide intake in 33 731 women aged 35–69 years from the UK Women's Cohort Study followed up for a median of 11 years. Results: In all, 1084 incident breast cancers occurred during follow-up. There was no evidence of an overall association between acrylamide intake and breast cancer (hazard ratio=1.08 per 10 μg day−1, 95% CI: 0.98–1.18, Ptrend=0.1). There was a suggestion of a possible weak positive association between dietary acrylamide intake and premenopausal breast cancer after adjustment for potential confounders (hazard ratio=1.2, 95% CI: 1.0–1.3, Ptrend=0.008). There was no suggestion of any association for postmenopausal breast cancer (hazard ratio=1.0, 95% CI: 0.9–1.1, Ptrend=0.99). Conclusions: There is no evidence of an association between dietary acrylamide intake and breast cancer. A weak association may exist with premenopausal breast cancer, but requires further investigation. PMID:20959829

  9. Black currant seed oil supplementation of mothers enhances IFN-γ and suppresses IL-4 production in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnamaa, Pia; Nieminen, Kaisa; Koulu, Leena; Tuomasjukka, Saska; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru; Tahvonen, Raija; Savolainen, Johannes

    2013-09-01

    The first year of infancy is crucial for the development of atopic immune response. Inadequate early Th1 and Treg responses and increased production of Th2 cytokines are associated with atopy. Breast milk contains several immunomodulatory cytokines and other factors that might influence the maturation of the infant's immune system. We assessed the cytokines in breast milk of mother of newborn infants and their associations with black currant seed oil (BCSO) supplementation during pregnancy, mother's atopic status and the development of infant's atopic dermatitis. Mothers and infants from an intervention study by black currant seed oil (n = 31) or olive oil as placebo (n = 30) were included in the study. Breast milk samples were collected during the first 3 months of breastfeeding. Breast milk levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF were measured by Luminex technology. BCSO intervention group had decreased level of IL-4 (p = 0.044) and elevated level of IFN-γ (p = 0.014) in breast milk as compared to olive oil group. No significant differences were observed in IL-5, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF levels between the BCSO and olive oil groups. Mothers who had atopic dermatitis had significantly decreased levels of IL-10 (p = 0.044) in breast milk. Breast milk of the mothers of the children who developed atopic dermatitis had lower levels of IFN-γ (p = 0.039) as compared to the breast milk of the mothers of the children without dermatitis. Dietary intervention with BCSO had immunomodulatory effects on breast milk cytokine production towards Th2 to Th1 immunodeviation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Macro- and Micronutrients of Human Milk Composition: Are They Related to Maternal Diet? A Comprehensive Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keikha, Mojtaba; Bahreynian, Maryam; Saleki, Mohammad; Kelishadi, Roya

    2017-11-01

    This study aims at systematically reviewing the observational and interventional studies on the association of maternal macro- and micronutrient intake with breast milk content. We systematically searched the Medline via PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge till October 2016 with the following search strategy: ("human milk" OR "breast milk" OR "breast milk composition" OR "human breast milk composition" OR "composition breast milk" OR "mother milk" OR "human breast milk") AND ("maternal diet" OR "maternal nutrition"). We also searched Google scholar for increasing the sensitivity of our search. The search was not limited to title and abstract due to the possibility that the desired outcome might have been considered a secondary aim. We excluded conference papers, editorials, letters, commentary, short survey, and notes. The search was refined to English language, and we did not consider any time limitation. To increase the sensitivity and to select more studies, the reference list of the published studies was checked as well. This review included 59 observational and 43 interventional studies on maternal diet related to breast milk composition. Different studies determined the associations and effects of some maternal dietary intake of micro and macronutrients and its reflection in human milk. Maternal dietary intake, particularly fatty acids, and some micronutrients, including fat soluble vitamins, vitamin B1, and vitamin C, was related to their content in breast milk composition.

  11. More milk from forage: Milk production, blood metabolites, and forage intake of dairy cows grazing pasture mixtures and spatially adjacent monocultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembleton, Keith G; Hills, James L; Freeman, Mark J; McLaren, David K; French, Marion; Rawnsley, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is interest in the reincorporation of legumes and forbs into pasture-based dairy production systems as a means of increasing milk production through addressing the nutritive value limitations of grass pastures. The experiments reported in this paper were undertaken to evaluate milk production, blood metabolite concentrations, and forage intake levels of cows grazing either pasture mixtures or spatially adjacent monocultures containing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens), and plantain (Plantago lanceolata) compared with cows grazing monocultures of perennial ryegrass. Four replicate herds, each containing 4 spring-calving, cross-bred dairy cows, grazed 4 different forage treatments over the periods of early, mid, and late lactation. Forage treatments were perennial ryegrass monoculture (PRG), a mixture of white clover and plantain (CPM), a mixture of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain (RCPM), and spatially adjacent monocultures (SAM) of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain. Milk volume, milk composition, blood fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, blood urea N concentrations, live weight change, and estimated forage intake were monitored over a 5-d response period occurring after acclimation to each of the forage treatments. The acclimation period for the early, mid, and late lactation experiments were 13, 13, and 10 d, respectively. Milk yield (volume and milk protein) increased for cows grazing the RCPM and SAM in the early lactation experiment compared with cows grazing the PRG, whereas in the mid lactation experiment, milk fat increased for the cows grazing the RCPM and SAM when compared with the PRG treatments. Improvements in milk production from grazing the RCPM and SAM treatments are attributed to improved nutritive value (particularly lower neutral detergent fiber concentrations) and a potential increase in forage intake. Pasture mixtures or SAM containing plantain and white clover could be a

  12. Breast milk fatty acid composition of women living far from the coastal area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Renata Y; Castro, Gabriela S F de; Jordão, Alceu A; Sartorelli, Daniela S

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the fatty acid composition of mature human milk of women living far from the coastal area of Brazil. Mature breast milk samples were obtained from 47 lactating women aged between 18 and 35 years, who delivered their babies at term and who exclusively or predominantly breastfed. Milk collection took place after the fifth week postpartum by hand expression. The fatty acid composition of the milk was determined by gas chromatography. It was observed that the concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (0.08%) was higher than that observed in previous studies in Brazil. However, the content of docosahexaenoic acid (0.09%) found in human milk was one of the lowest verified in the world. The content of trans fatty acids (2.05%) was similar to that reported in national studies previous to the mandatory declaration of this fatty acid content in food labels, suggesting that this measure had no effect on reducing the content of this fatty acid in the usual diet of women. Low levels of docosahexaenoic acid and high concentrations of trans fatty acids were observed in mature breast milk of women living far from the coastal area in Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of dietary fiber intake on breast cancer risk according to estrogen and progesterone receptor status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C-X; Ho, S C; Cheng, S-Z; Chen, Y-M; Fu, J-H; Lin, F-Y

    2011-08-01

    There is few data on the association between dietary fiber intake and estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)-defined breast cancer risk. The present study aimed to investigate the associations between total dietary fiber and dietary fiber fractions intake and breast cancer risk by ER and PR status in a hospital-based case-control study among Chinese women. Four hundred and thirty-eight cases with primary breast cancer were consecutively recruited from June 2007 to August 2008 and frequency matched to 438 controls by age (5-year interval) and residence (rural/urban). A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the dietary intake through a face-to-face interview. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) after adjusting for various potential confounders. A statistically significant inverse association was found between total dietary fiber and fiber fractions intake and breast cancer risk. The adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the highest versus the lowest quartile of intake were 0.31 (0.20-0.47) for total dietary fiber, 0.73 (0.48-1.11) for soy fiber, 0.48 (0.22-0.97) for vegetable fiber and 0.54 (0.31-0.92) for fruit fiber. No association was observed for cereal fiber intake and risk. An inverse association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk was observed in ER+, ER-, PR+, ER+PR+ and ER-PR+ tumors. Our results suggest that consumption of total dietary fiber and fiber from vegetable and fruit was inversely associated with breast cancer risk. These inverse associations were more prominent in some subtypes of ER and PR breast cancers.

  14. Relationships between the daily intake of unsaturated plant lipids and the contents of major milk fatty acids in dairy goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Marín, A.L.; Núñez Sánchez, N.; Garzón Sigler, A. I.; Peña Blanco, F.; Fuente, M.A. de la

    2015-07-01

    A meta-regression of the effects of the amount of plant lipids consumed by dairy goats on the contents of some milk fat fatty acids (FA) was carried out. Fourteen peer-reviewed published papers reporting 17 experiments were used in the study. Those experiments compared control diets without added fat with diets that included plant lipids rich in unsaturated FA, summing up to 64 treatments. The results showed that increasing daily intake of plant lipids linearly reduced the contents of all medium chain saturated FA in milk fat. Moreover, it was observed that the longer the chain of the milk saturated FA, the greater the negative effect of the plant lipid intake on their contents. On the other hand, the contents of stearic acid and the sum of oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids in milk fat linearly increased as daily plant lipid intake rose. The results obtained corroborate previous reports on the effects of feeding dairy goats with increasing amounts of unsaturated plant lipids on milk FA profile. (Author)

  15. Levels of innate immune factors in preterm and term mothers' breast milk during the 1st month postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trend, Stephanie; Strunk, Tobias; Lloyd, Megan L; Kok, Chooi Heen; Metcalfe, Jessica; Geddes, Donna T; Lai, Ching Tat; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A; Simmer, Karen; Currie, Andrew

    2016-04-14

    There is a paucity of data on the effect of preterm birth on the immunological composition of breast milk throughout the different stages of lactation. We aimed to characterise the effects of preterm birth on the levels of immune factors in milk during the 1st month postpartum, to determine whether preterm milk is deficient in antimicrobial factors. Colostrum (days 2-5 postpartum), transitional milk (days 8-12) and mature milk (days 26-30) were collected from mothers of extremely preterm (milk. We examined the effects of lactation stage, gestational age, volume of milk expressed, mode of delivery, parity and maternal infection on milk immune factor concentrations using repeated-measures regression analysis. The concentrations of all factors except LZ and HD5 decreased over the 1st month postpartum. Extremely preterm mothers had significantly higher concentrations of HBD1 and TGF-β2 in colostrum than term mothers did. After controlling for other variables in regression analyses, preterm birth was associated with higher concentrations of HBD1, LZ and sCD14 in milk samples. In conclusion, preterm breast milk contains significantly higher concentrations of some immune proteins than term breast milk.

  16. Is the onset of obesity in suckling fa/fa rats linked to a potentially larger milk intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchberger, P; Schmidt, I

    1996-08-01

    We wanted to find out whether fatty (fa/fa) sucklings show abnormal intake when given access to an abundant milk reservoir. To do this, we gravimetrically determined the milk ingested by small groups (4-5 pups) of 5- to 15-day-old lean (+/fa) and fatty littermates allowed to suckle for 30 min after their mother had not been nursing for periods of between 1 and 7 h. The pups were grouped randomly and their phenotypes retrospectively identified. Within both genotypes, the intakes of simultaneously tested pups were significantly higher in pups deprived for longer periods. Deprived and undeprived fa/fa pups ingested, however, slightly but significantly less milk than +/fa littermates did in the same nursing bout. In the first 2 wk of life, when fa/fa pups deposit nearly twice as much body fat as their +/fa littermates do, fa/fa pups will thus suckle less rather than more milk. This extends previous findings showing that the onset of fa/fa obesity is independent of larger intakes and thus questions that fa impairs a receptor primarily controlling food intake.

  17. Long term effect of reduced dietary phosphorus on feed intake and milk yield in dry and lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puggaard, Liselotte; Lund, Peter; Liesegang, A.

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows were used to study the long term effect of reducing dietary P concentration on intake of DM and milk yield, on blood levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi), Ca, vitamin D3, parathyroid hormone (PTH) as well as assessing bone turnover by the use of bone formation...

  18. Breast milk fatty acid composition differs between overweight and normal weight women: the STEPS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Johanna; Linderborg, Kaisa; Niinikoski, Harri; Yang, Baoru; Lagström, Hanna

    2013-03-01

    We studied differences in breast milk fatty acid (FA) composition between overweight and normal weight women and the effect of FA composition on children's cholesterol concentrations at 13 months and growth from birth to 13 months. Samples were collected from lactating women (n = 100) participating in STEPS study at infant's age of 3 months, and FA composition was analyzed with gas chromatography. Diet of mother was studied with Index of Diet Quality at third trimester of pregnancy and with food frequency questionnaire on sampling day. The children's weights and heights were collected from hospital records at birth and during study visits at 13 months. Overweight women's breast milk compared to normal weight women's breast milk contained higher amount of saturated FAs (46.3 vs. 43.6 %, P = 0.012), lower amount of n-3FAs (2.2 vs. 2.7 %, P = 0.010), lower ratio of unsaturated to saturated FAs (1.1 vs. 1.3, P = 0.008), and higher ratio of n-6 to n-3 FAs (5.7 vs. 4.9, P = 0.031) than those of normal weight women even after adjusting for maternal diet (P diet at sampling 3 months postpartum. The children's weight gains correlated with saturated FAs (R = 0.22, P = 0.04) and the ratio of unsaturated to saturated FAs (R = -0.23, P = 0.038) in milk; however, effects diminished after adjusting for total duration of breastfeeding. Milk FA composition was not associated with children's cholesterol concentrations at 13 months. Breast milk FA composition differed between overweight and normal weight women.

  19. Total dietary antioxidant capacity, individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantavos, Athanasios; Ruiter, Rikje; Feskens, Edith F; de Keyser, Catherine E; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2015-05-01

    Some studies suggest a favorable role of antioxidants on breast cancer risk but this is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether overall dietary antioxidant capacity, as assessed by dietary ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and individual dietary antioxidant intake were associated with breast cancer risk. Data was used from women participating in the Rotterdam Study, a prospective cohort study among subjects aged 55 years and older (N = 3,209). FRAP scores and antioxidant intake (i.e., vitamin A, C, E, selenium, flavonoids and carotenoids) was assessed at baseline by a food frequency questionnaire. Incident cases of breast cancer were confirmed through medical reports. During a median follow-up of 17 years, 199 cases with breast cancer were identified. High dietary FRAP score was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer [hazard ratio (HR): 0.68; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.49, 0.96]. No overall association between individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk was found. However, low intake of alpha carotene and beta carotene was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer among smokers (HR: 2.48; 95% CI: 1.21, 5.12 and HR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.12, 4.76 for alpha and beta carotene, respectively) and low intake of flavonoids was associated with breast cancer risk in women over the age of 70 (HR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.99). These results suggest that high overall dietary antioxidant capacity is associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. Individual effects of dietary carotenoids and dietary flavonoids may be restricted to subgroups such as smokers and elderly. © 2014 UICC.

  20. Breast-feeding and the development of cows' milk protein allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, K M; Juntunen-Backman, K; Järvenpää, A L; Klemetti, P; Kuitunen, P; Lope, L; Renlund, M; Siivola, M; Vaarala, O; Savilahti, E

    2000-01-01

    Early feeding with cows' milk (CM) may cause cows' milk allergy (CMA). Breast milk contains many immune factors which compensate for the undeveloped defence mechanisms of the gut of the newborn infant. We studied the effect of supplementary CM feeding at the maternity hospital on the subsequent incidence of CMA, the effects of formula and breast feeding on the subsequent immunologic types of CMA, and the importance of immune factors present in colostrum in the immune responses of infants with CMA. In a cohort of 6209 infants, 824 were exclusively breast-fed and 87% required supplementary milk while in the maternity hospital: 1789 received CM formula, 1859 pasteurized human milk, and 1737 whey hydrolysate formula. The cumulative incidence of CMA, verified by a CM elimination-challenge test, was 2.4% in the CM, 1.7% in the pasteurized human milk and 1.5% in the whey hydrolysate group. Among these infants, exposure to CM at hospital and a positive atopic heredity increased the risk of CMA. Of the exclusively breast-fed infants, 2.1% had CMA. Risk factors for the development of IgE-mediated CMA were: exposure to CM at hospital, breast-feeding during the first 8 weeks at home either exclusively or combined with infrequent exposure to small amounts of CM and long breast-feeding. The content of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) in colostrum from mothers of infants with IgE-mediated CMA was lower than from mothers of infants with non-IgE-mediated CMA. In infants with CMA, TGF-beta1 in colostrum negatively correlated with the result of skin prick test and the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to CM, but positively with infants' IgA and IgG antibodies to CM proteins. Feeding of CM formula at maternity hospital increases the risk of CMA, but exclusive breast-feeding does not eliminate the risk. Prolonged breast-feeding exclusively or combined with infrequent exposure to small amounts of CM during the first 8 weeks induces the development of Ig

  1. Persistent pesticides in human breast milk and cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Toppari, Jorma

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prenatal exposure to some pesticides can adversely affect male reproductive health in animals. We investigated a possible human association between maternal exposure to 27 organochlorine compounds used as pesticides and cryptorchidism among male children. DESIGN: Within a prospective...... birth cohort, we performed a case-control study; 62 milk samples from mothers of cryptorchid boys and 68 from mothers of healthy boys were selected. Milk was collected as individual pools between 1 and 3 months postpartum and analyzed for 27 organochlorine pesticides. RESULTS: Eight organochlorine......-endosulfan, cis-HE, chlordane (cis-, trans-) oxychlordane, methoxychlor, OCS, and dieldrin] were measured in higher median concentrations in case milk than in control milk. Apart from trans-chlordane (p = 0.012), there were no significant differences between cryptorchid and healthy boys for individual chemicals...

  2. Meat and milk intakes and toddler growth: a comparison feeding intervention of animal-source foods in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer K; Murphy, Suzanne P; Weiss, Robert E; Nyerere, Susan; Bwibo, Nimrod O; Neumann, Charlotte G

    2012-06-01

    To examine the effects of animal-source foods on toddler growth. A 5-month comparison feeding intervention study with one of three millet-based porridges randomized to eighteen feeding stations serving 303 children aged 11-40 months. Feeding stations served plain millet porridge (Plain group), porridge with milk (Milk group) or porridge with beef (Meat group). Anthropometry, morbidity and food intake were measured at baseline and regular intervals. Longitudinal mixed models were used to analyse growth. Embu, Kenya. Two hundred and seventy-four children were included in final analyses. Linear growth was significantly greater for the Milk group than the Meat group (P = 0·0025). Slope of growth of mid-arm muscle area of the Plain group was significantly greater than in the Meat group (P = 0·0046), while the Milk group's mid-upper arm circumference growth rate was significantly greater than the Meat group's (P = 0·0418). The Milk and Plain groups' measures did not differ. Milk and meat porridges did not have a significantly greater effect on growth than plain porridge in this undernourished population. Linear growth was influenced by more than energy intakes, as the Plain group's total body weight-adjusted energy intakes were significantly greater than the Meat group's, although linear growth did not differ. Energy intakes may be more important for growth in arm muscle. The diverse age distribution in the study makes interpretation difficult. A longer study period, larger sample size and more focused age group would improve clarity of the results.

  3. Black gram ( L. foliage supplementation to crossbred cows: effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Dey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplementation of dried and ground foliage of black gram (Vigna mungo L. on feed intake and utilization, and production performance of crossbred lactating cows. Methods Eighteen lactating crossbred (Bos taurus×Bos indicus cows (body weight 330.93± 10.82 kg at their second and mid lactation (milk yield 6.77±0.54 kg/d were randomly divided into three groups of six each in a completely randomized block design. Three supplements were formulated by quantitatively replacing 0, 50, and 100 per cent of dietary wheat bran of concentrate mixture with dried and ground foliage of black gram. The designated supplement was fed to each group with basal diet of rice straw (ad libitum to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production. Daily feed intake and milk yield was recorded. A digestion trial was conducted to determine the